WorldWideScience

Sample records for adolescent antisocial behavior

  1. Rock Music and Korean Adolescent's Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inkyung; Kwak, Keumjoo; Chang, Geunyoung; Yang, Jinyoung

    The relationship between rock music preference and antisocial behavior among Korean adolescents was examined. The Korean versions of the Sensation Seeking Scale and the Antisocial Behavior Checklist were used to measure sensation seeking motivation and delinquency. Adolescents (N=1,079) were categorized as "rock/metal,""dance," or "ballad" based…

  2. Irrational evaluations and antisocial behavior of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević-Gvozden Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles of the Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy point out to the role of irrational beliefs in the occurrence of aggressive and antisocial behavior. The goal of this research is to determine whether there are links between irrational beliefs and self-assessment of antisocial behavior and whether there are differences with respect to irrational beliefs between the young who were sentenced by juvenile court judges compared to the control group. The research was conducted on two subsamples - the first consisted of male adolescents (N=116, aged 16 to 19, and the second comprised male adolescents 50 out of whom were sentenced by juvenile court judges, aged averagely 17 and a half, and 50 members of the control group. The modified version of the General Attitude and Belief Scale (GABS (Marić, 2002, 2003 and Antisocial Behavior Scale (ABS (Opačić, 2010, in print were used. Multiple regression analysis showed that the best predictor of the score on antisocial behavior scale was “the demand for absolute correctness of others and their devaluation”, followed by the aspiration towards perfectionism and success which acts as the factor that reduces the probability of antisocial behavior. Almost identical results were obtained by group comparison. The obtained results provide guidelines for designing preventive programs (sketched in the discussion that would be able to reduce the frequency of aggressive and antisocial behavior at adolescent age.

  3. [Latin-American adolescents, acculturation and antisocial behavior].

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    Sobral Fernández, Jorge; Gómez-Fraguela, José Antonio; Luengo, Angeles; Romero, Estrella; Villar, Paula

    2010-08-01

    The main purposes of this study are: a) To determine whether the acculturation styles proposed by Berry's model (integration, separation, assimilation and marginalization) can be replicated in a sample of Latin-American immigrant adolescents living in Spain; b) to examine the relationships between acculturation styles and both antisocial behavior and involvement with alcohol. For these purposes, data were collected in a sample of 750 Latin-American immigrants in a number of schools in Galicia and Madrid. Results confirm the existence of the four acculturation strategies, with integration and marginalization as the most and least used, respectively. With respect to the relationships of these styles with antisocial behavior and alcohol use, it was found that adolescents who use the separation strategy show the highest levels of antisocial behavior; conversely, and contrary to expectations, the marginalization group had the lowest levels of antisocial involvement. PMID:20667268

  4. Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence: Typology and Relation to Family Context

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    Sobotková, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Hrdlicka, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The study deals with the relationship between antisocial behavior in early adolescence and family environment. Sample consisted of 2,856 adolescents (53% girls, mean age 13.5 years, SD = 1.1) from urban areas in the Czech Republic. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a school survey, was used to measure sociodemographic characteristics of the…

  5. Moral Cognitive Processes Explaining Antisocial Behavior in Young Adolescents

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    van der Velden, Floor; Brugman, Daniel; Boom, Jan; Koops, Willem

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the longitudinal relationships between three kinds of moral cognitions--self-serving cognitive distortions, moral judgment, perception of community--and antisocial behavior in young adolescents. Aims were to gain insight in direct and indirect relationships, stability, and causality. The sample included 724 students (M age =…

  6. Moral cognitive processes explaining antisocial behavior in young adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, F.; Brugman, D.; Boom, J.; Koops, W.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the longitudinal relationships between three kinds of moral cognitions – self-serving cognitive distortions, moral judgment, perception of community – and antisocial behavior in young adolescents. Aims were to gain insight in direct and indirect relationships, stability, and cau

  7. Parenting Style Dimensions As Predictors of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-García, David; García, Trinidad; Barreiro-Collazo, Alejandra; Dobarro, Alejandra; Antúnez, Ángela

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007) to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescents 12-18 years of age from Asturias (Spain). Regarding construct validity, the results show that the model that best represents the data is composed of six dimensions of parenting style, just as in the original scale, namely affection and communication; promotion of autonomy; behavioral control; psychological control; self-disclosure; and humor. The psychological control factor negatively correlates with the other factors, with the exception of behavioral control, with which it positively correlates. The remaining correlations among the factors in the parenting style questionnaire are positive. Regarding internal consistency, the reliability analysis for each factor supports the suitability of this six-factor model. With regard to criterion validity, as expected based on the evidence available, the six dimensions of parenting style correlate in a statistically significant manner with the three antisocial behavior measures used as criteria (off-line school aggression, antisocial behavior, and antisocial friendships). Specifically, all dimensions negatively correlate with the three variables, except for psychological control. In the latter case, the correlation is positive. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  8. Parenting Style Dimensions As Predictors of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-García, David; García, Trinidad; Barreiro-Collazo, Alejandra; Dobarro, Alejandra; Antúnez, Ángela

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007) to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescents 12-18 years of age from Asturias (Spain). Regarding construct validity, the results show that the model that best represents the data is composed of six dimensions of parenting style, just as in the original scale, namely affection and communication; promotion of autonomy; behavioral control; psychological control; self-disclosure; and humor. The psychological control factor negatively correlates with the other factors, with the exception of behavioral control, with which it positively correlates. The remaining correlations among the factors in the parenting style questionnaire are positive. Regarding internal consistency, the reliability analysis for each factor supports the suitability of this six-factor model. With regard to criterion validity, as expected based on the evidence available, the six dimensions of parenting style correlate in a statistically significant manner with the three antisocial behavior measures used as criteria (off-line school aggression, antisocial behavior, and antisocial friendships). Specifically, all dimensions negatively correlate with the three variables, except for psychological control. In the latter case, the correlation is positive. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:27679591

  9. Parenting Style Dimensions As Predictors of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-García, David; García, Trinidad; Barreiro-Collazo, Alejandra; Dobarro, Alejandra; Antúnez, Ángela

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007) to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescents 12–18 years of age from Asturias (Spain). Regarding construct validity, the results show that the model that best represents the data is composed of six dimensions of parenting style, just as in the original scale, namely affection and communication; promotion of autonomy; behavioral control; psychological control; self-disclosure; and humor. The psychological control factor negatively correlates with the other factors, with the exception of behavioral control, with which it positively correlates. The remaining correlations among the factors in the parenting style questionnaire are positive. Regarding internal consistency, the reliability analysis for each factor supports the suitability of this six-factor model. With regard to criterion validity, as expected based on the evidence available, the six dimensions of parenting style correlate in a statistically significant manner with the three antisocial behavior measures used as criteria (off-line school aggression, antisocial behavior, and antisocial friendships). Specifically, all dimensions negatively correlate with the three variables, except for psychological control. In the latter case, the correlation is positive. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:27679591

  10. Personality types, aggression and antisocial behavior in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Morán

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Junior Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-J, the types of personality and its relationship with aggressiveness and the antisocial behavior is analyzed in a student’s sample (N = 1416 with ages between 11 y 15 years old (average age = 13,32; SD= 1,22. Cluster analysis using the reduced version (Bryant y Smith (2001 of the Aggression Questionnaire(AQ(Buss y Perry, 1992 revealed three personality types that were related to Eysenck’s hypothesis of antisocial behavior and the level of aggressiveness. The under controlled profile confirmed the Eysenck’s hypothesis of antisocial behavior in early adolescence, and was also found to be the most aggressive prototype. The under controlled and over controlled types were implicated in bullying, but in different ways. Furthermore, the resilient people were found to have an adaptive profile combined with the best academic achievement. Gender differences were also found in personality dimensions and aggression. The importance of aggression among young adolescents and the necessity of further research on this topic are emphasized.

  11. Mediation of Anti-Social Adolescent Behavior by Single-Sex and Co-Educational Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastick, Tony

    Many societies institute coeducational and single-sex schools to mediate adolescents' antisocial behavior. This paper details a study comparing antisocial behavior of adolescent boys and girls in coeducational schools with that of a matching group in single-sex schools in Jamaica. The study identified the 10 most common types of antisocial…

  12. Multisystemic Treatment of Antisocial Behavior in Children and Adolescents. Treatment Manuals for Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henggeler, Scott W.; Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Borduin, Charles M.; Rowland, Melisa D.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.

    Antisocial behavior can be reduced if services focus on changing the known determinants of behavior problems in the natural environments in which children and families live. The development of multisystemic treatment (MST) gives mental health professionals a powerful new tool for confronting antisocial behavior in children and adolescents,…

  13. Predictors of Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in an Adolescent Sports Context

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    Rutten, Esther A.; Schuengel, Carlo; Dirks, Evelien; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Biesta, Gert J. J.; Hoeksma, Jan B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined antisocial and prosocial behavior of N = 439 adolescent athletes between 14 and 17 years of age (67 teams). Multi-level analyses showed that team membership explained 20 and 13 percent of the variance in antisocial and prosocial behavior in the sports context, respectively. The team effects suggest that aggregating antisocial…

  14. Predictors of antisocial and prosocial behavior in an adolescent sports context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Rutten; C. Schuengel; E. Dirks; G.J.J.M. Stams; G.J.J. Biesta; J.B. Hoeksma

    2011-01-01

    This study examined antisocial and prosocial behavior of N = 439 adolescent athletes between 14 and 17 years of age (67 teams). Multi-level analyses showed that team membership explained 20 and 13 percent of the variance in antisocial and prosocial behavior in the sports context, respectively. The t

  15. The Contribution of Organized Youth Sport to Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in Adolescent Athletes

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    Rutten, Esther A.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Biesta, Gert J. J.; Schuengel, Carlo; Dirks, Evelien; Hoeksma, Jan B.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the contribution of organized youth sport to antisocial and prosocial behavior in adolescent athletes. The sample consisted of N = 260 male and female soccer players and competitive swimmers, 12 to 18 years of age. Multilevel regression analysis revealed that 8% of the variance in antisocial behavior and 7% of the…

  16. Predicting antisocial behavior among latino young adolescents: an ecological systems analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamon, Mary Keegan; Mulder, Cray

    2005-01-01

    The authors used data from a national sample of 420 Latino young adolescents to examine multiple predictors of antisocial behavior within an ecological systems framework. They found that boys and youths who lived a higher proportion of their life in poverty exhibited higher levels of antisocial behavior, and mothers' acculturation was associated with lower levels. Neighborhood and school environments, exposure to deviant peer pressure, and 3 parenting practices--parent-youth attachment, physical punishment, and mothers' monitoring--were related to Latino youth antisocial behavior. Neighborhood quality and peer pressure explained the relation between poverty and an increased risk for antisocial behavior.

  17. Parenting and Antisocial Behavior: A Model of the Relationship between Adolescent Self-Disclosure, Parental Closeness, Parental Control, and Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieno, Alessio; Nation, Maury; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    This study used data collected from a sample of 840 Italian adolescents (418 boys; M age = 12.58) and their parents (657 mothers; M age = 43.78) to explore the relations between parenting, adolescent self-disclosure, and antisocial behavior. In the hypothesized model, parenting practices (e.g., parental monitoring and control) have direct effects…

  18. Friday on My Mind: The Relation of Partying with Antisocial Behavior of Early Adolescents. The TRAILS Study

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    Veenstra, Rene; Huitsing, Gijs; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2010-01-01

    The relation between partying and antisocial behavior was investigated using a sample of Dutch early adolescents (T2: N = 1,076; M age = 13.52). Antisocial behavior was divided into rule-breaking and aggressive behavior. Using a goal-framing approach, it was argued that the relation of partying to antisocial behavior depends on the way the need to…

  19. Internet Addiction and Antisocial Internet Behavior of Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Keung Ma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction and the moral implication of antisocial Internet behavior will be investigated in this paper. More and more people use the Internet in their daily life. Unfortunately the percentage of people who use the internet excessively also increases. The concept of Internet addiction or pathological use of Internet is discussed in detail, and the characteristics of Internet addicts are also delineated. The social (especially the antisocial use of Internet is discussed. It is argued that the behavior of Internet use is similar to daily life social behavior. In other words, Internet behavior is a kind of social behavior. Kohlberg's theory of moral development is employed to delineate the moral reasoning of the antisocial Internet behavior. The following behaviors are regarded as antisocial Internet behavior: (1 the use of Internet to carry out illegal activities such as selling faked products or offensive pornographic materials, (2 the use of Internet to bully others (i.e., cyberbullying such as distributing libelous statements against a certain person, (3 the use of Internet to cheat others, and (4 the use of Internet to do illegal gambling. The characteristics of the moral stages that are associated with these antisocial Internet behaviors are investigated in detail.

  20. Internet addiction and antisocial internet behavior of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hing Keung

    2011-01-01

    Internet addiction and the moral implication of antisocial Internet behavior will be investigated in this paper. More and more people use the Internet in their daily life. Unfortunately the percentage of people who use the internet excessively also increases. The concept of Internet addiction or pathological use of Internet is discussed in detail, and the characteristics of Internet addicts are also delineated. The social (especially the antisocial) use of Internet is discussed. It is argued that the behavior of Internet use is similar to daily life social behavior. In other words, Internet behavior is a kind of social behavior. Kohlberg's theory of moral development is employed to delineate the moral reasoning of the antisocial Internet behavior. The following behaviors are regarded as antisocial Internet behavior: (1) the use of Internet to carry out illegal activities such as selling faked products or offensive pornographic materials, (2) the use of Internet to bully others (i.e., cyberbullying) such as distributing libelous statements against a certain person, (3) the use of Internet to cheat others, and (4) the use of Internet to do illegal gambling. The characteristics of the moral stages that are associated with these antisocial Internet behaviors are investigated in detail.

  1. Cyberbullying behavior and adolescents' use of media with antisocial content: a cyclic process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hamer, Anouk; Konijn, Elly A; Keijer, Micha G

    2014-02-01

    The present study examined the role of media use in adolescents' cyberbullying behavior. Following previous research, we propose a Cyclic Process Model of face-to-face victimization and cyberbullying through two mediating processes of anger/frustration and antisocial media content. This model was tested utilizing a cross-sectional design with adolescent participants (N=892). Exposure to antisocial media content was measured with a newly developed content-based scale (i.e., the C-ME), showing good psychometric qualities. Results of structural equation modeling showed that adolescents' exposure to antisocial media content was significantly associated with cyberbullying behavior, especially in adolescents who experienced anger and frustration due to face-to-face victimization. Goodness of fit indices demonstrated a good fit of the theoretical model to the data and indicated that exposure to antisocial media content acts as an amplifier in a cyclic process of victimization-related anger and cyberbullying behavior. PMID:24015985

  2. Internet Addiction and Antisocial Internet Behavior of Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Hing Keung Ma

    2011-01-01

    Internet addiction and the moral implication of antisocial Internet behavior will be investigated in this paper. More and more people use the Internet in their daily life. Unfortunately the percentage of people who use the internet excessively also increases. The concept of Internet addiction or pathological use of Internet is discussed in detail, and the characteristics of Internet addicts are also delineated. The social (especially the antisocial) use of Internet is discussed. It is argued ...

  3. School Performance and Genetic and Environmental Variance in Antisocial Behavior at the Transition from Adolescence to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Antisocial behavior increases in adolescence, particularly among those who perform poorly in school. As adolescents move into adulthood, both educational attainment and the extent to which antisocial behavior continues have implications for adolescents' abilities to take on constructive social roles. The authors used a population-representative…

  4. Personality types, aggression and antisocial behavior in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Consuelo Morán; José A. Carmona; José Fínez

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Junior Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-J), the types of personality and its relationship with aggressiveness and the antisocial behavior is analyzed in a student’s sample (N = 1416) with ages between 11 y 15 years old (average age = 13,32; SD= 1,22). Cluster analysis using the reduced version (Bryant y Smith (2001) of the Aggression Questionnaire(AQ)(Buss y Perry, 1992) revealed three personality types that were related to Eysenck’s hypothesis of antisocial behavior and ...

  5. Cognitive and Parenting Pathways in the Transmission of Antisocial Behavior from Parents to Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Shannon J.; Conger, Rand D.; Kim, Kee Jeong; Masyn, Katherine E.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of adolescent perceptions of parental behavior and disrupted parenting in the continuity of antisocial behavior across generations. Participants included 430 adolescents and their biological parents assessed during the period from the 9th to 12th grades (9th grade age in years: M=15.09, SD=0.43). Structural equation…

  6. Variability in diurnal testosterone, exposure to violence, and antisocial behavior in young adolescents.

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    Peckins, Melissa K; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide evidence of an association between within-person variability in diurnal testosterone over 1 year, lifetime exposure to violence, and the manifestation of antisocial behavior in 135 pubertal-aged adolescents across 1 year. Adolescents' sex and lifetime history of violence exposure moderated the association between within-person variability in diurnal testosterone and antisocial behavior. Furthermore, sex-stratified analyses revealed that lifetime history of exposure to violence moderated the association between within-person variability in diurnal testosterone and antisocial behavior in females only. This report is unique in that it illuminates sex differences in within-person associations among exposure to violence, individual variability in diurnal testosterone, and antisocial behavior.

  7. Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior and Psychosocial Maturity from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Mulvey, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    Most theorizing about desistance from antisocial behavior in late adolescence has emphasized the importance of individuals' transition into adult roles. In contrast, little research has examined how psychological development in late adolescence and early adulthood contributes desistance. The present study examined trajectories of antisocial…

  8. The Relationship between Parent-Child Conflict and Adolescent Antisocial Behavior: Confirming Shared Environmental Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, Ashlea M.; Rueter, Martha A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have indicated that the relationship between parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior is at least partially shared environmental in origin. However, all available research on this topic (to our knowledge) relies exclusively on parent and/or adolescent informant-reports, both of which are subject to various forms of…

  9. Religiosity of Adolescents and Their Friends and Network Associates: Homophily and Associations with Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Doran C.; Purwono, Urip; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the similarity of adolescents and their friends and peer network associates in religiosity and the extent to which these relationships were associated with antisocial behavior. The sample included 1010 Indonesian (480 male, 530 female) 8th (13.37 years) and 10th grade (15.36 years) students. Adolescents were similar to their…

  10. Friday on My Mind : The Relation of Partying With Antisocial Behavior of Early Adolescents. The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Rene; Huitsing, Gijs; Dijkstra, Jan; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2010-01-01

    The relation between partying and antisocial behavior was investigated using a sample of Dutch early adolescents (T2: N=1,076; M age=13.52). Antisocial behavior was divided into rule-breaking and aggressive behavior. Using a goal-framing approach, it was argued that the relation of partying to antis

  11. Adolescent Self-Regulation as Resilience: Resistance to Antisocial Behavior within the Deviant Peer Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Theodore W.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Connell, Arin M.

    2008-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that self-regulation serves as a resiliency factor in buffering youth from negative influences of peer deviance in middle to late adolescence. The interactive effects between peer deviance and self-regulation were investigated on change in antisocial behavior from age 17 to 19 years in an ethnically diverse sample…

  12. Adolescence-Limited and Life-Course-Persistent Antisocial Behavior: A Developmental Taxonomy.

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    Moffitt, Terrie E.

    1993-01-01

    A dual taxonomy is presented to reconcile two incongruous facts about antisocial behavior, that it shows impressive continuity over age, but its prevalence changes dramatically over age, increasing almost tenfold during adolescence. Studying delinquents earlier in life may yield more information about the causes and antecedents of antisocial…

  13. Moral Identity and Adolescent Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviors: Interactions with Moral Disengagement and Self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Sam A; Bean, Dallas S; Olsen, Joseph A

    2015-08-01

    Moral identity has been positively linked to prosocial behaviors and negatively linked to antisocial behaviors; but, the processes by which it is linked to such outcomes are unclear. The purpose of the present study was to examine moral identity not only as a predictor, but also as a moderator of relationships between other predictors (moral disengagement and self-regulation) and youth outcomes (prosocial and antisocial behaviors). The sample consisted of 384 adolescents (42 % female), ages 15-18 recruited from across the US using an online survey panel. Latent variables were created for moral identity, moral disengagement, and self-regulation. Structural equation models assessed these latent variables, and interactions of moral identity with moral disengagement and self-regulation, as predictors of prosocial (charity and civic engagement) and antisocial (aggression and rule breaking) behaviors. None of the interactions were significant predicting prosocial behaviors. For antisocial behaviors, the interaction between moral identity and moral disengagement predicted aggression, while the interaction between moral identity and self-regulation was significant in predicting aggression and rule breaking. Specifically, at higher levels of moral identity, the positive link between moral disengagement and aggression was weaker, and the negative link between self-regulation and both antisocial behaviors was weaker. Thus, moral identity may buffer against the maladaptive effects of high moral disengagement and low self-regulation.

  14. Moral Identity and Adolescent Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviors: Interactions with Moral Disengagement and Self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Sam A; Bean, Dallas S; Olsen, Joseph A

    2015-08-01

    Moral identity has been positively linked to prosocial behaviors and negatively linked to antisocial behaviors; but, the processes by which it is linked to such outcomes are unclear. The purpose of the present study was to examine moral identity not only as a predictor, but also as a moderator of relationships between other predictors (moral disengagement and self-regulation) and youth outcomes (prosocial and antisocial behaviors). The sample consisted of 384 adolescents (42 % female), ages 15-18 recruited from across the US using an online survey panel. Latent variables were created for moral identity, moral disengagement, and self-regulation. Structural equation models assessed these latent variables, and interactions of moral identity with moral disengagement and self-regulation, as predictors of prosocial (charity and civic engagement) and antisocial (aggression and rule breaking) behaviors. None of the interactions were significant predicting prosocial behaviors. For antisocial behaviors, the interaction between moral identity and moral disengagement predicted aggression, while the interaction between moral identity and self-regulation was significant in predicting aggression and rule breaking. Specifically, at higher levels of moral identity, the positive link between moral disengagement and aggression was weaker, and the negative link between self-regulation and both antisocial behaviors was weaker. Thus, moral identity may buffer against the maladaptive effects of high moral disengagement and low self-regulation. PMID:25146465

  15. Early life adversities and adolescent antisocial behavior: The role of cardiac autonomic nervous system reactivity in the TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsema, J J; Van Roon, A M; Groot, P F C; Riese, H

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, the role of pre-ejection period (PEP) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was studied in the association between prior adversities and antisocial behavior in adolescence. PEP and RSA task reactivity and recovery to a public speaking task were assessed in adolescents from a longitudinal population-based study (N=624, Mage=16.14 years, 49.2% boys). Perinatal adversities were unrelated to antisocial behavior, but experiencing more stressful adversities between age 0 and 15 was associated with antisocial behavior at age 16 in boys with blunted PEP reactivity and smaller PEP differences from rest to recovery. Number of adversities between age 0 and 15 was associated with antisocial behavior in boys with blunted and girls with heightened RSA reactivity and larger PEP differences from rest to recovery. The association between prior adversities and antisocial behavior were small in effect size and depended upon sex and PEP and RSA reactivity and recovery.

  16. Does Response Evaluation and Decision (RED) Mediate the Relation between Hostile Attributional Style and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence?

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    Fontaine, Reid Griffith; Tanha, Marieh; Yang, Chongming; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    The role of hostile attributional style (HAS) in antisocial development has been well-documented. We analyzed longitudinal data on 585 youths (48% female; 19% ethnic minority) to test the hypothesis that response evaluation and decision (RED) mediates the relation between HAS and antisocial behavior in adolescence. In Grades 10 and 12, adolescent…

  17. Translating Models of Antisocial Behavioral Development Into Efficacious Intervention Policy to Prevent Adolescent Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Dodge, Kenneth A.; McCourt, Sandra N.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent chronic antisocial behavior is costly but concentrated in a relatively small number of individuals. The search for effective preventive interventions draws from empirical findings of three kinds of gene-by-environment interactions: (1) parenting behaviors mute the impact of genes; (2) genes alter the impact of traumatic environmental experiences such as physical abuse and peer social rejection; and (3) individuals and environments influence each other in a dynamic developmental cas...

  18. Stability of antisocial behavior on the infancy-adolescence transition: a developmental perspective / Estabilidade do comportamento anti-social na transição da infância para a adolescência: uma perspectiva desenvolvimentista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Pacheco

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The term antisocial is widely used in the literature to describe non-specific behavior problems such as delinquent behavior, aggressiveness, and oppositionist behavior. The aim of the present study was to describe and to discuss the concept of antisocial behavior as an indicator of specific mental disorders such as Attention-deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder. Also, we discuss the factors that contribute to the stability of such behaviors in the transition from childhood to adolescence and the losses incurred throughout development. A recommendation is made to broaden conceptual discussions about mental disorders using wider categories such as antisocial behavior.

  19. Theory of Mind and Empathy as predictors of antisocial behavior during adolescence

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    Olber Eduardo Arango Tobón

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that the characteristics of theory of mind and empathy are important predictors of behavioural disorders during childhood and adolescence. This study compared a group of teenagers with the characteristics of antisocial behavior disorder and a group of teenagers as controls in terms of their performance on tests assessing the theory of mind and empathy, with the further aim of establishing risk and protective factors predictive of the development of antisocial behavior during adolescence. There were significant statistical differences between the two groups on the theory of mind and empathy tests. The dimension of empathy known as as perspective taking as well as the adolescent’s skills in understanding mental and emotional states were established as protective factors according to the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test.

  20. Differential genetic and environmental influences on developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao; Cleveland, H Harrington

    2015-12-01

    Little research has investigated differential genetic and environmental influences on different developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on liabilities of being in life-course-persistent (LCP) and adolescent-limited (AL) type delinquent groups from adolescence to young adulthood while considering nonviolent and violent delinquency subtypes and gender differences. A genetically informative sample (n = 356, 15-16 years) from the first three waves of In-Home Interview of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health was used, with 94 monozygotic and 84 dizygotic pairs of same-sex twins (50% male). Biometric liability threshold models were fit and found that the male-specific LCP type class, chronic, showed more genetic influences, while the AL type classes, decliner and desister, showed more environmental influences. Genetic liability and shared environment both influence the persistence of antisocial behavior. The development of female antisocial behavior appears to be influenced more by shared environment.

  1. The role of contextual risk, impulsivity, and parental knowledge in the development of adolescent antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Anna; Barker, Edward D; Koot, Hans M; Maughan, Barbara

    2010-08-01

    The present study (a) tests main and moderational effects of neighborhood and family risk, and adolescent impulsivity on the development of male and female antisocial behavior (ASB) and (b) examines the extent to which these effects work indirectly through parental knowledge. Adolescents (N = 4,597; 51% male) reported on informal social control in their neighborhoods, their family types, and impulsivity at age 12, and on parental monitoring and ASB at ages 13 and 15 years. Neighborhoods were further defined as risk and nonrisk in economic deprivation by census-level data. Main effects of neighborhood risk, single parenthood, and impulsivity on ASB were found for male and female adolescents. For female adolescents, impulsivity interacted with neighborhood economic deprivation and with family type in the prediction of parental knowledge. Impulsivity and contextual risk factors in part increased adolescent ASB through decreasing parental knowledge. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed. PMID:20677842

  2. Emotional Self-Regulation, Peer Rejection, and Antisocial Behavior: Developmental Associations from Early Childhood to Early Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relations among emotional self-regulation, peer rejection, and antisocial behavior in a sample of 122 boys from low-income families who participated in a summer camp and were followed longitudinally from early childhood to early adolescence. Emotional self- regulation strategies were coded in early childhood from a waiting task, measures of peer rejection were collected during middle childhood at the summer camp, and reports of antisocial behavior were obtained during earl...

  3. The delicate balance between parental protection, unsupervised wandering, and adolescents' autonomy and its relation with antisocial behavior : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, M.; Dijkstra, J.K.; Lindenberg, S.; Ormel, J.; Veenstra, R.

    2010-01-01

    In a large sample of early adolescents (T2: N = 1023; M age = 13.51; 55.5% girls), the impact of parental protection and unsupervised wandering on adolescents' antisocial behavior 2.5 years later was tested in this TRAILS study; gender and parental knowledge were controlled for. In addition, the lev

  4. The Delicate Balance between Parental Protection, Unsupervised Wandering, and Adolescents' Autonomy and Its Relation with Antisocial Behavior: The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene

    2010-01-01

    In a large sample of early adolescents (T2: N = 1023; M age = 13.51; 55.5% girls), the impact of parental protection and unsupervised wandering on adolescents' antisocial behavior 2.5 years later was tested in this TRAILS study; gender and parental knowledge were controlled for. In addition, the level of biological maturation and having antisocial…

  5. Early life adversities and adolescent antisocial behavior : The role of cardiac autonomic nervous system reactivity in the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, J. J.; Van Roon, A. M.; Groot, P. F. C.; Riese, H.

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, the role of pre-ejection period (PEP) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was studied in the association between prior adversities and antisocial behavior in adolescence. PEP and RSA task reactivity and recovery to a public speaking task were assessed in adolescents from a l

  6. Effects of Parental Monitoring and Exposure to Community Violence on Antisocial Behavior and Anxiety/Depression among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchini, Dario; Miranda, Maria Concetta; Affuso, Gaetana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of gender, exposure to community violence, and parental monitoring upon antisocial behavior and anxiety/depression in adolescence. Involved in the study were 489 adolescents (290 males and 189 females) from 4 secondary schools in the city of Naples, Italy. The age of participants ranged from…

  7. Antisocial behavior and alcohol consumption by school adolescents Conducta antisocial y consumo de alcohol en adolescentes escolares Conduta anti-social e consumo de álcool em adolescentes escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Selene López García

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a vulnerable period and facilitates the start of risk behaviors, for instance the use of drugs. This study aims to describe the differences between antisocial behavior and alcohol consumption according to gender, age and education; as well as to discover the relation between antisocial behavior and alcohol consumption in 1,221 school adolescents from Monterrey - Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The findings reveal differences in antisocial behavior according to gender. Evidences showed that 41.3% of the students had consumed alcohol at sometime in their lives, and that differences exist in alcohol consumption according to age and education. Finally, the study found positive and significant relations between antisocial behavior and alcohol consumption (r s = .272, p La adolescencia se convierte en una etapa de vulnerabilidad y facilitador para el inicio de conductas de riesgo como es el consumo de drogas. Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron: describir las diferencias de la conducta antisocial y consumo de alcohol según sexo, edad y escolaridad; conocer la relación existente de la conducta antisocial con el consumo de alcohol en 1221 adolescentes escolares de Monterrey, Nuevo Léon, México, en relación a los hallazgos encontrados se presentan diferencias de la conducta antisocial por sexo; se destaca que 41.3% de los estudiantes consumieron alcohol alguna vez en su vida, y existen diferencias de consumo de alcohol por edad y escolaridad. Finalmente se encontró relación positiva y significativa de la conducta antisocial con el consumo de alcohol (r s=.272, pA adolescência se apresenta como uma etapa de vulnerabilidade e facilitadora para o início de condutas de risco como o consumo de drogas. Os objetivos do presente estudo foram: descrever as diferenças entre sexo, idade e escolaridade na conduta anti-social e o consumo de álcool e conhecer a relação existente entre a conduta anti-social e o consumo de álcool em 1221

  8. The Dynamic Interplay among Maternal Empathy, Quality of Mother-Adolescent Relationship, and Adolescent Antisocial Behaviors: New Insights from a Six-Wave Longitudinal Multi-Informant Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Moscatelli, Silvia; Van der Graaff, Jolien; Keijsers, Loes; van Lier, Pol; Koot, Hans M; Rubini, Monica; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents' behavior is often a matter of concern, given their increased likelihood of enacting antisocial behaviors, which cause disruptions in the social order and are potentially harmful for the adolescents themselves and for the people around them. In this six-wave longitudinal study we sought to examine the interplay among maternal empathy, multiple indicators of mother-adolescent relationship quality (i.e., balanced relatedness, conflict, and support), and adolescent antisocial behaviors rated both by adolescents and their mothers. Participants for the current study were 497 Dutch adolescents (56.9% males) followed from age 13 to 18, and their mothers. A series of cross-lagged panel models revealed reciprocal associations between maternal empathy and mother-adolescent relationship quality and between mother-adolescent relationship quality and adolescent antisocial behaviors. Interestingly, we also found some indirect effects of adolescent antisocial behaviors on maternal empathy mediated by mother-adolescent relationship quality. Overall, this study further highlights a process of reciprocal influences within mother-adolescent dyads.

  9. The Dynamic Interplay among Maternal Empathy, Quality of Mother-Adolescent Relationship, and Adolescent Antisocial Behaviors: New Insights from a Six-Wave Longitudinal Multi-Informant Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Crocetti

    Full Text Available Adolescents' behavior is often a matter of concern, given their increased likelihood of enacting antisocial behaviors, which cause disruptions in the social order and are potentially harmful for the adolescents themselves and for the people around them. In this six-wave longitudinal study we sought to examine the interplay among maternal empathy, multiple indicators of mother-adolescent relationship quality (i.e., balanced relatedness, conflict, and support, and adolescent antisocial behaviors rated both by adolescents and their mothers. Participants for the current study were 497 Dutch adolescents (56.9% males followed from age 13 to 18, and their mothers. A series of cross-lagged panel models revealed reciprocal associations between maternal empathy and mother-adolescent relationship quality and between mother-adolescent relationship quality and adolescent antisocial behaviors. Interestingly, we also found some indirect effects of adolescent antisocial behaviors on maternal empathy mediated by mother-adolescent relationship quality. Overall, this study further highlights a process of reciprocal influences within mother-adolescent dyads.

  10. Distinguishing the early-onset/persistent and adolescence-onset antisocial behavior types: from birth to 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, B; Sroufe, L A; Egeland, B; Carlson, E

    2000-01-01

    Moffitt's theory regarding two types of adolescent antisocial behavior was investigated using a prospective, longitudinal study of normal and abnormal development in a primarily low socioeconomic status, ethnically diverse sample. Results supported the presence of an early-onset/persistent (EOP) group and an adolescence-onset (AO) group. Groups were most reliably and significantly distinguished by indices of socioemotional history within the first 3 years, but no significant differences were found on early measures of temperament or neuropsychological functioning. EOPs scored significantly lower than other groups on measures of neuropsychological functioning only during late childhood and adolescence, suggesting that the declines in verbal functioning that have been so reliably found in this and other samples of early-starting antisocial adolescents are progressive and consequent to adverse experience. In adolescence, AOs were significantly more likely to report high levels of internalizing symptoms and life stress, suggesting that AO antisocial behavior is not a benign phenomenon. Implications of these findings for etiologic theories of adolescent antisocial behavior are discussed. PMID:10847620

  11. Alcohol Use and Antisocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: Characteristics of a Sample Attending a GED Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Meredith Reesman; Bergman, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    This study examined peer deviance, disinhibition, and ADHD symptoms as differential predictors of alcohol use, alcohol use disorder symptoms, and antisocial behavior. It was hypothesized that peer deviance would most strongly predict alcohol use while disinhibition and ADHD would predict alcohol use disorder symptoms and antisocial behavior.…

  12. The Covariation of Antisocial Behavior and Substance Use in Adolescence: A Behavioral Genetic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Tom; Rowe, Richard; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Maughan, Barbara; Eley, Thalia C.

    2012-01-01

    Multivariate genetic studies have revealed genetic correlations between antisocial behavior (ASB) and substance use (SU). However, ASB is heterogeneous, and it remains unclear whether all forms are similarly related to SU. The present study examines links between cannabis use, alcohol consumption, and aggressive and delinquent forms of ASB using a…

  13. Expanding our Lens: Female Pathways to Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence and Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Javdani, Shabnam; Sadeh, Naomi; Verona, Edelyn

    2011-01-01

    Women and girls’ engagement in antisocial behavior represents a psychological issue of great concern given the radiating impact that women’s antisociality can have on individuals, families, and communities. Despite its importance and relevance for psychological science, this topic has received limited attention to date and no systematic review of risk factors exists. The present paper aims to systematically review the empirical literature informing risk factors relevant to women’s antisocial ...

  14. Parental Attachment, Self-Esteem, and Antisocial Behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbona, Consuelo; Power, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment. (Contains 70…

  15. Use of Peer Tutoring, Cooperative Learning, and Collaborative Learning: Implications for Reducing Anti-Social Behavior of Schooling Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskay, M.; Onu, V. C.; Obiyo, N.; Obidoa, M.

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the use of peer tutoring, cooperative learning, and collaborative learning as strategies to reduce anti-social behavior among schooling adolescents. The study is a descriptive survey study. The area of study was Nsukka education zone in Enugu State of Nigeria. The sample of the study was 200 teachers randomly sampled from…

  16. Emotional Self-Regulation, Peer Rejection, and Antisocial Behavior: Developmental Associations from Early Childhood to Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relations among emotional self-regulation, peer rejection, and antisocial behavior in a sample of 122 boys from low-income families who participated in a summer camp and were followed longitudinally from early childhood to early adolescence. Emotional self-regulation strategies were coded in early childhood from a waiting task,…

  17. Heart Rate Level and Antisocial Behavior in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Jame; Raine, Adrian

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether antisocial children are characterized by low heart rate. Method: A meta-analysis was conducted on 45 independent effect sizes of the resting heart rate-antisocial behavior relationship obtained from 40 studies meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies were conducted between 1971 to 2002 using a total of 5,868…

  18. A longitudinal biosocial study of cortisol and peer influence on the development of adolescent antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platje, E; Vermeiren, R R J M; Raine, A; Doreleijers, T A H; Keijsers, L G M T; Branje, S J T; Popma, A; van Lier, P A C; Koot, H M; Meeus, W H J; Jansen, L M C

    2013-11-01

    It is increasingly recognized that in order to understand the complex phenomenon of antisocial behavior, interrelations between biological and social risk factors should be taken into account. In the current study, this biosocial approach was applied to examine the mediating role of deviant peers in longitudinal associations linking the level of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity to aggression and rule-breaking. Participants were 425 boys and girls from the general population, who were assessed yearly at ages 15, 16, and 17. As a measure of HPA axis activity, cortisol was assessed at awakening, 30, and 60 min later (the cortisol awakening response, CAR). Participants, as well as their best friend, reported on their own aggressive and rule-breaking behavior, thereby allowing to assess bidirectional influences within friendships. Aggression was only predicted by a decreased cortisol level at awakening, and not by aggressive behavior of their friend. Decreased levels of cortisol at awakening predicted adolescents' rule-breaking, which subsequently predicted increased rule-breaking of their best friend. The latter was only found for adolescents who changed friends, as compared to adolescents with the same friend in every year. Gender differences were not found. These findings suggest that interrelations between biological and social risk factors are different for the development of aggression versus rule-breaking. Furthermore, decreased levels of HPA axis activity may represent a susceptibility to selecting deviant peers. PMID:23927935

  19. Chronotype-related differences in childhood and adolescent aggression and antisocial behavior--a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlarb, Angelika A; Sopp, Roxanne; Ambiel, David; Grünwald, Julia

    2014-02-01

    Eveningness has been found to negatively affect adolescents' sleep and daytime functioning. Furthermore, eveningness is associated with greater impulsivity than morningness. Externalizing behavior could be chronotype-related, implying that the alteration of the circadian rhythm itself is connected to aspects of emotion and emotion regulation. The present study investigated chronotype-related differences in emotional and behavioral problems, especially aggression and antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. We conducted a comprehensive search via web of knowledge (MEDLINE, web of science), EBSCO, Ovid, PubMed, Google Scholar and PsycINDEX using the keywords: chronotype, chronobiology, morningness, eveningness, owls and larks as well as diurnal preference to fully capture every aspect of chronotype. For aggression we used the search terms: aggression, anger, hostility, violence, anti-social behavior, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, delinquency, social adjustment and externalizing behavior. N = 13 studies were included concerning chronotype, childhood, adolescence and antisocial behavior. Results showed that children and adolescents being E-types were more affected by daytime impairments. Additionally, behavioral and emotional problems as aggression or antisocial behavior were more pronounced in E- than in M-types. Our findings support an association of eveningness and the impact of aggression on children and adolescents. Longitudinal investigations should be conducted in order to insure causality of the effects in question. In addition, the elevated vulnerability toward aggression in evening types demonstrates the need for prevention and intervention programs that educate youths in proper sleep hygiene and evoke an awareness of the consequences of a habitually diminished sleep quality.

  20. Estabilidade do comportamento anti-social na transição da infância para a adolescência: uma perspectiva desenvolvimentista Stability of antisocial behavior on the infancy-adolescence transition: a developmental perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Pacheco

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O termo anti-social tem sido amplamente utilizado na literatura científica para descrição de problemas de comportamento não específicos, como comportamentos delinqüentes, agressividade e oposicionismo. O objetivo desse estudo é descrever e discutir o conceito de comportamento anti-social, como um indicador de transtornos mentais específicos e de algumas categorias de problemas comportamentais. Para isso, examinamos a relação entre o comportamento anti-social e o Transtorno Desafiador Opositivo, o Transtorno da Conduta, o Transtorno de Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade e o Transtorno de Personalidade Anti-social. Além disso, discute-se também os fatores que contribuem para a estabilidade desse comportamento na transição da infância para a adolescência e os prejuízos decorrentes ao longo do desenvolvimento. Propõe-se a ampliação das discussões conceituais acerca dos transtornos mentais, utilizando-se categorias mais amplas, como a de comportamento anti-social.The term antisocial is widely used in the literature to describe non-specific behavior problems such as delinquent behavior, aggressiveness, and oppositionist behavior. The aim of the present study was to describe and to discuss the concept of antisocial behavior as an indicator of specific mental disorders such as Attention-deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder. Also, we discuss the factors that contribute to the stability of such behaviors in the transition from childhood to adolescence and the losses incurred throughout development. A recommendation is made to broaden conceptual discussions about mental disorders using wider categories such as antisocial behavior.

  1. Ecology matters: Neighborhood differences in the protective role of self-control and social support for adolescent antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sara; Donlan, Alice E; McDermott, Elana R; Zaff, Jonathan F

    2015-11-01

    Adolescence can be characterized as a time when aggression, delinquency, and violence (taken together as antisocial behavior) increase. Adolescents who engage in antisocial behavior increase local crime and can create unsafe conditions for families. Understanding the protective factors that mitigate antisocial behavior can help to inform prevention practices. Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (n = 1,072, 51.40% female, 39.18% Hispanic, 32.28% Black), we examined how self-control, social support, and neighborhood characteristics were associated with these behaviors. Using latent profile analyses, we categorized neighborhoods based on several dimensions, including violence, disadvantage, and collective efficacy. Then, we examined how self-control and social support were associated with antisocial behavior within and across neighborhoods. Results suggested that self-control was a protective feature in only some types of disadvantaged and dangerous neighborhoods. We discuss findings in terms of implications for programs and policies to mitigate youth violence and delinquency. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26594922

  2. Substance use and antisocial behavior in adolescents: the role of family and peer-individual risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obando, Diana; Trujillo, Angela; Trujillo, Carlos A

    2014-12-01

    Extant literature reports a frequent co-occurrence of substance consumption and antisocial behaviors. It is also postulated, therefore, that risk and protective factors are shared by the two behaviors. The purpose of this research is to test this notion by exploring whether family and peer-individual risk and protective factors are similarly associated with unique and co-occurring substance consumption and antisocial behaviors. A sample of 1,599 school students ranging between the ages of 11 and 19 completed a Spanish-language version of the Communities That Care Youth Survey (CTCYS). This instrument measures risk and protective factors and also captures adolescent drug consumption and antisocial behaviors. We find that risk and protective factors seem to operate in distinct ways for drug consumption and antisocial behaviors when they occur separately. Our findings indicate that the co-occurrence of both behaviors is related to risk factors, but it should not be inferred that the same factors will be present when only one behavior is observed.

  3. Moral Orientation and Relationships in School and Adolescent Pro-and Antisocial Behaviors : A Multilevel Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Stams, Geert-Jan; Asscher, Jessica J.; Rutten, Esther; Zijlstra, Bonne J. H.

