WorldWideScience

Sample records for adolescent antisocial behavior

  1. Rock Music and Korean Adolescent's Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inkyung; Kwak, Keumjoo; Chang, Geunyoung; Yang, Jinyoung

    The relationship between rock music preference and antisocial behavior among Korean adolescents was examined. The Korean versions of the Sensation Seeking Scale and the Antisocial Behavior Checklist were used to measure sensation seeking motivation and delinquency. Adolescents (N=1,079) were categorized as "rock/metal,""dance," or "ballad" based…

  2. Rock Music and Korean Adolescent's Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inkyung; Kwak, Keumjoo; Chang, Geunyoung; Yang, Jinyoung

    The relationship between rock music preference and antisocial behavior among Korean adolescents was examined. The Korean versions of the Sensation Seeking Scale and the Antisocial Behavior Checklist were used to measure sensation seeking motivation and delinquency. Adolescents (N=1,079) were categorized as "rock/metal,""dance,"…

  3. Irrational evaluations and antisocial behavior of adolescents

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    Vukosavljević-Gvozden Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles of the Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy point out to the role of irrational beliefs in the occurrence of aggressive and antisocial behavior. The goal of this research is to determine whether there are links between irrational beliefs and self-assessment of antisocial behavior and whether there are differences with respect to irrational beliefs between the young who were sentenced by juvenile court judges compared to the control group. The research was conducted on two subsamples - the first consisted of male adolescents (N=116, aged 16 to 19, and the second comprised male adolescents 50 out of whom were sentenced by juvenile court judges, aged averagely 17 and a half, and 50 members of the control group. The modified version of the General Attitude and Belief Scale (GABS (Marić, 2002, 2003 and Antisocial Behavior Scale (ABS (Opačić, 2010, in print were used. Multiple regression analysis showed that the best predictor of the score on antisocial behavior scale was “the demand for absolute correctness of others and their devaluation”, followed by the aspiration towards perfectionism and success which acts as the factor that reduces the probability of antisocial behavior. Almost identical results were obtained by group comparison. The obtained results provide guidelines for designing preventive programs (sketched in the discussion that would be able to reduce the frequency of aggressive and antisocial behavior at adolescent age.

  4. Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence: Typology and Relation to Family Context

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    Sobotková, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Hrdlicka, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The study deals with the relationship between antisocial behavior in early adolescence and family environment. Sample consisted of 2,856 adolescents (53% girls, mean age 13.5 years, SD = 1.1) from urban areas in the Czech Republic. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a school survey, was used to measure sociodemographic characteristics of the…

  5. Moral Cognitive Processes Explaining Antisocial Behavior in Young Adolescents

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    van der Velden, Floor; Brugman, Daniel; Boom, Jan; Koops, Willem

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the longitudinal relationships between three kinds of moral cognitions--self-serving cognitive distortions, moral judgment, perception of community--and antisocial behavior in young adolescents. Aims were to gain insight in direct and indirect relationships, stability, and causality. The sample included 724 students (M age =…

  6. Moral cognitive processes explaining antisocial behavior in young adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, F.; Brugman, D.; Boom, J.; Koops, W.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the longitudinal relationships between three kinds of moral cognitions – self-serving cognitive distortions, moral judgment, perception of community – and antisocial behavior in young adolescents. Aims were to gain insight in direct and indirect relationships, stability, and cau

  7. Maternal Predictors of Rejecting Parenting and Early Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

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    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years. The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy.…

  8. Parenting Style Dimensions As Predictors of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-García, David; García, Trinidad; Barreiro-Collazo, Alejandra; Dobarro, Alejandra; Antúnez, Ángela

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007) to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescen...

  9. Parenting style dimensions as predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior

    OpenAIRE

    David Álvarez-García; Trinidad García; Alejandra Barreiro-Collazo,; Alejandra Dobarro; Ángela Antúnez

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007) to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescen...

  10. Maternal Predictors of Rejecting Parenting and Early Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Daniel S Shaw

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years. The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy. Each of the maternal resources predicted rejecting parenting during early childhood in structural equation models that controlled for toddler difficu...

  11. Parenting Style Dimensions As Predictors of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-García, David; García, Trinidad; Barreiro-Collazo, Alejandra; Dobarro, Alejandra; Antúnez, Ángela

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007) to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescents 12-18 years of age from Asturias (Spain). Regarding construct validity, the results show that the model that best represents the data is composed of six dimensions of parenting style, just as in the original scale, namely affection and communication; promotion of autonomy; behavioral control; psychological control; self-disclosure; and humor. The psychological control factor negatively correlates with the other factors, with the exception of behavioral control, with which it positively correlates. The remaining correlations among the factors in the parenting style questionnaire are positive. Regarding internal consistency, the reliability analysis for each factor supports the suitability of this six-factor model. With regard to criterion validity, as expected based on the evidence available, the six dimensions of parenting style correlate in a statistically significant manner with the three antisocial behavior measures used as criteria (off-line school aggression, antisocial behavior, and antisocial friendships). Specifically, all dimensions negatively correlate with the three variables, except for psychological control. In the latter case, the correlation is positive. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  12. Parenting style dimensions as predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Álvarez-García

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007 to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescents 12 to 18 years of age from Asturias (Spain. Regarding construct validity, the results show that the model that best represents the data is composed of six dimensions of parenting style, just as in the original scale, namely affection and communication; promotion of autonomy; behavioral control; psychological control; self-disclosure; and humor. The psychological control factor negatively correlates with the other factors, with the exception of behavioral control, with which it positively correlates. The remaining correlations among the factors in the parenting style questionnaire are positive. Regarding internal consistency, the reliability analysis for each factor supports the suitability of this six-factor model. With regard to criterion validity, as expected based on the evidence available, the six dimensions of parenting style correlate in a statistically significant manner with the three antisocial behavior measures used as criteria (off-line school aggression, antisocial behavior, and antisocial friendships. Specifically, all dimensions negatively correlate with the three variables, except for psychological control. In the latter case, the correlation is positive. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  13. Parenting Style Dimensions As Predictors of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-García, David; García, Trinidad; Barreiro-Collazo, Alejandra; Dobarro, Alejandra; Antúnez, Ángela

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007) to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescents 12–18 years of age from Asturias (Spain). Regarding construct validity, the results show that the model that best represents the data is composed of six dimensions of parenting style, just as in the original scale, namely affection and communication; promotion of autonomy; behavioral control; psychological control; self-disclosure; and humor. The psychological control factor negatively correlates with the other factors, with the exception of behavioral control, with which it positively correlates. The remaining correlations among the factors in the parenting style questionnaire are positive. Regarding internal consistency, the reliability analysis for each factor supports the suitability of this six-factor model. With regard to criterion validity, as expected based on the evidence available, the six dimensions of parenting style correlate in a statistically significant manner with the three antisocial behavior measures used as criteria (off-line school aggression, antisocial behavior, and antisocial friendships). Specifically, all dimensions negatively correlate with the three variables, except for psychological control. In the latter case, the correlation is positive. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:27679591

  14. Personality types, aggression and antisocial behavior in adolescents

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    Consuelo Morán

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Junior Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-J, the types of personality and its relationship with aggressiveness and the antisocial behavior is analyzed in a student’s sample (N = 1416 with ages between 11 y 15 years old (average age = 13,32; SD= 1,22. Cluster analysis using the reduced version (Bryant y Smith (2001 of the Aggression Questionnaire(AQ(Buss y Perry, 1992 revealed three personality types that were related to Eysenck’s hypothesis of antisocial behavior and the level of aggressiveness. The under controlled profile confirmed the Eysenck’s hypothesis of antisocial behavior in early adolescence, and was also found to be the most aggressive prototype. The under controlled and over controlled types were implicated in bullying, but in different ways. Furthermore, the resilient people were found to have an adaptive profile combined with the best academic achievement. Gender differences were also found in personality dimensions and aggression. The importance of aggression among young adolescents and the necessity of further research on this topic are emphasized.

  15. Predictors of Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in an Adolescent Sports Context

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    Rutten, Esther A.; Schuengel, Carlo; Dirks, Evelien; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Biesta, Gert J. J.; Hoeksma, Jan B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined antisocial and prosocial behavior of N = 439 adolescent athletes between 14 and 17 years of age (67 teams). Multi-level analyses showed that team membership explained 20 and 13 percent of the variance in antisocial and prosocial behavior in the sports context, respectively. The team effects suggest that aggregating antisocial…

  16. Predictors of antisocial and prosocial behavior in an adolescent sports context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Rutten; C. Schuengel; E. Dirks; G.J.J.M. Stams; G.J.J. Biesta; J.B. Hoeksma

    2011-01-01

    This study examined antisocial and prosocial behavior of N = 439 adolescent athletes between 14 and 17 years of age (67 teams). Multi-level analyses showed that team membership explained 20 and 13 percent of the variance in antisocial and prosocial behavior in the sports context, respectively. The t

  17. The Contribution of Organized Youth Sport to Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in Adolescent Athletes

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    Rutten, Esther A.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Biesta, Gert J. J.; Schuengel, Carlo; Dirks, Evelien; Hoeksma, Jan B.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the contribution of organized youth sport to antisocial and prosocial behavior in adolescent athletes. The sample consisted of N = 260 male and female soccer players and competitive swimmers, 12 to 18 years of age. Multilevel regression analysis revealed that 8% of the variance in antisocial behavior and 7% of the…

  18. Predicting antisocial behavior among latino young adolescents: an ecological systems analysis.

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    Eamon, Mary Keegan; Mulder, Cray

    2005-01-01

    The authors used data from a national sample of 420 Latino young adolescents to examine multiple predictors of antisocial behavior within an ecological systems framework. They found that boys and youths who lived a higher proportion of their life in poverty exhibited higher levels of antisocial behavior, and mothers' acculturation was associated with lower levels. Neighborhood and school environments, exposure to deviant peer pressure, and 3 parenting practices--parent-youth attachment, physical punishment, and mothers' monitoring--were related to Latino youth antisocial behavior. Neighborhood quality and peer pressure explained the relation between poverty and an increased risk for antisocial behavior.

  19. Parenting and Antisocial Behavior: A Model of the Relationship between Adolescent Self-Disclosure, Parental Closeness, Parental Control, and Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

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    Vieno, Alessio; Nation, Maury; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    This study used data collected from a sample of 840 Italian adolescents (418 boys; M age = 12.58) and their parents (657 mothers; M age = 43.78) to explore the relations between parenting, adolescent self-disclosure, and antisocial behavior. In the hypothesized model, parenting practices (e.g., parental monitoring and control) have direct effects…

  20. Friday on My Mind: The Relation of Partying with Antisocial Behavior of Early Adolescents. The TRAILS Study

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    Veenstra, Rene; Huitsing, Gijs; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2010-01-01

    The relation between partying and antisocial behavior was investigated using a sample of Dutch early adolescents (T2: N = 1,076; M age = 13.52). Antisocial behavior was divided into rule-breaking and aggressive behavior. Using a goal-framing approach, it was argued that the relation of partying to antisocial behavior depends on the way the need to…

  1. Internet addiction and antisocial internet behavior of adolescents.

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    Ma, Hing Keung

    2011-01-01

    Internet addiction and the moral implication of antisocial Internet behavior will be investigated in this paper. More and more people use the Internet in their daily life. Unfortunately the percentage of people who use the internet excessively also increases. The concept of Internet addiction or pathological use of Internet is discussed in detail, and the characteristics of Internet addicts are also delineated. The social (especially the antisocial) use of Internet is discussed. It is argued that the behavior of Internet use is similar to daily life social behavior. In other words, Internet behavior is a kind of social behavior. Kohlberg's theory of moral development is employed to delineate the moral reasoning of the antisocial Internet behavior. The following behaviors are regarded as antisocial Internet behavior: (1) the use of Internet to carry out illegal activities such as selling faked products or offensive pornographic materials, (2) the use of Internet to bully others (i.e., cyberbullying) such as distributing libelous statements against a certain person, (3) the use of Internet to cheat others, and (4) the use of Internet to do illegal gambling. The characteristics of the moral stages that are associated with these antisocial Internet behaviors are investigated in detail.

  2. Internet Addiction and Antisocial Internet Behavior of Adolescents

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    Hing Keung Ma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction and the moral implication of antisocial Internet behavior will be investigated in this paper. More and more people use the Internet in their daily life. Unfortunately the percentage of people who use the internet excessively also increases. The concept of Internet addiction or pathological use of Internet is discussed in detail, and the characteristics of Internet addicts are also delineated. The social (especially the antisocial use of Internet is discussed. It is argued that the behavior of Internet use is similar to daily life social behavior. In other words, Internet behavior is a kind of social behavior. Kohlberg's theory of moral development is employed to delineate the moral reasoning of the antisocial Internet behavior. The following behaviors are regarded as antisocial Internet behavior: (1 the use of Internet to carry out illegal activities such as selling faked products or offensive pornographic materials, (2 the use of Internet to bully others (i.e., cyberbullying such as distributing libelous statements against a certain person, (3 the use of Internet to cheat others, and (4 the use of Internet to do illegal gambling. The characteristics of the moral stages that are associated with these antisocial Internet behaviors are investigated in detail.

  3. Cyberbullying behavior and adolescents' use of media with antisocial content: a cyclic process model.

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    den Hamer, Anouk; Konijn, Elly A; Keijer, Micha G

    2014-02-01

    The present study examined the role of media use in adolescents' cyberbullying behavior. Following previous research, we propose a Cyclic Process Model of face-to-face victimization and cyberbullying through two mediating processes of anger/frustration and antisocial media content. This model was tested utilizing a cross-sectional design with adolescent participants (N=892). Exposure to antisocial media content was measured with a newly developed content-based scale (i.e., the C-ME), showing good psychometric qualities. Results of structural equation modeling showed that adolescents' exposure to antisocial media content was significantly associated with cyberbullying behavior, especially in adolescents who experienced anger and frustration due to face-to-face victimization. Goodness of fit indices demonstrated a good fit of the theoretical model to the data and indicated that exposure to antisocial media content acts as an amplifier in a cyclic process of victimization-related anger and cyberbullying behavior.

  4. Adolescent dispositions for antisocial behavior in context: the roles of neighborhood dangerousness and parental knowledge.

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    Trentacosta, Christopher J; Hyde, Luke W; Shaw, Daniel S; Cheong, JeeWon

    2009-08-01

    This study examined an ecological perspective on the development of antisocial behavior during adolescence, examining direct, additive, and interactive effects of child and both parenting and community factors in relation to youth problem behavior. To address this goal, the authors examined early adolescent dispositional qualities as predictors of boys' antisocial behavior within the context of parents' knowledge of adolescent activities and neighborhood dangerousness. Antisocial behavior was examined using a multimethod latent construct that included self-reported delinquency, symptoms of conduct disorder, and court petitions in a sample of 289 boys from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds who were followed longitudinally from early childhood through adolescence. Results demonstrated direct and additive findings for child prosociality, daring, and negative emotionality, which were qualified by interactions between daring and neighborhood dangerousness, and between prosociality and parental knowledge. The findings have implications for preventive intervention approaches that address the interplay of dispositional and contextual factors to prevent delinquent behavior in adolescence.

  5. Social gradients in child and adolescent antisocial behavior: a systematic review protocol

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    Piotrowska Patrycja J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between social position and physical health is well-established across a range of studies. The evidence base regarding social position and mental health is less well developed, particularly regarding the development of antisocial behavior. Some evidence demonstrates a social gradient in behavioral problems, with children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds experiencing more behavioral difficulties than children from high-socioeconomic families. Antisocial behavior is a heterogeneous concept that encompasses behaviors as diverse as physical fighting, vandalism, stealing, status violation and disobedience to adults. Whether all forms of antisocial behavior show identical social gradients is unclear from previous published research. The mechanisms underlying social gradients in antisocial behavior, such as neighborhood characteristics and family processes, have not been fully elucidated. This review will synthesize findings on the social gradient in antisocial behavior, considering variation across the range of antisocial behaviors and evidence regarding the mechanisms that might underlie the identified gradients. Methods In this review, an extensive manual and electronic literature search will be conducted for papers published from 1960 to 2011. The review will include empirical and quantitative studies of children and adolescents ( Discussion This systematic review has been proposed in order to synthesize cross-disciplinary evidence of the social gradient in antisocial behavior and mechanisms underlying this effect. The results of the review will inform social policies aiming to reduce social inequalities and levels of antisocial behavior, and identify gaps in the present literature to guide further research.

  6. The effect of academic self-concept on ADHD and antisocial behaviors in early adolescence.

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    Pisecco, S; Wristers, K; Swank, P; Silva, P A; Baker, D B

    2001-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling techniques, we evaluated the effect of academic self-concept (ASC) on the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and antisocial behaviors in early adolescence. Participants (n = 445) were recruited from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Research study. Eligibility was determined by the presence of complete data for the following variables at the specified time periods: reading at age 7, teacher reports of ADHD and antisocial behaviors at age 7, self-ratings of ASC at ages 9 and 11, and teacher reports of ADHD and antisocial behaviors at age 13. The results indicated that ASC is an important construct that directly contributes to the development of antisocial behaviors rather than to symptoms of ADHD. The results also indicated that children's early history of behavioral problems and academic performance contribute to the development of a more robust understanding of the impact of ASC on the development of disruptive behaviors in early adolescence.

  7. School Performance and Genetic and Environmental Variance in Antisocial Behavior at the Transition from Adolescence to Adulthood

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    Johnson, Wendy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Antisocial behavior increases in adolescence, particularly among those who perform poorly in school. As adolescents move into adulthood, both educational attainment and the extent to which antisocial behavior continues have implications for adolescents' abilities to take on constructive social roles. The authors used a population-representative…

  8. Variability in diurnal testosterone, exposure to violence, and antisocial behavior in young adolescents.

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    Peckins, Melissa K; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide evidence of an association between within-person variability in diurnal testosterone over 1 year, lifetime exposure to violence, and the manifestation of antisocial behavior in 135 pubertal-aged adolescents across 1 year. Adolescents' sex and lifetime history of violence exposure moderated the association between within-person variability in diurnal testosterone and antisocial behavior. Furthermore, sex-stratified analyses revealed that lifetime history of exposure to violence moderated the association between within-person variability in diurnal testosterone and antisocial behavior in females only. This report is unique in that it illuminates sex differences in within-person associations among exposure to violence, individual variability in diurnal testosterone, and antisocial behavior.

  9. Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior and Psychosocial Maturity from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

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    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Mulvey, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    Most theorizing about desistance from antisocial behavior in late adolescence has emphasized the importance of individuals' transition into adult roles. In contrast, little research has examined how psychological development in late adolescence and early adulthood contributes desistance. The present study examined trajectories of antisocial…

  10. The Relationship between Parent-Child Conflict and Adolescent Antisocial Behavior: Confirming Shared Environmental Mediation

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    Klahr, Ashlea M.; Rueter, Martha A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have indicated that the relationship between parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior is at least partially shared environmental in origin. However, all available research on this topic (to our knowledge) relies exclusively on parent and/or adolescent informant-reports, both of which are subject to various forms of…

  11. Structural and experiential neighborhood contexts, developmental stage, and antisocial behavior among urban adolescents in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, E; Yoshikawa, H; Roberts, A; Chesir-Teran, D; Allen, L; Friedman, J L; Aber, J L

    1998-01-01

    This study explored the effects of structural and experiential neighborhood factors and developmental stage on antisocial behavior, among a sample of poor urban adolescents in New York City. Conceptually and empirically distinct profiles of neighborhood experience were derived from the data, based on measures of perceived neighborhood cohesion, poverty-related hassles, and involvement in neighborhood organizations and activities. Both the profiles of neighborhood experience and a measure of census-tract-level neighborhood hazard (poverty and violence) showed relationships to antisocial behavior. Contrary to expectation, higher levels of antisocial behavior were reported among adolescents residing in moderate-structural-risk neighborhoods than those in high-structural-risk neighborhoods. This effect held only for teens in middle (not early) adolescence and was stronger for teens perceiving their neighborhoods as hassling than for those who did not. Implications for future research and preventive intervention are discussed.

  12. Expanding our Lens: Female Pathways to Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence and Adulthood

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    Javdani, Shabnam; Sadeh, Naomi; Verona, Edelyn

    2012-01-01

    Women and girls’ engagement in antisocial behavior represents a psychological issue of great concern given the radiating impact that women’s antisociality can have on individuals, families, and communities. Despite its importance and relevance for psychological science, this topic has received limited attention to date and no systematic review of risk factors exists. The present paper aims to systematically review the empirical literature informing risk factors relevant to women’s antisocial behavior, with a focus on adolescence and adulthood. Primary aims are to 1) review empirical literatures on risk factors for female antisocial behavior across multiple levels of influence (e.g., person-level characteristics, risky family factors, and gender-salient contexts) and fields of study (e.g., psychology, sociology); 2) evaluate the relevance of each factor for female antisocial behavior; and 3) incorporate an analysis of how gender at both the individual and ecological level shapes pathways to antisocial behavior in women and girls. We conclude that women’s antisocial behavior is best-understood as being influenced by person-level or individual vulnerabilities, risky family factors, and exposure to gender-salient interpersonal contexts, and underscore the importance of examining women’s antisocial behavior through an expanded lens that views gender as an individual level attribute as well as a social category that organizes the social context in ways that may promote engagement in antisocial behavior. Based on the present systematic review, an integrative pathway model is proposed toward the goal of synthesizing current knowledge and generating testable hypotheses for future research. PMID:22001339

  13. Friday on My Mind : The Relation of Partying With Antisocial Behavior of Early Adolescents. The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Rene; Huitsing, Gijs; Dijkstra, Jan; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2010-01-01

    The relation between partying and antisocial behavior was investigated using a sample of Dutch early adolescents (T2: N=1,076; M age=13.52). Antisocial behavior was divided into rule-breaking and aggressive behavior. Using a goal-framing approach, it was argued that the relation of partying to antis

  14. On- and off-field antisocial and prosocial behavior in adolescent soccer players: A multilevel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, E.A.; Deković, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Schuengel, C.; Hoeksma, J.B.; Biesta, G.J.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated to what extent team membership predicts on- and off-field antisocial and prosocial behavior in (pre)adolescent athletes. Effects of team-membership were related to characteristics of the team environment, such as relational support from the coach towards team members, fair pl

  15. Adolescence-Limited and Life-Course-Persistent Antisocial Behavior: A Developmental Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.

    1993-01-01

    A dual taxonomy is presented to reconcile two incongruous facts about antisocial behavior, that it shows impressive continuity over age, but its prevalence changes dramatically over age, increasing almost tenfold during adolescence. Studying delinquents earlier in life may yield more information about the causes and antecedents of antisocial…

  16. Adolescent Self-Regulation as Resilience: Resistance to Antisocial Behavior within the Deviant Peer Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Theodore W.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Connell, Arin M.

    2008-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that self-regulation serves as a resiliency factor in buffering youth from negative influences of peer deviance in middle to late adolescence. The interactive effects between peer deviance and self-regulation were investigated on change in antisocial behavior from age 17 to 19 years in an ethnically diverse sample…

  17. Moral Identity and Adolescent Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviors: Interactions with Moral Disengagement and Self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Sam A; Bean, Dallas S; Olsen, Joseph A

    2015-08-01

    Moral identity has been positively linked to prosocial behaviors and negatively linked to antisocial behaviors; but, the processes by which it is linked to such outcomes are unclear. The purpose of the present study was to examine moral identity not only as a predictor, but also as a moderator of relationships between other predictors (moral disengagement and self-regulation) and youth outcomes (prosocial and antisocial behaviors). The sample consisted of 384 adolescents (42 % female), ages 15-18 recruited from across the US using an online survey panel. Latent variables were created for moral identity, moral disengagement, and self-regulation. Structural equation models assessed these latent variables, and interactions of moral identity with moral disengagement and self-regulation, as predictors of prosocial (charity and civic engagement) and antisocial (aggression and rule breaking) behaviors. None of the interactions were significant predicting prosocial behaviors. For antisocial behaviors, the interaction between moral identity and moral disengagement predicted aggression, while the interaction between moral identity and self-regulation was significant in predicting aggression and rule breaking. Specifically, at higher levels of moral identity, the positive link between moral disengagement and aggression was weaker, and the negative link between self-regulation and both antisocial behaviors was weaker. Thus, moral identity may buffer against the maladaptive effects of high moral disengagement and low self-regulation.

  18. Early life adversities and adolescent antisocial behavior: The role of cardiac autonomic nervous system reactivity in the TRAILS study.

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    Sijtsema, J J; Van Roon, A M; Groot, P F C; Riese, H

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, the role of pre-ejection period (PEP) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was studied in the association between prior adversities and antisocial behavior in adolescence. PEP and RSA task reactivity and recovery to a public speaking task were assessed in adolescents from a longitudinal population-based study (N=624, Mage=16.14 years, 49.2% boys). Perinatal adversities were unrelated to antisocial behavior, but experiencing more stressful adversities between age 0 and 15 was associated with antisocial behavior at age 16 in boys with blunted PEP reactivity and smaller PEP differences from rest to recovery. Number of adversities between age 0 and 15 was associated with antisocial behavior in boys with blunted and girls with heightened RSA reactivity and larger PEP differences from rest to recovery. The association between prior adversities and antisocial behavior were small in effect size and depended upon sex and PEP and RSA reactivity and recovery.

  19. Does Response Evaluation and Decision (RED) Mediate the Relation between Hostile Attributional Style and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Reid Griffith; Tanha, Marieh; Yang, Chongming; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    The role of hostile attributional style (HAS) in antisocial development has been well-documented. We analyzed longitudinal data on 585 youths (48% female; 19% ethnic minority) to test the hypothesis that response evaluation and decision (RED) mediates the relation between HAS and antisocial behavior in adolescence. In Grades 10 and 12, adolescent…

  20. Differential genetic and environmental influences on developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao; Cleveland, H Harrington

    2015-12-01

    Little research has investigated differential genetic and environmental influences on different developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on liabilities of being in life-course-persistent (LCP) and adolescent-limited (AL) type delinquent groups from adolescence to young adulthood while considering nonviolent and violent delinquency subtypes and gender differences. A genetically informative sample (n = 356, 15-16 years) from the first three waves of In-Home Interview of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health was used, with 94 monozygotic and 84 dizygotic pairs of same-sex twins (50% male). Biometric liability threshold models were fit and found that the male-specific LCP type class, chronic, showed more genetic influences, while the AL type classes, decliner and desister, showed more environmental influences. Genetic liability and shared environment both influence the persistence of antisocial behavior. The development of female antisocial behavior appears to be influenced more by shared environment.

  1. The delicate balance between parental protection, unsupervised wandering, and adolescents' autonomy and its relation with antisocial behavior : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, M.; Dijkstra, J.K.; Lindenberg, S.; Ormel, J.; Veenstra, R.

    2010-01-01

    In a large sample of early adolescents (T2: N = 1023; M age = 13.51; 55.5% girls), the impact of parental protection and unsupervised wandering on adolescents' antisocial behavior 2.5 years later was tested in this TRAILS study; gender and parental knowledge were controlled for. In addition, the lev

  2. The Delicate Balance between Parental Protection, Unsupervised Wandering, and Adolescents' Autonomy and Its Relation with Antisocial Behavior: The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene

    2010-01-01

    In a large sample of early adolescents (T2: N = 1023; M age = 13.51; 55.5% girls), the impact of parental protection and unsupervised wandering on adolescents' antisocial behavior 2.5 years later was tested in this TRAILS study; gender and parental knowledge were controlled for. In addition, the level of biological maturation and having antisocial…

  3. Early life adversities and adolescent antisocial behavior : The role of cardiac autonomic nervous system reactivity in the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, J. J.; Van Roon, A. M.; Groot, P. F. C.; Riese, H.

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, the role of pre-ejection period (PEP) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was studied in the association between prior adversities and antisocial behavior in adolescence. PEP and RSA task reactivity and recovery to a public speaking task were assessed in adolescents from a l

  4. Effects of Parental Monitoring and Exposure to Community Violence on Antisocial Behavior and Anxiety/Depression among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchini, Dario; Miranda, Maria Concetta; Affuso, Gaetana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of gender, exposure to community violence, and parental monitoring upon antisocial behavior and anxiety/depression in adolescence. Involved in the study were 489 adolescents (290 males and 189 females) from 4 secondary schools in the city of Naples, Italy. The age of participants ranged from…

  5. Antisocial behavior and alcohol consumption by school adolescents Conducta antisocial y consumo de alcohol en adolescentes escolares Conduta anti-social e consumo de álcool em adolescentes escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Selene López García

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a vulnerable period and facilitates the start of risk behaviors, for instance the use of drugs. This study aims to describe the differences between antisocial behavior and alcohol consumption according to gender, age and education; as well as to discover the relation between antisocial behavior and alcohol consumption in 1,221 school adolescents from Monterrey - Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The findings reveal differences in antisocial behavior according to gender. Evidences showed that 41.3% of the students had consumed alcohol at sometime in their lives, and that differences exist in alcohol consumption according to age and education. Finally, the study found positive and significant relations between antisocial behavior and alcohol consumption (r s = .272, p La adolescencia se convierte en una etapa de vulnerabilidad y facilitador para el inicio de conductas de riesgo como es el consumo de drogas. Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron: describir las diferencias de la conducta antisocial y consumo de alcohol según sexo, edad y escolaridad; conocer la relación existente de la conducta antisocial con el consumo de alcohol en 1221 adolescentes escolares de Monterrey, Nuevo Léon, México, en relación a los hallazgos encontrados se presentan diferencias de la conducta antisocial por sexo; se destaca que 41.3% de los estudiantes consumieron alcohol alguna vez en su vida, y existen diferencias de consumo de alcohol por edad y escolaridad. Finalmente se encontró relación positiva y significativa de la conducta antisocial con el consumo de alcohol (r s=.272, pA adolescência se apresenta como uma etapa de vulnerabilidade e facilitadora para o início de condutas de risco como o consumo de drogas. Os objetivos do presente estudo foram: descrever as diferenças entre sexo, idade e escolaridade na conduta anti-social e o consumo de álcool e conhecer a relação existente entre a conduta anti-social e o consumo de álcool em 1221

  6. Effects of multiple maternal relationship transitions on offspring antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence: a cousin-comparison analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnight, Jackson A; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Cherlin, Andrew J; Emery, Robert E; Van Hulle, Carol A; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies of the association between multiple parental relationship transitions (i.e., when a parent begins or terminates an intimate relationship involving cohabitation) and offspring antisocial behavior have varied in their efforts to rule out confounding influences, such as parental antisocial behavior and low income. They also have been limited in the representativeness of their samples. Thus, it remains unclear to what degree parents' multiple relationship transitions have independent effects on children's antisocial behavior. Analyses were conducted using data on 8,652 6-9-year-old, 6,911 10-13-year-old, and 6,495 14-17-year-old offspring of a nationally representative sample of U.S. women. Cousin-comparisons were used in combination with statistical covariates to evaluate the associations between maternal relationship transitions and offspring antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence. Cousin-comparisons suggested that associations between maternal relationship transitions and antisocial behavior in childhood and early adolescence are largely explained by confounding factors. In contrast, the associations between maternal relationship transitions and offspring delinquency in late adolescence were robust to measured and unmeasured confounds. The present findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing exposure to parental relationship transitions or addressing the psychosocial consequences of exposure to parental relationship transitions could reduce risk for offspring delinquency in late adolescence.

  7. The Dynamic Interplay among Maternal Empathy, Quality of Mother-Adolescent Relationship, and Adolescent Antisocial Behaviors: New Insights from a Six-Wave Longitudinal Multi-Informant Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Crocetti

    Full Text Available Adolescents' behavior is often a matter of concern, given their increased likelihood of enacting antisocial behaviors, which cause disruptions in the social order and are potentially harmful for the adolescents themselves and for the people around them. In this six-wave longitudinal study we sought to examine the interplay among maternal empathy, multiple indicators of mother-adolescent relationship quality (i.e., balanced relatedness, conflict, and support, and adolescent antisocial behaviors rated both by adolescents and their mothers. Participants for the current study were 497 Dutch adolescents (56.9% males followed from age 13 to 18, and their mothers. A series of cross-lagged panel models revealed reciprocal associations between maternal empathy and mother-adolescent relationship quality and between mother-adolescent relationship quality and adolescent antisocial behaviors. Interestingly, we also found some indirect effects of adolescent antisocial behaviors on maternal empathy mediated by mother-adolescent relationship quality. Overall, this study further highlights a process of reciprocal influences within mother-adolescent dyads.

  8. The Dynamic Interplay among Maternal Empathy, Quality of Mother-Adolescent Relationship, and Adolescent Antisocial Behaviors: New Insights from a Six-Wave Longitudinal Multi-Informant Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Moscatelli, Silvia; Van der Graaff, Jolien; Keijsers, Loes; van Lier, Pol; Koot, Hans M; Rubini, Monica; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents' behavior is often a matter of concern, given their increased likelihood of enacting antisocial behaviors, which cause disruptions in the social order and are potentially harmful for the adolescents themselves and for the people around them. In this six-wave longitudinal study we sought to examine the interplay among maternal empathy, multiple indicators of mother-adolescent relationship quality (i.e., balanced relatedness, conflict, and support), and adolescent antisocial behaviors rated both by adolescents and their mothers. Participants for the current study were 497 Dutch adolescents (56.9% males) followed from age 13 to 18, and their mothers. A series of cross-lagged panel models revealed reciprocal associations between maternal empathy and mother-adolescent relationship quality and between mother-adolescent relationship quality and adolescent antisocial behaviors. Interestingly, we also found some indirect effects of adolescent antisocial behaviors on maternal empathy mediated by mother-adolescent relationship quality. Overall, this study further highlights a process of reciprocal influences within mother-adolescent dyads.

  9. Alcohol Use and Antisocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: Characteristics of a Sample Attending a GED Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Meredith Reesman; Bergman, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    This study examined peer deviance, disinhibition, and ADHD symptoms as differential predictors of alcohol use, alcohol use disorder symptoms, and antisocial behavior. It was hypothesized that peer deviance would most strongly predict alcohol use while disinhibition and ADHD would predict alcohol use disorder symptoms and antisocial behavior.…

  10. The Covariation of Antisocial Behavior and Substance Use in Adolescence: A Behavioral Genetic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Tom; Rowe, Richard; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Maughan, Barbara; Eley, Thalia C.

    2012-01-01

    Multivariate genetic studies have revealed genetic correlations between antisocial behavior (ASB) and substance use (SU). However, ASB is heterogeneous, and it remains unclear whether all forms are similarly related to SU. The present study examines links between cannabis use, alcohol consumption, and aggressive and delinquent forms of ASB using a…

  11. Parental Attachment, Self-Esteem, and Antisocial Behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbona, Consuelo; Power, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment. (Contains 70…

  12. Use of Peer Tutoring, Cooperative Learning, and Collaborative Learning: Implications for Reducing Anti-Social Behavior of Schooling Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskay, M.; Onu, V. C.; Obiyo, N.; Obidoa, M.

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the use of peer tutoring, cooperative learning, and collaborative learning as strategies to reduce anti-social behavior among schooling adolescents. The study is a descriptive survey study. The area of study was Nsukka education zone in Enugu State of Nigeria. The sample of the study was 200 teachers randomly sampled from…

  13. Chronotype-related differences in childhood and adolescent aggression and antisocial behavior--a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlarb, Angelika A; Sopp, Roxanne; Ambiel, David; Grünwald, Julia

    2014-02-01

    Eveningness has been found to negatively affect adolescents' sleep and daytime functioning. Furthermore, eveningness is associated with greater impulsivity than morningness. Externalizing behavior could be chronotype-related, implying that the alteration of the circadian rhythm itself is connected to aspects of emotion and emotion regulation. The present study investigated chronotype-related differences in emotional and behavioral problems, especially aggression and antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. We conducted a comprehensive search via web of knowledge (MEDLINE, web of science), EBSCO, Ovid, PubMed, Google Scholar and PsycINDEX using the keywords: chronotype, chronobiology, morningness, eveningness, owls and larks as well as diurnal preference to fully capture every aspect of chronotype. For aggression we used the search terms: aggression, anger, hostility, violence, anti-social behavior, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, delinquency, social adjustment and externalizing behavior. N = 13 studies were included concerning chronotype, childhood, adolescence and antisocial behavior. Results showed that children and adolescents being E-types were more affected by daytime impairments. Additionally, behavioral and emotional problems as aggression or antisocial behavior were more pronounced in E- than in M-types. Our findings support an association of eveningness and the impact of aggression on children and adolescents. Longitudinal investigations should be conducted in order to insure causality of the effects in question. In addition, the elevated vulnerability toward aggression in evening types demonstrates the need for prevention and intervention programs that educate youths in proper sleep hygiene and evoke an awareness of the consequences of a habitually diminished sleep quality.

  14. Ecology matters: Neighborhood differences in the protective role of self-control and social support for adolescent antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sara; Donlan, Alice E; McDermott, Elana R; Zaff, Jonathan F

    2015-11-01

    Adolescence can be characterized as a time when aggression, delinquency, and violence (taken together as antisocial behavior) increase. Adolescents who engage in antisocial behavior increase local crime and can create unsafe conditions for families. Understanding the protective factors that mitigate antisocial behavior can help to inform prevention practices. Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (n = 1,072, 51.40% female, 39.18% Hispanic, 32.28% Black), we examined how self-control, social support, and neighborhood characteristics were associated with these behaviors. Using latent profile analyses, we categorized neighborhoods based on several dimensions, including violence, disadvantage, and collective efficacy. Then, we examined how self-control and social support were associated with antisocial behavior within and across neighborhoods. Results suggested that self-control was a protective feature in only some types of disadvantaged and dangerous neighborhoods. We discuss findings in terms of implications for programs and policies to mitigate youth violence and delinquency. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Substance use and antisocial behavior in adolescents: the role of family and peer-individual risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obando, Diana; Trujillo, Angela; Trujillo, Carlos A

    2014-12-01

    Extant literature reports a frequent co-occurrence of substance consumption and antisocial behaviors. It is also postulated, therefore, that risk and protective factors are shared by the two behaviors. The purpose of this research is to test this notion by exploring whether family and peer-individual risk and protective factors are similarly associated with unique and co-occurring substance consumption and antisocial behaviors. A sample of 1,599 school students ranging between the ages of 11 and 19 completed a Spanish-language version of the Communities That Care Youth Survey (CTCYS). This instrument measures risk and protective factors and also captures adolescent drug consumption and antisocial behaviors. We find that risk and protective factors seem to operate in distinct ways for drug consumption and antisocial behaviors when they occur separately. Our findings indicate that the co-occurrence of both behaviors is related to risk factors, but it should not be inferred that the same factors will be present when only one behavior is observed.

  16. The impact of a family-centered intervention on the ecology of adolescent antisocial behavior: modeling developmental sequelae and trajectories during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryzin, Mark J; Dishion, Thomas J

    2012-08-01

    This study used an experimental, longitudinal field trial involving random assignment to the Family Check-Up (FCU) to explore the social ecology of adolescent antisocial behavior. A sample of 998 youths and their families was followed from early to late adolescence (age 12 to 18-19). In the intervention condition, 115 families (23%) elected to receive the FCU. In general, random assignment to the FCU in middle school was associated with reductions in late adolescence antisocial behavior (age 18-19). Variable-centered analyses revealed that the effects were mediated by reductions in family conflict from early to middle adolescence (age 12-15). The link between family conflict and antisocial behavior in turn was mediated by association with deviant peers at age 17; parental monitoring at age 17 was also influential but did not attain the status of a mediator. Person-oriented analyses suggested that the FCU was associated with declining trajectories of family conflict and rising trajectories of parental monitoring but was not associated with trajectories of deviant peer association. A dual-trajectory analysis indicated that the pathways to adolescent antisocial behavior were myriad and varied, suggesting new directions for developmental and intervention research.

  17. Moral Orientation and Relationships in School and Adolescent Pro- and Antisocial Behaviors: A Multilevel Study

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    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Stams, Geert-Jan; Asscher, Jessica J.; Rutten, Esther; Zijlstra, Bonne J. H.

    2014-01-01

    This multilevel study examined the relationships between moral climate factors and prosocial as well as antisocial behaviors inside and outside the school (school misconduct, delinquent behavior, and vandalism). The moral climate factors were punishment-and victim-based moral orientation, relationships among students, and teacher-student…

  18. Genotype-Environment Correlations in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence: Antisocial Behavioral Problems and Coercive Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas G.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Fulker, David; Rutter, Michael; Polmin, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Used longitudinal study with adopted children to examine genotype-environment correlations for behavioral problems. Found that children genetically at risk for antisocial behavior were more likely to receive negative parenting from adoptive parents than children not genetically at risk. Most of the association between negative parenting and…

  19. Corticotropin (ACTH)-reactive immunoglobulins in adolescents in relation to antisocial behavior and stress-induced cortisol response. The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Johanna M; Fetissov, Serguei O; Legrand, Romain; Claeyssens, Sophie; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Verhulst, Frank C; Van Oort, Floor V A

    2013-12-01

    Elevated levels of corticotropin (ACTH)-reactive immunoglobulins (ACTH IgG) were found in males with conduct disorder, suggesting their involvement in the biology of antisocial behavior. We first aimed to confirm these findings in a large general population sample of adolescents. Secondly, we studied the association between ACTH IgG levels and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress. Free and total ACTH IgG levels were measured in sera of 1230 adolescents (15-18 years). HPA axis activity was determined by measuring salivary cortisol before, during, and after a social stress test. Antisocial behavior was assessed using the Antisocial Behavior Questionnaire. ACTH peptide and IgG affinity kinetics for ACTH were assayed in a subsample of 90 adolescents selected for high or low ACTH IgG levels. In boys, higher total ACTH IgG levels were associated with higher antisocial behavior scores (β=1.05, p=0.04), especially at high levels of free ACTH IgG. In girls, antisocial behavior was associated with low free ACTH IgG levels (β=-0.20, p=0.04). Stress-induced cortisol release was associated with free ACTH IgG in boys (βareaunderthecurve=-0.67, pantisocial behavior and HPA axis response to stress in adolescents. The mechanisms behind these associations, including different ACTH binding properties of IgG in subjects with antisocial behavior, deserve further attention.

  20. Antisocial behavior reduces the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use in a large population-based sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövenhag, Sara; Larm, Peter; Åslund, Cecilia; Nilsson, Kent W

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of antisocial behavior on reducing the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity) and alcohol use. Boys and girls were analyzed separately using a population-based Swedish adolescent sample. A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was performed in secondary and upper secondary schools in Västmanland County during 2010. Participants were a population of 2,439 15-16 year-olds and 1,425 17-18 year-olds (1,947 girls and 1,917 boys). Psychosocial adversity, antisocial behaviors, symptoms of ADHD and alcohol use were assessed by questionnaires. Except for girls' inattention, subdimensions of ADHD symptoms were not associated with alcohol use when variance due to antisocial behavior was accounted for. Among boys, instead of an indirect effect of antisocial behavior on the association between impulsivity and alcohol use, a moderating effect was found. Among girls, the inattention component of ADHD was independently associated with alcohol use even when adjusted for antisocial behavior. The reduced associations between symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and alcohol use for boys and girls after adjusting for antisocial behavior suggest a considerable overlap between hyperactivity, impulsivity, and antisocial behavior. The direct pathway between inattention and alcohol use among girls suggests that girls with inattention symptoms are at risk of alcohol use regardless of antisocial behavior. Special attention should be given to these girls. Accounting for antisocial behavior reduced the relation between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use, and antisocial behaviors should therefore be screened for when symptoms of ADHD are present.

  1. Covert antisocial behavior, peer deviancy training, parenting processes, and sex differences in the development of antisocial behavior during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, James J; Schrepferman, Lynn P; Bullard, Lisha; McEachern, Amber D; Patterson, Gerald R

    2012-08-01

    Two longitudinal studies were used to examine the occurrence and consequences of peer deviancy training during childhood and the relative role of early covert antisocial behavior in risk for antisocial behavior in early adolescence. Peer deviancy training was apparent in a sample of at-risk first grade children, and it showed persistence and increased prevalence across the school year. Peer deviancy training, peer rejection, and unskilled parenting made additive contributions to the development of antisocial behavior during kindergarten and first grade and to antisocial behavior in fourth grade. Skilled parenting partially mitigated the association of peer deviancy training with antisocial behavior for boys. The appearance and growth of covert antisocial behavior was a predictor of fourth grade antisocial for boys and girls, more so than aggressive and overt antisocial behavior. Peer deviancy training and early covert antisocial behavior were key pathways to girls' antisocial behavior in fourth grade, and they complemented the roles of peer rejection and overt antisocial behavior for boys. The relationships of parenting and peer processes to trajectories of antisocial behavior were similar for boys and girls; but boys showed higher levels of antisocial behavior, were more involved in peer deviancy training, and were more likely to experience peer rejection.

  2. Predicting Overt and Covert Antisocial Behaviors: Parents, Peers, and Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Toro, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Parental deviance, parental monitoring, and deviant peers were examined as predictors of overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Homeless (N=231) and housed (N=143) adolescents were assessed in adolescence and again in early adulthood. Homelessness predicted both types of antisocial behaviors, and effects persisted in young adulthood. Parental…

  3. Affiliation with Antisocial Peers, Susceptibility to Peer Influence, and Antisocial Behavior during the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Developmental theories suggest that affiliation with deviant peers and susceptibility to peer influence are important contributors to adolescent delinquency, but it is unclear how these variables impact antisocial behavior during the transition to adulthood, a period when most delinquent individuals decline in antisocial behavior. Using data from…

  4. The roles of antisocial history and emerging adulthood developmental adaption in predicting adult antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alink, Lenneke R A; Egeland, Byron

    2013-01-01

    Different trajectories of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence have been identified by several researchers. However, more needs to be known about the development of antisocial behavior in adulthood and about factors that account for continuity and change. In this study, we investigated the developmental course into adulthood of different trajectories of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence. Second, we examined the role of developmental adaptation in emerging adulthood in accounting for the continuity and change of antisocial behavior. The participants (N = 162) were drawn from an ongoing 28-year longitudinal study. Trajectory groups (EOP: Early Onset/Persistent, n = 30; AO: Adolescent Onset, n = 32; Other, n = 100) were based on measures of externalizing behavior assessed at six time points in childhood and adolescence. Through interviews and questionnaires in adulthood, the quality of romantic relationships and the participants' work ethic (age 23), duration of unemployment (between ages 23 and 26 years), the level of externalizing problems (ages 23 and 26), and the number of antisocial personality disorder symptoms (age 28) were assessed. Results indicated that individuals in the EOP group showed the highest levels of antisocial behavior throughout emerging and early adulthood. Negative experiences in the work and romantic relationship domains was related to the continuity of antisocial behavior in the EOP group. For the AO group, a shorter duration of unemployment was related to lower levels of antisocial behavior. This study shows that early history plays an important role in the development of antisocial behavior and in the way developmental adaptation in emerging adulthood accounts for continuity and change of antisocial behavior.

  5. Effects of Multiple Maternal Relationship Transitions on Offspring Antisocial Behavior in Childhood and Adolescence: A Cousin-Comparison Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnight, Jackson A.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Cherlin, Andrew J.; Emery, Robert E.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of the association between multiple parental relationship transitions (i.e., when a parent begins or terminates an intimate relationship involving cohabitation) and offspring antisocial behavior have varied in their efforts to rule out confounding influences, such as parental antisocial behavior and low income. They also have been…

  6. Corticotropin (ACTH)-reactive immunoglobulins in adolescents in relation to antisocial behavior and stress-induced cortisol response : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, Johanna M.; Fetissov, Serguei O.; Legrand, Romain; Claeyssens, Sophie; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Van Oort, Floor V. A.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of corticotropin (ACTH)-reactive immunoglobulins (ACTH IgG) were found in mates with conduct disorder, suggesting their involvement in the biology of antisocial behavior. We first aimed to confirm these findings in a large general population sample of adolescents. Secondly, we studie

  7. Reassessing the Effects of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use on Later Antisocial Behavior: A Longitudinal Study of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Smith, Rachel; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of early adolescent alcohol use on antisocial behavior was examined at 1- and 2-year follow-up in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia. Each state used the same methods to survey statewide representative samples of students ("N" = 1,858, 52% female) in 2002 (Grade 7 [G7]), 2003 (Grade 8 [G8]), and 2004…

  8. Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Child Abuse and Children's Exposure to Domestic Violence, Parent-Child Attachments, and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, although youth dually exposed…

  9. Bullying in Early Adolescence and Antisocial Behavior and Depression Six Years Later: What Are the Protective Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, Suzanne; Edwards, Ben; Renda, Jennifer; Olsson, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified factors that protected (a) adolescent bullies from becoming antisocial young adults, and (b) adolescent victims of bullying from subsequent depression. Data were drawn from the Australian Temperament Project, a population birth cohort study that has followed participants since 1983. Systematic examination of potential risk…

  10. Roles of Perinatal Problems on Adolescent Antisocial Behaviors among Children Born after 33 Completed Weeks: A Prospective Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yoko; Rajendran, Khushmand; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is uncertainty about the extent to which mildly sub-optimal perinatal characteristics among individuals born near-term (greater than 33 weeks of gestation) are associated with various subsequent childhood problems, including antisocial behavior. There is even more uncertainty about whether the pathway to antisocial behavior…

  11. Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Child Abuse and Children’s Exposure to Domestic Violence, Parent-Child Attachments, and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children’s exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, while youth dually exposed to abuse and domestic violence were less attached to parents in adolescence than those who were not exposed, those who were abused only, and those who w...

  12. The moderating role of parenting on the relationship between psychopathy and antisocial behavior in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Teresa C; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to analyze the impact of several parenting factors on the relationship between psychopathy and antisocial behavior. Nine hundred youths and their mothers reported on parent-youth interactions, and youth self-report measures of psychopathy, delinquency and violent behavior were taken. Multiple regression was used to test for the significance of interactions between parenting and psychopathy scores. In terms of delinquency, linear interactions between psychopathy and the level of conflict with parents and parents' knowledge of their youths' whereabouts/youths' willingness to disclose information were found based on the data reported by the youths. Data reported by mothers indicated a linear interaction between psychopathy and parents' knowledge/youth disclosure, and a quadratic interaction of conflict with parents. For violence, we used logistic regression models to analyze moderation. No interaction effects between psychopahy scores and parenting factors were found. Youths' reports of high conflict with parents and parents' knowledge/youth disclosure showed to have an impact on violence regardless of the level of psychopathic traits. Implications for the prevention and treatment are discussed.

  13. School Factors as Moderators of the Relationship between Physical Child Abuse and Pathways of Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior…

  14. Drug use and antisocial behavior among adolescents attending public schools in Brazil Uso de drogas e comportamento antissocial entre adolescentes de escolas públicas no Brasil

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    Fernanda Lüdke Nardi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Drug use is a social and a public health problem that has been related with antisocial behavior. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between drug use and antisocial behavior among adolescents attending public schools in Brazil. METHOD: A total of 7,176 adolescents from low-income neighborhoods and public schools aged 14 to 19 years were assessed in five geographical regions in Brazil. Data on biosociodemographic characteristics and on drug use and antisocial behavior were assessed from complete answers to a national survey on risk and protective factors among adolescents. RESULTS: Over 80% of the adolescents who used alcohol and cigarettes were between 14 and 17 years old. The percentage of participants with antisocial behaviors was significantly higher among users of marijuana, cocaine, or crack than among adolescents who were not drug users. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention programs aimed at reducing substance use might help to decrease antisocial behaviors.INTRODUÇÃO: O uso de drogas é um problema social e de saúde pública que tem sido relacionado a comportamentos antissociais. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a relação entre uso de drogas e comportamento antissocial em adolescentes de escolas públicas no Brasil. MÉTODO: No total, 7.176 jovens com idades entre 14 e 19 anos estudantes de escolas públicas das cinco regiões geográficas do Brasil foram avaliados. Foram utilizados dados biossociodemográficos e sobre uso de drogas e comportamento antissocial obtidos na Pesquisa Nacional sobre Fatores de Risco e Proteção da Juventude Brasileira. RESULTADOS: Mais de 80% dos adolescentes que fizeram uso de bebidas alcoólicas e cigarro tinham entre 14 e 17 anos. O percentual de pacientes com comportamento antissocial foi significativamente maior entre usuários de maconha, cocaína ou crack do que entre adolescentes não usuários. CONCLUSÕES: Programas de prevenção direcionados à redução do uso de subst

  15. Construct Validity of Adolescent Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeanette; Elkins, Irene J.; Legrand, Lisa; Peuschold, Dawn; Iacono, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) diagnosed in adolescence. Boys and girls were grouped by history of DSM-III-R conduct disorder (CD) and ASPD: Controls (n = 340) had neither diagnosis; CD Only (n = 77) had CD by age 17 but no ASPD through age 20; Adolescent ASPD (n = 64) had ASPD by age 17. The…

  16. Spirituality & Religiosity as Factors in Adolescents' Risk for Anti-Social Behaviors and Use of Resilient Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langehough, Steven O.; Walters, Connor; Knox, David; Rowley, Michael

    Current literature indicates the positive effect of a spiritual or religious orientation on recovery from alcohol abuse, drug addiction, codependency, and child sexual abuse, and as a personal control against deviant behavior in adolescents. Yet spiritual resources have been underutilized not only in prevention but in intervention programs. This…

  17. The Protective Role of Group Identity: Sectarian Antisocial Behavior and Adolescent Emotion Problems

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    Merrilees, Christine E.; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark; Cairns, Ed

    2014-01-01

    The protective role of strength of group identity was examined for youth in a context of protracted political conflict. Participants included 814 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.61, SD = 1.99 at Time 1) participating in a longitudinal study in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling, the results show that the effect of…

  18. Antisocial Behavior, Psychopathology and Functional Impairment: Association with Sex and Age in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Juan; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, degree of association and differential effect, by sex and age, of conduct disorder symptoms on psychopathology and functioning. Participants included 680 Spanish children and adolescents between 8 and 17 years and their parents, attending to psychiatric outpatient consultation. Data were obtained through…

  19. Psychopathy as predictor and moderator of Multisystemic Therapy outcomes among adolescents treated for antisocial behavior

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    Manders, W.A.; Deković, M.; Asscher, J.J.; van der Laan, P.H.; Prins, P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine whether psychopathic traits act as a predictor and/or moderator of the effectiveness of Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Method: The sample included N = 256 adolescents (188 boys and 68 girls) referred for conduct problems, randomized to MST or Tr

  20. From Antisocial Behavior to Violence: A Model for the Amplifying Role of Coercive Joining in Adolescent Friendships

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    Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aggression is one of the more stable characteristics of child and adolescent development, and violent behavior in early adulthood is often foreshadowed by aggressive behavior in childhood and early adolescence. Considerable evidence has linked coercive family interactions to aggressive behavior in childhood, but less research has been…

  1. Population Density and Youth Antisocial Behavior

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    Harden, K. Paige; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Van Hulle, Carol; Turkheimer, Eric; Rodgers, Joseph L.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical models concerning how neighborhood contexts adversely influence juvenile antisocial behavior frequently focus on urban neighborhoods; however, previous studies comparing urban and rural areas on the prevalence of youth antisocial behavior have yielded mixed results. The current study uses longitudinal data on the offspring of a…

  2. School Factors as Moderators of the Relationship Between Physical Child Abuse and Pathways of Antisocial Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I.

    2012-01-01

    Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. The current analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior from physical child abuse and the buffering role of 3 school-related factors (i.e., school commitment, school dropout, and IQ) which are hypoth...

  3. Childhood- versus adolescent-onset antisocial youth with conduct disorder: psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial function.

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    Vicki A Johnson

    Full Text Available The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt's dual taxonomy model.Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12-21 with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23 with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20 with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples.The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired.Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process.

  4. Antisocial Behavior and Psychoactive Substance Involvement among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Caucasian Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David G.; Brown, Sandra A.; Myers, Mark G.

    1997-01-01

    Compared conduct disorder behaviors and substance involvement of Hispanic (n=34) and non-Hispanic Caucasian (n=34) adolescents so as to determine pre-treatment problem behavior. Results indicate that non-Hispanic Caucasian youth were three times as likely to be diagnosed with conduct disorder prior to substance involvement than were their Hispanic…

  5. The Relationship of Impulsivity-Inattention and Verbal Ability to Overt and Covert Antisocial Behaviors in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Amber D.; Snyder, James

    2012-01-01

    Research has linked many risk factors in childhood and early adolescence to antisocial behaviors in later adolescence and early adulthood; however, less attention has focused on the interaction among factors in the prediction of distinct forms of antisocial behaviors. This study investigated the additive and synergistic association of…

  6. Parental behavioral and psychological control relationships to self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression, and antisocial behaviors

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    Yalçın Özdemir

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial behaviors and depression among Turkish adolescents. Participants for the present study consisted of 333 adolescents (168 girls, 163 boys between the age of 13 to 15 with a mean of 13.90 (SD=.514 years. Participants completed measures on behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial behaviors and depression. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that behavioral control positively predicted life satisfaction, self-esteem, and negatively predicted antisocial behaviors and depression. Psychological control was significantly and positively predicted antisocial behaviors and depression, negatively predicted life satisfaction. Present study provided evidence for the role of behavioral and psychological control in adolescents’ self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression and antisocial behaviors. Also, findings underscore the role of differential associations of parental behavioral and psychological control with the well-being and ill-being of adolescents. Findings were discussed in terms of implications for parent education programs and family intervention program.

  7. Parental behavioral and psychological control relationships to self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression, and antisocial behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın Özdemir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial behaviors and depression among Turkish adolescents. Participants for the present study consisted of 333 adolescents (168 girls, 163 boys between the age of 13 to 15 with a mean of 13.90 (SD=.514 years. Participants completed measures on behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial behaviors and depression. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that behavioral control positively predicted life satisfaction, self-esteem, and negatively predicted antisocial behaviors and depression. Psychological control was significantly and positively predicted antisocial behaviors and depression, negatively predicted life satisfaction. Present study provided evidence for the role of behavioral and psychological control in adolescents’ self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression and antisocial behaviors. Also, findings underscore the role of differential associations of parental behavioral and psychological control with the well-being and ill-being of adolescents. Findings were discussed in terms of implications for parent education programs and family intervention program.

  8. Interpersonal Complementarity – Self-rated Behavior by Normal and Antisocial Adolescents with a Liked and Disliked Peer

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    Camilla Hakelind

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The principle of complementarity in interpersonal theory and the SASB model (Structural Analysis of Social Behavior as developed by Benjamin (1974 were used to study how adolescents in a normal group of 60 adolescents and a group of 42 adolescents with severe behavioural problems rated that they usually behaved in relation to a liked and disliked peer. The peer’s behaviour varied in a systematic way on the dimensions of affiliation and dominance. Complementary behavior was defined as the same behaviour from peer and self and anticomplementarity was defined as opposite behaviour from self in relation the peer’s behavior. Consistent over the two groups complementarity and anticomplementarity were influenced by both the peer’s behaviour and type of relationship with the peer. Friendly behaviour from a liked peer evoked much more complementary friendly behaviour compared to a disliked peer who with the same behaviour evoked almost as much anticomplementary hostile behaviour as complementary friendly behaviour. Hostile behaviour from a disliked peer evoked much more complementary hostile behaviour compared to a liked peer with the same kind of behavior. Autonomy granting from a liked peer evoked more complementary autonomous behaviour compared to a disliked peer. Differences between the two groups were small and only in relation with a disliked peer. The results were discussed in terms of interpersonal theory and the principle of complementarity with focus on kind of relationship.

  9. Antisocial behavior: Connection with bullying/cyberbullying and conflict resolution

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    Maite Garaigordobil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to explore the relations among antisocial behavior, engagement in bullying/cyberbullying, and conflict resolution skills. The sample comprised 3,026 Spanish participants, aged between 12 and 18years (48.5% males, 51.5% females, enrolled in various public (45.6% and private (54.4% schools of the Basque Country. Using a descriptive and correlational design, 4 assessment instruments were administered to measure the variables under study (antisocial behavior, bullying/cyberbullying, and conflict resolution skills. The correlational analyses and analyses of variance confirmed that adolescents and youth of both sexes with high scores in antisocial behavior were significantly more involved in all the roles of bullies and cyberbullies (victims, bullies, and bystanders and they used significantly more aggressive strategies as an interpersonal conflict resolution technique. The study identifies relevant variables for the design of intervention programs. The discussion focuses on the importance of implementing psychoeducational prevention and intervention programs targeting antisocial behavior, as well as the role of the family and society.

  10. Antisocial behavior: Dimension or category(ies?

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    Biro Mikloš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Classificatory systems (DSM-IV, ICD-10 use different criteria for defining a rather common antisocial disorder, traditionally referred as psychopathy. Most empirical studies of this phenomenon use Cleckley's operational definition that was applied and amended in Hare's revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R. In modern literature, the fact that there is less than a perfect correspondence between classificatory systems and Hare's PCL-R is often cited as an indication that antisocial behavior is not confined to a distinct category of people but is rather a continuous personality dimension. In order to further elucidate the nosology of antisocial behaviors, a Psychopathy Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ based on Cleckley - Hare's criteria and consisting of 40 binary items was administered to 339 men (135 prisoners and 204 members of the general population. Four distinct clusters of respondents were identified by means of hierarchical cluster analysis: Psychopathic type (characterized by high positive scores on dimension of Unemotionality; Antisocial type (characterized by high positive scores on Social deviance dimension; Adapted type (characterized by negative scores on all dimensions; and Hyper-controlled type (characterized by extremely negative scores on dimension Social deviance accompanied with positive scores on Unemotionality dimension. Additional comparison with MMPI profiles which classified prison sample in two groups ("Psychopathic profiles" and "Non- Psychopathic profiles" shows that there is no expected compatibility between MMPI and PAQ. We conclude that Antisocial type can be treated as a distinct category, while Psychopathic type displays characteristics of dimensional distribution.

  11. Diagnosis and subtypes of adolescent antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Meredith; Westen, Drew

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the application of the Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) diagnosis to adolescents and investigated the possibility of subtypes of APD adolescents. As part of a broader study of adolescent personality in clinically-referred patients, experienced clinicians provided personality data on a randomly selected patient in their care using the SWAP-II-A personality pathology instrument. Three hundred thirteen adolescents met adult DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for APD. To characterize adolescents with the disorder, we aggregated the data to identify the items most descriptive and distinctive of APD adolescents relative to other teenagers in the sample (N = 950). Q-factor analysis identified five personality subtypes: psychopathic-like, socially withdrawn, impulsive-histrionic, emotionally dysregulated, and attentionally dysregulated. The five subtypes differed in predictable ways on a set of external criteria related to global adaptive functioning, childhood family environment, and family history of psychiatric illness. Both the APD diagnosis and the empirically derived APD subtypes provided incremental validity over and above the DSM-IV disruptive behavior disorders in predicting global adaptive functioning, number of arrests, early-onset severe externalizing pathology, and quality of peer relationships. Although preliminary, these results provide support for the use of both APD and personality-based subtyping systems in adolescents.

  12. Antisocial thinking in adolescents: further psychometric development of the Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scale (ABAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephen M; Parry, Rachael; Fearon, R M Pasco

    2015-03-01

    Investigating the impact of "off-line" cognitive structures on the broad range of antisocial behaviors shown by young people has been hampered by the absence of psychometrically robust measures of antisocial cognitions. This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scale (ABAS), a developmentally sensitive measure of young people's beliefs and attitudes toward social standards of acceptable behavior at home and at school. The reliability and validity of the ABAS was assessed in a sample of British school children (N = 486) aged 9-16 years (M = 12.79, SD = 1.90) and male young offenders (N = 84) aged 13-17 years (M = 15.15, SD = 0.27). Participants completed the ABAS, together with a self-report measure of antisocial behavior; maternal reports of antisocial activity were also collected in the offending sample. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the 2-factor structure of Rule Noncompliance and Peer Conflict previously derived from a sample of Canadian school children, and these factors showed good test-retest reliability. Rule Noncompliance predicted self-reported antisocial behavior for ages 11-16 years, while Peer Conflict predicted antisocial behavior for ages 9-16 years. Comparisons between young offenders and an age-matched subsample of males from the school group showed significant differences. In young offenders, Rule Noncompliance and Peer Conflict were significantly predictive of self-reported antisocial behavior, while Rule Noncompliance independently predicted mothers' ratings of their sons' antisocial behavior. These findings provide support for the ABAS as a psychometrically sound measure of antisocial thinking.

  13. Developmental pathways to antisocial behavior: the delayed-onset pathway in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, P; Frick, P J

    1999-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that there are two distinct trajectories for the development of antisocial behavior in boys: a childhood-onset pathway and an adolescent-onset pathway. After reviewing the limited available research on antisocial girls, we propose that this influential method of conceptualizing the development of severe antisocial behavior may not apply to girls without some important modifications. Antisocial girls appear to show many of the correlates that have been associated with the childhood-onset pathway in boys, and they tend to show impaired adult adjustment, which is also similar to boys in the childhood-onset pathway. However, antisocial girls typically show an adolescent-onset to their antisocial behavior. We have proposed that these girls show a third developmental pathway which we have labeled the "delayed-onset" pathway. This model rests on the assumption that many of the putative pathogenic mechanisms that contribute to the development of antisocial behavior in girls, such as cognitive and neuropsychological deficits, a dysfunctional family environment, and/or the presence of a callous and unemotional interpersonal style, may be present in childhood, but they do not lead to severe and overt antisocial behavior until adolescence. Therefore, we propose that the delayed-onset pathway for girls is analogous to the childhood-onset pathway in boys and that there is no analogous pathway in girls to the adolescent-onset pathway in boys. Although this model clearly needs to be tested in future research, it highlights the need to test the applicability of current theoretical models for explaining the development of antisocial behavior in girls.

  14. Effects of EQUIP for Educators on Students' Self-Serving Cognitive Distortions, Moral Judgment, and Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Floor; Brugman, Daniel; Boom, Jan; Koops, Willem

    2010-01-01

    A quasi-experimental pretest/posttest study using a control group was conducted to investigate the effects of EQUIP for Educators--implemented as a universal prevention program--on prevalence of antisocial behavior, attitude towards antisocial behavior, self serving cognitive distortions, and moral judgment of young adolescents. Participants were…

  15. Father's and Mother's Perceptions of Parenting Styles as Mediators of the Effects of Parental Psychopathology on Antisocial Behavior in Outpatient Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Juan; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to examine the potential mediating role of father's and mother's parenting styles in the association between parental psychopathology and antisocial behavior in children, and whether this pathway was moderated by child's sex. Participants included both parents and 338 Spanish outpatient children between 8 and 17 years (56.5% boys).…

  16. Antisocial behavior and polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene: findings in two independent samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, D; Lindstedt, M; Zettergren, A; Jonsson, L; Johansson, A; Melke, J; Kerekes, N; Anckarsäter, H; Lichtenstein, P; Lundström, S; Westberg, L

    2016-07-01

    The quantitative genetic contribution to antisocial behavior is well established, but few, if any, genetic variants are established as risk factors. Emerging evidence suggests that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) may modulate interpersonal aggression. We here investigated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OXT receptor gene (OXTR) are associated with the expression of antisocial behavior. A discovery sample, including both sexes, was drawn from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS; n=2372), and a sample from the Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development (TCHAD; n=1232) was used for replication. Eight SNPs in OXTR, selected on previous associations with social and antisocial behavior, were genotyped in the participants of CATSS. Significant polymorphisms were subsequently genotyped in TCHAD for replication. Participants completed self-assessment questionnaires-Life History of Aggression (LHA; available only in CATSS), and Self-Reported Delinquency (SRD; available in both samples)-designed to capture antisocial behavior as continuous traits. In the discovery sample, the rs7632287 AA genotype was associated with higher frequency of antisocial behavior in boys, and this was then replicated in the second sample. In particular, overt aggression (directly targeting another individual) was strongly associated with this genotype in boys (P=6.2 × 10(-7) in the discovery sample). Meta-analysis of the results for antisocial behavior from both samples yielded P=2.5 × 10(-5). Furthermore, an association between rs4564970 and LHA (P=0.00013) survived correction in the discovery sample, but there was no association with the SRD in the replication sample. We conclude that the rs7632287 and rs4564970 polymorphisms in OXTR may independently influence antisocial behavior in adolescent boys. Further replication of our results will be crucial to understanding how aberrant social behavior arises, and would support the OXT receptor as one

  17. Linked lives: the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P; Freeman-Gallant, Adrienne; Lizotte, Alan J; Krohn, Marvin D; Smith, Carolyn A

    2003-04-01

    There is a strong assumption of intergenerational continuity in behavior patterns, including antisocial behavior. Using a 3-generation, prospective study design, we examine the level of behavioral continuity between Generation 2 (G2) and Generation 3 (G3), and the role of economic disadvantage and parenting behaviors as mediating links. We estimate separate models for G2 fathers and G2 mothers. Data are drawn from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 during G2's early adolescence (n = 1,000), which has collected prospective data on G2, their parents (G1), and now their G3 children. Results show that intergenerational continuity in antisocial behavior is evident, albeit somewhat modest. Parenting styles and financial stress do play a mediating role, although their effects vary by G2's gender. In general, adolescent delinquency plays a larger role in linking the generations for G2 fathers, whereas parenting behaviors and financial stress play a larger role for G2 mothers.

  18. Media Violence, Antisocial Behavior, and the Social Consequences of Small Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Discusses research on media violence and antisocial behavior. Provides quantitative estimates for predicting: (1) adult antisocial behavior from childhood antisocial behavior; (2) current antisocial behavior from current exposure to media violence; (3) subsequent antisocial behavior from earlier exposure to media violence; and (4) how social…

  19. Secrets from friends and parents: longitudinal links with depression and antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert D; Bridges, Brittanee J; Marsee, Monica A

    2013-08-01

    Keeping secrets from parents is associated with depression and antisocial behavior. The current study tested whether keeping secrets from best friends is similarly linked to maladjustment, and whether associations between secrecy and maladjustment are moderated by the quality of the friendship. Adolescents (N = 181; 51% female, 48% white, non-Hispanic, 45% African American) reported their secrecy from parents and best friends, the quality of their parent-adolescent relationships and best friendships, and their depression and antisocial behavior at ages 12 and 13. Keeping more secrets from best friends was associated with more depression, but not with more antisocial behavior, when controlling for earlier adjustment, secrecy from parents, and the quality of the friendship. For girls associations between maladjustment and secrecy were conditioned by the quality of the relationships and whether secrets were kept from parents and friends. Discussion argues for expanding the study of secrecy in adolescence beyond the parent-child dyad.

  20. Examining Antisocial Behavioral Antecedents of Juvenile Sexual Offenders and Juvenile Non-Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuish, Evan C; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond R

    2015-08-01

    In prospective longitudinal studies of juvenile offenders, the presence of multiple developmental pathways of antisocial behaviors has consistently been identified. An "antisocial" type of juvenile sex offender (JSO) has also been identified; however, whether antisocial JSOs follow different antisocial pathways has not been examined. In the current study, differences in antisocial pathways within JSOs and between JSOs and juvenile non-sex offenders (JNSOs) were examined. Data on Canadian male incarcerated adolescent offenders were used to identify whether behavioral antecedents differed within JSOs and between JSOs (n = 51) and JNSOs (n = 94). Using latent class analysis (LCA), three behavioral groups were identified. For both JSOs and JNSOs, there was a Low Antisocial, Overt, and Covert group. Overall, there were important within-group differences in the behavioral patterns of JSOs, but these differences resembled differences in the behavioral patterns of their JNSO counterpart. Risk factors including offense history, abuse history, and family history were more strongly associated with the Overt and Covert groups compared with the Low Antisocial group. Implications for JSO assessment practices were discussed.

  1. Neurological soft signs in Chinese adolescents with antisocial personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cai, Lin; Li, Lingyan; Yang, Yanjie; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2016-09-30

    The current study was designed to explore the specific relationship between neurologic soft signs (NSSs) and characteristics of antisocial personality traits in adolescents, and to investigate particular NSSs linked to certain brain regions in adolescents with antisocial personality traits. The research was conducted on 96 adolescents diagnosed with ASP traits (ASP trait group) using the ASPD subscale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire for the DSM-IV (PDQ-4+) and 96 adolescents without traits of any personality disorder (control group). NSSs were assessed using the soft sign subscales of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory. Adolescents with ASP traits showed more motor coordination, sensory integration, disinhibition, and total NSSs than the control group. Seven NSSs, including stereognosia in right hand, finger agnosia and graphesthesia in both hands, left-right orientation, and go/no go stimulus, were significantly more frequent in teenagers with ASP traits. Sensory integration was positively associated with ASP traits. Adolescents with antisocial personality traits might have abnormalities in the central nervous system, and sensory integration might be the particular indicator of antisocial personality disorder.

  2. The Social Functions of Antisocial Behavior: Considerations for School Violence Prevention Strategies for Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Lee, David L.; Hamm, Jill V.; Lambert, Kerrylin

    2012-01-01

    Research on school social dynamics suggests that antisocial behavior is often supported by peer group processes particularly during late childhood and adolescence. Building from a social interactional framework, this article explores how information on the social functions of aggressive and disruptive behavior may help to guide function-based…

  3. Patterns of Adolescent Friendships, Psychological Adjustment and Antisocial Behavior: The Moderating Role of Family Stress and Friendship Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciairano, Silvia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Roggero, Antonella; Bonino, Silvia; Beyers, Wim

    2007-01-01

    This study distinguishes different patterns of friendship quality in terms of support from and conflict with friends, and reciprocity. Associations between friendship patterns and adolescents' adjustment (self-perception, expectations for the future, depressive feelings, sense of alienation, lying, disobedience, and aggression) were hypothesized…

  4. Bender Gestalt Signs and Anti-Social Acting Out Tendencies in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannigan, Gary G.; Benowity, Martin L.

    1975-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between performance on the Bender-Gestalt test and antisocial acting out tendencies in adolescents. Results indicate that uneven figure size and exaggerated curvature are the best indicators of antisocial acting out tendencies. (Author)

  5. The Interplay Between Peer Rejection and Acceptance in Preadolescence and Early Adolescence, Serotonin Transporter Gene, and Antisocial Behavior in Late Adolescence : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan; Veenstra, René

    2014-01-01

    Gene-environment studies on adolescents' peer contexts are important for understanding the interplay between biological and social antecedents of adolescent psychopathology. To this end, this study examined the roles of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and preadolescent and early adolescent peer rej

  6. Early Concern and Disregard for Others as Predictors of Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Friedman, Naomi P.; Boeldt, Debra L.; Corley, Robin P.; Hewitt, John. K.; Knafo, Ariel; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Robinson, JoAnn; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Young, Susan E.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prediction of antisocial behavior is important, given its adverse impact on both the individuals engaging in antisocial behavior and society. Additional research identifying early predictors of future antisocial behavior, or antisocial propensity, is needed. The present study tested the hypothesis that both concern for others and…

  7. Mediation of sensation seeking and behavioral inhibition on the longitudinal relationship between heart rate and antisocial behavior : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; van Roon, Arie M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Riese, Harriette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Why is low resting heart rate (HR) associated with antisocial behavior (ASB), i.e., aggression and rule breaking, in adolescence? Theory suggests that personality traits mediate this relationship but differently with age. In the present study this age-effect hypothesis is tested; we expec

  8. Antisocial sport behaviors survey: instrument development and initial validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Miranda P; Hoar, Sharleen

    2015-04-01

    The development of a self-report instrument to measure antisocial sport behavior, labeled the Antisocial Sport Behavior Survey (ASBS), among large and diverse samples of athletes is reported. Grounded in the social cognitive theory of moral thought and action (Bandura, 1991) and interpersonal theory (Horowitz, 2004), this instrument was developed and tested in accordance with the traditions of construct validity and classical test theory (Gehlback & Brinkworth, 2011). In Phase 1, 272 college-aged competitive sport participants confirmed a theoretical structure of antisocial sport behavior including eight factors (hypercompetitive, intimidating, antagonistic, disrespectful, exploitable, overly accommodating, abetting, and melodramatic). Phase 2 reports on item development and the response structure of the instrument. In Phase 3, evidence of structural validity and external validity for the ASBS was established with 340 college-aged competitive sport participants. The ASBS presents as a promising new instrument to advance understanding of antisocial sport behavior acts committed by competitive athletes.

  9. Age-of-onset or behavioral sub-types? A prospective comparison of two approaches to characterizing the heterogeneity within antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, S Alexandra; Donnellan, M Brent; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2011-07-01

    There are two common approaches to sub-typing the well-documented heterogeneity within antisocial behavior: age-of-onset (i.e., childhood-onset versus adolescence-onset; see Moffitt 1993) and behavioral (i.e., physical aggression versus non-aggressive rule-breaking). These approaches appear to be associated, such that aggression is more characteristic of childhood-onset antisocial behavior whereas rule-breaking is linked to both child- and adolescence-onset antisocial behavior. However, it remains unclear which approach, if either, better explains the heterogeneity within antisocial behavior. We examined this question in a prospective sample of male twins, assessed at the ages of 11, 14, 17, and 24 years. Although the age-of-onset subtypes predicted adult antisocial behavior in the expected direction when analyzed alone, this association dissipated once we controlled for aggression and rule-breaking. Such findings suggest that the behavioral sub-types of antisocial behavior may be a stronger predictor of later antisocial outcomes than is its age-of-onset.

  10. Neuroimaging of Psychopathy and Antisocial Behavior: A Targeted Review

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to provide a selective and targeted review of the neuroimaging literature on psychopathic tendencies and antisocial behavior and to explore the extent to which this literature supports recent cognitive neuroscientific models of psychopathy and antisocial behavior. The literature reveals that individuals who present with an increased risk for reactive, but not instrumental, aggression show increased amygdala responses to emotionally evocative stimuli. This is consis...

  11. Supportive parenting mediates widening neighborhood socioeconomic disparities in children’s antisocial behavior from ages 5 to 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers, Candice L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Russell, Michael A.; Sampson, Robert J.; Arsenault, Louise; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we report a graded relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and children’s antisocial behavior that (1) can be observed at school entry, (2) widens across childhood, (3) remains after controlling for family-level SES and risk, and (4) is completely mediated by maternal warmth and parental monitoring (defined throughout as supportive parenting). Children were participants in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study (n=2232), which prospectively tracked the development of children and their neighborhoods across childhood. Direct and independent effects of neighborhood-level SES on children’s antisocial behavior were observed as early as age 5 and the gap between children living in deprived versus more affluent neighborhoods widened as children approached adolescence. By age 12, the effect of neighborhood socioeconomic status on children’s antisocial behavior was as large as the effect observed for our most robust predictor of antisocial behavior – sex! (Cohen’s d = .51 when comparing children growing up in deprived versus more affluent neighborhoods in comparison to Cohen’s d = .53 when comparing antisocial behavior among boys versus girls). However, differences in children’s levels and rate of change in antisocial behavior across deprived versus more affluent neighborhoods were completely mediated by supportive parenting practices. Implications of our findings for studying and reducing socioeconomic disparities in antisocial behavior among children are discussed. PMID:22781850

  12. Neural mediator of the schizotypy-antisocial behavior relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, B Y H; Yang, Y; Raine, A; Lee, T M C

    2015-11-03

    Prior studies have established that schizotypal personality traits (schizotypy) were associated with antisocial behavior (crime), but it is unclear what neural factors mediate this relationship. This study assessed the mediating effect that sub-regional prefrontal gray, specifically the orbitofrontal gray matter volume, has on the schizotypy-antisocial behavior relationship. Five prefrontal sub-regional (superior, middle, inferior, orbitofrontal and rectal gyral) gray matter volumes were assessed using structural magnetic resonance imaging in 90 adults from the community, together with schizotypy and antisocial behavior. Among all five prefrontal sub-regions, the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) was the major region-of-interest in the present study. Mediation analyses showed that orbitofrontal gray fully mediated the association between schizotypy and antisocial behavior. After having controlled the sex, age, socio-economic statuses, whole brain volumes and substance abuse/dependence of test subjects, the orbitofrontal gray still significantly mediated the effect of schizotypy on antisocial behavior by 53.5%. These findings are the first that document a neural mediator of the schizotypy-antisocial behavior relationship. Findings also suggest that functions subserved by the OFC, including impulse control and inhibition, emotion processing and decision-making, may contribute to the above comorbidity.

  13. A review on the relationship between testosterone and life-course persistent antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Bariş O; Derksen, Jan J L

    2012-12-30

    Life-course persistent antisocial behavior is 10 to 14 times more prevalent in males and it has been suggested that testosterone levels could account for this gender bias. Preliminary studies with measures of fetal testosterone find inconsistent associations with antisocial behavior, especially studies that use the 2D:4D ratio as a proxy for fetal testosterone. However, circulating testosterone consistently shows positive associations with antisocial behaviors throughout childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, particularly in males. It is suggested that high fetal/circulating testosterone interactively influence the maturation and functionality of mesolimbic dopaminergic circuitry, right orbitofrontal cortex, and cortico-subcortical connectivity, resulting in a strong reward motivation, low social sensitivity, and dampened regulation of strong motivational/emotional processes. The link between these testosterone induced endophenotypes and actual display of antisocial behavior is strongly modulated by different social (e.g., social rejection, low SES) and genetic (e.g., MAOA, 5HTT) risk factors that can disturb socio-, psycho-, and biological development and interact with testosterone in shaping behavior. When these additional risk factors are present, the testosterone induced endophenotypes may increase the risk for a chronic antisocial lifestyle. However, behavioral endophenotypes induced by testosterone can also predispose towards socially adaptive traits such as a strong achievement motivation, leadership, fair bargaining behaviors, and social assertiveness. These adaptive traits are more likely to emerge when the high testosterone individual has positive social experiences that promote prosocial behaviors such as strong and secure attachments with his caregivers, affiliation with prosocial peers, and sufficient socioeconomic resources. A theoretical model is presented, various hypotheses are examined, and future venues for research are discussed.

  14. Trajectories of Youthful Antisocial Behavior: Categories or Continua?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D.; Ruscio, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether qualitatively distinct trajectories of antisocial behavior could be identified in 1,708 children (843 boys, 865 girls) from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Data (NLSY-C). Repeated ratings were made on the Behavior Problems Index (BPI: Peterson and Zill "Journal of Marriage and…

  15. Unpacking Links between Fathers' Antisocial Behaviors and Children's Behavior Problems: Direct, Indirect, and Interactive Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Carrano, Jennifer; Lewin-Bizan, Selva

    2011-01-01

    Building upon previous evidence for the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behaviors, this research assessed and compared three models seeking to explain links between fathers' antisocial behaviors and children's behavior problems. A representative sample of children from low-income families (N = 261) was followed from age 3 through age…

  16. The relationship between hippocampal asymmetry and temperament in adolescent borderline and antisocial personality pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovev, Martina; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Simmons, Julian Guy; Allen, Nicholas B; Chanen, Andrew M

    2014-02-01

    Investigating etiological processes early in the life span represents an important step toward a better understanding of the development of personality pathology. The current study evaluated the interaction between an individual difference risk factor (i.e., temperament) and a biological risk factor for aggressive behavior (i.e., atypical [larger] rightward hippocampal asymmetry) in predicting the emergence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder symptoms during early adolescence. The sample consisted of 153 healthy adolescents (M = 12.6 years, SD = 0.4, range = 11.4-13.7) who were selected from a larger sample to maximize variation in temperament. Interactions between four temperament factors (effortful control, negative affectivity, surgency, and affiliativeness), based on the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised, and volumetric measures of hippocampal asymmetry were examined as cross-sectional predictors of BPD and antisocial personality disorder symptoms. Boys were more likely to have elevated BPD symptoms if they were high on affiliation and had larger rightward hippocampal asymmetry. In boys, low affiliation was a significant predictor of BPD symptoms in the presence of low rightward hippocampal asymmetry. For girls, low effortful control was associated with elevated BPD symptoms in the presence of atypical rightward hippocampal asymmetry. This study builds on previous work reporting significant associations between atypical hippocampal asymmetry and poor behavioral regulation.

  17. El suicidio: Una conducta antisocial que prevalece/Suicide: An antisocial behavior that prevails

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Alejandro De León Palomo (México)

    2012-01-01

    The suicide has existed throughout history and has prevailed as a behavior that was contrary to the rules of the society in terms of preservation of life itself; the objective of this research was to make emphasis on the nature of antisocial behavior of this behavior and show its prevalence in the years 2006 to 2010 in Mexico and Tamaulipas, as well as from 1999 to 2008 in Reynosa, Tamaulipas. For which the data were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography to the coun...

  18. Reversible antisocial behavior in ventromedial prefrontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebuchon, Agnès; Bartolomei, Fabrice; McGonigal, Aileen; Laguitton, Virginie; Chauvel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Frontal lobe dysfunction is known to be associated with impairment in social behavior. We investigated the link between severe pharmacoresistant frontal lobe epilepsy and antisocial trait. We studied four patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy involving the prefrontal cortex, presenting abnormal interictal social behavior. Noninvasive investigations (video-EEG, PET, MRI) and intracerebral recording (stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG)) were performed as part of a presurgical assessment. Comprehensive psychiatric and cognitive evaluation was performed pre- and postoperatively for frontal lobe epilepsy, with at least 7years of follow-up. All patients shared a characteristic epilepsy pattern: (1) chronic severe prefrontal epilepsy with daily seizures and (2) an epileptogenic zone as defined by intracerebral recording involving the anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial PFC, and the posterior part of the orbitofrontal cortex, with early propagation to contralateral prefrontal and ipsilateral medial temporal structures. All patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria (DSM-IV) of antisocial personality disorder, which proved to be reversible following seizure control. Pharmacoresistant epilepsy involving a prefrontal network is associated with antisocial personality. We hypothesize that the occurrence of frequent seizures in this region over a prolonged period produces functional damage leading to impaired prefrontal control of social behavior. This functional damage is reversible since successful epilepsy surgery markedly improved antisocial behavior in these patients. The results are in line with previous reports of impairment of social and moral behavior following ventromedial frontal lobe injury.

  19. Antisocial Psychopathy and HIV Risk among Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD Abusing Adolescent Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Malow

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While the consensus is that HIV prevalence has remained low among adolescent offenders, the prevalence of STDs and HIV transmission risk behaviors is alarming, particularly for those abusing alcohol and other drugs and those displaying antisocial or conduct disorder characteristics. In the current study, 269 male and 110 female inner city, culturally diverse alcohol and other drug (AOD abusing adolescent offenders completed measures of (a psychopathy, using the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI (b HIV transmission risk behavior, (c prevention skills and attitudes and (d social desirability. Results showed that those with high levels of psychopathy reported more AOD use, overall unprotected sex and more sexual activity when influenced by alcohol and/or marijuana. High psychopathy adolescent offenders also reported lower self-efficacy and sexual response-efficacy, less favorable safer sex and condom attitudes and less favorable intentions to engage in safer sex behaviors, when controlling for social desirability. Data suggest that adolescent offenders, who are either in court-ordered treatment or detention, should be assessed for psychopathy and provided with tailored risk reduction interventions, geared toward attitudinal and behavioral change. A discussion of integrating neurobiological measures to improve the next generation of tailored interventions for this risk group is offered in conclusion.

  20. Age-of-Onset or Behavioral Sub-Types? A Prospective Comparison of Two Approaches to Characterizing the Heterogeneity within Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Donnellan, M. Brent; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    There are two common approaches to sub-typing the well-documented heterogeneity within antisocial behavior: age-of-onset (i.e., childhood-onset versus adolescence-onset; see "Moffitt" 1993) and behavioral (i.e., physical aggression versus non-aggressive rule-breaking). These approaches appear to be associated, such that aggression is more…

  1. Parental Familism and Antisocial Behaviors: Development, Gender, and Potential Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcillo, Carmen; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Shen, Sa; Blanco, Carlos; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relation between parental familism (strong values of attachment to nuclear and extended family members) and youth antisocial behaviors over time. Method: Puerto Rican children 5 to 13 years of age at baseline residing in the South Bronx in New York (n = 1,138) and in the Standard Metropolitan Area in San Juan and Caguas,…

  2. Age Differences in the Impact of Employment on Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    While research suggests that working more than 20 hr weekly is associated with greater antisocial behavior among middle- and upper-class youth, some have argued that employment benefits at-risk youth and leads to desistance from crime among youthful offenders. This study investigates the relation between hours worked, school attendance, and…

  3. Neurocognitive Elements of Antisocial Behavior: Relevance of an Orbitofrontal Cortex Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Jean R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) lesions in antisocial behaviors and the adequacy of a strict OFC account of antisocial disorders where there is no evidence of lesion. Neurocognitive accounts of antisocial behaviors are extended beyond the OFC. Several methodological shortcomings specific to this neuroscience approach to…

  4. Effects of anomie, alienation and confidence on antisocial behavior in youth out of school and work system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel Vera Noriega

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to establish the antisocial and criminal behavior from perceived social and psychological anomie, alienation and confidence in institutions in young people who are outside the education system and labor in Hermosillo (Sonora, Mexico. The results indicate that psychological and social anomie, alienation and confidence in institutions can explain 28% of the variability in the expression of antisocial and criminal behavior. In addition, three profiles were found that were called adolescents: a tight, b alienated c deinstitutionalized: We conclude that public policies aimed at young people must build trust and seek ways to facilitate them the access to formal education systems.

  5. Can at-risk young adolescents be popular and anti-social? : Sociometric status groups, anti-social behaviour, gender and ethnic background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Schoot, R.; van der Velden, F.; Boom, J.; Brugman, D.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to extend the understanding of anti-social behaviour and its association with popularity and sociometric status in a sample of at-risk adolescents from diverse ethnic backgrounds (n ¼ 1491, average age 14.7 years). Both overt and covert types of antisocial behaviour were used to dis

  6. Quantifying social vs. antisocial behavior in email networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes, L H; Almeida, V A F; Bettencourt, L M A; Castro, F D O; Almeida, Jussara M.; Almeida, Virgilio A. F.; Bettencourt, Luis M. A.; Castro, Fernando D. O.; Gomes, Luiz H.

    2006-01-01

    Email graphs have been used to illustrate general properties of social networks of communication and collaboration. However, increasingly, the majority of email traffic reflects opportunistic, rather than symbiotic social relations. Here we use e-mail data drawn from a large university to construct directed graphs of email exchange that quantify the differences between social and antisocial behaviors in networks of communication. We show that while structural characteristics typical of other social networks are shared to a large extent by the legitimate component they are not characteristic of antisocial traffic. Interestingly, opportunistic patterns of behavior do create nontrivial graphs with certain general characteristics that we identify. To complement the graph analysis, which suffers from incomplete knowledge of users external to the domain, we study temporal patterns of communication to show that the dynamical properties of email traffic can, in principle, distinguish different types of social relatio...

  7. Socioeconomic status and antisocial behaviour among children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Patrycja J; Stride, Christopher B; Croft, Simone E; Rowe, Richard

    2015-02-01

    Previous research on the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and child and adolescent antisocial behaviour has produced mixed findings showing variation in the strength of association. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarise evidence on the relationship between socioeconomic status and broadly conceptualised antisocial behaviour, investigating variation across a range of antisocial subtypes and other potential moderators, including age, sex and informant. We identified 133 studies containing data suitable for effect size calculation, and 139 independent effect sizes were analysed (total N=339868). The global meta-analysis showed that lower family socioeconomic status was associated with higher levels of antisocial behaviour. Moderation analyses revealed this relationship was stronger where callous-unemotional traits were the outcome, and where antisocial behaviour was reported by parents or teachers rather than self-reported. The relationship between family SES and antisocial behaviour, however, was independent of higher-level constructs such as national income inequality. These results indicate that SES can be considered a robust correlate of broadly conceptualised antisocial behaviour but the strength of this relationship may depend on the antisocial subtype under investigation and the design of the study.