    2014-01-01

    This multilevel study examined the relationships between moral climate factors and prosocial as well as antisocial behaviors inside and outside the school (school misconduct, delinquent behavior, and vandalism). The moral climate factors were punishment- and victim-based moral orientation, relations

  4. Corticotropin (ACTH)-reactive immunoglobulins in adolescents in relation to antisocial behavior and stress-induced cortisol response. The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Johanna M; Fetissov, Serguei O; Legrand, Romain; Claeyssens, Sophie; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Verhulst, Frank C; Van Oort, Floor V A

    2013-12-01

    Elevated levels of corticotropin (ACTH)-reactive immunoglobulins (ACTH IgG) were found in males with conduct disorder, suggesting their involvement in the biology of antisocial behavior. We first aimed to confirm these findings in a large general population sample of adolescents. Secondly, we studied the association between ACTH IgG levels and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress. Free and total ACTH IgG levels were measured in sera of 1230 adolescents (15-18 years). HPA axis activity was determined by measuring salivary cortisol before, during, and after a social stress test. Antisocial behavior was assessed using the Antisocial Behavior Questionnaire. ACTH peptide and IgG affinity kinetics for ACTH were assayed in a subsample of 90 adolescents selected for high or low ACTH IgG levels. In boys, higher total ACTH IgG levels were associated with higher antisocial behavior scores (β=1.05, p=0.04), especially at high levels of free ACTH IgG. In girls, antisocial behavior was associated with low free ACTH IgG levels (β=-0.20, p=0.04). Stress-induced cortisol release was associated with free ACTH IgG in boys (βareaunderthecurve=-0.67, pantisocial behavior and HPA axis response to stress in adolescents. The mechanisms behind these associations, including different ACTH binding properties of IgG in subjects with antisocial behavior, deserve further attention.

  5. Which children and adolescents are most susceptible to peer influence? A systematic review regarding antisocial behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Michael Müller; Melanie Minger

    2013-01-01

    Negative peer influence is one of the main risk factors associated with antisocial development among children and adolescents. In order to better understand these processes and to develop adequate preventive interventions, it is crucial that the factors that moderate peer influence are recognized. Such moderating variables can indicate who is at especially high risk for being negatively influenced by peers, and which conditions can buffer such a negative impact. In order to structure the exis...

  6. Covert antisocial behavior, peer deviancy training, parenting processes, and sex differences in the development of antisocial behavior during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, James J; Schrepferman, Lynn P; Bullard, Lisha; McEachern, Amber D; Patterson, Gerald R

    2012-08-01

    Two longitudinal studies were used to examine the occurrence and consequences of peer deviancy training during childhood and the relative role of early covert antisocial behavior in risk for antisocial behavior in early adolescence. Peer deviancy training was apparent in a sample of at-risk first grade children, and it showed persistence and increased prevalence across the school year. Peer deviancy training, peer rejection, and unskilled parenting made additive contributions to the development of antisocial behavior during kindergarten and first grade and to antisocial behavior in fourth grade. Skilled parenting partially mitigated the association of peer deviancy training with antisocial behavior for boys. The appearance and growth of covert antisocial behavior was a predictor of fourth grade antisocial for boys and girls, more so than aggressive and overt antisocial behavior. Peer deviancy training and early covert antisocial behavior were key pathways to girls' antisocial behavior in fourth grade, and they complemented the roles of peer rejection and overt antisocial behavior for boys. The relationships of parenting and peer processes to trajectories of antisocial behavior were similar for boys and girls; but boys showed higher levels of antisocial behavior, were more involved in peer deviancy training, and were more likely to experience peer rejection.

  7. Antisocial behavior reduces the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use in a large population-based sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövenhag, Sara; Larm, Peter; Åslund, Cecilia; Nilsson, Kent W

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of antisocial behavior on reducing the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity) and alcohol use. Boys and girls were analyzed separately using a population-based Swedish adolescent sample. A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was performed in secondary and upper secondary schools in Västmanland County during 2010. Participants were a population of 2,439 15-16 year-olds and 1,425 17-18 year-olds (1,947 girls and 1,917 boys). Psychosocial adversity, antisocial behaviors, symptoms of ADHD and alcohol use were assessed by questionnaires. Except for girls' inattention, subdimensions of ADHD symptoms were not associated with alcohol use when variance due to antisocial behavior was accounted for. Among boys, instead of an indirect effect of antisocial behavior on the association between impulsivity and alcohol use, a moderating effect was found. Among girls, the inattention component of ADHD was independently associated with alcohol use even when adjusted for antisocial behavior. The reduced associations between symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and alcohol use for boys and girls after adjusting for antisocial behavior suggest a considerable overlap between hyperactivity, impulsivity, and antisocial behavior. The direct pathway between inattention and alcohol use among girls suggests that girls with inattention symptoms are at risk of alcohol use regardless of antisocial behavior. Special attention should be given to these girls. Accounting for antisocial behavior reduced the relation between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use, and antisocial behaviors should therefore be screened for when symptoms of ADHD are present.

  8. Predicting Overt and Covert Antisocial Behaviors: Parents, Peers, and Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Toro, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Parental deviance, parental monitoring, and deviant peers were examined as predictors of overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Homeless (N=231) and housed (N=143) adolescents were assessed in adolescence and again in early adulthood. Homelessness predicted both types of antisocial behaviors, and effects persisted in young adulthood. Parental…

  9. Affiliation with Antisocial Peers, Susceptibility to Peer Influence, and Antisocial Behavior during the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Developmental theories suggest that affiliation with deviant peers and susceptibility to peer influence are important contributors to adolescent delinquency, but it is unclear how these variables impact antisocial behavior during the transition to adulthood, a period when most delinquent individuals decline in antisocial behavior. Using data from…

  10. The roles of antisocial history and emerging adulthood developmental adaption in predicting adult antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alink, Lenneke R A; Egeland, Byron

    2013-01-01

    Different trajectories of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence have been identified by several researchers. However, more needs to be known about the development of antisocial behavior in adulthood and about factors that account for continuity and change. In this study, we investigated the developmental course into adulthood of different trajectories of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence. Second, we examined the role of developmental adaptation in emerging adulthood in accounting for the continuity and change of antisocial behavior. The participants (N = 162) were drawn from an ongoing 28-year longitudinal study. Trajectory groups (EOP: Early Onset/Persistent, n = 30; AO: Adolescent Onset, n = 32; Other, n = 100) were based on measures of externalizing behavior assessed at six time points in childhood and adolescence. Through interviews and questionnaires in adulthood, the quality of romantic relationships and the participants' work ethic (age 23), duration of unemployment (between ages 23 and 26 years), the level of externalizing problems (ages 23 and 26), and the number of antisocial personality disorder symptoms (age 28) were assessed. Results indicated that individuals in the EOP group showed the highest levels of antisocial behavior throughout emerging and early adulthood. Negative experiences in the work and romantic relationship domains was related to the continuity of antisocial behavior in the EOP group. For the AO group, a shorter duration of unemployment was related to lower levels of antisocial behavior. This study shows that early history plays an important role in the development of antisocial behavior and in the way developmental adaptation in emerging adulthood accounts for continuity and change of antisocial behavior.

  11. Effects of Multiple Maternal Relationship Transitions on Offspring Antisocial Behavior in Childhood and Adolescence: A Cousin-Comparison Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnight, Jackson A.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Cherlin, Andrew J.; Emery, Robert E.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of the association between multiple parental relationship transitions (i.e., when a parent begins or terminates an intimate relationship involving cohabitation) and offspring antisocial behavior have varied in their efforts to rule out confounding influences, such as parental antisocial behavior and low income. They also have been…

  12. Corticotropin (ACTH)-reactive immunoglobulins in adolescents in relation to antisocial behavior and stress-induced cortisol response : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, Johanna M.; Fetissov, Serguei O.; Legrand, Romain; Claeyssens, Sophie; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Van Oort, Floor V. A.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of corticotropin (ACTH)-reactive immunoglobulins (ACTH IgG) were found in mates with conduct disorder, suggesting their involvement in the biology of antisocial behavior. We first aimed to confirm these findings in a large general population sample of adolescents. Secondly, we studie

  13. Reassessing the Effects of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use on Later Antisocial Behavior: A Longitudinal Study of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Smith, Rachel; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of early adolescent alcohol use on antisocial behavior was examined at 1- and 2-year follow-up in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia. Each state used the same methods to survey statewide representative samples of students ("N" = 1,858, 52% female) in 2002 (Grade 7 [G7]), 2003 (Grade 8 [G8]), and 2004…

  14. Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Child Abuse and Children's Exposure to Domestic Violence, Parent-Child Attachments, and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, although youth dually exposed…

  15. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Associations between Infant Fussy Temperament and Antisocial Behavior in Childhood and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnight, Jackson A; Donahue, Kelly L; Waldman, Irwin D; Van Hulle, Carol A; Rathouz, Paul J; Lahey, Benjamin B; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2016-09-01

    Previous research suggests that fussy temperament in infancy predicts risk for later antisocial behavior (ASB) in childhood and adolescence. It remains unclear, however, to what extent infant fussiness is related to later ASB through causal processes or if they both reflect the same family risk factors for ASB. The current study used two approaches, the comparison of siblings and bivariate biometric modeling, to reduce familial confounding and examine genetic and environmental influences on associations between fussiness in the first 2 years of life and ASB in childhood and late adolescence. Analyses were conducted on data from a prospective cohort (9237 at 4-9 years and 7034 at 14-17 years) who are the offspring of a nationally representative sample of US women. In the full sample, fussiness predicted both child and adolescent ASB to small but significant extents, controlling for a wide range of measured child and family-level covariates. When siblings who differed in their fussiness were compared, fussiness predicted ASB in childhood, but not ASB during adolescence. Furthermore, results from a bivariate Cholesky model suggested that even the association of fussiness with childhood ASB found when comparing siblings is attributable to familial factors. That is, although families with infants who are higher in fussiness also tend to have children and adolescents who engage in greater ASB, the hypothesis that infant fussiness has an environmentally mediated impact on the development of future ASB was not strongly supported. PMID:27105627

  16. Self-Control and Early Adolescent Antisocial Behavior: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kemp, Raymond A. T.; Vermulst, Ad A.; Finkenauer, Catrin; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Overbeek, Geertjan; Rommes, Els W. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses a three-wave longitudinal study that investigates the relationship between self-control and aggressive and delinquent behavior of early adolescent boys and girls. The sample consists of 1,012 Dutch adolescents (mean age = 12.3) in their first year of secondary education. Structural equation modeling analyses reveal that high…

  17. Bullying in Early Adolescence and Antisocial Behavior and Depression Six Years Later: What Are the Protective Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, Suzanne; Edwards, Ben; Renda, Jennifer; Olsson, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified factors that protected (a) adolescent bullies from becoming antisocial young adults, and (b) adolescent victims of bullying from subsequent depression. Data were drawn from the Australian Temperament Project, a population birth cohort study that has followed participants since 1983. Systematic examination of potential risk…

  18. Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Child Abuse and Children’s Exposure to Domestic Violence, Parent-Child Attachments, and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children’s exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, while youth dually exposed to abuse and domestic violence were less attached to parents in adolescence than those who were not exposed, those who were abused only, and those who w...

  19. Effects of Multiple Maternal Relationship Transitions on Offspring Antisocial Behavior in Childhood and Adolescence: A Cousin-Comparison Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Goodnight, Jackson A.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Cherlin, Andrew J.; Emery, Robert E.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of the association between multiple parental relationship transitions (i.e., when a parent begins or terminates an intimate relationship involving cohabitation) and offspring antisocial behavior have varied in their efforts to rule out confounding influences, such as parental antisocial behavior and low income. They also have been limited in the representativeness of their samples. Thus, it remains unclear to what degree parents’ multiple relationship transitions have indepen...

  20. The moderating role of parenting on the relationship between psychopathy and antisocial behavior in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Teresa C; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to analyze the impact of several parenting factors on the relationship between psychopathy and antisocial behavior. Nine hundred youths and their mothers reported on parent-youth interactions, and youth self-report measures of psychopathy, delinquency and violent behavior were taken. Multiple regression was used to test for the significance of interactions between parenting and psychopathy scores. In terms of delinquency, linear interactions between psychopathy and the level of conflict with parents and parents' knowledge of their youths' whereabouts/youths' willingness to disclose information were found based on the data reported by the youths. Data reported by mothers indicated a linear interaction between psychopathy and parents' knowledge/youth disclosure, and a quadratic interaction of conflict with parents. For violence, we used logistic regression models to analyze moderation. No interaction effects between psychopahy scores and parenting factors were found. Youths' reports of high conflict with parents and parents' knowledge/youth disclosure showed to have an impact on violence regardless of the level of psychopathic traits. Implications for the prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:26651859

  1. Cortisol and Anti-social Behavior in Early Adolescence: The Role of Gender in an Economically Disadvantaged Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Kobak, Roger; Zajac, Kristyn; Levine, Seymour

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relation between adolescents’ anti-social behaviors and adrenocortical activity during a laboratory visit in a sample of economically disadvantaged families (N = 116, ages 12 – 14, 51% female). Pre-task cortisol levels indexed adolescents’ pre-challenge response to the lab visit, while adolescents’ response to a conflict discussion with their caregivers was indexed with residualized change in pre- to post- conflict cortisol levels. A trait measure of anti-social behavi...

  2. School Factors as Moderators of the Relationship between Physical Child Abuse and Pathways of Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior…

  3. Moral orientation and relationships in school and adolescent pro- and antisocial behaviors: a multi-level study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.B. Wissink; M. Deković; G.J. Stams; J.J. Asscher; E. Rutten; B.J.H. Zijlstra

    2013-01-01

    This multilevel study examined the relationships between moral climate factors and prosocial as well as antisocial behaviors inside and outside the school (school misconduct, delinquent behavior, and vandalism). The moral climate factors were punishment- and victim-based moral orientation, relations

  4. Drug use and antisocial behavior among adolescents attending public schools in Brazil Uso de drogas e comportamento antissocial entre adolescentes de escolas públicas no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Lüdke Nardi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Drug use is a social and a public health problem that has been related with antisocial behavior. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between drug use and antisocial behavior among adolescents attending public schools in Brazil. METHOD: A total of 7,176 adolescents from low-income neighborhoods and public schools aged 14 to 19 years were assessed in five geographical regions in Brazil. Data on biosociodemographic characteristics and on drug use and antisocial behavior were assessed from complete answers to a national survey on risk and protective factors among adolescents. RESULTS: Over 80% of the adolescents who used alcohol and cigarettes were between 14 and 17 years old. The percentage of participants with antisocial behaviors was significantly higher among users of marijuana, cocaine, or crack than among adolescents who were not drug users. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention programs aimed at reducing substance use might help to decrease antisocial behaviors.INTRODUÇÃO: O uso de drogas é um problema social e de saúde pública que tem sido relacionado a comportamentos antissociais. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a relação entre uso de drogas e comportamento antissocial em adolescentes de escolas públicas no Brasil. MÉTODO: No total, 7.176 jovens com idades entre 14 e 19 anos estudantes de escolas públicas das cinco regiões geográficas do Brasil foram avaliados. Foram utilizados dados biossociodemográficos e sobre uso de drogas e comportamento antissocial obtidos na Pesquisa Nacional sobre Fatores de Risco e Proteção da Juventude Brasileira. RESULTADOS: Mais de 80% dos adolescentes que fizeram uso de bebidas alcoólicas e cigarro tinham entre 14 e 17 anos. O percentual de pacientes com comportamento antissocial foi significativamente maior entre usuários de maconha, cocaína ou crack do que entre adolescentes não usuários. CONCLUSÕES: Programas de prevenção direcionados à redução do uso de subst

  5. Construct Validity of Adolescent Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeanette; Elkins, Irene J.; Legrand, Lisa; Peuschold, Dawn; Iacono, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) diagnosed in adolescence. Boys and girls were grouped by history of DSM-III-R conduct disorder (CD) and ASPD: Controls (n = 340) had neither diagnosis; CD Only (n = 77) had CD by age 17 but no ASPD through age 20; Adolescent ASPD (n = 64) had ASPD by age 17. The…

  6. [Antisocial behavior of adolescents and home environment--need for a multidisciplinary model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydelius, P A

    2001-05-01

    In Swedish child and adolescent psychiatry there is a more than 60-year long tradition of using longitudinal methods in research on juvenile delinquency. Since the 1940's, results have been presented using either prospective or retrospective longitudinal designs for this purpose. Starting from genetics as scientific paradigm, new approaches including neuropsychiatry and social psychiatry showed the need for a multidisciplinary view at the border between medicine and behavioral sciences. Both Swedish and international research in the area has clearly demonstrated that factors relating to gender, maturation, resilience vs. vulnerability, the mental health of the parents, the social network and the organization of the school are of importance when trying to understand, prevent and treat juvenile delinquents. The challenge presented to today's and future researchers is to understand how the complexity of the modern western society will impact already established knowledge.

  7. Adolescent Friendship as a Dynamic System: Entropy and Deviance in the Etiology and Course of Male Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; Winter, Charlotte E.; Bullock, Bernadette Marie

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic systems framework was applied to understand the influence of friendship on antisocial behavior from childhood (age 9-10) through adulthood (age 24-25) for Oregon Youth Study males (N = 206). Boys were videotaped interacting with a friend at ages 14, 16, and 18, and deviant content and interpersonal processes were independently coded.…

  8. Executive functions and basic symptoms in adolescent antisocial behavior: a cross-sectional study on an Italian sample of late-onset offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Maria Rosaria A; Scimeca, Giuseppe; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Micò, Umberto; Romeo, Vincenzo M; Mallamace, Domenico; Mento, Carmela; Zoccali, Rocco; Bruno, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Executive cognitive functions (ECFs) and other cognitive impairments, such as lower IQ and verbal deficits, have been associated with the pattern of antisocial and delinquent behavior starting in childhood (early-onset), but not with late-onset antisocial behavior. Beyond objective measures of ECF, basic symptoms are prodromal, subjectively experienced cognitive, perceptual, affective, and social disturbances, associated with a range of psychiatric disorders, mainly with psychosis. The goal of the present study was to examine ECF and basic symptoms in a sample of late-onset juvenile delinquents. Two-hundred nine male adolescents (aged 15-20 years) characterized by a pattern of late-onset delinquent behavior with no antecedents of Conduct Disorder, were consecutively recruited from the Social Services of the Department of Juvenile Justice of the city of Messina (Italy), and compared with nonantisocial controls matched for age, educational level, and socio-demographic features on measures for ECF dysfunction and basic symptoms. Significant differences between late-onset offenders (completers=147) and control group (n=150) were found on ECF and basic symptoms measures. Chi-square analysis showed that a significantly greater number of late-onset offending participants scored in the clinical range on several ECF measures. Executive cognitive impairment, even subtle and subclinical, along with subjective symptoms of cognitive dysfunction (basic symptom), may be contributing factor in the development and persistence of antisocial behaviors displayed by late-onset adolescent delinquents. The findings also suggest the need for additional research aimed to assess a broader range of cognitive abilities and specific vulnerability and risk factors for late-onset adolescent offenders. PMID:24405775

  9. The Protective Role of Group Identity: Sectarian Antisocial Behavior and Adolescent Emotion Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrilees, Christine E.; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark; Cairns, Ed

    2014-01-01

    The protective role of strength of group identity was examined for youth in a context of protracted political conflict. Participants included 814 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.61, SD = 1.99 at Time 1) participating in a longitudinal study in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling, the results show that the effect of…

  10. Antisocial Behavior, Psychopathology and Functional Impairment: Association with Sex and Age in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Juan; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, degree of association and differential effect, by sex and age, of conduct disorder symptoms on psychopathology and functioning. Participants included 680 Spanish children and adolescents between 8 and 17 years and their parents, attending to psychiatric outpatient consultation. Data were obtained through…

  11. Psychopathy as predictor and moderator of Multisystemic Therapy outcomes among adolescents treated for antisocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Manders; M. Deković; J.J. Asscher; P.H. van der Laan; P.J.M. Prins

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine whether psychopathic traits act as a predictor and/or moderator of the effectiveness of Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Method: The sample included N = 256 adolescents (188 boys and 68 girls) referred for conduct problems, randomized to MST or Tr

  12. From Antisocial Behavior to Violence: A Model for the Amplifying Role of Coercive Joining in Adolescent Friendships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aggression is one of the more stable characteristics of child and adolescent development, and violent behavior in early adulthood is often foreshadowed by aggressive behavior in childhood and early adolescence. Considerable evidence has linked coercive family interactions to aggressive behavior in childhood, but less research has been…

  13. Developmental origins of early antisocial behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.

    2009-01-01

    Early antisocial behavior has its origins in childhood behavior problems, particularly those characterized by aggressive and destructive behavior. Deficits in self-regulation across multiple domains of functioning, from the physiological to the cognitive, are associated with early behavior problems, and may place children at greater risk for the development of later antisocial behavior. Data are presented from a longitudinal study of early self-regulation and behavior problems, the RIGHT Trac...

  14. Annotation: the development of antisocial behavior: an integrative causal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, B B; Waldman, I D; McBurnett, K

    1999-07-01

    In this paper we have described an integrative causal model of the development of antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. The present model primarily integrates several previous models, but offers some new testable hypotheses. We believe that stable individual differences in propensity to antisocial behavior reflect variations in a number of dimensions of predisposing temperament and cognitive ability, each with its own genetic and environmental influences. The dimensions of predisposing temperament include oppositionality, harm avoidance, and callousness. Genetic influences are predicted to have only indirect effects on antisocial behavior via their influence on predisposition and on the youth's social environment. Environmental influences are expected to be important contributors to antisocial propensity, but these environmental influences reflect, in part, the genetic influences on the dimensions of predisposition (i.e. genotype-environment covariance). We also hypothesize that the levels of influence of the factors that determine individual differences in antisocial propensity change with development, such that genetic influences are of greater magnitude in early childhood and social influences contribute more strongly during later childhood and adolescence (both through independent effects and genotype-environment covariance). However, low levels of heritable predisposing child characteristics may protect against peer influences at all ages. PMID:10433402

  15. Developmental Trajectories of Co-Occurring Depressive, Eating, Antisocial, and Substance Abuse Problems in Adolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Measelle, Jeffrey R.; Stice, Eric; Hogansen, Jennifer M.

    2006-01-01

    Growth trajectories of co-occurring symptomatology were examined in a community sample of 493 adolescent females who were followed annually from early to late adolescence. On average, depression, eating disorder, and substance abuse symptoms increased over time, whereas antisocial behavior decreased. Increases in each symptom domain were associated with relative increases in all other domains. Initial depressive and antisocial symptoms predicted future increases in the other; substance abuse ...

  16. Childhood- versus adolescent-onset antisocial youth with conduct disorder: psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki A Johnson

    Full Text Available The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt's dual taxonomy model.Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12-21 with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23 with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20 with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples.The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired.Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process.

  17. Antisocial Behavior and Psychoactive Substance Involvement among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Caucasian Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David G.; Brown, Sandra A.; Myers, Mark G.

    1997-01-01

    Compared conduct disorder behaviors and substance involvement of Hispanic (n=34) and non-Hispanic Caucasian (n=34) adolescents so as to determine pre-treatment problem behavior. Results indicate that non-Hispanic Caucasian youth were three times as likely to be diagnosed with conduct disorder prior to substance involvement than were their Hispanic…

  18. The Relationship of Impulsivity-Inattention and Verbal Ability to Overt and Covert Antisocial Behaviors in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Amber D.; Snyder, James

    2012-01-01

    Research has linked many risk factors in childhood and early adolescence to antisocial behaviors in later adolescence and early adulthood; however, less attention has focused on the interaction among factors in the prediction of distinct forms of antisocial behaviors. This study investigated the additive and synergistic association of…

  19. Parental behavioral and psychological control relationships to self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression, and antisocial behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın Özdemir

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial behaviors and depression among Turkish adolescents. Participants for the present study consisted of 333 adolescents (168 girls, 163 boys between the age of 13 to 15 with a mean of 13.90 (SD=.514 years. Participants completed measures on behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial behaviors and depression. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that behavioral control positively predicted life satisfaction, self-esteem, and negatively predicted antisocial behaviors and depression. Psychological control was significantly and positively predicted antisocial behaviors and depression, negatively predicted life satisfaction. Present study provided evidence for the role of behavioral and psychological control in adolescents’ self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression and antisocial behaviors. Also, findings underscore the role of differential associations of parental behavioral and psychological control with the well-being and ill-being of adolescents. Findings were discussed in terms of implications for parent education programs and family intervention program.

  20. Parental behavioral and psychological control relationships to self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression, and antisocial behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın Özdemir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial behaviors and depression among Turkish adolescents. Participants for the present study consisted of 333 adolescents (168 girls, 163 boys between the age of 13 to 15 with a mean of 13.90 (SD=.514 years. Participants completed measures on behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial behaviors and depression. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that behavioral control positively predicted life satisfaction, self-esteem, and negatively predicted antisocial behaviors and depression. Psychological control was significantly and positively predicted antisocial behaviors and depression, negatively predicted life satisfaction. Present study provided evidence for the role of behavioral and psychological control in adolescents’ self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression and antisocial behaviors. Also, findings underscore the role of differential associations of parental behavioral and psychological control with the well-being and ill-being of adolescents. Findings were discussed in terms of implications for parent education programs and family intervention program.

  1. Differences between Anti-Social Adolescent Behaviour in Single Sex Schools and Co-Educational Schools in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastick, Tony

    Anti-social behavior is reported to be a growing problem in school systems of different countries. A comparison was made about anti-social adolescent behaviors between students who attend single-sex schools and coeducational schools in Jamaica. Students (N=112) were interviewed to determine the most prevalent school discipline problems. A sample…

  2. Association of candidate genes with antisocial drug dependence in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Corley, Robin P.; Zeiger, Joanna S.; Crowley, Thomas; Ehringer, Marissa A.; Hewitt, John K.; Christian J Hopfer; Lessem, Jeffrey; McQueen, Matthew B.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Smolen, Andrew; Stallings, Michael C.; Young, Susan E.; Krauter, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    The Colorado Center for Antisocial Drug Dependence (CADD) is using several research designs and strategies in its study of the genetic basis for antisocial drug dependence in adolescents. This study reports Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) association results from a Targeted Gene Assay (SNP chip) of 231 Caucasian male probands in treatment with antisocial drug dependence and a matched set of community controls. The SNP chip was designed to assay 1500 SNPs distributed across 50 candidate g...

  3. Problems of studying antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offord, D R; Reitsma-Street, M

    1983-01-01

    The importance of antisocial behaviour is underlined by the magnitude of the problem (largest category of emotional disturbance in youth) and by the poor psychosocial prognosis for the chronically affected child. The medical/psychological approach has pointed to the role of marital discord and parental psychopathology as significant features in the individual's environment predicting antisocial development. Conversely, sociology and criminology, which have begun with social theories, appear to have had less statistical success in accounting for aetiology. Definition of conduct disorder in terms of type, duration, frequency, and severity of anti-social behaviour is indispensible for the characterization of subgroups of affected children, and hence variables which protect against or accentuate risk factors. Prognosis depends among other things on age of onset (worse younger) and setting (home or community), implying that treatment programmes cannot be evaluated adequately without the differential characterisation of subgroups, their natural histories, and responsiveness to intervention. Although such data come from the study of individuals, case-by-case treatment runs the risk in certain groups of escalating anti-social behaviour. Thus community/youth oriented interventions, focusing on the remedial treatment of learning handicaps, improvement of non-school skills, may provide more promising points of attack. Incomplete knowledge of aetiology should not prevent action, provided the methodological issues raised serve as the basis for vigorous evaluation. PMID:6371799

  4. Interpersonal Complementarity – Self-rated Behavior by Normal and Antisocial Adolescents with a Liked and Disliked Peer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Hakelind

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The principle of complementarity in interpersonal theory and the SASB model (Structural Analysis of Social Behavior as developed by Benjamin (1974 were used to study how adolescents in a normal group of 60 adolescents and a group of 42 adolescents with severe behavioural problems rated that they usually behaved in relation to a liked and disliked peer. The peer’s behaviour varied in a systematic way on the dimensions of affiliation and dominance. Complementary behavior was defined as the same behaviour from peer and self and anticomplementarity was defined as opposite behaviour from self in relation the peer’s behavior. Consistent over the two groups complementarity and anticomplementarity were influenced by both the peer’s behaviour and type of relationship with the peer. Friendly behaviour from a liked peer evoked much more complementary friendly behaviour compared to a disliked peer who with the same behaviour evoked almost as much anticomplementary hostile behaviour as complementary friendly behaviour. Hostile behaviour from a disliked peer evoked much more complementary hostile behaviour compared to a liked peer with the same kind of behavior. Autonomy granting from a liked peer evoked more complementary autonomous behaviour compared to a disliked peer. Differences between the two groups were small and only in relation with a disliked peer. The results were discussed in terms of interpersonal theory and the principle of complementarity with focus on kind of relationship.

  5. Antisocial behavior: Dimension or category(ies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biro Mikloš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Classificatory systems (DSM-IV, ICD-10 use different criteria for defining a rather common antisocial disorder, traditionally referred as psychopathy. Most empirical studies of this phenomenon use Cleckley's operational definition that was applied and amended in Hare's revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R. In modern literature, the fact that there is less than a perfect correspondence between classificatory systems and Hare's PCL-R is often cited as an indication that antisocial behavior is not confined to a distinct category of people but is rather a continuous personality dimension. In order to further elucidate the nosology of antisocial behaviors, a Psychopathy Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ based on Cleckley - Hare's criteria and consisting of 40 binary items was administered to 339 men (135 prisoners and 204 members of the general population. Four distinct clusters of respondents were identified by means of hierarchical cluster analysis: Psychopathic type (characterized by high positive scores on dimension of Unemotionality; Antisocial type (characterized by high positive scores on Social deviance dimension; Adapted type (characterized by negative scores on all dimensions; and Hyper-controlled type (characterized by extremely negative scores on dimension Social deviance accompanied with positive scores on Unemotionality dimension. Additional comparison with MMPI profiles which classified prison sample in two groups ("Psychopathic profiles" and "Non- Psychopathic profiles" shows that there is no expected compatibility between MMPI and PAQ. We conclude that Antisocial type can be treated as a distinct category, while Psychopathic type displays characteristics of dimensional distribution.

  6. Antisocial thinking in adolescents: further psychometric development of the Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scale (ABAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephen M; Parry, Rachael; Fearon, R M Pasco

    2015-03-01

    Investigating the impact of "off-line" cognitive structures on the broad range of antisocial behaviors shown by young people has been hampered by the absence of psychometrically robust measures of antisocial cognitions. This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scale (ABAS), a developmentally sensitive measure of young people's beliefs and attitudes toward social standards of acceptable behavior at home and at school. The reliability and validity of the ABAS was assessed in a sample of British school children (N = 486) aged 9-16 years (M = 12.79, SD = 1.90) and male young offenders (N = 84) aged 13-17 years (M = 15.15, SD = 0.27). Participants completed the ABAS, together with a self-report measure of antisocial behavior; maternal reports of antisocial activity were also collected in the offending sample. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the 2-factor structure of Rule Noncompliance and Peer Conflict previously derived from a sample of Canadian school children, and these factors showed good test-retest reliability. Rule Noncompliance predicted self-reported antisocial behavior for ages 11-16 years, while Peer Conflict predicted antisocial behavior for ages 9-16 years. Comparisons between young offenders and an age-matched subsample of males from the school group showed significant differences. In young offenders, Rule Noncompliance and Peer Conflict were significantly predictive of self-reported antisocial behavior, while Rule Noncompliance independently predicted mothers' ratings of their sons' antisocial behavior. These findings provide support for the ABAS as a psychometrically sound measure of antisocial thinking.

  7. Developmental pathways to antisocial behavior: the delayed-onset pathway in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, P; Frick, P J

    1999-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that there are two distinct trajectories for the development of antisocial behavior in boys: a childhood-onset pathway and an adolescent-onset pathway. After reviewing the limited available research on antisocial girls, we propose that this influential method of conceptualizing the development of severe antisocial behavior may not apply to girls without some important modifications. Antisocial girls appear to show many of the correlates that have been associated with the childhood-onset pathway in boys, and they tend to show impaired adult adjustment, which is also similar to boys in the childhood-onset pathway. However, antisocial girls typically show an adolescent-onset to their antisocial behavior. We have proposed that these girls show a third developmental pathway which we have labeled the "delayed-onset" pathway. This model rests on the assumption that many of the putative pathogenic mechanisms that contribute to the development of antisocial behavior in girls, such as cognitive and neuropsychological deficits, a dysfunctional family environment, and/or the presence of a callous and unemotional interpersonal style, may be present in childhood, but they do not lead to severe and overt antisocial behavior until adolescence. Therefore, we propose that the delayed-onset pathway for girls is analogous to the childhood-onset pathway in boys and that there is no analogous pathway in girls to the adolescent-onset pathway in boys. Although this model clearly needs to be tested in future research, it highlights the need to test the applicability of current theoretical models for explaining the development of antisocial behavior in girls.

  8. Developmental origins of early antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Susan D; Keane, Susan P

    2009-01-01

    Early antisocial behavior has its origins in childhood behavior problems, particularly those characterized by aggressive and destructive behavior. Deficits in self-regulation across multiple domains of functioning, from the physiological to the cognitive, are associated with early behavior problems, and may place children at greater risk for the development of later antisocial behavior. Data are presented from a longitudinal study of early self-regulation and behavior problems, the RIGHT Track Research Project, demonstrating that children at greatest risk for early and persistent problem behavior display patterns of physiological and emotional regulation deficits early in life. Parenting behavior and functioning have also been examined as predictors of trajectories of early problem behavior, and some data support the interaction of parenting and self-regulation as significant predictors of patterns of problematic behavior and ongoing problems with the regulation of affect. Peer relationships also affect and are affected by early self-regulation skills, and both may play a role in academic performance and subsequent school success. These data provide evidence that the social contexts of early family and peer relationships are important moderators of the more proximal mechanism of self-regulation, and both types of processes, social and biobehavioral, are likely implicated in early antisocial tendencies. Implications of these findings on self-regulation and early behavior problems are discussed in terms of future research and treatment approaches. PMID:19825259

  9. Effects of EQUIP for Educators on Students' Self-Serving Cognitive Distortions, Moral Judgment, and Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Floor; Brugman, Daniel; Boom, Jan; Koops, Willem

    2010-01-01

    A quasi-experimental pretest/posttest study using a control group was conducted to investigate the effects of EQUIP for Educators--implemented as a universal prevention program--on prevalence of antisocial behavior, attitude towards antisocial behavior, self serving cognitive distortions, and moral judgment of young adolescents. Participants were…

  10. Antisocial behavior and polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene: findings in two independent samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, D; Lindstedt, M; Zettergren, A; Jonsson, L; Johansson, A; Melke, J; Kerekes, N; Anckarsäter, H; Lichtenstein, P; Lundström, S; Westberg, L

    2016-07-01

    The quantitative genetic contribution to antisocial behavior is well established, but few, if any, genetic variants are established as risk factors. Emerging evidence suggests that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) may modulate interpersonal aggression. We here investigated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OXT receptor gene (OXTR) are associated with the expression of antisocial behavior. A discovery sample, including both sexes, was drawn from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS; n=2372), and a sample from the Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development (TCHAD; n=1232) was used for replication. Eight SNPs in OXTR, selected on previous associations with social and antisocial behavior, were genotyped in the participants of CATSS. Significant polymorphisms were subsequently genotyped in TCHAD for replication. Participants completed self-assessment questionnaires-Life History of Aggression (LHA; available only in CATSS), and Self-Reported Delinquency (SRD; available in both samples)-designed to capture antisocial behavior as continuous traits. In the discovery sample, the rs7632287 AA genotype was associated with higher frequency of antisocial behavior in boys, and this was then replicated in the second sample. In particular, overt aggression (directly targeting another individual) was strongly associated with this genotype in boys (P=6.2 × 10(-7) in the discovery sample). Meta-analysis of the results for antisocial behavior from both samples yielded P=2.5 × 10(-5). Furthermore, an association between rs4564970 and LHA (P=0.00013) survived correction in the discovery sample, but there was no association with the SRD in the replication sample. We conclude that the rs7632287 and rs4564970 polymorphisms in OXTR may independently influence antisocial behavior in adolescent boys. Further replication of our results will be crucial to understanding how aberrant social behavior arises, and would support the OXT receptor as one

  11. Father's and Mother's Perceptions of Parenting Styles as Mediators of the Effects of Parental Psychopathology on Antisocial Behavior in Outpatient Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Juan; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to examine the potential mediating role of father's and mother's parenting styles in the association between parental psychopathology and antisocial behavior in children, and whether this pathway was moderated by child's sex. Participants included both parents and 338 Spanish outpatient children between 8 and 17 years (56.5% boys).…

  12. Linked lives: the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P; Freeman-Gallant, Adrienne; Lizotte, Alan J; Krohn, Marvin D; Smith, Carolyn A

    2003-04-01

    There is a strong assumption of intergenerational continuity in behavior patterns, including antisocial behavior. Using a 3-generation, prospective study design, we examine the level of behavioral continuity between Generation 2 (G2) and Generation 3 (G3), and the role of economic disadvantage and parenting behaviors as mediating links. We estimate separate models for G2 fathers and G2 mothers. Data are drawn from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 during G2's early adolescence (n = 1,000), which has collected prospective data on G2, their parents (G1), and now their G3 children. Results show that intergenerational continuity in antisocial behavior is evident, albeit somewhat modest. Parenting styles and financial stress do play a mediating role, although their effects vary by G2's gender. In general, adolescent delinquency plays a larger role in linking the generations for G2 fathers, whereas parenting behaviors and financial stress play a larger role for G2 mothers.

  13. Secrets from friends and parents: longitudinal links with depression and antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert D; Bridges, Brittanee J; Marsee, Monica A

    2013-08-01

    Keeping secrets from parents is associated with depression and antisocial behavior. The current study tested whether keeping secrets from best friends is similarly linked to maladjustment, and whether associations between secrecy and maladjustment are moderated by the quality of the friendship. Adolescents (N = 181; 51% female, 48% white, non-Hispanic, 45% African American) reported their secrecy from parents and best friends, the quality of their parent-adolescent relationships and best friendships, and their depression and antisocial behavior at ages 12 and 13. Keeping more secrets from best friends was associated with more depression, but not with more antisocial behavior, when controlling for earlier adjustment, secrecy from parents, and the quality of the friendship. For girls associations between maladjustment and secrecy were conditioned by the quality of the relationships and whether secrets were kept from parents and friends. Discussion argues for expanding the study of secrecy in adolescence beyond the parent-child dyad.

  14. Examining Antisocial Behavioral Antecedents of Juvenile Sexual Offenders and Juvenile Non-Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuish, Evan C; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond R

    2015-08-01

    In prospective longitudinal studies of juvenile offenders, the presence of multiple developmental pathways of antisocial behaviors has consistently been identified. An "antisocial" type of juvenile sex offender (JSO) has also been identified; however, whether antisocial JSOs follow different antisocial pathways has not been examined. In the current study, differences in antisocial pathways within JSOs and between JSOs and juvenile non-sex offenders (JNSOs) were examined. Data on Canadian male incarcerated adolescent offenders were used to identify whether behavioral antecedents differed within JSOs and between JSOs (n = 51) and JNSOs (n = 94). Using latent class analysis (LCA), three behavioral groups were identified. For both JSOs and JNSOs, there was a Low Antisocial, Overt, and Covert group. Overall, there were important within-group differences in the behavioral patterns of JSOs, but these differences resembled differences in the behavioral patterns of their JNSO counterpart. Risk factors including offense history, abuse history, and family history were more strongly associated with the Overt and Covert groups compared with the Low Antisocial group. Implications for JSO assessment practices were discussed.

  15. Examining Antisocial Behavioral Antecedents of Juvenile Sexual Offenders and Juvenile Non-Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuish, Evan C; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond R

    2015-08-01

    In prospective longitudinal studies of juvenile offenders, the presence of multiple developmental pathways of antisocial behaviors has consistently been identified. An "antisocial" type of juvenile sex offender (JSO) has also been identified; however, whether antisocial JSOs follow different antisocial pathways has not been examined. In the current study, differences in antisocial pathways within JSOs and between JSOs and juvenile non-sex offenders (JNSOs) were examined. Data on Canadian male incarcerated adolescent offenders were used to identify whether behavioral antecedents differed within JSOs and between JSOs (n = 51) and JNSOs (n = 94). Using latent class analysis (LCA), three behavioral groups were identified. For both JSOs and JNSOs, there was a Low Antisocial, Overt, and Covert group. Overall, there were important within-group differences in the behavioral patterns of JSOs, but these differences resembled differences in the behavioral patterns of their JNSO counterpart. Risk factors including offense history, abuse history, and family history were more strongly associated with the Overt and Covert groups compared with the Low Antisocial group. Implications for JSO assessment practices were discussed. PMID:24487119

  16. Neurological soft signs in Chinese adolescents with antisocial personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cai, Lin; Li, Lingyan; Yang, Yanjie; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2016-09-30

    The current study was designed to explore the specific relationship between neurologic soft signs (NSSs) and characteristics of antisocial personality traits in adolescents, and to investigate particular NSSs linked to certain brain regions in adolescents with antisocial personality traits. The research was conducted on 96 adolescents diagnosed with ASP traits (ASP trait group) using the ASPD subscale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire for the DSM-IV (PDQ-4+) and 96 adolescents without traits of any personality disorder (control group). NSSs were assessed using the soft sign subscales of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory. Adolescents with ASP traits showed more motor coordination, sensory integration, disinhibition, and total NSSs than the control group. Seven NSSs, including stereognosia in right hand, finger agnosia and graphesthesia in both hands, left-right orientation, and go/no go stimulus, were significantly more frequent in teenagers with ASP traits. Sensory integration was positively associated with ASP traits. Adolescents with antisocial personality traits might have abnormalities in the central nervous system, and sensory integration might be the particular indicator of antisocial personality disorder. PMID:27392230

  17. Neurological soft signs in Chinese adolescents with antisocial personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cai, Lin; Li, Lingyan; Yang, Yanjie; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2016-09-30

    The current study was designed to explore the specific relationship between neurologic soft signs (NSSs) and characteristics of antisocial personality traits in adolescents, and to investigate particular NSSs linked to certain brain regions in adolescents with antisocial personality traits. The research was conducted on 96 adolescents diagnosed with ASP traits (ASP trait group) using the ASPD subscale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire for the DSM-IV (PDQ-4+) and 96 adolescents without traits of any personality disorder (control group). NSSs were assessed using the soft sign subscales of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory. Adolescents with ASP traits showed more motor coordination, sensory integration, disinhibition, and total NSSs than the control group. Seven NSSs, including stereognosia in right hand, finger agnosia and graphesthesia in both hands, left-right orientation, and go/no go stimulus, were significantly more frequent in teenagers with ASP traits. Sensory integration was positively associated with ASP traits. Adolescents with antisocial personality traits might have abnormalities in the central nervous system, and sensory integration might be the particular indicator of antisocial personality disorder.

  18. The Social Functions of Antisocial Behavior: Considerations for School Violence Prevention Strategies for Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Lee, David L.; Hamm, Jill V.; Lambert, Kerrylin

    2012-01-01

    Research on school social dynamics suggests that antisocial behavior is often supported by peer group processes particularly during late childhood and adolescence. Building from a social interactional framework, this article explores how information on the social functions of aggressive and disruptive behavior may help to guide function-based…

  19. Patterns of Adolescent Friendships, Psychological Adjustment and Antisocial Behavior: The Moderating Role of Family Stress and Friendship Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciairano, Silvia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Roggero, Antonella; Bonino, Silvia; Beyers, Wim

    2007-01-01

    This study distinguishes different patterns of friendship quality in terms of support from and conflict with friends, and reciprocity. Associations between friendship patterns and adolescents' adjustment (self-perception, expectations for the future, depressive feelings, sense of alienation, lying, disobedience, and aggression) were hypothesized…

  20. Bender Gestalt Signs and Anti-Social Acting Out Tendencies in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannigan, Gary G.; Benowity, Martin L.