  8. Neural bases of antisocial behavior: a voxel-based meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yuta; Inokuchi, Ryota; Nakao, Tomohiro; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2014-08-01

    Individuals with antisocial behavior place a great physical and economic burden on society. Deficits in emotional processing have been recognized as a fundamental cause of antisocial behavior. Emerging evidence also highlights a significant contribution of attention allocation deficits to such behavior. A comprehensive literature search identified 12 studies that were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis, which compared 291 individuals with antisocial problems and 247 controls. Signed Differential Mapping revealed that compared with controls, gray matter volume (GMV) in subjects with antisocial behavior was reduced in the right lentiform nucleus (P antisocial behavior. Previous studies have suggested an FPC role in attention allocation during emotional processing. Therefore, GMV deviations in this area may constitute a neural basis of deficits in attention allocation linked with antisocial behavior.

  9. Personality and cognitive-style profile of antisocial and prosocial adolescents: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Glicksohn, Joseph

    2010-10-01

    In this brief report, antisocial and prosocial adolescents are contrasted in terms of impulsivity and venturesomeness, and the cognitive style of field dependence- independence are assessed using the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT). The data have been collected from a total of 366 youths, ranging in age between 12 and 18 years. Antisocials are found to score below average, whereas the prosocials score above average on the GEFT.

  10. The Expression of Genetic Risk for Aggressive and Non-aggressive Antisocial Behavior is Moderated by Peer Group Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E

    2015-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behaviors are important precursors of later adjustment problems. There is also strong empirical evidence that both types of antisocial behavior are partially influenced by genetic factors. However, despite its important theoretical and practical implications, no study has examined the question whether environmental factors differentially moderate the expression of genetic influences on the two types of antisocial behavior. Using a genetically informed design based on 266 monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, this study examined whether the expression of genetic risk for aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior varies depending on the peer group's injunctive norms (i.e., the degree of acceptability) of each type of antisocial behavior. Self-reported aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior and classroom-based sociometric nominations were collected when participants were 10 years old. Multivariate genetic analyses revealed some common genetic factors influencing both types of antisocial behavior (i.e., general antisocial behavior) as well as genetic influences specific to non-aggressive antisocial behavior. However, genetic influences on general antisocial behavior, as well as specific genetic influences on non-aggressive antisocial behavior, vary depending on the injunctive classroom norms regarding these behaviors. These findings speak to the power of peer group norms in shaping aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior. They also contribute further to understanding the distinctive development of both types of antisocial behavior. Finally, they may have important implications for prevention purposes.

  11. Media Violence and Antisocial Behavior: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Malamuth, Neil M.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses general issues that have shaped research on whether depictions of violence in television and other media significantly influence real-life aggressive behavior. Presents a theoretical framework for understanding media effects on the psychological processes of acquisition, maintenance, and emission of aggression. Outlines contents of this…

  12. Developmental theories of parental contributors to antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, D S; Bell, R Q

    1993-10-01

    In view of the increased interest in a developmental approach to psychopathology, and mounting evidence of the importance of parent-child interactions in the etiology of early antisocial behavior, the following questions were posed for this review. What theories of parent-child relationships and family management techniques are available? How developmental are they, how specific and transactional are they relative to parent and child behaviors involved? And how well do they cover the period in which antisocial behavior develops? Six theories have some developmental features but the attachment theories (by L. A. Sroufe, B. Egeland, and M. T. Greenberg) and two social learning theories (by G. R. Patterson and J. Martin) are most clearly developmental. They postulate reciprocal interactions of parent and child, and transformations in the form of normative changes in the child or changes in family processes. The social learning theories of Patterson and Martin are most specific, microanalytic in fact, as to the interaction processes involved, and the attachment theories at least specify kinds of behavior involved and also do not rely on traits or types of influence as their units of analysis. Conceptualization is most weak and overly general between late infancy and the preschool years. This gap makes it difficult to link attachment and social learning theories, both of which have driven a large number of studies. A bridging theory is offered to link the two sets of theories in the critical period involved.

  13. Reactive vs. Proactive Antisocial Behavior: Differential Correlates of Child ADHD Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David S.; Pitale, Maria; Vora, Vaishali; Rheingold, Alyssa A.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the relation between proactive and reactive antisocial behavior with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Caregivers of children aged 8 to 15 (n = 84) being evaluated at a child psychiatry outpatient clinic served as participants. Given the conceptual similarity between reactive antisocial behavior (ASB)…

  14. A Phenomenological Examination of Antisocial Behaviors in the Elementary School Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Antisocial behavior has a direct impact on the public elementary school setting. While considerable research has been conducted on collegiality in postsecondary schools, this study addressed the gap in practice concerning the lack of attention in regard to the impact of antisocial behavior on collegial relationships in the elementary school…

  15. Research Review: A Critical Review of Studies on the Developmental Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Nathalie; Carbonneau, Rene; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Knowledge on the onset and the development of antisocial behavior in females is limited, because most of the research in this domain is based on males. Methods: We critically reviewed 46 empirical studies that examined developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior in females, notably to help determine whether or not an…

  16. The Role of Empathy and Parenting Style in the Development of Antisocial Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Megan; Clark, Stephanie; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among parenting, empathy, and antisocial behavior. Two hundred forty-four undergraduate students attending an urban university completed self-report questionnaires assessing their antisocial behavior, empathy, and mothers' and fathers' parenting styles. Support was found for a model in which maternal permissive…

  17. Anxiety and Antisocial Behavior: The Moderating Role of Perceptions of Social Prominence among Incarcerated Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Goldweber, Aska; Meyer, Kristen; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines how perceptions of social prominence and attitudes toward antisocial behavior among peers moderate the association between anxiety and antisocial behavior among incarcerated females. Latent profile analysis identified two classes of females distinguished by their perceptions and attitudes. Individuals in both classes…

  18. Antisocial Behavior in Children and Hans Eysenck's Biosocial Theory of Personality: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Dawn E.; Center, David B.

    This paper examines antisocial behavior in children and youth in relation to the biosocial personality theory of Hans Eysenck. It explains Eysenck's theory, which includes a significant role for biological factors in the development of antisocial behavior. The theory holds that three temperament traits--Psychoticism (P), Extroversion (E), and…

  19. Etiology of Pervasive versus Situational Antisocial Behaviors: A Multi-informant Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, Jasmin; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Matthews, Timothy; Gray, Rebecca; Best-Lane, Janis; Pariante, Carmine M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to disentangle pervasive from situational antisocial behaviors using multiple informants, and to investigate their genetic and environmental etiologies in preadolescence and across time. Antisocial behaviors were assessed in 2,232 twins from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study at ages 5 and 12.…

  20. A review on the relationship between testosterone and life-course persistent antisocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, B.O.; Derksen, J.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Life-course persistent antisocial behavior is 10 to 14 times more prevalent in males and it has been suggested that testosterone levels could account for this gender bias. Preliminary studies with measures of fetal testosterone find inconsistent associations with antisocial behavior, especially stud

  1. Temperament, environment and antisocial behavior in a population sample of preadolescent boys and girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, R.; Lindenberg, S.M.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; de Winter, Andrea; Ormel, J.

    2006-01-01

    Antisocial behavior can be triggered by negative social experiences and individuals’ processing of these experiences. This study focuses on risk-buffering interactions between temperament, perceived parenting, socio-economic status (SES), and sex in relation to antisocial behavior in a Dutch populat

  2. Influences of biological and adoptive mothers' depression and antisocial behavior on adoptees' early behavior trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C R; Leve, Leslie D; Harold, Gordon T; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David

    2013-07-01

    Research clearly demonstrates that parents pass risk for depression and antisocial behavior on to their children. However, most research confounds genetic and environmental mechanisms by studying genetically related individuals. Furthermore, most studies focus on either depression or antisocial behavior in parents or children, despite evidence of co-occurrence and shared etiology, and few consider the early origins of these problems in childhood. We estimated the influence of biological and adoptive mothers' depression and antisocial behavior on growth in child externalizing and internalizing behaviors across early childhood using data from a prospective adoption study. Participants were 346 matched triads of physically healthy children (196 boys; 150 girls), biological mothers (BM), and adoptive mothers (AM). Latent growth curve models were estimated using AM reports of child internalizing and externalizing behaviors at ages 18, 27, and 54 months. Predictors of intercept (18 months) but not slope were identified. BM lifetime histories of major depressive disorder predicted child externalizing behaviors and BM antisocial behavior predicted child internalizing behavior. AM depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior were associated with both child outcomes. AM paths, but not BM paths were partially replicated using adopted fathers' reports of child outcomes. BM obstetric complications, prenatal depressive symptoms, and postnatal adoptive family contact with BM did not account for BM paths. This adoption study distinguished risks conferred by biological mothers' depression and antisocial behavior to children's behaviors from those associated with adoptive mothers' related symptoms. Future studies should examine gene-environment interplay to explain the emergence of serious problem trajectories in later childhood.

  3. Executive Function Is Associated With Antisocial Behavior and Aggression in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micai, Martina; Kavussanu, Maria; Ring, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Poor executive function has been linked to increased antisocial and aggressive behavior in clinical and nonclinical populations. The present study investigated the relationship between executive and nonexecutive cognitive function and antisocial behavior in sport as well as reactive and proactive aggression. Cognitive function was assessed in young adult male and female athletes using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Antisocial behavior in sport and aggression were assessed via self-report instruments and were found to be positively correlated. Executive function (but not nonexecutive function) scores were negatively correlated with both self-reported antisocial behavior and aggression in males but not females. Our findings suggest that prefrontal deficits among male athletes could contribute to poor impulse control and difficulty in anticipating the consequences of their antisocial and aggressive behavior.

  4. Substance use in rural adolescents: The impact of social capital, anti-social capital, and social capital deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Rose, Roderick A; Smokowski, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Middle- and high-school substance use is a pressing public health problem in the United States. Despite similar or, in some cases, elevated rates of substance use among rural youth, much of the extant research on adolescent substance use has focused on urban areas. The current study aims to uncover forms of social capital (e.g., ethnic identity), social capital deprivation (e.g., parent-child conflict), and anti-social capital (e.g., delinquent friends) that impact the use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana in a sample of middle- and high-school students from the rural south. It was hypothesized that social capital factors would be associated with decreased substance use while social capital deprivation and anti-social capital factors would be associated with increased substance use. The hypotheses were tested using logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations. The findings indicated that for middle school youth, anti-social capital in the form of aggression and delinquent friends was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of using alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. For high school students, anti-social capital in the form of aggression and delinquent friends and social capital deprivation in the form of neighborhood crime were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of using alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Violent behavior was also significantly associated with an increased likelihood of using marijuana. Females reported less substance use in both middle and high school; reports of use increased with age. Implications are discussed. Given the salience of social capital deprivation, substance use programs should emphasize the skills necessary to avoid or disengage from antisocial relationships.

  5. Sensitivity, child regulatory processes, and naturally occurring declines in antisocial behavior across childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Katharine Ann

    2014-12-01

    Despite considerable research on why antisocial behavior develops and interventions that reduce it, aspects of everyday family processes that may promote naturally occurring declines in antisocial behavior or that may result from such declines in most children without intervention are poorly understood. The current study explored family processes that may enable children to replace antisocial tendencies and the effects that declines in antisocial behavior may have on parenting and child regulatory processes. Longitudinal data from 1,022 children (54 months-6th grade) from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were examined. Findings demonstrated that naturally occurring declines in antisocial behavior both predicted and were predicted by maternal sensitivity, emotion regulation, and social skills. These declines predicted but were not predicted by declines in hostile attributions. The data revealed multiple indirect paths, which highlight the complex nature of these variables across development.

  6. The Developmental Interface between Nature and Nurture: A Mutual Influence Model of Child Antisocial Behavior and Parent Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiaojia; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined evidence for reciprocal influence between adoptive parents' behavior and heritable characteristics of adopted children. Found that psychiatric disorders of biological parents were significantly related to children's antisocial/hostile behaviors and consequently with adoptive parents' behavior. Also, the adoptee's antisocial/hostile…

  7. An Introduction to the Special Issue on Advances in Process and Dynamic System Analysis of Social Interaction and the Development of Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Snyder, James

    2004-01-01

    A thorough understanding of how social relationships contribute to child and adolescent trajectories for antisocial behavior may be facilitated by: (a) ascertaining multiple relationship processes (e.g., warmth and reciprocity, coercion and deviancy training); (b) focusing on multiple relationships (e.g., with parents, peers, siblings, and…

  8. El suicidio: Una conducta antisocial que prevalece/Suicide: An antisocial behavior that prevails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Alejandro De León Palomo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The suicide has existed throughout history and has prevailed as a behavior that was contrary to the rules of the society in terms of preservation of life itself; the objective of this research was to make emphasis on the nature of antisocial behavior of this behavior and show its prevalence in the years 2006 to 2010 in Mexico and Tamaulipas, as well as from 1999 to 2008 in Reynosa, Tamaulipas. For which the data were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography to the country and the State and the books of the register of deaths by cause violent of the Regional Unit of Expert Services of the Attorney General of Justice, which has its headquarters in Reynosa; developed a theoretical framework on the impact of the conduct in society and the means to prevent it, The data obtained we revealed the continued presence of this conduct year-on-year, 23.554 cases appearing in Mexico and 819 in Tamaulipas in the period from 2006 to 2010; in Reynosa, Tamaulipas were presented 278 suicides in the period 1999 to 2008. The results show us a conduct stable in numbers, but without excessive overflows that prevails year-on-year, suicide, and the attempt of the same should be viewed as a social problem and not detract from the importance that it deserves a conduct of these dimensions, that is no more than a reflection of the situation in which are the means of social control toward the preservation of life itself.

  9. Learning and Thinking: A Behavioral Treatise on Abuse and Antisocial Behavior in Young Criminal Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Walter; Golden, Jeannie A.

    2009-01-01

    Social learning theory provides a useful conceptual framework for understanding abuse and the teaching and learning of antisocial or criminal behavior in young offenders. This article examines social learning theory and the quality of parent-child relationships from the perspective of behavioral analysis, and provides a rationale for a…

  10. The New Look of Behavioral Genetics in Developmental Psychopathology: Gene-Environment Interplay in Antisocial Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews behavioral-genetic research to show how it can help address questions of causation in developmental psychopathology. The article focuses on studies of antisocial behavior, because these have been leading the way in investigating environmental as well as genetic influences on psychopathology. First, the article illustrates how…

  11. Effects of Popularity and Gender on Peers' Perceptions of Prosocial, Antisocial, and Jealousy-Eliciting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeux, Lara

    2011-01-01

    Perceived popularity is associated with both positive and negative characteristics, and adolescents' stereotypes associated with popularity reflect this paradox. The current study investigated adolescents' stereotypes associated with popularity and gender, as well as their liking for popular peers who engage in prosocial, antisocial, and…

  12. Paternal antisocial behavior and sons' cognitive ability: a population-based quasiexperimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latvala, Antti; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Parents' antisocial behavior is associated with developmental risks for their offspring, but its effects on their children's cognitive ability are unknown. We used linked Swedish register data for a large sample of adolescent men (N = 1,177,173) and their parents to estimate associations between fathers' criminal-conviction status and sons' cognitive ability assessed at compulsory military conscription. Mechanisms behind the association were tested in children-of-siblings models across three types of sibling fathers with increasing genetic relatedness (half-siblings, full siblings, and monozygotic twins) and in quantitative genetic models. Sons whose fathers had a criminal conviction had lower cognitive ability than sons whose fathers had no conviction (any crime: Cohen's d = -0.28; violent crime: Cohen's d = -0.49). As models adjusted for more genetic factors, the association was gradually reduced and eventually eliminated. Nuclear-family environmental factors did not contribute to the association. Our results suggest that the association between men's antisocial behavior and their children's cognitive ability is not causal but is due mostly to underlying genetic factors.

  13. Integrating simultaneous prosocial and antisocial behavior into theories of collective action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basurto, Xavier; Blanco, Esther; Nenadovic, Mateja; Vollan, Björn

    2016-03-01

    Trust and cooperation constitute cornerstones of common-pool resource theory, showing that "prosocial" strategies among resource users can overcome collective action problems and lead to sustainable resource governance. Yet, antisocial behavior and especially the coexistence of prosocial and antisocial behaviors have received less attention. We broaden the analysis to include the effects of both "prosocial" and "antisocial" interactions. We do so in the context of marine protected areas (MPAs), the most prominent form of biodiversity conservation intervention worldwide. Our multimethod approach relied on lab-in-the-field economic experiments (n = 127) in two MPA and two non-MPA communities in Baja California, Mexico. In addition, we deployed a standardized fishers' survey (n = 544) to verify the external validity of our findings and expert informant interviews (n = 77) to develop potential explanatory mechanisms. In MPA sites, prosocial and antisocial behavior is significantly higher, and the presence of antisocial behavior does not seem to have a negative effect on prosocial behavior. We suggest that market integration, economic diversification, and strengthened group identity in MPAs are the main potential mechanisms for the simultaneity of prosocial and antisocial behavior we observed. This study constitutes a first step in better understanding the interaction between prosociality and antisociality as related to natural resources governance and conservation science, integrating literatures from social psychology, evolutionary anthropology, behavioral economics, and ecology.

  14. Heartless and Cunning? The Relationship between Intelligence, Psychopathic Traits and Antisocial Behaviour in Adolescents. Research Briefing No. 99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study examined two main questions: (1) Is there a direct link between psychopathic traits and intelligence? (2) Is the combination of psychopathic traits and high IQ related to more severe antisocial behaviour in adolescents?

  15. Personal values as a mediator between parent and peer expectations and adolescent behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Carlo, Gustavo

    2007-09-01

    The current study examined the mediating role of adolescents' personal values on the relation between maternal and peer expectations for prosocial behaviors and adolescents' self-reported prosocial and antisocial behaviors. One hundred thirty-four adolescents (mean age = 16.22 years, 54% girls) completed measures of their own values and behaviors, as well as their perceptions of the positive expectations that their mother and their best friend(s) had for their (the adolescents') prosocial behaviors. Stepwise regression analyses suggested that adolescents' personal prosocial values mediated the relation between adolescents' perceptions of both maternal and peer expectations and adolescents' prosocial behaviors. In addition, for boys, perceptions of positive peer expectations were directly and negatively related to antisocial behaviors. The current study has important implications for parents, educators, and practitioners who are concerned about promoting adolescents' positive behaviors and discouraging negative behaviors.

  16. Adolescent-onset alcohol abuse exacerbates the influence of childhood conduct disorder on late adolescent and early adult antisocial behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Richard; Finn, Peter; Jose, Paul; Gallagher, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that adolescent-onset alcohol abuse (AOAA) would both mediate and moderate the effect of childhood conduct disorder on antisocial behaviour in late adolescence and early adulthood. A sample comprising 504 young men and women strategically recruited from the community were grouped using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washing...

  17. The relationship between childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior is partially mediated by early-onset alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Najat; Duggan, Conor; Howard, Rick; Lumsden, John

    2012-10-01

    Early-onset alcohol abuse (EOAA) was previously found to both mediate and moderate the effect of childhood conduct disorder (CD) on adult antisocial behavior (ASB) in an American community sample of young adults (Howard, R., Finn, P. R., Gallagher, J., & Jose, P. (2011). Adolescent-onset alcohol abuse exacerbates the influence of childhood conduct disorder on late adolescent and early adult antisocial behavior. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/14789949.2011.641996). This study tested whether this result would generalize to a British forensic sample comprising 100 male forensic patients with confirmed personality disorder. Results confirmed that those in whom EOAA co-occurred with CD showed the highest level of personality pathology, particularly Cluster B traits and antisocial/borderline comorbidity. Those with co-occurring CD with EOAA, compared with those showing only CD, showed more violence in their criminal history and greater recreational drug use. Regression analysis showed that both EOAA and CD predicted adult ASB when covariates were controlled. Further analysis showed that EOAA significantly mediated but did not moderate the effect of CD on ASB. The failure to demonstrate an exacerbating effect of EOAA on the relationship between CD and ASB likely reflects the high prevalence of CD in this forensic sample. Some implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. The effect of neighborhood disadvantage, social ties, and genetic variation on the antisocial behavior of African American women: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L; Edmond, Mary Bond; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Cutrona, Carolyn E

    2014-11-01

    Social disorganization theory posits that individuals who live in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to engage in antisocial behavior than are those who live in advantaged neighborhoods and that neighborhood disadvantage asserts this effect through its disruptive impact on social ties. Past research on this framework has been limited in two respects. First, most studies have concentrated on adolescent males. In contrast, the present study focused on a sample of adult African American females. Second, past research has largely ignored individual-level factors that might explain why people who grow up in disadvantaged neighborhoods often do not engage in antisocial behavior. We investigated the extent to which genetic variation contributes to heterogeneity of response to neighborhood conditions. We found that the impact of neighborhood disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by neighborhood social ties. Further, the analysis indicated that the effects of neighborhood disadvantage and social ties on antisocial behavior were moderated by genetic polymorphisms. Examination of these moderating effects provided support for the differential susceptibility model of Gene × Environment. The effect of Gene × Neighborhood Disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by the effect of Gene × Neighborhood Social Ties, providing support for an expanded view of social disorganization theory.

  19. Childhood-Limited Versus Persistent Antisocial Behavior : Why Do Some Recover and Others Do Not? The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Possible differences between childhood-limited antisocial youth and their stable high-antisocial counterparts were examined. Children were 11 years old at wave 1 (T1) and 13.5 at wave 2 (T2). At both waves, the same parent, teacher, and self-reports of antisocial behavior were used. Stable highs and

  20. Parental monitoring and knowledge: Testing bidirectional associations with youths' antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, Jasmin; Nottingham, Kate; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Matthews, Timothy; Pariante, Carmine M; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, we used separate measures of parental monitoring and parental knowledge and compared their associations with youths' antisocial behavior during preadolescence, between the ages of 10 and 12. Parental monitoring and knowledge were reported by mothers, fathers, and youths taking part in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study that follows 1,116 families with twins. Information on youths' antisocial behavior was obtained from mothers as well as teachers. We report two main findings. First, longitudinal cross-lagged models revealed that greater parental monitoring did not predict less antisocial behavior later, once family characteristics were taken into account. Second, greater youth antisocial behavior predicted less parental knowledge later. This effect of youths' behavior on parents' knowledge was consistent across mothers', fathers', youths', and teachers' reports, and robust to controls for family confounders. The association was partially genetically mediated according to a Cholesky decomposition twin model; youths' genetically influenced antisocial behavior led to a decrease in parents' knowledge of youths' activities. These two findings question the assumption that greater parental monitoring can reduce preadolescents' antisocial behavior. They also indicate that parents' knowledge of their children's activities is influenced by youths' behavior.

  1. Patients with antisocial personality disorder. Are they bad or mad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, J R; Malaney, K R

    1992-03-01

    Antisocial personality disorder is the psychiatric diagnosis most closely linked to explosive and criminal behavior. This diagnosis is easily documented but challenges a clinician's diagnostic skill because of the patient's propensity for masquerade and pathologic lying. The essential feature of antisocial personality disorder is a pattern of irresponsible and antisocial behavior beginning in childhood or early adolescence and continuing into adulthood. The differential diagnosis should include substance abuse, adult antisocial behavior, psychotic and organic illness, and other personality disorders. Suggested medical and psychiatric treatment includes rapidly establishing firm behavior limits and performing a mental status examination to evaluate thought processes and suicidal and homicidal intent.

  2. Adolescent-onset alcohol abuse exacerbates the influence of childhood conduct disorder on late adolescent and early adult antisocial behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard; Finn, Peter; Jose, Paul; Gallagher, Jennifer

    2011-12-16

    This study tested the hypothesis that adolescent-onset alcohol abuse (AOAA) would both mediate and moderate the effect of childhood conduct disorder on antisocial behaviour in late adolescence and early adulthood. A sample comprising 504 young men and women strategically recruited from the community were grouped using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: APA), as follows: neither childhood conduct disorder (CCD) nor alcohol abuse/dependence; CCD but no alcohol abuse or dependence; alcohol abuse/dependence but no CCD; both CCD and alcohol abuse/dependence. The outcome measure was the sum of positive responses to 55 interview items capturing a variety of antisocial behaviours engaged in since age 15. Severity of lifetime alcohol-related and CCD problems served as predictor variables in regression analysis. Antisocial behaviour problems were greatest in individuals with a history of co-occurring conduct disorder (CD) and alcohol abuse/dependence. While CCD was strongly predictive of adult antisocial behaviour, this effect was both mediated and moderated (exacerbated) by AOAA.

  3. Personality disorders, violence, and antisocial behavior: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongqin; Geddes, John R; Fazel, Seena

    2012-10-01

    The risk of antisocial outcomes in individuals with personality disorder (PD) remains uncertain. The authors synthesize the current evidence on the risks of antisocial behavior, violence, and repeat offending in PD, and they explore sources of heterogeneity in risk estimates through a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of observational studies comparing antisocial outcomes in personality disordered individuals with controls groups. Fourteen studies examined risk of antisocial and violent behavior in 10,007 individuals with PD, compared with over 12 million general population controls. There was a substantially increased risk of violent outcomes in studies with all PDs (random-effects pooled odds ratio [OR] = 3.0, 95% CI = 2.6 to 3.5). Meta-regression revealed that antisocial PD and gender were associated with higher risks (p = .01 and .07, respectively). The odds of all antisocial outcomes were also elevated. Twenty-five studies reported the risk of repeat offending in PD compared with other offenders. The risk of a repeat offense was also increased (fixed-effects pooled OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 2.2 to 2.7) in offenders with PD. The authors conclude that although PD is associated with antisocial outcomes and repeat offending, the risk appears to differ by PD category, gender, and whether individuals are offenders or not.

  4. Advances in Preventing Childhood and Adolescent Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of prevention have led to a deeper understanding of the causes of adolescent problem behavior and to the identification of efficacious strategies to prevent delinquency, drug use, and other antisocial conduct. This 2009 Aaron Rosen lecture to members of the "Society for Social Work and Research" traces the evolution of…

  5. Interpersonal violence, aggression, and antisocial behaviours in the adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, H D

    1999-01-01

    Violence is a growing problem among adolescents all over the world. Exposure to violence can have lasting and pervasive effects on an adolescent's mental and physical health, general well-being, and ability to become a productive adult. Research on adolescent violence in India and Southeast Asia is limited; very little is written in clinical journals. Addressing adolescent violence is currently a low priority for medical practitioners because disease, poverty, and infant maternal health pose more immediate threats to morbidity and mortality in Asia. Physicians, especially in India, have a unique opportunity to take preventative actions now, to stem the tide of morbidity and mortality from gun violence that plagues the United States. Adolescents in Asia are at greatest risk for violence exposure in their homes. Pediatricians who are proactive and educate their patients, families, and the community can help reduce or prevent morbidity and mortality resulting from violence in adolescents.

  6. Offenders in emerging adulthood: School maladjustment, childhood adversities, and prediction of aggressive antisocial behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallinius, Märta; Delfin, Carl; Billstedt, Eva; Nilsson, Thomas; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Hofvander, Björn

    2016-10-01

    Early psychosocial adversities and maladjustment, such as childhood maltreatment and school adjustment problems, have been linked to an increased risk of aggressive antisocial behaviors. Yet, clinical studies of subjects at the highest risk of persistence in such behaviors are rare, especially during the life-changing transition years of emerging adulthood. This study describes early predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors in a large, nationally representative cohort of Swedish, male violent offenders in emerging adulthood (age range = 18-25 years; N = 270). First, data on psychosocial background characteristics and aggressive antisocial behaviors (including age at onset) are provided. Second, early predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors are tested in bivariate and multivariate interactive models. The offenders demonstrated a diversity of early onset adversities and disruptive behaviors, in line with established risk factors for subsequent criminality and adverse outcomes in a variety of life domains. Severe school adjustment problems, especially bullying others and early onset truancy, were important and interrelated predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors over the lifetime, whereas childhood adversities such as parental substance or alcohol abuse and repeated exposure to violence at home during childhood were interrelated predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors, albeit with less statistical importance. The findings stress the importance of early identification of individuals in the risk zone of developing severe and persistent aggressive antisocial behaviors and of early preventive interventions directed toward families with high-risk profiles. The findings also provide initial guidelines on which psychosocial background risk factors that need to be considered first-hand in early interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Rejected by Peers--Attracted to Antisocial Media Content: Rejection-Based Anger Impairs Moral Judgment among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisier, Xanthe S.; Konijn, Elly A.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is an important developmental stage during which both peers and the media have a strong influence. Both peer rejection and the use of morally adverse media are associated with negative developmental outcomes. This study examines processes by which peer rejection might drive adolescents to select antisocial media content by tying…

  8. 反社会行为始于青少年期和儿童期的暴力犯罪青少年童年受虐史、攻击行为的差异比较%Childhood abuse and aggressive behavior in violent adolescent criminals with adolescence-vs children-onset antisocial behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马中锐; 蒙华庆; 胡华; 邹志礼; 王慧; 杜莲; 张洪银

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the differences of childhood abuse, neglect and aggressive behavior between violent adolescent criminals with adolescence- ( AO ) and children-onset ( CO) antisocial behavior, and to explore the relationship of aggressive behavior between AO and CO with being abused. Methods One hundred and ten AO and 110 CO violent adolescent criminals (all males, with an age ranging from 14 to 18) were selected from Chongqing juvenile prison. Another 110 male students at the same age range from an occupation high school served as control. All of them were assessed with the self-made general situation questionnaire, childhood trauma questionnaire-28-item short-form (CTQ-SF) , aggression questionnaire (AQ) and child neglected scale to cross-sectional survey research. Results There were significant differences in the bad habits of parents, dwelling environment, customs, parental rearing styles, and marital status among the 3 groups(P AO group > control. There was positive correlation between aggressive behaviors and childhood abuse both in the AO and CO groups ( rAO = 0. 44, rCO = 0. 78, P <0.01). Conclusion AO group has worse childhood family, social environment, abuse and neglect compared with CO group, but CO group has stronger aggressive behavior. Our results indicate that different measurement should be taken according to the characteristics of different groups of violent criminals in future intervention.%目的 比较反社会行为始于青少年期(adolescence-onset,AO)和始于儿童期(children-onset,CO)的暴力犯罪青少年童年受虐史、攻击行为差异;探索AO与CO攻击行为与受虐的关系.方法 选取14 ~ 18岁男性暴力犯罪青少年AO、CO各110例,选取14 ~ 18岁110例普通男性学生作为对照,采用一般情况问卷、儿童虐待问卷、忽视问卷、攻击问卷进行横断面调查研究.结果 父母不良嗜好、社会风气、父母婚姻及关系、父母教育程度等家庭社会环境因素3

  9. The relationships of antisocial behavior with attachment styles, autonomy-connectedness, and alexithymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Marrie H J; Bachrach, Nathan; Croon, Marcel A

    2007-06-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the relationships among attachment styles, autonomy-connectedness (self-awareness, sensitivity to others, and capacity for managing new situations), alexithymia, and antisocial behavior among 202 college students (67 men and 135 women). We were particularly interested in sex differences in the levels of these variables as well as their associations. Sex differences were expected in types of insecure attachment styles, patterns of autonomy-connectedness, and levels of self-reported antisocial and passive-aggressive behavior. All expected sex differences were indeed found. Furthermore, the model that we hypothesized was partly confirmed: For men, anxious attachment had a stronger direct and positive effect on antisocial behavior than for women, and the positive effect of anxious attachment on passive-aggressive behavior was smaller for women than for men. Interestingly, capacity for managing new situations had a main and mediating effect on antisocial behavior. Sensitivity to others appeared as a mediator between anxious attachment style and passive-aggressive behavior. Contrary to expectations, fantasizing (a component of alexithymia) had a strong, negative association with antisocial behavior. The results are discussed against the background of other recent findings concerning alexithymia and autonomy- connectedeness.

  10. The potential role of the striatum in antisocial behavior and psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Andrea L; Yang, Yaling

    2012-11-15

    In this review, we examine the functions of the striatum and the evidence that this brain region may be compromised in antisocial individuals. The striatum is involved in the processing of reward-related information and is thus important in reward-based learning. We review evidence from a growing number of brain imaging studies that have identified differences in the structure or functioning of the striatum either in antisocial groups or in relation to personality traits that are associated with antisocial behavior such as impulsivity and novelty seeking. Evidence from structural imaging studies suggests that the volume of the striatum is increased in antisocial populations, although evidence of localization to specific subregions is inconsistent. Functional imaging studies, which similarly tend to find increased functioning in the striatum, suggest that the striatum is not necessarily hypersensitive to the receipt of reward in antisocial individuals but instead may not be appropriately processing the absence of a reward, resulting in continuous responding to a stimulus that is no longer rewarding. This may impair the ability of individuals to flexibly respond to the environment, thus contributing to impulsivity and antisocial behavior. We conclude by discussing genetic and environmental factors that may affect the development of the striatum.

  11. Long-term effects of prevention and treatment on youth antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Aaron M; Borduin, Charles M; Dopp, Alex R

    2015-12-01

    Youth antisocial behavior exacts a tremendous toll on society and often persists into adulthood. Although researchers have identified a number of psychosocial interventions that prevent or reduce youth antisocial behavior in the short term, evidence of long-term intervention benefits has only recently become available. In addition, research on such interventions spans two substantial but largely separate bodies of literature: prevention and therapy. The present study used meta-analysis to integrate research on the long-term effects of preventive and therapeutic interventions for youth antisocial behavior and examined potential moderators of these effects. Results from 66 intervention trials (i.e., 34 prevention, 32 therapy) indicated that a broad range of youth psychosocial interventions demonstrated modest effects on antisocial behavior (mean d=0.31, 95% confidence interval=0.23-0.39) for at least one year beyond the end of interventions relative to control conditions. Among other findings, moderator analyses revealed that inclusion of a peer group intervention component was associated with reduced intervention effects for samples consisting predominantly of boys or older youths. The results of this study have important implications for service providers, administrators, and policymakers involved in the implementation of preventive and therapeutic interventions targeting youth antisocial behavior.

  12. Investigating the relationships between antisocial behaviors, psychopathic traits, and moral disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Scott; Eckert, Katy

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the relations between morally disengaged attitudes, psychopathic affective traits, and a variety of antisocial and risky behaviors in a sample of adults (N=181). A second aim of the study was to examine the unique contributions of moral disengagement and psychopathic traits in predicting problematic behavior while the other construct is statistically controlled. Results indicated that whereas psychopathic traits and moral disengagement were both uniquely predictive of non-violent antisocial behaviors, only remorselessness was uniquely predictive of violence and only morally disengaged attitudes were uniquely predictive of academic cheating. Differing relationships also emerged by gender.

  13. Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in Sport: The Role of Motivational Climate, Basic Psychological Needs, and Moral Disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Ken; Gucciardi, Daniel F

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether the relationships between contextual factors and basic psychological needs were related to antisocial and prosocial behavior in sport. A two-study project employing Bayesian path analysis was conducted with competitive athletes (Study 1, n = 291; Study 2, n = 272). Coach and teammate autonomy-supportive climates had meaningful direct relations with need satisfaction and prosocial behavior. Coach and teammate controlling climates had meaningful direct relations with antisocial behavior. Need satisfaction was both directly and indirectly related with both prosocial and antisocial behavior, whereas moral disengagement was directly and indirectly related with antisocial behavior. Overall, these findings reflected substantial evidence from the literature on self-determination theory that autonomy-supportive motivational climates are important environmental influences for need satisfaction, and are important correlates of prosocial behavior in sport, whereas controlling coach and teammate climates, along with moral disengagement, were important correlates of antisocial behavior in sport.

  14. Preliminary Study of Testosterone and Empathy in Determining Recidivism and Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Samuel J; Laan, Jacob M; Molden, Raymond K; Ritchie, James C; Stowe, Zachary N

    2017-02-15

    Recidivism, repeated criminal behavior after conviction and correction of prior offenses, is a costly problem across the nation. However, the contribution of empathy in determining the risk of recidivism has received limited attention, although lack of empathy has been related to antisocial personality disorder in various studies. Studies linked testosterone to aggression, antisocial behavior, and criminality, and evidence support hormonal connections between empathy and aggression. Adult male prison inmates convicted of violent or nonviolent offenses were included in a cross-sectional study of empathy, antisocial behavior, salivary testosterone, and recidivism. Subjects underwent criminal history, Empathy Quotient, Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and salivary testosterone assays. Bivariate analyses indicated multiple correlations between variables. Multivariate modeling analyses found a significant relationship between self-reported conviction number and psychopathy scale score (p = 0.013). These preliminary results suggest avenues of investigation of factors contributing to recidivism risk.

  15. Relationships between Parental Negativity and Childhood Antisocial Behavior over Time: A Bidirectional Effects Model in a Longitudinal Genetically Informative Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Henrik; Viding, Essi; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Plomin, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the direction and etiology underlying the relationships between parental negativity and early childhood antisocial behavior using a bidirectional effects model in a longitudinal genetically informative design. We analyzed parent reports of parental negativity and early childhood antisocial behavior in 6,230 pairs of twins at 4…

  16. Children's Perceived Reality of Television and the Effects of Pro- and Anti-Social TV Content on Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Byron

    Interviews were conducted with 721 students in fourth, sixth, and eighth grades to study whether children's perceived reality of television would affect the relationship between pro-social and anti-social television content and pro-social and anti-social behavior. Social behavior variables, a perceived reality index, and television exposure…

  17. Life with (or without) Father: The Benefits of Living with Two Biological Parents Depend on the Father's Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Sara R.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom; Taylor, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Data were analyzed from an epidemiological sample of 5-year- old twins and their parents. Findings indicated that the less time fathers lived with their children, the more conduct problems their children had, but only if the fathers engaged in low levels of antisocial behavior. When fathers engaged in high levels of antisocial behavior, the more…

  18. Designing an Intervention to Promote Child Development among Fathers with Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Pajarita; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Jones, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This article describes an intervention development focusing on the early design stages of a model to improve psychosocial and behavioral health outcomes among children of fathers with incarceration and antisocial behavioral histories. Method: We use a synthesis of the literature and qualitative interviews with key informants to inform a…

  19. Preventing Antisocial Behavior in Disabled and At-Risk Students. Policy Briefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Soleil

    This paper reviews the research on factors that contribute to or protect from the development of antisocial behavior in children, especially those with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD). It also presents a model to promote prosocial behavior. General risk factors that put all children at risk for…

  20. Understanding mechanisms of change in the development of antisocial behavior: The impact of a universal intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.C. van Lier (Pol); P. Vuijk (Patricia); A.A.M. Crijnen (Alfons)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe association between the development of antisocial behavior, affiliation with deviant friends, and peer rejection was tested with a preventive intervention; 664 boys and girls were randomly assigned to a universal classroom-based intervention targeting disruptive behavior or a control

  1. Unraveling the genetic etiology of adult antisocial behavior: a genome-wide association study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorim J Tielbeek

    Full Text Available Crime poses a major burden for society. The heterogeneous nature of criminal behavior makes it difficult to unravel its causes. Relatively little research has been conducted on the genetic influences of criminal behavior. The few twin and adoption studies that have been undertaken suggest that about half of the variance in antisocial behavior can be explained by genetic factors. In order to identify the specific common genetic variants underlying this behavior, we conduct the first genome-wide association study (GWAS on adult antisocial behavior. Our sample comprised a community sample of 4816 individuals who had completed a self-report questionnaire. No genetic polymorphisms reached genome-wide significance for association with adult antisocial behavior. In addition, none of the traditional candidate genes can be confirmed in our study. While not genome-wide significant, the gene with the strongest association (p-value = 8.7×10(-5 was DYRK1A, a gene previously related to abnormal brain development and mental retardation. Future studies should use larger, more homogeneous samples to disentangle the etiology of antisocial behavior. Biosocial criminological research allows a more empirically grounded understanding of criminal behavior, which could ultimately inform and improve current treatment strategies.

  2. Methodological Issues in Multiple-Gating Screening Procedures for Antisocial Behaviors in Elementary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesbois, Pierre

    1994-01-01

    This study sought to determine predictors of serious antisocial behaviors through use of multiple gating screening procedures. Kindergarten boys in 54 Montreal (Quebec, Canada) schools were assessed; then boys with high aggressiveness-hyperactivity-distractibility scores were observed for task-inappropriate behaviors and rated on inattention and…

  3. Effects of goal orientation and perceived value of toughness on antisocial behavior in soccer: the mediating role of moral disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardley, Ian David; Kavussanu, Maria

    2010-04-01

    In this study, we examined (a) the effects of goal orientations and perceived value of toughness on antisocial behavior toward opponents and teammates in soccer and (b) whether any effects were mediated by moral disengagement. Male soccer players (N = 307) completed questionnaires assessing the aforementioned variables. Structural equation modeling indicated that ego orientation had positive and task orientation had negative direct effects on antisocial behavior toward opponents. Further, ego orientation and perceived value of toughness had indirect positive effects on antisocial behavior toward opponents and teammates which were mediated by moral disengagement. Collectively, these findings aid our understanding of the effects of personal influences on antisocial behavior and of psychosocial mechanisms that could facilitate such antisocial conduct in male soccer players.

  4. Maternal Expressed Emotion Predicts Children's Antisocial Behavior Problems: Using Monozygotic-Twin Differences to Identify Environmental Effects on Behavioral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Morgan, Julia; Rutter,Michael; Taylor,Alan; Arseneault, Louise; Tully, Lucy; Jacobs, Catherine; Kim-Cohen, Julia

    2004-01-01

    If maternal expressed emotion is an environmental risk factor for children's antisocial behavior problems, it should account for behavioral differences between siblings growing up in the same family even after genetic influences on children's behavior problems are taken into account. This hypothesis was tested in the Environmental Risk…

  5. Antisocial Peer Affiliation and Externalizing Disorders in the Transition from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Selection versus Socialization Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R.; Goodman, Rebecca J.; Erath, Stephen A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated both socialization and selection effects for the relationship between antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing problems in adolescence. Less research has evaluated such effects postadolescence. In this study, a cross-lagged panel analysis was used to evaluate the extent of "socialization" (i.e., the…

  6. Neurobiological factors as predictors of cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome in individuals with antisocial behavior: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Liza J M; de Kogel, Catharina H; Nijman, Henk L I; Raine, Adrian; van der Laan, Peter H

    2014-11-01

    This review focuses on the predictive value of neurobiological factors in relation to cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Ten relevant studies were found. Although the literature on this topic is scarce and diverse, it appears that specific neurobiological characteristics, such as physiological arousal levels, can predict treatment outcome. The predictive value of neurobiological factors is important as it could give more insight into the causes of variability in treatment outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Furthermore, results can contribute to improvement in current treatment selection procedures and to the development of alternative treatment options.

  7. Gender Differences in Predicting Antisocial Behaviors: Developmental Consequences of Physical and Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Amber D.; Snyder, James

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the relationship of early physical and relational aggression to later peer rejection and overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Significant gender differences were found indicating physically aggressive boys were more likely than girls to experience later peer rejection. Early physical aggression was…

  8. Diagnosing Cartman: Psychology Students' Use of Symptoms and Traits to Assess Child Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalch, Matthew M.; Vitale, Erika M.; Ford, J. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Recent changes to the diagnosis of child antisocial behavior provide different methods of conceptualizing it (e.g., traditional symptom-based diagnoses and alternative trait-based methods). However, there is little research on how psychology students might use these different methods and what kind of instructional formats might be amenable to…

  9. Toward an animal model for antisocial behavior : parallels between mice and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluyter, F; Arseneault, L; Moffitt, TE; Veenema, AH; de Boer, S; Koolhaas, JM

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine whether mouse lines genetically selected for short and long attack latencies are good animal models for antisocial behavior in humans. To this end, we compared male Short and Long Attack Latency mice (SAL and LAL, respectively) with the extremes of the Dunedin

  10. Concurrent and Longitudinal Links between Children's and Their Friends' Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eivers, Areana R.; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Borge, Anne I. H.

    2012-01-01

    Concurrent and longitudinal links between children's own and their nominated best friends' antisocial and prosocial behavior were studied in a normative sample of 3-5-year-olds (N = 203). Moderating effects of age and gender were also explored. Subscales of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were used to obtain teacher ratings of…

  11. Prospective Analyses of Childhood Factors and Antisocial Behavior for Students with High-Incidence Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Chih; Symons, Frank J.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2011-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study investigated the association between childhood factors (individual, family, and school characteristics) and later antisocial behavior (official juvenile delinquency and adult crime) for students identified with high-incidence disabilities (i.e., learning disabilities, emotional disturbance). The sample consisted…

  12. Living alongside more affluent neighbors predicts greater involvement in antisocial behavior among low-income boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers, Candice L.; Donley, Sachiko; Caspi, Avshalom; Bates, Christopher J.; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The creation of economically mixed communities has been proposed as one way to improve the life outcomes of children growing up in poverty. However, whether low-income children benefit from living alongside more affluent neighbors is unknown. Method Prospectively gathered data on over 1,600 children from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study living in urban environments is used to test whether living alongside more affluent neighbors (measured via high-resolution geo-spatial indices) predicts low-income children’s antisocial behavior (reported by mothers and teachers at the ages of 5, 7, 10, and 12). Results Results indicated that low-income boys (but not girls) surrounded by more affluent neighbors had higher levels of antisocial behavior than their peers embedded in concentrated poverty. The negative effect of growing up alongside more affluent neighbors on low-income boys’ antisocial behavior held across childhood and after controlling for key neighborhood and family-level factors. Conclusions Findings suggest that efforts to create more economically mixed communities for children, if not properly supported, may have iatrogenic effects on boys’ antisocial behavior. PMID:25611118

  13. New Developments in Developmental Research on Social Information Processing and Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Reid Griffith

    2010-01-01

    The Special Section on developmental research on social information processing (SIP) and antisocial behavior is here introduced. Following a brief history of SIP theory, comments on several themes--measurement and assessment, attributional and interpretational style, response evaluation and decision, and the relation between emotion and SIP--that…

  14. Prosocial and antisocial behavior in sport: the role of coaching style, autonomous vs. controlled motivation, and moral disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Ken; Lonsdale, Chris

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the relationships between contextual factors (i.e., autonomy-supportive vs. controlling coaching style) and person factors (i.e., autonomous vs. controlled motivation) outlined in self-determination theory (SDT) were related to prosocial and antisocial behaviors in sport. We also investigated moral disengagement as a mediator of these relationships. Athletes' (n = 292, M = 19.53 years) responses largely supported our SDT-derived hypotheses. Results indicated that an autonomy-supportive coaching style was associated with prosocial behavior toward teammates; this relationship was mediated by autonomous motivation. Controlled motivation was associated with antisocial behavior toward teammates and antisocial behavior toward opponents, and these two relationships were mediated by moral disengagement. The results provide support for research investigating the effect of autonomy-supportive coaching interventions on athletes' prosocial and antisocial behavior.