    1975-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between performance on the Bender-Gestalt test and antisocial acting out tendencies in adolescents. Results indicate that uneven figure size and exaggerated curvature are the best indicators of antisocial acting out tendencies. (Author)

  1. The Effect of Corporal Punishment on Antisocial Behavior in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of corporal punishment on antisocial behavior of children using stronger statistical controls than earlier literature in this area; to examine whether the effect of corporal punishment on antisocial behavior is nonlinear; and to investigate whether the effects of corporal punishment on antisocial…

  2. Early Concern and Disregard for Others as Predictors of Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Friedman, Naomi P.; Boeldt, Debra L.; Corley, Robin P.; Hewitt, John. K.; Knafo, Ariel; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Robinson, JoAnn; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Young, Susan E.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prediction of antisocial behavior is important, given its adverse impact on both the individuals engaging in antisocial behavior and society. Additional research identifying early predictors of future antisocial behavior, or antisocial propensity, is needed. The present study tested the hypothesis that both concern for others and…

  3. Mediation of sensation seeking and behavioral inhibition on the longitudinal relationship between heart rate and antisocial behavior : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; van Roon, Arie M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Riese, Harriette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Why is low resting heart rate (HR) associated with antisocial behavior (ASB), i.e., aggression and rule breaking, in adolescence? Theory suggests that personality traits mediate this relationship but differently with age. In the present study this age-effect hypothesis is tested; we expec

  4. Mediation of Sensation Seeking and Behavioral Inhibition on the Relationship between Heart Rate and Antisocial Behavior: The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; van Roon, Arie M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Riese, Harriette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Why is low resting heart rate (HR) associated with antisocial behavior (ASB), i.e., aggression and rule breaking, in adolescence? Theory suggests that personality traits mediate this relationship but differently with age. In the present study this age-effect hypothesis is tested; we expected that the relationship between HR and…

  5. Supportive parenting mediates widening neighborhood socioeconomic disparities in children’s antisocial behavior from ages 5 to 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers, Candice L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Russell, Michael A.; Sampson, Robert J.; Arsenault, Louise; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we report a graded relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and children’s antisocial behavior that (1) can be observed at school entry, (2) widens across childhood, (3) remains after controlling for family-level SES and risk, and (4) is completely mediated by maternal warmth and parental monitoring (defined throughout as supportive parenting). Children were participants in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study (n=2232), which prospectively tracked the development of children and their neighborhoods across childhood. Direct and independent effects of neighborhood-level SES on children’s antisocial behavior were observed as early as age 5 and the gap between children living in deprived versus more affluent neighborhoods widened as children approached adolescence. By age 12, the effect of neighborhood socioeconomic status on children’s antisocial behavior was as large as the effect observed for our most robust predictor of antisocial behavior – sex! (Cohen’s d = .51 when comparing children growing up in deprived versus more affluent neighborhoods in comparison to Cohen’s d = .53 when comparing antisocial behavior among boys versus girls). However, differences in children’s levels and rate of change in antisocial behavior across deprived versus more affluent neighborhoods were completely mediated by supportive parenting practices. Implications of our findings for studying and reducing socioeconomic disparities in antisocial behavior among children are discussed. PMID:22781850

  6. Neural mediator of the schizotypy-antisocial behavior relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, B Y H; Yang, Y; Raine, A; Lee, T M C

    2015-11-03

    Prior studies have established that schizotypal personality traits (schizotypy) were associated with antisocial behavior (crime), but it is unclear what neural factors mediate this relationship. This study assessed the mediating effect that sub-regional prefrontal gray, specifically the orbitofrontal gray matter volume, has on the schizotypy-antisocial behavior relationship. Five prefrontal sub-regional (superior, middle, inferior, orbitofrontal and rectal gyral) gray matter volumes were assessed using structural magnetic resonance imaging in 90 adults from the community, together with schizotypy and antisocial behavior. Among all five prefrontal sub-regions, the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) was the major region-of-interest in the present study. Mediation analyses showed that orbitofrontal gray fully mediated the association between schizotypy and antisocial behavior. After having controlled the sex, age, socio-economic statuses, whole brain volumes and substance abuse/dependence of test subjects, the orbitofrontal gray still significantly mediated the effect of schizotypy on antisocial behavior by 53.5%. These findings are the first that document a neural mediator of the schizotypy-antisocial behavior relationship. Findings also suggest that functions subserved by the OFC, including impulse control and inhibition, emotion processing and decision-making, may contribute to the above comorbidity.

  7. Neural mediator of the schizotypy-antisocial behavior relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, B Y H; Yang, Y; Raine, A; Lee, T M C

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies have established that schizotypal personality traits (schizotypy) were associated with antisocial behavior (crime), but it is unclear what neural factors mediate this relationship. This study assessed the mediating effect that sub-regional prefrontal gray, specifically the orbitofrontal gray matter volume, has on the schizotypy-antisocial behavior relationship. Five prefrontal sub-regional (superior, middle, inferior, orbitofrontal and rectal gyral) gray matter volumes were assessed using structural magnetic resonance imaging in 90 adults from the community, together with schizotypy and antisocial behavior. Among all five prefrontal sub-regions, the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) was the major region-of-interest in the present study. Mediation analyses showed that orbitofrontal gray fully mediated the association between schizotypy and antisocial behavior. After having controlled the sex, age, socio-economic statuses, whole brain volumes and substance abuse/dependence of test subjects, the orbitofrontal gray still significantly mediated the effect of schizotypy on antisocial behavior by 53.5%. These findings are the first that document a neural mediator of the schizotypy-antisocial behavior relationship. Findings also suggest that functions subserved by the OFC, including impulse control and inhibition, emotion processing and decision-making, may contribute to the above comorbidity. PMID:26529422

  8. A review on the relationship between testosterone and life-course persistent antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Bariş O; Derksen, Jan J L

    2012-12-30

    Life-course persistent antisocial behavior is 10 to 14 times more prevalent in males and it has been suggested that testosterone levels could account for this gender bias. Preliminary studies with measures of fetal testosterone find inconsistent associations with antisocial behavior, especially studies that use the 2D:4D ratio as a proxy for fetal testosterone. However, circulating testosterone consistently shows positive associations with antisocial behaviors throughout childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, particularly in males. It is suggested that high fetal/circulating testosterone interactively influence the maturation and functionality of mesolimbic dopaminergic circuitry, right orbitofrontal cortex, and cortico-subcortical connectivity, resulting in a strong reward motivation, low social sensitivity, and dampened regulation of strong motivational/emotional processes. The link between these testosterone induced endophenotypes and actual display of antisocial behavior is strongly modulated by different social (e.g., social rejection, low SES) and genetic (e.g., MAOA, 5HTT) risk factors that can disturb socio-, psycho-, and biological development and interact with testosterone in shaping behavior. When these additional risk factors are present, the testosterone induced endophenotypes may increase the risk for a chronic antisocial lifestyle. However, behavioral endophenotypes induced by testosterone can also predispose towards socially adaptive traits such as a strong achievement motivation, leadership, fair bargaining behaviors, and social assertiveness. These adaptive traits are more likely to emerge when the high testosterone individual has positive social experiences that promote prosocial behaviors such as strong and secure attachments with his caregivers, affiliation with prosocial peers, and sufficient socioeconomic resources. A theoretical model is presented, various hypotheses are examined, and future venues for research are discussed.

  9. Trajectories of Youthful Antisocial Behavior: Categories or Continua?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D.; Ruscio, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether qualitatively distinct trajectories of antisocial behavior could be identified in 1,708 children (843 boys, 865 girls) from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Data (NLSY-C). Repeated ratings were made on the Behavior Problems Index (BPI: Peterson and Zill "Journal of Marriage and…

  10. Unpacking Links between Fathers' Antisocial Behaviors and Children's Behavior Problems: Direct, Indirect, and Interactive Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Carrano, Jennifer; Lewin-Bizan, Selva

    2011-01-01

    Building upon previous evidence for the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behaviors, this research assessed and compared three models seeking to explain links between fathers' antisocial behaviors and children's behavior problems. A representative sample of children from low-income families (N = 261) was followed from age 3 through age…

  11. The relationship between hippocampal asymmetry and temperament in adolescent borderline and antisocial personality pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovev, Martina; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Simmons, Julian Guy; Allen, Nicholas B; Chanen, Andrew M

    2014-02-01

    Investigating etiological processes early in the life span represents an important step toward a better understanding of the development of personality pathology. The current study evaluated the interaction between an individual difference risk factor (i.e., temperament) and a biological risk factor for aggressive behavior (i.e., atypical [larger] rightward hippocampal asymmetry) in predicting the emergence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder symptoms during early adolescence. The sample consisted of 153 healthy adolescents (M = 12.6 years, SD = 0.4, range = 11.4-13.7) who were selected from a larger sample to maximize variation in temperament. Interactions between four temperament factors (effortful control, negative affectivity, surgency, and affiliativeness), based on the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised, and volumetric measures of hippocampal asymmetry were examined as cross-sectional predictors of BPD and antisocial personality disorder symptoms. Boys were more likely to have elevated BPD symptoms if they were high on affiliation and had larger rightward hippocampal asymmetry. In boys, low affiliation was a significant predictor of BPD symptoms in the presence of low rightward hippocampal asymmetry. For girls, low effortful control was associated with elevated BPD symptoms in the presence of atypical rightward hippocampal asymmetry. This study builds on previous work reporting significant associations between atypical hippocampal asymmetry and poor behavioral regulation.

  12. Environmental Contributions to the Stability of Antisocial Behavior over Time: Are They Shared or Non-Shared?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, S. Alexandra; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2010-01-01

    It has recently been argued that shared environmental influences are moderate, identifiable, and persistent sources of individual differences in most forms of child and adolescent psychopathology, including antisocial behavior. Unfortunately, prior studies examining the stability of shared environmental influences over time were limited by…

  13. Reversible antisocial behavior in ventromedial prefrontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebuchon, Agnès; Bartolomei, Fabrice; McGonigal, Aileen; Laguitton, Virginie; Chauvel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Frontal lobe dysfunction is known to be associated with impairment in social behavior. We investigated the link between severe pharmacoresistant frontal lobe epilepsy and antisocial trait. We studied four patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy involving the prefrontal cortex, presenting abnormal interictal social behavior. Noninvasive investigations (video-EEG, PET, MRI) and intracerebral recording (stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG)) were performed as part of a presurgical assessment. Comprehensive psychiatric and cognitive evaluation was performed pre- and postoperatively for frontal lobe epilepsy, with at least 7years of follow-up. All patients shared a characteristic epilepsy pattern: (1) chronic severe prefrontal epilepsy with daily seizures and (2) an epileptogenic zone as defined by intracerebral recording involving the anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial PFC, and the posterior part of the orbitofrontal cortex, with early propagation to contralateral prefrontal and ipsilateral medial temporal structures. All patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria (DSM-IV) of antisocial personality disorder, which proved to be reversible following seizure control. Pharmacoresistant epilepsy involving a prefrontal network is associated with antisocial personality. We hypothesize that the occurrence of frequent seizures in this region over a prolonged period produces functional damage leading to impaired prefrontal control of social behavior. This functional damage is reversible since successful epilepsy surgery markedly improved antisocial behavior in these patients. The results are in line with previous reports of impairment of social and moral behavior following ventromedial frontal lobe injury.

  14. Antisocial Psychopathy and HIV Risk among Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD Abusing Adolescent Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Malow

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While the consensus is that HIV prevalence has remained low among adolescent offenders, the prevalence of STDs and HIV transmission risk behaviors is alarming, particularly for those abusing alcohol and other drugs and those displaying antisocial or conduct disorder characteristics. In the current study, 269 male and 110 female inner city, culturally diverse alcohol and other drug (AOD abusing adolescent offenders completed measures of (a psychopathy, using the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI (b HIV transmission risk behavior, (c prevention skills and attitudes and (d social desirability. Results showed that those with high levels of psychopathy reported more AOD use, overall unprotected sex and more sexual activity when influenced by alcohol and/or marijuana. High psychopathy adolescent offenders also reported lower self-efficacy and sexual response-efficacy, less favorable safer sex and condom attitudes and less favorable intentions to engage in safer sex behaviors, when controlling for social desirability. Data suggest that adolescent offenders, who are either in court-ordered treatment or detention, should be assessed for psychopathy and provided with tailored risk reduction interventions, geared toward attitudinal and behavioral change. A discussion of integrating neurobiological measures to improve the next generation of tailored interventions for this risk group is offered in conclusion.

  15. Spanking by Parents and Subsequent Antisocial Behavior of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Murray A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Used data from interviews with a national sample of 807 mothers of children ages six through nine to examine causal relationship between corporal punishment and antisocial behavior (ASB). Found that corporal punishment used to reduce ASB had an opposite, long-term effect. The more spanking at the start of the study, the higher the level of ASB two…

  16. Parental Familism and Antisocial Behaviors: Development, Gender, and Potential Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcillo, Carmen; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Shen, Sa; Blanco, Carlos; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relation between parental familism (strong values of attachment to nuclear and extended family members) and youth antisocial behaviors over time. Method: Puerto Rican children 5 to 13 years of age at baseline residing in the South Bronx in New York (n = 1,138) and in the Standard Metropolitan Area in San Juan and Caguas,…

  17. Age Differences in the Impact of Employment on Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    While research suggests that working more than 20 hr weekly is associated with greater antisocial behavior among middle- and upper-class youth, some have argued that employment benefits at-risk youth and leads to desistance from crime among youthful offenders. This study investigates the relation between hours worked, school attendance, and…

  18. Age-of-Onset or Behavioral Sub-Types? A Prospective Comparison of Two Approaches to Characterizing the Heterogeneity within Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Donnellan, M. Brent; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    There are two common approaches to sub-typing the well-documented heterogeneity within antisocial behavior: age-of-onset (i.e., childhood-onset versus adolescence-onset; see "Moffitt" 1993) and behavioral (i.e., physical aggression versus non-aggressive rule-breaking). These approaches appear to be associated, such that aggression is more…

  19. Father-Child Transmission of Antisocial Behavior: The Moderating Role of Father's Presence in the Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazei, Ryan W.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2008-01-01

    The effect of father's presence in the home on the child's antisocial behavior is studied to determine whether the father's presence may moderate the relationship between father and child antisociality. Results suggest that the presence of the father appears to provide some environmental influence that leads to increased child antisocial behavior.

  20. Effects of anomie, alienation and confidence on antisocial behavior in youth out of school and work system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel Vera Noriega

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to establish the antisocial and criminal behavior from perceived social and psychological anomie, alienation and confidence in institutions in young people who are outside the education system and labor in Hermosillo (Sonora, Mexico. The results indicate that psychological and social anomie, alienation and confidence in institutions can explain 28% of the variability in the expression of antisocial and criminal behavior. In addition, three profiles were found that were called adolescents: a tight, b alienated c deinstitutionalized: We conclude that public policies aimed at young people must build trust and seek ways to facilitate them the access to formal education systems.

  1. Maternal caregiving and girls’ depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior trajectories: An examination among high-risk youth

    OpenAIRE

    Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Mahedy, Liam; Gaysina, Darya; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Past research has identified parental depression and family-of-origin maltreatment as precursors to adolescent depression and antisocial behavior. Caregiving experiences have also been identified as a factor that may ameliorate or accentuate adolescent psychopathology trajectories. Using the unique attributes of two geographically diverse, yet complementary longitudinal research designs, the present study examined the role of maternal caregiver involvement as a factor that promotes resilience...

  2. Can at-risk young adolescents be popular and anti-social? : Sociometric status groups, anti-social behaviour, gender and ethnic background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Schoot, R.; van der Velden, F.; Boom, J.; Brugman, D.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to extend the understanding of anti-social behaviour and its association with popularity and sociometric status in a sample of at-risk adolescents from diverse ethnic backgrounds (n ¼ 1491, average age 14.7 years). Both overt and covert types of antisocial behaviour were used to dis

  3. Quantifying social vs. antisocial behavior in email networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes, L H; Almeida, V A F; Bettencourt, L M A; Castro, F D O; Almeida, Jussara M.; Almeida, Virgilio A. F.; Bettencourt, Luis M. A.; Castro, Fernando D. O.; Gomes, Luiz H.

    2006-01-01

    Email graphs have been used to illustrate general properties of social networks of communication and collaboration. However, increasingly, the majority of email traffic reflects opportunistic, rather than symbiotic social relations. Here we use e-mail data drawn from a large university to construct directed graphs of email exchange that quantify the differences between social and antisocial behaviors in networks of communication. We show that while structural characteristics typical of other social networks are shared to a large extent by the legitimate component they are not characteristic of antisocial traffic. Interestingly, opportunistic patterns of behavior do create nontrivial graphs with certain general characteristics that we identify. To complement the graph analysis, which suffers from incomplete knowledge of users external to the domain, we study temporal patterns of communication to show that the dynamical properties of email traffic can, in principle, distinguish different types of social relatio...

  4. Socioeconomic status and antisocial behaviour among children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Patrycja J; Stride, Christopher B; Croft, Simone E; Rowe, Richard

    2015-02-01

    Previous research on the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and child and adolescent antisocial behaviour has produced mixed findings showing variation in the strength of association. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarise evidence on the relationship between socioeconomic status and broadly conceptualised antisocial behaviour, investigating variation across a range of antisocial subtypes and other potential moderators, including age, sex and informant. We identified 133 studies containing data suitable for effect size calculation, and 139 independent effect sizes were analysed (total N=339868). The global meta-analysis showed that lower family socioeconomic status was associated with higher levels of antisocial behaviour. Moderation analyses revealed this relationship was stronger where callous-unemotional traits were the outcome, and where antisocial behaviour was reported by parents or teachers rather than self-reported. The relationship between family SES and antisocial behaviour, however, was independent of higher-level constructs such as national income inequality. These results indicate that SES can be considered a robust correlate of broadly conceptualised antisocial behaviour but the strength of this relationship may depend on the antisocial subtype under investigation and the design of the study.

  5. Neural bases of antisocial behavior: a voxel-based meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yuta; Inokuchi, Ryota; Nakao, Tomohiro; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2014-08-01

    Individuals with antisocial behavior place a great physical and economic burden on society. Deficits in emotional processing have been recognized as a fundamental cause of antisocial behavior. Emerging evidence also highlights a significant contribution of attention allocation deficits to such behavior. A comprehensive literature search identified 12 studies that were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis, which compared 291 individuals with antisocial problems and 247 controls. Signed Differential Mapping revealed that compared with controls, gray matter volume (GMV) in subjects with antisocial behavior was reduced in the right lentiform nucleus (P antisocial behavior. Previous studies have suggested an FPC role in attention allocation during emotional processing. Therefore, GMV deviations in this area may constitute a neural basis of deficits in attention allocation linked with antisocial behavior.

  6. Toward an animal model for antisocial behavior: parallels between mice and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Sluyter, F; Arseneault, L; Moffitt, TE; Veenema, AH; S. de Boer; Koolhaas, JM; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine whether mouse lines genetically selected for short and long attack latencies are good animal models for antisocial behavior in humans. To this end, we compared male Short and Long Attack Latency mice (SAL and LAL, respectively) with the extremes of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (men who persistently displayed antisocial behavior [Persisters] and men who never manifested antisocial behavior [Abstainers]). Groups were compared ...

  7. The Phenomenology of Non-Aggressive Antisocial Behavior During Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, S Alexandra; Brent Donnellan, M; Slawinski, Brooke L; Klump, Kelly L

    2016-05-01

    Although the phenomenology of overt or aggressive antisocial behavior during childhood is well-documented, far less is known about covert or non-aggressive, rule-breaking (RB) antisocial behavior. Gaps in knowledge include issues as basic as RB's typical symptom presentation during childhood and which symptoms differ across sex. The current study sought to fill these gaps in the literature by establishing the prevalence and psychometric properties of specific RB behaviors in a sample of 1022 twin boys and 1010 twin girls between the ages of 6 and 10 years. Legal RB behaviors (e.g., breaking rules, swears, lying or cheating) were present to varying degrees in most children, regardless of whether or not they passed the clinical threshold for RB. They were also more common in boys than in girls regardless of their clinical status. In sharp contrast, illegal RB behaviors (e.g., stealing, vandalism, setting fires) were rarely observed in typically-developing children, but were seen at moderate levels in boys and girls with clinically-significant levels of RB. Moreover, sex differences in illegal RB behaviors were observed only for those youth with clinically meaningful levels of RB. Such findings collectively imply that while legal RB behaviors can be found (albeit at different frequencies) in children with and without clinically meaningful levels of RB, illegal RB behaviors may function as relatively 'unambiguous' indicator of clinically-significant levels of RB. PMID:26344016

  8. Maternal caregiving and girls' depressive symptom and antisocial behavior trajectories: an examination among high-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, Gordon T; Leve, Leslie D; Kim, Hyoun K; Mahedy, Liam; Gaysina, Darya; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2014-11-01

    Past research has identified maternal depression and family of origin maltreatment as precursors to adolescent depression and antisocial behavior. Caregiving experiences have been identified as a factor that may ameliorate or accentuate adolescent psychopathology trajectories. Using a multilevel approach that pools the unique attributes of two geographically diverse, yet complementary, longitudinal research designs, the present study examined the role of maternal caregiver involvement as a factor that promotes resilience-based trajectories related to depressive symptoms and antisocial behaviors among adolescent girls. The first sample comprises a group of US-based adolescent girls in foster care (n = 100; mean age = 11.50 years), each of whom had a history of childhood maltreatment and removal from their biological parent(s). The second sample comprises a group of UK-based adolescent girls at high familial risk for depression (n = 145; mean age = 11.70 years), with all girls having biological mothers who experienced recurrent depression. Analyses examined the role of maternal caregiving on girls' trajectories of depression and antisocial behavior, while controlling for levels of co-occurring psychopathology at each time point. Results suggest increasing levels of depressive symptoms for girls at familial risk for depression but decreasing levels of depression for girls in foster care. Foster girls' antisocial behavior also decreased over time. Maternal caregiver involvement was differentially related to intercept and slope parameters in both samples. Results are discussed with respect to the benefits of applying multilevel (multisample, multiple outcome) approaches to identifying family-level factors that can reduce negative developmental outcomes in high-risk youth.

  9. The Expression of Genetic Risk for Aggressive and Non-aggressive Antisocial Behavior is Moderated by Peer Group Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E

    2015-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behaviors are important precursors of later adjustment problems. There is also strong empirical evidence that both types of antisocial behavior are partially influenced by genetic factors. However, despite its important theoretical and practical implications, no study has examined the question whether environmental factors differentially moderate the expression of genetic influences on the two types of antisocial behavior. Using a genetically informed design based on 266 monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, this study examined whether the expression of genetic risk for aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior varies depending on the peer group's injunctive norms (i.e., the degree of acceptability) of each type of antisocial behavior. Self-reported aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior and classroom-based sociometric nominations were collected when participants were 10 years old. Multivariate genetic analyses revealed some common genetic factors influencing both types of antisocial behavior (i.e., general antisocial behavior) as well as genetic influences specific to non-aggressive antisocial behavior. However, genetic influences on general antisocial behavior, as well as specific genetic influences on non-aggressive antisocial behavior, vary depending on the injunctive classroom norms regarding these behaviors. These findings speak to the power of peer group norms in shaping aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior. They also contribute further to understanding the distinctive development of both types of antisocial behavior. Finally, they may have important implications for prevention purposes.

  10. The Impact of Parental Stressors on the Intergenerational Transmission of Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Freeman-Gallant, Adrienne; Lovegrove, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the extent to which parental antisocial behavior is related to child antisocial behavior and, if it is, the extent to which the effect is mediated by parental stressors and by parenting behaviors. In particular, we examine two sources of stress-depressive symptoms and exposure to negative life events. The study is based on data from the…

  11. Media Violence and Antisocial Behavior: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Malamuth, Neil M.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses general issues that have shaped research on whether depictions of violence in television and other media significantly influence real-life aggressive behavior. Presents a theoretical framework for understanding media effects on the psychological processes of acquisition, maintenance, and emission of aggression. Outlines contents of this…

  12. Developmental theories of parental contributors to antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, D S; Bell, R Q

    1993-10-01

    In view of the increased interest in a developmental approach to psychopathology, and mounting evidence of the importance of parent-child interactions in the etiology of early antisocial behavior, the following questions were posed for this review. What theories of parent-child relationships and family management techniques are available? How developmental are they, how specific and transactional are they relative to parent and child behaviors involved? And how well do they cover the period in which antisocial behavior develops? Six theories have some developmental features but the attachment theories (by L. A. Sroufe, B. Egeland, and M. T. Greenberg) and two social learning theories (by G. R. Patterson and J. Martin) are most clearly developmental. They postulate reciprocal interactions of parent and child, and transformations in the form of normative changes in the child or changes in family processes. The social learning theories of Patterson and Martin are most specific, microanalytic in fact, as to the interaction processes involved, and the attachment theories at least specify kinds of behavior involved and also do not rely on traits or types of influence as their units of analysis. Conceptualization is most weak and overly general between late infancy and the preschool years. This gap makes it difficult to link attachment and social learning theories, both of which have driven a large number of studies. A bridging theory is offered to link the two sets of theories in the critical period involved.

  13. A Phenomenological Examination of Antisocial Behaviors in the Elementary School Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Antisocial behavior has a direct impact on the public elementary school setting. While considerable research has been conducted on collegiality in postsecondary schools, this study addressed the gap in practice concerning the lack of attention in regard to the impact of antisocial behavior on collegial relationships in the elementary school…

  14. Research Review: A Critical Review of Studies on the Developmental Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Nathalie; Carbonneau, Rene; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Knowledge on the onset and the development of antisocial behavior in females is limited, because most of the research in this domain is based on males. Methods: We critically reviewed 46 empirical studies that examined developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior in females, notably to help determine whether or not an…

  15. The Role of Empathy and Parenting Style in the Development of Antisocial Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Megan; Clark, Stephanie; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among parenting, empathy, and antisocial behavior. Two hundred forty-four undergraduate students attending an urban university completed self-report questionnaires assessing their antisocial behavior, empathy, and mothers' and fathers' parenting styles. Support was found for a model in which maternal permissive…

  16. Anxiety and Antisocial Behavior: The Moderating Role of Perceptions of Social Prominence among Incarcerated Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Goldweber, Aska; Meyer, Kristen; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines how perceptions of social prominence and attitudes toward antisocial behavior among peers moderate the association between anxiety and antisocial behavior among incarcerated females. Latent profile analysis identified two classes of females distinguished by their perceptions and attitudes. Individuals in both classes…

  17. Etiology of Pervasive versus Situational Antisocial Behaviors: A Multi-informant Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, Jasmin; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Matthews, Timothy; Gray, Rebecca; Best-Lane, Janis; Pariante, Carmine M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to disentangle pervasive from situational antisocial behaviors using multiple informants, and to investigate their genetic and environmental etiologies in preadolescence and across time. Antisocial behaviors were assessed in 2,232 twins from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study at ages 5 and 12.…

  18. Temperament, environment and antisocial behavior in a population sample of preadolescent boys and girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, R.; Lindenberg, S.M.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; de Winter, Andrea; Ormel, J.

    2006-01-01

    Antisocial behavior can be triggered by negative social experiences and individuals’ processing of these experiences. This study focuses on risk-buffering interactions between temperament, perceived parenting, socio-economic status (SES), and sex in relation to antisocial behavior in a Dutch populat

  19. Influences of biological and adoptive mothers' depression and antisocial behavior on adoptees' early behavior trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C R; Leve, Leslie D; Harold, Gordon T; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David

    2013-07-01

    Research clearly demonstrates that parents pass risk for depression and antisocial behavior on to their children. However, most research confounds genetic and environmental mechanisms by studying genetically related individuals. Furthermore, most studies focus on either depression or antisocial behavior in parents or children, despite evidence of co-occurrence and shared etiology, and few consider the early origins of these problems in childhood. We estimated the influence of biological and adoptive mothers' depression and antisocial behavior on growth in child externalizing and internalizing behaviors across early childhood using data from a prospective adoption study. Participants were 346 matched triads of physically healthy children (196 boys; 150 girls), biological mothers (BM), and adoptive mothers (AM). Latent growth curve models were estimated using AM reports of child internalizing and externalizing behaviors at ages 18, 27, and 54 months. Predictors of intercept (18 months) but not slope were identified. BM lifetime histories of major depressive disorder predicted child externalizing behaviors and BM antisocial behavior predicted child internalizing behavior. AM depressive symptoms and antisocial behavior were associated with both child outcomes. AM paths, but not BM paths were partially replicated using adopted fathers' reports of child outcomes. BM obstetric complications, prenatal depressive symptoms, and postnatal adoptive family contact with BM did not account for BM paths. This adoption study distinguished risks conferred by biological mothers' depression and antisocial behavior to children's behaviors from those associated with adoptive mothers' related symptoms. Future studies should examine gene-environment interplay to explain the emergence of serious problem trajectories in later childhood.

  20. Executive Function Is Associated With Antisocial Behavior and Aggression in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micai, Martina; Kavussanu, Maria; Ring, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Poor executive function has been linked to increased antisocial and aggressive behavior in clinical and nonclinical populations. The present study investigated the relationship between executive and nonexecutive cognitive function and antisocial behavior in sport as well as reactive and proactive aggression. Cognitive function was assessed in young adult male and female athletes using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Antisocial behavior in sport and aggression were assessed via self-report instruments and were found to be positively correlated. Executive function (but not nonexecutive function) scores were negatively correlated with both self-reported antisocial behavior and aggression in males but not females. Our findings suggest that prefrontal deficits among male athletes could contribute to poor impulse control and difficulty in anticipating the consequences of their antisocial and aggressive behavior.

  1. Sensitivity, child regulatory processes, and naturally occurring declines in antisocial behavior across childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Katharine Ann

    2014-12-01

    Despite considerable research on why antisocial behavior develops and interventions that reduce it, aspects of everyday family processes that may promote naturally occurring declines in antisocial behavior or that may result from such declines in most children without intervention are poorly understood. The current study explored family processes that may enable children to replace antisocial tendencies and the effects that declines in antisocial behavior may have on parenting and child regulatory processes. Longitudinal data from 1,022 children (54 months-6th grade) from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were examined. Findings demonstrated that naturally occurring declines in antisocial behavior both predicted and were predicted by maternal sensitivity, emotion regulation, and social skills. These declines predicted but were not predicted by declines in hostile attributions. The data revealed multiple indirect paths, which highlight the complex nature of these variables across development.

  2. An Introduction to the Special Issue on Advances in Process and Dynamic System Analysis of Social Interaction and the Development of Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Snyder, James

    2004-01-01

    A thorough understanding of how social relationships contribute to child and adolescent trajectories for antisocial behavior may be facilitated by: (a) ascertaining multiple relationship processes (e.g., warmth and reciprocity, coercion and deviancy training); (b) focusing on multiple relationships (e.g., with parents, peers, siblings, and…

  3. El suicidio: Una conducta antisocial que prevalece/Suicide: An antisocial behavior that prevails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Alejandro De León Palomo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The suicide has existed throughout history and has prevailed as a behavior that was contrary to the rules of the society in terms of preservation of life itself; the objective of this research was to make emphasis on the nature of antisocial behavior of this behavior and show its prevalence in the years 2006 to 2010 in Mexico and Tamaulipas, as well as from 1999 to 2008 in Reynosa, Tamaulipas. For which the data were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography to the country and the State and the books of the register of deaths by cause violent of the Regional Unit of Expert Services of the Attorney General of Justice, which has its headquarters in Reynosa; developed a theoretical framework on the impact of the conduct in society and the means to prevent it, The data obtained we revealed the continued presence of this conduct year-on-year, 23.554 cases appearing in Mexico and 819 in Tamaulipas in the period from 2006 to 2010; in Reynosa, Tamaulipas were presented 278 suicides in the period 1999 to 2008. The results show us a conduct stable in numbers, but without excessive overflows that prevails year-on-year, suicide, and the attempt of the same should be viewed as a social problem and not detract from the importance that it deserves a conduct of these dimensions, that is no more than a reflection of the situation in which are the means of social control toward the preservation of life itself.

  4. Learning and Thinking: A Behavioral Treatise on Abuse and Antisocial Behavior in Young Criminal Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Walter; Golden, Jeannie A.

    2009-01-01

    Social learning theory provides a useful conceptual framework for understanding abuse and the teaching and learning of antisocial or criminal behavior in young offenders. This article examines social learning theory and the quality of parent-child relationships from the perspective of behavioral analysis, and provides a rationale for a…

  5. The New Look of Behavioral Genetics in Developmental Psychopathology: Gene-Environment Interplay in Antisocial Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews behavioral-genetic research to show how it can help address questions of causation in developmental psychopathology. The article focuses on studies of antisocial behavior, because these have been leading the way in investigating environmental as well as genetic influences on psychopathology. First, the article illustrates how…

  6. Integrating simultaneous prosocial and antisocial behavior into theories of collective action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basurto, Xavier; Blanco, Esther; Nenadovic, Mateja; Vollan, Björn

    2016-03-01

    Trust and cooperation constitute cornerstones of common-pool resource theory, showing that "prosocial" strategies among resource users can overcome collective action problems and lead to sustainable resource governance. Yet, antisocial behavior and especially the coexistence of prosocial and antisocial behaviors have received less attention. We broaden the analysis to include the effects of both "prosocial" and "antisocial" interactions. We do so in the context of marine protected areas (MPAs), the most prominent form of biodiversity conservation intervention worldwide. Our multimethod approach relied on lab-in-the-field economic experiments (n = 127) in two MPA and two non-MPA communities in Baja California, Mexico. In addition, we deployed a standardized fishers' survey (n = 544) to verify the external validity of our findings and expert informant interviews (n = 77) to develop potential explanatory mechanisms. In MPA sites, prosocial and antisocial behavior is significantly higher, and the presence of antisocial behavior does not seem to have a negative effect on prosocial behavior. We suggest that market integration, economic diversification, and strengthened group identity in MPAs are the main potential mechanisms for the simultaneity of prosocial and antisocial behavior we observed. This study constitutes a first step in better understanding the interaction between prosociality and antisociality as related to natural resources governance and conservation science, integrating literatures from social psychology, evolutionary anthropology, behavioral economics, and ecology.

  7. Heartless and Cunning? The Relationship between Intelligence, Psychopathic Traits and Antisocial Behaviour in Adolescents. Research Briefing No. 99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study examined two main questions: (1) Is there a direct link between psychopathic traits and intelligence? (2) Is the combination of psychopathic traits and high IQ related to more severe antisocial behaviour in adolescents?

  8. The effect of neighborhood disadvantage, social ties, and genetic variation on the antisocial behavior of African American women: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L; Edmond, Mary Bond; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Cutrona, Carolyn E

    2014-11-01

    Social disorganization theory posits that individuals who live in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to engage in antisocial behavior than are those who live in advantaged neighborhoods and that neighborhood disadvantage asserts this effect through its disruptive impact on social ties. Past research on this framework has been limited in two respects. First, most studies have concentrated on adolescent males. In contrast, the present study focused on a sample of adult African American females. Second, past research has largely ignored individual-level factors that might explain why people who grow up in disadvantaged neighborhoods often do not engage in antisocial behavior. We investigated the extent to which genetic variation contributes to heterogeneity of response to neighborhood conditions. We found that the impact of neighborhood disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by neighborhood social ties. Further, the analysis indicated that the effects of neighborhood disadvantage and social ties on antisocial behavior were moderated by genetic polymorphisms. Examination of these moderating effects provided support for the differential susceptibility model of Gene × Environment. The effect of Gene × Neighborhood Disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by the effect of Gene × Neighborhood Social Ties, providing support for an expanded view of social disorganization theory.

  9. Childhood-Limited Versus Persistent Antisocial Behavior : Why Do Some Recover and Others Do Not? The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Possible differences between childhood-limited antisocial youth and their stable high-antisocial counterparts were examined. Children were 11 years old at wave 1 (T1) and 13.5 at wave 2 (T2). At both waves, the same parent, teacher, and self-reports of antisocial behavior were used. Stable highs and

  10. Parental monitoring and knowledge: Testing bidirectional associations with youths' antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, Jasmin; Nottingham, Kate; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Matthews, Timothy; Pariante, Carmine M; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, we used separate measures of parental monitoring and parental knowledge and compared their associations with youths' antisocial behavior during preadolescence, between the ages of 10 and 12. Parental monitoring and knowledge were reported by mothers, fathers, and youths taking part in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study that follows 1,116 families with twins. Information on youths' antisocial behavior was obtained from mothers as well as teachers. We report two main findings. First, longitudinal cross-lagged models revealed that greater parental monitoring did not predict less antisocial behavior later, once family characteristics were taken into account. Second, greater youth antisocial behavior predicted less parental knowledge later. This effect of youths' behavior on parents' knowledge was consistent across mothers', fathers', youths', and teachers' reports, and robust to controls for family confounders. The association was partially genetically mediated according to a Cholesky decomposition twin model; youths' genetically influenced antisocial behavior led to a decrease in parents' knowledge of youths' activities. These two findings question the assumption that greater parental monitoring can reduce preadolescents' antisocial behavior. They also indicate that parents' knowledge of their children's activities is influenced by youths' behavior.

  11. Parental monitoring and knowledge: Testing bidirectional associations with youths' antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, Jasmin; Nottingham, Kate; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Matthews, Timothy; Pariante, Carmine M; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, we used separate measures of parental monitoring and parental knowledge and compared their associations with youths' antisocial behavior during preadolescence, between the ages of 10 and 12. Parental monitoring and knowledge were reported by mothers, fathers, and youths taking part in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study that follows 1,116 families with twins. Information on youths' antisocial behavior was obtained from mothers as well as teachers. We report two main findings. First, longitudinal cross-lagged models revealed that greater parental monitoring did not predict less antisocial behavior later, once family characteristics were taken into account. Second, greater youth antisocial behavior predicted less parental knowledge later. This effect of youths' behavior on parents' knowledge was consistent across mothers', fathers', youths', and teachers' reports, and robust to controls for family confounders. The association was partially genetically mediated according to a Cholesky decomposition twin model; youths' genetically influenced antisocial behavior led to a decrease in parents' knowledge of youths' activities. These two findings question the assumption that greater parental monitoring can reduce preadolescents' antisocial behavior. They also indicate that parents' knowledge of their children's activities is influenced by youths' behavior. PMID:27427796

  12. Maternal prenatal smoking, parental antisocial behavior, and early childhood physical aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Huijbregts, Stephan C. J.; SÉGUIN, JEAN R.; Zoccolillo, Mark; Boivin, Michel; Richard E Tremblay

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated joint effects of maternal prenatal smoking and parental history of antisocial behavior on physical aggression between ages 17 and 42 months in a population sample of children born in Québec (N = 1,745). An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant main effects of maternal prenatal smoking and a significant interaction between maternal prenatal smoking and mother’s history of antisocial behavior in the prediction of children’s probability to display high and risin...

  13. Patients with antisocial personality disorder. Are they bad or mad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, J R; Malaney, K R

    1992-03-01

    Antisocial personality disorder is the psychiatric diagnosis most closely linked to explosive and criminal behavior. This diagnosis is easily documented but challenges a clinician's diagnostic skill because of the patient's propensity for masquerade and pathologic lying. The essential feature of antisocial personality disorder is a pattern of irresponsible and antisocial behavior beginning in childhood or early adolescence and continuing into adulthood. The differential diagnosis should include substance abuse, adult antisocial behavior, psychotic and organic illness, and other personality disorders. Suggested medical and psychiatric treatment includes rapidly establishing firm behavior limits and performing a mental status examination to evaluate thought processes and suicidal and homicidal intent.

  14. Personality and Parenting Processes Associated with Problem Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents in Santiago, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Cristina B.; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Andrade, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Considerable research in the United States has established that adolescent antisocial, aggressive, and attention problem behaviors negatively influence adolescents' ability to become productive members of society. However, little is known about the development of these problems among adolescents in other countries. This study contributes to our…

  15. Personality disorders, violence, and antisocial behavior: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongqin; Geddes, John R; Fazel, Seena

    2012-10-01

    The risk of antisocial outcomes in individuals with personality disorder (PD) remains uncertain. The authors synthesize the current evidence on the risks of antisocial behavior, violence, and repeat offending in PD, and they explore sources of heterogeneity in risk estimates through a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of observational studies comparing antisocial outcomes in personality disordered individuals with controls groups. Fourteen studies examined risk of antisocial and violent behavior in 10,007 individuals with PD, compared with over 12 million general population controls. There was a substantially increased risk of violent outcomes in studies with all PDs (random-effects pooled odds ratio [OR] = 3.0, 95% CI = 2.6 to 3.5). Meta-regression revealed that antisocial PD and gender were associated with higher risks (p = .01 and .07, respectively). The odds of all antisocial outcomes were also elevated. Twenty-five studies reported the risk of repeat offending in PD compared with other offenders. The risk of a repeat offense was also increased (fixed-effects pooled OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 2.2 to 2.7) in offenders with PD. The authors conclude that although PD is associated with antisocial outcomes and repeat offending, the risk appears to differ by PD category, gender, and whether individuals are offenders or not.

  16. Interpersonal violence, aggression, and antisocial behaviours in the adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, H D

    1999-01-01

    Violence is a growing problem among adolescents all over the world. Exposure to violence can have lasting and pervasive effects on an adolescent's mental and physical health, general well-being, and ability to become a productive adult. Research on adolescent violence in India and Southeast Asia is limited; very little is written in clinical journals. Addressing adolescent violence is currently a low priority for medical practitioners because disease, poverty, and infant maternal health pose more immediate threats to morbidity and mortality in Asia. Physicians, especially in India, have a unique opportunity to take preventative actions now, to stem the tide of morbidity and mortality from gun violence that plagues the United States. Adolescents in Asia are at greatest risk for violence exposure in their homes. Pediatricians who are proactive and educate their patients, families, and the community can help reduce or prevent morbidity and mortality resulting from violence in adolescents.

  17. Offenders in emerging adulthood: School maladjustment, childhood adversities, and prediction of aggressive antisocial behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallinius, Märta; Delfin, Carl; Billstedt, Eva; Nilsson, Thomas; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Hofvander, Björn

    2016-10-01

    Early psychosocial adversities and maladjustment, such as childhood maltreatment and school adjustment problems, have been linked to an increased risk of aggressive antisocial behaviors. Yet, clinical studies of subjects at the highest risk of persistence in such behaviors are rare, especially during the life-changing transition years of emerging adulthood. This study describes early predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors in a large, nationally representative cohort of Swedish, male violent offenders in emerging adulthood (age range = 18-25 years; N = 270). First, data on psychosocial background characteristics and aggressive antisocial behaviors (including age at onset) are provided. Second, early predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors are tested in bivariate and multivariate interactive models. The offenders demonstrated a diversity of early onset adversities and disruptive behaviors, in line with established risk factors for subsequent criminality and adverse outcomes in a variety of life domains. Severe school adjustment problems, especially bullying others and early onset truancy, were important and interrelated predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors over the lifetime, whereas childhood adversities such as parental substance or alcohol abuse and repeated exposure to violence at home during childhood were interrelated predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors, albeit with less statistical importance. The findings stress the importance of early identification of individuals in the risk zone of developing severe and persistent aggressive antisocial behaviors and of early preventive interventions directed toward families with high-risk profiles. The findings also provide initial guidelines on which psychosocial background risk factors that need to be considered first-hand in early interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Rejected by Peers--Attracted to Antisocial Media Content: Rejection-Based Anger Impairs Moral Judgment among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisier, Xanthe S.; Konijn, Elly A.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is an important developmental stage during which both peers and the media have a strong influence. Both peer rejection and the use of morally adverse media are associated with negative developmental outcomes. This study examines processes by which peer rejection might drive adolescents to select antisocial media content by tying…

  19. The Role of Adolescent Friends, Romantic Partners, and Siblings in the Emergence of the Adult Antisocial Lifestyle

    OpenAIRE

    Shortt, Joann Wu; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Bank, Lew; Owen, Lee D.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of social processes in boys’ adolescent relationships in 3 key domains—same-sex friends, cross-sex romantic partners, and younger siblings—to continued association with delinquent peers in young adulthood and, therefore, to continuance of an antisocial lifestyle. It was hypothesized that levels of negative interaction and antisocial talk observed during problem-solving discussions would be associated across the 3 domains. The influences of negative int...

  20. The relationships of antisocial behavior with attachment styles, autonomy-connectedness, and alexithymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Marrie H J; Bachrach, Nathan; Croon, Marcel A

    2007-06-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the relationships among attachment styles, autonomy-connectedness (self-awareness, sensitivity to others, and capacity for managing new situations), alexithymia, and antisocial behavior among 202 college students (67 men and 135 women). We were particularly interested in sex differences in the levels of these variables as well as their associations. Sex differences were expected in types of insecure attachment styles, patterns of autonomy-connectedness, and levels of self-reported antisocial and passive-aggressive behavior. All expected sex differences were indeed found. Furthermore, the model that we hypothesized was partly confirmed: For men, anxious attachment had a stronger direct and positive effect on antisocial behavior than for women, and the positive effect of anxious attachment on passive-aggressive behavior was smaller for women than for men. Interestingly, capacity for managing new situations had a main and mediating effect on antisocial behavior. Sensitivity to others appeared as a mediator between anxious attachment style and passive-aggressive behavior. Contrary to expectations, fantasizing (a component of alexithymia) had a strong, negative association with antisocial behavior. The results are discussed against the background of other recent findings concerning alexithymia and autonomy- connectedeness.

  1. 反社会行为始于青少年期和儿童期的暴力犯罪青少年童年受虐史、攻击行为的差异比较%Childhood abuse and aggressive behavior in violent adolescent criminals with adolescence-vs children-onset antisocial behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马中锐; 蒙华庆; 胡华; 邹志礼; 王慧; 杜莲; 张洪银

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the differences of childhood abuse, neglect and aggressive behavior between violent adolescent criminals with adolescence- ( AO ) and children-onset ( CO) antisocial behavior, and to explore the relationship of aggressive behavior between AO and CO with being abused. Methods One hundred and ten AO and 110 CO violent adolescent criminals (all males, with an age ranging from 14 to 18) were selected from Chongqing juvenile prison. Another 110 male students at the same age range from an occupation high school served as control. All of them were assessed with the self-made general situation questionnaire, childhood trauma questionnaire-28-item short-form (CTQ-SF) , aggression questionnaire (AQ) and child neglected scale to cross-sectional survey research. Results There were significant differences in the bad habits of parents, dwelling environment, customs, parental rearing styles, and marital status among the 3 groups(P AO group > control. There was positive correlation between aggressive behaviors and childhood abuse both in the AO and CO groups ( rAO = 0. 44, rCO = 0. 78, P <0.01). Conclusion AO group has worse childhood family, social environment, abuse and neglect compared with CO group, but CO group has stronger aggressive behavior. Our results indicate that different measurement should be taken according to the characteristics of different groups of violent criminals in future intervention.%目的 比较反社会行为始于青少年期(adolescence-onset,AO)和始于儿童期(children-onset,CO)的暴力犯罪青少年童年受虐史、攻击行为差异;探索AO与CO攻击行为与受虐的关系.方法 选取14 ~ 18岁男性暴力犯罪青少年AO、CO各110例,选取14 ~ 18岁110例普通男性学生作为对照,采用一般情况问卷、儿童虐待问卷、忽视问卷、攻击问卷进行横断面调查研究.结果 父母不良嗜好、社会风气、父母婚姻及关系、父母教育程度等家庭社会环境因素3

  2. The potential role of the striatum in antisocial behavior and psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Andrea L; Yang, Yaling

    2012-11-15

    In this review, we examine the functions of the striatum and the evidence that this brain region may be compromised in antisocial individuals. The striatum is involved in the processing of reward-related information and is thus important in reward-based learning. We review evidence from a growing number of brain imaging studies that have identified differences in the structure or functioning of the striatum either in antisocial groups or in relation to personality traits that are associated with antisocial behavior such as impulsivity and novelty seeking. Evidence from structural imaging studies suggests that the volume of the striatum is increased in antisocial populations, although evidence of localization to specific subregions is inconsistent. Functional imaging studies, which similarly tend to find increased functioning in the striatum, suggest that the striatum is not necessarily hypersensitive to the receipt of reward in antisocial individuals but instead may not be appropriately processing the absence of a reward, resulting in continuous responding to a stimulus that is no longer rewarding. This may impair the ability of individuals to flexibly respond to the environment, thus contributing to impulsivity and antisocial behavior. We conclude by discussing genetic and environmental factors that may affect the development of the striatum.

  3. Long-term effects of prevention and treatment on youth antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Aaron M; Borduin, Charles M; Dopp, Alex R

    2015-12-01

    Youth antisocial behavior exacts a tremendous toll on society and often persists into adulthood. Although researchers have identified a number of psychosocial interventions that prevent or reduce youth antisocial behavior in the short term, evidence of long-term intervention benefits has only recently become available. In addition, research on such interventions spans two substantial but largely separate bodies of literature: prevention and therapy. The present study used meta-analysis to integrate research on the long-term effects of preventive and therapeutic interventions for youth antisocial behavior and examined potential moderators of these effects. Results from 66 intervention trials (i.e., 34 prevention, 32 therapy) indicated that a broad range of youth psychosocial interventions demonstrated modest effects on antisocial behavior (mean d=0.31, 95% confidence interval=0.23-0.39) for at least one year beyond the end of interventions relative to control conditions. Among other findings, moderator analyses revealed that inclusion of a peer group intervention component was associated with reduced intervention effects for samples consisting predominantly of boys or older youths. The results of this study have important implications for service providers, administrators, and policymakers involved in the implementation of preventive and therapeutic interventions targeting youth antisocial behavior.

  4. Relationships between Parental Negativity and Childhood Antisocial Behavior over Time: A Bidirectional Effects Model in a Longitudinal Genetically Informative Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Henrik; Viding, Essi; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Plomin, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the direction and etiology underlying the relationships between parental negativity and early childhood antisocial behavior using a bidirectional effects model in a longitudinal genetically informative design. We analyzed parent reports of parental negativity and early childhood antisocial behavior in 6,230 pairs of twins at 4…

  5. Children's Perceived Reality of Television and the Effects of Pro- and Anti-Social TV Content on Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Byron

    Interviews were conducted with 721 students in fourth, sixth, and eighth grades to study whether children's perceived reality of television would affect the relationship between pro-social and anti-social television content and pro-social and anti-social behavior. Social behavior variables, a perceived reality index, and television exposure…

  6. Life with (or without) Father: The Benefits of Living with Two Biological Parents Depend on the Father's Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Sara R.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom; Taylor, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Data were analyzed from an epidemiological sample of 5-year- old twins and their parents. Findings indicated that the less time fathers lived with their children, the more conduct problems their children had, but only if the fathers engaged in low levels of antisocial behavior. When fathers engaged in high levels of antisocial behavior, the more…

  7. Understanding mechanisms of change in the development of antisocial behavior: The impact of a universal intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.C. van Lier (Pol); P. Vuijk (Patricia); A.A.M. Crijnen (Alfons)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe association between the development of antisocial behavior, affiliation with deviant friends, and peer rejection was tested with a preventive intervention; 664 boys and girls were randomly assigned to a universal classroom-based intervention targeting disruptive behavior or a control

  8. Preventing Antisocial Behavior in Disabled and At-Risk Students. Policy Briefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Soleil

    This paper reviews the research on factors that contribute to or protect from the development of antisocial behavior in children, especially those with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD). It also presents a model to promote prosocial behavior. General risk factors that put all children at risk for…

  9. Designing an Intervention to Promote Child Development among Fathers with Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Pajarita; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Jones, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This article describes an intervention development focusing on the early design stages of a model to improve psychosocial and behavioral health outcomes among children of fathers with incarceration and antisocial behavioral histories. Method: We use a synthesis of the literature and qualitative interviews with key informants to inform a…

  10. Unraveling the genetic etiology of adult antisocial behavior: a genome-wide association study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorim J Tielbeek

    Full Text Available Crime poses a major burden for society. The heterogeneous nature of criminal behavior makes it difficult to unravel its causes. Relatively little research has been conducted on the genetic influences of criminal behavior. The few twin and adoption studies that have been undertaken suggest that about half of the variance in antisocial behavior can be explained by genetic factors. In order to identify the specific common genetic variants underlying this behavior, we conduct the first genome-wide association study (GWAS on adult antisocial behavior. Our sample comprised a community sample of 4816 individuals who had completed a self-report questionnaire. No genetic polymorphisms reached genome-wide significance for association with adult antisocial behavior. In addition, none of the traditional candidate genes can be confirmed in our study. While not genome-wide significant, the gene with the strongest association (p-value = 8.7×10(-5 was DYRK1A, a gene previously related to abnormal brain development and mental retardation. Future studies should use larger, more homogeneous samples to disentangle the etiology of antisocial behavior. Biosocial criminological research allows a more empirically grounded understanding of criminal behavior, which could ultimately inform and improve current treatment strategies.

  11. Methodological Issues in Multiple-Gating Screening Procedures for Antisocial Behaviors in Elementary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesbois, Pierre

    1994-01-01

    This study sought to determine predictors of serious antisocial behaviors through use of multiple gating screening procedures. Kindergarten boys in 54 Montreal (Quebec, Canada) schools were assessed; then boys with high aggressiveness-hyperactivity-distractibility scores were observed for task-inappropriate behaviors and rated on inattention and…

  12. Rejected by peers-attracted to antisocial media content: rejection-based anger impairs moral judgment among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisier, Xanthe S; Konijn, Elly A

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence is an important developmental stage during which both peers and the media have a strong influence. Both peer rejection and the use of morally adverse media are associated with negative developmental outcomes. This study examines processes by which peer rejection might drive adolescents to select antisocial media content by tying together developmental research on peer rejection and research on media effects. Assumed underlying mechanisms are rejection-based anger and frustration and the adolescent's moral judgment. A between-participants experimental design manipulated peer rejection versus acceptance in adolescents (Mage = 13.88 years; N = 74) and young adults (Mage = 21.37 years; N = 75), applying the Cyberball paradigm. Measures included the State Anger Inventory (STAXI) to assess feelings of rejection and the newly devised Media, Morals, and Youth Questionnaire (MMaYQue) to assess media preferences and moral judgment of media content. Using bootstrapping analyses, a double mediation was established: Higher levels of state anger in peer-rejected adolescents induced more tolerable moral judgments of antisocial media content, subsequently instigating a preference for antisocial media content. In contrast, the young adult sample showed no relations between peer rejection and antisocial media preference. Results are discussed within a downward spiral framework of combined peer and media influences. PMID:22799588

  13. The etiology of the association between child antisocial behavior and maternal negativity varies across aggressive and non-aggressive rule-breaking forms of antisocial behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Klahr, Ashlea M.; Klump, Kelly L.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    There is a robust association between negative parenting and child antisocial behavior problems. However, the etiology of this association remains unclear. Extant literature has reported strikingly different conclusions across studies, with some highlighting genetic mediation and others highlighting environmental mediation. One possible reason for these discrepancies across studies may be the failure to differentiate between aggressive and non-aggressive (rule-breaking) dimensions of childhoo...

  14. Maternal Expressed Emotion Predicts Children's Antisocial Behavior Problems: Using Monozygotic-Twin Differences to Identify Environmental Effects on Behavioral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Morgan, Julia; Rutter,Michael; Taylor,Alan; Arseneault, Louise; Tully, Lucy; Jacobs, Catherine; Kim-Cohen, Julia

    2004-01-01

    If maternal expressed emotion is an environmental risk factor for children's antisocial behavior problems, it should account for behavioral differences between siblings growing up in the same family even after genetic influences on children's behavior problems are taken into account. This hypothesis was tested in the Environmental Risk…

  15. Antisocial Peer Affiliation and Externalizing Disorders in the Transition from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Selection versus Socialization Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R.; Goodman, Rebecca J.; Erath, Stephen A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated both socialization and selection effects for the relationship between antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing problems in adolescence. Less research has evaluated such effects postadolescence. In this study, a cross-lagged panel analysis was used to evaluate the extent of "socialization" (i.e., the…

  16. Gender Differences in Predicting Antisocial Behaviors: Developmental Consequences of Physical and Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Amber D.; Snyder, James

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the relationship of early physical and relational aggression to later peer rejection and overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Significant gender differences were found indicating physically aggressive boys were more likely than girls to experience later peer rejection. Early physical aggression was…

  17. Concurrent and Longitudinal Links between Children's and Their Friends' Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eivers, Areana R.; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Borge, Anne I. H.

    2012-01-01

    Concurrent and longitudinal links between children's own and their nominated best friends' antisocial and prosocial behavior were studied in a normative sample of 3-5-year-olds (N = 203). Moderating effects of age and gender were also explored. Subscales of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were used to obtain teacher ratings of…

  18. Diagnosing Cartman: Psychology Students' Use of Symptoms and Traits to Assess Child Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalch, Matthew M.; Vitale, Erika M.; Ford, J. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Recent changes to the diagnosis of child antisocial behavior provide different methods of conceptualizing it (e.g., traditional symptom-based diagnoses and alternative trait-based methods). However, there is little research on how psychology students might use these different methods and what kind of instructional formats might be amenable to…

  19. Toward an animal model for antisocial behavior : parallels between mice and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluyter, F; Arseneault, L; Moffitt, TE; Veenema, AH; de Boer, S; Koolhaas, JM

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine whether mouse lines genetically selected for short and long attack latencies are good animal models for antisocial behavior in humans. To this end, we compared male Short and Long Attack Latency mice (SAL and LAL, respectively) with the extremes of the Dunedin

  20. Prospective Analyses of Childhood Factors and Antisocial Behavior for Students with High-Incidence Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Chih; Symons, Frank J.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2011-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study investigated the association between childhood factors (individual, family, and school characteristics) and later antisocial behavior (official juvenile delinquency and adult crime) for students identified with high-incidence disabilities (i.e., learning disabilities, emotional disturbance). The sample consisted…

  1. Changing Antisocial Behavior Patterns in Young Boys: A Structured Cooperative Learning Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Mary Magee

    2002-01-01

    A six-week cooperative learning intervention using positive peer role models was used to teach interpersonal problem-solving skills to 42 first-grade boys at risk of antisocial behavior patterns. Participants showed an increase in academic engaged time. However, the intervention failed to produce significantly lower rates of externalizing…

  2. Heart rate and antisocial behavior : mediation and moderation by affiliation with bullies. The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, Jelle; Veenstra, René; Lindenberg, Siegwart; van Roon, A.M.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, Johan; Riese, Harriette

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Low heart rate (HR) has been linked to antisocial behavior (ASB). However, the effect of low HR may be mediated by affiliation with bullies. We hypothesized that individuals with low HR are more likely to affiliate with bullies and in turn are influenced by these peers. Methods: Data come f

  3. New Developments in Developmental Research on Social Information Processing and Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Reid Griffith

    2010-01-01

    The Special Section on developmental research on social information processing (SIP) and antisocial behavior is here introduced. Following a brief history of SIP theory, comments on several themes--measurement and assessment, attributional and interpretational style, response evaluation and decision, and the relation between emotion and SIP--that…

  4. Testosterone reduces conscious detection of signals serving social correction - Implications for antisocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honk, E.J. van; Schutter, D.J.L.G.

    2007-01-01

    Elevated levels of testosterone have repeatedly been associated with antisocial behavior, but the psychobiological mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown. However, testosterone is evidently capable of altering the processing of facial threat, and facial signals of fear and anger serve sociali

  5. The Influence of Perinatal Complications and Environmental Adversity on Boys' Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Joy E.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to test components of Raine's (2002) biosocial model, specifically the interactive effects of perinatal complications, rejecting parenting, and family adversity on the development of early-onset antisocial behavior (ASB). Boys' internalizing problems were also tested to investigate the specificity…

  6. Living alongside more affluent neighbors predicts greater involvement in antisocial behavior among low-income boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers, Candice L.; Donley, Sachiko; Caspi, Avshalom; Bates, Christopher J.; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The creation of economically mixed communities has been proposed as one way to improve the life outcomes of children growing up in poverty. However, whether low-income children benefit from living alongside more affluent neighbors is unknown. Method Prospectively gathered data on over 1,600 children from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study living in urban environments is used to test whether living alongside more affluent neighbors (measured via high-resolution geo-spatial indices) predicts low-income children’s antisocial behavior (reported by mothers and teachers at the ages of 5, 7, 10, and 12). Results Results indicated that low-income boys (but not girls) surrounded by more affluent neighbors had higher levels of antisocial behavior than their peers embedded in concentrated poverty. The negative effect of growing up alongside more affluent neighbors on low-income boys’ antisocial behavior held across childhood and after controlling for key neighborhood and family-level factors. Conclusions Findings suggest that efforts to create more economically mixed communities for children, if not properly supported, may have iatrogenic effects on boys’ antisocial behavior. PMID:25611118

  7. Neurobiological factors as predictors of cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome in individuals with antisocial behavior: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Liza J M; de Kogel, Catharina H; Nijman, Henk L I; Raine, Adrian; van der Laan, Peter H

    2014-11-01

    This review focuses on the predictive value of neurobiological factors in relation to cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Ten relevant studies were found. Although the literature on this topic is scarce and diverse, it appears that specific neurobiological characteristics, such as physiological arousal levels, can predict treatment outcome. The predictive value of neurobiological factors is important as it could give more insight into the causes of variability in treatment outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Furthermore, results can contribute to improvement in current treatment selection procedures and to the development of alternative treatment options.

  8. Sexual behavior of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijatović-Jovanović Vesna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Numerous studies have shown that sexual behavior increases among adolescents. Disharmony between biological and psychosocial maturity among young people may cause risky behavior, and endanger psychophysical and reproductive health of young persons. Material and methods A questionnaire on sexual behavior was completed by 169 adolescents, 1st and 4th year high school students. Results Every 6th first grade and every 2nd forth grade adolescent is sexually active. Male adolescents begin sexual activities significantly earlier (at the age of 15.6 than female adolescents (16.5. Also, young men have significantly more partners (3.6 than girls (1.3, and more parallel sexual relations than girls. Only 1/3 of sexually active adolescents always use some kind of contraception, more frequently boys (41.9% than girls (26.7%. Discussion Early commencement of sexual activity results with longer active period before realization of the reproductive function, which increases risk for reproductive health disorders. Unprotected sexual intercourse and large number of partners also present significant risk factors. Conclusion Sexual life of adolescents begins at the age of 16, on average, and only every third always uses contraceptive protection, which points to a need for better education on reproductive health by using contemporary methods. It is also necessary to increase availability of contraceptives (condoms at all places where adolescents spend time (in schools, bars, cinemas, disco clubs etc. in order to achieve responsible sexual behavior and protection of reproductive health among youth.

  9. An oxytocin receptor polymorphism predicts amygdala reactivity and antisocial behavior in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Corral-Frías, Nadia S; Vannucci, Bianca; Bogdan, Ryan; Knodt, Annchen R; Hariri, Ahmad R; Hyde, Luke W

    2016-08-01

    Variability in oxytocin (OXT) signaling is associated with individual differences in sex-specific social behavior across species. The effects of OXT signaling on social behavior are, in part, mediated through its modulation of amygdala function. Here, we use imaging genetics to examine sex-specific effects of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the human oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR; rs1042778, rs53576 and rs2254298) on threat-related amygdala reactivity and social behavior in 406 Caucasians. Analyses revealed that among men but not women, OXTR rs1042778 TT genotype was associated with increased right amygdala reactivity to angry facial expressions, which was uniquely related to higher levels of antisocial behavior among men. Moderated meditation analysis suggested a trending indirect effect of OXTR rs1042778 TT genotype on higher antisocial behavior via increased right amygdala reactivity to angry facial expressions in men. Our results provide evidence linking genetic variation in OXT signaling to individual differences in amygdala function. The results further suggest that these pathways may be uniquely important in shaping antisocial behavior in men. PMID:27036876

  10. Loneliness and associated violent antisocial behavior: analysis of the case reports of Jeffrey Dahmer and Dennis Nilsen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Willem H J; Palermo, George B

    2005-06-01

    It can be theorized that loneliness plays a significant role in the development and continuation of violent, antisocial attitudes and behavior. Analysis of case reports of two serial killers, Dennis Nilsen and Jeffrey Dahmer, indicate that there is evidence for such a link. In this article, a list of significant correlates of loneliness and antisocial behavior is presented. This may be useful for the assessment of possible dangerousness and in the development of prevention and intervention programs. Suggestions are made for the adequate treatment of loneliness and correlated violent, antisocial behavior. A need is recognized for more research into the psychosocial, emotional, neurobiological, cultural, and ethnic determinants of loneliness and their correlation to specific antisocial and/or criminal behavior.

  11. Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior in Preadolescence: Teachers' and Parents' Perceptions of the Behavior of Girls and Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; De Winter, Andrea F.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2008-01-01

    There has been recent emphasis on the importance of investigating prosocial and antisocial behavior simultaneously owing to doubts about whether examining one automatically gives information about the other. However, there has been little empirical research into this question. The present study (based on a large population sample of…

  12. Prosocial and antisocial behavior in preadolescence : Teachers' and parents' perceptions of the behavior of girls and boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, René; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Winter, Andrea F. de; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2008-01-01

    There has been recent emphasis on the importance of investigating prosocial and antisocial behavior simultaneously owing to doubts about whether examining one automatically gives information about the other. However, there has been little empirical research into this question. The present study (bas

  13. The Relation of Moral Emotion Attributions to Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Krettenauer, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analytic review of 42 studies covering 8,009 participants (ages 4-20) examines the relation of moral emotion attributions to prosocial and antisocial behavior. A significant association is found between moral emotion attributions and prosocial and antisocial behaviors ("d" = 0.26, 95% CI [0.15, 0.38]; "d" = 0.39, 95% CI [0.29, 0.49]).…

  14. Genetic and Environmental Bases of Childhood Antisocial Behavior: A Multi-Informant Twin Study

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Laura A.; Jacobson, Kristen C; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora Isabel; Bezdjian, Serena

    2007-01-01

    Genetic and environmental influences on childhood antisocial and aggressive behavior (ASB) during childhood were examined in 9- to 10-year-old twins, using a multi-informant approach. The sample (605 families of twins or triplets) was socioeconomically and ethnically diverse, representative of the culturally diverse urban population in Southern California. Measures of ASB included symptom counts for conduct disorder, ratings of aggression, delinquency, and psychopathic traits obtained through...

  15. Maternal prenatal smoking, parental antisocial behavior, and early childhood physical aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijbregts, Stephan C J; Séguin, Jean R; Zoccolillo, Mark; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated joint effects of maternal prenatal smoking and parental history of antisocial behavior on physical aggression between ages 17 and 42 months in a population sample of children born in Québec (N = 1,745). An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant main effects of maternal prenatal smoking and a significant interaction between maternal prenatal smoking and mother's history of antisocial behavior in the prediction of children's probability to display high and rising physical aggression. The interaction indicated that the effects of heavy smoking during pregnancy (> or =10 cigarettes/day) were greater when the mother also had a serious history of antisocial behavior. The effects remained significant after the introduction of control variables (e.g., hostile-reactive parenting, family functioning, parental separation/divorce, family income, and maternal education). Another significant interaction not accounted for by control variables was observed for maternal prenatal smoking and family income, indicating more serious effects of maternal prenatal smoking under relatively low-income, conditions. Both interactions indicate critical adversities that, in combination with maternal prenatal smoking, have supra-additive effects on (the development of) physical aggression during early childhood. These findings may have implications for the selection of intervention targets and strategies. PMID:18423088

  16. Do nonphysical punishments reduce antisocial behavior more than spanking? a comparison using the strongest previous causal evidence against spanking

    OpenAIRE

    Cox Ronald B; Larzelere Robert E; Smith Gail L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The strongest causal evidence that customary spanking increases antisocial behavior is based on prospective studies that control statistically for initial antisocial differences. None of those studies have investigated alternative disciplinary tactics that parents could use instead of spanking, however. Further, the small effects in those studies could be artifactual due to residual confounding, reflecting child effects on the frequency of all disciplinary tactics. This st...

  17. Interparental conflict, parent psychopathology, hostile parenting, and child antisocial behavior: examining the role of maternal versus paternal influences using a novel genetically sensitive research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, Gordon T; Elam, Kit K; Lewis, Gemma; Rice, Frances; Thapar, Anita

    2012-11-01

    Past research has linked interparental conflict, parent psychopathology, hostile parenting, and externalizing behavior problems in childhood. However, few studies have examined these relationships while simultaneously allowing the contribution of common genetic factors underlying associations between family- and parent-level variables on child psychopathology to be controlled. Using the attributes of a genetically sensitive in vitro fertilization research design, the present study examined associations among interparental conflict, parents' antisocial behavior problems, parents' anxiety symptoms, and hostile parenting on children's antisocial behavior problems among genetically related and genetically unrelated mother-child and father-child groupings. Path analyses revealed that for genetically related mothers, interparental conflict and maternal antisocial behavior indirectly influenced child antisocial behavior through mother-to-child hostility. For genetically unrelated mothers, effects were apparent only for maternal antisocial behavior on child antisocial behavior through mother-to-child hostility. For both genetically related and genetically unrelated fathers and children, interparental conflict and paternal antisocial behavior influenced child antisocial behavior through father-to-child hostility. Effects of parental anxiety symptoms on child antisocial behavior were apparent only for genetically related mothers and children. Results are discussed with respect to the relative role of passive genotype-environment correlation as a possible confounding factor underlying family process influences on childhood psychopathology.

  18. Continuity, Comorbidity and Longitudinal Associations between Depression and Antisocial Behaviour in Middle Adolescence: A 2-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritakallio, Minna; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated continuity, comorbidity and longitudinal associations between depression Beck depression inventory (RBDI) and antisocial behaviour Youth self-report (YSR) in middle adolescence. Data were used from a community sample of 2070 adolescents who participated in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. The results indicate that both…

  19. Child maltreatment, impulsivity, and antisocial behavior in African American children: Moderation effects from a cumulative dopaminergic gene index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Eric L; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A

    2015-11-01

    A model examining the effects of an increasing number of maltreatment subtypes experienced on antisocial behavior, as mediated by impulsivity and moderated by a polygenic index of dopaminergic genotypes, was investigated. An African American sample of children (N = 1,012, M age = 10.07) with and without maltreatment histories participated. Indicators of aggression, delinquency, and disruptive peer behavior were obtained from peer- and counselor-rated measures to form a latent variable of antisocial behavior; impulsivity was assessed by counselor report. Five genotypes in four dopaminergic genes (dopamine receptors D4, D2, known as DRD4, DRD2; dopamine active transporter 1, known as DAT1; and catechol-O-methyltransferase, known as COMT) conferring heightened environmental sensitivity were combined into one polygenic index. Using structural equation modeling, a first-stage, moderated-mediation model was evaluated. Age and sex were entered as covariates, both as main effects and in interaction with maltreatment and the gene index. The model had excellent fit: χ2 (32, N = 1,012) = 86.51, p effect of maltreatment subtypes on antisocial behavior was partially mediated by impulsivity (β = 0.173, p maltreatment and impulsivity was stronger as children evinced more differentiating genotypes, thereby strengthening the mediational effect of impulsivity on antisocial behavior. These findings elucidate the manner by which maltreated children develop early signs of antisocial behavior, and the genetic mechanisms involved in greater vulnerability for maladaptation in impulse control within the context of child maltreatment. PMID:26535948

  20. Impulsive corporal punishment by mothers and antisocial behavior and impulsiveness of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, M A; Mouradian, V E

    1998-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that corporal punishment (CP), such as spanking or slapping a child for purposes of correcting misbehavior, is associated with antisocial behavior (ASB) and impulsiveness by the child. The data were obtained through interviews with a probability sample of 933 mothers of children age 2-14 in two small American cities. Analyses of variance found that the more CP experienced by the child, the greater the tendency for the child to engage in ASB and to act impulsively. These relationships hold even after controlling for family socioeconomic status, the age and sex of the child, nurturance by the mother, and the level of noncorporal interventions by the mother. There were also significant interaction effects of CP with impulsiveness by the mother. When CP was carried out impulsively, it was most strongly related to child impulsiveness and ASB; when CP was done when the mother was under control, the relationship to child behavior problems was reduced but still present. In view of the fact that there is a high risk of losing control when engaged in CP, even by parents who are not usually impulsive, and the fact that impulsive CP is so strongly associated with child behavior problems, the results of this study suggest that CP is an important risk factor for children developing a pattern of impulsive and antisocial behavior which, in turn, may contribute to the level of violence and other crime in society. PMID:9768466

  1. The effects of child maltreatment on early signs of antisocial behavior: genetic moderation by tryptophan hydroxylase, serotonin transporter, and monoamine oxidase A genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Thibodeau, Eric L

    2012-08-01

    Gene-environment interaction effects in predicting antisocial behavior in late childhood were investigated among maltreated and nonmaltreated low-income children (N = 627, M age = 11.27). Variants in three genes were examined: tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) upstream variable number tandem repeat. In addition to child maltreatment status, we considered the impact of maltreatment subtypes, developmental timing of maltreatment, and chronicity. Indicators of antisocial behavior were obtained from self-, peer, and adult counselor reports. In a series of analyses of covariance, child maltreatment and its parameters demonstrated strong main effects on early antisocial behavior as assessed by all report forms. Genetic effects operated primarily in the context of gene-environment interactions, moderating the impact of child maltreatment on outcomes. Across the three genes, among nonmaltreated children no differences in antisocial behavior were found based on genetic variation. In contrast, among maltreated children specific polymorphisms of TPH1, 5-HTTLPR, and MAOA were each related to heightened self-report of antisocial behavior; the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and developmental timing of maltreatment also indicated more severe antisocial outcomes for children with early onset and recurrent maltreatment based on genotype. TPH1 and 5-HTTLPR interacted with maltreatment subtype to predict peer reports of antisocial behavior; genetic variation contributed to larger differences in antisocial behavior among abused children. The TPH1 and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms also moderated the effects of maltreatment subtype on adult reports of antisocial behavior; again, the genetic effects were strongest for children who were abused. In addition, TPH1 moderated the effect of developmental timing of maltreatment and chronicity on adult reports of antisocial behavior. The findings elucidate how genetic

  2. Effects of parent training on salivary cortisol in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Masood Motamedi; Zahra Amini; Mansoor Siavash; Abbas Attari; Fereshteh Shakibaei; Mohammad Masood Azhar; Reza Jafarie Harandi; Akbar Hassanzadeh

    2008-01-01

    • BACKGROUND: Since adulthood antisocial, aggressive and delinquent behaviors often have their onset early in life, investigating the association between biological factors and disruptive behaviors in children and adolescents are important and are emphasized on in the recent years. Baseline cortisol level seems to be a valuable biological marker of individuals with Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD). This study examined the effect of parent train...

    • Adolescent school experiences and dropout, adolescent pregnancy, and young adult deviant behavior.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kasen, S; Cohen, P; Brook, J S

      1998-01-01

      Outside of the family, schools are the most proximal socializing agent available to convey societal norms and prohibitions to young people. In some cases, a positive school experience can compensate for the antisocial influence of family and community. The present study investigated the predictive ability of school-related factors on later deviancy in a random sample of 452 US adolescents 12-18 years of age attending 150 junior or senior high schools in upstate New York and enrolled in a broader prospective study. A measure of conduct problems, obtained 2 years before measurement of school factors, was used to control for the predisposing effects of problematic behavior on later deviance. Academic achievement, academic aspirations, and a learning-focused school environment had deterrent effects on all deviant outcomes assessed--dropping out of school, adolescent pregnancy, engaging in criminal activities, criminal conviction, antisocial personality disorder, and alcohol abuse--independent of age, gender, intelligence quotient, socioeconomic status, childhood conduct problems, and proportion of deviance-oriented friends in adolescence. Given the persistence of deviant behavioral patterns of adolescence into adulthood, the systems-level influences identified in this study should be given careful attention. PMID:12348538

    • From Correlates to Causes: Can Quasi-Experimental Studies and Statistical Innovations Bring Us Closer to Identifying the Causes of Antisocial Behavior?

      OpenAIRE

      Jaffee, Sara R.; Strait, Luciana B.; Odgers, Candice L.

      2011-01-01

      Longitudinal, epidemiological studies have identified robust risk factors for youth antisocial behavior, including harsh and coercive discipline, maltreatment, smoking during pregnancy, divorce, teen parenthood, peer deviance, parental psychopathology, and social disadvantage. Nevertheless, because this literature is largely based on observational studies, it remains unclear whether these risk factors have truly causal effects. Identifying causal risk factors for antisocial behavior would be ...

    • Understanding Relations among Children's Shy and Antisocial/Aggressive Behaviors and Mothers' Parenting: The Role of Maternal Beliefs

      Science.gov (United States)

      Evans, Cortney A.; Nelson, Larry J.; Porter, Christin L.; Nelson, David A.; Hart, Craig H.

      2012-01-01

      This study assesses the relationships between children's shy and antisocial/aggressive behaviors and maternal beliefs, and concomitant parenting behaviors. Structural equation models examined 199 mothers' perceptions of aggression and shyness in their preschool-age children (average age = 59.63 months); maternal beliefs (i.e., locus of control,…

    • A Review of Terminological, Conceptual, and Methodological Issues in the Developmental Risk Factor Literature for Antisocial and Delinquent Behavior

      Science.gov (United States)

      Day, David M.; Wanklyn, Sonya G.; Yessine, Annie K.

      2014-01-01

      Background: The study of risk factors for antisocial and delinquent behavior has flourished in the past 20 years, as great strides have been made in understanding the developmental pathways that give rise to the onset, course, and desistance of the behavior. However, as a body of literature, risk factor research (RFR) is characterized by…

    • Development of the Observation Scale for Aggressive Behavior (OSAB) for Dutch forensic psychiatric inpatients with an antisocial personality disorder.

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Hornsveld, R.H.J.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Hollin, C.R.; Kraaimaat, F.W.

      2007-01-01

      The Observation Scale for Aggressive Behavior (OSAB) has been developed to evaluate inpatient treatment programs designed to reduce aggressive behavior in Dutch forensic psychiatric patients with an antisocial personality disorder, who are "placed at the disposal of the government". The scale should

    • Do nonphysical punishments reduce antisocial behavior more than spanking? a comparison using the strongest previous causal evidence against spanking

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Cox Ronald B

      2010-02-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background The strongest causal evidence that customary spanking increases antisocial behavior is based on prospective studies that control statistically for initial antisocial differences. None of those studies have investigated alternative disciplinary tactics that parents could use instead of spanking, however. Further, the small effects in those studies could be artifactual due to residual confounding, reflecting child effects on the frequency of all disciplinary tactics. This study re-analyzes the strongest causal evidence against customary spanking and uses these same methods to determine whether alternative disciplinary tactics are more effective in reducing antisocial behavior. Methods This study re-analyzed a study by Straus et al.1 on spanking and antisocial behavior using a sample of 785 children who were 6 to 9 years old in the 1988 cohort of the American National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The comprehensiveness and reliability of the covariate measure of initial antisocial behavior were varied to test for residual confounding. All analyses were repeated for grounding, privilege removal, and sending children to their room, and for psychotherapy. To account for covarying use of disciplinary tactics, the analyses were redone first for the 73% who had reported using at least one discipline tactic and second by controlling for usage of other disciplinary tactics and psychotherapy. Results The apparently adverse effect of spanking on antisocial behavior was replicated using the original trichotomous covariate for initial antisocial behavior. A similar pattern of adverse effects was shown for grounding and psychotherapy and partially for the other two disciplinary tactics. All of these effects became non-significant after controlling for latent comprehensive measures of externalizing behavior problems. Conclusions These results are consistent with residual confounding, a statistical artifact that makes all corrective actions by

    • EQUIPping High School Students. Effects of a universal prevention program on antisocial behavior

      OpenAIRE

      Van der Velden, F.

      2010-01-01

      Aggression and delinquency among youth form a major social concern, since adolescent externalizing problem behavior is associated with immediate and lasting problems throughout life. In response, there has been a surge of research investigating preventive strategies aiming to reduce these problem behaviors among adolescents. EQUIP for Educators (EFE) is one of those prevention programs, teaching youth (grades 5-8) to think and act responsibly. The program is based on cognitive-behavioral theo...

    • Children's antisocial behavior, mental health, drug use, and educational performance after parental incarceration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Murray, Joseph; Farrington, David P; Sekol, Ivana

      2012-03-01

      Unprecedented numbers of children experience parental incarceration worldwide. Families and children of prisoners can experience multiple difficulties after parental incarceration, including traumatic separation, loneliness, stigma, confused explanations to children, unstable childcare arrangements, strained parenting, reduced income, and home, school, and neighborhood moves. Children of incarcerated parents often have multiple, stressful life events before parental incarceration. Theoretically, children with incarcerated parents may be at risk for a range of adverse behavioral outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize empirical evidence on associations between parental incarceration and children's later antisocial behavior, mental health problems, drug use, and educational performance. Results from 40 studies (including 7,374 children with incarcerated parents and 37,325 comparison children in 50 samples) were pooled in a meta-analysis. The most rigorous studies showed that parental incarceration is associated with higher risk for children's antisocial behavior, but not for mental health problems, drug use, or poor educational performance. Studies that controlled for parental criminality or children's antisocial behavior before parental incarceration had a pooled effect size of OR = 1.4 (p < .01), corresponding to about 10% increased risk for antisocial behavior among children with incarcerated parents, compared with peers. Effect sizes did not decrease with number of covariates controlled. However, the methodological quality of many studies was poor. More rigorous tests of the causal effects of parental incarceration are needed, using randomized designs and prospective longitudinal studies. Criminal justice reforms and national support systems might be needed to prevent harmful consequences of parental incarceration for children.

    • Meta-analysis of the serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR) in relation to adverse environment and antisocial behavior.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tielbeek, Jorim J; Karlsson Linnér, Richard; Beers, Koko; Posthuma, Danielle; Popma, Arne; Polderman, Tinca J C

      2016-07-01

      Several studies have suggested an association between antisocial, aggressive, and delinquent behavior and the short variant of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR). Yet, genome wide and candidate gene studies in humans have not convincingly shown an association between these behaviors and 5-HTTLPR. Moreover, individual studies examining the effect of 5-HTTLPR in the presence or absence of adverse environmental factors revealed inconsistent results. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to test for the robustness of the potential interaction effect of the "long-short" variant of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and environmental adversities, on antisocial behavior. Eight studies, comprising of 12 reasonably independent samples, totaling 7,680 subjects with an effective sample size of 6,724, were included in the meta-analysis. Although our extensive meta-analysis resulted in a significant interaction effect between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and environmental adversities on antisocial behavior, the methodological constraints of the included studies hampered a confident interpretation of our results, and firm conclusions regarding the direction of effect. Future studies that aim to examine biosocial mechanisms that influence the etiology of antisocial behavior should make use of larger samples, extend to genome-wide genetic risk scores and properly control for covariate interaction terms, ensuring valid and well-powered research designs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990155

    • Linking antisocial behavior, substance use, and personality: an integrative quantitative model of the adult externalizing spectrum.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Krueger, Robert F; Markon, Kristian E; Patrick, Christopher J; Benning, Stephen D; Kramer, Mark D

      2007-11-01

      Antisocial behavior, substance use, and impulsive and aggressive personality traits often co-occur, forming a coherent spectrum of personality and psychopathology. In the current research, the authors developed a novel quantitative model of this spectrum. Over 3 waves of iterative data collection, 1,787 adult participants selected to represent a range across the externalizing spectrum provided extensive data about specific externalizing behaviors. Statistical methods such as item response theory and semiparametric factor analysis were used to model these data. The model and assessment instrument that emerged from the research shows how externalizing phenomena are organized hierarchically and cover a wide range of individual differences. The authors discuss the utility of this model for framing research on the correlates and the etiology of externalizing phenomena.

    • The Relationship between Instructor Misbehaviors and Student Antisocial Behavioral Alteration Techniques: The Roles of Instructor Attractiveness, Humor, and Relational Closeness

      Science.gov (United States)

      Claus, Christopher J.; Booth-Butterfield, Melanie; Chory, Rebecca M.

      2012-01-01

      Using rhetorical/relational goal theory as a guiding frame, we examined relationships between instructor misbehaviors (i.e., indolence, incompetence, and offensiveness) and the likelihood of students communicating antisocial behavioral alteration techniques (BATs). More specifically, the study focused on whether students' perceptions of instructor…

    • Developmental Precursors of Moral Disengagement and the Role of Moral Disengagement in the Development of Antisocial Behavior

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hyde, Luke W.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Moilanen, Kristin L.

      2010-01-01

      The purpose of the study was to advance our understanding of the developmental precursors of Moral Disengagement (MD) and the role of MD in the development of antisocial behavior from early risk among an ethnically diverse sample of 187 low-income boys followed prospectively from ages 1.5 to 17. Results indicated associations between early…

    • Does Parenting Explain the Effects of Structural Conditions on Children's Antisocial Behavior? A Comparison of Blacks and Whites.

      Science.gov (United States)

      McLeod, Jane D.; And Others

      1994-01-01

      Data on black children and white children over age six and their mothers (from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth) indicate no racial differences in total effects of poverty and single parenthood on parenting practices (affection and spanking). Parenting practices were reciprocally related to child's antisocial behavior for whites, but did not…

    • Etiological Distinctions between Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Antisocial Behavior: Results from a Nuclear Twin Family Model

      Science.gov (United States)

      Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.

      2012-01-01

      A recent meta-analysis of 103 studies Burt ("Clinical Psychology Review," 29:163-178, 2009a) highlighted the presence of etiological distinctions between aggressive (AGG) and non-aggressive rule-breaking (RB) dimensions of antisocial behavior, such that AGG was more heritable than was RB, whereas RB was more influenced by the shared environment.…

    • Do Core Interpersonal and Affective Traits of PCL-R Psychopathy Interact with Antisocial Behavior and Disinhibition to Predict Violence?

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kennealy, Patrick J.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Walters, Glenn D.; Camp, Jacqueline

      2010-01-01

      The utility of psychopathy measures in predicting violence is largely explained by their assessment of social deviance (e.g., antisocial behavior; disinhibition). A key question is whether social deviance "interacts" with the core interpersonal-affective traits of psychopathy to predict violence. Do core psychopathic traits multiply the (already…

    • Revisiting the Association between Reading Achievement and Antisocial Behavior: New Evidence of an Environmental Explanation from a Twin Study

      Science.gov (United States)

      Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom; Taylor, Alan; Maughan, Barbara

      2006-01-01

      Previous studies have reported, but not explained, the reason for a robust association between reading achievement and antisocial behavior. This association was investigated using the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative 1994-1995 birth cohort of 5 and 7 year-olds. Results showed that the association…

    • Implications of antisocial parents.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Torry, Zachary D; Billick, Stephen B

      2011-12-01

      Antisocial behavior is a socially maladaptive and harmful trait to possess. This can be especially injurious for a child who is raised by a parent with this personality structure. The pathology of antisocial behavior implies traits such as deceitfulness, irresponsibility, unreliability, and an incapability to feel guilt, remorse, or even love. This is damaging to a child's emotional, cognitive, and social development. Parents with this personality makeup can leave a child traumatized, empty, and incapable of forming meaningful personal relationships. Both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of antisocial behavior. Moreover, the child with a genetic predisposition to antisocial behavior who is raised with a parental style that triggers the genetic liability is at high risk for developing the same personality structure. Antisocial individuals are impulsive, irritable, and often have no concerns over their purported responsibilities. As a parent, this can lead to erratic discipline, neglectful parenting, and can undermine effective care giving. This paper will focus on the implications of parents with antisocial behavior and the impact that this behavior has on attachment as well as on the development of antisocial traits in children.

    • Do Deviant Peer Associations Mediate the Contributions of Self-Esteem to Problem Behavior During Early Adolescence? A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

      Science.gov (United States)

      DuBois, David L.; Silverthorn, Naida

      2004-01-01

      We investigated deviant peer associations as a mediator of the influences of general and peer-oriented self-esteem on problem behavior using data from a 2-year longitudinal study of 350 young adolescents. Measures of problem behavior included substance use (alcohol use, smoking) and antisocial behavior (fighting, stealing). Using latent growth…

  1. The role of the monoamine oxidase A gene in moderating the response to adversity and associated antisocial behavior: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buades-Rotger M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Macià Buades-Rotger,1,2 David Gallardo-Pujol1,3 1Department of Personality, Faculty of Psychology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; 3Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior (IR3C, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Hereditary factors are increasingly attracting the interest of behavioral scientists and practitioners. Our aim in the present article is to introduce some state-of-the-art topics in behavioral genetics, as well as selected findings in the field, in order to illustrate how genetic makeup can modulate the impact of environmental factors. We focus on the most-studied polymorphism to date for antisocial responses to adversity: the monoamine oxidase A gene. Advances, caveats, and promises of current research are reviewed. We also discuss implications for the use of genetic information in applied settings. Keywords: behavioral genetics, antisocial behaviors, monoamine oxidase A

  2. Maternal drinking behavior and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in adolescents with criminal behavior in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakana Momino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazilian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS. These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well as tested for other environmental risk factors for antisocial behavior. A sample of 262 institutionalized male adolescents due to criminal behavior and 154 male students aged between 13 and 21 years comprised the study population. Maternal use of alcohol was admitted by 48.8% of the mothers of institutionalized adolescents and by 39.9% of the school students. In this sample of adolescents we could not identify -individual cases with a clear diagnosis of FAS, but signs suggestive of FASD were more common in the institutionalized adolescents. Social factors like domestic and family violence were frequent in the risk group, this also being associated to maternal drinking during pregnancy. The inference is that in our sample, criminal behavior is more related to complex interactions between environmental and social issues including prenatal alcohol exposure.

  3. Validating female psychopathy subtypes: differences in personality, antisocial and violent behavior, substance abuse, trauma, and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Patrick, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    Recent empirical investigations utilizing male prisoners have begun to validate clinical conceptualizations of primary and secondary psychopathy subtypes. We extended this literature by identifying similar psychopathic subtypes in female prisoners on the basis of personality structure using model-based cluster analysis. Secondary psychopaths (n = 39) were characterized by personality traits of negative emotionality and low behavioral constraint, an early onset of antisocial and criminal behavior, greater substance use and abuse, more violent behavior and institutional misconduct, and more mental health problems, including symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and suicide attempts. Primary psychopaths (n = 31) exhibited few distinguishing personality features but were prolific criminals especially in regards to nonviolent crime, and exhibited relatively few mental health problems despite substantial exposure to traumatic events. The results support alternative etiological pathways to antisocial and criminal behavior that are evident in personality structure as well as gender similarities and differences in the manifestation of psychopathic personalities.