  15. Frequency of 3' VNTR Polymorphism in the Dopamine Transporter Gene SLC6A3 in Humans Predisposed to Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepkova, E V; Aftanas, L I; Maksimov, N; Menshanov, P N

    2016-11-01

    Predisposition to antisocial behavior can be related to the presence of certain polymorphic variants of genes encoding dopaminergic system proteins. We studied the frequencies of allele variants and genotypes of variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in 3' untranslated region (3' VTNR) of the dopaminergic transporter SLC6A3 gene in Caucasian men committed socially dangerous violent and non-violent crimes. Alleles with 9 and 10 repeats were most frequent in both the control group and group of men predisposed to antisocial behavior. At the same time, the 10/10 genotype was more frequently observed in the group of men prone to antisocial non-violent behavior. Hence, the presence of certain variants of 3' VTNR polymorphism of SLC6A3 gene in men is associated with predisposition to certain forms of antisocial behavior.

  16. Loneliness and associated violent antisocial behavior: analysis of the case reports of Jeffrey Dahmer and Dennis Nilsen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Willem H J; Palermo, George B

    2005-06-01

    It can be theorized that loneliness plays a significant role in the development and continuation of violent, antisocial attitudes and behavior. Analysis of case reports of two serial killers, Dennis Nilsen and Jeffrey Dahmer, indicate that there is evidence for such a link. In this article, a list of significant correlates of loneliness and antisocial behavior is presented. This may be useful for the assessment of possible dangerousness and in the development of prevention and intervention programs. Suggestions are made for the adequate treatment of loneliness and correlated violent, antisocial behavior. A need is recognized for more research into the psychosocial, emotional, neurobiological, cultural, and ethnic determinants of loneliness and their correlation to specific antisocial and/or criminal behavior.

  17. Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior in Preadolescence: Teachers' and Parents' Perceptions of the Behavior of Girls and Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; De Winter, Andrea F.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2008-01-01

    There has been recent emphasis on the importance of investigating prosocial and antisocial behavior simultaneously owing to doubts about whether examining one automatically gives information about the other. However, there has been little empirical research into this question. The present study (based on a large population sample of…

  18. The Relation of Moral Emotion Attributions to Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Krettenauer, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analytic review of 42 studies covering 8,009 participants (ages 4-20) examines the relation of moral emotion attributions to prosocial and antisocial behavior. A significant association is found between moral emotion attributions and prosocial and antisocial behaviors ("d" = 0.26, 95% CI [0.15, 0.38]; "d" = 0.39, 95% CI [0.29, 0.49]).…

  19. Antisocial behavior, psychopathic features and abnormalities in reward and punishment processing in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Amy L; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A

    2014-06-01

    A better understanding of what leads youth to initially engage in antisocial behavior (ASB) and more importantly persist with such behaviors into adulthood has significant implications for prevention and intervention efforts. A considerable number of studies using behavioral and neuroimaging techniques have investigated abnormalities in reward and punishment processing as potential causal mechanisms underlying ASB. However, this literature has yet to be critically evaluated, and there are no comprehensive reviews that systematically examine and synthesize these findings. The goal of the present review is twofold. The first aim is to examine the extent to which youth with ASB are characterized by abnormalities in (1) reward processing; (2) punishment processing; or (3) both reward and punishment processing. The second aim is to evaluate whether aberrant reward and/or punishment processing is specific to or most pronounced in a subgroup of antisocial youth with psychopathic features. Studies utilizing behavioral methods are first reviewed, followed by studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging. An integration of theory and research across multiple levels of analysis is presented in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of reward and punishment processing in antisocial youth. Findings are discussed in terms of developmental and contextual considerations, proposed future directions and implications for intervention.

  20. Disruptive behaviors and HPA-axis activity in young adolescent boys and girls from the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sondeijker, Frouke E. P. L.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Veenstra, René; Tiemeier, H.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2007-01-01

    It is important to investigate associations between biological factors and disruptive behaviors in children and adolescents. Antisocial, aggressive, and criminal behaviors in adults often begin early in life. Disruptive behaviors are often thought to be associated with low activity of the hypothalam

  1. Interparental conflict, parent psychopathology, hostile parenting, and child antisocial behavior: examining the role of maternal versus paternal influences using a novel genetically sensitive research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, Gordon T; Elam, Kit K; Lewis, Gemma; Rice, Frances; Thapar, Anita

    2012-11-01

    Past research has linked interparental conflict, parent psychopathology, hostile parenting, and externalizing behavior problems in childhood. However, few studies have examined these relationships while simultaneously allowing the contribution of common genetic factors underlying associations between family- and parent-level variables on child psychopathology to be controlled. Using the attributes of a genetically sensitive in vitro fertilization research design, the present study examined associations among interparental conflict, parents' antisocial behavior problems, parents' anxiety symptoms, and hostile parenting on children's antisocial behavior problems among genetically related and genetically unrelated mother-child and father-child groupings. Path analyses revealed that for genetically related mothers, interparental conflict and maternal antisocial behavior indirectly influenced child antisocial behavior through mother-to-child hostility. For genetically unrelated mothers, effects were apparent only for maternal antisocial behavior on child antisocial behavior through mother-to-child hostility. For both genetically related and genetically unrelated fathers and children, interparental conflict and paternal antisocial behavior influenced child antisocial behavior through father-to-child hostility. Effects of parental anxiety symptoms on child antisocial behavior were apparent only for genetically related mothers and children. Results are discussed with respect to the relative role of passive genotype-environment correlation as a possible confounding factor underlying family process influences on childhood psychopathology.

  2. Aggressive antisocial behaviors are related to character maturity in young Swedish violent offenders independent of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Nilsson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antisocial personality and psychopathic traits have constantly been found to accompany criminal and aggressive behaviors, but little attention has been given to aspects of character maturity and its relation to such behaviors. The present study investigated 1 whether level of character maturity (low, medium, and high is associated with amount of aggressive antisocial behaviors and psychopathic traits in young men imprisoned for violent criminality, and 2 whether such an association is independent of coexisting attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Methods: Swedish males (N=270, aged 18-25 sentenced to prison for violent and/or sexual criminality in the western region of the Swedish Prison and Probation Service underwent a thorough clinical examination during their incarceration. Data on character maturity as measured by the character dimensions Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness of the Temperament and Character Inventory were available for n=148 subjects, and used to divide these offenders into three groups with low, medium, and high character maturity. These groups were then compared for variables reflecting criminal history, a DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD, Conduct disorder (CD and substance use disorders (SUD, aggressive behaviors, and psychopathic traits.Results: Character maturity was consistently associated with less aggressive antisocial behaviors and psychopathic personality traits; the group with the highest character maturity showed; i a later age at onset of criminality, ii a smaller number of prior violent criminal acts, iii lower prevalences of ADHD, CD, and SUD, iv less self-rated and expert-rated aggressive behaviors, and v less psychopathic traits. The association between character maturity and aggressive behaviors/psychopathic personality traits remained even when ADHD was controlled for. The only exception was sexual criminality, where the group with the highest character maturity contained the largest amount

  3. Continuity, Comorbidity and Longitudinal Associations between Depression and Antisocial Behaviour in Middle Adolescence: A 2-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritakallio, Minna; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated continuity, comorbidity and longitudinal associations between depression Beck depression inventory (RBDI) and antisocial behaviour Youth self-report (YSR) in middle adolescence. Data were used from a community sample of 2070 adolescents who participated in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. The results indicate that both…

  4. Inhibition of Antisocial Behavior and Eysenck's Theory of Conscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Nora Mary; Center, David B.

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 84 participants (ages 11-18) who were suspended from school for disciplinary reasons found that participants who scored low on extraversion and neuroticism traits identified in Eysenck's theory of personality scored significantly lower on self-reported behavior problems than those scoring high on the two traits. (Contains…

  5. The effects of child maltreatment on early signs of antisocial behavior: genetic moderation by tryptophan hydroxylase, serotonin transporter, and monoamine oxidase A genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Thibodeau, Eric L

    2012-08-01

    Gene-environment interaction effects in predicting antisocial behavior in late childhood were investigated among maltreated and nonmaltreated low-income children (N = 627, M age = 11.27). Variants in three genes were examined: tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) upstream variable number tandem repeat. In addition to child maltreatment status, we considered the impact of maltreatment subtypes, developmental timing of maltreatment, and chronicity. Indicators of antisocial behavior were obtained from self-, peer, and adult counselor reports. In a series of analyses of covariance, child maltreatment and its parameters demonstrated strong main effects on early antisocial behavior as assessed by all report forms. Genetic effects operated primarily in the context of gene-environment interactions, moderating the impact of child maltreatment on outcomes. Across the three genes, among nonmaltreated children no differences in antisocial behavior were found based on genetic variation. In contrast, among maltreated children specific polymorphisms of TPH1, 5-HTTLPR, and MAOA were each related to heightened self-report of antisocial behavior; the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and developmental timing of maltreatment also indicated more severe antisocial outcomes for children with early onset and recurrent maltreatment based on genotype. TPH1 and 5-HTTLPR interacted with maltreatment subtype to predict peer reports of antisocial behavior; genetic variation contributed to larger differences in antisocial behavior among abused children. The TPH1 and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms also moderated the effects of maltreatment subtype on adult reports of antisocial behavior; again, the genetic effects were strongest for children who were abused. In addition, TPH1 moderated the effect of developmental timing of maltreatment and chronicity on adult reports of antisocial behavior. The findings elucidate how genetic

  6. Life with (or without) father: the benefits of living with two biological parents depend on the father's antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Sara R; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Taylor, Alan

    2003-01-01

    The salutary effects of being raised by two married, biological parents depend on the quality of care parents can provide. Using data from an epidemiological sample of 1,116 5-year-old twin pairs and their parents, this study found that the less time fathers lived with their children, the more conduct problems their children had, but only if the fathers engaged in low levels of antisocial behavior. In contrast, when fathers engaged in high levels of antisocial behavior, the more time they lived with their children, the more conduct problems their children had. Behavioral genetic analyses showed that children who resided with antisocial fathers received a "double whammy" of genetic and environmental risk for conduct problems. Marriage may not be the answer to the problems faced by some children living in single-parent families unless their fathers can become reliable sources of emotional and economic support.

  7. POST BEHAVIORAL FINANCE ADOLESCENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIAN MITROI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of behavioral finance combines the investigation and expertise from research and practice into smart portfolios of individual investors’ portfolios. Understanding cognitive errors and misleading emotions drive investors to their long-term goals of financial prosperity and capital preservation. 10 years ago, Behavioral Finance was still considered an incipient, adolescent science. First Nobel Prize in Economics awarded to the study of Behavioral Economics in 2002 established the field as a new, respected study of economics. 2013 Nobel Prize was awarded to three economists, one of them considered the one of the founders of the Behavioral Finance. As such, by now we are entering the coming of age of behavioral finance. It is now recognized as a science of understanding investors behaviors and their biased patterns. It applies quantitative finance and provides practical models grounded on robust understanding of investors behavior toward financial risk. Financial Personality influences investment decisions. Behavioral portfolio construction methods combine classic finance with rigorously quantified psychological metrics and improves models for financial advice to enhance investors chances in reaching their lifetime financial goals. Behavioral finance helps understanding psychological profile dissimilarities of individuals and how these differences manifest in investment decision process. This new science has become now a must topic in modern finance.

  8. Therapist perception of treatment outcome: Evaluating treatment outcomes among youth with antisocial behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandal, Brent R; Foster, Sharon L; Chapman, Jason E; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Brennan, Patricia A; Whitmore, Elizabeth A

    2015-06-01

    Effective evaluation of treatment requires the use of measurement tools producing reliable scores that can be used to make valid decisions about the outcomes of interest. Therapist-rated treatment outcome scores that are obtained within the context of empirically supported treatments (ESTs) could provide clinicians and researchers with data that are easily accessible and complimentary to existing instrumentation. We examined the psychometric properties of scores from the Therapist Perception of Treatment Outcome: Youth Antisocial Behavior (TPTO:YAB), an instrument developed to assess therapist judgments of treatment success among families participating in an EST, Multisystemic Therapy (MST), for youth with antisocial behavior problems. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of MST. The initial 20-item TPTO:YAB was completed by therapists of 111 families at midtreatment and 163 families at treatment termination. Rasch model dimensionality analyses provided evidence for 2 dimensions reflecting youth- and caregiver-related aspects of treatment outcome, although a bifactor analyses suggested that these dimensions reflected a single more general construct. Rasch analyses were also used to assess item and rating scale characteristics and refine the number of items. These analyses suggested items performed similarly across time and that scores reflect treatment outcome in similar ways at mid and posttreatment. Multilevel and zero-order analyses provided evidence for the validity of TPTO:YAB scores. TPTO:YAB scores were moderately correlated with scores of youth and caregiver behaviors targeted in treatment, adding support to its use as a treatment outcome measurement instrument.

  9. Results of the "Aprender a Convivir" Program for Development of Social Competence and Prevention of Antisocial Behavior in Four-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Juan L.; Fernandez, Maria; Justicia, Fernando; Fernandez, Eduardo; Justicia, Ana

    2011-01-01

    The present study is the result of implementing an antisocial behavior prevention program in preschool education. The intervention goal was to prevent the emergence of antisocial behaviors through developing social competence in the participants. The program, called "Aprender a Convivir", is divided into four modules by topic: rules and…

  10. A Review of Terminological, Conceptual, and Methodological Issues in the Developmental Risk Factor Literature for Antisocial and Delinquent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, David M.; Wanklyn, Sonya G.; Yessine, Annie K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The study of risk factors for antisocial and delinquent behavior has flourished in the past 20 years, as great strides have been made in understanding the developmental pathways that give rise to the onset, course, and desistance of the behavior. However, as a body of literature, risk factor research (RFR) is characterized by…

  11. Understanding Relations among Children's Shy and Antisocial/Aggressive Behaviors and Mothers' Parenting: The Role of Maternal Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cortney A.; Nelson, Larry J.; Porter, Christin L.; Nelson, David A.; Hart, Craig H.

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the relationships between children's shy and antisocial/aggressive behaviors and maternal beliefs, and concomitant parenting behaviors. Structural equation models examined 199 mothers' perceptions of aggression and shyness in their preschool-age children (average age = 59.63 months); maternal beliefs (i.e., locus of control,…

  12. Social Skills Instruction for Students At Risk for Antisocial Behavior: The Effects of Small-Group Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathleen L.; Wehby, Joseph; Menzies, Holly M.; Doukas, Georgia L.; Munton, Sarah M.; Gregg, Rebecca M.

    2003-01-01

    A study examined the effectiveness of a 10-week social skills instruction program for seven students (ages 8-9) at risk for antisocial behavior who were unresponsive to a schoolwide primary intervention program. Results indicated lasting decreases in both disruptive behaviors in the classroom and negative social interactions on the playground.…

  13. Do nonphysical punishments reduce antisocial behavior more than spanking? a comparison using the strongest previous causal evidence against spanking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Ronald B

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strongest causal evidence that customary spanking increases antisocial behavior is based on prospective studies that control statistically for initial antisocial differences. None of those studies have investigated alternative disciplinary tactics that parents could use instead of spanking, however. Further, the small effects in those studies could be artifactual due to residual confounding, reflecting child effects on the frequency of all disciplinary tactics. This study re-analyzes the strongest causal evidence against customary spanking and uses these same methods to determine whether alternative disciplinary tactics are more effective in reducing antisocial behavior. Methods This study re-analyzed a study by Straus et al.1 on spanking and antisocial behavior using a sample of 785 children who were 6 to 9 years old in the 1988 cohort of the American National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The comprehensiveness and reliability of the covariate measure of initial antisocial behavior were varied to test for residual confounding. All analyses were repeated for grounding, privilege removal, and sending children to their room, and for psychotherapy. To account for covarying use of disciplinary tactics, the analyses were redone first for the 73% who had reported using at least one discipline tactic and second by controlling for usage of other disciplinary tactics and psychotherapy. Results The apparently adverse effect of spanking on antisocial behavior was replicated using the original trichotomous covariate for initial antisocial behavior. A similar pattern of adverse effects was shown for grounding and psychotherapy and partially for the other two disciplinary tactics. All of these effects became non-significant after controlling for latent comprehensive measures of externalizing behavior problems. Conclusions These results are consistent with residual confounding, a statistical artifact that makes all corrective actions by

  14. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and antisocial behaviors among Asian American college students: testing the moderating roles of ethnic and American identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Irene J K; Schwartz, Seth J; Lee, Richard M; Kim, May; Rodriguez, Liliana

    2013-04-01

    The present study tested the moderating roles of ethnic identity and American identity on the association between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and antisocial behaviors among Asian American college students. Using data from the Multi-Site University Study of Identity and Culture (MUSIC) collaborative, the sample included 1,362 East Asian and South Asian American college students. Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with antisocial behaviors for both East Asians and South Asians. Ethnic identity was not a significant moderator of the discrimination-antisocial behavior link, but American identity exacerbated the association between perceived discrimination and antisocial behaviors for both East Asians and South Asians. Interestingly, the explanatory power of the regression model was greater for South Asians than for East Asians in predicting antisocial behaviors. The importance of attending to American identity as a potential source of risk for Asian American college students exposed to racial/ethnic discrimination is discussed.

  15. Children's antisocial behavior, mental health, drug use, and educational performance after parental incarceration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph; Farrington, David P; Sekol, Ivana

    2012-03-01

    Unprecedented numbers of children experience parental incarceration worldwide. Families and children of prisoners can experience multiple difficulties after parental incarceration, including traumatic separation, loneliness, stigma, confused explanations to children, unstable childcare arrangements, strained parenting, reduced income, and home, school, and neighborhood moves. Children of incarcerated parents often have multiple, stressful life events before parental incarceration. Theoretically, children with incarcerated parents may be at risk for a range of adverse behavioral outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize empirical evidence on associations between parental incarceration and children's later antisocial behavior, mental health problems, drug use, and educational performance. Results from 40 studies (including 7,374 children with incarcerated parents and 37,325 comparison children in 50 samples) were pooled in a meta-analysis. The most rigorous studies showed that parental incarceration is associated with higher risk for children's antisocial behavior, but not for mental health problems, drug use, or poor educational performance. Studies that controlled for parental criminality or children's antisocial behavior before parental incarceration had a pooled effect size of OR = 1.4 (p < .01), corresponding to about 10% increased risk for antisocial behavior among children with incarcerated parents, compared with peers. Effect sizes did not decrease with number of covariates controlled. However, the methodological quality of many studies was poor. More rigorous tests of the causal effects of parental incarceration are needed, using randomized designs and prospective longitudinal studies. Criminal justice reforms and national support systems might be needed to prevent harmful consequences of parental incarceration for children.

  16. Child maltreatment, impulsivity, and antisocial behavior in African American children: Moderation effects from a cumulative dopaminergic gene index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Eric L; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A

    2015-11-01

    A model examining the effects of an increasing number of maltreatment subtypes experienced on antisocial behavior, as mediated by impulsivity and moderated by a polygenic index of dopaminergic genotypes, was investigated. An African American sample of children (N = 1,012, M age = 10.07) with and without maltreatment histories participated. Indicators of aggression, delinquency, and disruptive peer behavior were obtained from peer- and counselor-rated measures to form a latent variable of antisocial behavior; impulsivity was assessed by counselor report. Five genotypes in four dopaminergic genes (dopamine receptors D4, D2, known as DRD4, DRD2; dopamine active transporter 1, known as DAT1; and catechol-O-methyltransferase, known as COMT) conferring heightened environmental sensitivity were combined into one polygenic index. Using structural equation modeling, a first-stage, moderated-mediation model was evaluated. Age and sex were entered as covariates, both as main effects and in interaction with maltreatment and the gene index. The model had excellent fit: χ2 (32, N = 1,012) = 86.51, p impulsivity (β = 0.173, p impulsivity was stronger as children evinced more differentiating genotypes, thereby strengthening the mediational effect of impulsivity on antisocial behavior. These findings elucidate the manner by which maltreated children develop early signs of antisocial behavior, and the genetic mechanisms involved in greater vulnerability for maladaptation in impulse control within the context of child maltreatment.

  17. Linking antisocial behavior, substance use, and personality: an integrative quantitative model of the adult externalizing spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Robert F; Markon, Kristian E; Patrick, Christopher J; Benning, Stephen D; Kramer, Mark D

    2007-11-01

    Antisocial behavior, substance use, and impulsive and aggressive personality traits often co-occur, forming a coherent spectrum of personality and psychopathology. In the current research, the authors developed a novel quantitative model of this spectrum. Over 3 waves of iterative data collection, 1,787 adult participants selected to represent a range across the externalizing spectrum provided extensive data about specific externalizing behaviors. Statistical methods such as item response theory and semiparametric factor analysis were used to model these data. The model and assessment instrument that emerged from the research shows how externalizing phenomena are organized hierarchically and cover a wide range of individual differences. The authors discuss the utility of this model for framing research on the correlates and the etiology of externalizing phenomena.

  18. Etiological Distinctions between Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Antisocial Behavior: Results from a Nuclear Twin Family Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.

    2012-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of 103 studies Burt ("Clinical Psychology Review," 29:163-178, 2009a) highlighted the presence of etiological distinctions between aggressive (AGG) and non-aggressive rule-breaking (RB) dimensions of antisocial behavior, such that AGG was more heritable than was RB, whereas RB was more influenced by the shared…

  19. The Relationship between Instructor Misbehaviors and Student Antisocial Behavioral Alteration Techniques: The Roles of Instructor Attractiveness, Humor, and Relational Closeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Christopher J.; Booth-Butterfield, Melanie; Chory, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    Using rhetorical/relational goal theory as a guiding frame, we examined relationships between instructor misbehaviors (i.e., indolence, incompetence, and offensiveness) and the likelihood of students communicating antisocial behavioral alteration techniques (BATs). More specifically, the study focused on whether students' perceptions of instructor…

  20. Does Parenting Explain the Effects of Structural Conditions on Children's Antisocial Behavior? A Comparison of Blacks and Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Jane D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Data on black children and white children over age six and their mothers (from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth) indicate no racial differences in total effects of poverty and single parenthood on parenting practices (affection and spanking). Parenting practices were reciprocally related to child's antisocial behavior for whites, but did not…

  1. Revisiting the Association between Reading Achievement and Antisocial Behavior: New Evidence of an Environmental Explanation from a Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom; Taylor, Alan; Maughan, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have reported, but not explained, the reason for a robust association between reading achievement and antisocial behavior. This association was investigated using the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative 1994-1995 birth cohort of 5 and 7 year-olds. Results showed that the association…

  2. Developmental Precursors of Moral Disengagement and the Role of Moral Disengagement in the Development of Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Luke W.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Moilanen, Kristin L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to advance our understanding of the developmental precursors of Moral Disengagement (MD) and the role of MD in the development of antisocial behavior from early risk among an ethnically diverse sample of 187 low-income boys followed prospectively from ages 1.5 to 17. Results indicated associations between early…

  3. Do Core Interpersonal and Affective Traits of PCL-R Psychopathy Interact with Antisocial Behavior and Disinhibition to Predict Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennealy, Patrick J.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Walters, Glenn D.; Camp, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    The utility of psychopathy measures in predicting violence is largely explained by their assessment of social deviance (e.g., antisocial behavior; disinhibition). A key question is whether social deviance "interacts" with the core interpersonal-affective traits of psychopathy to predict violence. Do core psychopathic traits multiply the (already…

  4. Child Maltreatment, Impulsivity, and Antisocial Behavior in African-American Children: Moderation Effects from a Cumulative Dopaminergic Gene Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Eric L.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    A model examining the effects of an increasing number of maltreatment subtypes experienced on antisocial behavior, as mediated by impulsivity and moderated by a polygenic index of dopaminergic genotypes, was investigated. An African American sample of children (N = 1012, M age = 10.07) with and without maltreatment histories participated. Indicators of aggression, delinquency, and disruptive peer behavior were obtained from peer and counselor rated measures to form a latent variable of antisocial behavior; impulsivity was assessed by counselor report. Five genotypes in four dopaminergic genes (DRD4, DRD2, DAT1, and COMT) conferring heightened environmental sensitivity were combined into one polygenic index. Using SEM, a first-stage, moderated-mediation model was evaluated. Age and sex were entered as covariates, both as main effects and in interaction with maltreatment and the gene index. The model had excellent fit: χ2(32, N =1012) = 86..51, p<0.001; CFI = 0.982; TLI = 0.977; RMSEA = 0.041; SRMR = 0.022. The effect of maltreatment subtypes on antisocial behavior was partially mediated by impulsivity (β= 0.173, p<0.001), and these relations were moderated by the number of differentiating dopaminergic genotypes. Specifically, a significant GxE interaction (b = 0.016, p = 0.013) indicated that the relation between maltreatment and impulsivity was stronger as children evinced more differentiating genotypes, thereby strengthening the mediational effect of impulsivity on antisocial behavior. These findings elucidate the manner by which maltreated children develop early signs of antisocial behavior, and the genetic mechanisms involved in greater vulnerability for maladaptation in impulse-control within context of child maltreatment. PMID:26535948

  5. Do Deviant Peer Associations Mediate the Contributions of Self-Esteem to Problem Behavior During Early Adolescence? A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, David L.; Silverthorn, Naida

    2004-01-01

    We investigated deviant peer associations as a mediator of the influences of general and peer-oriented self-esteem on problem behavior using data from a 2-year longitudinal study of 350 young adolescents. Measures of problem behavior included substance use (alcohol use, smoking) and antisocial behavior (fighting, stealing). Using latent growth…

  6. Implications of antisocial parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torry, Zachary D; Billick, Stephen B

    2011-12-01

    Antisocial behavior is a socially maladaptive and harmful trait to possess. This can be especially injurious for a child who is raised by a parent with this personality structure. The pathology of antisocial behavior implies traits such as deceitfulness, irresponsibility, unreliability, and an incapability to feel guilt, remorse, or even love. This is damaging to a child's emotional, cognitive, and social development. Parents with this personality makeup can leave a child traumatized, empty, and incapable of forming meaningful personal relationships. Both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of antisocial behavior. Moreover, the child with a genetic predisposition to antisocial behavior who is raised with a parental style that triggers the genetic liability is at high risk for developing the same personality structure. Antisocial individuals are impulsive, irritable, and often have no concerns over their purported responsibilities. As a parent, this can lead to erratic discipline, neglectful parenting, and can undermine effective care giving. This paper will focus on the implications of parents with antisocial behavior and the impact that this behavior has on attachment as well as on the development of antisocial traits in children.

  7. The role of the monoamine oxidase A gene in moderating the response to adversity and associated antisocial behavior: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buades-Rotger M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Macià Buades-Rotger,1,2 David Gallardo-Pujol1,3 1Department of Personality, Faculty of Psychology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; 3Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior (IR3C, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Hereditary factors are increasingly attracting the interest of behavioral scientists and practitioners. Our aim in the present article is to introduce some state-of-the-art topics in behavioral genetics, as well as selected findings in the field, in order to illustrate how genetic makeup can modulate the impact of environmental factors. We focus on the most-studied polymorphism to date for antisocial responses to adversity: the monoamine oxidase A gene. Advances, caveats, and promises of current research are reviewed. We also discuss implications for the use of genetic information in applied settings. Keywords: behavioral genetics, antisocial behaviors, monoamine oxidase A

  8. Interactive effects of personality and separation as acculturation style on adolescent antisocial behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Sobral; Paula Villar; José Antonio Gómez-Fraguela; Estrella Romero; M. Ángeles Luengo

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como principal objetivo estudiar cómo las variables de personalidad y la aculturación interactúan a la hora de predecir la conducta antisocial de adolescentes inmigrantes en España. Estudios previos mostraron que la estrategia aculturativa llamada separación (rechazo por la cultura de acogida, con un fuerte aprecio por la preservación de la de origen) es la más relacionada con la conducta antisocial inmigrante. Este estudio examina si esa relación está moderada por variable...

  9. Epidemiology, Comorbidity, and Behavioral Genetics of Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Kimberly B; Few, Lauren R; Bucholz, Kathleen K

    2015-04-01

    Psychopathy is theorized as a disorder of personality and affective deficits while antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) diagnosis is primarily behaviorally based. While ASPD and psychopathy are similar and are highly comorbid with each other, they are not synonymous. ASPD has been well studied in community samples with estimates of its lifetime prevalence ranging from 1-4% of the general population.(4,5) In contrast, psychopathy is almost exclusively investigated within criminal populations so that its prevalence in the general population has been inferred by psychopathic traits rather than disorder (1%). Differences in etiology and comorbidity with each other and other psychiatric disorders of these two disorders are also evident. The current article will briefly review the epidemiology, etiology, and comorbidity of ASPD and psychopathy, focusing predominately on research completed in community and clinical populations. This paper aims to highlight ASPD and psychopathy as related, but distinct disorders.

  10. Validating female psychopathy subtypes: differences in personality, antisocial and violent behavior, substance abuse, trauma, and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Patrick, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    Recent empirical investigations utilizing male prisoners have begun to validate clinical conceptualizations of primary and secondary psychopathy subtypes. We extended this literature by identifying similar psychopathic subtypes in female prisoners on the basis of personality structure using model-based cluster analysis. Secondary psychopaths (n = 39) were characterized by personality traits of negative emotionality and low behavioral constraint, an early onset of antisocial and criminal behavior, greater substance use and abuse, more violent behavior and institutional misconduct, and more mental health problems, including symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and suicide attempts. Primary psychopaths (n = 31) exhibited few distinguishing personality features but were prolific criminals especially in regards to nonviolent crime, and exhibited relatively few mental health problems despite substantial exposure to traumatic events. The results support alternative etiological pathways to antisocial and criminal behavior that are evident in personality structure as well as gender similarities and differences in the manifestation of psychopathic personalities.

  11. Interactive effects of personality and separation as acculturation style on adolescent antisocial behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sobral

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como principal objetivo estudiar cómo las variables de personalidad y la aculturación interactúan a la hora de predecir la conducta antisocial de adolescentes inmigrantes en España. Estudios previos mostraron que la estrategia aculturativa llamada separación (rechazo por la cultura de acogida, con un fuerte aprecio por la preservación de la de origen es la más relacionada con la conducta antisocial inmigrante. Este estudio examina si esa relación está moderada por variables de personalidad, particularmente por la impulsividad, la búsqueda de sensaciones y la competencia personal. Para ello, a través de escalas auto-informadas, previamente validadas, se recogieron datos en una muestra de 750 adolescentes inmigrantes en Galicia y Madrid. Los resultados mostraron que tanto la separación como las variables de personalidad están significativamente asociadas a la conducta antisocial. Además, los análisis de regresión jerárquica, que incluyen términos de interacción, mostraron potentes efectos de moderación: la relación entre separación y conducta antisocial se amplifica notablemente cuando la impulsividad o la búsqueda de sensaciones son elevadas. Estos resultados alertan sobre la necesidad de estudiar los complejos efectos conjuntos entre personalidad y aculturación cuando se trata de explicar los problemas de adaptación en jóvenes inmigrantes. © 2012 Asociación Española de Psicología Conductual. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L. Todos los derechos reservados.

  12. It's in the Game: The effect of Competition and Cooperation on Anti-Social Behavior in Online Video Games

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, David Parsons

    2016-01-01

    Video games have been criticized for the amount of violence present in them and how this violence could affect aggression and anti-social behavior. Much of the literature on video games effects has focused primarily on the content of video games, but recent studies show that competition in video games could be a major influence on aggression. While competing against other players has been shown to increase aggression, there is less research on whether the mere presence of a competitive enviro...

  13. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for externalizing disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochman, John E; Powell, Nicole P; Boxmeyer, Caroline L; Jimenez-Camargo, Luis

    2011-04-01

    This article focuses on the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) strategies for children and adolescents with externalizing disorders. Following a description of risk factors for youth antisocial behavior, several components common to CBT interventions for youth with externalizing behaviors will be described. Using the Coping Power Program as a model, child treatment components including Emotion Awareness, Perspective Taking, Anger Management, Social Problem Solving, and Goal Setting will be reviewed. CBT strategies for parents of youth with disruptive behaviors will also be described. Finally, the article summarizes the evidence for the effectiveness of CBT strategies for externalizing disorders and presents specific outcome research on several programs that include CBT techniques.

  14. Exploring Differences in Youth and Parent Reports of Antisociality among Adolescent Sexual and Nonsexual Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilling, Tracey A.; Doiron, James M.; Seto, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent of, and explored several possible explanations for, the discrepancies found between adolescent and parent reports of conduct problems in adolescent sexual and nonsexual offenders. We found that adolescent sexual offenders scored lower on measures of conduct problems than did nonsexual offenders, whether on the basis…

  15. "I got some swords and you're dead!": violent fantasy, antisocial behavior, friendship, and moral sensibility in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, J; Hughes, C

    2001-01-01

    Relations between an early interest in violent fantasy and children's social understanding, antisocial and emotional behavior, and interactions with friends were investigated in 40 "hard-to-manage" preschoolers and 40 control children matched for gender, age, and school and ethnic background. Children were filmed alone in a room with a friend, and tested on a battery of cognitive tests, including false-belief, executive function, and emotion understanding tasks. Teachers reported on their friendship quality. At age 6 years, the children's understanding of the emotional consequences of antisocial and prosocial actions was studied. The hard-to-manage group showed higher rates of violent fantasy; across both groups combined, violent fantasy was related to poor executive control and language ability, frequent antisocial behavior, displays of anger and refusal to help a friend, poor communication and coordination of play, more conflict with a friend, and less empathic moral sensibility 2 years later. The usefulness of a focus on the content of children's pretend play-in particular, violent fantasy-as a window on children's preoccupations is considered.

  16. Understanding Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families Guide Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents No. 55; December 2015 There is a great ... the incidence of violent behavior among children and adolescents. This complex and troubling issue needs to be ...

  17. The Role of Social Status of Parental Family in Forming the Background of Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior of a Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonov Georgiy Vyacheslavovich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some results of the man complex research are presented in this article. Genetic, biophysical, biochemical, physiological, psychological and sociological methods of scientific information obtaining were used. This research reveals the ratio of genetic and psychosocial personality components. These components determine the forming of antisocial and prosocial human behavior. An individual set of phenotypic and genetic characteristics is defined in interrelation with sustainable symptoms of complex behaviors and predisposition to it. Methodic recommendations on revealing predisposition to deviant behavior, including aggressive one, written in the obtained results basis. It described the relationship of standard indicators of parental social status of the family in terms of students exhibiting signs of antisocial and prosocial behavior. To identify human predisposition to a certain type of social behavior, depending on the socio-economic status of the parents and family of origin as a whole was analyzed relations numerical values of a number of empirical indicators of social behavior and social status parameters parent families. Revealed that the level of education and activity of parents, as well as the birthplace of the person have a statistically significant effect on his social behavior.

  18. Self Injurious Behavior in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Self injury is a kind of behavior which begins in early adolescence and difficult to determine because remains suppressed. Most often forms are to cut and hit own. To be exposed to sexual abuse and stressfully life events are known as risk factors for self injurious behavior. High anxiety, depression and hostility levels, decrease of self esteem, suicidal attempts and thoughts are usually together with self injurious behavior and it may be mediating to emotional regulation. To explain the functions of self injurious behavior automatic and social support theories and social learning theories have suggested. The relation between suicidality and self injurious behavior is complex for adolescents. There is no enough knowledge if self injurious behavior aggravates the risk of completed suicide. Although it’s a frequent behavior there are limited randomized controlled studies which examine specific treatment approaches. Dialectic behavior treatment is the type of treatment which shown as most effective for adults. To determine the needs to stop the behavior, to manage emotional senses and urges and to learn more healthy ways for needs to youth are necessary in treatment of self injurious behavior. Treatment also includes determining suicidal risk and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In self injurious behavior medical treatment is useful for comorbid psychiatric disorders. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 201-210

  19. Serotonin transporter genotype linked to adolescent substance use treatment outcome through externalizing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy eChung

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses suggest that the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR short (S allele, relative to the long (L allele, is associated with risk for alcohol dependence, particularly among individuals with early onset antisocial alcoholism. Youth in substance use treatment tend to show antisocial or externalizing behaviors, such as conduct problems, which predict worse treatment outcome. This study examined a pathway in which 5-HTTLPR genotype is associated with externalizing behavior, and the intermediate phenotype of externalizing behavior serves as a link between 5-HTTLPR genotype and substance use treatment outcome in youth. Adolescents (n=142 who were recruited from addictions treatment were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms (S and LG carriers vs. LALA, assessed for externalizing and internalizing behaviors shortly after starting treatment, and followed over 6-months. 5-HTTLPR genotype was not associated with internalizing behaviors, and was not directly associated with 6-month substance use outcomes. However, 5-HTTLPR genotype was associated with externalizing behaviors (S and LG > LALA, and externalizing behaviors predicted alcohol and marijuana problem severity at 6-month follow-up. Results indicated an indirect (p<.05 and non-specific (i.e., both alcohol and marijuana severity effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype on youth substance use treatment outcomes, with externalizing behaviors as an important linking factor. Adolescents in substance use treatment with low expressing (S and LG 5-HTTLPR alleles and externalizing behavior might benefit from intervention that addresses serotonergic functioning, externalizing behaviors, and substance use to improve outcomes.

  20. Antisocial Propensity, Adolescent School Outcomes, and the Risk of Criminal Conviction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Jukka; Hughes, Lorine A.; Mason, W. Alex; Hurtig, Tuula M.; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma K.; Kivivuori, Janne; Taanila, Anja M.

    2012-01-01

    Data from the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study (n = 4,645) were used to examine the influence of mid-adolescent (age 15) school outcomes on late-adolescent (ages 17-19) risk of criminal conviction. Consistent with social-developmental theories of offending, we found that poor academic performance and reduced school attachment increase the…

  1. Predicting adolescent perpetration in cyberbullying: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirman, Wannes; Walrave, Michel

    2012-11-01

    This study aims to contribute to the research field on cyberbullying by offering a comprehensive theoretical framework that helps to predict adolescents' perpetration of cyberbullying. One thousand forty-two pupils from 12 to 18 years old in 30 different Belgian secondary schools participated in two surveys within a three-month interval. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether the overall model of theory of planned behavior (TPB) helps to predict adolescents' self-reported perpetration in cyberbullying. Overall, the present study provides strong support for the theoretical utility of the TPB in cyberbullying research. The model accounted for 44.8% of the variance in adolescents' behavioral intention to cyberbully and 33.2% of the variance in self-reported cyberbullying perpetration. We found a strong positive relationship between adolescents' attitude towards cyberbullying and their behavioral intention to perpetrate it. Perceived behavioral control and subjective norm, the other two TPB-constructs, were also significant albeit relatively less important predictors of adolescents' intention to cyberbully. The finding that adolescents' attitude is the most important predictor of perpetration, entails that prevention and intervention strategies should aim at reducing the perceived acceptability of cyberbullying among adolescents by converting neutral or positive attitudes towards this anti-social behavior into negative evaluations.

  2. Neighborhood Disorder and Children’s Antisocial Behavior: The Protective Effect of Family Support Among Mexican American and African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Rand D.; Conger, Katherine J.; Martin, Monica J.; Brody, Gene; Simons, Ronald; Cutrona, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a sample of 673 Mexican Origin families, the current investigation examined the degree to which family supportiveness acted as a protective buffer between neighborhood disorder and antisocial behavior during late childhood (i.e. intent to use controlled substances, externalizing, and association with deviant peers). Children’s perceptions of neighborhood disorder fully mediated associations between census and observer measures of neighborhood disorder and their antisocial behavior. Family support buffered children from the higher rates of antisocial behavior generally associated with living in disorderly neighborhoods. An additional goal of the current study was to replicate these findings in a second sample of 897 African American families, and that replication was successful. These findings suggest that family support may play a protective role for children living in dangerous or disadvantaged neighborhoods. They also suggest that neighborhood interventions should consider several points of entry including structural changes, resident perceptions of their neighborhood and family support. PMID:22089092

  3. The Apple Doesn't Fall Far from the Tree (or Does It?): Intergenerational Patterns of Antisocial Behavior-The American Society of Criminology 2008 Sutherland Address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P

    2009-05-01

    There is a growing literature on intergenerational studies of antisocial behavior and a growing understanding of the unique contributions they are likely to make. At the same time, the field has yet to agree on core design features for intergenerational study. In this article I propose a set of defining design elements that all intergenerational studies should meet and I discuss the advantages of these studies for enhancing our understanding of the onset and course of delinquent careers. I then use data from the ongoing Rochester Intergenerational Study to illustrate these points and the potential yield of intergenerational studies. In particular, I examine intergenerational continuities in antisocial behavior and school disengagement, test the cycle of violence hypothesis to see if a history of maltreatment increases the likelihood of perpetration of maltreatment, and estimate a structural equation model to help identify mediating pathways that link parents and children with respect to antisocial behavior.

  4. Comportamiento antisocial durante la adolescencia: teoría, investigación y programas de prevención

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Herrera Paredes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of several causes of antisocial behavior during adolescence seems to respond, not only to the combination of many risk factors within different levels of human development, but also to cultural and historical processes affecting, in many ways, severalgenerations since their early childhood. This paper revises the main explicative theories about antisocial behavior during adolescence and highlights the theory of the Neuropsychological Taxonomy of the Antisocial Behavior proposed by Terrie E. Moffitt (1993, 1994, 1996, 2003. Moreover, some studies are mentioned due to the fact that they confirm the cross-culturalvalidity of Moffitt’s theorical model and its  contributions to the design of prevention programs against delinquency for youngsters and adolescents in our context.

  5. Criminal behavior and cognitive processing in male offenders with antisocial personality disorder with and without comorbid psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riser, Rebecca E; Kosson, David S

    2013-10-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are 2 important syndromes with substantial utility in predicting antisocial behavior. Although prior studies have identified correlations between various factors and the presence of psychopathy or ASPD, most studies have focused on 1 syndrome or the other. Consequently, it is unclear whether the 2 syndromes reflect similar pathophysiologies, whether they are in fact 2 distinct syndromes, or whether the correlates of ASPD reflect its high comorbidity with psychopathy. The present study addressed this issue by examining the impact of ASPD with and without comorbid psychopathy (as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised) on criminal offending and cognitive processing in 674 adult male inmates at a county jail in Illinois. Participants exhibited either ASPD and comorbid psychopathy, ASPD but not psychopathy, or neither ASPD nor psychopathy. Participants with and without comorbid psychopathy were characterized by more criminal behavior than controls, and inmates with ASPD and psychopathy exhibited more severe criminal behavior than those with ASPD only. In addition, inmates with ASPD and psychopathy exhibited a different pattern of cognitive task performance impairment than those with ASPD alone. Results replicate the findings of Kosson, Lorenz, and Newman (2006) and provide new evidence suggesting that men with ASPD and comorbid psychopathy are characterized by cognitive processing anomalies different from those seen in ASPD without comorbid psychopathy.

  6. Developmental trajectory from early responses to transgressions to future antisocial behavior: evidence for the role of the parent-child relationship from two longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna; Boldt, Lea J; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; O'Bleness, Jessica J

    2014-02-01

    Parent-child relationships are critical in development, but much remains to be learned about the mechanisms of their impact. We examined the early parent-child relationship as a moderator of the developmental trajectory from children's affective and behavioral responses to transgressions to future antisocial, externalizing behavior problems in the Family Study (102 community mothers, fathers, and infants, followed through age 8) and the Play Study (186 low-income, diverse mothers and toddlers, followed for 10 months). The relationship quality was indexed by attachment security in the Family Study and maternal responsiveness in the Play Study. Responses to transgressions (tense discomfort and reparation) were observed in laboratory mishaps wherein children believed they had damaged a valued object. Antisocial outcomes were rated by parents. In both studies, early relationships moderated the future developmental trajectory: diminished tense discomfort predicted more antisocial outcomes, but only in insecure or unresponsive relationships. That risk was defused in secure or responsive relationships. Moderated mediation analyses in the Family Study indicated that the links between diminished tense discomfort and future antisocial behavior in insecure parent-child dyads were mediated by stronger discipline pressure from parents. By indirectly influencing future developmental sequelae, early relationships may increase or decrease the probability that the parent-child dyad will embark on a path toward antisocial outcomes.

  7. Individual psychological and social risk factors for violent criminal behavior in adolescents with organic mental disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubkova A.A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the risk factors for criminal aggression in adolescents with an organic mental disorder depending on the level of social deviations or severity of pathopsychological factor. The study involved 113 male adolescents aged 15 to 17 years. The main group consisted of juvenile offenders with organic mental disorder. We used the methods of investigation to determine the individual psychological characteristics, we also used structured risk assessment methods. It is shown that risk factors for criminal aggressive behavior in adolescents with organic mental disorder are a high level of proactive and reactive aggression, combined with underdeveloped mechanisms deter aggressive intentions. With the increase of organic disease, these features become more stable. An important role in shaping the aggressive criminal behavior plays an unsuccessful social environment. Interfamily problems, social deprivation, learning difficulties, communication in antisocial groups and substance abuse - all this increases the risk of aggressive illegal actions.