  4. The use of multiple versus single assessment time points to improve screening accuracy in identifying children at risk for later serious antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, Hanno; Buckley, Jacquelyn A; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2013-10-01

    Guided by Kraemer et al.'s (Psychological Methods, 3:257-271, 1999) framework for measuring the potency of risk factors, we sought to improve on the classification accuracy reported in Petras et al. (Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 43:88-96, 2004a) and Petras et al. (Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 44:790-797, 2005) by using multiple as opposed to single point in time assessments of early aggressive and disruptive behavior in the classification of youth who would likely benefit from targeted preventive interventions. Different from Petras et al. (2004a, 2005), the outcome used in this study included serious antisocial behavior in young adulthood as well as in adolescence. Among males, the use of multiple time points did not yield greater classification accuracy than the highest single time points, that is, third and fifth grades. For females, although fifth grade represented the best single time point in terms of classification accuracy, no significant association was found between earlier time points and the later outcome, rendering a test of the multiple time points hypothesis moot. The findings presented in this study have strong implications for the design of targeted intervention for violence prevention, indicating that the screening quality based on aggression ratings during the elementary years is rather modest, particularly for females. PMID:23408279

  5. The effects of child maltreatment on early signs of antisocial behavior: Genetic moderation by Tryptophan Hydroxylase, Serotonin Transporter, and Monoamine Oxidase-A-Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Thibodeau, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Gene-environment interaction effects in predicting antisocial behavior in late childhood were investigated among maltreated and nonmaltreated low-income children (N = 627, M age = 11.27). Variants in three genes, TPH1, 5-HTTLPR, and MAOA uVNTR, were examined. In addition to child maltreatment status, we also considered the impact of maltreatment subtypes, developmental timing of maltreatment, and chronicity. Indicators of antisocial behavior were obtained from self-, peer-, and adult counselo...

  6. EQUIPping High School Students. Effects of a universal prevention program on antisocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, F.

    2010-01-01

    Aggression and delinquency among youth form a major social concern, since adolescent externalizing problem behavior is associated with immediate and lasting problems throughout life. In response, there has been a surge of research investigating preventive strategies aiming to reduce these problem be

  7. It's in the Game: The effect of Competition and Cooperation on Anti-Social Behavior in Online Video Games

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, David Parsons

    2016-01-01

    Video games have been criticized for the amount of violence present in them and how this violence could affect aggression and anti-social behavior. Much of the literature on video games effects has focused primarily on the content of video games, but recent studies show that competition in video games could be a major influence on aggression. While competing against other players has been shown to increase aggression, there is less research on whether the mere presence of a competitive enviro...

  8. A Non-Additive Interaction of a Functional MAO-A VNTR and Testosterone Predicts Antisocial Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöberg, Rickard L.; Ducci, Francesca; Barr, Christina S.; Newman, Timothy K.; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Virkkunen, Matti; Goldman, David

    2007-01-01

    A functional VNTR polymorphism in the promoter of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA-LPR) has previously been shown to be an important predictor of antisocial behavior in men. Testosterone analogues are known to interact with the MAOA promoter in vitro to influence gene transcription as well as in vivo to influence CSF levels of the MAO metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in human males. We examined the possible joint effects of testosterone (measured in CSF) and MAOA-LPR genoty...

  9. Validating Female Psychopathy Subtypes: Differences in Personality, Antisocial and Violent Behavior, Substance Abuse, Trauma, and Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Hicks, Brian M.; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent empirical investigations utilizing male prisoners have begun to validate clinical conceptualizations of primary and secondary psychopathy subtypes. We extended this literature by identifying similar psychopathic subtypes in female prisoners on the basis of personality structure using model-based cluster analysis. Secondary psychopaths (n = 39) were characterized by personality traits of negative emotionality and low behavioral constraint, an early onset of antisocial and criminal behav...

  10. A non-additive interaction of a functional MAO-A VNTR and testosterone predicts antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, Rickard L; Ducci, Francesca; Barr, Christina S; Newman, Timothy K; Dell'osso, Liliana; Virkkunen, Matti; Goldman, David

    2008-01-01

    A functional VNTR polymorphism in the promoter of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA-LPR) has previously been shown to be an important predictor of antisocial behavior in men. Testosterone analogues are known to interact with the MAOA promoter in vitro to influence gene transcription as well as in vivo to influence CSF levels of the MAO metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in human males. We examined the possible joint effects of testosterone (measured in CSF) and MAOA-LPR genotype on antisocial personality disorder and scores on the Brown-Goodwin Aggression scale in 95 unrelated male criminal alcoholics and 45 controls. The results confirm that MAOA genotype and CSF testosterone interact to predict antisocial behaviors. The MAOA/testosterone interaction also predicted low levels of CSF MHPG, which tentatively suggests the possibility that the interaction may be mediated by a direct effect on gene transcription. If replicated these findings offer plausible explanations for previous inconsistencies in studies of the relationship between testosterone and male human aggression, as well as for how MAOA genotype may influence aggressive behavior in human males. PMID:17429405

  11. A Non-Additive Interaction of a Functional MAO-A VNTR and Testosterone Predicts Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, Rickard L; Ducci, Francesca; Barr, Christina S; Newman, Timothy K; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Virkkunen, Matti; Goldman, David

    2008-01-01

    A functional VNTR polymorphism in the promoter of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA-LPR) has previously been shown to be an important predictor of antisocial behavior in men. Testosterone analogues are known to interact with the MAOA promoter in vitro to influence gene transcription as well as in vivo to influence CSF levels of the MAO metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in human males. We examined the possible joint effects of testosterone (measured in CSF) and MAOA-LPR genotype on antisocial personality disorder and scores on the Brown–Goodwin Aggression scale in 95 unrelated male criminal alcoholics and 45 controls. The results confirm that MAOA genotype and CSF testosterone interact to predict antisocial behaviors. The MAOA/testosterone interaction also predicted low levels of CSF MHPG, which tentatively suggests the possibility that the interaction may be mediated by a direct effect on gene transcription. If replicated these findings offer plausible explanations for previous inconsistencies in studies of the relationship between testosterone and male human aggression, as well as for how MAOA genotype may influence aggressive behavior in human males. PMID:17429405

  12. Suicidal Behavior among Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, F. Jill

    There is a great deal of concern about teenage suicide. This study obtained a prevalence rate of suicidal behaviors among non-psychiatric early adolescents (ages 11-16) and investigated personal and family variables that may characterize the young teenagers who report varying degrees of suicidal behavior. A self-report questionnaire was…

  13. Exploring Differences in Youth and Parent Reports of Antisociality among Adolescent Sexual and Nonsexual Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilling, Tracey A.; Doiron, James M.; Seto, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent of, and explored several possible explanations for, the discrepancies found between adolescent and parent reports of conduct problems in adolescent sexual and nonsexual offenders. We found that adolescent sexual offenders scored lower on measures of conduct problems than did nonsexual offenders, whether on the basis…

  14. The Role of Social Status of Parental Family in Forming the Background of Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior of a Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonov Georgiy Vyacheslavovich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some results of the man complex research are presented in this article. Genetic, biophysical, biochemical, physiological, psychological and sociological methods of scientific information obtaining were used. This research reveals the ratio of genetic and psychosocial personality components. These components determine the forming of antisocial and prosocial human behavior. An individual set of phenotypic and genetic characteristics is defined in interrelation with sustainable symptoms of complex behaviors and predisposition to it. Methodic recommendations on revealing predisposition to deviant behavior, including aggressive one, written in the obtained results basis. It described the relationship of standard indicators of parental social status of the family in terms of students exhibiting signs of antisocial and prosocial behavior. To identify human predisposition to a certain type of social behavior, depending on the socio-economic status of the parents and family of origin as a whole was analyzed relations numerical values of a number of empirical indicators of social behavior and social status parameters parent families. Revealed that the level of education and activity of parents, as well as the birthplace of the person have a statistically significant effect on his social behavior.

  15. Serotonin transporter genotype linked to adolescent substance use treatment outcome through externalizing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy eChung

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses suggest that the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR short (S allele, relative to the long (L allele, is associated with risk for alcohol dependence, particularly among individuals with early onset antisocial alcoholism. Youth in substance use treatment tend to show antisocial or externalizing behaviors, such as conduct problems, which predict worse treatment outcome. This study examined a pathway in which 5-HTTLPR genotype is associated with externalizing behavior, and the intermediate phenotype of externalizing behavior serves as a link between 5-HTTLPR genotype and substance use treatment outcome in youth. Adolescents (n=142 who were recruited from addictions treatment were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms (S and LG carriers vs. LALA, assessed for externalizing and internalizing behaviors shortly after starting treatment, and followed over 6-months. 5-HTTLPR genotype was not associated with internalizing behaviors, and was not directly associated with 6-month substance use outcomes. However, 5-HTTLPR genotype was associated with externalizing behaviors (S and LG > LALA, and externalizing behaviors predicted alcohol and marijuana problem severity at 6-month follow-up. Results indicated an indirect (p<.05 and non-specific (i.e., both alcohol and marijuana severity effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype on youth substance use treatment outcomes, with externalizing behaviors as an important linking factor. Adolescents in substance use treatment with low expressing (S and LG 5-HTTLPR alleles and externalizing behavior might benefit from intervention that addresses serotonergic functioning, externalizing behaviors, and substance use to improve outcomes.

  16. Self Injurious Behavior in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Self injury is a kind of behavior which begins in early adolescence and difficult to determine because remains suppressed. Most often forms are to cut and hit own. To be exposed to sexual abuse and stressfully life events are known as risk factors for self injurious behavior. High anxiety, depression and hostility levels, decrease of self esteem, suicidal attempts and thoughts are usually together with self injurious behavior and it may be mediating to emotional regulation. To explain the functions of self injurious behavior automatic and social support theories and social learning theories have suggested. The relation between suicidality and self injurious behavior is complex for adolescents. There is no enough knowledge if self injurious behavior aggravates the risk of completed suicide. Although it’s a frequent behavior there are limited randomized controlled studies which examine specific treatment approaches. Dialectic behavior treatment is the type of treatment which shown as most effective for adults. To determine the needs to stop the behavior, to manage emotional senses and urges and to learn more healthy ways for needs to youth are necessary in treatment of self injurious behavior. Treatment also includes determining suicidal risk and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In self injurious behavior medical treatment is useful for comorbid psychiatric disorders. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 201-210

  17. Antisocial Propensity, Adolescent School Outcomes, and the Risk of Criminal Conviction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Jukka; Hughes, Lorine A.; Mason, W. Alex; Hurtig, Tuula M.; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma K.; Kivivuori, Janne; Taanila, Anja M.

    2012-01-01

    Data from the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study (n = 4,645) were used to examine the influence of mid-adolescent (age 15) school outcomes on late-adolescent (ages 17-19) risk of criminal conviction. Consistent with social-developmental theories of offending, we found that poor academic performance and reduced school attachment increase the…

  18. [Cognition-Emotion Interactions and Psychopathic Personality: Distinct Pathways to Antisocial and Violent Behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have long acknowledged heterogeneity among persons who exhibit antisocial and violent behaviours. The study of psychopathic personality or psychopathy can help elucidate this heterogeneity through examination of the different facets that constitute this disorder. In particular, the distinct correlates of the interpersonal-affective traits (Factor 1) and the impulsive-antisocial traits (Factor 2) of psychopathy suggest at least two possible pathways to antisocial behaviours. Building on basic studies in cognitive and affective neuroscience, we provide a focused, non-comprehensive review of work identifying the biopsychological mechanisms involved in these two pathways, with special attention to studies using event-related potential (ERP) methods. In specific, a series of studies are discussed which examined affective and cognitive processes that may distinguish offenders high on psychopathic traits from other offenders, with emphasis on alterations in emotion-cognition interactions related to each factor of psychopathy. The set of findings reviewed highlight a central conclusion: Factor 1 represents a pathway involving reduced emotional responding, exacerbated by attentional abnormalities, that make for a more deliberate and emotionally insensitive offender profile. In contrast, Factor 2 characterizes a pathway marked by emotional and behavioural dysregulation and cognitive control dysfunctions, particularly in emotional contexts. Implications for identifying etiological processes and the further understanding of antisocial and violent behaviours are discussed. PMID:27570952

  19. Predicting adolescent perpetration in cyberbullying: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirman, Wannes; Walrave, Michel

    2012-11-01

    This study aims to contribute to the research field on cyberbullying by offering a comprehensive theoretical framework that helps to predict adolescents' perpetration of cyberbullying. One thousand forty-two pupils from 12 to 18 years old in 30 different Belgian secondary schools participated in two surveys within a three-month interval. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether the overall model of theory of planned behavior (TPB) helps to predict adolescents' self-reported perpetration in cyberbullying. Overall, the present study provides strong support for the theoretical utility of the TPB in cyberbullying research. The model accounted for 44.8% of the variance in adolescents' behavioral intention to cyberbully and 33.2% of the variance in self-reported cyberbullying perpetration. We found a strong positive relationship between adolescents' attitude towards cyberbullying and their behavioral intention to perpetrate it. Perceived behavioral control and subjective norm, the other two TPB-constructs, were also significant albeit relatively less important predictors of adolescents' intention to cyberbully. The finding that adolescents' attitude is the most important predictor of perpetration, entails that prevention and intervention strategies should aim at reducing the perceived acceptability of cyberbullying among adolescents by converting neutral or positive attitudes towards this anti-social behavior into negative evaluations.

  20. Predicting adolescent perpetration in cyberbullying: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirman, Wannes; Walrave, Michel

    2012-11-01

    This study aims to contribute to the research field on cyberbullying by offering a comprehensive theoretical framework that helps to predict adolescents' perpetration of cyberbullying. One thousand forty-two pupils from 12 to 18 years old in 30 different Belgian secondary schools participated in two surveys within a three-month interval. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether the overall model of theory of planned behavior (TPB) helps to predict adolescents' self-reported perpetration in cyberbullying. Overall, the present study provides strong support for the theoretical utility of the TPB in cyberbullying research. The model accounted for 44.8% of the variance in adolescents' behavioral intention to cyberbully and 33.2% of the variance in self-reported cyberbullying perpetration. We found a strong positive relationship between adolescents' attitude towards cyberbullying and their behavioral intention to perpetrate it. Perceived behavioral control and subjective norm, the other two TPB-constructs, were also significant albeit relatively less important predictors of adolescents' intention to cyberbully. The finding that adolescents' attitude is the most important predictor of perpetration, entails that prevention and intervention strategies should aim at reducing the perceived acceptability of cyberbullying among adolescents by converting neutral or positive attitudes towards this anti-social behavior into negative evaluations. PMID:23079360

  1. Comportamiento antisocial durante la adolescencia: teoría, investigación y programas de prevención

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Herrera Paredes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of several causes of antisocial behavior during adolescence seems to respond, not only to the combination of many risk factors within different levels of human development, but also to cultural and historical processes affecting, in many ways, severalgenerations since their early childhood. This paper revises the main explicative theories about antisocial behavior during adolescence and highlights the theory of the Neuropsychological Taxonomy of the Antisocial Behavior proposed by Terrie E. Moffitt (1993, 1994, 1996, 2003. Moreover, some studies are mentioned due to the fact that they confirm the cross-culturalvalidity of Moffitt’s theorical model and its  contributions to the design of prevention programs against delinquency for youngsters and adolescents in our context.

  2. Criminal behavior and cognitive processing in male offenders with antisocial personality disorder with and without comorbid psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riser, Rebecca E; Kosson, David S

    2013-10-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are 2 important syndromes with substantial utility in predicting antisocial behavior. Although prior studies have identified correlations between various factors and the presence of psychopathy or ASPD, most studies have focused on 1 syndrome or the other. Consequently, it is unclear whether the 2 syndromes reflect similar pathophysiologies, whether they are in fact 2 distinct syndromes, or whether the correlates of ASPD reflect its high comorbidity with psychopathy. The present study addressed this issue by examining the impact of ASPD with and without comorbid psychopathy (as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised) on criminal offending and cognitive processing in 674 adult male inmates at a county jail in Illinois. Participants exhibited either ASPD and comorbid psychopathy, ASPD but not psychopathy, or neither ASPD nor psychopathy. Participants with and without comorbid psychopathy were characterized by more criminal behavior than controls, and inmates with ASPD and psychopathy exhibited more severe criminal behavior than those with ASPD only. In addition, inmates with ASPD and psychopathy exhibited a different pattern of cognitive task performance impairment than those with ASPD alone. Results replicate the findings of Kosson, Lorenz, and Newman (2006) and provide new evidence suggesting that men with ASPD and comorbid psychopathy are characterized by cognitive processing anomalies different from those seen in ASPD without comorbid psychopathy.

  3. Developmental trajectory from early responses to transgressions to future antisocial behavior: evidence for the role of the parent-child relationship from two longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna; Boldt, Lea J; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; O'Bleness, Jessica J

    2014-02-01

    Parent-child relationships are critical in development, but much remains to be learned about the mechanisms of their impact. We examined the early parent-child relationship as a moderator of the developmental trajectory from children's affective and behavioral responses to transgressions to future antisocial, externalizing behavior problems in the Family Study (102 community mothers, fathers, and infants, followed through age 8) and the Play Study (186 low-income, diverse mothers and toddlers, followed for 10 months). The relationship quality was indexed by attachment security in the Family Study and maternal responsiveness in the Play Study. Responses to transgressions (tense discomfort and reparation) were observed in laboratory mishaps wherein children believed they had damaged a valued object. Antisocial outcomes were rated by parents. In both studies, early relationships moderated the future developmental trajectory: diminished tense discomfort predicted more antisocial outcomes, but only in insecure or unresponsive relationships. That risk was defused in secure or responsive relationships. Moderated mediation analyses in the Family Study indicated that the links between diminished tense discomfort and future antisocial behavior in insecure parent-child dyads were mediated by stronger discipline pressure from parents. By indirectly influencing future developmental sequelae, early relationships may increase or decrease the probability that the parent-child dyad will embark on a path toward antisocial outcomes.

  4. Chronic anger as a precursor to adult antisocial personality features: The moderating influence of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Samuel W; Perlman, Susan B; Byrd, Amy L; Raine, Adrian; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A

    2016-01-01

    Anger is among the earliest occurring symptoms of mental health, yet we know little about its developmental course. Further, no studies have examined whether youth with persistent anger are at an increased risk of exhibiting antisocial personality features in adulthood, or how cognitive control abilities may protect these individuals from developing such maladaptive outcomes. Trajectories of anger were delineated among 503 boys using annual assessments from childhood to middle adolescence (ages ∼7-14). Associations between these trajectories and features of antisocial personality in young adulthood (age ∼28) were examined, including whether cognitive control moderates this association. Five trajectories of anger were identified (i.e., childhood-onset, childhood-limited, adolescent-onset, moderate, and low). Boys in the childhood-onset group exhibited the highest adulthood antisocial personality features (e.g., psychopathy, aggression, criminal charges). However, boys in this group were buffered from these problems if they had higher levels of cognitive control during adolescence. Findings were consistent across measures from multiple informants, replicated across distinct time periods, and remained when controlling for general intelligence and prior antisocial behavior. This is the first study to document the considerable heterogeneity in the developmental course of anger from childhood to adolescence. As hypothesized, good cognitive control abilities protected youth with persistent anger problems from developing antisocial personality features in adulthood. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:26618654

  5. Assessing the links among adolescent and youth offending, antisocial behaviour, victimization, drug use, and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Estévez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio ex post facto se centra en el análisis de tres factores de riesgo relacionados con la delincuencia juvenil: la implicación en comportamientos antisociales,el hecho de haber sido víctima de algún acto delictivo, y el consumo de drogas. La investigación previa sobre estos factores de riesgo sigue presentando cuestiones no resueltas sobre las direcciones de influencia. Además, los estudios con población femenina son mucho más escasos que aquellos desarrollados con población masculina. El propósito del presente estudio es analizar las relaciones bidireccionales entre la delincuencia, la conducta antisocial, la victimización y el consumo de drogas en una muestra de 4980 participantes con edades comprendidas entre 10 y 25 años, en función de los grupos de género y edad. Los análisis estadísticos se llevaron a cabo con regresiones lineales y un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas en los patrones de interacción entre las variables de estudio en hombres y mujeres, así como entre los grupos de la adolescencia temprana-media y la adolescencia tardía-juventud. Se comentan las principales implicaciones prácticas en relación a políticas de prevención para los jóvenes en riesgo de continuar con un estilo de vida fundamentado en el incumplimiento de las normas socialmente establecidas.

  6. Identifying Gender-Specific Developmental Trajectories of Nonviolent and Violent Delinquency from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao; Cleveland, H. Harrington

    2013-01-01

    Most research examining gender differences in developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior does not consider subtypes of antisocial behavior and is difficult to generalize due to small non-representative samples. The current study investigated gender difference in developmental trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood while addressing…

  7. Heritability of antisocial behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; DeLisi, Matt

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reviews important strands of research on the heritability of antisocial behavior and crime, including both quantitative genetic studies using twin or adoption designs as well as molecular genetic approaches. Study designs are introduced and findings discussed. Contemporary avenues inclu

  8. Spatial but not verbal cognitive deficits at age 3 years in persistently antisocial individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian; Yaralian, Pauline S; Reynolds, Chandra; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have repeatedly shown verbal intelligence deficits in adolescent antisocial individuals, but it is not known whether these deficits are in place prior to kindergarten or, alternatively, whether they are acquired throughout childhood. This study assesses whether cognitive deficits occur as early as age 3 years and whether they are specific to persistently antisocial individuals. Verbal and spatial abilities were assessed at ages 3 and 11 years in 330 male and female children, while antisocial behavior was assessed at ages 8 and 17 years. Persistently antisocial individuals (N = 47) had spatial deficits in the absence of verbal deficits at age 3 years compared to comparisons (N = 133), and also spatial and verbal deficits at age 11 years. Age 3 spatial deficits were independent of social adversity, early hyperactivity, poor test motivation, poor test comprehension, and social discomfort during testing, and they were found in females as well as males. Findings suggest that early spatial deficits contribute to persistent antisocial behavior whereas verbal deficits are developmentally acquired. An early-starter model is proposed whereby early spatial impairments interfere with early bonding and attachment, reflect disrupted right hemisphere affect regulation and expression, and predispose to later persistent antisocial behavior.

  9. Views of Teachers, Parents, and Counselors toward the Preschool Version of First Step to Success Early Intervention Program (FSS-PSV) in Preventing Antisocial Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolak, Aysun; Tomris, Gözde; Diken, Ibrahim H.; Arikan, Arzu; Aksoy, Funda; Çelik, Seçil

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to describe the views of teachers, parents, and FSS-PSV counselors on the Preschool Version of First Step to Success Early Intervention Program (FSS-PSV) in preventing antisocial behaviors; in addition, the implementation process and contributions from the program will also be outlined. The study was conducted in six different…

  10. Commentary: Disregard for Others: Empathic Dysfunction or Emotional Volatility? The Relationship with Future Antisocial Behavior--Reflections on Rhee et al. (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, R. J. R.

    2013-01-01

    There have long been suggestions that reduced levels of empathy are associated with an increased risk for antisocial behavior (e.g., Miller & Eisenberg, 1988). The article by Rhee and colleagues on typically developing children (Rhee et al., 2012) is important because it is one of the few studies to longitudinally examine the relationship…

  11. Adolescent attachment and trajectories of hostile-impulsive behavior: implications for the development of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobak, Roger; Zajac, Kristyn; Smith, Clare

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' trajectories of impulsive and hostile behaviors provide a dynamic index of risk for the emergence of Cluster B (antisocial and borderline) personality disorders in early adulthood. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that preoccupied states of mind in the Adult Attachment Interview would increase both the level and rate of growth in adolescents' trajectories of aggressive and sexual risk-taking behaviors measured at ages 13, 15, and 17. Overall, preoccupied states of mind predicted higher levels of sexual risk taking and aggressive behaviors across all three assessments as well as higher rates of growth in sexual-risk taking and caregiver-reported aggression over time. In addition, preoccupied females showed slower rates of decline in self-reported hostile emotions than did preoccupied males. The effects of gender as a moderator of the relations between preoccupied status and risk trajectories for personality disorders are discussed.

  12. Psychopathy in adolescent offenders: an item response theory study of the antisocial process screening device-self report and the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Crystal L; Salekin, Randall T; Barker, Edward D; Grimes, Ross D

    2013-04-01

    Few studies have examined the item functioning of youth psychopathy measures or compared the functioning of clinician and self-report based indices. Even fewer studies have made these comparisons in both male and female adolescent samples. The present study examined the applicability of items from two psychopathy measures, the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick, P. J., & Hare, R. D., 2001, The Antisocial Process Screening Device. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems) and Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; Forth, A. E., Kosson, D. S., & Hare, R. D., 2003, The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems), to adolescent boys and girls who had come into contact with the law. Item Response Theory was used to test item functioning of the two psychopathy indices. Examination of the Item Response Theory trace lines indicated that the APSD and the PCL:YV have both highly discriminating and poorly discriminating items and that the measures differ in the regions of psychopathy they cover. The PCL:YV is particularly effective at assessing interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy and to a lesser extent, lifestyle and antisocial features. The APSD appears to be effective at assessing narcissism and impulsivity but not callousness. In addition, the items most discriminating of the underlying construct of psychopathy for males and females demonstrate some important differences. These findings suggest that the measures may tap different underlying elements of the same overlaying construct. This may account for modest correlations between the measures. The findings suggest that clinicians should be aware of the regions that each measure best taps and also suggest that continued refinement and revisions to the youth psychopathy measures may be required. PMID:22686465

  13. Fear extinction, persistent disruptive behavior and psychopathic traits: fMRI in late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Moran D; van Lith, Koen; Kindt, Merel; Pape, Louise E; Doreleijers, Theo A H; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Popma, Arne

    2016-07-01

    Children diagnosed with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD, i.e. Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder), especially those with psychopathic traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe antisocial behavior. Reduced fear conditioning has been proposed to underlie persistent antisocial development. However, we have recently shown that both DBD persisters and desisters are characterized by increased fear conditioning compared with healthy controls (HCs). In this study, we investigated whether brain function during fear extinction is associated with DBD subgroup-membership and psychopathic traits. Adolescents from a childhood arrestee cohort (mean age 17.6 years, s.d. 1.4) who met criteria for a DBD diagnosis during previous assessments were re-assessed and categorized as persistent DBD (n = 25) or desistent DBD (n = 25). Functional MRI during the extinction phase of a classical fear-conditioning task was used to compare regional brain function between these subgroups and 25 matched controls. Both DBD persisters and desisters showed hyperreactivity during fear extinction, when compared with HCs. Impulsive-irresponsible psychopathic traits were positively associated with responses in the fear neurocircuitry and mediated the association between neural activation and group membership. These results suggest that fear acquisition and fear extinction deficits may provide an endophenotype for an emotionally hyperreactive subtype of antisocial development.

  14. School Lunch Source and Adolescent Dietary Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hastert, Theresa A.; Babey, Susan H.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction As rates of childhood obesity rise, the nutritional content of lunches eaten at school is more heavily scrutinized. We examined the association between dietary behaviors and the number of days that adolescents bring lunch to school. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data for 2,774 adolescents who responded to the 2005 California Health Interview Survey and reported dietary behaviors for a weekday. Results In bivariate analyses, adolescents who typically brought their lunch from...

  15. A prospective investigation of neurodevelopmental risk factors for adult antisocial behavior combining official arrest records and self-reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Angela D; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Koenen, Karestan C; Buka, Stephen L

    2015-09-01

    Neurodevelopmental deficits are postulated to play an important role in the etiology of persistent antisocial behavior (ASB). Yet it remains uncertain as to which particular deficits are most closely associated with ASB. We seek to advance this understanding using prospectively collected data from a birth cohort in which multiple indices of neurodevelopmental functioning and ASB were assessed. Participants (n = 2776) were members of the Providence, Rhode Island cohort of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. Information on demographic and neurodevelopmental variables was collected from pregnancy through age 7. When all offspring had reached 33 years of age an adult criminal record check was conducted. A subset of subjects also self-reported on their engagement in serious ASB. Bivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between each neurodevelopmental factor and adult ASB and test whether associations varied depending on how ASB was ascertained. After controlling for background and contextual characteristics, maternal smoking during pregnancy, lower childhood verbal and performance IQ, and age 7 aggressive/impulsive behavior all significantly increased the odds of adult ASB. Associations were not modified by sex and did not depend on how ASB was assessed. However, while both males and Black participants were more likely to engage in ASB than their respective female and White counterparts, relationships were significantly stronger for official records than for self-reports. Results point to a particular subset of early neurodevelopmental risks for antisocial outcomes in adulthood. Findings also suggest that prior contradictory results are not due to the use of official records versus self-reported outcomes.

  16. A prospective investigation of neurodevelopmental risk factors for adult antisocial behavior combining official arrest records and self-reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Angela D; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Koenen, Karestan C; Buka, Stephen L

    2015-09-01

    Neurodevelopmental deficits are postulated to play an important role in the etiology of persistent antisocial behavior (ASB). Yet it remains uncertain as to which particular deficits are most closely associated with ASB. We seek to advance this understanding using prospectively collected data from a birth cohort in which multiple indices of neurodevelopmental functioning and ASB were assessed. Participants (n = 2776) were members of the Providence, Rhode Island cohort of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. Information on demographic and neurodevelopmental variables was collected from pregnancy through age 7. When all offspring had reached 33 years of age an adult criminal record check was conducted. A subset of subjects also self-reported on their engagement in serious ASB. Bivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between each neurodevelopmental factor and adult ASB and test whether associations varied depending on how ASB was ascertained. After controlling for background and contextual characteristics, maternal smoking during pregnancy, lower childhood verbal and performance IQ, and age 7 aggressive/impulsive behavior all significantly increased the odds of adult ASB. Associations were not modified by sex and did not depend on how ASB was assessed. However, while both males and Black participants were more likely to engage in ASB than their respective female and White counterparts, relationships were significantly stronger for official records than for self-reports. Results point to a particular subset of early neurodevelopmental risks for antisocial outcomes in adulthood. Findings also suggest that prior contradictory results are not due to the use of official records versus self-reported outcomes. PMID:26050211

  17. Antisocial Notworking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    Antisocial Notworking refers to a repository of projects that explore the pseudo-agency of online social platforms. It takes a number of recent software projects as its inspiration to reflect upon the fashion for 'participation' within the arts sector and culture in general. The concern is how th...

  18. Religiosity, Self-Control, and Antisocial Behavior: Religiosity as a Promotive and Protective Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert D.; Marks, Loren D.; Marrero, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    Three hypotheses with the potential to provide information on the role of religiosity as a promotive and protective factor in early adolescence were tested. Adolescents (N = 166, M age = 13 years, 49% female, 49% European American, 45% African American) and mothers reported their own personal importance of religion and the frequency of their…

  19. Developmental trajectory from early responses to transgressions to future antisocial behavior: Evidence for the role of the parent-child relationship from two longitudinal studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna; Boldt, Lea J.; Nordling, Jamie Koenig; O’Bleness, Jessica J.

    2013-01-01

    Parent-child relationships are critical in development, but much remains to be learned about mechanisms of their impact. We examined early parent-child relationship as a moderator of the developmental trajectory from children’s affective and behavioral responses to transgressions to future antisocial, externalizing behavior problems in Family Study (102 community mothers, fathers, and infants, followed through age 8) and Play Study (186 low-income, diverse mothers and toddlers, followed for 1...

  20. Do psychopathic traits assessed in mid-adolescence predict mental health, psychosocial, and antisocial, including criminal outcomes, over the subsequent 5 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphälä, Malin; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2014-01-01

    Objectif : Déterminer si les traits psychopathiques évalués à la mi-adolescence prédisent les résultats de santé mentale, psychosociaux, et antisociaux (y compris criminels) 5 ans plus tard et procurent par le fait même des avantages par rapport au diagnostic du trouble des conduites (TC). Méthode : Quatre-vingt-six femmes et 61 hommes ont été évalués à la mi-adolescence lors de leur première visite à une clinique pour abus de substances et ont été réévalués 5 ans plus tard. Les évaluations à l’adolescence comprennent la liste de psychopathie—version pour adolescents (PCL-YV), et selon leur âge, l’échelle des troubles affectifs pour enfants et de schizophrénie pour enfants d’âge scolaire, ou l’entrevue clinique structurée pour le Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, 4e édition (SCID). Les évaluations au début de l’âge adulte comprenaient la SCID, les auto-déclarations du fonctionnement psychologique, du comportement agressif, de la criminalité et d’autres casiers judiciaires officiels. Résultats : Le score à l’élément antisocial prédisait positivement le nombre de symptômes d’anxiété et la probabilité de recevoir un traitement pour troubles d’utilisation de substances (TUS). Les scores aux éléments mode de vie et antisocial prédisaient négativement les scores à l’évaluation globale de fonctionnement. Par contre, le score interpersonnel et le sexe masculin prédisaient indépendamment et positivement le nombre de mois de travail ou d’études, tout comme l’interaction du mode de vie avec le sexe indiquait chez les hommes, mais pas chez les femmes, qu’une augmentation du score à l’élément mode de vie était associée à moins de temps de travail ou d’études. Les scores interpersonnel et antisocial prédisaient positivement le décrochage scolaire. Les scores à l’élément antisocial prédisaient le nombre de symptômes du trouble de la personnalité antisociale

  1. Violent Behaviors among African-American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Darhyl

    1995-01-01

    Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…

  2. Mass Media Influence on Adolescent Consumer Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Roy L.; And Others

    Questionnaires completed by 607 middle school and high school students provided data about the learning of selected advertising-related cognitions among adolescents and on the short-term effect of these cognitions and other communication variables on adolescent consumption behavior. Among the findings were the following: susceptibility to…

  3. Adolescent Work Experiences and Family Formation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; VanEseltine, Matthew; Woolnough, April; Silver, Eric; Burrington, Lori

    2012-01-01

    A long-standing critique of adolescent employment is that it engenders a precocious maturity of more adult-like roles and behaviors, including school disengagement, substance use, sexual activity, inadequate sleep and exercise, and work-related stress. Though negative effects of high-intensity work on adolescent adjustment have been found, little…

  4. The Role of Self-Control and Early Adolescents' Friendships in the Development of Externalizing Behavior: The SNARE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Aart; Moffitt, Terrie E; Steglich, Christian E G; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Harakeh, Zeena; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2016-09-01

    This social network study investigated the moderating role of self-control in the association between friendship and the development of externalizing behavior: Antisocial behavior, alcohol use, tobacco use. Previous studies have shown inconsistent findings, and did not control for possible friendship network or selection effects. We tested two complementary hypotheses: (1) That early-adolescents with low self-control develop externalizing behavior regardless of their friends' behavior, or (2) as a result of being influenced by their friends' externalizing behavior to a greater extent. Hypotheses were investigated using data from the SNARE (Social Network Analysis of Risk behavior in Early adolescence) study (N = 1144, 50 % boys, M age 12.7, SD = 0.47). We controlled for selection effects and the network structure, using a data-analysis package called SIENA. The main findings indicate that personal low self-control and friends' externalizing behaviors both predict early adolescents' increasing externalizing behaviors, but they do so independently. Therefore, interventions should focus on all early adolescents' with a lower self-control, rather than focus on those adolescents with a lower self-control who also have friends who engage in externalizing behavior. PMID:25922116

  5. Social Networks and the Diffusion of Adolescent Problem Behavior: Reliable Estimates of Selection and Influence from 6th through 9th Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, D. Wayne; Feinberg, Mark E.; Ragan, Daniel T.

    2015-01-01

    Seeking to reduce problematic peer influence is a prominent theme of programs to prevent adolescent problem behavior. To support the refinement of this aspect of prevention programming, we examined peer influence and selection processes for three problem behaviors (delinquency, alcohol use, and smoking). We assessed not only the overall strengths of these peer processes, but also their consistency versus variability across settings. We used dynamic stochastic actor-based models to analyze five waves of friendship network data across sixth through ninth grades for a large sample of U.S. adolescents. Our sample included two successive grade cohorts of youth in 26 school districts participating in the PROSPER study, yielding 51 longitudinal social networks based on respondents’ friendship nominations. For all three self-reported antisocial behaviors, we found evidence of both peer influence and selection processes tied to antisocial behavior. There was little reliable variance in these processes across the networks, suggesting that the statistical imprecision of the peer influence and selection estimates in previous studies likely accounts for inconsistencies in results. Adolescent friendship networks play a strong role in shaping problem behavior, but problem behaviors also inform friendship choices. In addition to preferring friends with similar levels of problem behavior, adolescents tend to choose friends who engage in problem behaviors, thus creating broader diffusion. PMID:25943034

  6. Genome-wide association study of behavioral disinhibition in a selected adolescent sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derringer, Jaime; Corley, Robin P.; Haberstick, Brett C.; Young, Susan E.; Demmitt, Brittany; Howrigan, Daniel P.; Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt; Keller, Matthew; Brown, Sandra; Tapert, Susan; Hopfer, Christian J.; Stallings, Michael C.; Crowley, Thomas J.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Krauter, Ken; Hewitt, John K.; McQueen, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral disinhibition (BD) is a quantitative measure designed to capture the heritable variation encompassing risky and impulsive behaviors. As a result, BD represents an ideal target for discovering genetic loci that predispose individuals to a wide range of antisocial behaviors and substance misuse that together represent a large cost to society as a whole. Published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have examined specific phenotypes that fall under the umbrella of BD (e.g. alcohol dependence, conduct disorder); however no GWAS has specifically examined the overall BD construct. We conducted a GWAS of BD using a sample of 1,901 adolescents over-selected for characteristics that define high BD, such as substance and antisocial behavior problems, finding no individual locus that surpassed genome-wide significance. Although no single SNP was significantly associated with BD, restricted maximum likelihood analysis estimated that 49.3% of the variance in BD within the Caucasian sub-sample was accounted for by the genotyped SNPs (p=0.06). Gene-based tests identified seven genes associated with BD (p≤2.0×10−6). Although the current study was unable to identify specific SNPs or pathways with replicable effects on BD, the substantial sample variance that could be explained by all genotyped SNPs suggests that larger studies could successfully identify common variants associated with BD. PMID:25637581

  7. Genome-Wide Association Study of Behavioral Disinhibition in a Selected Adolescent Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derringer, Jaime; Corley, Robin P; Haberstick, Brett C; Young, Susan E; Demmitt, Brittany A; Howrigan, Daniel P; Kirkpatrick, Robert M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt; Keller, Matthew C; Brown, Sandra; Tapert, Susan; Hopfer, Christian J; Stallings, Michael C; Crowley, Thomas J; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Krauter, Ken; Hewitt, John K; McQueen, Matthew B

    2015-07-01

    Behavioral disinhibition (BD) is a quantitative measure designed to capture the heritable variation encompassing risky and impulsive behaviors. As a result, BD represents an ideal target for discovering genetic loci that predispose individuals to a wide range of antisocial behaviors and substance misuse that together represent a large cost to society as a whole. Published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have examined specific phenotypes that fall under the umbrella of BD (e.g. alcohol dependence, conduct disorder); however no GWAS has specifically examined the overall BD construct. We conducted a GWAS of BD using a sample of 1,901 adolescents over-selected for characteristics that define high BD, such as substance and antisocial behavior problems, finding no individual locus that surpassed genome-wide significance. Although no single SNP was significantly associated with BD, restricted maximum likelihood analysis estimated that 49.3 % of the variance in BD within the Caucasian sub-sample was accounted for by the genotyped SNPs (p = 0.06). Gene-based tests identified seven genes associated with BD (p ≤ 2.0 × 10(-6)). Although the current study was unable to identify specific SNPs or pathways with replicable effects on BD, the substantial sample variance that could be explained by all genotyped SNPs suggests that larger studies could successfully identify common variants associated with BD. PMID:25637581

  8. Adolescents' Neural Processing of Risky Decisions: Effects of Sex and Behavioral Disinhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Crowley

    Full Text Available Accidental injury and homicide, relatively common among adolescents, often follow risky behaviors; those are done more by boys and by adolescents with greater behavioral disinhibition (BD.Neural processing during adolescents' risky decision-making will differ in youths with greater BD severity, and in males vs. females, both before cautious behaviors and before risky behaviors.81 adolescents (PATIENTS with substance and conduct problems, and comparison youths (Comparisons, assessed in a 2 x 2 design (Comparisons x Male:Female repeatedly decided between doing a cautious behavior that earned 1 cent, or a risky one that either won 5 or lost 10 cents. Odds of winning after risky responses gradually decreased. Functional magnetic resonance imaging captured brain activity during 4-sec deliberation periods preceding responses. Most neural activation appeared in known decision-making structures. PATIENTS, who had more severe BD scores and clinical problems than Comparisons, also had extensive neural hypoactivity. Comparisons' greater activation before cautious responses included frontal pole, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, and other regions; and before risky responses, insula, temporal, and parietal regions. Males made more risky and fewer cautious responses than females, but before cautious responses males activated numerous regions more than females. Before risky behaviors female-greater activation was more posterior, and male-greater more anterior.Neural processing differences during risky-cautious decision-making may underlie group differences in adolescents' substance-related and antisocial risk-taking. Patients reported harmful real-life decisions and showed extensive neural hypoactivity during risky-or-cautious decision-making. Males made more risky responses than females; apparently biased toward risky decisions, males (compared with females utilized many more neural resources to make and maintain cautious decisions, indicating an important

  9. Emotional stimulation processing and empathy in aggressive adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Euler, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunctional emotional processing has a negative impact on human behavior. In children and adolescents, deviant perception and understanding of emotional stimulation and reduced empathic functioning impair the development of important social skills. The present thesis aimed to better understand dysfunctional emotional processing in subgroups of children and adolescents with aggressive and antisocial behavior. We investigated dysfunctions in specific neurocognitive components and their influe...

  10. An Overview of The Relation Between Screen Violence and Children' s Antisocial Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱敏思

    2011-01-01

    Violent scenes are increasingly shown in today's mass media. TV and films, as one of the most influential mass media, are also containing a large amount of violence. While ehildren and adolescents today have easier access to TV and films, they are more an

  11. Behavioral Genetic Analyses of Prosocial Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alice M.; Light-Hausermann, Jade H.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Eley, Thalia C.

    2009-01-01

    Prosocial behavior is an important aspect of normal social and psychological development. Adult and child twin studies typically estimate the heritability of prosocial behavior to be between 30 and 50%, although relatively little is known about genetic and environmental influences upon prosocial behavior in adolescence. We therefore examined…

  12. Anger in the UK Armed Forces: strong association with mental health, childhood antisocial behavior, and combat role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rona, Roberto J; Jones, Margaret; Hull, Lisa; MacManus, Deirdre; Fear, Nicola T; Wessely, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the strength of the association of several mental health problems, childhood difficulties, and combat role with anger, as well as the contribution of these factors to explain anger assessed by population attributable fraction (PAF). A total of 9885 UK service personnel, some of them deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, participated in the study. There was a strong or intermediate association between cases and subthreshold cases of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, psychological distress, multiple physical symptoms and alcohol misuse, having a combat role, childhood adversity, and childhood antisocial behavior with anger. The PAF for any mental health problem and combat role and childhood difficulties was 0.64 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-0.70) and increased to 0.77 (95% CI, 0.69-0.83) if subthreshold cases were included. Anger is a frequent component of mental disorders; health care professionals need to be aware of the interference of anger in the management of mental illness and that anger infrequently presents as an isolated phenomenon.

  13. The Effects of Television Violence on Antisocial Behavior: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Haejung; Comstock, George

    1994-01-01

    Presents discussion of various studies of the effect of television on aggressive behavior. Argues for a positive and significant correlation between television violence and aggressive behavior. Performs additional tests to solidify conclusions. Provides substantive interpretation. (HB)

  14. A behavioral genetic analysis of callous-unemotional traits and Big Five personality in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Frank D; Briley, Daniel A; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige

    2015-11-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, such as lacking empathy and emotional insensitivity, predict the onset, severity, and persistence of antisocial behavior. CU traits are heritable, and genetic influences on CU traits contribute to antisocial behavior. This study examines genetic overlap between CU traits and general domains of personality. We measured CU traits using the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU) and Big Five personality using the Big Five Inventory in a sample of adolescent twins from the Texas Twin Project. Genetic influences on the Big Five personality dimensions could account for the entirety of genetic influences on CU traits. Item Response Theory results indicate that the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits is better at detecting clinically relevant personality variation at lower extremes of personality trait continua, particularly low agreeableness and low conscientiousness. The proximate biological mechanisms that mediate genetic liabilities for CU traits remain an open question. The results of the current study suggest that understanding the development of normal personality may inform understanding of the genetic underpinnings of callous and unemotional behavior.

  15. Demographics, Affect, and Adolescents' Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terre, Lisa; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined relationship between affect, demographics, and health-related lifestyle among 139 public high school students. Data analyses revealed distinctive demographic and affective correlates of different health behaviors. No one variable uniformly predicted adolescents' health behaviors. Demographics and affect showed differential relationships…

  16. Parental Work Schedules and Adolescent Risky Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Wen-Jui; Miller, Daniel P.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Using a large contemporary data set, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement (NLSY-CS), this paper examines the effects of parental work schedules on adolescent risky behaviors at age 13 or 14 and the mechanisms that might explain them. Structural equation modeling suggests mothers who worked more often at night spent significantly less time with children and had lower quality home environments, and these mediators were significantly linked to adolescent r...

  17. Unraveling the genetic etiology of adult antisocial behavior: A genome-wide association study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielbeek, J.J.; Medland, S.E.; Benyamin, B.; Byrne, E.M.; Heath, A.C.; Madden, P.A.F.; Martin, N.G.; Wray, N.R.; Verweij, C.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Crime poses a major burden for society. The heterogeneous nature of criminal behavior makes it difficult to unravel its causes. Relatively little research has been conducted on the genetic influences of criminal behavior. The few twin and adoption studies that have been undertaken suggest that about

  18. Effects of parent training on salivary cortisol in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Motamedi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Since adulthood antisocial, aggressive and delinquent behaviors often have their onset early in life, investigating the association between biological factors and disruptive behaviors in children and adolescents are important and are emphasized on in the recent years. Baseline cortisol level seems to be a valuable biological marker of individuals with Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD. This study examined the effect of parent training on salivary cortisol levels of children with DBD.
    • METHODS: Saliva samples were assayed to determine cortisol levels in nineteen clinic-referred children with DBD (aged 8 through 13 years before and after an eight-session parent training program. Children’s disruptive behaviors were assessed by Child Behavior Check List before and after the intervention.
    • RESULTS: Children’s salivary cortisol increased significantly after parent training sessions. Children with DBD who had lower basal cortisol levels had more severe disruptive behaviors and a better response to intervention by parent training as assessed by changes in cortisol levels and disruptive behaviour scores. However, post-interventional reduction of disruptive behaviors and increase in cortisol level was significant for all levels of baseline cortisol.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Parent training is an effective method for behavioral modification in DBD. Salivary cortisol may be considered a predictive factor for severity of the child or adolescent's disruptive behaviors and also for response of those behaviors to parent training.
    • KEY WORDS: Disruptive behavior, child, adolescent, parent training.

  19. Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Identity Development

    OpenAIRE

    King, Pamela Kay

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between adolescent sexual behavior, motivations, and identity status. A review of the literature indicated that deviant behaviors covary, and that drug use and abuse and the motivations for same are related to identity status . A questionnaire, including the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status(EOM-EIS) and a series of questions to gather information about sexual behaviors and motivations, was employed. The ...

  20. The association between parenting behavior and somatization in adolescents explained by physiological responses in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rousseau, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Wiersema, Jan R.; Baetens, Imke; Vos, Pieter; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study adds to the knowledge on somatization in adolescents by exploring its relation with parenting behavior and the mediating/moderating role of physiological responses in adolescents to parenting behavior. Method: Eighteen adolescents with high and 18 adolescents with low somati

  1. Gene Variants Associated with Antisocial Behaviour: A Latent Variable Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Mary Jane; Lin, Haiqun; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Lee, Maria; Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Katsovich, Liliya; Olds, David L.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Leckman, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if a latent variable approach might be useful in identifying shared variance across genetic risk alleles that is associated with antisocial behaviour at age 15 years. Methods: Using a conventional latent variable approach, we derived an antisocial phenotype in 328 adolescents utilizing data from a…

  2. Specifics of Gender Manifestation of Prosocial and Antisocial Features in Human Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatyr Yuliya Aleksandrovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the gender factors in the formation of prosociality – asociality in humans. A set of indicators reflecting the quantitative and qualitative terms motivational prerequisites of social behavior is presented. The estimation actualization needs are characterized as the beginning of the centripetal and focused on the involvement of the individual in society. Comparative analysis and accentuation of personality traits identified predominance of cycles, emotive and exaltation on the background of male domination of reactive aggression and masculinity. Assessment of the severity of empathy revealed the advantage of emotional and intuitive channels in the group of women relative to men. Undertaken study allowed to determine the presence of specific features of the formation of prosocial behavior of women, where the key element is the dominance of emotional factors initiation of social behavior, and situational mode, reactive response.

  3. Violence and Other Antisocial Behaviors in Public Schools: Can Dress Codes Help Solve the Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloman, Lillian O.

    1995-01-01

    Gang violence, thefts, and costs are among the reasons schools are adopting dress codes or uniforms. Evidence of their effect on behavior is largely anecdotal; empirical research is needed. Home economics professionals can work with parents to set dress policies, get student input, incorporate the teaching of values about clothing, build student…

  4. Exploring Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Machiavellianism in Youth: Examination of Associations with Antisocial Behavior and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.

    2013-01-01

    We sought to explore the differential associations of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, narcissistic traits, and Machiavellian traits with overt aggression, relational aggression, delinquency, behavioral dysregulation, and emotional dysregulation in a community sample of boys and girls (ages 11-17). Results indicated that the three personality…

  5. SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim AKTEPE

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Suicide is a complex phenomenon associated with pyschological, biological and social factors. Suicide has been reported as the second or third most common cause of death in children and adolescents worldwide. Suicidal behaviour in children and adolescents will be discussed in the frame of motivational definition. Method: Published research studies and reviews on children and adolescent suicides have been reviewed. Furthermore, classical papers have been searched to obtain knowledge about suicide behavior. Results: It is reported that firearms have been the most important effect in adolescent suicide. Both fatal and nonfatal suicidal behaviors have been linked consistently to negative parent-child relationships, depression, substance use, overall number of life stressors, gender and impulsive behaviors. Discussion: Future efforts to investigate suicidal behavior should use new research methodologies that may lead to identification of the interactions between environmental factors and constitutional and biological factors that are associated with risk for suicidal behavior. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(2.000: 88-97

  6. Suicidal behavior in Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Diana; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is both a public and mental health problem, and is a leading cause of deaths, especially among adolescents. Two factors that contribute to the decision of adolescents to commit suicide are having a primary mood disorder and/or substance use. In the Indian culture, the family unit has both a positive and negative impact on suicide. The family serves as a protective factor that provides a strong support for the individual, but alternately creates an inseparable individual when seeking mental health care, which often complicates the situation. Due to the stigma, Indians typically perceive having a mental illness as shameful. Religion is integral to the Indian culture so much so that individuals often use herbal remedies, seek help from religious leaders, and attend religious establishments prior to obtaining a mental health evaluation in those that are subsequently deemed as mentally ill. Despite the fact that suicides are underreported and misdiagnosed in India, it is known that the highest rates are among those immigrating, Indians tend to switch the methods they use to commit suicide from ingestion of poison to hanging, which may reflect a lack of available poisonous substances or the influence of the host culture. Considering the high suicide rates in adolescents, the importance of providing psychoeducation, restricting access to lethal means, and promoting social integration in immigrants are various ways by which suicides in Indian adolescents can be avoided. PMID:24006319

  7. Nonresident Fathers' Parenting Style and the Adjustment of Late-Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karre, Jennifer K.; Mounts, Nina S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between nonresident fathers' parenting style, mothers' parenting style and behaviors, and depression and antisocial behavior in a sample of late-adolescent boys (n = 177). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Maternal psychological well-being was associated with fewer adolescent depression symptoms.…

  8. Specifics of Gender Manifestation of Prosocial and Antisocial Features in Human Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Shatyr Yuliya Aleksandrovna; Mulik Irina Gennadyevna; Kudryavtseva Galina Alekseevna; Mulik Aleksander Borisovich

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the gender factors in the formation of prosociality – asociality in humans. A set of indicators reflecting the quantitative and qualitative terms motivational prerequisites of social behavior is presented. The estimation actualization needs are characterized as the beginning of the centripetal and focused on the involvement of the individual in society. Comparative analysis and accentuation of personality traits identified predominance of cycles, emotive and ...

  9. Psychophysiology of Adolescent Peer Relations I: Theory and Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Close, Dianna

    2013-01-01

    Developmental psychologists have become increasingly interested in how psychophysiological processes relate to adolescent peer functioning. This review discusses advances in the study of the psychophysiology of adolescent peer relations, with a focus on how the autonomic and neuroendocrine systems relate to antisocial behavior, victimization, and…

  10. Research Review: The Importance of Callous-Unemotional Traits for Developmental Models of Aggressive and Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J.; White, Stuart F.

    2008-01-01

    The current paper reviews research suggesting that the presence of a callous and unemotional interpersonal style designates an important subgroup of antisocial and aggressive youth. Specifically, callous-unemotional (CU) traits (e.g., lack of guilt, absence of empathy, callous use of others) seem to be relatively stable across childhood and…

  11. Antisocial personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sociopathic personality; Sociopathy; Personality disorder - antisocial ... Cause of antisocial personality disorder is unknown. Genetic factors and environmental factors, such as child abuse, are believed to contribute to the development of ...

  12. Risk factors for suicidal behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, B D; Siefen, G R; Urkin, J; Merrick, J

    2006-10-01

    Adolescent suicide is today a public health problem among the leading cause of mortality among adolescents and young adults. There seems to be many reasons for this increase (which has different trends in different populations), but associations have been found with increased substance abuse, television and video violence, socio-economic status and easy access to firearms. Gender differences have also been observed with crime, suicide and substance abuse higher among males, while eating disorder, depression and suicidal behavior more prevalent among females. This paper will review prevalence and incidence of adolescent suicidal behavior, socio-demographic and psychological risk factors, associated cognitive factors and socio-economic factors. Risk factors include previous suicide attempts, a history of others in the family who have been suicidal, mental illness, alcohol and drug use, and other self-destructive behaviors as well as consideration being given to hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept and isolation. At the individual difference level, factors such as trait depression, anger and hostility, perfectionism and social sensitivity would seem critical variables, as would age, gender and intellectual functioning. Sociological and family-related factors may also be implicated including dysfunctional family organizations, a history of physical or psychological abuse (sexual abuse) and limited extent of social support networks. A frequently reported precipitating event of suicidal behavior is family adversity including rejection, separation and interpersonal conflict. At a socio-economic level it would seem essential to provide comprehensive document about the social and economic conditions from which the adolescent comes. PMID:17008855

  13. Treating Depression and Oppositional Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Rachel H.; Becker-Weidman, Emily G.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Jordan, Neil; Silva, Susan G.; Rohde, Paul; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents with depression and high levels of oppositionality often are particularly difficult to treat. Few studies, however, have examined treatment outcomes among youth with both externalizing and internalizing problems. This study examines the effect of fluoxetine, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), the combination of fluoxetine and CBT, and…

  14. Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Reznik, Yana

    2009-01-01

    Understanding adolescents' attitudes regarding sexual behavior is key to understanding why they choose to engage or not engage in sex, which sexual behavior(s) they initiate and continue, and the outcomes experienced during and following sexual behavior. This article briefly explores adolescent sexual behavior, positive and negative outcomes…

  15. The Role of Family, Religiosity, and Behavior in Adolescent Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, David M.; Williams, Robert J.; Mossiere, Annik M.; Schopflocher, Donald P.; el-Guebaly, Nady; Hodgins, David C.; Smith, Garry J.; Wood, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Predictors of adolescent gambling behavior were examined in a sample of 436 males and females (ages 13-16). A biopsychosocial model was used to identify key variables that differentiate between non-gambling and gambling adolescents. Logistic regression found that, as compared to adolescent male non-gamblers, adolescent male gamblers were older,…

  16. Temperament alters susceptibility to negative peer influence in early adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The role of deviant peers in adolescent antisocial behavior has been well documented, but less is known about individual differences in susceptibility to negative peer influence. This study examined whether specific temperament dimensions moderate the prospective relationship between peer deviance and delinquent behavior in early adolescence. Participants included 704 adolescents recruited from the community. At baseline, parents provided information on adolescents’ temperament and youth repo...

  17. Sexuality, Antisocial Behavior, Aggressiveness, and Victimization in Juvenile Sexual Offenders: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Driemeyer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present review focuses on six factors that have been addressed in the literature about juvenile sexual offenders: general delinquency, alcohol and drug abuse, aggressiveness and psychopathology, sexuality, sexual deviance, and victimization experiences. Empirical findings are characterized by great heterogeneity. Due to a lack of standardized assessment and because of different study groups they rarely facilitate direct comparisons. In an endeavor to clarify this vast heterogeneity, the purpose of this overview is to enlighten actual findings about these factors and on the role that has been assigned to them in the literature. Special attention is paid to comparison studies. A detailed description of the studies in tables2 allows for an overview of the results and an evaluation with respect to sample size, instruments, and type of study groups. The overview does not claim completeness; it is a narrative, none-systematic review3. In summary the review showed that in most cases, juvenile sexual offending cannot be understood as an expression of more general juvenile delinquency and - in contrast to other groups of juvenile delinquents - the sexual offenders report less non-sexual delinquent behavior. Alcohol and drug abuse have been reported less often as well, but they might play a more important role as situational factors. Externalizing problems apears more often in juvenile sexual offenders with peer/adult victims who are also non-sexually delinquent. Regarding sexuality, some studies indicate that juvenile sexual offenders are impaired in their sexual development, but they were rarely described as sexually isolated. Sexual deviance has been considered a risk factor for juvenile sexual offending, but the assessment of sexual deviance in juveniles has proven difficult. The prevalence of victimization experiences varies substantially and possible connections to sexual offending have proven complex. The interpretation of the results of most

  18. Identifying Gender-Specific Developmental Trajectories of Nonviolent and Violent Delinquency from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yao; Cleveland, H. Harrington.

    2013-01-01

    Most research examining gender differences in developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior does not consider subtypes of antisocial behavior and is difficult to generalize due to small nonrepresentative samples. The current study investigated gender difference in developmental trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood while addressing those limitations. Analyses were limited to respondents ages 15 and 16 in wave 1 (16–17 in wave 2, and 21–22 in wave 3) of the National Longitudinal...

  19. The concurrent validity of the Hare psychopathy checklist, youth version in high-risk adolescent females

    OpenAIRE

    Penney, Stephanie R

    2005-01-01

    The present study seeks to expand our understanding of psychopathy in female youth by examining how the relationship between psychopathic traits and aggressive and antisocial behavior may be moderated by gender. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist, Youth Version (PCL:YV) was administered to a clinical sample of 129 adolescent males and females. Regression analyses were run to assess main and interaction effects of gender and psychopathy on aggressive and antisocial behaviors. Scores on the PCL:YV ...

  20. Behavioral Health Emergencies Managed by School Nurses Working with Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health…

  1. SEXUAL HEALTH BEHAVIORS OF ADOLESCENTS IN POKHARA, NEPAL

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha Niranjan; Prasad Paneru Damaru; Jnawali Kalpana

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescent (10–19 years) is a transition of age during which hazardous sexual health behaviors may be adopted; increasing vulnerability to several kinds of behavioral disorders like drug use, unsafe sexual act leading to reproductive ill health. Objective of the study was to assess sexual health behaviors of adolescents in Pokhara, Nepal. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 15–19 years adolescents studying in grades 11 and 12. Probability ...

  2. Parental Power and Behaviors as Antecedents of Adolescent Conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Carolyn S.; And Others

    Several authorities have observed that a moderate degree of conformity by the young may be necessary for a society to function effectively. In order to examine the relationship between adolescents' perceptions of parental power and behavior and adolescent conformity, adolescents (N=368) in 184 families completed questionnaires concerning aspects…

  3. Adolescent Gambling: A Narrative Review of Behavior and Its Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2013-01-01

    This narrative review summarizes current knowledge on adolescent gambling for the period 1990-2010, assesses adolescent gambling behavior and person and environment predictors, and suggests directions for future research. The review includes 99 studies that identified their subjects as adolescents, children, youth, and students, and discusses…

  4. Psychopathic personality in adolescence : Genetic and environmental influences

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathy, or psychopathic personality, is a personality disorder characterized by a constellation of deviant interpersonal, affective, and behavioral dimensions. It has consistently been shown that the psychopathic personality can be used to understand the development of antisocial behavior in adolescents. Less research has been devoted to exploring the underlying etiology of psychopathic personality. There has also been a lack of genetically sensitive longitudinal studie...

  5. Behavioral Disorder amongst Adolescents Attending Secondary School in Southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Chinawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescents are prone to various forms of behavioral problems. These behavioral issues in adolescents can have serious consequences for the adolescents. Objectives. The objectives of the study are to determine the causative factors of adolescent problems and specific manifestations. Methods. Behavioral problems were investigated using a random sampling of adolescents from secondary schools in southeast Nigeria from February to April, 2014. A self-administered questionnaire was developed from Health Kids Colorado Questionnaire. Results. A total of 763 subjects completed the questionnaire. Adolescents who reported to have used tobacco 3 to 5 and 6 to 9 times during the last 30 days are just 3.14% and 3.4%, respectively. Nineteen (2.49% adolescents claimed that they have had sex before but not in the last 3 months. Adolescents who attempted suicide are from 15 years and peaked at 18. Eighty-three (11% adolescents who are 15 years old attempted suicide in a year; this peaks at 17 years where 235 (30.8% committed suicide. Majority of adolescents with behavioral disorder are from the upper class family. Conclusion. This study revealed that adolescents exhibit several forms of behavioral problems.

  6. Prenatal Substance Exposure: What Predicts Behavioral Resilience by Early Adolescence?

    OpenAIRE

    Liebschutz, Jane; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Heymann, Orlaith D.; Lange, Allison V.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure (IUSE) in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (age 12.4–15.9) at-risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or l...

  7. Parent Behavior and Adolescents' Self-System Processes: Predictors of Behavior to Siblings and Friends Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repinski, Daniel J.; Shonk, Susan M.

    This study examined the degree to which adolescent self-system processes (self-efficacy, emotional reactivity) and reports of mothers' and fathers' behavior (warmth/support, hostility) predict adolescents' behavior toward siblings and their friends' problem behavior. Subjects were 76 seventh-grade adolescents who provided self-reports of parent…

  8. Risk Factors Associated with Early Adolescent Sexual Values and Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Macbeth, David

    1996-01-01

    adolescent sexual activity and subsequent pregnancy are ii an increasing dilemma facing American society . There appears to be an increase in the incidence of casual sexual activity among adolescents that leads to over 50% of students between grades 9 and 12 having been involved in sexual intercourse. This study examines changes in adolescent sexual attitudes, behaviors, and values in a select population over a 2-year time span. A survey of 548 families with adolescents was used to determine ...

  9. Measurement and Design Issues in the Study of Adolescent Sexual Behavior and the Evaluation of Adolescent Sexual Health Behavior Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael; Palacios, Rebecca; Penhollow, Tina M.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the quality of research and commentary concerning adolescent sexuality and evaluation of both comprehensive sexuality education and abstinence education programs, this article aims to help readers (1) select appropriate measures to study adolescent sexual behavior, (2) develop appropriate study designs to evaluate adolescent sexual…

  10. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations with Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems,…

  11. Social-cognitive correlates of risky adolescent cycling behavior

    OpenAIRE

    AC Ruiter Robert; Feenstra Hans; Kok Gerjo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Bicycle use entails high safety and health risks especially for adolescents. Most safety education programs aimed at adolescents focus on accident statistics and risk perceptions. This paper proposes the investigation of the social-cognitive correlates of risky cycling behaviors of adolescents prior to developing safety education programs. Method Secondary school students aged 13 to 18 years (n = 1446) filled out questionnaires regarding bicycle behavior, risky intentions,...

  12. Delinquency and Peer Acceptance in Adolescence: A Within-Person Test of Moffitt's Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Kelly L.; Kreager, Derek A.; Osgood, D. Wayne

    2014-01-01

    We tested 2 hypotheses derived from Moffitt's (1993) taxonomic theory of antisocial behavior, both of which are central to her explanation for the rise in delinquency during adolescence. We tested whether persistently delinquent individuals become more accepted by their peers during adolescence and whether individuals who abstain from…

  13. Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

  14. Marital Conflict, Divorce and Single Parenthood as Predictors of Adolescents’ Antisocial Behaviour in Ibadan

    OpenAIRE

    Animasahun R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Manifestation of antisocial behaviour among adolescents in secondary schools in Nigeria is escalating day by day, threatening the peace and security of the society. It has been speculated in many quarters that the menace of unstable families is likely to be the cause. Hence, this study investigated the predictive effects of marital conflict, divorce and single parenthood on antisocial behaviours among secondary school adolescents in Ibadan. Three hundred adolescents were random...

  15. Risky Business: Exploring Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan; Peterson, Fred L.

    2005-01-01

    Ongoing behavioral research has documented the growing prevalence of adolescent health risk behaviors, such as tobacco use, sexual activity, alcohol and other substance use, nutritional behavior, physical inactivity, and intentional injury. Newer youth risk behaviors, such as pathological gambling, are emerging as threats to public health. Risk,…

  16. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Didem Behice ÖZTOP; Emel KARAKAYA

    2013-01-01

    Currently, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) becomes one of the leading approaches in the psychotherapy. However,use of CBT in childhood psychotherapy is considerably novel. After 1990s, it has been understood that it is an effectivemethod for children and adolescents. Anxiety disorders are one of the most common problems in the field of childhoodand adolescent psychiatry. In the studies conducted, the effectiveness of CBT was demonstrated in anxiety disorders ofthe children and adolescents....

  17. Pathological Internet Use and Risk-Behaviors among European Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Floderus, Birgitta; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Hoven, Christina W; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar A; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta

    2016-03-08

    Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents.

  18. Pathological Internet Use and Risk-Behaviors among European Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Durkee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE. Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ. Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS. A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752, with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents.

  19. Serious Emotional Disturbance in Children and Adolescents: Multisystemic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henggeler, Scott W.; Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Rowland, Melisa D.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.

    Originally developed to treat antisocial behavior, multisystemic therapy (MST) has emerged as a leading evidence-based treatment for serious emotional disturbance in children and adolescents. This manual presents the MST approach to working with this challenging population. Delineated are ways to develop and implement collaborative interventions…

  20. Acceptance-Enhanced Behavior Therapy for Trichotillomania in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Kathi M.; Walther, Michael R.; Joseph, Jessica M.; Robinson, Jordan; Ricketts, Emily J.; Bowe, William E.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the efficacy of Acceptance Enhanced Behavior Therapy (AEBT) for the treatment of trichotillomania (TTM) in adults, data are limited with respect to the treatment of adolescents. Our case series illustrates the use of AEBT for TTM in the treatment of two adolescents. The AEBT protocol (Woods & Twohig, 2008) is…

  1. Risk Factors and Behaviors Associated with Adolescent Violence and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valois, Robert F.; MacDonald, John M.; Bretous, Lena; Fischer, Megan A.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2002-01-01

    Reviews relevant research to examine risk factors and behaviors associated with adolescent aggression and violence. Adolescent aggression and violence develop and manifest within a complex constellation of factors (individual, family, school/academic, peer-related, community and neighborhood, and situational). Different risk factors are more…

  2. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N = 887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic…

  3. Bidirectional Relations between Authoritative Parenting and Adolescents' Prosocial Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Carlo, Gustavo; Christensen, Katherine J.; Yorgason, Jeremy B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the bidirectional relations between authoritative parenting and adolescents' prosocial behavior over a 1-year time period. Data were taken from Time 2 and 3 of the Flourishing Families Project, and included reports from 319 two-parent families with an adolescent child (M age of child at Time 2 = 12.34, SD = 1.06, 52% girls).…

  4. Feasibility of Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Suicidal Adolescent Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Laurence Y.; Cox, Brian J.; Gunasekara, Shiny; Miller, Alec L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) implementation in a general child and adolescent psychiatric inpatient unit and to provide preliminary effectiveness data on DBT versus treatment as usual (TAU). Method: Sixty-two adolescents with suicide attempts or suicidal ideation were admitted to one of two…

  5. Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Obesity and Risk Behaviors in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…

  6. Transition-Marking Behaviors of Adolescent Males at First Intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Ann L.; Flanigan, Beverly J.

    1993-01-01

    Examined male transition-marking behaviors from adolescence into adulthood at first intercourse. Findings from 80 adolescent males revealed that alcohol use at first intercourse was unrelated to use of contraceptives at that time but was inversely related to whether first intercourse was planned. Planning was positively related to contraceptive…

  7. Adolescents' Sleep Behaviors and Perceptions of Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. Methods: General education classes were…

  8. ACE inhibitors could be therapeutic for antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobgood, Donna K

    2013-11-01

    Antisocial personality traits are an important topic for research. The societal cost of these behaviors encourages efforts at a better understanding of central nervous system causes. Catecholamine genes are being studied to facilitate this understanding, and some tentative findings are being reached about several of these genes. It seems that many genes play a role to produce antisocial behaviors so complexity of elucidating each gene is obvious. One conclusion that could be drawn from the current research findings is that DA2 like receptors (DRD2, DRD3, DRD4) with alleles that decrease neurotransmission are facilitatory of antisocial behaviors. DA2 like receptors cause neuronal firing to inhibit many peripheral functions through adenylyl cyclase inhibition. When these receptors are less active by genetically decreased density, lower affinity, or by low dopamine levels as final common pathways then inhibition is released and a state of disinhibition can be said to describe this state. Peripheral metabolism is increased and behavioral activation is noted. Renin is disinhibited in this setting thus allowing sympathetic nervous system activation. The fight or flight behaviors thus produced, in the extreme, would be the setting of antisocial behavior. Research validates this hypothesis. Understanding this final common pathway toward antisocial behavior should lead to better treatment for individuals with this pattern of behavior before they have caused harm to themselves and others. ACE inhibitors are well tolerated drugs used in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure and would also treat antisocial behavior disorders.

  9. HTR3B is associated with alcoholism with antisocial behavior and alpha EEG power—an intermediate phenotype for alcoholism and co-morbid behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Ducci, Francesca; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Yuan, Qiaoping; SHEN, PEI-HONG; White, Kenneth V.; Hodgkinson, Colin; Albaugh, Bernard; Virkkunen, Matti; Goldman, David

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) with co-morbid antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) have been associated with serotonin (5-HT) dysfunction. 5-HT3 receptors are potentiated by ethanol and appear to modulate reward. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists may be useful in the treatment of early-onset alcoholics with co-morbid ASPD. Low-voltage alpha electroencephalogram (EEG) power, a highly heritable trait, has been associated with both AUD and ASPD. A recent whole genome linkage scan in one of our samples, ...

  10. Cognitive control deficits associated with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeier, Joshua D; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Hiatt Racer, Kristina D; Newman, Joseph P

    2012-07-01

    Antisociality has been linked to a variety of executive functioning deficits, including poor cognitive control. Surprisingly, cognitive control deficits are rarely found in psychopathic individuals, despite their notoriously severe and persistent antisocial behavior. In fact, primary (low-anxious) psychopathic individuals display superior performance on cognitive control-type tasks under certain circumstances. To clarify these seemingly contradictory findings, we administered a response competition (i.e., flanker) task to incarcerated offenders, who were assessed for Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) symptoms and psychopathy. As hypothesized, APD related to poorer accuracy, especially on incongruent trials. Contrary to expectation, however, the same pattern of results was found in psychopathy. Additional analyses indicated that these effects of APD and psychopathy were associated with overlapping variance. The findings suggest that psychopathy and APD symptoms are both associated with deficits in cognitive control, and that this deficit relates to general antisociality as opposed to a specific antisocial syndrome.

  11. Adolescent Health-Risk Behavior and Community Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah E Wiehe; Mei-Po Kwan; Jeff Wilson; J Dennis Fortenberry

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Various forms of community disorder are associated with health outcomes but little is known about how dynamic context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behaviors. OBJECTIVE: Assess whether exposure to contexts associated with crime (as a marker of community disorder) correlates with self-reported health-related behaviors among adolescent girls. METHODS: Girls (N = 52), aged 14-17, were recruited from a single geographic urban area and monitored for 1 we...

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with sedentary behavior in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Paula Jaudy Pedroso; Domingos, Isabela Prado; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Ana Paula MURARO; Sichieri, Rosely; Regina Maria Veras GONÇALVES-SILVA

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of sedentary behavior and associated factors in adolescents. METHODS A cross-sectional study with adolescents aged 10 to 17 years, of both sexes, belonging to a 1994-1999 birth cohort in the city of Cuiabá, MT, Central Western Brazil. Data were collected using a questionnaire containing sociodemographic, economic, lifestyle and anthropometric variables. Sedentary behavior was determined as using television and/or computer/video games for a time greater than...

  13. A Prospective Study of Adolescent Suicidal Behavior Following Hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cheryl A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Identifies specific predictors of suicidal behavior in 100 adolescents during a 6-month follow-up period after psychiatric hospitalization. Eighteen percent reported suicidal behavior during the follow-up period, and this behavior was associated with suicidal thoughts, family dysfunction, and dysthymia. It was not associated with initial…

  14. Clustering of Adolescent Dating Violence, Peer Violence, and Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossarte, Robert M.; Simon, Thomas R.; Swahn, Monica H.

    2008-01-01

    To understand the co-occurrence of multiple types of violence, the authors developed a behavioral typology based on self-reports of suicidal behaviors, physical violence, and psychological abuse. Using a sample of dating adolescents from a high-risk school district, they identified five clusters of behaviors among the 1,653 students who reported…

  15. The attitude of adolescents to aggressive behavior in sports and the factors that influence such behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Čižauskas, Liutauras

    2006-01-01

    THE ATTITUDE OF ADOLESCENTS TO AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR IN SPORTS AND THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE SUCH BEHAVIOR Keywords: aggression, sports, children. Scientists, psychologists, teachers, and students nowadays pay a lot of attention to the increasing wave of aggression among adolescents. This problem is broadly studied in different journals; in manuals the whole chapters are dedicated to it but it has not been studied a lot in Lithuanian context. In sports, namely among adolescents, diffe...

  16. Peer relations, adolescent behavior, and public health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea

    2008-01-01

    Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.

  17. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative–motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increased lifetime risks for the development of alcohol dependence, violence, and injuries. Brain synapses, myelination, and neural circuits mature in adolescence to adult levels in parallel with increased reflection on the consequence of actions and reduced impulsivity and thrill seeking. Alcohol binge drinking could alter human development, but variations in genetics, peer groups, family structure, early life experiences, and the emergence of psychopathology in humans confound studies. As adolescence is common to mammalian species, preclinical models of binge drinking provide insight into the direct impact of alcohol on adolescent development. This review relates human findings to basic science studies, particularly the preclinical studies of the Neurobiology of Adolescent Drinking in Adulthood (NADIA) Consortium. These studies focus on persistent adult changes in neurobiology and behavior following adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE), a model of underage drinking. NADIA studies and others find that AIE results in the following: increases in adult alcohol drinking, disinhibition, and social anxiety; altered adult synapses, cognition, and sleep; reduced adult neurogenesis, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurons; and increased neuroimmune gene expression and epigenetic modifiers of gene expression. Many of these effects are specific to adolescents and not found in parallel adult studies. AIE can cause a persistence of adolescent-like synaptic physiology, behavior, and sensitivity

  18. Systematic Review of Social Network Analysis in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Huang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social networks are important in adolescent smoking behavior. Previous research indicates that peer context is a major causal factor of adolescent smoking behavior. To date, however, little is known about the influence of peer group structure on adolescent smoking behavior. Methods: Studies that examined adolescent social networks with…

  19. Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Suicidal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joav Merrick

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been assumed that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. The few studies that have been conducted contest this assumption, and in fact, the findings showed that the characteristics of suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability are very similar to other adolescents without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the few studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population.

  20. EATING BEHAVIOR DISORDERS OF FEMALE ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Burgić-Radmanović, Marija; Gavrić, Živana; Štrkić, Dijana

    2009-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a period of significant physical, emotional and intellectual changes, as well as changes in social roles, relations and expectations. Objective: Our objective was to inquire into eating attitudes among female adolescents. Subjects and method: The sample consisted of female adolescents, age of 16-17, attending first grade Economic and Medical Secondary School pupils in Banja Luka, 2007. Survey questionnaire (16 questions) is a scale for self-rating of eating di...

  1. Parenting Behavior, Quality of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship, and Adolescent Functioning in Four Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    The cross-ethnic similarity in the pattern of associations among parenting behavior (support and authoritative and restrictive control), the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship (disclosure and positive and negative quality), and several developmental outcomes (aggressive behavior, delinquent behavior, and global self-esteem) was tested.…

  2. Parental and adolescent health behaviors and pathways to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauldry, Shawn; Shanahan, Michael J; Macmillan, Ross; Miech, Richard A; Boardman, Jason D; O Dean, Danielle; Cole, Veronica

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines associations among parental and adolescent health behaviors and pathways to adulthood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we identify a set of latent classes describing pathways into adulthood and examine health-related predictors of these pathways. The identified pathways are consistent with prior research using other sources of data. Results also show that both adolescent and parental health behaviors differentiate pathways. Parental and adolescent smoking are associated with lowered probability of the higher education pathway and higher likelihood of the work and the work & family pathways (entry into the workforce soon after high school completion). Adolescent drinking is positively associated with the work pathway and the higher education pathway, but decreases the likelihood of the work & family pathway. Neither parental nor adolescent obesity are associated with any of the pathways to adulthood. When combined, parental/adolescent smoking and adolescent drinking are associated with displacement from the basic institutions of school, work, and family. PMID:27194662

  3. Social-cognitive correlates of risky adolescent cycling behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiter Robert AC

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bicycle use entails high safety and health risks especially for adolescents. Most safety education programs aimed at adolescents focus on accident statistics and risk perceptions. This paper proposes the investigation of the social-cognitive correlates of risky cycling behaviors of adolescents prior to developing safety education programs. Method Secondary school students aged 13 to 18 years (n = 1446 filled out questionnaires regarding bicycle behavior, risky intentions, accident experience, and social-cognitive determinants as suggested by the theory of planned behavior. Results Regression analysis revealed that the proximal variables (i.e., self-efficacy, attitudes towards drunk driving, personal norm regarding safekeeping of self and others, and compared risk were able to predict 17% of the variance of risky behavior and 23% of the variance of risky intentions. The full model explained respectively 29% and 37% of the variance in risky behavior and risky intentions. Adolescents with positive attitudes towards risky behavior and low sense of responsibility report risky behavior, even when having been (close to an accident. Conclusions Adolescents realize whether they are risk takers or not. This implies that the focus of education programs should not be on risk perceptions, but on decreasing positive attitudes towards alcohol in traffic and increasing sense of responsibility instead. Cognitions regarding near accidents should be studied, the role of safe cycling self-efficacy is unclear.

  4. Adolescents' emotional reactions to parental cancer : effect on emotional and behavioral problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donofrio, Stacey; Hoekstra, Harald J.; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.; Visser, Annemieke; Huizinga, Gea A.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined adolescents' emotional reactions to parental cancer and explored relationships between emotional reactions and adolescents' emotional/behavioral problems. METHODS: Two studies were performed: retrospective and prospective. A total of 221 adolescents (105 sons) of 138 patients

  5. Peer influence on snacking behavior in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Eveline; Larsen, Junilla; Kremers, Stef; Dagnelie, Pieter; Geenen, Rinie

    2010-01-01

    To examine the association of adolescents' snack and soft drink consumption with friendship group snack and soft drink consumption, availability of snacks and soft drinks at school, and personal characteristics, snack and soft drink consumption was assessed in 749 adolescents (398 girls, 351 boys, a

  6. Rational Choice and Developmental Influences on Recidivism Among Adolescent Felony Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Fagan, Jeffrey; Piquero, Alex R.

    2007-01-01

    Recent case law and social science both have claimed that the developmental limitations of adolescents affect their capacity for control and decision making with respect to crime, diminishing their culpability and reducing their exposure to punishment. Social science has focused on two concurrent adolescent developmental influences: the internalization of legal rules and norms that regulate social and antisocial behaviors, and the development of rationality to frame behavioral choices and dec...

  7. Family Relationships and Parental Monitoring during Middle School as Predictors of Early Adolescent Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Winter, Charlotte E.

    2012-01-01

    The middle school years are a period of increased risk for youths' engagement in antisocial behaviors, substance use, and affiliation with deviant peers (Dishion & Patterson, 2006). This study examined the specific role of parental monitoring and of family relationships (mother, father, and sibling) that are all critical to the deterrence of…

  8. Affective decision-making predictive of Chinese adolescent drinking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lin; Bechara, Antoine; Grenard, L Jerry; Stacy, W Alan; Palmer, Paula; Wei, Yonglan; Jia, Yong; Fu, Xiaolu; Johnson, C Anderson

    2009-07-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to address whether affective decision making would serve as a unique neuropsychological marker to predict drinking behaviors among adolescents. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu city, China. In their 10th grade (ages 15-16), these adolescents were tested for their affective decision-making ability using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and working memory capacity using the Self-Ordered Pointing Test. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess academic performance and drinking behaviors. At 1-year follow-up, questionnaires were completed to assess drinking behaviors, and the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale was used to examine four dimensions of impulsivity: urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking. Results indicated that those adolescents who progressed to binge drinking or exhibited consistent binge drinking not only performed poorly on the IGT but also scored significantly higher in urgency compared to those who never or occasionally drank. Moreover, better IGT scores predicted fewer drinking problems and fewer drinks 1 year later after controlling for demographic variables, the previous drinking behaviors, working memory, and impulsivity. These findings suggest that deficits in affective decision making may be important independent determinants of compulsive drinking and potentially addictive behavior in adolescents. PMID:19573273

  9. The role of the monoamine oxidase A gene in moderating the response to adversity and associated antisocial behavior: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Buades-Rotger M; Gallardo-Pujol D

    2014-01-01

    Macià Buades-Rotger,1,2 David Gallardo-Pujol1,3 1Department of Personality, Faculty of Psychology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; 3Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior (IR3C), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Hereditary factors are increasingly attracting the interest of behavioral scientists and practitioners. Our aim in the present article is to introduce some...

  10. Adolescent perceptions as mediators of parenting: genetic and environmental contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiderhiser, J M; Pike, A; Hetherington, E M; Reiss, D

    1998-11-01

    Explaining how genetic factors contribute to associations between parenting and adolescent adjustment is an important next step in developmental research. This study examined the mediating effect of adolescent perceptions on these associations and the genetic and environmental influences underpinning the mediated relationship. Parent, adolescent, and observer ratings of parenting and adolescent adjustment were used in a genetically informative sample of 720 same-sex sibling pairs from 10 to 18 years old. Adolescent perceptions of parenting did significantly mediate a composite measure of parental conflict-negativity and adolescent antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms. The most substantial genetic contributions to the association between parenting and adolescent maladjustment were those mediated by adolescent perceptions. Once genetic and environmental contributions to adolescent perceptions of parenting were removed, shared environmental factors became more important for the remaining direct association. PMID:9823525

  11. Empathy and Drug Use Behaviors among African-American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2011-01-01

    The current study proposed that empathy may indirectly play a protective role for adolescents in drug use behaviors and that this relationship will be mediated by self-regulatory strategies found in drug refusal efficacy. We predict that empathy will be linked to prosocial behavior and aggression, though we do not believe that they will mediate…

  12. Friends: The Role of Peer Influence across Adolescent Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined peer influence for 1,969 adolescents across 5 risk behaviors: smoking, alcohol consumption, marijuana use, tobacco chewing, and sexual debut. Results show that a random same-sex peer predicts a teen's risk behavior initiation through influence to initiate cigarette and marijuana use, and influence to initiate and stop alcohol and chewing…

  13. Cognitive Behavioral Interventions with Maltreated Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduyn, Chrissie; Calam, Rachel

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of cognitive behavioral interventions with abused children and adolescents covers use of cognitive therapy with adults, therapeutic processes in cognitive therapy, involvement of parents and carers in cognitive behavioral therapy, and cognitive schema and maltreatment. Application is made to types of abuse (physical, emotional, sexual)…

  14. Exposure to Terrorism and Violent Behavior among Adolescents in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Chen, Merav Solomon; Itzhaky, Haya

    2007-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that exposure to terrorism may lead to violent behavior, but there is little empirical research on the relationship between these two variables. In the present paper, we examined the extent to which exposure to terrorism contributes to violent behavior among adolescents. In addition, we considered the role of environmental…

  15. Family dysfunction in adolescents with suicidal behavior and in adolescents with conduct disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović-Kovačević Svetlana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The period of life known as adolescence generally refers to transition from childhood to adulthood. Adolescents' progress toward autonomy involves remaining connected with, as well as separated from parents. Young people and their parents usually have mixed feelings about adolescent autonomy and attachment. An estimated 50% of children born in the 80s have spent part of their developmental years in single-parent households. Divorce is almost always a stressful event in children's lives. Youthful suicide rate has increased dramatically and is the third leading cause of death among 15-19 year olds. Conduct disorder is one of the most frequently diagnosed conditions in adolescents. Suicidal adolescents and adolescents with conduct disorder are much more likely than their peers to have grown up in disrupted, disorganized homes with lack of attachment between parents and their children. Material and methods This prospective study was carried out during 2002, 2003, and 2004. The research included 60 adolescents treated at the Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Novi Sad, 30 with diagnosed conduct disorder and 30 with suicidal behavior. Results Along with other kinds of distress, suicidal adolescents have experienced an escalation of family problems a few months prior to attempted suicide. Discussion Divorce and life in single-parent households is almost always a stressful period in children's lives. Conduct disorder and suicidal behavior represent a desperate cry for help. Conclusion Most adolescents in both groups live in single-parent house­holds. These young people have frequently passed into adolescence with little reason to feel that they could rely on their parents for support, or on their home as a place of sanctuary. .

  16. Associations between child disciplinary practices and bullying behavior in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Graziela A.H. Zottis; Giovanni A. Salum; Luciano R. Isolan; Manfro, Gisele G.; Elizeth Heldt

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to investigate associations between different types of child disciplinary practices and children and adolescents' bullying behavior in a Brazilian sample. METHODS: cross-sectional study, with a school-based sample of 10-to 15-year-old children and adolescents. Child disciplinary practices were assessed using two main subtypes: power-assertive and punitive (psychological aggression, corporal punishment, deprivation of privileges, and penalty tasks) and inductive (explaining, re...

  17. Behavior assessments of pregnant adolescents using TFA Systems (tm)

    OpenAIRE

    Bundy, Patricia Pulliam

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess the thoughts, feelings, and actions of pregnant teens at significant decision-making times: time of intercourse, confirmation of pregnancy, and six weeks post delivery. Factors associated with adolescent pregnancy and patterns of behavior were analyzed. Examination of the extant literature on adolescent pregnancy yielded insight into parental, socio-economic, and partner factors. The interview protocol emanated from the literature anal...

  18. SEXUAL HEALTH BEHAVIORS OF ADOLESCENTS IN POKHARA, NEPAL

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    Shrestha Niranjan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adolescent (10–19 years is a transition of age during which hazardous sexual health behaviors may be adopted; increasing vulnerability to several kinds of behavioral disorders like drug use, unsafe sexual act leading to reproductive ill health. Objective of the study was to assess sexual health behaviors of adolescents in Pokhara, Nepal. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 15–19 years adolescents studying in grades 11 and 12. Probability sampling techniques were applied. A structured, pretested, envelope sealed self administered questionnaire was distributed among all (1584 adolescents of the 11 and 12 grades of selected institutions. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (16 versions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. RESULTS: About 19.37% adolescents had sexual contact and male participation was higher than females (P<0.05. Nearly one fifth of unmarried were found to be involved in sexual activities and most of them had first sex between 15-19 years age (median age 15.26 years. Of those who had sex, 6.91% had adopted all the three: vaginal, oral and anal sexes and majority had single followed by 2-5 sex partners in their sexual intercourse in the last one year and last month. About 13.93% adolescents were found to be indulged in group sex. Most of them had sex with regular partners and commercial sex workers. More than eight out of every ten who had sex had used contraceptive methods and condom was method of choice (94.77%. CONCLUSIONS: Premarital sexual involvement was prevalent among adolescents; sex with commercial sex workers and non commercial sex partners was perceived to be risk. Behavior change intervention strategies need to be formulated and implemented to promote adolescent reproductive and sexual health.