  8. Chronic anger as a precursor to adult antisocial personality features: The moderating influence of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Samuel W; Perlman, Susan B; Byrd, Amy L; Raine, Adrian; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A

    2016-01-01

    Anger is among the earliest occurring symptoms of mental health, yet we know little about its developmental course. Further, no studies have examined whether youth with persistent anger are at an increased risk of exhibiting antisocial personality features in adulthood, or how cognitive control abilities may protect these individuals from developing such maladaptive outcomes. Trajectories of anger were delineated among 503 boys using annual assessments from childhood to middle adolescence (ages ∼7-14). Associations between these trajectories and features of antisocial personality in young adulthood (age ∼28) were examined, including whether cognitive control moderates this association. Five trajectories of anger were identified (i.e., childhood-onset, childhood-limited, adolescent-onset, moderate, and low). Boys in the childhood-onset group exhibited the highest adulthood antisocial personality features (e.g., psychopathy, aggression, criminal charges). However, boys in this group were buffered from these problems if they had higher levels of cognitive control during adolescence. Findings were consistent across measures from multiple informants, replicated across distinct time periods, and remained when controlling for general intelligence and prior antisocial behavior. This is the first study to document the considerable heterogeneity in the developmental course of anger from childhood to adolescence. As hypothesized, good cognitive control abilities protected youth with persistent anger problems from developing antisocial personality features in adulthood. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.

  9. Assessing the links among adolescent and youth offending, antisocial behaviour, victimization, drug use, and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Estévez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio ex post facto se centra en el análisis de tres factores de riesgo relacionados con la delincuencia juvenil: la implicación en comportamientos antisociales,el hecho de haber sido víctima de algún acto delictivo, y el consumo de drogas. La investigación previa sobre estos factores de riesgo sigue presentando cuestiones no resueltas sobre las direcciones de influencia. Además, los estudios con población femenina son mucho más escasos que aquellos desarrollados con población masculina. El propósito del presente estudio es analizar las relaciones bidireccionales entre la delincuencia, la conducta antisocial, la victimización y el consumo de drogas en una muestra de 4980 participantes con edades comprendidas entre 10 y 25 años, en función de los grupos de género y edad. Los análisis estadísticos se llevaron a cabo con regresiones lineales y un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas en los patrones de interacción entre las variables de estudio en hombres y mujeres, así como entre los grupos de la adolescencia temprana-media y la adolescencia tardía-juventud. Se comentan las principales implicaciones prácticas en relación a políticas de prevención para los jóvenes en riesgo de continuar con un estilo de vida fundamentado en el incumplimiento de las normas socialmente establecidas.

  10. Heritability of antisocial behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; DeLisi, Matt

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reviews important strands of research on the heritability of antisocial behavior and crime, including both quantitative genetic studies using twin or adoption designs as well as molecular genetic approaches. Study designs are introduced and findings discussed. Contemporary avenues inclu

  11. Callous unemotional traits in children with disruptive behavior disorder: Predictors of developmental trajectories and adolescent outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Pietro; Lochman, John E; Manfredi, Azzurra; Milone, Annarita; Nocentini, Annalaura; Pisano, Simone; Masi, Gabriele

    2016-02-28

    The present study investigated trajectories of Callous Unemotional (CU) traits in youth with Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnosis followed-up from childhood to adolescence, to explore possible predictors of these trajectories, and to individuate adolescent clinical outcomes. A sample of 59 Italian referred children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder (53 boys and 6 girls, 21 with Conduct Disorder) was followed up from childhood to adolescence. CU traits were assessed with CU-scale of the Antisocial Process Screening Device-parent report. Latent growth curve models showed that CU traits are likely to decrease linearly from 9 to 15 years old, with a deceleration in adolescence (from 12 to 15). There was substantial individual variability in the rate of change of CU traits over time: patients with a minor decrease of CU symptoms during childhood were at increased risk for severe behavioral problems and substance use into adolescence. Although lower level of socio-economic status and lower level of parenting involvement were associated to elevated levels of CU traits at baseline evaluation, none of the considered clinical and environmental factors predicted the levels of CU traits. The current longitudinal research suggests that adolescent outcomes of Disruptive Behavior Disorder be influenced by CU traits trajectories during childhood.

  12. The nonlinear dynamics of family problem solving in adolescence: the predictive validity of a peaceful resolution attractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J; Forgatch, Marion; Van Ryzin, Mark; Winter, Charlotte

    2012-07-01

    In this study we examined the videotaped family interactions of a community sample of adolescents and their parents. Youths were assessed in early to late adolescence on their levels of antisocial behavior. At age 16-17, youths and their parents were videotaped interacting while completing a variety of tasks, including family problem solving. The interactions were coded and compared for three developmental patterns of antisocial behavior: early onset, persistent; adolescence onset; and typically developing. The mean duration of conflict bouts was the only interaction pattern that discriminated the 3 groups. In the prediction of future antisocial behavior, parent and youth reports of transition entropy and conflict resolution interacted to account for antisocial behavior at age 18-19. Families with low entropy and peaceful resolutions predicted low levels of youth antisocial behavior at age 18-19. These findings suggest the need to study both attractors and repellers to understand family dynamics associated with health and social and emotional development.

  13. Adolescent attachment and trajectories of hostile-impulsive behavior: implications for the development of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobak, Roger; Zajac, Kristyn; Smith, Clare

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' trajectories of impulsive and hostile behaviors provide a dynamic index of risk for the emergence of Cluster B (antisocial and borderline) personality disorders in early adulthood. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that preoccupied states of mind in the Adult Attachment Interview would increase both the level and rate of growth in adolescents' trajectories of aggressive and sexual risk-taking behaviors measured at ages 13, 15, and 17. Overall, preoccupied states of mind predicted higher levels of sexual risk taking and aggressive behaviors across all three assessments as well as higher rates of growth in sexual-risk taking and caregiver-reported aggression over time. In addition, preoccupied females showed slower rates of decline in self-reported hostile emotions than did preoccupied males. The effects of gender as a moderator of the relations between preoccupied status and risk trajectories for personality disorders are discussed.

  14. Spatial but not verbal cognitive deficits at age 3 years in persistently antisocial individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian; Yaralian, Pauline S; Reynolds, Chandra; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have repeatedly shown verbal intelligence deficits in adolescent antisocial individuals, but it is not known whether these deficits are in place prior to kindergarten or, alternatively, whether they are acquired throughout childhood. This study assesses whether cognitive deficits occur as early as age 3 years and whether they are specific to persistently antisocial individuals. Verbal and spatial abilities were assessed at ages 3 and 11 years in 330 male and female children, while antisocial behavior was assessed at ages 8 and 17 years. Persistently antisocial individuals (N = 47) had spatial deficits in the absence of verbal deficits at age 3 years compared to comparisons (N = 133), and also spatial and verbal deficits at age 11 years. Age 3 spatial deficits were independent of social adversity, early hyperactivity, poor test motivation, poor test comprehension, and social discomfort during testing, and they were found in females as well as males. Findings suggest that early spatial deficits contribute to persistent antisocial behavior whereas verbal deficits are developmentally acquired. An early-starter model is proposed whereby early spatial impairments interfere with early bonding and attachment, reflect disrupted right hemisphere affect regulation and expression, and predispose to later persistent antisocial behavior.

  15. Views of Teachers, Parents, and Counselors toward the Preschool Version of First Step to Success Early Intervention Program (FSS-PSV) in Preventing Antisocial Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolak, Aysun; Tomris, Gözde; Diken, Ibrahim H.; Arikan, Arzu; Aksoy, Funda; Çelik, Seçil

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to describe the views of teachers, parents, and FSS-PSV counselors on the Preschool Version of First Step to Success Early Intervention Program (FSS-PSV) in preventing antisocial behaviors; in addition, the implementation process and contributions from the program will also be outlined. The study was conducted in six different…

  16. Commentary: Disregard for Others: Empathic Dysfunction or Emotional Volatility? The Relationship with Future Antisocial Behavior--Reflections on Rhee et al. (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, R. J. R.

    2013-01-01

    There have long been suggestions that reduced levels of empathy are associated with an increased risk for antisocial behavior (e.g., Miller & Eisenberg, 1988). The article by Rhee and colleagues on typically developing children (Rhee et al., 2012) is important because it is one of the few studies to longitudinally examine the relationship…

  17. Preventive Intervention for Preschoolers at High Risk for Antisocial Behavior: Long-Term Effects on Child Physical Aggression and Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Huang, Keng-Yen; Rosenfelt, Amanda; O'Neal, Colleen; Klein, Rachel G.; Shrout, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    This article presents long-term effects of a preventive intervention for young children at high risk for antisocial behavior. Ninety-two children (M age = 4 years) were randomly assigned to an 8-month family intervention or no-intervention control condition and assessed 4 times over a 24-month period. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed significant…

  18. Fear extinction, persistent disruptive behavior and psychopathic traits: fMRI in late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Moran D; van Lith, Koen; Kindt, Merel; Pape, Louise E; Doreleijers, Theo A H; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Popma, Arne

    2016-07-01

    Children diagnosed with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD, i.e. Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder), especially those with psychopathic traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe antisocial behavior. Reduced fear conditioning has been proposed to underlie persistent antisocial development. However, we have recently shown that both DBD persisters and desisters are characterized by increased fear conditioning compared with healthy controls (HCs). In this study, we investigated whether brain function during fear extinction is associated with DBD subgroup-membership and psychopathic traits. Adolescents from a childhood arrestee cohort (mean age 17.6 years, s.d. 1.4) who met criteria for a DBD diagnosis during previous assessments were re-assessed and categorized as persistent DBD (n = 25) or desistent DBD (n = 25). Functional MRI during the extinction phase of a classical fear-conditioning task was used to compare regional brain function between these subgroups and 25 matched controls. Both DBD persisters and desisters showed hyperreactivity during fear extinction, when compared with HCs. Impulsive-irresponsible psychopathic traits were positively associated with responses in the fear neurocircuitry and mediated the association between neural activation and group membership. These results suggest that fear acquisition and fear extinction deficits may provide an endophenotype for an emotionally hyperreactive subtype of antisocial development.

  19. Low heart rate as a risk factor for child and adolescent proactive aggressive and impulsive psychopathic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian; Fung, Annis Lai Chu; Portnoy, Jill; Choy, Olivia; Spring, Victoria L

    2014-01-01

    Although low resting heart rate has been viewed as a well-replicated biological correlate of child and adolescent antisocial behavior, little is known about how it interacts with psychosocial adversity in predisposing to both reactive-proactive aggression and psychopathy, and whether this relationship generalizes to an East Asian population. This study tests the hypothesis that low resting heart rate will be associated with aggression and psychopathic traits, and that heart rate will interact with adversity in predisposing to these antisocial traits. Resting heart rate was assessed in 334 Hong Kong male and female schoolchildren aged 11-17 years. A social adversity index was calculated from a psychosocial interview of the parent, while parents assessed their children on the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire and the Antisocial Personality Screening Device. Low resting heart rate was significantly associated with higher proactive aggression, impulsive features of psychopathy, and total child psychopathy. Low resting heart rate interacted with high psychosocial adversity in explaining higher reactive (but not proactive) aggression, as well as impulsive psychopathy. These findings provide support for a biosocial perspective of reactive aggression and impulsive psychopathy, and document low resting heart rate as a robust correlate of both childhood impulsive psychopathic behavior and proactive aggression. To our knowledge, this study is the first to document low resting heart rate as a correlate of child psychopathy and the second to establish low heart rate as a risk factor of antisocial behavior in an East Asian population. The findings provide further evidence for both low resting heart rate as a potential biomarker for childhood psychopathic and aggressive behavior, and also a biosocial perspective on childhood antisocial behavior.

  20. A prospective investigation of neurodevelopmental risk factors for adult antisocial behavior combining official arrest records and self-reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Angela D; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Koenen, Karestan C; Buka, Stephen L

    2015-09-01

    Neurodevelopmental deficits are postulated to play an important role in the etiology of persistent antisocial behavior (ASB). Yet it remains uncertain as to which particular deficits are most closely associated with ASB. We seek to advance this understanding using prospectively collected data from a birth cohort in which multiple indices of neurodevelopmental functioning and ASB were assessed. Participants (n = 2776) were members of the Providence, Rhode Island cohort of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. Information on demographic and neurodevelopmental variables was collected from pregnancy through age 7. When all offspring had reached 33 years of age an adult criminal record check was conducted. A subset of subjects also self-reported on their engagement in serious ASB. Bivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between each neurodevelopmental factor and adult ASB and test whether associations varied depending on how ASB was ascertained. After controlling for background and contextual characteristics, maternal smoking during pregnancy, lower childhood verbal and performance IQ, and age 7 aggressive/impulsive behavior all significantly increased the odds of adult ASB. Associations were not modified by sex and did not depend on how ASB was assessed. However, while both males and Black participants were more likely to engage in ASB than their respective female and White counterparts, relationships were significantly stronger for official records than for self-reports. Results point to a particular subset of early neurodevelopmental risks for antisocial outcomes in adulthood. Findings also suggest that prior contradictory results are not due to the use of official records versus self-reported outcomes.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of Multisystemic Therapy for adolescents with antisocial behaviour : study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Vermeulen, Karin M.; Schuurman-Luinge, Annemieke H.; Knorth, Erik J.; Buskens, Erik; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Multisystemic Therapy (MST) is an intensive, short, family-and community-based treatment for serious antisocial behaviour and delinquency in youth. It is an emerging intervention for serious juvenile delinquents. However, conclusive evidence on the balance between costs and effects is li

  2. Do psychopathic traits assessed in mid-adolescence predict mental health, psychosocial, and antisocial, including criminal outcomes, over the subsequent 5 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphälä, Malin; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2014-01-01

    Objectif : Déterminer si les traits psychopathiques évalués à la mi-adolescence prédisent les résultats de santé mentale, psychosociaux, et antisociaux (y compris criminels) 5 ans plus tard et procurent par le fait même des avantages par rapport au diagnostic du trouble des conduites (TC). Méthode : Quatre-vingt-six femmes et 61 hommes ont été évalués à la mi-adolescence lors de leur première visite à une clinique pour abus de substances et ont été réévalués 5 ans plus tard. Les évaluations à l’adolescence comprennent la liste de psychopathie—version pour adolescents (PCL-YV), et selon leur âge, l’échelle des troubles affectifs pour enfants et de schizophrénie pour enfants d’âge scolaire, ou l’entrevue clinique structurée pour le Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, 4e édition (SCID). Les évaluations au début de l’âge adulte comprenaient la SCID, les auto-déclarations du fonctionnement psychologique, du comportement agressif, de la criminalité et d’autres casiers judiciaires officiels. Résultats : Le score à l’élément antisocial prédisait positivement le nombre de symptômes d’anxiété et la probabilité de recevoir un traitement pour troubles d’utilisation de substances (TUS). Les scores aux éléments mode de vie et antisocial prédisaient négativement les scores à l’évaluation globale de fonctionnement. Par contre, le score interpersonnel et le sexe masculin prédisaient indépendamment et positivement le nombre de mois de travail ou d’études, tout comme l’interaction du mode de vie avec le sexe indiquait chez les hommes, mais pas chez les femmes, qu’une augmentation du score à l’élément mode de vie était associée à moins de temps de travail ou d’études. Les scores interpersonnel et antisocial prédisaient positivement le décrochage scolaire. Les scores à l’élément antisocial prédisaient le nombre de symptômes du trouble de la personnalité antisociale

  3. Adolescent Work Experiences and Family Formation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; VanEseltine, Matthew; Woolnough, April; Silver, Eric; Burrington, Lori

    2012-01-01

    A long-standing critique of adolescent employment is that it engenders a precocious maturity of more adult-like roles and behaviors, including school disengagement, substance use, sexual activity, inadequate sleep and exercise, and work-related stress. Though negative effects of high-intensity work on adolescent adjustment have been found, little…

  4. Violent Behaviors among African-American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Darhyl

    1995-01-01

    Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…

  5. Biology, Violence, and Antisocial Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Elizabeth

    Aggressive and antisocial behavior have persisted as significant social problems. In response, a voluminous amount of research has been generated in an attempt to discover the causes of such behavior. Previous studies have examined separately the role of perinatal biology in the etiology of violent criminal behavior and the etiology of Anti-Social…

  6. Understanding Youth Antisocial Behavior Using Neuroscience through a Developmental Psychopathology Lens: Review, Integration, and Directions for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Luke W; Shaw, Daniel S; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-09-01

    Youth antisocial behavior (AB) is an important public health concern impacting perpetrators, victims, and society. Functional neuroimaging is becoming a more common and useful modality for understanding neural correlates of youth AB. Although there has been a recent increase in neuroimaging studies of youth AB and corresponding theoretical articles on the neurobiology of AB, there has been little work critically examining the strengths and weaknesses of individual studies and using this knowledge to inform the design of future studies. Additionally, research on neuroimaging and youth AB has not been integrated within the broader framework of developmental psychopathology. Thus, this paper provides an in-depth review of the youth AB functional neuroimaging literature with the following goals: 1. to evaluate how this literature has informed our understanding of youth AB, 2. to evaluate current neuroimaging studies of youth AB from a developmental psychopathology perspective with a focus on integrating research from neuroscience and developmental psychopathology, as well as placing this research in the context of other related areas (e.g., psychopathy, molecular genetics), and 3. to examine strengths and weaknesses of neuroimaging and behavioral studies of youth AB to suggest how future studies can develop a more informed and integrated understanding of youth AB.

  7. Genome-wide association study of behavioral disinhibition in a selected adolescent sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derringer, Jaime; Corley, Robin P.; Haberstick, Brett C.; Young, Susan E.; Demmitt, Brittany; Howrigan, Daniel P.; Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt; Keller, Matthew; Brown, Sandra; Tapert, Susan; Hopfer, Christian J.; Stallings, Michael C.; Crowley, Thomas J.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Krauter, Ken; Hewitt, John K.; McQueen, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral disinhibition (BD) is a quantitative measure designed to capture the heritable variation encompassing risky and impulsive behaviors. As a result, BD represents an ideal target for discovering genetic loci that predispose individuals to a wide range of antisocial behaviors and substance misuse that together represent a large cost to society as a whole. Published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have examined specific phenotypes that fall under the umbrella of BD (e.g. alcohol dependence, conduct disorder); however no GWAS has specifically examined the overall BD construct. We conducted a GWAS of BD using a sample of 1,901 adolescents over-selected for characteristics that define high BD, such as substance and antisocial behavior problems, finding no individual locus that surpassed genome-wide significance. Although no single SNP was significantly associated with BD, restricted maximum likelihood analysis estimated that 49.3% of the variance in BD within the Caucasian sub-sample was accounted for by the genotyped SNPs (p=0.06). Gene-based tests identified seven genes associated with BD (p≤2.0×10−6). Although the current study was unable to identify specific SNPs or pathways with replicable effects on BD, the substantial sample variance that could be explained by all genotyped SNPs suggests that larger studies could successfully identify common variants associated with BD. PMID:25637581

  8. The relationship between prosocial and antisocial behaviors in sport, general self-efficacy and academic self-efficacy: Study in department of physical education and sport teacher education

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldız, Mevlüt; ŞENEL, Ender; Şahan, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between prosocial and antisocial behaviors in sport, general self-efficacy and academic self-efficacy beliefs of students studying in physical education and sport teacher education department. 118 students in department of physical education and sport teacher education at Mugla Sitki Kocman University voluntarily participated in the study.  31 of the participants were national athletes while 87 of them were non-national athletes. 50 of the...

  9. Antisocial Behaviors Moderate the Deviant Peer Pathway to Substance Use in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshal, Michael P.; Molina, Brooke S. G.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the interplay of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity, deviant peer group affiliation, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) as risk factors among 142 adolescents with childhood ADHD. Deviant peer affiliation mediated the relation between childhood ADHD symptoms and 6…

  10. An Overview of The Relation Between Screen Violence and Children' s Antisocial Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱敏思

    2011-01-01

    Violent scenes are increasingly shown in today's mass media. TV and films, as one of the most influential mass media, are also containing a large amount of violence. While ehildren and adolescents today have easier access to TV and films, they are more an

  11. Behavioral Genetic Analyses of Prosocial Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alice M.; Light-Hausermann, Jade H.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Eley, Thalia C.

    2009-01-01

    Prosocial behavior is an important aspect of normal social and psychological development. Adult and child twin studies typically estimate the heritability of prosocial behavior to be between 30 and 50%, although relatively little is known about genetic and environmental influences upon prosocial behavior in adolescence. We therefore examined…

  12. The Anti-Social Activities Attitude Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribner, Sol; Chein, Isidor

    1979-01-01

    This article presents reliability and validity evidence on the Anti-Social Activities Attitude Scale. The scale is not intended to predict individual behavior but to assess the moral climate within a population as supportive or restrictive of antisocial acts. The scale itself is included. (SJL)

  13. Anger in the UK Armed Forces: strong association with mental health, childhood antisocial behavior, and combat role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rona, Roberto J; Jones, Margaret; Hull, Lisa; MacManus, Deirdre; Fear, Nicola T; Wessely, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the strength of the association of several mental health problems, childhood difficulties, and combat role with anger, as well as the contribution of these factors to explain anger assessed by population attributable fraction (PAF). A total of 9885 UK service personnel, some of them deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, participated in the study. There was a strong or intermediate association between cases and subthreshold cases of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, psychological distress, multiple physical symptoms and alcohol misuse, having a combat role, childhood adversity, and childhood antisocial behavior with anger. The PAF for any mental health problem and combat role and childhood difficulties was 0.64 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-0.70) and increased to 0.77 (95% CI, 0.69-0.83) if subthreshold cases were included. Anger is a frequent component of mental disorders; health care professionals need to be aware of the interference of anger in the management of mental illness and that anger infrequently presents as an isolated phenomenon.

  14. A behavioral genetic analysis of callous-unemotional traits and Big Five personality in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Frank D; Briley, Daniel A; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige

    2015-11-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, such as lacking empathy and emotional insensitivity, predict the onset, severity, and persistence of antisocial behavior. CU traits are heritable, and genetic influences on CU traits contribute to antisocial behavior. This study examines genetic overlap between CU traits and general domains of personality. We measured CU traits using the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU) and Big Five personality using the Big Five Inventory in a sample of adolescent twins from the Texas Twin Project. Genetic influences on the Big Five personality dimensions could account for the entirety of genetic influences on CU traits. Item Response Theory results indicate that the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits is better at detecting clinically relevant personality variation at lower extremes of personality trait continua, particularly low agreeableness and low conscientiousness. The proximate biological mechanisms that mediate genetic liabilities for CU traits remain an open question. The results of the current study suggest that understanding the development of normal personality may inform understanding of the genetic underpinnings of callous and unemotional behavior.

  15. Co-occurrence of antisocial behavior and substance use: testing for sex differences in the impact of older male friends, low parental knowledge and friends' delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Tom A; Salekin, Randall T; Marti, C Nathan; Lester, Whiney S; Barker, Edward D

    2014-04-01

    Delinquency and substance use (SU) are commonly comorbid during adolescence. In the present study we investigate this co-morbidity with 3 main objectives: 1. Evaluate reciprocal relationships between delinquency/SU across early adolescence. 2. Assess the impact of older male friends, low parental knowledge and friends' delinquency on subsequent development and inter-relationships of delinquency and SU. 3. Evaluate sex differences in these relationships. We applied cross-lagged structural equation models to the analysis of a longitudinal sample (n=3699). Findings demonstrated: (1) At ages 13-14 delinquency predicted SU more so than vice versa but effects became equal between ages 14 and 15. (2) Low parental knowledge and friends' delinquency predicted delinquency and SU. Older male friends predicted ASB. (3) Sex differences were present. For example, in the absence of antisocial friends low parent knowledge at age 12 indirectly predicted increased age 15 SU for girls more than boys.

  16. Dimensions of impulsive behavior in adolescents: laboratory behavioral assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Brady; Penfold, Robert B; Patak, Michele

    2008-04-01

    Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct that defines a range of maladaptive behavioral styles. The present research aimed to identify different dimensions of impulsive behavior in adolescents from a battery of laboratory behavioral assessments. In one analysis, correlations were examined between two self report and seven laboratory behavioral measures of impulsivity. The correlation between the two self report measures was high compared to correlations between the self report and laboratory behavioral measures. In a second analysis, a principal components analysis was performed with just the laboratory behavioral measures. Three behavioral dimensions were identified -- "impulsive decision-making", "impulsive inattention", and "impulsive disinhibition". These dimensions were further evaluated using the same sample with a confirmatory factor analysis, which did support the hypothesis that these are significant and independent dimensions of impulsivity. This research indicates there are at least three separate subtypes of impulsive behavior when using laboratory behavioral assessments with adolescent participants.

  17. The impact of neighborhood disadvantage and exposure to violence on self-report of antisocial behavior among girls in the juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Preeti; Reppucci, N Dickon

    2009-03-01

    The current study extended previous research with adults and boys to girls in the juvenile justice system (N = 122; M = 16.7; SD = 1.3). Using a longitudinal research design, neighborhood disadvantage and exposure to violence (i.e., physical abuse by parents, physical abuse by peers, and witnessing violence) were assessed during incarceration. These risk factors were used to predict violent and delinquent behavior post-release. Furthermore, race specific pathways were examined to determine if the impact of these risk factors varied among Black (n = 69) and White girls (n = 53). Results indicated that Black girls were more likely than White girls to live in disadvantaged neighborhoods, but both reported similar levels of exposure to violence and self-report of antisocial behavior. Physical abuse by parents, time at risk, and age were related to violent behavior, while witnessing violence and time at risk were related to delinquent behavior. Multiple group analyses indicated the existence of race specific pathways. Specifically, physical abuse by parents was related to violent behavior for White girls while witnessing violence was related to violent and delinquent behaviors for Black girls. Results suggest that contextual processes play an important role in predicting antisocial behavior for Black girls.

  18. Unraveling the genetic etiology of adult antisocial behavior: A genome-wide association study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielbeek, J.J.; Medland, S.E.; Benyamin, B.; Byrne, E.M.; Heath, A.C.; Madden, P.A.F.; Martin, N.G.; Wray, N.R.; Verweij, K.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Crime poses a major burden for society. The heterogeneous nature of criminal behavior makes it difficult to unravel its causes. Relatively little research has been conducted on the genetic influences of criminal behavior. The few twin and adoption studies that have been undertaken suggest that about

  19. Effects of parent training on salivary cortisol in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Motamedi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Since adulthood antisocial, aggressive and delinquent behaviors often have their onset early in life, investigating the association between biological factors and disruptive behaviors in children and adolescents are important and are emphasized on in the recent years. Baseline cortisol level seems to be a valuable biological marker of individuals with Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD. This study examined the effect of parent training on salivary cortisol levels of children with DBD.
    • METHODS: Saliva samples were assayed to determine cortisol levels in nineteen clinic-referred children with DBD (aged 8 through 13 years before and after an eight-session parent training program. Children’s disruptive behaviors were assessed by Child Behavior Check List before and after the intervention.
    • RESULTS: Children’s salivary cortisol increased significantly after parent training sessions. Children with DBD who had lower basal cortisol levels had more severe disruptive behaviors and a better response to intervention by parent training as assessed by changes in cortisol levels and disruptive behaviour scores. However, post-interventional reduction of disruptive behaviors and increase in cortisol level was significant for all levels of baseline cortisol.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Parent training is an effective method for behavioral modification in DBD. Salivary cortisol may be considered a predictive factor for severity of the child or adolescent's disruptive behaviors and also for response of those behaviors to parent training.
    • KEY WORDS: Disruptive behavior, child, adolescent, parent training.

  20. Longitudinal relations between adolescent and parental behaviors, parental knowledge, and internalizing behaviors among urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthe, Rachel C; Sullivan, Terri; Kliewer, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    High prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among adolescents underscore the importance of identifying parental and adolescent behaviors that may lessen the risk for these outcomes. Previous research has shown that parental acceptance, parental knowledge, and child disclosure are negatively associated with internalizing behaviors. It is also important to explore the impact of internalizing behaviors on these parental and child constructs. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between parental acceptance, parental knowledge, child disclosure, and internalizing symptoms across a one-year time period. Participants were 358 adolescents (54 % female) and their primary caregivers, who were primarily African American (92 %). Parents and adolescents provided data through face-to-face interviews. Results showed that parental knowledge and parental acceptance predicted child disclosure, and child disclosure predicted parental knowledge one year later. Higher levels of parental acceptance predicted lower levels of adolescent-reported depressive symptoms, while higher levels of parental report of adolescents' internalizing symptoms predicted lower levels of parental knowledge. No differences in the strength of these relationships were found across grade or gender. These findings highlight the role of the adolescent's perceived acceptance by parents in promoting children's disclosure, and the benefits of parental acceptance in decreasing depressive symptoms over time. Overall, these results show the impact that both adolescent and parental behaviors and internalizing behaviors have on each other across time.

  1. Dating violence and suicidal behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Kristin; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the possible consequences of adolescent physical, emotional and sexual dating violence through a review of the literature on the topic. An electronic search of major biomedical bibliographic databases (Pubmed, ISI, PsycINFO) was used to retrieve articles providing information on the prevalence rates, risk factors, associated consequences and possible preventive measures for adolescent dating violence across different populations. Currently, there have been few longitudinal studies conducted to identify potential risk factors for entering a violent dating relationship in adolescence. Risky behaviors such as early sexual intercourse may predispose someone for victimization. Dating violence itself is also a predictor of future dating violence. Adolescent dating violence was associated with an increase in other violence-related behaviors, substance use, depression, poorer educational outcomes, posttraumatic stress, unhealthy weight control and risky sexual behavior. The association between adolescent dating violence and an increase in suicidal behavior is a major public health concern. Future research should focus on longitudinal studies so that a causal relationship between dating violence and suicidality may be better understood.

  2. Antisocial Notworking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    Antisocial Notworking refers to a repository of projects that explore the pseudo-agency of online social platforms. It takes a number of recent software projects as its inspiration to reflect upon the fashion for 'participation' within the arts sector and culture in general. The concern is how...... the Internet is increasingly characterized as a 'platform' (or collective machine) for 'social' uses, but to question what is meant by such descriptions. Although social networking platforms rely on usergenerated content, what is the nature of this participation? What alternatives can be identified? Emergent...... forms are undoubtedly dissimilar to the ways in which social relations have been traditionally organized, but in general, appear to reinforce existing power structures. The suggestion of the paper is that without the identification of antagonisms that underpin sociality, politics simply cannot...

  3. The association between parenting behavior and somatization in adolescents explained by physiological responses in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rousseau, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Wiersema, Jan R.; Baetens, Imke; Vos, Pieter; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study adds to the knowledge on somatization in adolescents by exploring its relation with parenting behavior and the mediating/moderating role of physiological responses in adolescents to parenting behavior. Method: Eighteen adolescents with high and 18 adolescents with low somati

  4. Adolescents Engaging in Risky Sexual Behavior: Sexual Activity and Associated Behavioral Risk Factors in Bolivian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; De La Cruz, Natalie; Hill, Susan; Torres, Scott B.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of risky sexual activities among Bolivian adolescents within the context of other behavioral factors that contribute to compromised health outcomes, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Data was collected from 576 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, from six schools in La…

  5. SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim AKTEPE

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Suicide is a complex phenomenon associated with pyschological, biological and social factors. Suicide has been reported as the second or third most common cause of death in children and adolescents worldwide. Suicidal behaviour in children and adolescents will be discussed in the frame of motivational definition. Method: Published research studies and reviews on children and adolescent suicides have been reviewed. Furthermore, classical papers have been searched to obtain knowledge about suicide behavior. Results: It is reported that firearms have been the most important effect in adolescent suicide. Both fatal and nonfatal suicidal behaviors have been linked consistently to negative parent-child relationships, depression, substance use, overall number of life stressors, gender and impulsive behaviors. Discussion: Future efforts to investigate suicidal behavior should use new research methodologies that may lead to identification of the interactions between environmental factors and constitutional and biological factors that are associated with risk for suicidal behavior. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(2.000: 88-97

  6. Gene Variants Associated with Antisocial Behaviour: A Latent Variable Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Mary Jane; Lin, Haiqun; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Lee, Maria; Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Katsovich, Liliya; Olds, David L.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Leckman, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if a latent variable approach might be useful in identifying shared variance across genetic risk alleles that is associated with antisocial behaviour at age 15 years. Methods: Using a conventional latent variable approach, we derived an antisocial phenotype in 328 adolescents utilizing data from a…

  7. Exploring Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Machiavellianism in Youth: Examination of Associations with Antisocial Behavior and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.

    2013-01-01

    We sought to explore the differential associations of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, narcissistic traits, and Machiavellian traits with overt aggression, relational aggression, delinquency, behavioral dysregulation, and emotional dysregulation in a community sample of boys and girls (ages 11-17). Results indicated that the three personality…

  8. Nonresident Fathers' Parenting Style and the Adjustment of Late-Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karre, Jennifer K.; Mounts, Nina S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between nonresident fathers' parenting style, mothers' parenting style and behaviors, and depression and antisocial behavior in a sample of late-adolescent boys (n = 177). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Maternal psychological well-being was associated with fewer adolescent depression symptoms.…

  9. Adolescents' Sedentary Behaviors in Two European Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibar Solana, Alberto; Bois, Julien E.; Zaragoza, Javier; Bru, Noëlle; Paillard, Thierry; Generelo, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the correlates of objective sedentary behavior (SB) and nonschool self-reported SB in adolescents from 2 midsized cities, 1 in France (Tarbes) and 1 in Spain (Huesca). Stability of objective SB and nonschool self-reported SB were also assessed at different time points during 1 academic…

  10. Treating Depression and Oppositional Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Rachel H.; Becker-Weidman, Emily G.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Jordan, Neil; Silva, Susan G.; Rohde, Paul; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents with depression and high levels of oppositionality often are particularly difficult to treat. Few studies, however, have examined treatment outcomes among youth with both externalizing and internalizing problems. This study examines the effect of fluoxetine, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), the combination of fluoxetine and CBT, and…

  11. Parental Work Schedules and Adolescent Risky Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui; Miller, Daniel P.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Using a large contemporary data set (the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement), the authors examined the effects of parental work schedules on adolescent risky behaviors at age 13 or 14 and the mechanisms that might explain them. Structural equation modeling suggests mothers who worked more often at night spent significantly less…

  12. Research Review: The Importance of Callous-Unemotional Traits for Developmental Models of Aggressive and Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J.; White, Stuart F.

    2008-01-01

    The current paper reviews research suggesting that the presence of a callous and unemotional interpersonal style designates an important subgroup of antisocial and aggressive youth. Specifically, callous-unemotional (CU) traits (e.g., lack of guilt, absence of empathy, callous use of others) seem to be relatively stable across childhood and…

  13. Antisocial personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sociopathic personality; Sociopathy; Personality disorder - antisocial ... Cause of antisocial personality disorder is unknown. Genetic factors and environmental factors, such as child abuse, are believed to contribute to the development of ...

  14. The Role of Family, Religiosity, and Behavior in Adolescent Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, David M.; Williams, Robert J.; Mossiere, Annik M.; Schopflocher, Donald P.; el-Guebaly, Nady; Hodgins, David C.; Smith, Garry J.; Wood, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Predictors of adolescent gambling behavior were examined in a sample of 436 males and females (ages 13-16). A biopsychosocial model was used to identify key variables that differentiate between non-gambling and gambling adolescents. Logistic regression found that, as compared to adolescent male non-gamblers, adolescent male gamblers were older,…

  15. Health Promotion and Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…

  16. Manipulative and antisocial behavior in an 11-year-old boy with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Aaron D; Grafft, Amanda; Espe-Pfeifer, Patricia; Rowe, Jeffrey; Stein, Martin T

    2012-05-01

    Brian is an 11-year-old boy who presented to the emergency room with suicidal ideation and hearing voices. In the preceding weeks, he had escalating symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and bipolar disorder. His medical history was notable for complex partial epilepsy with onset at age 4 that had been well controlled with divalproate. He had several mental health diagnoses by various practitioners including oppositional defiant disorder, ADHD, and bipolar disorder. Brian's family and social history was notable for the absence of identifiable risk factors for seizures or psychiatric problems. Over the course of a week-long psychiatric hospitalization, his complaints of depression and hearing voices seemed incongruent with his behavior. His parents endorsed a long history of Brian manipulating family and friends, such as conning his friends into stealing money and giving it to him. There was increasing suspicion that Brian was contriving his presenting symptoms for secondary gains. When his parents visited, he consistently bargained for prized items such as a long sought after cell phone and his own bedroom to improve his mood. His prior diagnoses (ADHD, a mood disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder) did not capture what seemed to be his core problem--an ability and willingness to manipulate others for his own self-serving purposes. Three months later, he was seen in the pediatric neurology clinic for increased seizure frequency. In the interim, he had several very serious altercations including setting fire to his family church, an attempted break-in-and-entry, assaulting his principal and resisting the arresting officer, and a malicious planned attack on his father where he struck him in the head with a crescent wrench "in cold blood, without any emotion."

  17. Adolescent sexual behavior and childbearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabin, L S

    1994-01-01

    Low self esteem does not explain problems of adolescence, particularly unwanted pregnancy and early childbearing. This intimates that their root causes are personal rather than structural and socioeconomic, thereby allowing us to blame the victim. Contrary to popular opinion, few teens (10%) want to conceive and most teens want something other than pregnancy, indicating a need for effective intervention. Teens who were ambivalent about childbearing 2 years earlier are just as likely to have given birth as those who wanted to conceive. Teens self-concept is based on the reality of their environment, which, for most teens who have given birth, involves chronic unemployment, a culture of single parenthood in which men play no supportive role in the home, and the knowledge that teens who choose to continue to attend school despite having given birth fare the same as those who drop out of school. Structural changes (jobs and career goals), long term intervention, and continuous social support are needed to improve a teen's capacity to make choices, especially those concerning contraception. In other words, motivation must be so strong that conceptions are avoided. No family wants to go on welfare and no woman wants to have a baby while a teenager, but when teens become pregnant, they tend not to choose abortion. If welfare reform creates true opportunity for jobs, it will create the motivation to avoid pregnancy but not reduce the childbearing rate among teens that conceive. Very early maturation is correlated with very early onset of sexual activity. The very best sex education and services are unlikely to be offered at a young enough age in schools. US society is obsessed with and unwilling to talk about sex. The notion of choice is not part of poor America. Interactive interventions providing continuing support are needed to make a difference in adolescent pregnancy.

  18. Relationship of executive function and antisocial behavior and aggression in athletes%运动员执行功能与反社会行为及攻击行为的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚

    2016-01-01

    Poor executive function has been linked to increased antisocial and aggressive behavior in clinical and nonclinical populations, but no research has examined antisocial behavior in sport from a neuropsychological perspective. The present study was designed to fill this gap in the literature by investigating how cognitive function, especially executive function, relates to antisocial and aggressive behavior in athletes. 104 participants were selected from football and basketball teams. Cognitive function was assessed in young adult male and female athletes using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery ( CANTAB) . Antisocial behavior in sport and aggression were assessed via self-report instruments and were found to be positively correlated. The results show that 1 ) the executive function scoring of male athletes is negatively correlated with antisocial behavior and aggressive behavior;2) the athletes with high antisocial and aggressive behavior might not have low cognitive ability; and 3 ) gender may moderate the relationship between executive function and antisocial behavior in athletes.%在临床人群和非临床人群中,执行功能低经常会导致反社会行为和攻击行为,但没有研究从神经心理学的角度考查运动情境中的反社会行为。选取104名足球、排球项目运动员,检验运动员的认知功能,尤其是执行功能与反社会行为、攻击行为的关系。认知功能使用CANTAB测量,运动情境中的反社会行为和攻击行为使用自我报告测量。研究结果显示:1)男运动员执行功能分数与反社会行为和攻击行为呈负相关;2)反社会行为和攻击行为高的个体,认知能力不一定低;3)在运动员群体中,性别能调节执行功能和反社会行为的关系。

  19. Analysis of sexual behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teva, Inmaculada; Bermudez, M Paz; Ramiro, Maria T; Ramiro-Sanchez, Tamara

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe some characteristics of vaginal, anal and oral sexual behavior in Spanish adolescents. It was a cross-sectional descriptive population study conducted using a probabilistic sample survey. The sample was composed of 4,612 male and female adolescents, of whom 1,686 reported having penetrative sexual experience. Sample size was established with a 97% confidence level and a 3% estimation error. Data collection took place in secondary education schools. Mean age of vaginal sex initiation was 15 years. Compared to females, males reported an earlier age of anal and oral sex initiation and a larger number of vaginal and anal sexual partners. Males also reported a higher frequency of penetrative sexual relations under the influence of alcohol or other drugs. A higher percentage of females than males reported not using a condom in their first anal sexual experience. This study provides a current overview of the sexual behavior of adolescents that can be useful for the design of future programs aimed at preventing HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

  20. Delinquency and Peer Acceptance in Adolescence: A Within-Person Test of Moffitt's Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Kelly L.; Kreager, Derek A.; Osgood, D. Wayne

    2014-01-01

    We tested 2 hypotheses derived from Moffitt's (1993) taxonomic theory of antisocial behavior, both of which are central to her explanation for the rise in delinquency during adolescence. We tested whether persistently delinquent individuals become more accepted by their peers during adolescence and whether individuals who abstain from delinquent…

  1. Adolescent Gambling: A Narrative Review of Behavior and Its Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2013-01-01

    This narrative review summarizes current knowledge on adolescent gambling for the period 1990-2010, assesses adolescent gambling behavior and person and environment predictors, and suggests directions for future research. The review includes 99 studies that identified their subjects as adolescents, children, youth, and students, and discusses…

  2. Parental Power and Behaviors as Antecedents of Adolescent Conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Carolyn S.; And Others

    Several authorities have observed that a moderate degree of conformity by the young may be necessary for a society to function effectively. In order to examine the relationship between adolescents' perceptions of parental power and behavior and adolescent conformity, adolescents (N=368) in 184 families completed questionnaires concerning aspects…

  3. Behavioral Disorder amongst Adolescents Attending Secondary School in Southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Chinawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescents are prone to various forms of behavioral problems. These behavioral issues in adolescents can have serious consequences for the adolescents. Objectives. The objectives of the study are to determine the causative factors of adolescent problems and specific manifestations. Methods. Behavioral problems were investigated using a random sampling of adolescents from secondary schools in southeast Nigeria from February to April, 2014. A self-administered questionnaire was developed from Health Kids Colorado Questionnaire. Results. A total of 763 subjects completed the questionnaire. Adolescents who reported to have used tobacco 3 to 5 and 6 to 9 times during the last 30 days are just 3.14% and 3.4%, respectively. Nineteen (2.49% adolescents claimed that they have had sex before but not in the last 3 months. Adolescents who attempted suicide are from 15 years and peaked at 18. Eighty-three (11% adolescents who are 15 years old attempted suicide in a year; this peaks at 17 years where 235 (30.8% committed suicide. Majority of adolescents with behavioral disorder are from the upper class family. Conclusion. This study revealed that adolescents exhibit several forms of behavioral problems.

  4. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations with Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems,…

  5. The Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program: Adapting Behavioral Activation as a Treatment for Depression in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Elizabeth; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Schloredt, Kelly; Martell, Christopher; Rhew, Isaac; Hubley, Samuel; Dimidjian, Sona

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine implementation feasibility and initial treatment outcomes of a behavioral activation (BA) based treatment for adolescent depression, the Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program (A-BAP). A randomized, controlled trial was conducted with 60 clinically referred adolescents with a depressive disorder who were randomized to receive either 14 sessions of A-BAP or uncontrolled evidenced-based practice for depression. The urban sample was 64% female, predominantly Non-Hispanic White (67%), and had an average age of 14.9 years. Measures of depression, global functioning, activation, and avoidance were obtained through clinical interviews and/or through parent and adolescent self-report at preintervention and end of intervention. Intent-to-treat linear mixed effects modeling and logistic regression analysis revealed that both conditions produced statistically significant improvement from pretreatment to end of treatment in depression, global functioning, and activation and avoidance. There were no significant differences across treatment conditions. These findings provide the first step in establishing the efficacy of BA as a treatment for adolescent depression and support the need for ongoing research on BA as a way to enhance the strategies available for treatment of depression in this population.

  6. Emotional and Behavioral Effects of Romantic Relationships in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyan; Guo, Fei; Yang, Xiaodong; Li, Xinying; Duan, Qing; Zhang, Jie; Ge, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' romantic relationships have been associated with higher levels of depression, although their links with externalizing behavioral problems remain unclear. The present study examined the impact of adolescent romantic relationships on depression and externalizing behaviors in a large sample of 10,509 Chinese secondary school students…

  7. Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

  8. Developmental Cascade Model for Adolescent Substance Use from Infancy to Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Rina D.; Lessard, Jared; Colder, Craig R.; Livingston, Jennifer; Casey, Meghan; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    A developmental cascade model for adolescent substance use beginning in infancy was examined in a sample of children with alcoholic and nonalcoholic parents. The model examined the role of parents' alcohol diagnoses, depression and antisocial behavior in a cascading process of risk via 3 major hypothesized pathways: first, via parental…

  9. Addiction and "Generation Me:" Narcissistic and Prosocial Behaviors of Adolescents with Substance Dependency Disorder in Comparison to Normative Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rebecca R.; Johnson, Shannon M.; Exline, Julie J.; Post, Stephen G.; Pagano, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore narcissistic and prosocial behaviors as reported by adolescents with and without substance dependency disorder (SDD). This study employs a quasi-experimental design using SDD adolescents compared with two normative samples of adolescents. In comparison to normative adolescents, adolescents with SDD were…

  10. Delinquent and Aggressive Behavior and Social Desirability Among Roma and Non-Roma Adolescents in Slovakia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2016-02-01

    Rates of aggression and delinquency are assumed to be higher among Roma and other minorities, but sound evidence of this is lacking. Our aim was to assess delinquent and aggressive behavior among Roma and non-Roma adolescents and the effects on ethnic differences of parental education and social desirability. We conducted a cross-sectional study among Roma from separated and segregated settlements in the eastern part of Slovakia (N = 330; Mage = 14.50; interview) and non-Roma adolescents (N = 722; Mage = 14.86; questionnaire). The effect of ethnicity on antisocial behaviors was analyzed using linear regression (crude) and adjusted for gender, parental education, and social desirability. Adjustment for social desirability diminished the ethnic differences in delinquency (B = 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [2.12, -0.04]), led to an increase in the differences in hostility (B = 2.43; 95% CI = [0.87, 3.99]), and led to the disappearance of differences in physical aggression (B = 0.45; 95% CI = [1.14, 2.07]). Parental education did not affect the associations in an important way. Our findings indicate that Roma are not that much different from non-Roma, in terms of antisocial behavior, which contradicts the general perception of Roma. Our findings should be confirmed in other settings.