  19. A Longitudinal Family-Level Model of Arab Muslim Adolescent Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.; Templin, Thomas N.; Hough, Edythe Ellison; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Katz, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Arab-American Muslim adolescents in immigrant families face a number of challenges that put them at risk for behavior problems. This study of Arab-American Muslim Adolescents and their relatively recent immigrant mothers tested a longitudinal family-level model of adolescent behavior problems. Mother-adolescent dyads (N = 530) completed measures…

  20. The stability of externalizing behavior in boys from preschool age to adolescence: A person-oriented analysis

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    Mark Stemmler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuity of externalizing behaviors such as aggression, delinquency and hyperactivity has been noted by many researchers. There is also increasing knowledge on different developmental subtypes of problem behavior. In previous person-oriented analyses we found two types of externalizing problems in boys (Stemmler et al., 2005, 2008; Stemmler & Lösel, 2010. One pattern contained externalizing problems only, whereas the other type showed both externalizing and internalizing problems. The present study addressed these two groups in an extended prospective longitudinal design. It was investigated whether the groups remained stable over time and whether the two types of antisociality were related to offending in adolescence. The sample consisted of 295 boys from the Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study (Lösel et al., 2009. Social behavior was rated by mothers, kindergarten educators, and school teachers; offending was self-reported by the adolescents. The time lag between the first and last data assessment was more than eight years.Approximately nine percent of the boys revealed stable externalizing behavior problems over the entire assessment period. Criminal behavior correlated positively with externalizing problems and negatively with internalizing problems. In a person-oriented Prediction-Configural Frequency Analysis (P-CFA; von Eye, 2002 the ‘externalizing only’ pattern could be replicated and suggested high stability over time. Moreover, this pattern was clearly related to self-reported delinquent behavior. In contrast to our previous studies with shorter follow up periods, the ‘combined externalizing and internalizing’ pattern did not appear as a type. It was also not significantly related to juvenile offending. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed.

  1. Pathological Fire Setting Behavior in Children and Adolescents

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    Fatmagul Helvaci Celik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pathological fire setting behavior is characterized by various types of fire setting behavior that lasts at least 6 months. This behavior can be observed both during childhood and adolescence and it develops as a result of the complex interaction between individual, social and environmental factors. Sample population based studies show that fire setting behavior occurs in children and adolescents by 5-10%. The studies that have been conducted have yielded to various theories and findings concerning the mechanism of occurrence of pathological fire setting behavior, the factors that affect this behavior and the demographic, individual, family and environmental characteristics of the children and adolescents who engage in such behavior. The objectives of effective treatment strategies are reducing fire setting behavior as well as making significant changes in the causes underlying the psychopathology. Outpatient care is the preferred method. In addition, there are some inpatient treatment programs designed especially for young people who set fires. The two most common approaches in intervention concerning fire setting behavior are firefighting (fire service based training interventions and mental health based psycho-social interventions. Even though numerous studies have been conducted in the world concerning pathological fire setting behavior from the 19th century onwards, no epidemiological data or study on pathological fire setting behavior exists in Turkey. This seems to be the case in our country despite the fact that fire setting behavior at various degrees and even arson occurs in children and adolescents and results in material damage as well as serious injury and even death especially in the context of children who are pushed into crime. Our objective is to discuss pathological fire setting behavior in line with the literature on the subject, to increase the awareness of the fire service institutions and to shed light on further studies to

  2. Information Management Strategies in Early Adolescence: Developmental Change in Use and Transactional Associations with Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.; Melching, Jessica A.; Kuhn, Emily S.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents use various strategies to manage their parents' access to information. This study tested developmental change in strategy use, longitudinal associations between disclosing and concealing strategies, and longitudinal associations linking disclosing and concealing strategies with antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms. Self-report…

  3. Aggression toward Female Partners by At-Risk Young Men: The Contribution of Male Adolescent Friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Yoerger, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Examined deviancy training as a risk factor for aggression toward female partners among boys and young men in the longitudinal Oregon Youth Study. Found that the relation of adolescent deviant peer association and later aggression toward partners was mediated by antisocial behavior. Observed hostile talk about women with male peers explained…

  4. Psychophysiology of Adolescent Peer Relations II: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Close, Dianna

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have made significant progress in the investigation of how physiological measures can inform the study of adolescent peer functioning, including peer processes involving antisocial behavior, victimization, and peer social status. This paper highlights how the inclusion of physiological processes in research studies can address several…

  5. Testing a Model of Resistance to Peer Pressure among Mexican-Origin Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamaca, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the factors associated with resistance to peer pressure toward antisocial behaviors among a sample of Mexican-origin adolescents (n=564) living in a large Southwestern city in the U.S. A model examining the influence of generational status, emotional autonomy from parents, and self-esteem on resistance to peer pressure was…

  6. Conceptualising Animal Abuse with an Antisocial Behaviour Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Eleonora Gullone

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary There is increasing acceptance of the links between animal abuse and aggressive or antisocial behaviours toward humans. Nevertheless, researchers and other professionals continue to call for methodologically sound empirical research amongst claims that current animal abuse research is methodologically limited. Below, I argue that current conceptualizations of antisocial and aggressive human behavior logically incorporate animal abuse. Given that the body of empirical evidence a...

  7. Perceived parental permissiveness toward gambling and risky behaviors in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Leeman, Robert F.; Patock-Peckham, Julie A.; Hoff, Rani A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen J.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Perceived parental permissiveness toward gambling may relate to adolescents’ engagement in various risky behaviors. To examine this possibility, we analyzed data from a high-school based risk-behavior survey to assess relationships between perceived parental permissiveness toward gambling and adolescent gambling behavior, substance use and related problems. We also evaluated predictions that relationships between perceived parental permissiveness toward gambling and risky...

  8. Configurations of Adolescents' Peer Experiences : Associations With Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Parental Problem Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Meeus, Wim; Verhulst, Frank C.; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents' peer experiences embrace behavior, relationship quality, status, and victimization, but studies that account for multiple dimensions are rare. Using latent profile modeling and measures of peer behavior, relationship quality, peer status, and victimization assessed from 1,677 adolescent

  9. [Behavioral disorders and substance abuse in adolescents with mental retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk

    2014-01-01

    The percentage of people with mental retardation in the general population is estimated at about 2.3%, with adolescence (15-20 years) constituting the development period during which a peak in rates of mental retardation is observed. The increased prevalence of adolescence may be explained from the fact that the specified requirements of the school initially, and society later, inevitably lead to comparative evaluation of the teen with mental retardation in relation to peers, thus making mental retardation more apparent. Adolescents with mental retardation face a number of physical and psychological needs which are not often distinguishable and as a consequence undergo the deterioration of their already burdened quality of life. In particular, mental health problems occur 3 to 4 times more often in adolescents with mental retardation compared with adolescents of the general population. This review presents the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the correlation between behavioral disorders, substance use and the possible comorbidity in adolescents with intellectual disability, both at community level and residential care level. Epidemiological data indicate that behavioral disorders are among the most common types of psychopathology in mentally retarded adolescents with the severity and symptoms varying depending on the personal characteristics of each adolescent. Regarding substance use, the available data show that the rates of substance use (alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs) are lower in this specific population group but the differences over the last years tend to be eliminated. Finally, according to the few surveys that were examined referring to the comorbidity of behavioral disorders and substance use in adolescents with intellectual disability, the results were contradictory. Specifically, while behavioral disorders continued to be one of the most common types of psychopathology, the related substances disorders indicated lower rates compared to

  10. Determination of Risky Health Behaviors of Immigrant and Nonimmigrant Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Kalkim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AiM: This study was planned as a descriptive study in order to investigate risky health behaviors of immigrant and non immigrant adolescents. METHODS: The study was performed in a high school situated Izmir between the dates of October and November 2008. Sample group of this research was included 293 immigrant and 813 non immigrant adolescents. Data were collected by using Socio-demographic question form and and Health Risk Behaviors Scale. Data were collected from students with a technical pencil-paper by researcher in classroom. Frequencies, one way anova (post-hoc bonferroni and independent t test were used with Stastical Package for Social Science 13.0 program for statistical analysis of data. Written consent was taken from Izmir Directorate of Education to carry out the study. Oral consent was taken from the school manager and the students. RESULTS: Mean age of adolescents was 15.42+/-0.03. It was determined that risky health behaviors mean score (t: 2.161, p: 0.031 and physical activity (t: 2.132, p: 0.033, nutrition (t:3.030, p: 0.003, hygiene (t: 3.850, p: 0.000 sub-scales mean scores of immigrant adolescent were statistically higher than non immigrant adolescents (p<0.05. CONCLUSiONS: Consequently, this study was important to health professionals worked primary health services and school health services The study have significant data about migration affects on health behaviors of adolescent to show health professionals worked primary care and school health services and to plan health services towards adolescents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(4.000: 289-294

  11. Maternal drinking behavior and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in adolescents with criminal behavior in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Wakana Momino; Têmis Maria Félix; Alberto Mantovani Abeche; Denise Isabel Zandoná; Gabriela Gayer Scheibler; Christina Chambers; Kenneth Lyons Jones; Renato Zamora Flores; Lavínia Schüler-Faccini

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazilian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well a...

  12. Why are adolescents violent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Garbarino

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how adolescents become violent from the perspective of human development, in which the process of formation of the child and the youth depends on diverse biological, psychological e social variables that constitute the context of life of these individuals. The ecological perspective of human development opposes simple cause-effect relations between antisocial adversities and behaviors and believes that factors such as gender, temperament, cognitive ability, age, family, social environment and culture combine in a complex way influencing the behavior of the child and the adolescent. Some conclusions point to the fact that violence in adolescence usually starts from a combination of early difficulties in relationships associated with a combination of temperamental difficulties. It is concluded that the young seem to be as bad as the social environment surrounding them.

  13. Preventing Adolescent Risk Behavior in the Rural Context: An Integrative Analysis of Adolescent, Parent, and Provider Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishel, Carrie W.; Cottrell, Lesley; Kingery, Tricia

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent risk behavior remains prevalent and contributes to numerous social problems and growing health care costs. Contrary to popular perception, adolescents in rural areas engage in risky behaviors at least as much as youth from urban or suburban settings. Little research, however, focuses on risk behavior prevention in the rural context.…

  14. Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Co-Occurring Somatic Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeseburg, B.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence on the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and the full range of pervasive developmental disorder behavior (PDD behavior) is scarce. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and mild PDD behavior. We obtained data on 1044 ID-adolescents, aged…

  15. Emotional Desensitization to Violence Contributes to Adolescents' Violent Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Many adolescents are exposed to violence in their schools, communities and homes. Exposure to violence at high levels or across multiple contexts has been linked with emotional desensitization, indicated by low levels of internalizing symptoms. However, the long-term consequences of such desensitization are unknown. This study examined emotional desensitization to violence, together with externalizing problems, as mediators of the relationship between exposure to violence in pre-adolescence and violent behavior in late adolescence. A community sample of youth (N = 704; 48% female; 76% African American, 22% Caucasian) reported on their exposure to violence in multiple settings at ages 11, 13 and 18. Internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed at ages 11 and 13; violent behavior was measured at age 18. Structural Equation Modeling showed that exposure to high levels of violence at age 11 was associated with lower levels of internalizing problems (quadratic effect) at age 13, as was exposure to violence across multiple contexts (linear effect). In turn, fewer internalizing problems and more externalizing problems at age 13 predicted more violent behavior at age 18. The results suggest that emotional desensitization to violence in early adolescence contributes to serious violence in late adolescence.

  16. Examining transactional influences between reading achievement and antisocially-behaving friends

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Sara A.; Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Johnson, Wendy; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette

    2014-01-01

    The association between poorer academic outcomes and having antisocial friends is reliably demonstrated yet not well understood. Genetically sensitive designs uniquely allow for measuring genetic vulnerabilities and/or environmental risk in the association of antisocial friend behavior and poor school achievement, allowing for a better understanding of the nature of the association. This study included 233 pairs of twins from the Florida Twin Project on Reading. First, the role of antisocial ...

  17. Sexual behavior among Brazilian adolescents, National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Maryane Oliveira-Campos; Marília Lavocart Nunes; Fátima Carvalho Madeira; Maria Goreth Santos; Silvia Reise Bregmann; Deborah Carvalho Malta; Luana Giatti; Sandhi Maria Barreto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study describes the sexual behavior among students who participated in the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) 2012 and investigates whether social inequalities, the use of psychoactive substances and the dissemination of information on sexual and reproductive health in school are associated with differences in behavior. METHODOLOGY: The response variable was the sexual behavior described in three categories (never had sexual intercourse, had protected ...

  18. Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Behaviors, Adolescent Self-Esteem, and Adolescent Depressed Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, Scott W.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Behnke, Andrew; Falcon, Pedro C., III

    2007-01-01

    Using symbolic interaction, we developed a research model that proposed adolescent perceptions of parental support and psychological control would be related to adolescent depressed mood directly and indirectly through self-esteem. We tested the model using self-report questionnaire data from 161 adolescents living with both of their biological…

  19. Ecstasy Use and Suicidal Behavior Among Adolescents: Findings from a National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jueun; Fan, Bin; Liu, Xinhua; Kerner, Nancy; Wu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between ecstasy use and suicidal behaviors among adolescents in the United States. Data from the adolescent subsample (ages 12–17, N=19,301) of the 2000 NHSDA were used in the analyses. Information on adolescent substance use, suicidal behaviors and related socio-demographic, family and individual factors was obtained in the survey. The rate of past year suicide attempt among adolescents with lifetime ecstasy use was almost double that of adolescents who h...

  20. The Impact of School Connectedness on Violent Behavior, Transport Risk-Taking Behavior, and Associated Injuries in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Rebekah L.; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary C.; Shochet, Ian M.; Romaniuk, Madeline

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents engage in many risk-taking behaviors that have the potential to lead to injury. The school environment has a significant role in shaping adolescent behavior, and this study aimed to provide additional information about the benefits associated with connectedness to school. Early adolescents aged 13 to 15 years (N=509, 49% boys) were…

  1. HTR3B is associated with alcoholism with antisocial behavior and alpha EEG power--an intermediate phenotype for alcoholism and co-morbid behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducci, Francesca; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Yuan, Qiaoping; Shen, Pei-Hong; White, Kenneth V; Hodgkinson, Colin; Albaugh, Bernard; Virkkunen, Matti; Goldman, David

    2009-02-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) with co-morbid antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) have been associated with serotonin (5-HT) dysfunction. 5-HT3 receptors are potentiated by ethanol and appear to modulate reward. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists may be useful in the treatment of early-onset alcoholics with co-morbid ASPD. Low-voltage alpha electroencephalogram (EEG) power, a highly heritable trait, has been associated with both AUD and ASPD. A recent whole genome linkage scan in one of our samples, Plains American Indians (PI), has shown a suggestive linkage peak for alpha power at the 5-HT3R locus. We tested whether genetic variation within the HTR3A and HTR3B genes influences vulnerability to AUD with comorbid ASPD (AUD+ASPD) and moderates alpha power. Our study included three samples: 284 criminal alcoholic Finnish Caucasians and 234 controls; two independent community-ascertained samples with resting EEG recordings: a predominantly Caucasian sample of 191 individuals (Bethesda) and 306 PI. In the Finns, an intronic HTR3B SNP rs3782025 was associated with AUD+ASPD (P=.004). In the Bethesda sample, the same allele predicted lower alpha power (P=7.37e(-5)). Associations between alpha power and two other HTR3B SNPs were also observed among PI (P=.03). One haplotype in the haplotype block at the 3' region of the gene that included rs3782025 was associated with AUD+ASPD in the Finns (P=.02) and with reduced alpha power in the Bethesda population (P=.00009). Another haplotype in this block was associated with alpha power among PI (P=.03). No associations were found for HTR3A. Genetic variation within HTR3B may influence vulnerability to develop AUD with comorbid ASPD. 5-HT3R might contribute to the imbalance between excitation and inhibition that characterize the brain of alcoholics. PMID:19185213

  2. HTR3B is associated with alcoholism with antisocial behavior and alpha EEG power—an intermediate phenotype for alcoholism and co-morbid behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducci, Francesca; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Yuan, Qiaoping; Shen, Pei-Hong; White, Kenneth V.; Hodgkinson, Colin; Albaugh, Bernard; Virkkunen, Matti; Goldman, David

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) with co-morbid antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) have been associated with serotonin (5-HT) dysfunction. 5-HT3 receptors are potentiated by ethanol and appear to modulate reward. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists may be useful in the treatment of early-onset alcoholics with co-morbid ASPD. Low-voltage alpha electroencephalogram (EEG) power, a highly heritable trait, has been associated with both AUD and ASPD. A recent whole genome linkage scan in one of our samples, Plains American Indians (PI), has shown a suggestive linkage peak for alpha power at the 5-HT3R locus. We tested whether genetic variation within the HTR3A and HTR3B genes influences vulnerability to AUD with comorbid ASPD (AUD + ASPD) and moderates alpha power. Our study included three samples: 284 criminal alcoholic Finnish Caucasians and 234 controls; two independent community-ascertained samples with resting EEG recordings: a predominantly Caucasian sample of 191 individuals (Bethesda) and 306 PI. In the Finns, an intronic HTR3B SNP rs3782025 was associated with AUD + ASPD (P = .004). In the Bethesda sample, the same allele predicted lower alpha power (P = 7.37e-5). Associations between alpha power and two other HTR3B SNPs were also observed among PI (P = .03). One haplotype in the haplotype block at the 3′ region of the gene that included rs3782025 was associated with AUD + ASPD in the Finns (P = .02) and with reduced alpha power in the Bethesda population (P = .00009). Another haplotype in this block was associated with alpha power among PI (P = .03). No associations were found for HTR3A. Genetic variation within HTR3B may influence vulnerability to develop AUD with comorbid ASPD. 5-HT3R might contribute to the imbalance between excitation and inhibition that characterize the brain of alcoholics. PMID:19185213

  3. Parental Socialization and Adolescents' Alcohol Use Behaviors: Predictive Disparities in Parents' versus Adolescents' Perceptions of the Parenting Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latendresse, Shawn J.; Rose, Richard J.; Viken, Richard J.; Pulkkinen, Lea; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M.

    2009-01-01

    Among adolescents, many parenting practices have been associated with the initiation and development of drinking behaviors. However, recent studies suggest discrepancies in parents' and adolescents' perceptions of parenting and their links with adolescent use. In this study, we derive two independent sets of underlying parenting profiles (based on…

  4. Sensation seeking predicting growth in adolescent problem behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byck, Gayle R; Swann, Gregory; Schalet, Benjamin; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-06-01

    There is limited literature on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent risk behaviors, particularly among African Americans. We tested the association between psychometrically-derived subscales of the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and the intercepts and slopes of individual growth curves of conduct problems, sexual risk taking, and substance use from ages 13 to 18 years by sex. Boys and girls had different associations between sensation seeking and baseline levels and growth of risk behaviors. The Pleasure Seeking scale was associated with baseline levels of conduct problems in boys and girls, baseline substance use in boys, and growth in sexual risk taking and substance use by girls. Girls had the same pattern of associations with the Danger/Novelty scale as the Pleasure Seeking scale. Knowledge about the relationships between adolescent risk taking and sensation seeking can help in the targeted design of prevention and intervention programs for the understudied population of very low-income, African American adolescents. PMID:25112599

  5. 运动员运动道德推脱与运动亲反社会行为的关系%Relationship between moral disengagement in sport and prosocial and antisocial behaviors in Chinese athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王栋; 陈作松

    2016-01-01

    Moral disengagement is a psychological process in which people use different cognitive strategies to justify their potentially problematic actions and to reduce feelings of shame and guilt. Athletes with high level of moral disengagement in sport may show more antisocial behavior and less prosocial behavior than other athletes. To date, most research investigating prosocial and antisocial behavior in sport has focused on behaviors directed at opponents. However, recent studies have also investigated prosocial and antisocial behavior within sport teams. Since the majority of past studies have been conducted in western countries, we know little about moral disengagement of Chinese athletes. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to develop a valid and reliable measure of sport moral disengagement and to examine the relationship between sport moral disengagement and prosocial and antisocial behavior among Chinese athletes. Study 1 sought to develop a sport-specific measure of moral disengagement for Chinese athletes. Forty-eight items were developed based on content analysis of interviews with athletes and mass media reports of transgressions of athletes. Two hundred and fifty-four Chinese athletes were asked to rate their agreement with each item, and their responses were used exploratory factor analyses (EFA). Results showed that 20 items loaded on five factors: (1) conduct reconstrual, (2) advantageous comparison, (3) euphemistic labeling, (4) dehumanization, and (5) non-responsibility. After this, another 283 Chinese athletes filled in the questionnaire. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that the 5-factor solution was stable and the internal reliability of each of the factors was acceptable. Study 2 tested the relationship between moral disengagement in sport and prosocial and antisocial behavior towards teammates and opponents. Three hundred and six Chinese athletes responded to the 20-items moral disengagement questionnaire developed in

  6. Adolescent health-risk behavior and community disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Wiehe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various forms of community disorder are associated with health outcomes but little is known about how dynamic context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behaviors. OBJECTIVE: Assess whether exposure to contexts associated with crime (as a marker of community disorder correlates with self-reported health-related behaviors among adolescent girls. METHODS: Girls (N = 52, aged 14-17, were recruited from a single geographic urban area and monitored for 1 week using a GPS-enabled cell phone. Adolescents completed an audio computer-assisted self-administered interview survey on substance use (cigarette, alcohol, or marijuana use and sexual intercourse in the last 30 days. In addition to recorded home and school address, phones transmitted location data every 5 minutes (path points. Using ArcGIS, we defined community disorder as aggregated point-level Unified Crime Report data within a 200-meter Euclidian buffer from home, school and each path point. Using Stata, we analyzed how exposures to areas of higher crime prevalence differed among girls who reported each behavior or not. RESULTS: Participants lived and spent time in areas with variable crime prevalence within 200 meters of their home, school and path points. Significant differences in exposure occurred based on home location among girls who reported any substance use or not (p 0.04 and sexual intercourse or not (p 0.01. Differences in exposure by school and path points were only significant among girls reporting any substance use or not (p 0.03 and 0.02, respectively. Exposure also varied by school/non-school day as well as time of day. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent travel patterns are not random. Furthermore, the crime context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behavior. These data may guide policy relating to crime control and inform time- and space-specific interventions to improve adolescent health.

  7. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Markowitz, Sarah; Petronko, Michael R.; Taylor, Caitlin E.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Wilson, G. Terence

    2010-01-01

    The onset of appearance-related concerns associated with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) typically occurs in adolescence, and these concerns are often severe enough to interfere with normal development and psychosocial functioning. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for adults with BDD. However, no treatment studies…

  8. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  9. Mothers' Economic Hardship and Behavior Problems in Their Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Ginger Lockhart; Roosa, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about the heightened prevalence of behavior problems among adolescents from low-income families have prompted researchers to understand processes through which economic variables influence functioning within multiple domains. Guided by a stress process framework and social contextual theory, this study examines processes linking perceived…

  10. Assessing the Eating Behaviors of Low-Income, Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, Mariane; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Garn, Alex C.; Shen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is a need for instruments that can accurately determine the effectiveness of nutrition interventions targeting low-income, inner-city adolescents. Purpose: To examine the development of a valid and reliable eating behavior scale (EBS) for use in school-based nutrition interventions in urban, inner-city communities dominated by…

  11. Behavioral management of headache in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faedda, Noemi; Cerutti, Rita; Verdecchia, Paola; Migliorini, Daniele; Arruda, Marco; Guidetti, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    Headache is the most frequent neurological symptom and the most prevalent pain in children and adolescents, and constitutes a serious health problem that may lead to impairment in several areas. Psychosocial factors, social environment, life events, school and family stressors are all closely related to headaches. A multidisciplinary strategy is fundamental in addressing headache in children and adolescents. Applying such a strategy can lead to reductions in frequency and severity of the pain, improving significantly the quality of life of these children.It has been demonstrated that behavioral intervention is highly effective, especially in the treatment of paediatric headache, and can enhance or replace pharmacotherapy, with the advantage of eliminating dangerous side effects and or reducing costs. Behavioral interventions appear to maximize long-term therapeutic benefits and improve compliance with pharmacological treatment, which has proven a significant problem with child and adolescent with headache.The goal of this review is to examine the existing literature on behavioral therapies used to treat headache in children and adolescents, and so provide an up-to-date picture of what behavioral therapy is and what its effectiveness is. PMID:27596923

  12. Counseling Children and Adolescents: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Humanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Describes specific parallels between rational emotive behavior therapy and humanism. Places specific emphasis on the application of these principles with children and adolescents. Concepts are illustrated with case studies and a description of the similarities between rational emotive and humanistic, or affective, education. Highlights emotional…

  13. Adolescent Health Behavior, Contentment in School, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P.; Helgason, Asgeir R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the association between health behavior indicators, school contentment, and academic achievement. Methods: Structural equation modeling with 5810 adolescents. Results: Our model explained 36% of the variance in academic achievement and 24% in school contentment. BMI and sedentary lifestyle were negatively related to school…

  14. Heavy Metal Music and Reckless Behavior among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    Fifty-four male and 30 female adolescents who like heavy metal music were compared on various outcome variables to 56 male and 105 female peers who do not like it. Those who like heavy metal report a wider range of reckless behavior than those who do not like it. (SLD)

  15. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  16. Father's and Mother's Psychological Violence and Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancon, Claudiane; Gagne, Marie-Helene

    2011-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological violence were examined as potential risk factors for internalized and externalized behavior problems displayed by adolescents. Childhood family violence (physical and psychological parental violence), current extrafamily violence (bullying and dating violence), and family structure were taken into account. A…

  17. Pain-Based Behavior with Children and Adolescents in Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Many actions of troubled children and adolescents can disguise and conceal their ever-present and deep-seated psycho-emotional pain. Adults living and working with these youth may overlook this pain in a strategy of avoidance. Labelling troubling behavior as "outbursts," "explosions," or "acting out," ignores the…

  18. Behavioral Phenotype of Fragile X Syndrome in Adolescence and Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Leann E.; Barker, Erin T.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Abbeduto, Leonard; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored the behavioral profile of individuals with fragile X syndrome during adolescence and adulthood. Individuals with both fragile X syndrome and autism (n = 30) were compared with (a) individuals diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (but not autism; n = 106) and (b) individuals diagnosed with autism (but not fragile X syndrome;…

  19. The typological approach to the risky behavior of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main research problem is focused on the following question: Is it possible to identify specific patterns of interaction between precipitating and protective factors for the risky behavior among adolescents. The research was conducted on the sample of 204 adolescents of both genders (18 to 20 years old. Specific personality traits and socio-demographic characteristics are manifested as the most important precipitating and/or protective factors for the risky behavior. The frame of reference for personality assessment was the alternative five-factor model (Zuckerman, 2002, specified in the ZKPQ-50-CC questionnaire, and consisted of the five biologically determined personality traits: activity, aggressiveness/hostility, impulsive sensation seeking, neuroticism/anxiety and sociability. Latent dimensions of the risky behavior: risky activities and life - conditions, were extracted by applying the homogeneity analyses (HOMALS. The matrix of squared Euclidean distances (in the common space of factor scores on the principal components of ZKPQ questionnaire, scores on HOMALS dimensions and school grades was a subject of the Ward hierarchical cluster analysis method, extracting three clusters. According to the discriminant functions: risk proneness and pro-social activity, the clusters were identified: the group of pro-social oriented adolescents, the aloof group and the group of adolescents prone to risky behavior. The results have considerable implications for the prevention programs’ development and implementation.

  20. Peer Group Socialization of Homophobic Attitudes and Behavior during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul

    2007-01-01

    A social developmental framework was applied to test for the socialization of homophobic attitudes and behavior within adolescent peer groups (Grades 7-11; aged 12-17 years). Substantial similarity within and differences across groups were documented. Multilevel models identified a group socializing contextual effect, predicting homophobic…

  1. Interpersonal and Affective Features of Psychopathy in Children and Adolescents: Advancing a Developmental Perspective--Introduction to Special Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Dustin A.; Loeber, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    The interpersonal (e.g., manipulative, deceitful) and affective (e.g., callous, unemotional) features associated with adult psychopathy have been identified in children and adolescents. Although early research suggests that these features have clinical utility in identifying a particularly severe and recalcitrant form of antisocial behavior with…

  2. Reputation, loneliness, satisfaction with life and aggressive behavior in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Buelga Vasquez, Sofia; Musuti, Gonzalo; Murgui Perez, Sergio; Pons Diez, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    The present study analyses the relationship between adolescents’ perception of reputation and aggressive behavior among peers. The sample is made up of 1319 adolescents aged 11 to 16 years old. Statistical analyses with structural equation modeling were carried out to examine the direct and indirect effect of perception of reputation (real and ideal) on aggressive behavior. Results indicate that adolescents’ real and ideal reputations are related both directly and indirectly to aggressive beh...

  3. Behavioral Phenotype of Fragile X Syndrome in Adolescence and Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Leann E.; Barker, Erin T.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Abbeduto, Leonard; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored the behavioral profile of individuals with fragile X syndrome during adolescence and adulthood. Individuals with both fragile X syndrome and autism (n = 30) were compared with (a) individuals diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (but not autism; n = 106) and (b) individuals diagnosed with autism (but not fragile X syndrome; n = 135) on measures of autism symptoms, adaptive functioning, behavior problems, and psychological symptoms. Results indicated that individuals du...

  4. REACTIVE AND PROACTIVE AGGRESSION IN ADOLESCENT MALES: Examining Differential Outcomes 10 Years Later in Early Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Fite, Paula J.; Raine, Adrian; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2009-01-01

    There is limited knowledge about the unique relations between adolescent reactive and proactive aggression and later psychosocial adjustment in early adulthood. Accordingly, this study prospectively examined associations between adolescent (mean age = 16) reactive and proactive aggression and psychopathic features, antisocial behavior, negative emotionality, and substance use measured 10 years later in early adulthood (mean age = 26). Study questions were examined in a longitudinal sample of ...

  5. Tattooing: another adolescent risk behavior warranting health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, M L; Murphy, K P

    1997-11-01

    A cross-sectional, convenient sample of adolescents (N = 2101) from 8 states were queried regarding interest in tattooing. Permanent markings and blood-borne diseases were reasons respondents refrain from tattooing, yet 55% (n = 1159) expressed an interest in tattooing. Tattooed adolescents in the sample (10%, n = 213) responded with their experiences. Tattooing was frequently done around the 9th grade and as early as 8 years of age; over half (56%, n = 120) report academic grades of As and Bs. Potential health risks and definite psychosocial findings of purchase and possession risks were evident, building on data from a similar 1994 study by Armstrong and McConnell. Health providers and educators should initiate applicable health education and become community adolescent advocates regarding this risk-taking behavior. Findings indicate that adolescents who want a tattoo will obtain one, regardless of money, regulations, or risks. Adolescents view the tattoos as objects of self-identity and body art, whereas adults perceive the markings as deviant behavior. Informed decision-making could be promoted in health education by incorporating information about the possibility of blood-borne diseases, permanent markings, and themselves as growing and changing people. PMID:9419914

  6. Comparison of Obesity, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behaviors between Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Without

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Stephanie M.; Jakicic, John M.; Barone Gibbs, Bethany

    2016-01-01

    Body mass index classification, physical activity (PA), and sedentary behaviors were compared in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to typically developing adolescents. Participants included 42,747 adolescents (ASD, n = 915) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. After controlling for covariates, adolescents were…

  7. Adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing behavior: The mediating role of individual and social factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L.A. de Vries; M. Hoeve; G.J.J.M. Stams; J.J. Asscher

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % m

  8. Parental Behavior and Adolescent Self-Esteem in Clinical and Nonclinical Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, David M.; Metha, Arlene

    1994-01-01

    Investigated relationships between self-esteem and adolescents' perceptions of parental behaviors using nonclinical (n=119) and clinical (n=30) adolescents. Nonclinical adolescents scored higher than clinical adolescents on all self-esteem dimensions. Males scored higher than females only on dimension of Self-Esteem Competence. Perceptions of…

  9. Etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Filgueiras, Juliana Fernandes; Oliveira, Fernanda da Costa; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to construct an etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls. A total of 1,358 adolescent girls from four cities participated. The study used psychometric scales to assess disordered eating behaviors, body dissatisfaction, media pressure, self-esteem, mood, depressive symptoms, and perfectionism. Weight, height, and skinfolds were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%F). Structural equation modeling explained 76% of variance in disordered eating behaviors (F(9, 1,351) = 74.50; p = 0.001). The findings indicate that body dissatisfaction mediated the relationship between media pressures, self-esteem, mood, BMI, %F, and disordered eating behaviors (F(9, 1,351) = 59.89; p = 0.001). Although depressive symptoms were not related to body dissatisfaction, the model indicated a direct relationship with disordered eating behaviors (F(2, 1,356) = 23.98; p = 0.001). In conclusion, only perfectionism failed to fit the etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls. PMID:27167040

  10. Factors Associated with Violent Behavior among Adolescents in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify prevalence and factors associated with violent behavior among adolescents in Aracaju and Metropolitan region. The study included 2207 adolescents (16.03 ± 1.08 years old enrolled in high schools of the State Public Network. Violent behavior was identified from question 14 of the YRBS-2007 questionnaire with responses categorized as “never” and “one or more times.” Higher prevalence in males in relation to risk factors for adoption of violent behavior was found: cigarette consumption (7.3%, alcohol consumption (39.1%, and marijuana use (3.4%. Data analysis used descriptive statistics and logistic regression with hierarchical model at two levels: (a sociodemographic variables and (b behavioral variables. For both sexes, association between violent behavior and cigarette smoking (OR = 3.77, CI 95% = 2.06–6.92 and OR = 1.99, CI 95% = 1.04 to 3.81, male and female, resp. and alcohol consumption (OR = 3.38, CI 95% = 2.22 to 5.16 and OR = 1.83, CI 95% = 1.28 to 2.63, male and female, resp. was verified. It was concluded that violent behavior is associated with the consumption of alcoholic beverages and cigarettes among adolescents.

  11. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  12. General characteristics of adolescent sexual behavior: National survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miodrag

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Investigation of adolescent sexual behavior carried out on a large sample is primarily motivated by health and social problems which can occur when young people practice sex without protection and necessary information. There is no data that the national study on adolescent sexual behavior has been conducted in the Serbian speaking area. Objective. Monitoring and follow-up of trends in adolescent sexual behavior. Methods. The investigation sample comprised 1101 adolescents (472 male and 629 female, aged 13-25 years. As an instrument of polling, the questionnaire 'Sexual Behavior' was used specifically designed for the purpose of this investigation. Results. Eighty-four percent of males and 65% of females reported having sexual experience. The age of the first sexual experience, total number of partners, number of sexual partners in the last year and the last month were investigated, and the number of loved and sexual partner compared. In addition, the length of foreplay, frequency of sexual activity, masturbation, sexual dreams and sexual daydreams and engagement into alternative sexual activities (oral sex, anal sex, group sex, exchange of partners were estimated, as well as the reasons for their practicing. Sexual desire and its correlation with personality dimensions, the frequency of sexual disorders (erectile and ejaculation problems, anorgasmia, abortion, rape and identification of the rapist, the use of condoms and other methods of contraception were assessed. Conclusion. It could be postulated that biological influence on sexual behavior is powerful and resistant to the influence of time and place, as well as socio-cultural religious influences. A high rate of premarital sexual activity with a number of sexual partners, a relatively low rate of condom use and the fact that 4% of the female adolescents in this sample had an induced abortion suggest that there are gaps in the education provided to adolescents about sexual and

  13. Adolescent-parent attachment as a mediator of relations between parenting and adolescent social behavior and wellbeing in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mengfei; Hardy, Sam A; Olsen, Joseph A; Nelson, David A; Yamawaki, Niwako

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine links between parenting dimensions (authoritative parenting, psychological control, and parental authority) and adolescent wellbeing (self-esteem, autonomy, and peer attachments) as mediated by parent-teen attachment, among Chinese families. The sample included 298 Chinese adolescents, ages 15-18 years (M(age) = 16.36, SD = .68; 60% female). The mediation model was examined using path analyses (one model with parental authority as overprotection, and one with it as perceived behavioral control). To improve model fit a direct path was added from authoritative parenting to autonomy. Authoritative parenting was positively predictive of attachment, while psychological control and overprotection (but not behavioral control) were negative predictors. In turn, adolescent-parent attachment was positively related to the three outcomes. Lastly, the model paths did not differ by adolescent gender. These findings suggest that parenting behaviors may play a crucial role in adolescent social behaviors and wellbeing via adolescent-parent attachment. PMID:23509911

  14. Adolescent-parent attachment as a mediator of relations between parenting and adolescent social behavior and wellbeing in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mengfei; Hardy, Sam A; Olsen, Joseph A; Nelson, David A; Yamawaki, Niwako

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine links between parenting dimensions (authoritative parenting, psychological control, and parental authority) and adolescent wellbeing (self-esteem, autonomy, and peer attachments) as mediated by parent-teen attachment, among Chinese families. The sample included 298 Chinese adolescents, ages 15-18 years (M(age) = 16.36, SD = .68; 60% female). The mediation model was examined using path analyses (one model with parental authority as overprotection, and one with it as perceived behavioral control). To improve model fit a direct path was added from authoritative parenting to autonomy. Authoritative parenting was positively predictive of attachment, while psychological control and overprotection (but not behavioral control) were negative predictors. In turn, adolescent-parent attachment was positively related to the three outcomes. Lastly, the model paths did not differ by adolescent gender. These findings suggest that parenting behaviors may play a crucial role in adolescent social behaviors and wellbeing via adolescent-parent attachment.

  15. Covariance among multiple health risk behaviors in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla de la Haye

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: In a diverse group of early adolescents, this study explores the co-occurrence of a broad range of health risk behaviors: alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use; physical inactivity; sedentary computing/gaming; and the consumption of low-nutrient energy-dense food. We tested differences in the associations of unhealthy behaviors over time, and by gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. METHODS: Participants were 8360 students from 16 middle schools in California (50% female; 52% Hispanic, 17% Asian, 16% White, and 15% Black/multiethnic/other. Behaviors were measured with surveys in Spring 2010 and Spring 2011. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess if an underlying factor accounted for the covariance of multiple behaviors, and composite reliability methods were used to determine the degree to which behaviors were related. RESULTS: The measured behaviors were explained by two moderately correlated factors: a 'substance use risk factor' and an 'unhealthy eating and sedentary factor'. Physical inactivity did not reflect the latent factors as expected. There were few differences in the associations among these behaviors over time or by demographic characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Two distinct, yet related groups of health compromising behaviors were identified that could be jointly targeted in multiple health behavior change interventions among early adolescents of diverse backgrounds.

  16. Risk behaviors for the health of adolescents from High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Ramos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the risk behaviors (smoking addiction, alcoholism, drug use and sexual risk behavior of adolescents from High School. Methods: It was an analytical and cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 720 scholars (252 boys and 468 girls from the age group of 16 to 17 years-old, from three public schools in Florianopolis/SC. The data was collected through two types of self administrated questionnaires; one for the parents and another one for the students, from March to December, 2005. The studied variables were legal and illegal drug use and sexual risk behavior. The descriptive statistics and the chi- squared test were used to carry out the data analysis Results: The beginning of risk behaviors occurred between 14 and 15 years old, for both genders. It was observed that 26 (3.6% scholars drank alcohol regularly; 38 (5.3% smoked daily; 66 (9.2 % were drug users or had used drugs several times and 14 (2% were drug dependents. Concerning to sexual risk behavior, 318 (44.5% scholars had sexual risk behavior and from those, 97 (13.6% did not always use condom. From the studied sample, 545 (76.5% scholars did not present any risk behavior. Among risk behaviors, sexual risk prevailed (42.5%. Conclusion: The number of adolescents with risk behavior was not high. Nevertheless, there is a small proportion of adolescents that smoke, drink and do drugs and have sexual risk behavior. This points out to the need of a bigger supervision and guidance for these students.

  17. Modern theories of suicidal behavior in adolescents and young people

    OpenAIRE

    T.S. Pavlova; G. S. Bannikov

    2014-01-01

    We propose three current models, formulated over the last decade and not yet published in Russian, focused on teenage suicide: the development model of suicidal behavior in adolescents (J.A. Bridge, T.R. Goldstein, D.A. Brent); interpersonal model of (T.E. Joiner); some recent developments in the cognitive theory (A. Spirito, J.D. Matthews, A. Wenzel, A.T. Beck). Four groups of psychological aid targets for adolescents with suicidal tendencies are revealed: 1) targets of the current emotional...

  18. Predicting adolescent's cyberbullying behavior: A longitudinal risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlett, Christopher P

    2015-06-01

    The current study used the risk factor approach to test the unique and combined influence of several possible risk factors for cyberbullying attitudes and behavior using a four-wave longitudinal design with an adolescent US sample. Participants (N = 96; average age = 15.50 years) completed measures of cyberbullying attitudes, perceptions of anonymity, cyberbullying behavior, and demographics four times throughout the academic school year. Several logistic regression equations were used to test the contribution of these possible risk factors. Results showed that (a) cyberbullying attitudes and previous cyberbullying behavior were important unique risk factors for later cyberbullying behavior, (b) anonymity and previous cyberbullying behavior were valid risk factors for later cyberbullying attitudes, and (c) the likelihood of engaging in later cyberbullying behavior increased with the addition of risk factors. Overall, results show the unique and combined influence of such risk factors for predicting later cyberbullying behavior. Results are discussed in terms of theory.

  19. Teasing and weight-control behaviors in adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina B. Leme

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between weight teasing, body satisfaction and weight control behaviors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on adaptation and validity research of a North American questionnaire for adolescent girls about physical activity, nutrition, body image, perceptions, and behaviors. The variables used to conduct the study were weight control behaviors, body satisfaction and presence of teasing by family members. Descriptive analyses were carried out by chi-square test, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: A total of 159 adolescent girls, with 16.2±1.3 years old were enrolled in this study. Of the total, 60.1% reported that family members did not tease them. The teasing was associated with weight dissatisfaction (p<0.001, body shape (p=0.006, belly (p=0.001, waist (p=0.001, face (p=0.009, arms (p=0.014 and shoulders (p=0.001. As a consequence, there was association with unhealthy weight control behaviors (p<0.001, vomiting (p=0,011, diet (p=0.002 and use of laxatives (p=0.035. CONCLUSIONS: The teasing about body image by family members was associated with risk for unhealthy weight control behaviors in female adolescents.

  20. Ecstasy Use and Suicidal Behavior among Adolescents: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jueun; Fan, Bin; Liu, Xinhua; Kerner, Nancy; Wu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between ecstasy use and suicidal behavior among adolescents in the United States was examined. Data from the adolescent subsample (ages 12-17, N = 19,301) of the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse were used in the analyses. Information on adolescent substance use, suicidal behaviors, and related sociodemographic, family,…

  1. A Systematic Review of Oral Health Behavior Research in American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Susana J.; Mallory, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Despite improvements in prevention, oral diseases are a problem among adolescents, linked to poor health outcomes and poor school performance. Little is known about adolescent oral health behavior. This systematic review describes factors that influence oral health behavior in adolescents. Inclusion criteria for the literature search were American…

  2. Neurobiology of Adolescent Substance Use and Addictive Behaviors: Prevention and Treatment Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Christopher J.; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Psychoactive substance and nonsubstance/behavioral addictions are major public health concerns associated with significant societal cost. Adolescence is a period of dynamic biologic, psychological, and behavioral changes. Adolescence is also associated with an increased risk for substance use and addictive disorders. During adolescence, developmental changes in neural circuitry of reward processing, motivation, cognitive control, and stress may contribute to vulnerability for increased levels...

  3. Mania Symptoms and HIV-Risk Behavior among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Angela J.; Theodore-Oklota, Christina; Hadley, Wendy; Brown, Larry K.; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether adolescents with elevated symptoms of mania (ESM+) engage in more HIV risk behaviors than those with other psychiatric disorders and examined factors associated with HIV risk behavior among ESM+ adolescents. Eight hundred forty adolescents (56% female, 58% African American, "M" age = 14.9 years) who received mental…

  4. [Antisocial personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Hallikainen, Tero

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASP), especially psychopathy as its extreme form, has provoked fear and excitement over thousands of years. Ruthless violence involved in the disorder has inspired scientists, too.The abundance of research results concerning epidemiology, physiology, neuroanatomy, heritability, and treatment interventions has made ASP one of the best documented disorders in psychiatry. Numerous interventions have been tested, but there is no current treatment algorithm. Biological and sociological parameters indicate the importance of early targeted interventions among the high risk children. Otherwise, as adults they cause the greatest harm. The use of medications or psychotherapy for adults needs careful consideration. PMID:26939485

  5. [Antisocial personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Hallikainen, Tero

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASP), especially psychopathy as its extreme form, has provoked fear and excitement over thousands of years. Ruthless violence involved in the disorder has inspired scientists, too.The abundance of research results concerning epidemiology, physiology, neuroanatomy, heritability, and treatment interventions has made ASP one of the best documented disorders in psychiatry. Numerous interventions have been tested, but there is no current treatment algorithm. Biological and sociological parameters indicate the importance of early targeted interventions among the high risk children. Otherwise, as adults they cause the greatest harm. The use of medications or psychotherapy for adults needs careful consideration.