  11. Individual and environmental influences on adolescent eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; French, Simone

    2002-03-01

    Food choices of adolescents are not consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Food intakes tend to be low in fruits, vegetables, and calcium-rich foods and high in fat. Skipping meals is also a concern among adolescents, especially girls. Factors influencing eating behaviors of adolescents need to be better understood to develop effective nutrition interventions to change eating behaviors. This article presents a conceptual model based on social cognitive theory and an ecological perspective for understanding factors that influence adolescent eating behaviors and food choices. In this model, adolescent eating behavior is conceptualized as a function of individual and environmental influences. Four levels of influence are described: individual or intrapersonal influences (eg, psychosocial, biological); social environmental or interpersonal (eg, family and peers); physical environmental or community settings (eg, schools, fast food outlets, convenience stores); and macrosystem or societal (eg, mass media, marketing and advertising, social and cultural norms).

  12. Risky Business: Exploring Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan; Peterson, Fred L.

    2005-01-01

    Ongoing behavioral research has documented the growing prevalence of adolescent health risk behaviors, such as tobacco use, sexual activity, alcohol and other substance use, nutritional behavior, physical inactivity, and intentional injury. Newer youth risk behaviors, such as pathological gambling, are emerging as threats to public health. Risk,…

  13. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Crews, Fulton T.; Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative–motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increa...

  14. Are Suicidal Behaviors Contagious in Adolescence?: Using Longitudinal Data to Examine Suicide Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrutyn, Seth; Mueller, Anna S

    2014-04-01

    Though Durkheim argued that strong social relationships protect individuals from suicide, we posit that these relationships have the potential to increase individuals' vulnerability when they expose them to suicidality. Using three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we evaluate whether new suicidal thoughts and attempts are in part responses to exposure to the suicide attempts of role models, specifically friends and family. We find that the suicide attempts of role models do in fact trigger new suicidal thoughts and in some cases attempts, even after significant controls are introduced. Moreover, we find that these effects fade with time, that girls are more vulnerable to them than boys, and that the relationship to the role model-for teenagers at least-matters. Friends appear to be more salient role models for both boys and girls. Our findings suggest that exposure to suicidal behaviors in significant others may teach individuals new ways to deal with emotional distress, namely by becoming suicidal. This reinforces the idea that the structure - and content - of social networks conditions their role in preventing suicidality. Specifically, social ties can be conduits of not just social support, but also anti-social behaviors, like suicidality.

  15. Pathological Internet Use and Risk-Behaviors among European Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Durkee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE. Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ. Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS. A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752, with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents.

  16. Pathological Internet Use and Risk-Behaviors among European Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Floderus, Birgitta; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Hoven, Christina W; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar A; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta

    2016-03-08

    Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents.

  17. Fear extinction, persistent disruptive behavior and psychopathic traits : fMRI in late adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohn, M.D.; van Lith, K.; Kindt, M.; Pape, L.E.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van den Brink, W.; Veltman, D.J.; Popma, A.

    2016-01-01

    Children diagnosed with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD, i.e. Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder), especially those with psychopathic traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe antisocial behavior. Reduced fear conditioning has been proposed to underlie persistent ant

  18. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N = 887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic…

  19. Gender, Age, and Behavior Differences in Early Adolescent Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen L.; Teufel, James A.; Birch, David A.; Kancherla, Vijaya

    2006-01-01

    Early adolescents in the United States are increasingly exposed to a culture of worrisome messages. A degree of adolescent worry is normal, but the likelihood of a young person being anxious or depressed increases with the perceived number of worries. This study examined the effect of age, gender, and worry behavior on frequency of 8 adolescent…

  20. Transition-Marking Behaviors of Adolescent Males at First Intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Ann L.; Flanigan, Beverly J.

    1993-01-01

    Examined male transition-marking behaviors from adolescence into adulthood at first intercourse. Findings from 80 adolescent males revealed that alcohol use at first intercourse was unrelated to use of contraceptives at that time but was inversely related to whether first intercourse was planned. Planning was positively related to contraceptive…

  1. Acceptance-Enhanced Behavior Therapy for Trichotillomania in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Kathi M.; Walther, Michael R.; Joseph, Jessica M.; Robinson, Jordan; Ricketts, Emily J.; Bowe, William E.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the efficacy of Acceptance Enhanced Behavior Therapy (AEBT) for the treatment of trichotillomania (TTM) in adults, data are limited with respect to the treatment of adolescents. Our case series illustrates the use of AEBT for TTM in the treatment of two adolescents. The AEBT protocol (Woods & Twohig, 2008) is…

  2. Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Obesity and Risk Behaviors in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…

  3. Adolescents' Sleep Behaviors and Perceptions of Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. Methods: General education classes were…

  4. ACE inhibitors could be therapeutic for antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobgood, Donna K

    2013-11-01

    Antisocial personality traits are an important topic for research. The societal cost of these behaviors encourages efforts at a better understanding of central nervous system causes. Catecholamine genes are being studied to facilitate this understanding, and some tentative findings are being reached about several of these genes. It seems that many genes play a role to produce antisocial behaviors so complexity of elucidating each gene is obvious. One conclusion that could be drawn from the current research findings is that DA2 like receptors (DRD2, DRD3, DRD4) with alleles that decrease neurotransmission are facilitatory of antisocial behaviors. DA2 like receptors cause neuronal firing to inhibit many peripheral functions through adenylyl cyclase inhibition. When these receptors are less active by genetically decreased density, lower affinity, or by low dopamine levels as final common pathways then inhibition is released and a state of disinhibition can be said to describe this state. Peripheral metabolism is increased and behavioral activation is noted. Renin is disinhibited in this setting thus allowing sympathetic nervous system activation. The fight or flight behaviors thus produced, in the extreme, would be the setting of antisocial behavior. Research validates this hypothesis. Understanding this final common pathway toward antisocial behavior should lead to better treatment for individuals with this pattern of behavior before they have caused harm to themselves and others. ACE inhibitors are well tolerated drugs used in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure and would also treat antisocial behavior disorders.

  5. The Home and Community Social Behaviour Scales (HCBS): Dimensionality in Social Competence and Antisocial Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukkelberg, Silje; Ogden, Terje

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated dimensionality in the Home and Community Social Behaviour Scales (HCSBS) that assess social competence (Peer Relations and Self-Management/Compliance) and antisocial behaviour (Defiant/Disruptive and Antisocial/Aggressive behaviour) in children and adolescents. The four scales comprising 64 items were completed by 551…

  6. Sexual behavior in Spanish adolescents of divorced parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgilés, Mireia; Espada, José P; Johnson, Blair T; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Carratalá, Elena

    2012-05-01

    Marital breakup has been associated with numerous behavioral problems in children, such as sexual risk behaviors. This research is the first to examine sexual behaviors of Spanish adolescents related to whether their parents were married or divorced. Participants were 342 boys and girls aged between 14 and 18 years. The sample provided confidential information about their sexual behavior and birth control methods. Significant differences were only found in percentages of adolescents who had engaged in mutual masturbation, intercourse, or oral sex, and who had practiced these sexual relations in the last six months, in both cases, they were higher when the parents had broken their marital relationship. Regarding adolescents of divorced parents, engaging in intercourse is more likely in older teenagers who live with a stepparent. Moreover, older adolescents who were younger when parents divorced and who live in a reconstituted family, have more sexual partners. These and other findings are discussed.

  7. A Prospective Study of Adolescent Suicidal Behavior Following Hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cheryl A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Identifies specific predictors of suicidal behavior in 100 adolescents during a 6-month follow-up period after psychiatric hospitalization. Eighteen percent reported suicidal behavior during the follow-up period, and this behavior was associated with suicidal thoughts, family dysfunction, and dysthymia. It was not associated with initial…

  8. Risk sexual behavior of adolescents and HIV / AIDS prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Balážová, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis titled Risk sexual behavior of adolescents and HIV / AIDS prevention focuses on biological and emotional development of adolescents, describes sexual behaviors, sexually transmitted diseases and focuses on the prevention of STDs, especially HIV and AIDS. The practical part determines, based on a quantitative questionnaire survey, knowledge of pupils, secondary vocational schools in the prevention of sexual diseases and compares students' knowledge about specific sexual dise...

  9. Mapping the academic problem behaviors of adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Margaret H; Altszuler, Amy R; Morrow, Anne S; Merrill, Brittany M

    2014-12-01

    This study possessed 2 aims: (a) to develop and validate a clinician-friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and (b) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Within a sample of 324 adolescents with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision diagnosed ADHD (age M = 13.07, SD = 1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, interrater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth.

  10. Understanding HIV Testing Behaviors of Minority Adolescents: A Health Behavior Model Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Schnall, Rebecca; Rojas, Marlene; Travers, Jasmine

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults are the fastest-growing age group of people living with HIVinfection in the United States. Yet many adolescents and young adults with high-risk behaviors for HIV are unaware of their HIV status and have never had an HIV test. The purpose of our work was to understand minority adolescents’ beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors related to HIV testing. We conducted focus group sessions with 41 minority adolescents to assess their perceptions about HIV testing. We triangu...

  11. Cognitive control deficits associated with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeier, Joshua D; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Hiatt Racer, Kristina D; Newman, Joseph P

    2012-07-01

    Antisociality has been linked to a variety of executive functioning deficits, including poor cognitive control. Surprisingly, cognitive control deficits are rarely found in psychopathic individuals, despite their notoriously severe and persistent antisocial behavior. In fact, primary (low-anxious) psychopathic individuals display superior performance on cognitive control-type tasks under certain circumstances. To clarify these seemingly contradictory findings, we administered a response competition (i.e., flanker) task to incarcerated offenders, who were assessed for Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) symptoms and psychopathy. As hypothesized, APD related to poorer accuracy, especially on incongruent trials. Contrary to expectation, however, the same pattern of results was found in psychopathy. Additional analyses indicated that these effects of APD and psychopathy were associated with overlapping variance. The findings suggest that psychopathy and APD symptoms are both associated with deficits in cognitive control, and that this deficit relates to general antisociality as opposed to a specific antisocial syndrome.

  12. Peer relations, adolescent behavior, and public health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea

    2008-01-01

    Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.

  13. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative–motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increased lifetime risks for the development of alcohol dependence, violence, and injuries. Brain synapses, myelination, and neural circuits mature in adolescence to adult levels in parallel with increased reflection on the consequence of actions and reduced impulsivity and thrill seeking. Alcohol binge drinking could alter human development, but variations in genetics, peer groups, family structure, early life experiences, and the emergence of psychopathology in humans confound studies. As adolescence is common to mammalian species, preclinical models of binge drinking provide insight into the direct impact of alcohol on adolescent development. This review relates human findings to basic science studies, particularly the preclinical studies of the Neurobiology of Adolescent Drinking in Adulthood (NADIA) Consortium. These studies focus on persistent adult changes in neurobiology and behavior following adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE), a model of underage drinking. NADIA studies and others find that AIE results in the following: increases in adult alcohol drinking, disinhibition, and social anxiety; altered adult synapses, cognition, and sleep; reduced adult neurogenesis, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurons; and increased neuroimmune gene expression and epigenetic modifiers of gene expression. Many of these effects are specific to adolescents and not found in parallel adult studies. AIE can cause a persistence of adolescent-like synaptic physiology, behavior, and sensitivity

  14. Within-Family Conflict Behaviors as Predictors of Conflict in Adolescent Romantic Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Nancy; Cohan, Catherine L.; Burns, Andrew; Thompson, Louisa

    2008-01-01

    Continuity in conflict behaviors from (a) adolescents' behavior with parents and their behavior with romantic partners and (b) from parents' marriage to adolescents' romantic relationships were examined in a sample of 58 mother-father-adolescent families and the adolescents' romantic partners. The social relations model was used to analyze…

  15. Systematic Review of Social Network Analysis in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Huang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social networks are important in adolescent smoking behavior. Previous research indicates that peer context is a major causal factor of adolescent smoking behavior. To date, however, little is known about the influence of peer group structure on adolescent smoking behavior. Methods: Studies that examined adolescent social networks with…

  16. Adolescent Suicidal Behavior and Substance Use: Developmental Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M. Dougherty

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent suicidal behaviors and substance use are disturbingly common. Research suggests overlap of some of the etiological mechanisms for both adolescent suicidal behavior and substance use, yet clear understanding of the complex relations between these behaviors and their causal underpinnings is lacking. A growing body of evidence and a diathesis model (Mann et al. 1999; Mann, 2003 highlight the importance of impulse control as a proximal risk factor for adolescent suicidal and substance use behaviors. This literature review extends current theory on the relationships between adolescent suicidal behavior and substance use by: (1 examining how, when, and to what extent adolescent development is affected by poor impulse control, stressful life events, substance use behavior, and biological factors; (2 presenting proposed causal mechanisms by which these risk factors interact to increase risk for suicidal behaviors and substance use; and (3 proposing specific new hypotheses to extend the diathesis model to adolescents at risk for suicide and substance use. More specifically, new hypotheses are presented that predict bidirectional relationships between stressful life events and genetic markers of 5-HT dysregulation; substance use behavior and impulsivity; and substance use behavior and suicide attempts. The importance of distinguishing between different developmental trajectories of suicidal and substance use behaviors, and the effects of specific risk and protective mechanisms are discussed. Use of new statistical approaches that provide for the comparison of latent growth curves and latent class models is recommended to identify differences in developmental trajectories of suicidal behavior and substance use. Knowledge gained from these prospective longitudinal methods should lead to greater understanding on the timing, duration, and extent to which specific risk and protective factors influence the outcomes of suicidal behavior and substance

  17. Beyond Screen Time: Assessing Recreational Sedentary Behavior among Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine W. Bauer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most studies of sedentary behavior have focused on television use or screen time. This study aims to examine adolescent girls' participation in a variety of recreational sedentary behaviors (e.g., talking on the phone and hanging around, and their association with physical activity (PA, dietary behaviors, and body mass index. Data were from a sample of 283 adolescent girls. Recreational sedentary behavior, PA, and dietary behaviors were self-reported, and girls' height and weight were measured. Over 95% of girls engaged in at least one recreational sedentary behavior during the recall period. Watching television and hanging around were the most common behaviors. Watching television, using the Internet, and hanging around were associated with less PA; watching television, hanging around, and talking on the phone were associated with less healthful dietary behaviors. No associations were found with body mass index. Interventions may benefit from capitalizing on and intervening upon girls' common recreational sedentary behaviors.

  18. Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Suicidal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joav Merrick

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been assumed that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. The few studies that have been conducted contest this assumption, and in fact, the findings showed that the characteristics of suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability are very similar to other adolescents without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the few studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population.

  19. Parenting Behavior, Quality of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship, and Adolescent Functioning in Four Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    The cross-ethnic similarity in the pattern of associations among parenting behavior (support and authoritative and restrictive control), the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship (disclosure and positive and negative quality), and several developmental outcomes (aggressive behavior, delinquent behavior, and global self-esteem) was tested.…

  20. Social-cognitive correlates of risky adolescent cycling behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiter Robert AC

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bicycle use entails high safety and health risks especially for adolescents. Most safety education programs aimed at adolescents focus on accident statistics and risk perceptions. This paper proposes the investigation of the social-cognitive correlates of risky cycling behaviors of adolescents prior to developing safety education programs. Method Secondary school students aged 13 to 18 years (n = 1446 filled out questionnaires regarding bicycle behavior, risky intentions, accident experience, and social-cognitive determinants as suggested by the theory of planned behavior. Results Regression analysis revealed that the proximal variables (i.e., self-efficacy, attitudes towards drunk driving, personal norm regarding safekeeping of self and others, and compared risk were able to predict 17% of the variance of risky behavior and 23% of the variance of risky intentions. The full model explained respectively 29% and 37% of the variance in risky behavior and risky intentions. Adolescents with positive attitudes towards risky behavior and low sense of responsibility report risky behavior, even when having been (close to an accident. Conclusions Adolescents realize whether they are risk takers or not. This implies that the focus of education programs should not be on risk perceptions, but on decreasing positive attitudes towards alcohol in traffic and increasing sense of responsibility instead. Cognitions regarding near accidents should be studied, the role of safe cycling self-efficacy is unclear.

  1. Adolescents' emotional reactions to parental cancer : effect on emotional and behavioral problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donofrio, Stacey; Hoekstra, Harald J.; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.; Visser, Annemieke; Huizinga, Gea A.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined adolescents' emotional reactions to parental cancer and explored relationships between emotional reactions and adolescents' emotional/behavioral problems. METHODS: Two studies were performed: retrospective and prospective. A total of 221 adolescents (105 sons) of 138 patients

  2. Peer influence on snacking behavior in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, E.J.; Larsen, J.K.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Geenen, R.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the association of adolescents' snack and soft drink consumption with friendship group snack and soft drink consumption, availability of snacks and soft drinks at school, and personal characteristics, snack and soft drink consumption was assessed in 749 adolescents (398 girls, 351 boys, a

  3. Bad Romance: Sex Differences in the Longitudinal Association Between Romantic Relationships and Deviant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C; Dmitrieva, Julia; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    The current study investigates how romantic relationships are related to antisocial behavior longitudinally among delinquent males and females (n=354; ages 14-25). While being in a relationship or not is unrelated to antisocial behavior, romantic partner characteristics (antisocial behavior and antisocial influence) are associated with greater antisocial behavior. As males age, they become increasingly resistant to romantic partner characteristics. In contrast, females become increasingly vulnerable to the effects of romantic partner characteristics on antisocial behavior as they age, particularly when these relationships are relatively shorter. Females in shorter romantic relationships with partners who are antisocial or exert antisocial influence are at risk of persisting in antisocial behavior.

  4. Empathy and Drug Use Behaviors among African-American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2011-01-01

    The current study proposed that empathy may indirectly play a protective role for adolescents in drug use behaviors and that this relationship will be mediated by self-regulatory strategies found in drug refusal efficacy. We predict that empathy will be linked to prosocial behavior and aggression, though we do not believe that they will mediate…

  5. Adolescent problem behavior in school : the role of peer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geven, S.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a notable period during which a considerable share of students tends to engage in problem behavior in school. Students for example skip class, fail to do their best in school, or have serious arguments with their teachers. A student’s decision to engage in such behavior is not usually

  6. Friends: The Role of Peer Influence across Adolescent Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined peer influence for 1,969 adolescents across 5 risk behaviors: smoking, alcohol consumption, marijuana use, tobacco chewing, and sexual debut. Results show that a random same-sex peer predicts a teen's risk behavior initiation through influence to initiate cigarette and marijuana use, and influence to initiate and stop alcohol and chewing…

  7. Cognitive Behavioral Interventions with Maltreated Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduyn, Chrissie; Calam, Rachel

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of cognitive behavioral interventions with abused children and adolescents covers use of cognitive therapy with adults, therapeutic processes in cognitive therapy, involvement of parents and carers in cognitive behavioral therapy, and cognitive schema and maltreatment. Application is made to types of abuse (physical, emotional, sexual)…

  8. Exposure to Terrorism and Violent Behavior among Adolescents in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Chen, Merav Solomon; Itzhaky, Haya

    2007-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that exposure to terrorism may lead to violent behavior, but there is little empirical research on the relationship between these two variables. In the present paper, we examined the extent to which exposure to terrorism contributes to violent behavior among adolescents. In addition, we considered the role of environmental…

  9. Family dysfunction in adolescents with suicidal behavior and in adolescents with conduct disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović-Kovačević Svetlana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The period of life known as adolescence generally refers to transition from childhood to adulthood. Adolescents' progress toward autonomy involves remaining connected with, as well as separated from parents. Young people and their parents usually have mixed feelings about adolescent autonomy and attachment. An estimated 50% of children born in the 80s have spent part of their developmental years in single-parent households. Divorce is almost always a stressful event in children's lives. Youthful suicide rate has increased dramatically and is the third leading cause of death among 15-19 year olds. Conduct disorder is one of the most frequently diagnosed conditions in adolescents. Suicidal adolescents and adolescents with conduct disorder are much more likely than their peers to have grown up in disrupted, disorganized homes with lack of attachment between parents and their children. Material and methods This prospective study was carried out during 2002, 2003, and 2004. The research included 60 adolescents treated at the Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Novi Sad, 30 with diagnosed conduct disorder and 30 with suicidal behavior. Results Along with other kinds of distress, suicidal adolescents have experienced an escalation of family problems a few months prior to attempted suicide. Discussion Divorce and life in single-parent households is almost always a stressful period in children's lives. Conduct disorder and suicidal behavior represent a desperate cry for help. Conclusion Most adolescents in both groups live in single-parent house­holds. These young people have frequently passed into adolescence with little reason to feel that they could rely on their parents for support, or on their home as a place of sanctuary. .

  10. SEXUAL HEALTH BEHAVIORS OF ADOLESCENTS IN POKHARA, NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Niranjan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adolescent (10–19 years is a transition of age during which hazardous sexual health behaviors may be adopted; increasing vulnerability to several kinds of behavioral disorders like drug use, unsafe sexual act leading to reproductive ill health. Objective of the study was to assess sexual health behaviors of adolescents in Pokhara, Nepal. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 15–19 years adolescents studying in grades 11 and 12. Probability sampling techniques were applied. A structured, pretested, envelope sealed self administered questionnaire was distributed among all (1584 adolescents of the 11 and 12 grades of selected institutions. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (16 versions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. RESULTS: About 19.37% adolescents had sexual contact and male participation was higher than females (P<0.05. Nearly one fifth of unmarried were found to be involved in sexual activities and most of them had first sex between 15-19 years age (median age 15.26 years. Of those who had sex, 6.91% had adopted all the three: vaginal, oral and anal sexes and majority had single followed by 2-5 sex partners in their sexual intercourse in the last one year and last month. About 13.93% adolescents were found to be indulged in group sex. Most of them had sex with regular partners and commercial sex workers. More than eight out of every ten who had sex had used contraceptive methods and condom was method of choice (94.77%. CONCLUSIONS: Premarital sexual involvement was prevalent among adolescents; sex with commercial sex workers and non commercial sex partners was perceived to be risk. Behavior change intervention strategies need to be formulated and implemented to promote adolescent reproductive and sexual health.

  11. Behavior assessments of pregnant adolescents using TFA Systems (tm)

    OpenAIRE

    Bundy, Patricia Pulliam

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess the thoughts, feelings, and actions of pregnant teens at significant decision-making times: time of intercourse, confirmation of pregnancy, and six weeks post delivery. Factors associated with adolescent pregnancy and patterns of behavior were analyzed. Examination of the extant literature on adolescent pregnancy yielded insight into parental, socio-economic, and partner factors. The interview protocol emanated from the literature anal...

  12. Dimensions of Peer Influences and Their Relationship to Adolescents' Aggression, Other Problem Behaviors and Prosocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D; Thompson, Erin L; Mehari, Krista R

    2016-11-03

    Although peers are a major influence during adolescence, the relative importance of specific mechanisms of peer influence on the development of problem behavior is not well understood. This study investigated five domains of peer influence and their relationships to adolescents' problem and prosocial behaviors. Self-report and teacher ratings were obtained for 1787 (53 % female) urban middle school students. Peer pressure for fighting and friends' delinquent behavior were uniquely associated with aggression, drug use and delinquent behavior. Friends' prosocial behavior was uniquely associated with prosocial behavior. Friends' support for fighting and friends' support for nonviolence were not as clearly related to behavior. Findings were generally consistent across gender. This study highlights the importance of studying multiple aspects of peer influences on adolescents' behavior.

  13. The stability of externalizing behavior in boys from preschool age to adolescence: A person-oriented analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Stemmler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuity of externalizing behaviors such as aggression, delinquency and hyperactivity has been noted by many researchers. There is also increasing knowledge on different developmental subtypes of problem behavior. In previous person-oriented analyses we found two types of externalizing problems in boys (Stemmler et al., 2005, 2008; Stemmler & Lösel, 2010. One pattern contained externalizing problems only, whereas the other type showed both externalizing and internalizing problems. The present study addressed these two groups in an extended prospective longitudinal design. It was investigated whether the groups remained stable over time and whether the two types of antisociality were related to offending in adolescence. The sample consisted of 295 boys from the Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study (Lösel et al., 2009. Social behavior was rated by mothers, kindergarten educators, and school teachers; offending was self-reported by the adolescents. The time lag between the first and last data assessment was more than eight years.Approximately nine percent of the boys revealed stable externalizing behavior problems over the entire assessment period. Criminal behavior correlated positively with externalizing problems and negatively with internalizing problems. In a person-oriented Prediction-Configural Frequency Analysis (P-CFA; von Eye, 2002 the ‘externalizing only’ pattern could be replicated and suggested high stability over time. Moreover, this pattern was clearly related to self-reported delinquent behavior. In contrast to our previous studies with shorter follow up periods, the ‘combined externalizing and internalizing’ pattern did not appear as a type. It was also not significantly related to juvenile offending. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed.

  14. Pathological Fire Setting Behavior in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmagul Helvaci Celik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pathological fire setting behavior is characterized by various types of fire setting behavior that lasts at least 6 months. This behavior can be observed both during childhood and adolescence and it develops as a result of the complex interaction between individual, social and environmental factors. Sample population based studies show that fire setting behavior occurs in children and adolescents by 5-10%. The studies that have been conducted have yielded to various theories and findings concerning the mechanism of occurrence of pathological fire setting behavior, the factors that affect this behavior and the demographic, individual, family and environmental characteristics of the children and adolescents who engage in such behavior. The objectives of effective treatment strategies are reducing fire setting behavior as well as making significant changes in the causes underlying the psychopathology. Outpatient care is the preferred method. In addition, there are some inpatient treatment programs designed especially for young people who set fires. The two most common approaches in intervention concerning fire setting behavior are firefighting (fire service based training interventions and mental health based psycho-social interventions. Even though numerous studies have been conducted in the world concerning pathological fire setting behavior from the 19th century onwards, no epidemiological data or study on pathological fire setting behavior exists in Turkey. This seems to be the case in our country despite the fact that fire setting behavior at various degrees and even arson occurs in children and adolescents and results in material damage as well as serious injury and even death especially in the context of children who are pushed into crime. Our objective is to discuss pathological fire setting behavior in line with the literature on the subject, to increase the awareness of the fire service institutions and to shed light on further studies to

  15. The Dual Role of Media Internalization in Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Ann; Beyens, Ine; Eggermont, Steven; Vandenbosch, Laura

    2016-12-16

    Sexualizing media content is prevalent in various media types. Sexualizing media messages and portrayals emphasize unattainable body and appearance ideals as the primary components of sexual desirability. The internalization of these ideals is positively related to self-objectification and sexual body consciousness. In turn, self-objectification and sexual body consciousness affect adolescents' sexual behavior, albeit in opposing directions. While objectifying self-perceptions are linked to higher levels of sexual behavior, body consciousness during physical intimacy is linked to lower levels of sexual behavior. Based on this knowledge, the present three-wave panel study of 824 Belgian, predominant heterosexual adolescents (M age = 15.33; SD = 1.45) proposes a dual-pathway model that investigates two different pathways through which the internalization of media ideals may impact adolescents' sexual behavior. An inhibitory pathway links media internalization to lower levels of sexual behavior through sexual body consciousness, and a supportive pathway links media internalization to higher levels of sexual behavior through self-objectification. Structural equation analyses supported the proposed dual-pathway, showing that the impact of media internalization on adolescents' sexual behavior proceeds through an inhibitory pathway and a supportive pathway. Regarding the supportive pathway, media internalization (W1) positively predicted sexual behavior (W3), through valuing appearance over competence (W2). Regarding the inhibitory pathway, media internalization (W1) positively predicted body surveillance, which, in turn, positively predicted sexual body consciousness (all W2). Sexual body consciousness (W2) is negatively related to sexual behavior (W3). From a sexual developmental perspective, these findings emphasize the importance of guiding adolescents in interpreting and processing sexualizing media messages.

  16. Aggression toward Female Partners by At-Risk Young Men: The Contribution of Male Adolescent Friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Yoerger, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Examined deviancy training as a risk factor for aggression toward female partners among boys and young men in the longitudinal Oregon Youth Study. Found that the relation of adolescent deviant peer association and later aggression toward partners was mediated by antisocial behavior. Observed hostile talk about women with male peers explained…

  17. "I Got Some Swords and You're Dead!": Violent Fantasy, Antisocial Behavior, Friendship, and Moral Sensibility in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Judy; Hughes, Claire

    2001-01-01

    Investigated relations between interest in violent fantasy at age 4 years and children's social understanding, behavior, and interactions with friends 2 years later. Found that "hard-to-manage" children showed higher rates of violent fantasy. Across both groups, violent fantasy was related to later poor executive control and language…

  18. Dimensions of impulsive behavior and treatment outcomes for adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Millie; Penfold, Robert B; Hawkins, Ariane; Maccombs, Jared; Wallace, Bryan; Reynolds, Brady

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent cigarette smoking rates remain a significant public health concern, and as a result there is a continued need to understand factors that contribute to an adolescent's ability to reduce or quit smoking. Previous research suggests that impulsive behavior may be associated with treatment outcomes for smoking. The current research (N = 81) explored 3 dimensions of impulsive behavior as predictors of treatment response from a social-cognitive type program for adolescent smokers (i.e., Not On Tobacco; N-O-T). Measures included laboratory assessments of delay discounting, sustained attention, and behavioral disinhibition. A self-report measure of impulsivity was also included. Adolescent smokers who had better sustained attention were more likely to reduce or quit smoking by the end of treatment. No other measures of impulsivity were significantly associated with treatment response. From these findings, an adolescent smoker's ability to sustain attention appears to be an important behavioral attribute to consider when implementing smoking cessation programs such as N-O-T.

  19. Dimensions of impulsive behavior in adolescent smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Sherecce; Collins, Christine; Leraas, Kristen; Reynolds, Brady

    2009-10-01

    Robust associations have been identified between impulsive personality characteristics and cigarette smoking during adolescents, indicating that impulsive behavior may play an important role in the initiation of cigarette smoking. The present study extended this research by using laboratory behavioral assessments to explore relationships between three specific dimensions of impulsive behavior (impulsive decision-making, inattention, and disinhibition) and adolescent cigarette smoking. Participants were male and female adolescent smokers (n = 50) and nonsmokers (n = 50). Adolescent smokers were more impulsive on a measure of decision-making; however, there were significant smoking status by gender interaction effects for impulsive inattention and disinhibition. Male smokers were most impulsive on the measure of inattention, but male smokers were least impulsive on the measure of disinhibition. Correlations between biomarkers of smoking and impulsive inattention and disinhibition were found for females but not males. The current findings, coupled with previous findings (Reynolds et al., 2007), indicate there may be robust gender difference in associations between certain types of impulsive behavior and cigarette smoking during adolescence.

  20. Contextual influence of Taiwanese adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavioral intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Neilands, Torsten B; Chan, Shu-Min; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2016-09-01

    This study examined parental, peer, and media influences on Taiwanese adolescents' attitudes toward premarital sex and intent to engage in sexual behavior. Participants included a convenience sample of 186 adolescents aged 13-15 recruited from two middle schools in Taiwan. Parental influence was indicated by perceived parental disapproval toward premarital sex and perceived peer sexual behavior was used to measure peer influence. Media influence was measured by the adolescents' perception of whether the media promotes premarital sex. We conducted structural equation modeling to test a hypothesized model. The findings suggested that the perceived sexual behavior of peers had the strongest effect on Taiwanese adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavioral intent, while parental disapproval and media influence also significantly contributed to adolescents' sexual attitudes and intent to engage in sex. School nurses are in an ideal position to coordinate essential resources and implement evidence-based sexually transmitted infection and HIV/AIDS prevention interventions that address issues associated with the influence of parents, peers, and media.

  1. Configurations of Adolescents' Peer Experiences : Associations With Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Parental Problem Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Meeus, Wim; Verhulst, Frank C.; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents' peer experiences embrace behavior, relationship quality, status, and victimization, but studies that account for multiple dimensions are rare. Using latent profile modeling and measures of peer behavior, relationship quality, peer status, and victimization assessed from 1,677 adolescent

  2. WHAT’S ON YOUR MIND? MEASURING SELF-PROMOTIONAL AND ANTI-SOCIAL BEHAVIORS ON FACEBOOK AMONG TERTIARY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave E. Marcial

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The social media revolutionized the power of collaboration and networking. If overused and misused, it provides negative impacts among users. This paper presents the prevalence of self-promotional behaviors on Facebook among students in a university in the Philippines. A total of 106 college students were randomly selected as respondents of the study. An adapted survey questionnaire was used during analysis. The results show that the respondents promote their selves on Facebook every semester. Specifically, the result shows that the respondents update their status, post photographs of their selves and change profile pictures once a month. On the other hand, the respondents update their profile information, tag pictures of their selves and upload “selfie” pictures every semester. It is concluded that the students sometimes possess behaviors that tend to be tied to narcissism on Facebook.

  3. [Behavioral disorders and substance abuse in adolescents with mental retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk

    2014-01-01

    The percentage of people with mental retardation in the general population is estimated at about 2.3%, with adolescence (15-20 years) constituting the development period during which a peak in rates of mental retardation is observed. The increased prevalence of adolescence may be explained from the fact that the specified requirements of the school initially, and society later, inevitably lead to comparative evaluation of the teen with mental retardation in relation to peers, thus making mental retardation more apparent. Adolescents with mental retardation face a number of physical and psychological needs which are not often distinguishable and as a consequence undergo the deterioration of their already burdened quality of life. In particular, mental health problems occur 3 to 4 times more often in adolescents with mental retardation compared with adolescents of the general population. This review presents the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the correlation between behavioral disorders, substance use and the possible comorbidity in adolescents with intellectual disability, both at community level and residential care level. Epidemiological data indicate that behavioral disorders are among the most common types of psychopathology in mentally retarded adolescents with the severity and symptoms varying depending on the personal characteristics of each adolescent. Regarding substance use, the available data show that the rates of substance use (alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs) are lower in this specific population group but the differences over the last years tend to be eliminated. Finally, according to the few surveys that were examined referring to the comorbidity of behavioral disorders and substance use in adolescents with intellectual disability, the results were contradictory. Specifically, while behavioral disorders continued to be one of the most common types of psychopathology, the related substances disorders indicated lower rates compared to

  4. Determination of Risky Health Behaviors of Immigrant and Nonimmigrant Adolescents

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    Asli Kalkim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AiM: This study was planned as a descriptive study in order to investigate risky health behaviors of immigrant and non immigrant adolescents. METHODS: The study was performed in a high school situated Izmir between the dates of October and November 2008. Sample group of this research was included 293 immigrant and 813 non immigrant adolescents. Data were collected by using Socio-demographic question form and and Health Risk Behaviors Scale. Data were collected from students with a technical pencil-paper by researcher in classroom. Frequencies, one way anova (post-hoc bonferroni and independent t test were used with Stastical Package for Social Science 13.0 program for statistical analysis of data. Written consent was taken from Izmir Directorate of Education to carry out the study. Oral consent was taken from the school manager and the students. RESULTS: Mean age of adolescents was 15.42+/-0.03. It was determined that risky health behaviors mean score (t: 2.161, p: 0.031 and physical activity (t: 2.132, p: 0.033, nutrition (t:3.030, p: 0.003, hygiene (t: 3.850, p: 0.000 sub-scales mean scores of immigrant adolescent were statistically higher than non immigrant adolescents (p<0.05. CONCLUSiONS: Consequently, this study was important to health professionals worked primary health services and school health services The study have significant data about migration affects on health behaviors of adolescent to show health professionals worked primary care and school health services and to plan health services towards adolescents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(4.000: 289-294

  5. Associations of Health-Risk Behaviors and Health Cognition With Sexual Orientation Among Adolescents in School

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dong-Yun; Kim, Seo-Hee; Woo, Sook Young; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Homosexual adolescents may face significant health disparities. We examined health-risk behaviors and health cognition related to homosexual behavior in a representative sample of adolescents. Data were obtained from 129,900 adolescents between 2008 and 2012 over 5 cycles of the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national survey of students in grades 7 to 12. Various health-risk behaviors and aspects of health cognition were compared between homosexual and heterosexual adolescents ...

  6. Why are adolescents violent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Garbarino

    Full Text Available This article discusses how adolescents become violent from the perspective of human development, in which the process of formation of the child and the youth depends on diverse biological, psychological e social variables that constitute the context of life of these individuals. The ecological perspective of human development opposes simple cause-effect relations between antisocial adversities and behaviors and believes that factors such as gender, temperament, cognitive ability, age, family, social environment and culture combine in a complex way influencing the behavior of the child and the adolescent. Some conclusions point to the fact that violence in adolescence usually starts from a combination of early difficulties in relationships associated with a combination of temperamental difficulties. It is concluded that the young seem to be as bad as the social environment surrounding them.

  7. Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Co-Occurring Somatic Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeseburg, B.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence on the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and the full range of pervasive developmental disorder behavior (PDD behavior) is scarce. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and mild PDD behavior. We obtained data on 1044 ID-adolescents, aged…

  8. School-based interventions for disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Youth disruptive behavior is a concern for youth, school personnel,families, and society. Early childhood disruptive behaviors negatively impact the classroom, and are associated with negative academic, social, behavioral, emotional, substance use, health, and justice system outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. Effective, comprehensive, multicomponent interventions targeting risk/protective factors and pathways associated with antisocial behavior reduce and/or mitigate these negative outcomes. Positive effects have been demonstrated for universal and indicated programs for participating youth and families in early childhood, and for high-risk youth in adolescence and young adulthood. These empirically supported programs inform the treatment of complex and difficult-to-treat disruptive behavior.

  9. Prenatal substance exposure: What predicts behavioral resilience by early adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebschutz, Jane M; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P; Heymann, Orlaith D; Lange, Allison V; Frank, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (ages 12.4-15.9 years) at risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. Intrauterine substance exposures included in this analysis were cocaine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower intrauterine cocaine exposure level predicted resilience compared with higher cocaine exposure, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.90, 19.00], p = .002), lower violence exposure (AOR = 4.07, 95% CI [1.77, 9.38], p < .001), and absence of intrauterine tobacco exposure (AOR = 3.71, 95% CI [1.28, 10.74], p = .02) predicted behavioral resilience. In conclusion, caregiver supervision in early adolescence, lower violence exposure in childhood, and lack of intrauterine tobacco exposure predicted behavioral resilience among a cohort of early adolescents with significant social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Emotional Desensitization to Violence Contributes to Adolescents' Violent Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Many adolescents are exposed to violence in their schools, communities and homes. Exposure to violence at high levels or across multiple contexts has been linked with emotional desensitization, indicated by low levels of internalizing symptoms. However, the long-term consequences of such desensitization are unknown. This study examined emotional desensitization to violence, together with externalizing problems, as mediators of the relationship between exposure to violence in pre-adolescence and violent behavior in late adolescence. A community sample of youth (N = 704; 48% female; 76% African American, 22% Caucasian) reported on their exposure to violence in multiple settings at ages 11, 13 and 18. Internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed at ages 11 and 13; violent behavior was measured at age 18. Structural Equation Modeling showed that exposure to high levels of violence at age 11 was associated with lower levels of internalizing problems (quadratic effect) at age 13, as was exposure to violence across multiple contexts (linear effect). In turn, fewer internalizing problems and more externalizing problems at age 13 predicted more violent behavior at age 18. The results suggest that emotional desensitization to violence in early adolescence contributes to serious violence in late adolescence.

  11. Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Behaviors, Adolescent Self-Esteem, and Adolescent Depressed Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, Scott W.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Behnke, Andrew; Falcon, Pedro C., III

    2007-01-01

    Using symbolic interaction, we developed a research model that proposed adolescent perceptions of parental support and psychological control would be related to adolescent depressed mood directly and indirectly through self-esteem. We tested the model using self-report questionnaire data from 161 adolescents living with both of their biological…

  12. Behavioral Correlates of Prioritizing Popularity in Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Den Broek, Nina; Deutz, Marike H F; Schoneveld, Elke A.; Burk, William J.; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about individual differences in adolescents’ motivation to achieve and maintain popularity. This study examined the moderating effects of prioritizing popularity on the associations between popularity and adjustment outcomes in late adolescence. Participants were 314 Dutch eleventh-g

  13. Training Aggressive Adolescents in Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Arnold P.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Structured Learning Therapy (SLT) teaches aggressive adolescents prosocial skills (negotiation, self-relaxation, and anger control) by modeling, role playing, social reinforcement, and transfer of training. This article summarizes initial application of SLT with psychiatric clients, includes guidelines for improving trainee-trainer-treatment…

  14. Relationships between parenting styles and risk behaviors in adolescent health: an integrative literature review

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Research over the past 20 years suggests that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship significantly affects the development of risk behaviors in adolescent health. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of studies published between 1996-2007 that address specific relationships between parenting styles and six priority adolescent risk behaviors. The review supports the substantial influence of parenting style on adolescent development. Adolescents raised in authoritative ho...

  15. The Impact of School Connectedness on Violent Behavior, Transport Risk-Taking Behavior, and Associated Injuries in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Rebekah L.; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary C.; Shochet, Ian M.; Romaniuk, Madeline

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents engage in many risk-taking behaviors that have the potential to lead to injury. The school environment has a significant role in shaping adolescent behavior, and this study aimed to provide additional information about the benefits associated with connectedness to school. Early adolescents aged 13 to 15 years (N=509, 49% boys) were…

  16. Parental Socialization and Adolescents' Alcohol Use Behaviors: Predictive Disparities in Parents' versus Adolescents' Perceptions of the Parenting Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latendresse, Shawn J.; Rose, Richard J.; Viken, Richard J.; Pulkkinen, Lea; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M.

    2009-01-01

    Among adolescents, many parenting practices have been associated with the initiation and development of drinking behaviors. However, recent studies suggest discrepancies in parents' and adolescents' perceptions of parenting and their links with adolescent use. In this study, we derive two independent sets of underlying parenting profiles (based on…

  17. Perceived parent-adolescent relationship, perceived parental online behaviors and pathological internet use among adolescents: gender-specific differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Deng, Lin-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescents' perceived relationships with their parents, perceived parental online behaviors, and Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among adolescents. Additional testing was carried out to determine the effect of different genders (parent and adolescent). Cross-sectional data was collected from 4,559 students aged 12 to 21 years in the cities of Beijing and Jinan, People's Republic of China. Participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire concerning their Internet use behavior, perceived parental Internet use behaviors, and perceived parent-adolescent relationship. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for adolescents' age were conducted. Results showed different effects of parent and adolescent gender on perceived parent-adolescent relationship and parent Internet use behavior, as well as some other gender-specific associations. Perceived father-adolescent relationship was the most protective factor against adolescent PIU with perceived maternal Internet use positively predicting PIU for both male and female adolescents. However, perceived paternal Internet use behaviors positively predicted only female adolescent PIU. Results indicated a different effect pathway for fathers and mothers on boys and girls, leading to discussion of the implications for prevention and intervention.

  18. Adolescent health-risk behavior and community disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Wiehe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various forms of community disorder are associated with health outcomes but little is known about how dynamic context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behaviors. OBJECTIVE: Assess whether exposure to contexts associated with crime (as a marker of community disorder correlates with self-reported health-related behaviors among adolescent girls. METHODS: Girls (N = 52, aged 14-17, were recruited from a single geographic urban area and monitored for 1 week using a GPS-enabled cell phone. Adolescents completed an audio computer-assisted self-administered interview survey on substance use (cigarette, alcohol, or marijuana use and sexual intercourse in the last 30 days. In addition to recorded home and school address, phones transmitted location data every 5 minutes (path points. Using ArcGIS, we defined community disorder as aggregated point-level Unified Crime Report data within a 200-meter Euclidian buffer from home, school and each path point. Using Stata, we analyzed how exposures to areas of higher crime prevalence differed among girls who reported each behavior or not. RESULTS: Participants lived and spent time in areas with variable crime prevalence within 200 meters of their home, school and path points. Significant differences in exposure occurred based on home location among girls who reported any substance use or not (p 0.04 and sexual intercourse or not (p 0.01. Differences in exposure by school and path points were only significant among girls reporting any substance use or not (p 0.03 and 0.02, respectively. Exposure also varied by school/non-school day as well as time of day. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent travel patterns are not random. Furthermore, the crime context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behavior. These data may guide policy relating to crime control and inform time- and space-specific interventions to improve adolescent health.

  19. Counseling Children and Adolescents: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Humanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Describes specific parallels between rational emotive behavior therapy and humanism. Places specific emphasis on the application of these principles with children and adolescents. Concepts are illustrated with case studies and a description of the similarities between rational emotive and humanistic, or affective, education. Highlights emotional…

  20. Early Adolescent Romantic Partner Status, Peer Standing, and Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shari; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Costanzo, Philip; Malone, Patrick S.; Golonka, Megan; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined associations among early adolescent romantic relationships, peer standing, problem behaviors, and gender as a moderator of these associations, in a sample of 320 seventh-grade students. Popular and controversial status youth were more likely to have a romantic partner, whereas neglected status youth were less likely to have a…

  1. The Role of Teacher Behavior in Adolescents' Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Naeghel, Jessie; Valcke, Martin; De Meyer, Inge; Warlop, Nele; van Braak, Johan; Van Keer, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    Given the weak intrinsic reading motivation of many adolescents on the one hand and the importance of this type of motivation for reading competence on the other hand, the aim of the present study is to identify the related role of teacher behavior. To pursue this aim, a secondary analysis was carried out on PISA 2009 data. More particularly, data…

  2. Father's and Mother's Psychological Violence and Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancon, Claudiane; Gagne, Marie-Helene

    2011-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological violence were examined as potential risk factors for internalized and externalized behavior problems displayed by adolescents. Childhood family violence (physical and psychological parental violence), current extrafamily violence (bullying and dating violence), and family structure were taken into account. A…

  3. Heavy Metal Music and Reckless Behavior among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    Fifty-four male and 30 female adolescents who like heavy metal music were compared on various outcome variables to 56 male and 105 female peers who do not like it. Those who like heavy metal report a wider range of reckless behavior than those who do not like it. (SLD)

  4. Risks, Assets, and Negative Health Behaviors among Arkansas' Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.; Choudary, Wendie; Kearney, Anne; Piko, Bettina F.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between risk, assets, and negative health behaviors among a large sample of Hispanic adolescents. Data were collected from over 1,000 Hispanic youth in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 attending school in a moderate size school district in Northwest Arkansas. Logistic regression models examined the variation in the odds…

  5. The typological approach to the risky behavior of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main research problem is focused on the following question: Is it possible to identify specific patterns of interaction between precipitating and protective factors for the risky behavior among adolescents. The research was conducted on the sample of 204 adolescents of both genders (18 to 20 years old. Specific personality traits and socio-demographic characteristics are manifested as the most important precipitating and/or protective factors for the risky behavior. The frame of reference for personality assessment was the alternative five-factor model (Zuckerman, 2002, specified in the ZKPQ-50-CC questionnaire, and consisted of the five biologically determined personality traits: activity, aggressiveness/hostility, impulsive sensation seeking, neuroticism/anxiety and sociability. Latent dimensions of the risky behavior: risky activities and life - conditions, were extracted by applying the homogeneity analyses (HOMALS. The matrix of squared Euclidean distances (in the common space of factor scores on the principal components of ZKPQ questionnaire, scores on HOMALS dimensions and school grades was a subject of the Ward hierarchical cluster analysis method, extracting three clusters. According to the discriminant functions: risk proneness and pro-social activity, the clusters were identified: the group of pro-social oriented adolescents, the aloof group and the group of adolescents prone to risky behavior. The results have considerable implications for the prevention programs’ development and implementation.

  6. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Markowitz, Sarah; Petronko, Michael R.; Taylor, Caitlin E.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Wilson, G. Terence

    2010-01-01

    The onset of appearance-related concerns associated with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) typically occurs in adolescence, and these concerns are often severe enough to interfere with normal development and psychosocial functioning. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for adults with BDD. However, no treatment studies…

  7. Brief Report: Associations between Emotional Competence and Adolescent Risky Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessler, Danielle M.; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines associations between emotional competence (i.e., awareness, regulation, comfort with expression) and adolescent risky behavior. Children from a longitudinal study participated at age 9 and 16 (N = 88). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with children about their emotional experiences and coded for areas of…

  8. Attachment Organization and History of Suicidal Behavior in Clinical Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Kenneth S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Adolescents in psychiatric treatment (N=133) participated in a case-comparison study investigating the association of attachment patterns with a history of suicidal behaviors. Attachment patterns were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview. In accordance with definitions provided in the scoring system, 86% of case and 78% of comparison…

  9. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  10. A Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloseva, Lence

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…

  11. Peer Group Socialization of Homophobic Attitudes and Behavior during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul

    2007-01-01

    A social developmental framework was applied to test for the socialization of homophobic attitudes and behavior within adolescent peer groups (Grades 7-11; aged 12-17 years). Substantial similarity within and differences across groups were documented. Multilevel models identified a group socializing contextual effect, predicting homophobic…

  12. Behavioral management of headache in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faedda, Noemi; Cerutti, Rita; Verdecchia, Paola; Migliorini, Daniele; Arruda, Marco; Guidetti, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    Headache is the most frequent neurological symptom and the most prevalent pain in children and adolescents, and constitutes a serious health problem that may lead to impairment in several areas. Psychosocial factors, social environment, life events, school and family stressors are all closely related to headaches. A multidisciplinary strategy is fundamental in addressing headache in children and adolescents. Applying such a strategy can lead to reductions in frequency and severity of the pain, improving significantly the quality of life of these children.It has been demonstrated that behavioral intervention is highly effective, especially in the treatment of paediatric headache, and can enhance or replace pharmacotherapy, with the advantage of eliminating dangerous side effects and or reducing costs. Behavioral interventions appear to maximize long-term therapeutic benefits and improve compliance with pharmacological treatment, which has proven a significant problem with child and adolescent with headache.The goal of this review is to examine the existing literature on behavioral therapies used to treat headache in children and adolescents, and so provide an up-to-date picture of what behavioral therapy is and what its effectiveness is.

  13. Adolescent Behavior and Health in Cross-Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    Specific behavioral problems appear during early adolescence, and they become more pronounced. Although these problems are universal in many aspects, cultural differences are also conspicuous. The author, in addition to analyzing the five studies in the Special Issue, addresses questions concerning the cross-cultural context. The analysis reveals…

  14. Assessing the Eating Behaviors of Low-Income, Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, Mariane; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Garn, Alex C.; Shen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is a need for instruments that can accurately determine the effectiveness of nutrition interventions targeting low-income, inner-city adolescents. Purpose: To examine the development of a valid and reliable eating behavior scale (EBS) for use in school-based nutrition interventions in urban, inner-city communities dominated by…

  15. Pain-Based Behavior with Children and Adolescents in Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Many actions of troubled children and adolescents can disguise and conceal their ever-present and deep-seated psycho-emotional pain. Adults living and working with these youth may overlook this pain in a strategy of avoidance. Labelling troubling behavior as "outbursts," "explosions," or "acting out," ignores the…

  16. 运动员运动道德推脱与运动亲反社会行为的关系%Relationship between moral disengagement in sport and prosocial and antisocial behaviors in Chinese athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王栋; 陈作松

    2016-01-01

    Moral disengagement is a psychological process in which people use different cognitive strategies to justify their potentially problematic actions and to reduce feelings of shame and guilt. Athletes with high level of moral disengagement in sport may show more antisocial behavior and less prosocial behavior than other athletes. To date, most research investigating prosocial and antisocial behavior in sport has focused on behaviors directed at opponents. However, recent studies have also investigated prosocial and antisocial behavior within sport teams. Since the majority of past studies have been conducted in western countries, we know little about moral disengagement of Chinese athletes. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to develop a valid and reliable measure of sport moral disengagement and to examine the relationship between sport moral disengagement and prosocial and antisocial behavior among Chinese athletes. Study 1 sought to develop a sport-specific measure of moral disengagement for Chinese athletes. Forty-eight items were developed based on content analysis of interviews with athletes and mass media reports of transgressions of athletes. Two hundred and fifty-four Chinese athletes were asked to rate their agreement with each item, and their responses were used exploratory factor analyses (EFA). Results showed that 20 items loaded on five factors: (1) conduct reconstrual, (2) advantageous comparison, (3) euphemistic labeling, (4) dehumanization, and (5) non-responsibility. After this, another 283 Chinese athletes filled in the questionnaire. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that the 5-factor solution was stable and the internal reliability of each of the factors was acceptable. Study 2 tested the relationship between moral disengagement in sport and prosocial and antisocial behavior towards teammates and opponents. Three hundred and six Chinese athletes responded to the 20-items moral disengagement questionnaire developed in

  17. Examining transactional influences between reading achievement and antisocially-behaving friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sara A; Mikolajewski, Amy J; Johnson, Wendy; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette

    2014-12-01

    The association between poorer academic outcomes and having antisocial friends is reliably demonstrated yet not well understood. Genetically sensitive designs uniquely allow for measuring genetic vulnerabilities and/or environmental risk in the association of antisocial friend behavior and poor school achievement, allowing for a better understanding of the nature of the association. This study included 233 pairs of twins from the Florida Twin Project on Reading. First, the role of antisocial friends as an environmental moderator of reading comprehension was examined. Antisocial friends significantly moderated the nonshared environmental variance in reading comprehension, with increased variation at lower levels of association with antisocial friends, with niche-picking indicated. Second, the role of reading comprehension as an environmental moderator of antisocial friends was examined. Reading comprehension significantly moderated the nonshared environmental variance in associating with antisocial friends, with increased variance at lower levels of reading comprehension and indication that common genetic influences contributed to higher reading achievement and better-behaved friends. In total, these results suggested reciprocal influences between reading achievement and antisocially-behaving friends. The impact of antisocial friends appeared to be limited in the extent to which they can undermine reading achievement, and high reading achievement appeared to support less association with antisocial friends.

  18. Television viewing and aggressive behavior during adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey G; Cohen, Patricia; Smailes, Elizabeth M; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S

    2002-03-29

    Television viewing and aggressive behavior were assessed over a 17-year interval in a community sample of 707 individuals. There was a significant association between the amount of time spent watching television during adolescence and early adulthood and the likelihood of subsequent aggressive acts against others. This association remained significant after previous aggressive behavior, childhood neglect, family income, neighborhood violence, parental education, and psychiatric disorders were controlled statistically.

  19. ADOLESCENTS COMMUNICATING DISTRESS THROUGH SUICIDAL BEHAVIORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different risk factors associated with adolescent suicide attempts have been identified across the globe. Relatively few Indian studies are available on this data. Aims: To study the sociodemographic and clinical variables associated with adolescent suicide attempts. Setting and design: tertiary care hospital, retrospective descriptive study. Materials and methods: Participants: - ninety four patients admitted in the pediatric units who had attempted suicide by ingestion. A pretested, semi-open-ended questionnaire was filled for each patient. This data was then compiled and analyzed using statistical methods. Results: Among a total of 94 cases, sociodemographic patient risk factors found were:- male to female ratio is 1:3.5. Mean age found was 14.64 years. 58.5% were in age of 15 - 18 yrs., 54.9% were unemployed and 43.6% were educated only till middle school. Nuclear families with family members more than 5, siblings more than 3, a lower income class, single parents (10.6%, broken homes (9.6%, a history of suicide and alcoholism in family (9.6% were found as familial risk factors associated with suicide attempts. The interpersonal problems (29% and depression (19.1% were the important psychological risk factors. Period prevalence was and #8776;1 per 1000. Case fatality rate was found to be 2.12 Conclusion: The adolescents used the method of deliberate self-harm only to get attention and had no intention of really dying. This was the distress call used by these adolescents. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(2.000: 132-135

  20. Onset of Conduct Disorder, Use of Delinquent Subsistence Strategies, and Street Victimization among Homeless and Runaway Adolescents in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojin; Thrane, Lisa; Whitbeck, Les B.; Johnson, Kurt D.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the effects of childhood-onset conduct disorder on later antisocial behavior and street victimization among a group of homeless and runaway adolescents. Four hundred twenty-eight homeless and runaway youth were interviewed directly on the streets and in shelters from four Midwestern states. Key findings include the following.…

  1. Interpersonal and Affective Features of Psychopathy in Children and Adolescents: Advancing a Developmental Perspective--Introduction to Special Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Dustin A.; Loeber, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    The interpersonal (e.g., manipulative, deceitful) and affective (e.g., callous, unemotional) features associated with adult psychopathy have been identified in children and adolescents. Although early research suggests that these features have clinical utility in identifying a particularly severe and recalcitrant form of antisocial behavior with…

  2. Factors Associated with Violent Behavior among Adolescents in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify prevalence and factors associated with violent behavior among adolescents in Aracaju and Metropolitan region. The study included 2207 adolescents (16.03 ± 1.08 years old enrolled in high schools of the State Public Network. Violent behavior was identified from question 14 of the YRBS-2007 questionnaire with responses categorized as “never” and “one or more times.” Higher prevalence in males in relation to risk factors for adoption of violent behavior was found: cigarette consumption (7.3%, alcohol consumption (39.1%, and marijuana use (3.4%. Data analysis used descriptive statistics and logistic regression with hierarchical model at two levels: (a sociodemographic variables and (b behavioral variables. For both sexes, association between violent behavior and cigarette smoking (OR = 3.77, CI 95% = 2.06–6.92 and OR = 1.99, CI 95% = 1.04 to 3.81, male and female, resp. and alcohol consumption (OR = 3.38, CI 95% = 2.22 to 5.16 and OR = 1.83, CI 95% = 1.28 to 2.63, male and female, resp. was verified. It was concluded that violent behavior is associated with the consumption of alcoholic beverages and cigarettes among adolescents.

  3. Comparison of Obesity, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behaviors between Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Without

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Stephanie M.; Jakicic, John M.; Barone Gibbs, Bethany

    2016-01-01

    Body mass index classification, physical activity (PA), and sedentary behaviors were compared in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to typically developing adolescents. Participants included 42,747 adolescents (ASD, n = 915) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. After controlling for covariates, adolescents were…

  4. Adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing behavior: The mediating role of individual and social factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L.A. de Vries; M. Hoeve; G.J.J.M. Stams; J.J. Asscher

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % m

  5. Parental Behavior and Adolescent Self-Esteem in Clinical and Nonclinical Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, David M.; Metha, Arlene

    1994-01-01

    Investigated relationships between self-esteem and adolescents' perceptions of parental behaviors using nonclinical (n=119) and clinical (n=30) adolescents. Nonclinical adolescents scored higher than clinical adolescents on all self-esteem dimensions. Males scored higher than females only on dimension of Self-Esteem Competence. Perceptions of…

  6. Adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing behavior: the mediating role of individual and social factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L.A.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Asscher, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % m

  7. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  8. Antisocial and delictive behaviors questionnaire: psychometric evidences of a briefed version / Questionário de comportamentos anti-sociais e delitivos: evidências psicométricas de uma versão reduzida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Nunes da Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at knowing the psychometric parameters of the Antisocial and Delictive Behaviors Questionnaire (ADQ. Specifically, it tried to join evidences of its factor validity and reliability in the milieu of Paraíba-Brazil, as well as to know the adequacy of a briefed version of this measure. Two studies were accomplished. In Study 1, the participants were 480 students from high school, with a mean age of 16.2 years old (SD = 1.60, most of them were women (55.1%. In Study 2, 1,463 students of elementary school, high school, and university; with ages ranging from 10 to 36 years old (m = 16; SD = 4.41 participated in research, 59.9% were female. They answered the Antisocial and Delictive Behaviors Questionnaire and to demographic questions. Results supported the psychometric adequacy of this measure, which showed the theorized bi-factor structure. Moreover, the purpose of the ADQ briefed version revealed itself adequate, jointing evidences of factor validity and reliability similar to those of the original version. These findings were discussed based on literature and future researches are suggested as well.

  9. General characteristics of adolescent sexual behavior: National survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miodrag

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Investigation of adolescent sexual behavior carried out on a large sample is primarily motivated by health and social problems which can occur when young people practice sex without protection and necessary information. There is no data that the national study on adolescent sexual behavior has been conducted in the Serbian speaking area. Objective. Monitoring and follow-up of trends in adolescent sexual behavior. Methods. The investigation sample comprised 1101 adolescents (472 male and 629 female, aged 13-25 years. As an instrument of polling, the questionnaire 'Sexual Behavior' was used specifically designed for the purpose of this investigation. Results. Eighty-four percent of males and 65% of females reported having sexual experience. The age of the first sexual experience, total number of partners, number of sexual partners in the last year and the last month were investigated, and the number of loved and sexual partner compared. In addition, the length of foreplay, frequency of sexual activity, masturbation, sexual dreams and sexual daydreams and engagement into alternative sexual activities (oral sex, anal sex, group sex, exchange of partners were estimated, as well as the reasons for their practicing. Sexual desire and its correlation with personality dimensions, the frequency of sexual disorders (erectile and ejaculation problems, anorgasmia, abortion, rape and identification of the rapist, the use of condoms and other methods of contraception were assessed. Conclusion. It could be postulated that biological influence on sexual behavior is powerful and resistant to the influence of time and place, as well as socio-cultural religious influences. A high rate of premarital sexual activity with a number of sexual partners, a relatively low rate of condom use and the fact that 4% of the female adolescents in this sample had an induced abortion suggest that there are gaps in the education provided to adolescents about sexual and

  10. Adolescent-parent attachment as a mediator of relations between parenting and adolescent social behavior and wellbeing in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mengfei; Hardy, Sam A; Olsen, Joseph A; Nelson, David A; Yamawaki, Niwako

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine links between parenting dimensions (authoritative parenting, psychological control, and parental authority) and adolescent wellbeing (self-esteem, autonomy, and peer attachments) as mediated by parent-teen attachment, among Chinese families. The sample included 298 Chinese adolescents, ages 15-18 years (M(age) = 16.36, SD = .68; 60% female). The mediation model was examined using path analyses (one model with parental authority as overprotection, and one with it as perceived behavioral control). To improve model fit a direct path was added from authoritative parenting to autonomy. Authoritative parenting was positively predictive of attachment, while psychological control and overprotection (but not behavioral control) were negative predictors. In turn, adolescent-parent attachment was positively related to the three outcomes. Lastly, the model paths did not differ by adolescent gender. These findings suggest that parenting behaviors may play a crucial role in adolescent social behaviors and wellbeing via adolescent-parent attachment.

  11. Covariance among multiple health risk behaviors in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla de la Haye

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: In a diverse group of early adolescents, this study explores the co-occurrence of a broad range of health risk behaviors: alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use; physical inactivity; sedentary computing/gaming; and the consumption of low-nutrient energy-dense food. We tested differences in the associations of unhealthy behaviors over time, and by gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. METHODS: Participants were 8360 students from 16 middle schools in California (50% female; 52% Hispanic, 17% Asian, 16% White, and 15% Black/multiethnic/other. Behaviors were measured with surveys in Spring 2010 and Spring 2011. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess if an underlying factor accounted for the covariance of multiple behaviors, and composite reliability methods were used to determine the degree to which behaviors were related. RESULTS: The measured behaviors were explained by two moderately correlated factors: a 'substance use risk factor' and an 'unhealthy eating and sedentary factor'. Physical inactivity did not reflect the latent factors as expected. There were few differences in the associations among these behaviors over time or by demographic characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Two distinct, yet related groups of health compromising behaviors were identified that could be jointly targeted in multiple health behavior change interventions among early adolescents of diverse backgrounds.

  12. Predicting adolescent's cyberbullying behavior: A longitudinal risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlett, Christopher P

    2015-06-01

    The current study used the risk factor approach to test the unique and combined influence of several possible risk factors for cyberbullying attitudes and behavior using a four-wave longitudinal design with an adolescent US sample. Participants (N = 96; average age = 15.50 years) completed measures of cyberbullying attitudes, perceptions of anonymity, cyberbullying behavior, and demographics four times throughout the academic school year. Several logistic regression equations were used to test the contribution of these possible risk factors. Results showed that (a) cyberbullying attitudes and previous cyberbullying behavior were important unique risk factors for later cyberbullying behavior, (b) anonymity and previous cyberbullying behavior were valid risk factors for later cyberbullying attitudes, and (c) the likelihood of engaging in later cyberbullying behavior increased with the addition of risk factors. Overall, results show the unique and combined influence of such risk factors for predicting later cyberbullying behavior. Results are discussed in terms of theory.

  13. Multiple risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior among Israeli and Palestinian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Abdeen, Ziad; Walsh, Sophie D; Radwan, Qasrowi; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya

    2012-07-01

    Based conceptually on Problem Behavior Theory, Normalization Theory and theories of adolescent ethnic identity formation this study explores relationships between individual and cumulative multiple risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior among mid-adolescents in three different populations in the Middle East. Data from the 2004 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children in the Middle-East (HBSC-ME) study included 8345 10th-grade pupils in three populations: Jewish Israelis (1770), Arab Israelis (2185), and Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank (4390). We considered risk behaviors and factors including tobacco use, bullying, medically-attended injuries, excessive time with friends, parental disconnectedness, negative school experience, truancy and poor academic performance. Substantial population differences for suicidal tendency and risk behaviors were observed, with notably high levels of suicidal ideation and behavior among Arab-Israeli youth and higher levels of risk behaviors among the Jewish and Arab-Israeli youth. For all populations suicidal tendency was at least 4 times higher among adolescents reporting 4+ risk behaviors, suggesting that similar psychosocial determinants affect patterns of risk behaviors and suicidal tendency. Results highlight the importance of understanding cultural contexts of risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior.

  14. Eating Behavior and Social Interactions from Adolescence to Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corrado, Luisa; Distante, Roberta

    ) in a dynamic linear- in-means model, where individual- and group-speci…c unobservable e¤ects are controlled for. We show that the main drivers of eating behavior are habituation and imitation e¤ects. Imitation e¤ects explain most of the variation in BMI of individuals who were normal-weight and overweight......This paper analyzes the importance of social ties for eating behavior of US youth. We propose a novel approach that addresses identi…cation of social endogenous e¤ects. We overcome the problem of measuring the separate impact of endogenous and contextual e¤ects on individual Body Mass Index (BMI...... during adolescence. Obese adolescents, instead, become future obese adults through wrong habits enforced by imitative behavior....

  15. Teasing and weight-control behaviors in adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina B. Leme

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between weight teasing, body satisfaction and weight control behaviors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on adaptation and validity research of a North American questionnaire for adolescent girls about physical activity, nutrition, body image, perceptions, and behaviors. The variables used to conduct the study were weight control behaviors, body satisfaction and presence of teasing by family members. Descriptive analyses were carried out by chi-square test, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: A total of 159 adolescent girls, with 16.2±1.3 years old were enrolled in this study. Of the total, 60.1% reported that family members did not tease them. The teasing was associated with weight dissatisfaction (p<0.001, body shape (p=0.006, belly (p=0.001, waist (p=0.001, face (p=0.009, arms (p=0.014 and shoulders (p=0.001. As a consequence, there was association with unhealthy weight control behaviors (p<0.001, vomiting (p=0,011, diet (p=0.002 and use of laxatives (p=0.035. CONCLUSIONS: The teasing about body image by family members was associated with risk for unhealthy weight control behaviors in female adolescents.

  16. HIV and STD Knowledge, Sexual Behaviors and Drug Taking Behaviors of Adolescents in Southern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, R. Mark; Ball, Marcia; Cerullo, Jennie; Trunova, Elena

    2004-01-01

    For several years, HIV infection has increasing rapidly in Eastern Europe and Russia (UNAIDS, 2000, 2003). The purpose of the study was to investigate the HIV and STD knowledge, sexual behaviors and drug taking behaviors of adolescents in southern Russia. The instrument was compiled by the authors, professionally translated, and pilot tested. Most…

  17. Epidemiology of suicidal behavior among Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juon, H S; Nam, J J; Ensminger, M E

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of suicidal behaviors and their relation to background characteristics, social integration, academic stress, psychological distress, and substance use in a stratified random sample of 9886 high school students in Korea. In a multiple logistic regression, we found that depression was the strongest predictor of suicidal behaviors. The other factors significantly associated with suicidal behaviors were gender, academic stress, hostility and substance use. These results indicate that early identification of risk factors for suicidal behaviors may have potential for reducing possible future suicides.

  18. Positive and negative reinforcement underlying risk behavior in early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Laura; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Daughters, Stacey B; Wang, Frances; Cassidy, Jude; Mayes, Linda C; Lejuez, C W

    2010-09-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the combined influence of positive reinforcement processes using a behavioral task measuring risk taking propensity (RTP) and negative reinforcement processes using a behavioral task measuring deficits in distress tolerance (DT) on a range of risk taking behaviors among early adolescents. Participants included a community sample of 230 early adolescents (aged 9-13) who completed two behavioral tasks assessing reinforcement processes as well as reported on past year risk behavior involvement as assessed by items from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System at a baseline and a 1-year follow-up assessment. Data indicated that at the Wave 2 assessment, RTP was positively related to number of risk-taking behaviors in the past year but only for those with low DT, with this finding persisting after controlling for the significant influence of male gender and higher sensation seeking. Results of the present study highlight the importance of considering both positive and negative reinforcement processes in combination when investigating vulnerability factors for early risk behavior engagement in youth.

  19. Ecstasy Use and Suicidal Behavior among Adolescents: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jueun; Fan, Bin; Liu, Xinhua; Kerner, Nancy; Wu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between ecstasy use and suicidal behavior among adolescents in the United States was examined. Data from the adolescent subsample (ages 12-17, N = 19,301) of the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse were used in the analyses. Information on adolescent substance use, suicidal behaviors, and related sociodemographic, family,…

  20. Violent and Prosocial Behavior by Adolescents toward Parents and Teachers in a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaureguizar, Joana; Ibabe, Izaskun; Straus, Murray A.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on violent and prosocial behaviors by adolescents toward parents and teachers, and the relation between such behaviors and adolescents' perceptions about the family and school environment. Gender differences in child-to-parent violence and student-to-teacher violence were also studied. The sample comprised 687 adolescents from…

  1. The Evolutionary Basis of Risky Adolescent Behavior: Implications for Science, Policy, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Del Giudice, Marco; Dishion, Thomas J.; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; Gray, Peter; Griskevicius, Vladas; Hawley, Patricia H.; Jacobs, W. Jake; James, Jenee; Volk, Anthony A.; Wilson, David Sloan

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes an evolutionary model of risky behavior in adolescence and contrasts it with the prevailing developmental psychopathology model. The evolutionary model contends that understanding the evolutionary functions of adolescence is critical to explaining why adolescents engage in risky behavior and that successful intervention…

  2. Mania Symptoms and HIV-Risk Behavior among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Angela J.; Theodore-Oklota, Christina; Hadley, Wendy; Brown, Larry K.; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether adolescents with elevated symptoms of mania (ESM+) engage in more HIV risk behaviors than those with other psychiatric disorders and examined factors associated with HIV risk behavior among ESM+ adolescents. Eight hundred forty adolescents (56% female, 58% African American, "M" age = 14.9 years) who received mental…

  3. Adventure Camp Programs, Self-Concept, and Their Effects on Behavioral Problem Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Bruce A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an adventure camp program on the self-concept of adolescents with behavioral problems. Subjects in the study included 61 randomly selected male and female adolescents ranging in age from 9 to 17 years with behavioral problems. The treatment group of 31 adolescents was randomly selected from a…

  4. A Systematic Review of Oral Health Behavior Research in American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Susana J.; Mallory, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Despite improvements in prevention, oral diseases are a problem among adolescents, linked to poor health outcomes and poor school performance. Little is known about adolescent oral health behavior. This systematic review describes factors that influence oral health behavior in adolescents. Inclusion criteria for the literature search were American…

  5. EARLY LIFE RISKS, ANTISOCIAL TENDENCIES, AND PRETEEN DELINQUENCY*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; Whichard, Corey; Siennick, Sonja; Maggs, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Early age-of-onset delinquency and substance use confer a major risk for continued criminality, alcohol and drug abuse, and other serious difficulties throughout the life course. Our objective is to examine the developmental roots of preteen delinquency and substance use. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 13,221), we examine the influence of early childhood developmental and family risks on latent pathways of antisocial tendencies from ages 3 to 7, and the influence of those pathways on property crime and substance use by age 11. We identified a normative, non-antisocial pathway; a pathway marked by oppositional behavior and fighting; a pathway marked by impulsivity and inattention; and a rare pathway characterized by a wide range of antisocial tendencies. Children with developmental and family risks that emerged by age 3—specifically difficult infant temperament, low cognitive ability, weak parental closeness, and disadvantaged family background—face increased odds of antisocial tendencies. There is minimal overlap between the risk factors for early antisocial tendencies and those for preteen delinquency. Children on an antisocial pathway are more likely to engage in preteen delinquency and substance use by age 11, even after accounting for early life risk factors. PMID:26900167

  6. Suicidal behavior in adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, D; Sher, L

    2010-08-01

    Recently, the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescence is higher than the prevalence of PTSD in adult populations. PTSD and suicidality are often found in populations of adolescents presenting with other emotional disorders (particularly mood disorders), traumatic grief, childhood abuse, and/or a family or peer history of suicide. The reasons and developments of the association between PTSD and suicidality in adolescence, however, remain unclear. Core psychobiological changes contributing to PTSD affect emotion, arousal, perception of the self and the world, irritability, impulsivity, anger, aggression and depression. There is evidence that the aforementioned factors, as well as alcohol and other drug use may act to moderate the influence of stressful life events and lead to eventual suicidality. Both PTSD and suicidality in adolescents have also been hypothesized to be a result of exposure to violence and negative coping styles. There are many treatment challenges for these populations, yet the most promising prevention and treatments include suicide risk screenings, suicide education, Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, addressing associated coping mechanisms and prescribing anti-depressant and anti-anxiety medications. However, when prescribing medications, physicians do need to be careful to consider the weaknesses and strengths of each of the pharmacological options as they apply to adolescents presenting with PTSD and suicidality.

  7. Eveningness as a risk for behavioral problems in late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merikanto, Ilona; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Kuula, Liisa; Lahti, Jari; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Räikkönen, Katri

    2017-01-01

    Circadian preference toward eveningness has been associated with increased risk for mental health problems both in early adolescence and in adulthood. However, in late adolescence, when circadian rhythm naturally shifts to later, its significance for mental health is not clear. Accordingly, we studied how circadian rhythm estimated both by self-reported chronotype and by actigraph-defined midpoint of sleep was associated with self-reported psychiatric problems based on Youth Self Report (YSR). The study builds on a community cohort born in 1998, Helsinki, Finland. At age 17 years (mean age = 16.9, SD = 0.1 years), 183 adolescents (65.6% of the invited) participated in the study. We used the shortened version of the Horne-Östberg morningness-eveningness Questionnaire to define the chronotype, and actigraphs to define the naturally occur circadian rhythm over a 4 to 17 days' period (mean nights N = 8.3, SD = 1.8). The Achenbach software was used to obtain T-score values for YSR psychiatric problem scales. The analyses were adjusted for important covariates including gender, socioeconomic status, body mass index, pubertal maturation, mother's licorice consumption during pregnancy, and actigraph-defined sleep duration and quality. Eveningness was associated with higher scores in rule-breaking behavior and conduct problems (as assessed either by midpoint of sleep or by self-reported chronotype, p-values adolescents, is also present in late adolescence when circadian rhythms shift toward evening.

  8. Dimensions of impulsive behavior in obese, overweight, and healthy-weight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, S A; Sabet, M; Reynolds, B

    2013-11-01

    Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct that has been linked with obesity. To explore profiles of impulsive behavior potentially associated with adolescent weight status, we measured multiple dimensions of impulsivity (delay discounting, sustained attention, and behavioral disinhibition) using laboratory behavioral tasks in a sample of adolescents (N=61). For comparison purposes, we also assessed self-reported impulsive behavior with the BIS-11-A. Participants differed in body mass index: obese (n=21), overweight (n=20), and healthy-weight (n=20). Obese and overweight adolescents were more impulsive on the measure of delay discounting than healthy-weight adolescents, but no difference was found between obese and overweight adolescents on this measure. Obese adolescents also were more impulsive on the measure of inattention compared to overweight and healthy-weight adolescents, who did not differ on this measure. Behavioral disinhibition had no association with weight status, nor did the self-report measure of impulsivity. The additive pattern of these findings for certain laboratory behavioral measures indicates that obese adolescents are more impulsive than their healthy-weight counterparts on two dimensions of behavior, whereas overweight adolescents are more impulsive on only one dimension. Consequently, adolescents who are impulsive on two dimensions of behavior (i.e., delay discounting and sustained attention) may be at greater risk of becoming obese rather than overweight compared to adolescents who are impulsive on only one dimension of behavior (i.e., delay discounting).

  9. Predicting Adolescent Sexual and Contraceptive Behavior: An Application and Test of the Fishbein Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Stephen R.; Sonstegard, Janet S.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a test of the Fishbein model of behavior prediction applied to predict the pregnancy risk-taking behavior of adolescent females (N=244). Analyses of data showed that the Fishbein model of attitude-behavior consistency seems to be applicable to the fertility-related behavior of adolescent females. (LLL)

  10. Change in the Behavioral Phenotype of Adolescents and Adults with FXS: Role of the Family Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Leann E.; Hong, Jinkuk; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined trajectories of adaptive behavior, behavior problems, psychological symptoms, and autism symptoms in adolescents and adults with fragile X syndrome (n = 147) over a three-year period. Adaptive behavior significantly increased over time, particularly for adolescents, and the severity of behavior problems decreased over…

  11. Supportive behaviors in adolescent romantic relationships moderate adrenocortical attunement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Thao; Yeung, Ellen Wanheung; Rogers, Adam A; Poulsen, Franklin O; Kornienko, Olga; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated dyadic adrenocortical attunement within adolescent romantic relationships. An ethnically diverse sample (42% Latino) of adolescent heterosexual dating couples (N=91 dyads, Mage=16.5 years, SD=0.99) donated eight saliva samples (later assayed for cortisol) over the course of a 3-h laboratory session. Supportive behaviors were coded during a conflict and jealousy interaction task from video recordings, and participants completed pre-and-post task questionnaires. Parallel process latent growth models revealed a strong positive association between the couples' cortisol intercept, indicating that couples show attunement in initial levels of cortisol. Further, observed supportive behavior moderated the strength of the association between dyadic cortisol slopes. The results imply that low levels of supportive behavior predicted stronger adrenocortical attunement in the change in cortisol levels over time between adolescent romantic partners. These findings indicate that even early romantic relationships exhibit coordination of physiological activity. Findings raise the possibility that adrenocortical attunement may be a dyadic pathway through which the proximal social context of early romantic relationships is translated into risk or resilience in health and behavior.

  12. Genetic Influences on Individual Differences in Exercise Behavior during Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels van der Aa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the degree to which genetic and environmental influences affect variation in adolescent exercise behavior. Data on regular leisure time exercise activities were analyzed in 8,355 adolescent twins, from three-age cohorts (13-14, 15-16, and 17–19 years. Exercise behavior was assessed with survey items about type of regular leisure time exercise, frequency, and duration of the activities. Participants were classified as sedentary, regular exercisers, or vigorous exercisers. The prevalence of moderate exercise behavior declined from age 13 to 19 years with a parallel increase in prevalence of sedentary behavior, whereas the prevalence of vigorous exercise behavior remained constant across age cohorts. Variation in exercise behavior was analyzed with genetic structural equation modeling employing a liability threshold model. Variation was largely accounted for by genetic factors (72% to 85% of the variance was explained by genetic factors, whereas shared environmental factors only accounted for a substantial part of the variation in girls aged 13-14 years (46%. We hypothesize that genetic effects on exercise ability may explain the high heritability of exercise behavior in this phase of life.

  13. [Antisocial personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Hallikainen, Tero

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASP), especially psychopathy as its extreme form, has provoked fear and excitement over thousands of years. Ruthless violence involved in the disorder has inspired scientists, too.The abundance of research results concerning epidemiology, physiology, neuroanatomy, heritability, and treatment interventions has made ASP one of the best documented disorders in psychiatry. Numerous interventions have been tested, but there is no current treatment algorithm. Biological and sociological parameters indicate the importance of early targeted interventions among the high risk children. Otherwise, as adults they cause the greatest harm. The use of medications or psychotherapy for adults needs careful consideration.

  14. Associations between child disciplinary practices and bullying behavior in adolescents

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    Graziela A.H. Zottis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate associations between different types of child disciplinary practices and children and adolescents' bullying behavior in a Brazilian sample. METHODS: cross-sectional study, with a school-based sample of 10-to 15-year-old children and adolescents. Child disciplinary practices were assessed using two main subtypes: power-assertive and punitive (psychological aggression, corporal punishment, deprivation of privileges, and penalty tasks and inductive (explaining, rewarding, and monitoring. A modified version of the Olweus Bully Victim Questionnaire was used to measure the frequency of bullying. RESULTS: 247 children and adolescents were evaluated and 98 (39.7% were classified as bullies. Power-assertive and punitive discipline by either mother or father was associated with bullying perpetration by their children. Mothers who mostly used this type of discipline were 4.36 (95% CI: 1.87-10.16; p < 0.001 times more likely of having a bully child. Psychological aggression and mild forms of corporal punishment presented the highest odds ratios. Overall inductive discipline was not associated with bullying. CONCLUSIONS: bullying was associated to parents' assertive and punitive discipline. Finding different ways of disciplining children and adolescents might decrease bullying behavior.

  15. Taxometric Analysis of the Antisocial Features Scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory in Federal Prison Inmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Magaletta, Philip R.; Geyer, Matthew D.; Duncan, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    The Antisocial Features (ANT) scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) was subjected to taxometric analysis in a group of 2,135 federal prison inmates. Scores on the three ANT subscales--Antisocial Behaviors (ANT-A), Egocentricity (ANT-E), and Stimulus Seeking (ANT-S)--served as indicators in this study and were evaluated using the…

  16. Effects of Child Maltreatment and Inherited Liability on Antisocial Development: An Official Records Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Presnall, Ned; Drake, Brett; Fox, Louis; Bierut, Laura; Reich, Wendy; Kane, Phyllis; Todd, Richard D.; Constantino, John N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evidence is steadily accumulating that a preventable environmental hazard, child maltreatment, exerts causal influences on the development of long-standing patterns of antisocial behavior in humans. The relationship between child maltreatment and antisocial outcome, however, has never previously been tested in a large-scale study in…

  17. Preschool Behavioral and Social-Cognitive Problems as Predictors of (Pre)adolescent Disruptive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Emond, Alice; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes preschool social understanding and difficult behaviors (hot temper, disobedience, bossiness and bullying) as predictors of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and aggressive conduct disorder (ACD) in a Dutch population sample of (pre)adolescents (N = 1943), measured at age 10-12 and at age 13-15. ODD and ACD were assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist and the Youth Self-Report, preschool behavior was evaluated by the parental questionnaire 'How was your child as a pre...

  18. Diet and behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents

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    Rune Høigaard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Discussion about dietary factors in relation to behavioral problems in children and adolescents has been going on for a long time. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional relation between diet and self-reported behavioral problems at school in adolescents in the southern part of Norway. Design: In total, 475 ninth- and tenth-grade students (236 boys and 239 girls out of 625 eligible students from four different secondary schools in three different communities in Vest-Agder County, Norway, participated, giving a participation rate of 77%. The students filled in a questionnaire with food frequency questions of selected healthy (e.g. fruits, vegetables, and fish and unhealthy (e.g. sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and crisps food items, questions of meal frequency, and four questions regarding behavioral problems at school. Results: Having breakfast regularly was significantly associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems (OR: 0.29 (0.15 − 0.55, p≤0.001. A high intake of unhealthy foods, such as sugar-sweetened soft drinks (OR: 2.8 (1.06 − 7.42, p=0.03 and sweets (OR: 2.63 (1.39 − 4.98, p=0.003, was significantly associated with increased odds of behavioral problems. At the same time, a high intake of fruits was associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems in Norwegian adolescents (OR: 0.30 (0.10 − 0.87, p=0.03. All ORs are adjusted for sex and BMI. Conclusions: This study shows that having an optimal diet and not skipping meals are associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents. Hence, it is important to improve the dietary intake and meal pattern of Norwegian adolescents. The cross-sectional design of this study limits any causal interpretations of the results of the study.

  19. Post-traumatic stress disorder in adolescents in Lebanon as wars gained in ferocity: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Significance for public health Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescents has been implicated in developmental impairments, mental and scholastic problems, alcohol and drug abuse, and antisocial behavior in its victims among others. Absence of review studies regarding the prevalence of PTSD in adolescents in Lebanon, a country plagued by decades of civil strife and external occupation and invasion, is noted. Such information may reinforce the need to develop national public health p...

  20. Modern theories of suicidal behavior in adolescents and young people

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    T.S. Pavlova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose three current models, formulated over the last decade and not yet published in Russian, focused on teenage suicide: the development model of suicidal behavior in adolescents (J.A. Bridge, T.R. Goldstein, D.A. Brent; interpersonal model of (T.E. Joiner; some recent developments in the cognitive theory (A. Spirito, J.D. Matthews, A. Wenzel, A.T. Beck. Four groups of psychological aid targets for adolescents with suicidal tendencies are revealed: 1 targets of the current emotional state of a teenager (feelings of abandonment, self-perception as a burden to the loved ones, anxiety, hopelessness, heartache; 2 targets affecting personal predispositions (primitive defense mechanisms, impulsivity, aggression; 3 targets associated with cognitive functioning (cognitive rigidity, black-and-white thinking, thinking errors; and 4 targets reflecting a need to work with behavioral manifestations (narrow range of coping strategies used.

  1. Parenting stress, perceived parenting behaviors, and adolescent self-concept in European American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnick, Diane L; Bornstein, Marc H; Hendricks, Charlene; Painter, Kathleen M; Suwalsky, Joan T D; Collins, W Andrew

    2008-10-01

    This study assesses whether the stresses associated with parenting a child are indirectly related to adolescent self-concept through parenting behaviors. We examined longitudinal associations among mothers' and fathers' parenting stress at age 10, children's perceptions of parenting at age 10, and adolescents' self-concept at age 14 in 120 European American families. Mothers' and fathers' parenting stress was related to children's perceptions of acceptance and psychologically controlling behavior, and psychologically controlling behavior (and lax control for fathers) was related to adolescent self-concept. We further examined which domains of parenting stress and perceived parenting behaviors were associated with adolescents' scholastic competence, social acceptance, physical appearance, and behavioral conduct. Parenting stress was related to specific parenting behaviors, which were, in turn, related to specific domains of self-concept in adolescence. Parenting stress appears to exert its effects on early adolescent self-concept indirectly through perceived parenting behavior.

  2. Risk behaviors for eating disorder: factors associated in adolescent students

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes; Flavia Marcele Cipriani; Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Evidence shows that the prevalence of risk behaviors for eating disorders (RBED) among young people has increased in recent years. Body dissatisfaction, excessive exercise, body composition, economic status, and ethnicity may be risk factors for RBED. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of body dissatisfaction, psychological commitment to exercise, body fat, nutritional status, economic class, and ethnicity with RBED in adolescents. METHOD: This study included 562 bo...

  3. Risky driving and lifestyles in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bina, Manuela; Graziano, Federica; Bonino, Silvia

    2006-05-01

    Several studies have shown that risky driving is especially prevalent among young drivers and recent research has pointed out that driving in adolescence should be investigated in the more general context of adolescent development. The first aim of this contribution was to analyze involvement in risky driving in a normative sample of 645 Italian adolescents, boys and girls, aged 14-17, through a self-report questionnaire. A second aim was to evaluate the association between risky driving and lifestyle, defined as involvement in other health risk behaviors and leisure activities. The main results showed that many adolescents drove cars and motorcycles without the required driving license and the most frequent offences were speeding and failure to maintain a safe braking distance. Gender and age differences were also investigated. Results concerning the association between risky driving and lifestyle showed that risky driving was not an isolated behavior. Boys who displayed risky driving practices were more likely to adopt a lifestyle characterized by high involvement in antisocial behaviors, tobacco smoking, comfort eating and time spent in non-organized activities with friends. Girls involved in risky driving were more likely to be involved in other risk-taking behaviors, antisocial behaviors and drug use.