  6. Effects of Child Maltreatment and Inherited Liability on Antisocial Development: An Official Records Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Presnall, Ned; Drake, Brett; Fox, Louis; Bierut, Laura; Reich, Wendy; Kane, Phyllis; Todd, Richard D.; Constantino, John N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evidence is steadily accumulating that a preventable environmental hazard, child maltreatment, exerts causal influences on the development of long-standing patterns of antisocial behavior in humans. The relationship between child maltreatment and antisocial outcome, however, has never previously been tested in a large-scale study in…

  7. Perceptions of Social Mobility: Development of a New Psychosocial Indicator Associated with Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Lucia Ritterman Weintraub; Fernald, Lia C.H.; Nancy eAdler; Stefano eBertozzi; Leonard eSyme

    2015-01-01

    Social class gradients have been explored in adults and children, but not extensively during adolescence. The first objective of this study was to examine the association between adolescent risk behaviors and a new indicator of adolescent relative social position, adolescent perceived social mobility. Second, it investigated potential underlying demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial determinants of this indicator. Data were taken from the 2004 urban adolescent module of Oportunidades...

  8. Gestational iron deficiency is associated with pica behaviors in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumish, Rachel A; Young, Sera L; Lee, Sunmin; Cooper, Elizabeth; Pressman, Eva; Guillet, Ronnie; O'Brien, Kimberly O

    2014-10-01

    A relation between pica (the craving and purposive consumption of nonfood items) during pregnancy and anemia is observed frequently. However, few studies related pica behaviors to biomarkers of iron status, and little is known about pica prevalence in U.S. pregnant adolescents. To address this, we undertook a longitudinal study examining iron status and pica behaviors among a group of 158 pregnant adolescents (aged ≤18 y). Approximately two-thirds of the participants were African American and 25% were Hispanic. Maternal iron status indicators [hemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptor, serum ferritin (SF), total body iron (TBI), and serum hepcidin] were assessed during pregnancy (18.5-37.3 wk) and at delivery. Pica behavior was assessed up to 3 times across gestation. Among the 158 adolescents, 46% reported engaging in pica behavior. Substances ingested included ice (37%), starches (8%), powders (4%), and soap (3%). During pregnancy, mean SF [geometric mean: 13.6 μg/L (95% CI: 11.0, 17.0 μg/L)], TBI (mean ± SD: 2.5 ± 4.2 mg/kg), and hepcidin [geometric mean: 19.1 μg/L (95% CI: 16.3, 22.2 μg/L)] concentrations were significantly lower (P iron status and because many of the substances ingested may be harmful. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01019902.

  9. Genetic Influences on Individual Differences in Exercise Behavior during Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels van der Aa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the degree to which genetic and environmental influences affect variation in adolescent exercise behavior. Data on regular leisure time exercise activities were analyzed in 8,355 adolescent twins, from three-age cohorts (13-14, 15-16, and 17–19 years. Exercise behavior was assessed with survey items about type of regular leisure time exercise, frequency, and duration of the activities. Participants were classified as sedentary, regular exercisers, or vigorous exercisers. The prevalence of moderate exercise behavior declined from age 13 to 19 years with a parallel increase in prevalence of sedentary behavior, whereas the prevalence of vigorous exercise behavior remained constant across age cohorts. Variation in exercise behavior was analyzed with genetic structural equation modeling employing a liability threshold model. Variation was largely accounted for by genetic factors (72% to 85% of the variance was explained by genetic factors, whereas shared environmental factors only accounted for a substantial part of the variation in girls aged 13-14 years (46%. We hypothesize that genetic effects on exercise ability may explain the high heritability of exercise behavior in this phase of life.

  10. Modeling problem behaviors in a nationally representative sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kate L; Dolphin, Louise; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dooley, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Research on multiple problem behaviors has focused on the concept of Problem Behavior Syndrome (PBS). Problem Behavior Theory (PBT) is a complex and comprehensive social-psychological framework designed to explain the development of a range of problem behaviors. This study examines the structure of PBS and the applicability of PBT in adolescents. Participants were 6062 adolescents; aged 12-19 (51.3% female) who took part in the My World Survey-Second Level (MWS-SL). Regarding PBS, Confirmatory Factor Analysis established that problem behaviors, such as alcohol and drug use loaded significantly onto a single, latent construct for males and females. Using Structural Equation Modeling, the PBT framework was found to be a good fit for males and females. Socio-demographic, perceived environment system and personality accounted for over 40% of the variance in problem behaviors for males and females. Our findings have important implications for understanding how differences in engaging in problem behaviors vary by gender. PMID:27161989

  11. Associations between child disciplinary practices and bullying behavior in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela A.H. Zottis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate associations between different types of child disciplinary practices and children and adolescents' bullying behavior in a Brazilian sample. METHODS: cross-sectional study, with a school-based sample of 10-to 15-year-old children and adolescents. Child disciplinary practices were assessed using two main subtypes: power-assertive and punitive (psychological aggression, corporal punishment, deprivation of privileges, and penalty tasks and inductive (explaining, rewarding, and monitoring. A modified version of the Olweus Bully Victim Questionnaire was used to measure the frequency of bullying. RESULTS: 247 children and adolescents were evaluated and 98 (39.7% were classified as bullies. Power-assertive and punitive discipline by either mother or father was associated with bullying perpetration by their children. Mothers who mostly used this type of discipline were 4.36 (95% CI: 1.87-10.16; p < 0.001 times more likely of having a bully child. Psychological aggression and mild forms of corporal punishment presented the highest odds ratios. Overall inductive discipline was not associated with bullying. CONCLUSIONS: bullying was associated to parents' assertive and punitive discipline. Finding different ways of disciplining children and adolescents might decrease bullying behavior.

  12. School attendance, health-risk behaviors, and self-esteem in adolescents applying for working papers.

    OpenAIRE

    Suss, A. L.; Tinkelman, B. K.; Freeman, K; Friedman, S B

    1996-01-01

    Since health-risk behaviors are often encountered in clusters among adolescents, it was hypothesized that adolescents with poor school attendance would be associated with more health-risk behaviors (e.g., substance use, violence) than those who attend school regularly. This study assessed the relationship between poor school attendance and health-risk behaviors, and described health-risk behaviors and self-esteem among adolescents seeking employment. In this cross-sectional study, school atte...

  13. Patterns of sedentary behavior and compliance with public health recommendations in Spanish adolescents: the AFINOS study.

    OpenAIRE

    David Martínez Gómez; Veiga, Oscar L; Belén Zapatera; Verónica Cabanas-Sánchez; Sonia Gomez-Martinez; David Martinez-Hernández; Ascensión Marcos

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the present study were: (i) describe patterns of sedentary behavior in Spanish adolescents; and (ii) determine the proportion of adolescents that do not meet the public health recommendations for sedentary behavior. This study comprised 1,724 Spanish adolescents (882 girls), aged 13 to 16 years. Patterns of sedentary behavior (TV viewing, use of computer games, console games and surfing the Internet) were assessed using the HELENA sedentary behavior questionnaire. The total propor...

  14. Understanding Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aggressive or violent behavior Being the victim of physical abuse and/or sexual abuse Exposure to violence in ... and War: How to Talk to Children Sexual Abuse Physical Punishment Music and Music Videos Firearms and Children ...

  15. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Adolescents in Lebanon as Wars Gained in Ferocity: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Khuzama Hijal Shaar

    2013-01-01

    Significance for public health Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescents has been implicated in developmental impairments, mental and scholastic problems, alcohol and drug abuse, and antisocial behavior in its victims among others. Absence of review studies regarding the prevalence of PTSD in adolescents in Lebanon, a country plagued by decades of civil strife and external occupation and invasion, is noted. Such information may reinforce the need to develop national public health p...

  16. Preschool Behavioral and Social-Cognitive Problems as Predictors of (Pre)adolescent Disruptive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Emond, Alice; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes preschool social understanding and difficult behaviors (hot temper, disobedience, bossiness and bullying) as predictors of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and aggressive conduct disorder (ACD) in a Dutch population sample of (pre)adolescents (N = 1943), measured at age 10-12 and at age 13-15. ODD and ACD were assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist and the Youth Self-Report, preschool behavior was evaluated by the parental questionnaire 'How was your child as a pre...

  17. Modern theories of suicidal behavior in adolescents and young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Pavlova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose three current models, formulated over the last decade and not yet published in Russian, focused on teenage suicide: the development model of suicidal behavior in adolescents (J.A. Bridge, T.R. Goldstein, D.A. Brent; interpersonal model of (T.E. Joiner; some recent developments in the cognitive theory (A. Spirito, J.D. Matthews, A. Wenzel, A.T. Beck. Four groups of psychological aid targets for adolescents with suicidal tendencies are revealed: 1 targets of the current emotional state of a teenager (feelings of abandonment, self-perception as a burden to the loved ones, anxiety, hopelessness, heartache; 2 targets affecting personal predispositions (primitive defense mechanisms, impulsivity, aggression; 3 targets associated with cognitive functioning (cognitive rigidity, black-and-white thinking, thinking errors; and 4 targets reflecting a need to work with behavioral manifestations (narrow range of coping strategies used.

  18. Assessment of adolescents' victimization, aggression, and problem behaviors: Evaluation of the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D; Sullivan, Terri N; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Le, Anh-Thuy H

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale (PBFS), a self-report measure designed to assess adolescents' frequency of victimization, aggression, and other problem behaviors. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 5,532 adolescents from 37 schools at 4 sites. About half (49%) of participants were male; 48% self-identified as Black non-Hispanic; 21% as Hispanic, 18% as White non-Hispanic. Adolescents completed the PBFS and measures of beliefs and values related to aggression, and delinquent peer associations at the start of the 6th grade and over 2 years later. Ratings of participants' behavior were also obtained from teachers on the Behavioral Assessment System for Children. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a 7-factor model that differentiated among 3 forms of aggression (physical, verbal, and relational), 2 forms of victimization (overt and relational), drug use, and other delinquent behavior. Support was found for strong measurement invariance across gender, sites, and time. The PBFS factors generally showed the expected pattern of correlations with teacher ratings of adolescents' behavior and self-report measures of relevant constructs. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26372261

  19. Parenting stress, perceived parenting behaviors, and adolescent self-concept in European American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnick, Diane L; Bornstein, Marc H; Hendricks, Charlene; Painter, Kathleen M; Suwalsky, Joan T D; Collins, W Andrew

    2008-10-01

    This study assesses whether the stresses associated with parenting a child are indirectly related to adolescent self-concept through parenting behaviors. We examined longitudinal associations among mothers' and fathers' parenting stress at age 10, children's perceptions of parenting at age 10, and adolescents' self-concept at age 14 in 120 European American families. Mothers' and fathers' parenting stress was related to children's perceptions of acceptance and psychologically controlling behavior, and psychologically controlling behavior (and lax control for fathers) was related to adolescent self-concept. We further examined which domains of parenting stress and perceived parenting behaviors were associated with adolescents' scholastic competence, social acceptance, physical appearance, and behavioral conduct. Parenting stress was related to specific parenting behaviors, which were, in turn, related to specific domains of self-concept in adolescence. Parenting stress appears to exert its effects on early adolescent self-concept indirectly through perceived parenting behavior.

  20. Risk behaviors for eating disorder: factors associated in adolescent students

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes; Flavia Marcele Cipriani; Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Evidence shows that the prevalence of risk behaviors for eating disorders (RBED) among young people has increased in recent years. Body dissatisfaction, excessive exercise, body composition, economic status, and ethnicity may be risk factors for RBED. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of body dissatisfaction, psychological commitment to exercise, body fat, nutritional status, economic class, and ethnicity with RBED in adolescents. METHOD: This study included 562 bo...

  1. Adolescence, sexual behavior and risk factors to health

    OpenAIRE

    de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. METHODS Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demogr...

  2. Risky driving and lifestyles in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bina, Manuela; Graziano, Federica; Bonino, Silvia

    2006-05-01

    Several studies have shown that risky driving is especially prevalent among young drivers and recent research has pointed out that driving in adolescence should be investigated in the more general context of adolescent development. The first aim of this contribution was to analyze involvement in risky driving in a normative sample of 645 Italian adolescents, boys and girls, aged 14-17, through a self-report questionnaire. A second aim was to evaluate the association between risky driving and lifestyle, defined as involvement in other health risk behaviors and leisure activities. The main results showed that many adolescents drove cars and motorcycles without the required driving license and the most frequent offences were speeding and failure to maintain a safe braking distance. Gender and age differences were also investigated. Results concerning the association between risky driving and lifestyle showed that risky driving was not an isolated behavior. Boys who displayed risky driving practices were more likely to adopt a lifestyle characterized by high involvement in antisocial behaviors, tobacco smoking, comfort eating and time spent in non-organized activities with friends. Girls involved in risky driving were more likely to be involved in other risk-taking behaviors, antisocial behaviors and drug use.

  3. Misperceptions of weight status among adolescents: sociodemographic and behavioral correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodde AE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amy E Bodde,1 Timothy J Beebe,1 Laura P Chen,2 Sarah Jenkins,3 Kelly Perez-Vergara,4 Lila J Finney Rutten,5 Jeanette Y Ziegenfuss6 1Division of Health Care Policy and Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Seattle Children’s Hospital, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 4Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 5Division of Epidemiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN USA; 6HealthPartners Institute for Education and Research, Minneapolis, MN, USA Objective: Accurate perceptions of weight status are important motivational triggers for weight loss among overweight or obese individuals, yet weight misperception is prevalent. To identify and characterize individuals holding misperceptions around their weight status, it may be informative for clinicians to assess self-reported body mass index (BMI classification (ie, underweight, normal, overweight, obese in addition to clinical weight measurement. Methods: Self-reported weight classification data from the 2007 Current Visit Information – Child and Adolescent Survey collected at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, were compared with measured clinical height and weight for 2,993 adolescents. Results: While, overall, 74.2% of adolescents accurately reported their weight status, females, younger adolescents, and proxy (vs self reporters were more accurate. Controlling for demographic and behavioral characteristics, the higher an individual's BMI percentile, the less likely there was agreement between self-report and measured BMI percentile. Those with high BMI who misperceive their weight status were less likely than accurate perceivers to attempt weight loss. Conclusion: Adolescents’ and proxies’ misperception of weight status increases with BMI percentile. Obtaining an adolescent's self-perceived weight status in addition to measured height and weight offers clinicians valuable baseline information to discuss motivation for weight

  4. Pathways from School Suspension to Adolescent Nonviolent Antisocial Behavior in Students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Plenty, Stephanie M.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.; McMorris, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    School suspension is associated with school dropout, crime, delinquency, and alcohol and other drug use for the suspended student. Important research questions are how academic and related factors are relevant to the school suspension process and the generality of the process in different sites. State-representative samples of Grade 7 students (N…

  5. The Role of Youth Anger in Explaining Links between Parenting and Early Adolescent Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Sheffield Morris, Amanda; Cui, Lixian; Henry, Carolyn S.; Criss, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the role of youth anger regulation and reactivity in the link between parenting and social adjustment among a sample of 84 youth residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods in a mid-southwestern city. Using path analysis, findings indicate that parents' responsive and discipline-related behaviors…

  6. Evaluating an Adolescent Behavioral Program: Leadership, Education, Achievement, and Development for Adolescent Female Offenders in Corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panosky, Denise M; Shelton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a pilot study designed to: test the feasibility of implementation, assess implementation barriers, and determine the effectiveness of a modified evidence-based program designed for adolescent female offenders in a women's correctional facility in the United States. A therapeutic expressive arts behavioral program, Leadership, Education, Achievement and Development (LEAD), has been used in community settings as a health promotion program. This behavioral program was adapted to LEAD-Corrections (LEAD-C) and serves incarcerated adolescent female offenders. Results of this pilot study show that it is feasible to offer LEAD-C in a correctional setting. Positive effects were noted on session satisfaction surveys as well as formative and summative evaluations. Implementation of LEAD-C, using therapeutic expressive arts interventions, included coping strategies to help adolescents become confident and self-assured and review better choices. Adolescents were taught to utilize these learned coping strategies in their life, which may help to overcome adversity, enhance resilience, and support youth transition at the time of reentry to the community. PMID:26186153

  7. Delinquent Behavior of Dutch Rural Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenink, D.

    2011-01-01

    This article compares Dutch rural and non-rural adolescents’ delinquent behavior and examines two social correlates of rural delinquency: communal social control and traditional rural culture. The analyses are based on cross-sectional data, containing 3,797 participants aged 13–18 (48.7% females). T

  8. Observed parenting behavior with teens: measurement invariance and predictive validity across race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Martie L; Mackenzie, Elizabeth P; Haggerty, Kevin P; Hill, Karl G; Roberson, Kendra C

    2011-07-01

    Previous reports supporting measurement equality between European American and African American families have often focused on self-reported risk factors or observed parent behavior with young children. This study examines equality of measurement of observer ratings of parenting behavior with adolescents during structured tasks; mean levels of observed parenting; and predictive validity of teen self-reports of antisocial behaviors and beliefs using a sample of 163 African American and 168 European American families. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses supported measurement invariance across ethnic groups for four measures of observed parenting behavior: prosocial rewards, psychological costs, antisocial rewards, and problem solving. Some mean-level differences were found: African American parents exhibited lower levels of prosocial rewards, higher levels of psychological costs, and lower problem solving when compared to European Americans. No significant mean difference was found in rewards for antisocial behavior. Multigroup structural equation models suggested comparable relationships across race (predictive validity) between parenting constructs and youth antisocial constructs (i.e., drug initiation, positive drug attitudes, antisocial attitudes, problem behaviors) in all but one of the tested relationships. This study adds to existing evidence that family-based interventions targeting parenting behaviors can be generalized to African American families. PMID:21787057

  9. Observed Parenting Behavior with Teens: Measurement Invariance and Predictive Validity Across Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Martie L.; MacKenzie, Elizabeth P.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Hill, Karl G.; Roberson, Kendra C.

    2011-01-01

    Previous reports supporting measurement equality between European American and African American families have often focused on self-reported risk factors or observed parent behavior with young children. This study examines equality of measurement of observer ratings of parenting behavior with adolescents during structured tasks; mean levels of observed parenting; and predictive validity of teen self-reports of antisocial behaviors and beliefs using a sample of 163 African American and 168 European American families. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses supported measurement invariance across ethnic groups for 4 measures of observed parenting behavior: prosocial rewards, psychological costs, antisocial rewards, and problem solving. Some mean-level differences were found: African American parents exhibited lower levels of prosocial rewards, higher levels of psychological costs, and lower problem solving when compared to European Americans. No significant mean difference was found in rewards for antisocial behavior. Multigroup structural equation models suggested comparable relationships across race (predictive validity) between parenting constructs and youth antisocial constructs (i.e., drug initiation, positive drug attitudes, antisocial attitudes, problem behaviors) in all but one of the tested relationships. This study adds to existing evidence that family-based interventions targeting parenting behaviors can be generalized to African American families. PMID:21787057

  10. Mothers' and fathers' autonomy-relevant parenting: longitudinal links with adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Laird, Robert D; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this study was to advance the understanding of separate and joint effects of mothers' and fathers' autonomy-relevant parenting during early and middle adolescence. In a sample of 518 families, adolescents (49 % female; 83 % European American, 16 % African American, 1 % other ethnic groups) reported on their mothers' and fathers' psychological control and knowledge about adolescents' whereabouts, friends, and activities at ages 13 and 16. Mothers and adolescents reported on adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behaviors at ages 12, 14, 15, and 17. Adolescents perceived their mothers as using more psychological control and having more knowledge than their fathers, but there was moderate concordance between adolescents' perceptions of their mothers and fathers. More parental psychological control predicted increases in boys' and girls' internalizing problems and girls' externalizing problems. More parental knowledge predicted decreases in boys' externalizing and internalizing problems. The perceived levels of behavior of mothers and fathers did not interact with one another in predicting adolescent adjustment. The results generalize across early and late adolescence and across mothers' and adolescents' reports of behavior problems. Autonomy-relevant mothering and fathering predict changes in behavior problems during early and late adolescence, but only autonomy-relevant fathering accounts for unique variance in adolescent behavior problems.

  11. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Behice ÖZTOP

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT becomes one of the leading approaches in the psychotherapy. However,use of CBT in childhood psychotherapy is considerably novel. After 1990s, it has been understood that it is an effectivemethod for children and adolescents. Anxiety disorders are one of the most common problems in the field of childhoodand adolescent psychiatry. In the studies conducted, the effectiveness of CBT was demonstrated in anxiety disorders ofthe children and adolescents. Moreover, it was suggested that this effectiveness is permanent in some studies. Prioritygoal of CBT is to change inappropriate learning and thinking patterns in the children and adolescents. By “now and here”fashion, it is attempted to reveal the origin of current problems. During the process, the factors are considered, whichcause to maintain the symptoms. It is attempted to decrease signs caused to stress by improving coping skills duringtherapy. To this end, methods including observation, relaxation training, systematic desensitization, social skills training,cognitive restructuring and exposure therapy are applied in sessions by taking child’s problems into consideration. Scalesspecific to anxiety disorders are used in the assessment and follow-up. Age and development level of the child should beparticularly taken into account while using assessment tools and therapeutic modality.

  12. Alcohol consumption among adolescents: attitudes, behaviors and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flavia Granville-Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to assess the attitudes and behaviors regarding alcohol use and analyze associated factors among schoolchildren in public schools of Campina Grande in the state of Paraíba. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 574 adolescents, with the application of a semi-structured questionnaire. The chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used (5% level of significance. Among the adolescents 54.5% had drunk alcohol and 6.7% of them were heavy drinkers. The majority of them drank alcohol between 11 and 14 years of age (42.8%; 26.3% of the adolescents purchased alcoholic beverages; and beer was the most drink most consumed (43.8%. The risk of alcohol drinking was higher between 16 and 19 years of age (OR = 4.44; p < 0.001, among those without religious affiliation (OR = 4.36; p = 0.002, among those who worked (OR = 2.13; p = 0.012 and among those who had a fair to poor relationship with their father (OR = 2.18; p = 0.010. The results of this study underscore the complexity of this issue and the need to pay particular attention to the adolescent population. Public policies alone are not sufficient. Support from family, school and society is essential to curtail early alcohol use and its consequences.

  13. Adolescent cocaine abuse. Addictive potential, behavioral and psychiatric effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estroff, T W; Schwartz, R H; Hoffmann, N G

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred seventy-nine drug abusing adolescent patients enrolled in seven Straight, Inc. Adolescent Drug-Abuse Treatment Programs in five geographic regions across the United States were studied to determine the severity and patterns of cocaine abuse. Of these, 341 admitted to cocaine use and became part of this survey. Cocaine use was categorized as heavy, intermediate, or light. Areas examined were the addictive spectrum, psychosocial dysfunction, and psychiatric symptoms. Intermediate and heavy users of cocaine abused significantly less marijuana and inhalants than light cocaine abusers. Heavy and intermediate users were more likely to use cocaine intravenously and to use crack. They developed tachyphylaxis more frequently, progressed to weekly use in less than 3 months more frequently, and became preoccupied with obtaining and using cocaine significantly more frequently. They used more sedative hypnotics to calm themselves and engaged in more criminal behavior, such as stealing from parents and stores and passing bad checks. They had more arrests for possession of drugs, stole more cars, sold more drugs, and were more likely to trade sexual favors to obtain the drug. Heavy and intermediate users were significantly more psychiatrically disturbed than light users, becoming more suspicious, nervous, aggressive, and demonstrating increased symptoms of fatigue, sleeplessness, decreased appetite, and increasing cocaine dysphoria. All of these symptoms could be mistaken for psychiatric disorders. This study suggests that cocaine is as addictive in adolescents as in adults; possibly more so. It also causes psychosocial dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms. Further research into cocaine addiction among adolescents is indicated. PMID:2582695

  14. Adolescent-Parent Attachment and Externalizing Behavior: The Mediating Role of Individual and Social Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Sanne L A; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Asscher, Jessica J

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % male; aged 12-19 years) at risk for developing delinquent behaviors reported on attachment, parental monitoring, aggressive and delinquent behavior and peers. Mediation effects were tested by using structural equation modeling. Different pathways were found depending on the type of externalizing behavior. The association between attachment and direct and indirect aggressive behavior was mediated by cognitive distortions. The relation between attachment and delinquency was mediated by deviant peers and parental monitoring. We argue that clinical practice should focus on the attachment relationship between adolescent and parents in order to positively affect risk and protective factors for adolescents' aggressive and delinquent behavior. PMID:25772427

  15. The impact of future expectations on adolescent sexual risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipsma, Heather L; Ickovics, Jeannette R; Lin, Haiqun; Kershaw, Trace S

    2015-01-01

    Rates of STIs, HIV, and pregnancy remain high among adolescents in the US, and recent approaches to reducing sexual risk have shown limited success. Future expectations, or the extent to which one expects an event to actually occur, may influence sexual risk behavior. This prospective study uses longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (n = 3,205 adolescents; 49.8% female) to examine the impact of previously derived latent classes of future expectations on sexual risk behavior. Cox regression and latent growth models were used to determine the effect of future expectations on age at first biological child, number of sexual partners, and inconsistent contraception use. The results indicate that classes of future expectations were uniquely associated with each outcome. The latent class reporting expectations of drinking and being arrested was consistently associated with the greatest risks of engaging in sexual risk behavior compared with the referent class, which reported expectations of attending school and little engagement in delinquent behaviors. The class reporting expectations of attending school and drinking was associated with having greater numbers of sexual partners and inconsistent contraception use but not with age at first biological child. The third class, defined by expectations of victimization, was not associated with any outcome in adjusted models, despite being associated with being younger at the birth of their first child in the unadjusted analysis. Gender moderated specific associations between latent classes and sexual risk outcomes. Future expectations, conceptualized as a multidimensional construct, may have a unique ability to explain sexual risk behaviors over time. Future strategies should target multiple expectations and use multiple levels of influence to improve individual future expectations prior to high school and throughout the adolescent period.

  16. Relationships between parenting styles and risk behaviors in adolescent health: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kathy; Harrison, Lynda; Dashiff, Carol; Davies, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Research over the past 20 years suggests that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship significantly affects the development of risk behaviors in adolescent health. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of studies published between 1996-2007 that address specific relationships between parenting styles and six priority adolescent risk behaviors. The review supports the substantial influence of parenting style on adolescent development. Adolescents raised in authoritative households consistently demonstrate higher protective and fewer risk behaviors than adolescents from non-authoritative families. There is also considerable evidence to show that parenting styles and behaviors related to warmth, communication and disciplinary practices predict important mediators, including academic achievement and psychosocial adjustment. Careful examination of parenting style patterns in diverse populations, particularly with respect to physical activity and unintentional injury, will be a critical next step in the development of efficacious, culturally tailored adolescent health promotion interventions.

  17. Gaps between Adolescent Risk Behaviors and Disclosure during Outpatient Visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda L. Hill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the gaps between disclosed high-risk behaviors in low-income, mainly Hispanic youth and the identification of these risks by health care providers. Methods. This cross-sectional study included youth 13–19 years old who participated in a study on latent tuberculosis treatment. Youth were interviewed at baseline by bilingual research assistants; the provider visit was assessed by the chart review. Results. Of 221 youth, the majority (96% were identified as Hispanic, 45% were foreign-born, and 46% were male. A total of 399 risk behaviors were revealed to research staff by the participants; only 24 risk behaviors were revealed to providers. Conclusions. The majority of risk behaviors based on the chart review were neither queried nor disclosed to the physicians. Physicians providing care to adolescents should consider strategies to improve disclosure as a necessary precursor to interventions.

  18. Automated decoding of facial expressions reveals marked differences in children when telling antisocial versus prosocial lies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanette, Sarah; Gao, Xiaoqing; Brunet, Megan; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Lee, Kang

    2016-10-01

    The current study used computer vision technology to examine the nonverbal facial expressions of children (6-11years old) telling antisocial and prosocial lies. Children in the antisocial lying group completed a temptation resistance paradigm where they were asked not to peek at a gift being wrapped for them. All children peeked at the gift and subsequently lied about their behavior. Children in the prosocial lying group were given an undesirable gift and asked if they liked it. All children lied about liking the gift. Nonverbal behavior was analyzed using the Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox (CERT), which employs the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), to automatically code children's facial expressions while lying. Using CERT, children's facial expressions during antisocial and prosocial lying were accurately and reliably differentiated significantly above chance-level accuracy. The basic expressions of emotion that distinguished antisocial lies from prosocial lies were joy and contempt. Children expressed joy more in prosocial lying than in antisocial lying. Girls showed more joy and less contempt compared with boys when they told prosocial lies. Boys showed more contempt when they told prosocial lies than when they told antisocial lies. The key action units (AUs) that differentiate children's antisocial and prosocial lies are blink/eye closure, lip pucker, and lip raise on the right side. Together, these findings indicate that children's facial expressions differ while telling antisocial versus prosocial lies. The reliability of CERT in detecting such differences in facial expression suggests the viability of using computer vision technology in deception research.

  19. Automated decoding of facial expressions reveals marked differences in children when telling antisocial versus prosocial lies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanette, Sarah; Gao, Xiaoqing; Brunet, Megan; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Lee, Kang

    2016-10-01

    The current study used computer vision technology to examine the nonverbal facial expressions of children (6-11years old) telling antisocial and prosocial lies. Children in the antisocial lying group completed a temptation resistance paradigm where they were asked not to peek at a gift being wrapped for them. All children peeked at the gift and subsequently lied about their behavior. Children in the prosocial lying group were given an undesirable gift and asked if they liked it. All children lied about liking the gift. Nonverbal behavior was analyzed using the Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox (CERT), which employs the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), to automatically code children's facial expressions while lying. Using CERT, children's facial expressions during antisocial and prosocial lying were accurately and reliably differentiated significantly above chance-level accuracy. The basic expressions of emotion that distinguished antisocial lies from prosocial lies were joy and contempt. Children expressed joy more in prosocial lying than in antisocial lying. Girls showed more joy and less contempt compared with boys when they told prosocial lies. Boys showed more contempt when they told prosocial lies than when they told antisocial lies. The key action units (AUs) that differentiate children's antisocial and prosocial lies are blink/eye closure, lip pucker, and lip raise on the right side. Together, these findings indicate that children's facial expressions differ while telling antisocial versus prosocial lies. The reliability of CERT in detecting such differences in facial expression suggests the viability of using computer vision technology in deception research. PMID:27318957

  20. Parental Behaviors during Family Interactions Predict Changes in Depression and Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Orli S.; Dudgeon, Paul; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective, longitudinal relations between parental behaviors observed during parent-adolescent interactions, and the development of depression and anxiety symptoms in a community-based sample of 194 adolescents. Positive and negative parental behaviors were examined, with negative behaviors operationalized to…

  1. Exploring Filipino Adolescents' Perceptions of the Legitimacy of Parental Authority over Academic Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2010-01-01

    Filipino adolescents' perceptions regarding the legitimacy of parental control over academic behaviors was investigated. It was assumed that the adolescents would differentiate between the issues inherent in various types or domains of academic behaviors. The results revealed three domains of academic behaviors: learning processes, college major…

  2. Parental Behaviors and Adolescent Self-Esteem in the United States and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Brian K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared U.S. and German adolescents on self-esteem and perceived parental behaviors. Parents were perceived as engaging in similar levels of behaviors in each culture. Parenting behaviors (support and control) were significantly related to self-esteem in U.S. adolescents, but not in Germans. More general measure of quality of parent-adolescent…

  3. Dissociable Patterns of Neural Activity during Response Inhibition in Depressed Adolescents with and without Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lisa A.; Batezati-Alves, Silvia C.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Segreti, AnnaMaria; Akkal, Dalila; Hassel, Stefanie; Lakdawala, Sara; Brent, David A.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Impaired attentional control and behavioral control are implicated in adult suicidal behavior. Little is known about the functional integrity of neural circuitry supporting these processes in suicidal behavior in adolescence. Method: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used in 15 adolescent suicide attempters with a history of…

  4. Latino Adolescents Perception of Parenting Behaviors and Self-Esteem: Examining the Role of Neighborhood Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamaca, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Shin, Nana; Alfaro, Edna C.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the relations among parenting behaviors, adolescents' self-esteem, and neighborhood risk with a Midwestern sample of 324 Latino adolescents. The findings suggest that boys' self-esteem is influenced by both mothers' and fathers' parenting behaviors, whereas girls' self-esteem is influenced by mothers' behaviors only. In addition, the…

  5. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Andrea F; Visser, Leenke; Verhulst, Frank C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among adolescent

  6. Factors Predicting the Physical Activity Behavior of Female Adolescents: A Test of the Health Promotion Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamadian, Hashem; Ghannaee Arani, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Physical activity behavior begins to decline during adolescence and continues to decrease throughout young adulthood. This study aims to explain factors that influence physical activity behavior in a sample of female adolescents using a health promotion model framework. Methods This cross-sectional survey was used to explore physical activity behavior among a sample of female adolescents. Participants completed measures of physical activity, perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem, so...

  7. Adolescent social defeat alters neural, endocrine and behavioral responses to amphetamine in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.; Watt, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which governs components of reward and goal-directed behaviors, undergoes final maturation during adolescence. Adolescent social stress contributes to adult behavioral dysfunction, and is linked to adult psychiatric and addiction disorders. Here, behavioral, corticosterone, and limbic dopamine responses to amphetamine were examined in adult male rats previously exposed to repeated social defeat stress during mid-adolescence. Amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, ip) w...

  8. Serious physical fighting and gambling-related attitudes and behaviors in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Slavin, Melissa; Pilver, Corey E.; HOFF, RANI A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; STEINBERG, MARVIN A.; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Physical fighting and gambling are common risk behaviors among adolescents. Prior studies have found associations among these behaviors in adolescents but have not examined systematically the health and gambling correlates of problem-gambling severity amongst youth stratified by fight involvement. Methods: Survey data were used from 2,276 Connecticut high school adolescents regarding their physical fight involvement, gambling behaviors and perceptions, and health and func...

  9. Eating behaviors, victimization, and desire for supportive intervention among adolescents in weight-loss camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kelly M; Puhl, Rebecca M; Luedicke, Joerg; Peterson, Jamie Lee

    2013-12-01

    This study examined links between eating behaviors, weight-based victimization (WBV) and preferences for bullying intervention among adolescents. Adolescents enrolled in weight loss camps participated in an online survey (N = 361). Regression models examined relationships between key variables. Almost half of adolescents who experienced WBV engaged in unhealthy eating behaviors, which corresponded to less desire for supportive intervention. Unhealthy eating behaviors may offset adaptive coping strategies to deal with WBV, such as support from peers and family. PMID:24183141

  10. Co-morbid disorders and sexual risk behavior in Nigerian adolescents with bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bakare, Muideen O; Agomoh, Ahamefule O; Ebigbo, Peter O; Onyeama, Gabriel M; Eaton, Julian; Onwukwe, Jojo U; Okonkwo, Kevin O

    2009-01-01

    Background Adolescent onset bipolar disorder often presents with co-morbid disorders of which psychoactive substance use disorders are notable. Mania symptoms and co-morbid psychoactive substance use disorders prone adolescents with bipolar disorder to impulsivity, impaired judgment, and risk taking behavior which often includes sexual risk behavior. There are dearth of information on pattern of co-morbid disorders and sexual risk behavior in adolescent onset bipolar disorder in Nigeria. This...

  11. Regional cortical thinning in subjects with violent antisocial personality disorder or schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Veena M; Narr, Katherine L; Kumari, Veena; Woods, Roger P; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W; Sharma, Tonmoy

    2007-09-01

    Violent behavior is associated with antisocial personality disorder and to a lesser extent with schizophrenia. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that several biological systems are disturbed in schizophrenia, and structural changes in frontal and temporal lobe regions are reported in both antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia. The neural substrates that underlie violent behavior specifically and their structural analogs, however, remain poorly understood. Nor is it known whether a common biological basis exists for aggressive, impulsive, and violent behavior across these clinical populations. To explore the correlates of violence with brain structure in antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia, the authors used magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate for the first time, to the authors' knowledge, regional differences in cortical thickness in violent and nonviolent individuals with schizophrenia and/or antisocial personality disorder and in healthy comparison subjects. Subject groups included right-handed men closely matched for demographic variables (total number of subjects=56). Violence was associated with cortical thinning in the medial inferior frontal and lateral sensory motor cortex, particularly in the right hemisphere, and surrounding association areas (Brodmann's areas 10, 11, 12, and 32). Only violent subjects with antisocial personality disorder exhibited cortical thinning in inferior mesial frontal cortices. The biological underpinnings of violent behavior may therefore vary between these two violent subject groups in which the medial frontal cortex is compromised in antisocial personality disorder exclusively, but laminar abnormalities in sensorimotor cortices may relate to violent behavior in both antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia.

  12. Regional Cortical Thinning in Subjects With Violent Antisocial Personality Disorder or Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Veena M.; Narr, Katherine L.; Kumari, Veena; Woods, Roger P.; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Sharma, Tonmoy

    2011-01-01

    Violent behavior is associated with antisocial personality disorder and to a lesser extent with schizophrenia. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that several biological systems are disturbed in schizophrenia, and structural changes in frontal and temporal lobe regions are reported in both antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia. The neural substrates that underlie violent behavior specifically and their structural analogs, however, remain poorly understood. Nor is it known whether a common biological basis exists for aggressive, impulsive, and violent behavior across these clinical populations. To explore the correlates of violence with brain structure in antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia, the authors used magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate for the first time, to the authors’ knowledge, regional differences in cortical thickness in violent and nonviolent individuals with schizophrenia and/or antisocial personality disorder and in healthy comparison subjects. Subject groups included right-handed men closely matched for demographic variables (total number of subjects=56). Violence was associated with cortical thinning in the medial inferior frontal and lateral sensory motor cortex, particularly in the right hemisphere, and surrounding association areas (Brodmann’s areas 10, 11, 12, and 32). Only violent subjects with antisocial personality disorder exhibited cortical thinning in inferior mesial frontal cortices. The biological underpinnings of violent behavior may therefore vary between these two violent subject groups in which the medial frontal cortex is compromised in antisocial personality disorder exclusively, but laminar abnormalities in sensorimotor cortices may relate to violent behavior in both antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia. PMID:17728428

  13. Health promoting behaviors in adolescence: validation of the Portuguese version of the Adolescent Lifestyle Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Sousa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Reliable and valid instruments are essential for understanding health-promoting behaviors in adolescents. This study analyzed the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Adolescent Lifestyle Profile (ALP.METHODS: A linguistic and cultural translation of the ALP was conducted with 236 adolescents from two different settings: a community (n = 141 and a clinical setting (n = 95. Internal consistency reliability and confirmatory factor analysis were performed.RESULTS: Results showed an adequate fit to data, yielding a 36-item, seven-factor structure (CMIN/DF = 1.667, CFI = 0.807, GFI = 0.822, RMR = 0.051, RMSEA = 0.053, PNFI = 0.575, PCFI = 0.731. The ALP presented a high internal consistency (a = 0.866, with the subscales presenting moderate reliability values (from 0.492 to 0.747. The highest values were in Interpersonal Relations (3.059 ± 0.523 and Positive Life Perspective (2.985 ± 0.588. Some gender differences were found. Findings showed that adolescents from the clinic reported an overall healthier lifestyle than those from the community setting (2.598 ± 0.379 vs. 2.504 ± 0.346; t = 1.976, p = 0.049.CONCLUSION: The ALP Portuguese version is a psychometrically reliable, valid, and useful measurement instrument for assessing health-promoting lifestyles in adolescence. The ALP is cross-culturally validated and can decisively contribute to a better understanding of adolescent health promotion needs. Additional research is needed to evaluate the instrument's predictive validity, as well as its clinical relevance for practice and research.

  14. Measurement of adolescent smoking behavior: rationale and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechacek, T F; Murray, D M; Luepker, R V; Mittelmark, M B; Johnson, C A; Shutz, J M

    1984-03-01

    The initiation of cigarette smoking among adolescents is a health problem which has been the subject of discussion and study for many years. The evaluation of strategies to deter the adoption of smoking has long been hampered by the problems of measuring adolescent smoking behavior. Recently, interest has increased in biochemical measures of smoking under the assumption that they are more objective measures. The validity of this assumption is addressed for several ages of adolescents. This paper presents saliva thiocyanate levels, expired air carbon monoxide levels, and smoking self-reports from a sample of 2200 junior and senior high-school students. Interrelationships among the biochemical and behavioral measures are strong among the total population, ranging from 0.48 to 0.95 (Pearson r) but are much weaker at the younger age levels. Normative levels of carbon monoxide and saliva thiocyanate are presented by age (11-13, 14-15, and 16-17 years old). These data indicate that habitual smoking appears to develop in a gradual fashion and that several years may pass between initial experimentation and adult levels of smoking. Younger students consistently display lower levels of thiocyanate and carbon monoxide than older students of the same self-reported levels of smoking, suggesting that inhalation patterns may vary as a function of age or years smoking.

  15. Preschool behavioral and social-cognitive problems as predictors of (pre)adolescent disruptive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emond, Alice; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes preschool social understanding and difficult behaviors (hot temper, disobedience, bossiness and bullying) as predictors of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and aggressive conduct disorder (ACD) in a Dutch population sample of (pre)adolescents (N = 1943), measured at age 10-

  16. An Adaptive Approach to Family Intervention: Linking Engagement in Family-Centered Intervention to Reductions in Adolescent Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Arin M.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Yasui, Miwa; Kavanagh, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    This study used Complier Average Causal Effect analysis (CACE; see G. Imbens & D. Rubin, 1997) to examine the impact of an adaptive approach to family intervention in the public schools on rates of substance use and antisocial behavior among students ages 11-17. Students were randomly assigned to a family-centered intervention (N = 998) in 6th…

  17. Adolescent expectations of early death predict adult risk behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quynh C Nguyen

    Full Text Available Only a handful of public health studies have investigated expectations of early death among adolescents. Associations have been found between these expectations and risk behaviors in adolescence. However, these beliefs may not only predict worse adolescent outcomes, but worse trajectories in health with ties to negative outcomes that endure into young adulthood. The objectives of this study were to investigate perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations, PSE as a predictor of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and substance use in young adulthood. We examined the predictive capacity of PSE on future suicidal ideation/attempt after accounting for sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, and history of suicide among family and friends to more fully assess its unique contribution to suicide risk. We investigated the influence of PSE on legal and illegal substance use and varying levels of substance use. We utilized the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health initiated in 1994-95 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7-12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II, 2001-02 (Wave III and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24-32. Compared to those who were almost certain of living to age 35, perceiving a 50-50 or less chance of living to age 35 at Waves I or III predicted suicide attempt and ideation as well as regular substance use (i.e., exceeding daily limits for moderate drinking; smoking ≥ a pack/day; and using illicit substances other than marijuana at least weekly at Wave IV. Associations between PSE and detrimental adult outcomes were particularly strong for those reporting persistently low PSE at both Waves I and III. Low PSE at Wave I or Wave III was also related to a doubling and tripling, respectively, of death rates in young adulthood. Long-term and wide-ranging ties between PSE and detrimental outcomes suggest these expectations may contribute to identifying at-risk youth.

  18. CANNABINOID AND OPIOID MODULATION OF SOCIAL PLAY BEHAVIOR IN ADOLESCENT RATS: DIFFERENTIAL BEHAVIORAL MECHANISMS

    OpenAIRE

    Trezza, Viviana; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.

    2008-01-01

    We have recently shown that the pharmacological mechanisms through which cannabinoid and opioid drugs influence social play behavior in adolescent rats can be partially dissociated. Here, we characterize the effects of the direct cannabinoid agonist WIN55,212-2, the indirect cannabinoid agonist URB597 and the opioid agonist morphine on social play at the behavioral level. By treating either one or both partners of the test dyad, we show that these drugs differentially affect play solicitation...

  19. Predicting Behavior Problems and Social Competence in Children of Adolescent Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes longitudinal investigation evaluating additive model of impact of adolescent mothers' parenting practices on children. Suggests infant-mother attachment predicted behavior problems among preschool children of adolescent mothers and adolescent mothers' depression explained significant additional variance in those problems. States mothers'…

  20. Early Therapeutic Alliance and Treatment Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Stambaugh, Leyla Faw; Cecero, John J.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of early therapeutic alliance was examined in 100 clients receiving either individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or family therapy for adolescent substance abuse. Observational ratings of adolescent alliance in CBT and adolescent and parent alliance in family therapy were used to predict treatment retention (in CBT only) and…