  4. Misperceptions of weight status among adolescents: sociodemographic and behavioral correlates

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    Bodde AE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amy E Bodde,1 Timothy J Beebe,1 Laura P Chen,2 Sarah Jenkins,3 Kelly Perez-Vergara,4 Lila J Finney Rutten,5 Jeanette Y Ziegenfuss6 1Division of Health Care Policy and Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Seattle Children’s Hospital, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 4Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 5Division of Epidemiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN USA; 6HealthPartners Institute for Education and Research, Minneapolis, MN, USA Objective: Accurate perceptions of weight status are important motivational triggers for weight loss among overweight or obese individuals, yet weight misperception is prevalent. To identify and characterize individuals holding misperceptions around their weight status, it may be informative for clinicians to assess self-reported body mass index (BMI classification (ie, underweight, normal, overweight, obese in addition to clinical weight measurement. Methods: Self-reported weight classification data from the 2007 Current Visit Information – Child and Adolescent Survey collected at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, were compared with measured clinical height and weight for 2,993 adolescents. Results: While, overall, 74.2% of adolescents accurately reported their weight status, females, younger adolescents, and proxy (vs self reporters were more accurate. Controlling for demographic and behavioral characteristics, the higher an individual's BMI percentile, the less likely there was agreement between self-report and measured BMI percentile. Those with high BMI who misperceive their weight status were less likely than accurate perceivers to attempt weight loss. Conclusion: Adolescents’ and proxies’ misperception of weight status increases with BMI percentile. Obtaining an adolescent's self-perceived weight status in addition to measured height and weight offers clinicians valuable baseline information to discuss motivation for weight

  5. Sedentary behavior in Brazilian children and adolescents: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Paulo Henrique; de Farias, José Cazuza; Florindo, Alex Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the methodological characteristics of the studies selected and assess variables associated with sedentary behavior in Brazilian children and adolescents. METHODS For this systematic review, we searched four electronic databases: PubMed, Web of Knowledge, LILACS, SciELO. Also, electronic searches were applied in Google Scholar. A supplementary search was conducted in the references lists of the included articles and in non-indexed journals. We included observational studies with children and adolescents aged from three to 19 years developed in Brazil, presenting analyses of associations based on regression methods and published until September 30, 2014. RESULTS Of the 255 potential references retrieved by the searches, 49 met the inclusion criteria and composed the descriptive synthesis. In this set, we identified a great number of cross-sectional studies (n = 43; 88.0%) and high methodological variability on the types of sedentary behavior assessed, measurement tools and cut-off points used. The variables most often associated with sedentary behavior were “high levels of body weight” (in 15 out of 27 studies; 55.0%) and “lower level of physical activity” (in eight out of 16 studies; 50.0%). CONCLUSIONS The findings of this review raise the following demands to the Brazilian agenda of sedentary behavior research geared to children and adolescents: development of longitudinal studies, validation of measuring tools, establishment of risk cut-offs, measurement of sedentary behavior beyond screen time and use of objective measures in addition to questionnaires. In the articles available, the associations between sedentary behavior with “high levels of body weight” and “low levels of physical activity” were observed in different regions of Brazil. PMID:27007685

  6. Pathways from School Suspension to Adolescent Nonviolent Antisocial Behavior in Students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Plenty, Stephanie M.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.; McMorris, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    School suspension is associated with school dropout, crime, delinquency, and alcohol and other drug use for the suspended student. Important research questions are how academic and related factors are relevant to the school suspension process and the generality of the process in different sites. State-representative samples of Grade 7 students (N…

  7. The Role of Youth Anger in Explaining Links between Parenting and Early Adolescent Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Sheffield Morris, Amanda; Cui, Lixian; Henry, Carolyn S.; Criss, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the role of youth anger regulation and reactivity in the link between parenting and social adjustment among a sample of 84 youth residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods in a mid-southwestern city. Using path analysis, findings indicate that parents' responsive and discipline-related behaviors…

  8. Mothers' and fathers' autonomy-relevant parenting: longitudinal links with adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Laird, Robert D; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this study was to advance the understanding of separate and joint effects of mothers' and fathers' autonomy-relevant parenting during early and middle adolescence. In a sample of 518 families, adolescents (49 % female; 83 % European American, 16 % African American, 1 % other ethnic groups) reported on their mothers' and fathers' psychological control and knowledge about adolescents' whereabouts, friends, and activities at ages 13 and 16. Mothers and adolescents reported on adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behaviors at ages 12, 14, 15, and 17. Adolescents perceived their mothers as using more psychological control and having more knowledge than their fathers, but there was moderate concordance between adolescents' perceptions of their mothers and fathers. More parental psychological control predicted increases in boys' and girls' internalizing problems and girls' externalizing problems. More parental knowledge predicted decreases in boys' externalizing and internalizing problems. The perceived levels of behavior of mothers and fathers did not interact with one another in predicting adolescent adjustment. The results generalize across early and late adolescence and across mothers' and adolescents' reports of behavior problems. Autonomy-relevant mothering and fathering predict changes in behavior problems during early and late adolescence, but only autonomy-relevant fathering accounts for unique variance in adolescent behavior problems.

  9. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Behice ÖZTOP

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT becomes one of the leading approaches in the psychotherapy. However,use of CBT in childhood psychotherapy is considerably novel. After 1990s, it has been understood that it is an effectivemethod for children and adolescents. Anxiety disorders are one of the most common problems in the field of childhoodand adolescent psychiatry. In the studies conducted, the effectiveness of CBT was demonstrated in anxiety disorders ofthe children and adolescents. Moreover, it was suggested that this effectiveness is permanent in some studies. Prioritygoal of CBT is to change inappropriate learning and thinking patterns in the children and adolescents. By “now and here”fashion, it is attempted to reveal the origin of current problems. During the process, the factors are considered, whichcause to maintain the symptoms. It is attempted to decrease signs caused to stress by improving coping skills duringtherapy. To this end, methods including observation, relaxation training, systematic desensitization, social skills training,cognitive restructuring and exposure therapy are applied in sessions by taking child’s problems into consideration. Scalesspecific to anxiety disorders are used in the assessment and follow-up. Age and development level of the child should beparticularly taken into account while using assessment tools and therapeutic modality.

  10. The impact of future expectations on adolescent sexual risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipsma, Heather L; Ickovics, Jeannette R; Lin, Haiqun; Kershaw, Trace S

    2015-01-01

    Rates of STIs, HIV, and pregnancy remain high among adolescents in the US, and recent approaches to reducing sexual risk have shown limited success. Future expectations, or the extent to which one expects an event to actually occur, may influence sexual risk behavior. This prospective study uses longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (n = 3,205 adolescents; 49.8% female) to examine the impact of previously derived latent classes of future expectations on sexual risk behavior. Cox regression and latent growth models were used to determine the effect of future expectations on age at first biological child, number of sexual partners, and inconsistent contraception use. The results indicate that classes of future expectations were uniquely associated with each outcome. The latent class reporting expectations of drinking and being arrested was consistently associated with the greatest risks of engaging in sexual risk behavior compared with the referent class, which reported expectations of attending school and little engagement in delinquent behaviors. The class reporting expectations of attending school and drinking was associated with having greater numbers of sexual partners and inconsistent contraception use but not with age at first biological child. The third class, defined by expectations of victimization, was not associated with any outcome in adjusted models, despite being associated with being younger at the birth of their first child in the unadjusted analysis. Gender moderated specific associations between latent classes and sexual risk outcomes. Future expectations, conceptualized as a multidimensional construct, may have a unique ability to explain sexual risk behaviors over time. Future strategies should target multiple expectations and use multiple levels of influence to improve individual future expectations prior to high school and throughout the adolescent period.

  11. Relationships between parenting styles and risk behaviors in adolescent health: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kathy; Harrison, Lynda; Dashiff, Carol; Davies, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Research over the past 20 years suggests that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship significantly affects the development of risk behaviors in adolescent health. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of studies published between 1996-2007 that address specific relationships between parenting styles and six priority adolescent risk behaviors. The review supports the substantial influence of parenting style on adolescent development. Adolescents raised in authoritative households consistently demonstrate higher protective and fewer risk behaviors than adolescents from non-authoritative families. There is also considerable evidence to show that parenting styles and behaviors related to warmth, communication and disciplinary practices predict important mediators, including academic achievement and psychosocial adjustment. Careful examination of parenting style patterns in diverse populations, particularly with respect to physical activity and unintentional injury, will be a critical next step in the development of efficacious, culturally tailored adolescent health promotion interventions.

  12. Parental Behaviors during Family Interactions Predict Changes in Depression and Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Orli S.; Dudgeon, Paul; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective, longitudinal relations between parental behaviors observed during parent-adolescent interactions, and the development of depression and anxiety symptoms in a community-based sample of 194 adolescents. Positive and negative parental behaviors were examined, with negative behaviors operationalized to…

  13. Parental Behaviors and Adolescent Self-Esteem in the United States and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Brian K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared U.S. and German adolescents on self-esteem and perceived parental behaviors. Parents were perceived as engaging in similar levels of behaviors in each culture. Parenting behaviors (support and control) were significantly related to self-esteem in U.S. adolescents, but not in Germans. More general measure of quality of parent-adolescent…

  14. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Andrea F; Visser, Leenke; Verhulst, Frank C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among adolescent

  15. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Andrea F.; Visser, Leenke; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundMost studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PurposeTo examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents. M

  16. Exploring Filipino Adolescents' Perceptions of the Legitimacy of Parental Authority over Academic Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2010-01-01

    Filipino adolescents' perceptions regarding the legitimacy of parental control over academic behaviors was investigated. It was assumed that the adolescents would differentiate between the issues inherent in various types or domains of academic behaviors. The results revealed three domains of academic behaviors: learning processes, college major…

  17. The relationships between environmental factors and violent behaviors in adolescent students of Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Omidi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings confirmed love and affection and healthy pastime (e.g. watching comedy and drama movies in the family to reduce violent behaviors in adolescents. In contrast, aggressive behaviors in the family, watching crime, police, and action movies were found to increase violent behaviors in adolescents.

  18. Dissociable Patterns of Neural Activity during Response Inhibition in Depressed Adolescents with and without Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lisa A.; Batezati-Alves, Silvia C.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Segreti, AnnaMaria; Akkal, Dalila; Hassel, Stefanie; Lakdawala, Sara; Brent, David A.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Impaired attentional control and behavioral control are implicated in adult suicidal behavior. Little is known about the functional integrity of neural circuitry supporting these processes in suicidal behavior in adolescence. Method: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used in 15 adolescent suicide attempters with a history of…

  19. Latino Adolescents Perception of Parenting Behaviors and Self-Esteem: Examining the Role of Neighborhood Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamaca, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Shin, Nana; Alfaro, Edna C.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the relations among parenting behaviors, adolescents' self-esteem, and neighborhood risk with a Midwestern sample of 324 Latino adolescents. The findings suggest that boys' self-esteem is influenced by both mothers' and fathers' parenting behaviors, whereas girls' self-esteem is influenced by mothers' behaviors only. In addition, the…

  20. Serious physical fighting and gambling-related attitudes and behaviors in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Slavin, Melissa; Pilver, Corey E.; HOFF, RANI A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; STEINBERG, MARVIN A.; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Physical fighting and gambling are common risk behaviors among adolescents. Prior studies have found associations among these behaviors in adolescents but have not examined systematically the health and gambling correlates of problem-gambling severity amongst youth stratified by fight involvement. Methods: Survey data were used from 2,276 Connecticut high school adolescents regarding their physical fight involvement, gambling behaviors and perceptions, and health and func...

  1. Delay Discounting Mediates Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Risky Sexual Behavior for Low Self-Control Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Rachel E; Holmes, Christopher; Farley, Julee P; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2015-09-01

    Parent-adolescent relationship quality and delay discounting may play important roles in adolescents' sexual decision making processes, and levels of self-control during adolescence could act as a buffer within these factors. This longitudinal study included 219 adolescent (55 % male; mean age = 12.66 years at Wave 1; mean age = 15.10 years at Wave 2) and primary caregiver dyads. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to determine whether delay discounting mediated the association between parent-adolescent relationship quality and adolescents' risky sexual behavior and how this mediated association may differ between those with high versus low self-control. The results revealed parent-adolescent relationship quality plays a role in the development of risky sexual behavior indirectly through levels of delay discounting, but only for adolescents with low self-control. These findings could inform sex education policies and health prevention programs that address adolescent risky sexual behavior.

  2. Measurement of adolescent smoking behavior: rationale and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechacek, T F; Murray, D M; Luepker, R V; Mittelmark, M B; Johnson, C A; Shutz, J M

    1984-03-01

    The initiation of cigarette smoking among adolescents is a health problem which has been the subject of discussion and study for many years. The evaluation of strategies to deter the adoption of smoking has long been hampered by the problems of measuring adolescent smoking behavior. Recently, interest has increased in biochemical measures of smoking under the assumption that they are more objective measures. The validity of this assumption is addressed for several ages of adolescents. This paper presents saliva thiocyanate levels, expired air carbon monoxide levels, and smoking self-reports from a sample of 2200 junior and senior high-school students. Interrelationships among the biochemical and behavioral measures are strong among the total population, ranging from 0.48 to 0.95 (Pearson r) but are much weaker at the younger age levels. Normative levels of carbon monoxide and saliva thiocyanate are presented by age (11-13, 14-15, and 16-17 years old). These data indicate that habitual smoking appears to develop in a gradual fashion and that several years may pass between initial experimentation and adult levels of smoking. Younger students consistently display lower levels of thiocyanate and carbon monoxide than older students of the same self-reported levels of smoking, suggesting that inhalation patterns may vary as a function of age or years smoking.

  3. Automated decoding of facial expressions reveals marked differences in children when telling antisocial versus prosocial lies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanette, Sarah; Gao, Xiaoqing; Brunet, Megan; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Lee, Kang

    2016-10-01

    The current study used computer vision technology to examine the nonverbal facial expressions of children (6-11years old) telling antisocial and prosocial lies. Children in the antisocial lying group completed a temptation resistance paradigm where they were asked not to peek at a gift being wrapped for them. All children peeked at the gift and subsequently lied about their behavior. Children in the prosocial lying group were given an undesirable gift and asked if they liked it. All children lied about liking the gift. Nonverbal behavior was analyzed using the Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox (CERT), which employs the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), to automatically code children's facial expressions while lying. Using CERT, children's facial expressions during antisocial and prosocial lying were accurately and reliably differentiated significantly above chance-level accuracy. The basic expressions of emotion that distinguished antisocial lies from prosocial lies were joy and contempt. Children expressed joy more in prosocial lying than in antisocial lying. Girls showed more joy and less contempt compared with boys when they told prosocial lies. Boys showed more contempt when they told prosocial lies than when they told antisocial lies. The key action units (AUs) that differentiate children's antisocial and prosocial lies are blink/eye closure, lip pucker, and lip raise on the right side. Together, these findings indicate that children's facial expressions differ while telling antisocial versus prosocial lies. The reliability of CERT in detecting such differences in facial expression suggests the viability of using computer vision technology in deception research.

  4. Preschool behavioral and social-cognitive problems as predictors of (pre)adolescent disruptive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emond, Alice; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes preschool social understanding and difficult behaviors (hot temper, disobedience, bossiness and bullying) as predictors of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and aggressive conduct disorder (ACD) in a Dutch population sample of (pre)adolescents (N = 1943), measured at age 10-

  5. Regional cortical thinning in subjects with violent antisocial personality disorder or schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Veena M; Narr, Katherine L; Kumari, Veena; Woods, Roger P; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W; Sharma, Tonmoy

    2007-09-01

    Violent behavior is associated with antisocial personality disorder and to a lesser extent with schizophrenia. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that several biological systems are disturbed in schizophrenia, and structural changes in frontal and temporal lobe regions are reported in both antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia. The neural substrates that underlie violent behavior specifically and their structural analogs, however, remain poorly understood. Nor is it known whether a common biological basis exists for aggressive, impulsive, and violent behavior across these clinical populations. To explore the correlates of violence with brain structure in antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia, the authors used magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate for the first time, to the authors' knowledge, regional differences in cortical thickness in violent and nonviolent individuals with schizophrenia and/or antisocial personality disorder and in healthy comparison subjects. Subject groups included right-handed men closely matched for demographic variables (total number of subjects=56). Violence was associated with cortical thinning in the medial inferior frontal and lateral sensory motor cortex, particularly in the right hemisphere, and surrounding association areas (Brodmann's areas 10, 11, 12, and 32). Only violent subjects with antisocial personality disorder exhibited cortical thinning in inferior mesial frontal cortices. The biological underpinnings of violent behavior may therefore vary between these two violent subject groups in which the medial frontal cortex is compromised in antisocial personality disorder exclusively, but laminar abnormalities in sensorimotor cortices may relate to violent behavior in both antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia.

  6. Regional Cortical Thinning in Subjects With Violent Antisocial Personality Disorder or Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Veena M.; Narr, Katherine L.; Kumari, Veena; Woods, Roger P.; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Sharma, Tonmoy

    2011-01-01

    Violent behavior is associated with antisocial personality disorder and to a lesser extent with schizophrenia. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that several biological systems are disturbed in schizophrenia, and structural changes in frontal and temporal lobe regions are reported in both antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia. The neural substrates that underlie violent behavior specifically and their structural analogs, however, remain poorly understood. Nor is it known whether a common biological basis exists for aggressive, impulsive, and violent behavior across these clinical populations. To explore the correlates of violence with brain structure in antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia, the authors used magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate for the first time, to the authors’ knowledge, regional differences in cortical thickness in violent and nonviolent individuals with schizophrenia and/or antisocial personality disorder and in healthy comparison subjects. Subject groups included right-handed men closely matched for demographic variables (total number of subjects=56). Violence was associated with cortical thinning in the medial inferior frontal and lateral sensory motor cortex, particularly in the right hemisphere, and surrounding association areas (Brodmann’s areas 10, 11, 12, and 32). Only violent subjects with antisocial personality disorder exhibited cortical thinning in inferior mesial frontal cortices. The biological underpinnings of violent behavior may therefore vary between these two violent subject groups in which the medial frontal cortex is compromised in antisocial personality disorder exclusively, but laminar abnormalities in sensorimotor cortices may relate to violent behavior in both antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia. PMID:17728428

  7. Body image and adolescence: A behavioral impairment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senín-Calderón, Cristina; Rodríguez-Testal, Juan F; Perona-Garcelán, Salvador; Perpiñá, Conxa

    2017-02-01

    Adolescence is a period marked by important physical and social changes that can lead to a negative body image. The purpose of this study was to find a model enabling the appearance of behavioral impairment related to body image (restrictions, avoidance, and checking) to be predicted by body image attitudes (concern or Appearance Orientation, and dissatisfaction or Appearance Evaluation), Gender, emotional symptomatology, self-consciousness, ideas of reference (IR) and age. A total of 661 participants (67.47% girls) with an average age of 17.14 years (SD=2.34) filled in the GHQ-28, SCS on self-consciousness, REF referential thinking scale, MBSRQ (AO and AE), and BIAQ. A partial mediation model was found for IR, age and depressive symptomatology between dissatisfaction and concern about body image and Gender, to behavioral impairment related to body image. The results found suggest that age, depressive symptomatology, and IR may be mediator variables in the relationship between dissatisfaction and concern about body image, on body image behavioral impairment. This relationship implies a severity to be considered in intervention and monitoring of body image behavioral impairments in adolescents.

  8. Engagement in Risky Sexual Behavior: Adolescents' Perceptions of Self and the Parent-Child Relationship Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; McElwain, Alyssa D.; Pittman, Joe F.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined associations among parenting practices, adolescents' self-esteem and dating identity exploration, and adolescents' sexual behaviors. Participants were 680 African American and European American sexually experienced adolescents attending public high schools in the southeast. Results indicated that risky sexual behavior…

  9. Parents as Role Models: Parental Behavior Affects Adolescents' Plans for Work Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Bettina S.; Freund, Alexandra M.

    2011-01-01

    This study (N = 520 high-school students) investigates the influence of parental work involvement on adolescents' own plans regarding their future work involvement. As expected, adolescents' perceptions of parental work behavior affected their plans for own work involvement. Same-sex parents served as main role models for the adolescents' own…

  10. Early Therapeutic Alliance and Treatment Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Stambaugh, Leyla Faw; Cecero, John J.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of early therapeutic alliance was examined in 100 clients receiving either individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or family therapy for adolescent substance abuse. Observational ratings of adolescent alliance in CBT and adolescent and parent alliance in family therapy were used to predict treatment retention (in CBT only) and…

  11. Relationship between Eating Behavior, Breakfast Consumption, and Obesity among Finnish and Greek Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltsista, Alexandra; Laitinen, Jaana; Sovio, Ulla; Roma, Eleftheria; Jarvelin, Marjo-Ritta; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between eating-related behaviors, particularly breakfast consumption, and weight status in Finnish and Greek adolescents. Methods: A total of 6,468 16-year-old Finnish adolescents and 2,842 17- and 18-year-old Greek adolescents, based on the latest follow-up of 2 population-based cohorts, were studied.…

  12. Empathy dysfunction in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wied, Minet; Gispen-de Wied, Christine; van Boxtel, Anton

    2010-01-10

    In this essay, we focus on empathy in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), based on the assumption that lack of empathy is a risk factor for the development of DBD. We reflect on the heterogeneity of DBD, the complex nature of the empathy construct, discuss empathy's role in aggression, and review recent findings from studies on empathic skills in children and adolescents with DBD. Research suggests that the mechanisms underlying empathy problems may be different for DBD subtypes. Individuals with psychopathic tendencies may show a selective impairment in empathy with sadness and fear due to abnormalities in neural circuits connected with the amygdala. Individuals without these tendencies may show little empathy for a variety of reasons, such as hostile attributions, anxiety and/or poor regulatory skills. Understanding more about the nature and causes of empathy dysfunction in DBD could aid in identifying subtypes and help to improve prevention and intervention programs. Suggestions for future research are made.

  13. Adolescents' aggressive and prosocial behaviors: links with social information processing, negative emotionality, moral affect, and moral cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Deborah J; Murphy, Tia Panfile; Augustine, Mairin

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine whether moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases independently predicted adolescents' prosocial and aggressive behavior in adolescence. A total of 148 adolescents completed self-report measures of prosocial and aggressive behavior, moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases. Although in general all 3 factors (emotional, moral, and social cognitive) were correlated with adolescent social behavior, the most consistent independent predictors of adolescent social behavior were moral affect and cognition. These findings have important implications for intervention and suggest that programs that promote adolescent perspective taking, moral reasoning, and moral affect are needed to reduce aggressive behavior and promote prosocial behavior.

  14. Gestational iron deficiency is associated with pica behaviors in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumish, Rachel A; Young, Sera L; Lee, Sunmin; Cooper, Elizabeth; Pressman, Eva; Guillet, Ronnie; O'Brien, Kimberly O

    2014-10-01

    A relation between pica (the craving and purposive consumption of nonfood items) during pregnancy and anemia is observed frequently. However, few studies related pica behaviors to biomarkers of iron status, and little is known about pica prevalence in U.S. pregnant adolescents. To address this, we undertook a longitudinal study examining iron status and pica behaviors among a group of 158 pregnant adolescents (aged ≤18 y). Approximately two-thirds of the participants were African American and 25% were Hispanic. Maternal iron status indicators [hemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptor, serum ferritin (SF), total body iron (TBI), and serum hepcidin] were assessed during pregnancy (18.5-37.3 wk) and at delivery. Pica behavior was assessed up to 3 times across gestation. Among the 158 adolescents, 46% reported engaging in pica behavior. Substances ingested included ice (37%), starches (8%), powders (4%), and soap (3%). During pregnancy, mean SF [geometric mean: 13.6 μg/L (95% CI: 11.0, 17.0 μg/L)], TBI (mean ± SD: 2.5 ± 4.2 mg/kg), and hepcidin [geometric mean: 19.1 μg/L (95% CI: 16.3, 22.2 μg/L)] concentrations were significantly lower (P pica group (n = 72) than values observed among the non-pica group [SF, geometric mean: 21.1 μg/L (95% CI: 18.0, 25.0 μg/L); TBI, mean ± SD: 4.3 ± 3.5 mg/kg; hepcidin, geometric mean: 27.1 μg/L (95%: 23.1, 32.1 μg/L); n = 86]. Although additional studies must address the etiology of these relations, this practice should be screened for, given its association with low iron status and because many of the substances ingested may be harmful. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01019902.

  15. Sociocultural Influences on Weight-Related Behaviors in African American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Nutrena H; Davis, Jean E; Yarandi, Hossein N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sociocultural factors related to weight behaviors in African American adolescents utilizing a social ecological approach. A descriptive correlational design included a sample of 145 African American adolescents. Perceived familial socialization, ethnic identity, physical activity, and eating behavior patterns were measured. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlations, and multiple regression equations. Perceived maternal socialization was significantly related to adolescent eating behaviors and physical activity whereas perceived paternal socialization was significantly related only to their physical activity. The adolescents' ethnic identity was not significantly related to their eating behaviors or physical activity. Health care providers who work with adolescents and their families can use the initial findings from this study to encourage healthy weight-related behaviors while reducing the obesity epidemic within the African American adolescent population in a developmentally appropriate and culturally sensitive manner.

  16. Adolescent Reports of Aggression as Predictors of Perceived Parenting Behaviors and Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kantahyanee W; Haynie, Denise L; Howard, Donna E; Cheng, Tina L; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescent self-report of aggression and adolescents' perceptions of parenting practices in a sample of African American early adolescents living in low-income, urban communities. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers' parenting practices at two time points during the school year. Path model findings reveal that adolescent-reported aggression at Time 1 predicted higher levels of perceived parent psychological control and perceived parent expectations for aggressive solutions to conflicts at Time 2. Findings suggest that early adolescent aggression elicits negative parenting behaviors at a subsequent time point.

  17. Eating disorder behaviors and attitudes in Japanese adolescent girls and boys in high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Noma, Shun'ichi; Nin, Kazuko; Teramukai, Satoshi; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2015-12-15

    To investigate eating disorder behaviors and attitudes in adolescents, we administered the eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q) to Japanese adolescent girls and boys. The EDE-Q global scores in Japanese girls and boys, respectively, were significantly lower than those in girls and boys in previous studies. Objective binge eating episodes and extreme dietary restriction were the common behaviors, whereas self-induced vomiting and the misuse of laxatives were uncommon. Differences in the EDE-Q data between Japanese adolescents and adolescents in previous studies from Western countries suggest that there may be certain cultural differences in eating disorder psychopathology in adolescents.

  18. Early detection of children at risk for antisocial behaviour using data from routine preventive child healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijneveld Sijmen A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Youth antisocial behaviour is highly prevalent. Young people are usually not willing to disclose such behaviour to professionals and parents. Our aim was to assess whether child health professionals (CHP working in preventive child healthcare could identify pre-adolescents at risk for antisocial behaviour through using data that they obtain in routine practice. Methods CHPs examined a national sample of 974 pre-adolescents aged 8-12 years (response 79.1%, and interviewed parents and children during routine well-child assessments. We obtained data on family background and current health of the child from the CHP; on developmental concerns from parents, and on social and emotional well-being, injuries, and substance use from the children. Antisocial behaviour concerned the adolescent-reported 15 item International Self-Reported Delinquency study questionnaire, among which are 5 items on violence against people. Results The prevalence of 2+acts of any antisocial behaviour was 21.8%, and 33.9% for 1+acts of violence (10.5% for 2+. Children who were male, had a young mother, no parent employed, recent injuries, poor performance at school or who were bored by school, and who had parental concerns more often reported 2+antisocial acts and 1+violence against people. Detection algorithms on the basis of these variables were moderately able to classify outcomes, with Areas-Under-the-Curves ranging from 0.66 to 0.71. Conclusions Data from routine well-child assessment can help CHPs to detect pre-adolescents at risk for antisocial behaviour, but detection algorithms need to be further improved. This could be done by obtaining additional information on factors that are associated with antisocial behaviour.

  19. The development of adolescents' internalizing behavior: longitudinal effects of maternal sensitivity and child inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, Anja; Linting, Mariëlle; Juffer, Femmie; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Schoenmaker, Christie; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

    2014-04-01

    Internalizing symptoms such as withdrawn and anxious-depressed behavior are common in adolescence. This prospective longitudinal study helps to gain insight into the development of internalizing behavior, focusing on the role of early parent-child interaction while ruling out genetic similarity as a confounder. More specifically, the central question addressed in this study was whether parental sensitivity and child inhibited temperament predict children's withdrawn and anxious-depressed behavior in middle childhood and adolescence. We followed 160 early-adopted children (53 % girls) from infancy to adolescence. Structural equation modeling was used to test relationships both prospectively and concurrently. The results revealed that more sensitive parenting in infancy and middle childhood predicted less inhibited behavior in adolescence, which in turn predicted fewer internalizing problems in adolescence. The findings suggest that maternal sensitivity lowers adolescents' inhibited behavior and decreases the risk for adolescents' internalizing problem behavior indirectly through lower levels of inhibition. Supporting sensitive parenting in the years before adolescence may protect children from developing inhibited behavior and internalizing behavior problems in adolescence.

  20. Adolescent boys and girls with behavioral disorders in residential homes: A camera-glasses study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wettstein

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Children and adolescents with behavioral disorders are often referred to residential homes. These homes cater and treat socially disadvantaged adolescents with a history of deviant behavior. This study investigated the environment of eight adolescents in these residential homes and four non-aggressive adolescents living with their families. The daily activities were recorded by using camera-glasses attached to the subject. These activities took place in school, leisure time, family and residential homes. Other additional methods were used to investigate the perception and experience of these adolescents. The results of this study indicate that the adolescents in residential homes have a smaller living space in contrast to the non-aggressive adolescents. They also have less close relationships and fewer interactions with their peers. Moreover they have more conflicts and show more often aggressive behavior and they are more often victims of aggression.

  1. Family functioning and adolescents' emotional and behavioral problems: when a parent has cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gazendam-Donofrio, S.M.; Hoekstra, H. J.; van der Graaf, W. T. A.; van de Wiel, H. B.; Visser, Annemieke; Huizinga, G.A.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This article focuses on possible relationships between functioning of adolescents with a parent diagnosed with cancer 1-5 years earlier and family environment. Patients and methods: In all, 138 patients, 114 spouses and 221 adolescents completed the Family Environment Scale. Additionally, adolescents filled in the Impact of Event Scale and Youth Self-report and parents reported on the adolescents' functioning using the Child Behavior Checklist. Results: Patients and spouses report...

  2. Coping with contraception: cognitive and behavioral methods with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, L D; Schinke, S P

    1983-01-01

    Teenagers' sporadic use or nonuse of contraception is 1 explanation for the high rates of unwanted pregnancies in the US. Past efforts have had limited impact as they focused on simply providing adolescents with information and increased access to birth control. The argument here points to specific cognitive and behavioral skills, which adolescents lack, and which are required for effective contraception. Previous research documents an increase in teenagers' use of contraception following a skills-training program presented in intensive small-group format. The present study evaluates cognitive and behavioral skills training methods implemented with large groups (n=120), in the natural environment. The subjects are male and female students of a middle class suburban public high school. Training in this preventive approach stresses verbal and nonverbal components of effective interpersonal communication--approach, refusal and request responses--as important behavioral skills. Cognitive skills training emphasizes the application of facts about reproduction and contraception to make optimal decisions in situations involving sexual activity. Leaders help the subjects relate abstract facts and observable risks to their own life circumstances and choices. Additional skills practice involves the completion of written assignments outside the group setting. At the end of the 2-week training period, the students are evaluated along 4 measures: a knowledge inventory, a contraceptive attitudes and intentions inventory, and a videotaped performance test. Analyses of findings support the feasibility of large-group procedures for helping adolescents cope with sexuality and contraception. Future investigations are needed to replicate the present research as are longitudinal follow-up data to assess the long-term effects of this treatment approach.

  3. Gender, Generational Status, and Parent-Adolescent Sexual Communication: Implications for Latino/a Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Arielle R; Crockett, Lisa J

    2016-06-01

    There is little research on how specific parent-adolescent sexual communication topics influence Latino/a youth's sexual behaviors, and how gender and generational status may moderate effects. This study examined effects of three different messages on intercourse and condom use among 1944 Latino/as from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (T1 mean age=15.46; sd=1.50). Results indicated discussing health consequences predicted higher odds of intercourse one year later across gender and generation groups. Birth control recommendation effects on subsequent intercourse and condom use differed by generational status and gender. Results indicated that message content is important for understanding effects of parent-adolescent sex communication on adolescents' behavior, and underscored the need to consider gender and generational status in Latino/a parent-adolescent sexual communication studies.

  4. Fear learning and memory across adolescent development: Hormones and Behavior Special Issue: Puberty and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattwell, Siobhan S; Lee, Francis S; Casey, B J

    2013-07-01

    Throughout the past several decades, studies have uncovered a wealth of information about the neural circuitry underlying fear learning and extinction that has helped to inform treatments for fear-related disorders such as post-traumatic stress and anxiety. Yet, up to 40% of people do not respond to such treatments. Adolescence, in particular, is a developmental stage during which anxiety disorders peak, yet little is known about the development of fear-related neural circuitry during this period. Moreover, pharmacological and behavioral therapies that have been developed are based on mature circuitry and function. Here, we review neural circuitry implicated in fear learning and data from adolescent mouse and human fear learning studies. In addition, we propose a developmental model of fear neural circuitry that may optimize current treatments and inform when, during development, specific treatments for anxiety may be most effective.

  5. Antisocial personality disorder, sexual sadism, malignant narcissism, and serial murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberth, V J; Turco, R N

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the research on serial murder and its relationship to antisocial personality disorder and sexual sadism. The concept of malignant narcissism is also discussed. Case studies of serial killers are examined regarding the nature of sexual violation and crime scene behavior.

  6. Sex-Related Online Behaviors, Perceived Peer Norms and Adolescents' Experience with Sexual Behavior: Testing an Integrative Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; ter Bogt, Tom F M; Reitz, Ellen; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M

    2015-01-01

    Research on the role of sex-related Internet use in adolescents' sexual development has often isolated the Internet and online behaviors from other, offline influencing factors in adolescents' lives, such as processes in the peer domain. The aim of this study was to test an integrative model explaining how receptive (i.e., use of sexually explicit Internet material [SEIM]) and interactive (i.e., use of social networking sites [SNS]) sex-related online behaviors interrelate with perceived peer norms in predicting adolescents' experience with sexual behavior. Structural equation modeling on longitudinal data from 1,132 Dutch adolescents (M(age) T1 = 13.95; range 11-17; 52.7% boys) demonstrated concurrent, direct, and indirect effects between sex-related online behaviors, perceived peer norms, and experience with sexual behavior. SEIM use (among boys) and SNS use (among boys and girls) predicted increases in adolescents' perceptions of peer approval of sexual behavior and/or in their estimates of the numbers of sexually active peers. These perceptions, in turn, predicted increases in adolescents' level of experience with sexual behavior at the end of the study. Boys' SNS use also directly predicted increased levels of experience with sexual behavior. These findings highlight the need for multisystemic research and intervention development to promote adolescents' sexual health.

  7. Gaming behavior and addiction among Hong Kong adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Irene Lai Kuen; Lam, Millicent Pui Sze

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Game playing is very popular among Hong Kong teenagers. This study aimed to investigate adolescent gaming behavior and addiction at the Internet cafe, and to explore perceived benefits and harms associated with the activity. Methods A convenient sample of 13 male high school students aged 12–15 years (mean age = 13.6 years) were interviewed at two Internet cafes. Young’s (Caught in the net, Wiley, New York, 1998) criteria of Internet addiction were modified to assess gaming addicti...

  8. Gaming behavior and addiction among Hong Kong adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Lai Kuen Wong; Millicent Pui Sze Lam

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Game playing is very popular among Hong Kong teenagers. This study aimed to investigate adolescent gaming behavior and addiction at the Internet cafe, and to explore perceived benefits and harms associated with the activity. Methods A convenient sample of 13 male high school students aged 12–15 years (mean age = 13.6 years) were interviewed at two Internet cafes. Young’s (Caught in the net, Wiley, New York, 1998) criteria of Internet addiction were modified to assess gamin...

  9. Inappropriate eating behavior: a longitudinal study with female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the inappropriate eating behaviors (IEB of female adolescents over a one-year period. Methods: 290 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old participated in the three research stages (T1: first four months, T2: second four months and T3: third four months. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was applied to assess the IEB. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI in the three study periods. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data, adjusted for the scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Brazil Economic Classification Criteria. Results: Girls at T1 showed a higher frequency of IEB compared to T2 (p=0.001 and T3 (p=0.001. The findings also indicated higher values for BMI in T3 in relation to T1 (p=0.04. The other comparisons did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: IEB scores of female adolescents declined over one year.

  10. [Behavior of vaginal trichomoniasis in a group of adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Cirer, Alina Izquierdo; Pérez, Carlos Sarría; Ramos, Idalia Sariego; Nodarse, Jorge Fraga

    2003-01-01

    275 adolescents aged 10-19 receiving attention at the infantojuvenile department of pregnancy interruption and of sexually transmitted infections of "Ramón Gonzalez Coro" and "Eusebio Hernández" Gynecoobstetric Teaching Hospitals, both in Havana City, were studied from August, 1999, to September, 2000, aimed at knowing the behavior of the infection caused by Trichomonas vaginalis in this population group. The results yielded 18.1 % of positivity to parasitosis. It was proved by the calculation of relative risk that the adolescents that had an active or past infection due to Trichomonas vaginalis have more possibilities of getting an infection produced by human Papilomavirus than those without this condition. It was demonstrated that 78 (28.3 %) of the total of patients examined had some type of lesion in the uterine cervix. Some risk factors as non using condon, having multiple sexual partners and the early beginning of sexual relations, which may facilitate the adquisition of this parasitosis in a population so vulnerable as the adolescents, were made known.

  11. Longitudinal prediction of disruptive behavior disorders in adolescent males from multiple risk domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacosta, Christopher J; Hyde, Luke W; Goodlett, Benjamin D; Shaw, Daniel S

    2013-08-01

    The disruptive behavior disorders are among the most prevalent youth psychiatric disorders, and they predict numerous problematic outcomes in adulthood. This study examined multiple domains of risk during early childhood and early adolescence as longitudinal predictors of disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses among adolescent males. Early adolescent risks in the domains of sociodemographic factors, the caregiving context, and youth attributes were examined as mediators of associations between early childhood risks and disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses. Participants were 309 males from a longitudinal study of low-income mothers and their sons. Caregiving and youth risk during early adolescence each predicted the likelihood of receiving a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis. Furthermore, sociodemographic and caregiving risk during early childhood were indirectly associated with disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses via their association with early adolescent risk. The findings suggest that preventive interventions targeting risk across domains may reduce the prevalence of disruptive behavior disorders.

  12. Protective factors for adolescent violence against authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibabe, Izaskun; Jaureguizar, Joana; Bentler, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    Both the family and school environments influence adolescents' violence, but there is little research focusing simultaneously on the two contexts. This study analyzed the role of positive family and classroom environments as protective factors for adolescents' violence against authority (parent abuse and teacher abuse) and the relations between antisocial behavior and child-to-parent violence or student-to-teacher violence. The sample comprised 687 Spanish students aged 12-16 years, who responded to the Family Environment Scale (FES) and the Classroom Environment Scale (CES). Structural Equation Modeling was used to test our model of violent behavior towards authority based on Catalano and Hawkins' Social Developmental Model (1996). Perceived family cohesion and organization showed an inverse association with parent abuse, suggesting that a positive family environment was a protective factor for the development of violence against parents. Family and classroom environments had direct effects on adolescents' violence against authority, and antisocial behavior showed a mediating effect in this relationship. The model accounted for 81% of the variance in violence against authority. As family environment was a better predictor of violence against authority than school environment, intervention efforts to reduce rates of adolescent violence should focus on helping parents to increase family cohesion and to manage conflictive relationships with their children.

  13. Reciprocal relations between parents' physical discipline and children's externalizing behavior during middle childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Criss, Michael M; Laird, Robert D; Shaw, Daniel S; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2011-02-01

    Using data from two long-term longitudinal projects, we investigated reciprocal relations between maternal reports of physical discipline and teacher and self-ratings of child externalizing behavior, accounting for continuity in both discipline and externalizing over time. In Study 1, which followed a community sample of 562 boys and girls from age 6 to 9, high levels of physical discipline in a given year predicted high levels of externalizing behavior in the next year, and externalizing behavior in a given year predicted high levels of physical discipline in the next year. In Study 2, which followed an independent sample of 290 lower income, higher risk boys from age 10 to 15, mother-reported physical discipline in a given year predicted child ratings of antisocial behavior in the next year, but child antisocial behavior in a given year did not predict parents' use of physical discipline in the next year. In neither sample was there evidence that associations between physical discipline and child externalizing changed as the child aged, and findings were not moderated by gender, race, socioeconomic status, or the severity of the physical discipline. Implications for the reciprocal nature of the socialization process and the risks associated with physical discipline are discussed.

  14. Neurobiologia do transtorno de personalidade anti-social Neurobiology of anti-social personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Marta Del-Ben

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, tem havido um interesse crescente a respeito de uma melhor compreensão sobre o comportamento anti-social. O aumento da criminalidade e violência urbanas pode ter contribuído para esse maior interesse. Além de fatores psicossociais, outros biológicos têm sido implicados na fisiopatogenia do transtorno de personalidade anti-social (TPAS. Estudos de neuroimagem apontam o envolvimento de estruturas cerebrais frontais, especialmente o córtex orbitofrontal, e a amígdala. Também tem sido sugerido que prejuízos na função serotonérgica estariam associados à ocorrência de comportamento anti-social, já que pacientes com diagnóstico de TPAS apresentam respostas hormonais atenuadas a desafios farmacológicos com drogas que aumentam a função serotonérgica cerebral e redução da concentração de receptores serotonérgicos. Uma abordagem ampla dos diferentes fatores possivelmente envolvidos na fisiopatogenia do TPAS poderia contribuir para o desenvolvimento de novas técnicas de prevenção e intervenção.Violence and crime have been increasing considerably in urban societies. As a consequence, some efforts have been made aiming at a better understanding of antisocial bevaviour. Apart from psychosocial factors, some evidences suggest the occurrence of biological factors in the pathogenesis of antisocial personality disorders (ASPD. Neuroimaging studies have shown the involvement of prefrontal areas, especially orbitofrontal cortex, and amygdala. Also, impaired serotonin (5-HT neurotransmission has been implicated, since patients with ASPD present alterations in measures of 5-Ht system, such as blunted hormonal response to 5-HT pharmacological challenges and reduced 5-HT receptors numbers. A comprehensive approach of antisocial behavior, including biological and psychosocial aspects could lead to the development of new techniques for prevention and intervention in ASPD.

  15. Student Antisocial Compliance-Gaining as a Function of Instructor Aggressive Communication and Classroom Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Christopher J.; Chory, Rebecca M.; Malachowski, Colleen C.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated students' perceptions of their instructors' argumentativeness and verbal aggressiveness, classroom justice, and effectiveness of and likelihood of communicating student antisocial behavior alteration techniques (BATs). Results indicate that student perceptions of instructor argumentativeness were not related to their…

  16. Caffeine triggers behavioral and neurochemical alterations in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardais, A P; Borges, M F; Rocha, A S; Sallaberry, C; Cunha, R A; Porciúncula, L O

    2014-06-13

    Caffeine is the psychostimulant most consumed worldwide but concerns arise about the growing intake of caffeine-containing drinks by adolescents since the effects of caffeine on cognitive functions and neurochemical aspects of late brain maturation during adolescence are poorly known. We now studied the behavioral impact in adolescent male rats of regular caffeine intake at low (0.1mg/mL), moderate (0.3mg/mL) and moderate/high (1.0mg/mL) doses only during their active period (from 7:00 P.M. to 7:00 A.M.). All tested doses of caffeine were devoid of effects on locomotor activity, but triggered anxiogenic effects. Caffeine (0.3 and 1mg/mL) improved the performance in the object recognition task, but the higher dose of caffeine (1.0mg/mL) decreased the habituation to an open-field arena, suggesting impaired non-associative memory. All tested doses of caffeine decreased the density of glial fibrillary acidic protein and synaptosomal-associated protein-25, but failed to modify neuron-specific nuclear protein immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Caffeine (0.3-1mg/mL) increased the density of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and proBDNF density as well as adenosine A1 receptor density in the hippocampus, whereas the higher dose of caffeine (1mg/mL) increased the density of proBDNF and BDNF and decreased A1 receptor density in the cerebral cortex. These findings document an impact of caffeine consumption in adolescent rats with a dual impact on anxiety and recognition memory, associated with changes in BDNF levels and decreases of astrocytic and nerve terminal markers without overt neuronal damage in hippocampal and cortical regions.

  17. Adolescent mice are more vulnerable than adults to single injection-induced behavioral sensitization to amphetamine

    OpenAIRE

    Kameda, Sonia Regina; Fukushiro, Daniela Fukue [UNIFESP; Trombin, Thaís Fernanda [UNIFESP; Procopio-Souza, Roberta [UNIFESP; Patti, Camilla de Lima [UNIFESP; Hollais, André Willian [UNIFESP; Calzavara, Mariana Bendlin [UNIFESP; Abílio, Vanessa Costhek [UNIFESP; Ribeiro, Rosana de Alencar [UNIFESP; Tufik, Sergio; D'Almeida, Vânia; Frussa Filho, Roberto [UNIFESP

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced behavioral sensitization in rodents has enhanced our understanding of why drugs acquire increasing motivational and incentive value. Compared to adults, human adolescents have accelerated dependence courses with shorter times from first exposure to dependence. We compared adolescent and adult mice in their ability to develop behavioral sensitization to amphetamine following a single injection. Adult (90-day-old) and adolescent (45-day-old) male Swiss mice received an acute intrap...

  18. A Conceptual Framework for Healthy Eating Behavior in Ecuadorian Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Verstraeten, R.; Van Royen, K.; Ochoa-Aviles, A.; Penafiel, D.; Holdsworth, M.; Donoso, S; Maes, L.; Kolsteren, P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to identify factors influencing eating behavior of Ecuadorian adolescents - from\\ud the perspective of parents, school staff and adolescents - to develop a conceptual framework for adolescents’ eating\\ud behavior.\\ud \\ud Study design: Twenty focus groups (N = 144 participants) were conducted separately with adolescents aged 11–15 y (n\\ud (focus groups) = 12, N (participants) = 80), parents (n = 4, N = 32) and school staff (n = 4, N = 32) in rural and...

  19. Exploring the effects of antisocial personality traits on brain potentials during face processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela M Pfabigan

    Full Text Available Antisocial individuals are characterized to display self-determined and inconsiderate behavior during social interaction. Furthermore, recognition deficits regarding fearful facial expressions have been observed in antisocial populations. These observations give rise to the question whether or not antisocial behavioral tendencies are associated with deficits in basic processing of social cues. The present study investigated early visual stimulus processing of social stimuli in a group of healthy female individuals with antisocial behavioral tendencies compared to individuals without these tendencies while measuring event-related potentials (P1, N170. To this end, happy and angry faces served as feedback stimuli which were embedded in a gambling task. Results showed processing differences as early as 88-120 ms after feedback onset. Participants low on antisocial traits displayed larger P1 amplitudes than participants high on antisocial traits. No group differences emerged for N170 amplitudes. Attention allocation processes, individual arousal levels as well as face processing are discussed as possible causes of the observed group differences in P1 amplitudes. In summary, the current data suggest that sensory processing of facial stimuli is functionally intact but less ready to respond in healthy individuals with antisocial tendencies.

  20. Intervention Fidelity in Family-Based Prevention Counseling for Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Aaron; Liddle, Howard A.; Singer, Alisa; Leckrone, Jodi

    2005-01-01

    This study examined fidelity in multidimensional family prevention (MDFP), a family-based prevention counseling model for adolescents at high risk for substance abuse and related behavior problems, in comparison to two empirically based treatments for adolescent drug abuse: multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy…