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Sample records for adolescence selectively alters

  1. Electrophysiological evidence for altered visual, but not auditory, selective attention in adolescent cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jill; Kamke, Marc R

    2014-11-01

    Selective attention fundamentally alters sensory perception, but little is known about the functioning of attention in individuals who use a cochlear implant. This study aimed to investigate visual and auditory attention in adolescent cochlear implant users. Event related potentials were used to investigate the influence of attention on visual and auditory evoked potentials in six cochlear implant users and age-matched normally-hearing children. Participants were presented with streams of alternating visual and auditory stimuli in an oddball paradigm: each modality contained frequently presented 'standard' and infrequent 'deviant' stimuli. Across different blocks attention was directed to either the visual or auditory modality. For the visual stimuli attention boosted the early N1 potential, but this effect was larger for cochlear implant users. Attention was also associated with a later P3 component for the visual deviant stimulus, but there was no difference between groups in the later attention effects. For the auditory stimuli, attention was associated with a decrease in N1 latency as well as a robust P3 for the deviant tone. Importantly, there was no difference between groups in these auditory attention effects. The results suggest that basic mechanisms of auditory attention are largely normal in children who are proficient cochlear implant users, but that visual attention may be altered. Ultimately, a better understanding of how selective attention influences sensory perception in cochlear implant users will be important for optimising habilitation strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional Connectivity Estimated from Resting-State fMRI Reveals Selective Alterations in Male Adolescents with Pure Conduct Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Mei Lu

    Full Text Available Conduct disorder (CD is characterized by a persistent pattern of antisocial behavior and aggression in childhood and adolescence. Previous task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies have revealed widespread brain regional abnormalities in adolescents with CD. However, whether the resting-state networks (RSNs are altered in adolescents with CD remains unknown. In this study, resting-state fMRI data were first acquired from eighteen male adolescents with pure CD and eighteen age- and gender-matched typically developing (TD individuals. Independent component analysis (ICA was implemented to extract nine representative RSNs, and the generated RSNs were then compared to show the differences between the CD and TD groups. Interestingly, it was observed from the brain mapping results that compared with the TD group, the CD group manifested decreased functional connectivity in four representative RSNs: the anterior default mode network (left middle frontal gyrus, which is considered to be correlated with impaired social cognition, the somatosensory network (bilateral supplementary motor area and right postcentral gyrus, the lateral visual network (left superior occipital gyrus, and the medial visual network (right fusiform, left lingual gyrus and right calcarine, which are expected to be relevant to the perceptual systems responsible for perceptual dysfunction in male adolescents with CD. Importantly, the novel findings suggested that male adolescents with pure CD were identified to have dysfunctions in both low-level perceptual networks (the somatosensory network and visual network and a high-order cognitive network (the default mode network. Revealing the changes in the functional connectivity of these RSNs enhances our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of emotion and social cognition and the regulation of perception in adolescents with CD.

  3. Streamflow alteration at selected sites in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Eng, Ken

    2017-06-26

    An understanding of streamflow alteration in response to various disturbances is necessary for the effective management of stream habitat for a variety of species in Kansas. Streamflow alteration can have negative ecological effects. Using a modeling approach, streamflow alteration was assessed for 129 selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the State for which requisite streamflow and basin-characteristic information was available. The assessment involved a comparison of the observed condition from 1980 to 2015 with the predicted expected (least-disturbed) condition for 29 streamflow metrics. The metrics represent various characteristics of streamflow including average flow (annual, monthly) and low and high flow (frequency, duration, magnitude).Streamflow alteration in Kansas was indicated locally, regionally, and statewide. Given the absence of a pronounced trend in annual precipitation in Kansas, a precipitation-related explanation for streamflow alteration was not supported. Thus, the likely explanation for streamflow alteration was human activity. Locally, a flashier flow regime (typified by shorter lag times and more frequent and higher peak discharges) was indicated for three streamgages with urbanized basins that had higher percentages of impervious surfaces than other basins in the State. The combination of localized reservoir effects and regional groundwater pumping from the High Plains aquifer likely was responsible, in part, for diminished conditions indicated for multiple streamflow metrics in western and central Kansas. Statewide, the implementation of agricultural land-management practices to reduce runoff may have been responsible, in part, for a diminished duration and magnitude of high flows. In central and eastern Kansas, implemented agricultural land-management practices may have been partly responsible for an inflated magnitude of low flows at several sites.

  4. Adolescent social defeat alters markers of adult dopaminergic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Andrew M; Forster, Gina L; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M; Watt, Michael J

    2011-08-10

    Stressful experiences during adolescence can alter the trajectory of neural development and contribute to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. We previously demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to repeated social defeat stress show changes in mesocorticolimbic dopamine content both at baseline and in response to amphetamine when tested in adulthood. In the present study we examined whether markers of adult dopamine function are also compromised by adolescent experience of social defeat. Given that the dopamine transporter as well as dopamine D1 receptors act as regulators of psychostimulant action, are stress sensitive and undergo changes during adolescence, quantitative autoradiography was used to measure [(3)H]-GBR12935 binding to the dopamine transporter and [(3)H]-SCH23390 binding to dopamine D1 receptors, respectively. Our results indicate that social defeat during adolescence led to higher dopamine transporter binding in the infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex and higher dopamine D1 receptor binding in the caudate putamen, while other brain regions analyzed were comparable to controls. Thus it appears that social defeat during adolescence causes specific changes to the adult dopamine system, which may contribute to behavioral alterations and increased drug seeking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Menstrual hygiene practices among adolescents in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Menstrual hygiene is vital to the health, well-being, dignity and productivity of women and girls. The study assessed menstrual hygiene practices among adolescents in selected secondary schools around the University of Ibadan. The study was descriptive. A semi structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 381 ...

  6. Body composition and risk for metabolic alterations in female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Rodrigues de Faria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study anthropometrical and body composition variables as predictors of risk for metabolic alterations and metabolic syndrome in female adolescents.METHODS: Biochemical, clinical and corporal composition data of 100 adolescents from 14 to 17 years old, who attended public schools in Viçosa, Southeastern Brazil, were collected.RESULTS: Regarding nutritional status, 83, 11 and 6% showed eutrophia, overweight/obesity and low weight, respectively, and 61% presented high body fat percent. Total cholesterol presented the highest percentage of inadequacy (57%, followed by high-density lipoprotein (HDL - 50%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL - 47% and triacylglycerol (22%. Inadequacy was observed in 11, 9, 3 and 4% in relation to insulin resistance, fasting insulin, blood pressure and glycemia, respectively. The highest values of the fasting insulin and the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance(HOMA-IR were verified at the highest quartiles of body mass index (BMI, waist perimeter, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percent. Body mass index, waist perimeter, and waist-to-height ratio were the better predictors for high levels of HOMA-IR, blood glucose and fasting insulin. Waist-to-hip ratio was associated to arterial hypertension diagnosis. All body composition variables were effective in metabolic syndrome diagnosis.CONCLUSIONS: Waist perimeter, BMI and waist-to-height ratio showed to be good predictors for metabolic alterations in female adolescents and then should be used together for the nutritional assessment in this age range.

  7. Antiherbivore defenses alter natural selection on plant reproductive traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ken A; Johnson, Marc T J

    2016-04-01

    While many studies demonstrate that herbivores alter selection on plant reproductive traits, little is known about whether antiherbivore defenses affect selection on these traits. We hypothesized that antiherbivore defenses could alter selection on reproductive traits by altering trait expression through allocation trade-offs, or by altering interactions with mutualists and/or antagonists. To test our hypothesis, we used white clover, Trifolium repens, which has a Mendelian polymorphism for the production of hydrogen cyanide-a potent antiherbivore defense. We conducted a common garden experiment with 185 clonal families of T. repens that included cyanogenic and acyanogenic genotypes. We quantified resistance to herbivores, and selection on six floral traits and phenology via male and female fitness. Cyanogenesis reduced herbivory but did not alter the expression of reproductive traits through allocation trade-offs. However, the presence of cyanogenic defenses altered natural selection on petal morphology and the number of flowers within inflorescences via female fitness. Herbivory influenced selection on flowers and phenology via female fitness independently of cyanogenesis. Our results demonstrate that both herbivory and antiherbivore defenses alter natural selection on plant reproductive traits. We discuss the significance of these results for understanding how antiherbivore defenses interact with herbivores and pollinators to shape floral evolution. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Preliminary evidence of altered biomechanics in adolescents with juvenile fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Soumitri; Thomas, Staci; DiCesare, Christopher; Strotman, Daniel; Ting, Tracy V; Myer, Gregory; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by chronic musculoskeletal pain and marked reduction in physical activity. Despite recommendations for exercise to manage juvenile FM pain, exercise adherence is poor. Because of pain and activity avoidance, adolescents with juvenile FM are at risk for altered joint mechanics that may make them susceptible to increased pain and reduced tolerance for exercise. The primary aim of this study was to assess functional deficits in patients with juvenile FM compared to healthy controls using objective biomechanical assessment. Female adolescent patients with juvenile FM (n = 17) and healthy controls (n = 14) completed biomechanical assessments, including gait analysis and tests of lower extremity strength (isokinetic knee extension/flexion and hip abduction) and functional performance (drop vertical jump test) along with self-reported measures of disability (Functional Disability Inventory), pain intensity, depressive symptoms (Children's Depression Inventory), and fear of movement (Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia). Patients with juvenile FM demonstrated mild deficiencies in walking gait and functional performance (P < 0.05 for both) and significantly lower left knee extension and flexion strength (18-22% deficit) and bilateral hip abduction strength (34-38%) compared with healthy controls (P < 0.008 for all). Patients with juvenile FM reported significantly higher functional disability, pain intensity, depressive symptoms, and fear of movement relative to controls (P < 0.01 for all). This study showed that adolescents with juvenile FM exhibited objective alterations in biomechanics and self-reported fear of movement that may have reinforced their activity avoidance. Interventions for juvenile FM should include a focus on correcting functional deficits and instilling greater confidence in adolescents with juvenile FM to engage in exercise to improve functional outcomes. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  9. Subtle metabolic alterations in adolescents with obesity and polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital-Reyes, Víctor Saúl; Lopez-Alarcón, Mardia Guadalupe; Inda-Icaza, Patricia; Márquez-Maldonado, Concepción

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency of some subtle metabolic alterations in a group of adolescents with obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A cross-sectional, comparative study was conducted in a group of adolescents with obesity, and characterized as with or without PCOS according with the Rotterdam Consensus. Medical history, anthropometry, gynecologic pelvic ultrasound (to evaluate ovarian volumes, number of antral follicles and endometrial width), as well as serum glucose, insulin, lipoproteins, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, total testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, sexual hormones binding globulin, leptin, adiponectin and insulin-like growth factor 1, the free-androgen index, free and available testosterone, and homeostatic model assessment index were calculated. For statistics, mean and standard deviation, or median and ranges were used for description as appropriate. Likewise, Student t-test or Mann-Whitney test were used for comparisons. From a sample of 180 adolescents, 47 attached to selection criteria. Mean age was 13.5 year and Z-score 2.5. Eighty percent of adolescents presented central distribution of body fat and 95% hyperinsulinemia. The more frequent dyslipidemias were hypertriglyceridemia in 57% and hypercholesterolemia in 12.8%; 25.5% of adolescents presented two out of three criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Body mass index and insulin were correlated with free testosterone, but the multivariate analysis demonstrated that the magnitude of the association was significantly higher in SOP patients. The metabolic alterations detected in obese adolescents with SOP suggest that the clinical manifestations that accompany the syndrome characterize the PCOS as a metabolic disease, which carry important health risks at short, medium and long term. Therefore, they merit intervening actions to prevent, diagnose and provide timing treatment in order to limit the damage in the course of the natural history of PCOS. Copyright:

  10. Methylphenidate alters selective attention by amplifying salience.

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    ter Huurne, Niels; Fallon, Sean James; van Schouwenburg, Martine; van der Schaaf, Marieke; Buitelaar, Jan; Jensen, Ole; Cools, Roshan

    2015-12-01

    Methylphenidate, the most common treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is increasingly used by healthy individuals as a "smart drug" to enhance cognitive abilities like attention. A key feature of (selective) attention is the ability to ignore irrelevant but salient information in the environment (distractors). Although crucial for cognitive performance, until now, it is not known how the use of methylphenidate affects resistance to attentional capture by distractors. The present study aims to clarify how methylphenidate affects distractor suppression in healthy individuals. The effect of methylphenidate (20 mg) on distractor suppression was assessed in healthy subjects (N = 20), in a within-subject double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design. We used a visuospatial attention task with target faces flanked by strong (faces) or weak distractors (scrambled faces). Methylphenidate increased accuracy on trials that required gender identification of target face stimuli (methylphenidate 88.9 ± 1.4 [mean ± SEM], placebo 86.0 ± 1.2 %; p = .003), suggesting increased processing of the faces. At the same time, however, methylphenidate increased reaction time when the target face was flanked by a face distractor relative to a scrambled face distractor (methylphenidate 34.9 ± 3.73, placebo 26.7 ± 2.84 ms; p = .027), suggesting enhanced attentional capture by distractors with task-relevant features. We conclude that methylphenidate amplifies salience of task-relevant information at the level of the stimulus category. This leads to enhanced processing of the target (faces) but also increased attentional capture by distractors drawn from the same category as the target.

  11. Why climate change will invariably alter selection pressures on phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gienapp, Phillip; Reed, Thomas E.; Visser, Marcel E.

    2014-01-01

    The seasonal timing of lifecycle events is closely linked to individual fitness and hence, maladaptation in phenological traits may impact population dynamics. However, few studies have analysed whether and why climate change will alter selection pressures and hence possibly induce maladaptation in

  12. Perceived peer influence and peer selection on adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Beth R; Monge, Peter R; Chou, Chih-Ping; Valente, Thomas W

    2007-08-01

    Despite advances in tobacco control, adolescent smoking remains a problem. The smoking status of friends is one of the highest correlates with adolescent smoking. This homophily (commonality of friends based on a given attribute) may be due to either peer pressure, where adolescents adopt the smoking behaviors of their friends, or peer selection, where adolescents choose friends based on their smoking status. This study used structural equation modeling to test a model of peer influence and peer selection on ever smoking by adolescents. The primary analysis of the model did not reach significance, but post hoc analyses did result in a model with good fit. Results indicated that both peer influence and peer selection were occurring, and that peer influence was more salient in the population than was peer selection. Implications of these results for tobacco prevention programs are discussed.

  13. Popularity and Adolescent Friendship Networks : Selection and Influence Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Borch, Casey

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to

  14. Popularity and Adolescent Friendship Networks: Selection and Influence Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.K.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Borch, C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to

  15. Popularity and Adolescent Friendship Networks: Selection and Influence Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Borch, Casey

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to enhance their status through befriending higher…

  16. Temperament Alters Susceptibility to Negative Peer Influence in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The role of deviant peers in adolescent antisocial behavior has been well documented, but less is known about individual differences in susceptibility to negative peer influence. This study examined whether specific temperament dimensions moderate the prospective relationship between peer deviance and delinquent behavior in early adolescence.…

  17. Sleep variability in adolescence is associated with altered brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Goldenberg, Diane; Fuligni, Andrew J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Gálvan, Adriana

    2015-08-01

    Despite the known importance of sleep for brain development, and the sharp increase in poor sleep during adolescence, we know relatively little about how sleep impacts the developing brain. We present the first longitudinal study to examine how sleep during adolescence is associated with white matter integrity. We find that greater variability in sleep duration one year prior to a DTI scan is associated with lower white matter integrity above and beyond the effects of sleep duration, and variability in bedtime, whereas sleep variability a few months prior to the scan is not associated with white matter integrity. Thus, variability in sleep duration during adolescence may have long-term impairments on the developing brain. White matter integrity should be increasing during adolescence, and so sleep variability is directly at odds with normative developmental trends. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Exciting fear in adolescence: Does pubertal development alter threat processing?

    OpenAIRE

    Spielberg, JM; Olino, TM; Forbes, EE; Dahl, RE

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent development encompasses an ostensible paradox in threat processing. Risk taking increases dramatically after the onset of puberty, contributing to a 200% increase in mortality. Yet, pubertal maturation is associated with increased reactivity in threat-avoidance systems. In the first part of this paper we propose a heuristic model of adolescent affective development that may help to reconcile aspects of this paradox, which focuses on hypothesized pubertal increases in the capacity t...

  19. Music training alters the course of adolescent auditory development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Adam T.; Krizman, Jennifer; Kraus, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental changes in brain structure and function during adolescence are well-characterized, but the extent to which experience modulates adolescent neurodevelopment is not. Musical experience provides an ideal case for examining this question because the influence of music training begun early in life is well-known. We investigated the effects of in-school music training, previously shown to enhance auditory skills, versus another in-school training program that did not focus on development of auditory skills (active control). We tested adolescents on neural responses to sound and language skills before they entered high school (pretraining) and again 3 y later. Here, we show that in-school music training begun in high school prolongs the stability of subcortical sound processing and accelerates maturation of cortical auditory responses. Although phonological processing improved in both the music training and active control groups, the enhancement was greater in adolescents who underwent music training. Thus, music training initiated as late as adolescence can enhance neural processing of sound and confer benefits for language skills. These results establish the potential for experience-driven brain plasticity during adolescence and demonstrate that in-school programs can engender these changes. PMID:26195739

  20. Association between preterm birth and thoracic musculoskeletal static alterations in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessey M. B. Garcia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare thoracic musculoskeletal static alterations in adolescents born prematurely with those born at term and investigate neonatal and post-neonatal variables associated with thoracic alterations. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study with 57 adolescents aged 10-15 years born prematurely and 57 adolescents born at term paired by gender and age. Photographs of the head and thorax in the front, back, and right side views were studied using a computer program. The two groups were compared in regards to: elevation of clavicles, elevation of shoulders, protrusion of the head, and anteroposterior and mediolateral thoracic length. Factor associated with thoracic disorders were evaluated by linear regression analysis. RESULTS: The Preterm group had mean gestational age of 32.0±2.8 weeks and the birth weight was 1462±338 and 3342±430 g for the Preterm and Term adolescents, respectively. Preterm adolescents had higher elevation of the left shoulder (22.7±5.4o vs. 20.6±5.3o;sim, p=0.038 and the right shoulder (22.2±4.4o vs. 18.5±5.7o; p5 days (p=0.009. CONCLUSION: Adolescents born prematurely presented greater thoracic musculoskeletal static alterations compared to those born at term. Factors associated with these alterations were: very low birth weight and longer duration of mechanical ventilation in the neonatal unit.

  1. Stress during Adolescence Alters Palatable Food Consumption in a Context-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Christine; Yanaga, Stephanie; Reiss, Avery; Zona, Nicole; Robinson, Emily; Saxton, Katherine B

    2016-01-01

    Food consumption and preferences may be shaped by exposure to stressful environments during sensitive periods in development, and even small changes in consumption can have important effects on long term health. Adolescence is increasingly recognized as a sensitive period, in which adverse experiences can alter development, but the specific programming effects that may occur during adolescence remain incompletely understood. The current study seeks to explore the effects of stress during late adolescence on consumption of a palatable, high-fat, high-sugar food in adulthood-under basal conditions, as well following acute stress. Male Long-Evans rats were exposed to a regimen of variable stress for seven days in late adolescence (PND 45-51). During the stress regimen, stressed animals gained significantly less weight than control animals, but weight in adulthood was unaffected by adolescent stress. Palatable food consumption differed between experimental groups, and the direction of effect depended on context; stressed rats ate significantly more palatable food than controls upon first exposure, but ate less following an acute stressor. Leptin levels and exploratory behaviors did not differ between stressed and non-stressed groups, suggesting that other factors regulate preference for a palatable food. Altered food consumption following adolescent stress suggests that rats remain sensitive to stress during late adolescence, and that adult feeding behavior may be affected by previous adverse experiences. Such programming effects highlight adolescence as a period of plasticity, with the potential to shape long term food consumption patterns and preferences.

  2. It Takes Three: Selection, Influence, and De-Selection Processes of Depression in Adolescent Friendship Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret; Branje, Susan J. T.; Stattin, Hakan; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this study tested a selection-influence-de-selection model of depression. This model explains friendship influence processes (i.e., friends' depressive symptoms increase adolescents' depressive symptoms) while controlling for two processes: friendship selection (i.e., selection of friends with similar levels of depressive symptoms)…

  3. Puberty and Adolescence as a Time of Vulnerability to Stressors that Alter Neurobehavioral Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Mary K.; Blaustein, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    Puberty and adolescence are major life transitions during which an individual’s physiology and behavior changes from that of a juvenile to that of an adult. Here we review studies documenting the effects of stressors during pubertal and adolescent development on the adult brain and behavior. The experience of complex or compound stressors during puberty/adolescence generally increases stress reactivity, increases anxiety and depression, and decreases cognitive performance in adulthood. These behavioral changes correlate with decreased hippocampal volumes and alterations in neural plasticity. Moreover, stressful experiences during puberty disrupt behavioral responses to gonadal hormones both in sexual performance and on cognition and emotionality. These behavioral changes correlate with altered estrogen receptor densities in some estrogen-concentrating brain areas, suggesting a remodeling of the brain’s response to hormones. A hypothesis is presented that activation of the immune system results in chronic neuroinflammation that may mediate the alterations of hormone-modulated behaviors in adulthood. PMID:24184692

  4. Nutrition & Adolescent Pregnancy: A Selected Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Agricultural Library (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography on nutrition and adolescent pregnancy is intended to be a source of technical assistance for nurses, nutritionists, physicians, educators, social workers, and other personnel concerned with improving the health of teenage mothers and their babies. It is divided into two major sections. The first section lists selected…

  5. Schizophrenia Delays and Alters Maturation of the Brain in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douaud, Gwenaelle; Mackay, Clare; Andersson, Jesper; James, Susan; Quested, Digby; Ray, Manaan Kar; Connell, Julie; Roberts, Neil; Crow, Timothy J.; Matthews, Paul M.; Smith, Stephen; James, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Early-onset schizophrenia appears to be clinically more severe than the adult-onset form of the disease. In a previous study, we showed that anatomically related grey and white matter abnormalities found in adolescents patients were larger and more widespread than what had been reported in the literature on adult schizophrenia. Particularly, we…

  6. Caffeine triggers behavioral and neurochemical alterations in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardais, A P; Borges, M F; Rocha, A S; Sallaberry, C; Cunha, R A; Porciúncula, L O

    2014-06-13

    Caffeine is the psychostimulant most consumed worldwide but concerns arise about the growing intake of caffeine-containing drinks by adolescents since the effects of caffeine on cognitive functions and neurochemical aspects of late brain maturation during adolescence are poorly known. We now studied the behavioral impact in adolescent male rats of regular caffeine intake at low (0.1mg/mL), moderate (0.3mg/mL) and moderate/high (1.0mg/mL) doses only during their active period (from 7:00 P.M. to 7:00 A.M.). All tested doses of caffeine were devoid of effects on locomotor activity, but triggered anxiogenic effects. Caffeine (0.3 and 1mg/mL) improved the performance in the object recognition task, but the higher dose of caffeine (1.0mg/mL) decreased the habituation to an open-field arena, suggesting impaired non-associative memory. All tested doses of caffeine decreased the density of glial fibrillary acidic protein and synaptosomal-associated protein-25, but failed to modify neuron-specific nuclear protein immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Caffeine (0.3-1mg/mL) increased the density of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and proBDNF density as well as adenosine A1 receptor density in the hippocampus, whereas the higher dose of caffeine (1mg/mL) increased the density of proBDNF and BDNF and decreased A1 receptor density in the cerebral cortex. These findings document an impact of caffeine consumption in adolescent rats with a dual impact on anxiety and recognition memory, associated with changes in BDNF levels and decreases of astrocytic and nerve terminal markers without overt neuronal damage in hippocampal and cortical regions. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exciting fear in adolescence: Does pubertal development alter threat processing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Spielberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent development encompasses an ostensible paradox in threat processing. Risk taking increases dramatically after the onset of puberty, contributing to a 200% increase in mortality. Yet, pubertal maturation is associated with increased reactivity in threat-avoidance systems. In the first part of this paper we propose a heuristic model of adolescent affective development that may help to reconcile aspects of this paradox, which focuses on hypothesized pubertal increases in the capacity to experience (some fear-evoking experiences as an exciting thrill. In the second part of this paper, we test key features of this model by examining brain activation to threat cues in a longitudinal study that disentangled pubertal and age effects. Pubertal increases in testosterone predicted increased activation to threat cues, not only in regions associated with threat avoidance (i.e., amygdala, but also regions associated with reward pursuit (i.e., nucleus accumbens. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis that puberty is associated with a maturational shift toward more complex processing of threat cues—which may contribute to adolescent tendencies to explore and enjoy some types of risky experiences.

  8. Exciting fear in adolescence: does pubertal development alter threat processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Olino, Thomas M; Forbes, Erika E; Dahl, Ronald E

    2014-04-01

    Adolescent development encompasses an ostensible paradox in threat processing. Risk taking increases dramatically after the onset of puberty, contributing to a 200% increase in mortality. Yet, pubertal maturation is associated with increased reactivity in threat-avoidance systems. In the first part of this paper we propose a heuristic model of adolescent affective development that may help to reconcile aspects of this paradox, which focuses on hypothesized pubertal increases in the capacity to experience (some) fear-evoking experiences as an exciting thrill. In the second part of this paper, we test key features of this model by examining brain activation to threat cues in a longitudinal study that disentangled pubertal and age effects. Pubertal increases in testosterone predicted increased activation to threat cues, not only in regions associated with threat avoidance (i.e., amygdala), but also regions associated with reward pursuit (i.e., nucleus accumbens). These findings are consistent with our hypothesis that puberty is associated with a maturational shift toward more complex processing of threat cues--which may contribute to adolescent tendencies to explore and enjoy some types of risky experiences. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Binge Toluene Exposure Alters Glutamate, Glutamine and GABA in the Adolescent Rat Brain as Measured by Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrine, Shane A.; O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K.; Galloway, Matthew P.; Hannigan, John H.; Bowen, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the high incidence of toluene abuse in adolescents, little is known regarding the effect of binge exposure on neurochemical profiles during this developmental stage. In the current study, the effects of binge toluene exposure during adolescence on neurotransmitter levels were determined using high-resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ex vivo at 11.7 T. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to toluene (0, 8,000 , or 12,000 ppm) for 15 min twice daily from postnatal day 28 (P28) through P34 and then euthanized either one or seven days later (on P35 or P42) to assess glutamate, glutamine, and GABA levels in intact tissue punches from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior striatum and hippocampus. In the mPFC, toluene reduced glutamate one day after exposure, with no effect on GABA, while after seven days, glutamate was no longer affected but there was an increase in GABA levels. In the hippocampus, neither GABA nor glutamate was altered one day after exposure, whereas seven days after exposure, increases were observed in GABA and glutamate. Striatal glutamate and GABA levels measured after either one or seven days were not altered after toluene exposure. These findings show that one week of binge toluene inhalation selectively alters these neurotransmitters in the mPFC and hippocampus in adolescent rats, and that some of these effects endure at least one week after the exposure. The results suggest that age-dependent, differential neurochemical responses to toluene may contribute to the unique behavioral patterns associated with drug abuse among older children and young teens. PMID:21126832

  10. Partial genetic deletion of neuregulin 1 and adolescent stress interact to alter NMDA receptor binding in the medial prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Waseem Chohan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is thought to arise due to a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors during early neurodevelopment. We have recently shown that partial genetic deletion of the schizophrenia susceptibility gene neuregulin 1 (Nrg1 and adolescent stress interact to disturb sensorimotor gating, neuroendocrine activity and dendritic morphology in mice. Both stress and Nrg1 may have converging effects upon N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs which are implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, sensorimotor gating and dendritic spine plasticity. Using an identical repeated restraint stress paradigm to our previous study, here we determined NMDAR binding across various brain regions in adolescent Nrg1 heterozygous (HET and wild-type (WT mice using [3H] MK-801 autoradiography. Repeated restraint stress increased NMDAR binding in the ventral part of the lateral septum (LSV and the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus irrespective of genotype. Partial genetic deletion of Nrg1 interacted with adolescent stress to promote an altered pattern of NMDAR binding in the infralimbic (IL subregion of the medial prefrontal cortex. In the IL, whilst stress tended to increase NMDAR binding in WT mice, it decreased binding in Nrg1 HET mice. However in the DG, stress selectively increased the expression of NMDAR binding in Nrg1 HET mice but not WT mice. These results demonstrate a Nrg1-stress interaction during adolescence on NMDAR binding in the medial prefrontal cortex.

  11. Adolescents and Young Adults Mates Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martina Casullo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to identify the relation between gender and age on mate pre- ferences using an intentional sample drawn in Buenos Aires city and its suburban area. A questionnaire adapted from a previous study developed by D.Buss (1990 requested subjects to rank each of 19 characteristics on its desirability in a mate. Subjects for this study were 900 adolescents and young adults aging 13 to 30 years old. Means and standard deviations were calculated as well as Spearman ́s Rho coefficients. High correlations between gender, age, and ordering were found. Mutual attraction and love, kindness and understanding and trust are cho- sen as the most important criteria. Phisically attractive is important for younger males. Similar political and religious background as well as chastity are conside- red among the less important criteria. 

  12. Repeated Sleep Restriction in Adolescent Rats Altered Sleep Patterns and Impaired Spatial Learning/Memory Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Su-Rong; Sun, Hui; Huang, Zhi-Li; Yao, Ming-Hui; Qu, Wei-Min

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate possible differences in the effect of repeated sleep restriction (RSR) during adolescence and adulthood on sleep homeostasis and spatial learning and memory ability. Design: The authors examined electroencephalograms of rats as they were subjected to 4-h daily sleep deprivation that continued for 7 consecutive days and assessed the spatial learning and memory by Morris water maze test (WMT). Participants: Adolescent and adult rats. Measurements and Results: Adolescent rats exhibited a similar amount of rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep with higher slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4 Hz) and fewer episodes and conversions with prolonged durations, indicating they have better sleep quality than adult rats. After RSR, adult rats showed strong rebound of REM sleep by 31% on sleep deprivation day 1; this value was 37% on sleep deprivation day 7 in adolescents compared with 20-h baseline level. On sleep deprivation day 7, SWA in adult and adolescent rats increased by 47% and 33%, and such elevation lasted for 5 h and 7 h, respectively. Furthermore, the authors investigated the effects of 4-h daily sleep deprivation immediately after the water maze training sessions on spatial cognitive performance. Adolescent rats sleep-restricted for 7 days traveled a longer distance to find the hidden platform during the acquisition training and had fewer numbers of platform crossings in the probe trial than those in the control group, something that did not occur in the sleep-deprived adult rats. Conclusions: Repeated sleep restriction (RSR) altered sleep profiles and mildly impaired spatial learning and memory capability in adolescent rats. Citation: Yang SR; Sun H; Huang ZL; Yao MH; Qu WM. Repeated sleep restriction in adolescent rats altered sleep patterns and impaired spatial learning/memory ability. SLEEP 2012;35(6):849-859. PMID:22654204

  13. Altered neural processing of reward and punishment in adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, I; Bakos, S; Kohls, G; Bartling, J; Schulte-Körne, G; Greimel, E

    2018-05-01

    Altered reward and punishment function has been suggested as an important vulnerability factor for the development of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Prior ERP studies found evidence for neurophysiological dysfunctions in reinforcement processes in adults with MDD. To date, only few ERP studies have examined the neural underpinnings of reinforcement processing in adolescents diagnosed with MDD. The present event-related potential (ERP) study aimed to investigate neurophysiological mechanisms of anticipation and consumption of reward and punishment in adolescents with MDD in one comprehensive paradigm. During ERP recording, 25 adolescents with MDD and 29 healthy controls (12-17 years) completed a Monetary Incentive Delay Task comprising both a monetary reward and a monetary punishment condition. During anticipation, the cue-P3 signaling attentional allocation was recorded. During consumption, the feedback-P3 and Reward Positivity (RewP) were recorded to capture attentional allocation and outcome evaluation, respectively. Compared to controls, adolescents with MDD showed prolonged cue-P3 latencies to reward cues. Furthermore, unlike controls, adolescents with MDD displayed shorter feedback-P3 latencies in the reward versus punishment condition. RewPs did not differ between groups. It remains unanswered whether the observed alterations in adolescent MDD represent a state or trait. Delayed neural processing of reward cues corresponds to the clinical presentation of adolescent MDD with reduced motivational tendencies to obtain rewards. Relatively shorter feedback-P3 latencies in the reward versus punishment condition could indicate a high salience of performance-contingent reward. Frequent exposure of negatively biased adolescents with MDD to performance-contingent rewards might constitute a promising intervention approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Abdominal Pain, the Adolescent and Altered Brain Structure and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Catherine S; Becerra, Lino; Heinz, Nicole; Ludwick, Allison; Rasooly, Tali; Wu, Rina; Johnson, Adriana; Schechter, Neil L; Borsook, David; Nurko, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder of unknown etiology. Although relatively common in children, how this condition affects brain structure and function in a pediatric population remains unclear. Here, we investigate brain changes in adolescents with IBS and healthy controls. Imaging was performed with a Siemens 3 Tesla Trio Tim MRI scanner equipped with a 32-channel head coil. A high-resolution T1-weighted anatomical scan was acquired followed by a T2-weighted functional scan. We used a surface-based morphometric approach along with a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) analysis to determine if groups differed in cortical thickness and whether areas showing structural differences also showed abnormal RS-FC patterns. Patients completed the Abdominal Pain Index and the GI Module of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory to assess abdominal pain severity and impact of GI symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Disease duration and pain intensity were also assessed. Pediatric IBS patients, relative to controls, showed cortical thickening in the posterior cingulate (PCC), whereas cortical thinning in posterior parietal and prefrontal areas were found, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In patients, abdominal pain severity was related to cortical thickening in the intra-abdominal area of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), whereas HRQOL was associated with insular cortical thinning. Disease severity measures correlated with cortical thickness in bilateral DLPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Patients also showed reduced anti-correlations between PCC and DLPFC compared to controls, a finding that may reflect aberrant connectivity between default mode and cognitive control networks. We are the first to demonstrate concomitant structural and functional brain changes associated with abdominal pain severity, HRQOL related to GI-specific symptoms, and disease-specific measures in

  15. Abdominal Pain, the Adolescent and Altered Brain Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Lino; Heinz, Nicole; Ludwick, Allison; Rasooly, Tali; Wu, Rina; Johnson, Adriana; Schechter, Neil L.; Borsook, David; Nurko, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder of unknown etiology. Although relatively common in children, how this condition affects brain structure and function in a pediatric population remains unclear. Here, we investigate brain changes in adolescents with IBS and healthy controls. Imaging was performed with a Siemens 3 Tesla Trio Tim MRI scanner equipped with a 32-channel head coil. A high-resolution T1-weighted anatomical scan was acquired followed by a T2-weighted functional scan. We used a surface-based morphometric approach along with a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) analysis to determine if groups differed in cortical thickness and whether areas showing structural differences also showed abnormal RS-FC patterns. Patients completed the Abdominal Pain Index and the GI Module of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory to assess abdominal pain severity and impact of GI symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Disease duration and pain intensity were also assessed. Pediatric IBS patients, relative to controls, showed cortical thickening in the posterior cingulate (PCC), whereas cortical thinning in posterior parietal and prefrontal areas were found, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In patients, abdominal pain severity was related to cortical thickening in the intra-abdominal area of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), whereas HRQOL was associated with insular cortical thinning. Disease severity measures correlated with cortical thickness in bilateral DLPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Patients also showed reduced anti-correlations between PCC and DLPFC compared to controls, a finding that may reflect aberrant connectivity between default mode and cognitive control networks. We are the first to demonstrate concomitant structural and functional brain changes associated with abdominal pain severity, HRQOL related to GI-specific symptoms, and disease-specific measures in

  16. Abdominal Pain, the Adolescent and Altered Brain Structure and Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine S Hubbard

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional gastrointestinal (GI disorder of unknown etiology. Although relatively common in children, how this condition affects brain structure and function in a pediatric population remains unclear. Here, we investigate brain changes in adolescents with IBS and healthy controls. Imaging was performed with a Siemens 3 Tesla Trio Tim MRI scanner equipped with a 32-channel head coil. A high-resolution T1-weighted anatomical scan was acquired followed by a T2-weighted functional scan. We used a surface-based morphometric approach along with a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC analysis to determine if groups differed in cortical thickness and whether areas showing structural differences also showed abnormal RS-FC patterns. Patients completed the Abdominal Pain Index and the GI Module of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory to assess abdominal pain severity and impact of GI symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Disease duration and pain intensity were also assessed. Pediatric IBS patients, relative to controls, showed cortical thickening in the posterior cingulate (PCC, whereas cortical thinning in posterior parietal and prefrontal areas were found, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. In patients, abdominal pain severity was related to cortical thickening in the intra-abdominal area of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI, whereas HRQOL was associated with insular cortical thinning. Disease severity measures correlated with cortical thickness in bilateral DLPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Patients also showed reduced anti-correlations between PCC and DLPFC compared to controls, a finding that may reflect aberrant connectivity between default mode and cognitive control networks. We are the first to demonstrate concomitant structural and functional brain changes associated with abdominal pain severity, HRQOL related to GI-specific symptoms, and disease

  17. Switching adolescent high-fat diet to adult control diet restores neurocognitive alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Boitard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, obesity is associated with adverse cognitive and emotional outcomes. Its growing prevalence in adolescents is particularly alarming since this is a period of ongoing maturation for brain structures (including the hippocampus and amygdala and for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA stress axis, which is required for cognitive and emotional processing. We recently demonstrated that adolescent, but not adult, high-fat diet (HF exposure leads to impaired hippocampal function and enhanced amygdala function through HPA axis alteration (Boitard et al., 2014; Boitard et al., 2012; Boitard et al., 2015. Here, we assessed whether the effects of adolescent HF consumption on brain function are permanent or reversible. After adolescent exposure to HF, switching to a standard chow diet restored levels of hippocampal neurogenesis and normalized enhanced HPA axis reactivity, amygdala activity and avoidance memory. Therefore, while the adolescent period is highly vulnerable to the deleterious effects of diet-induced obesity, adult exposure to a standard diet appears sufficient to reverse alterations of brain function.

  18. Friendship selection and friends' influence : Dynamics of networks and actor attributes in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knecht, Andrea Beate

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent friends are often found to be similar. Similarity can be caused by selection and influence processes. This book examines selection and influence processes for delinquency, school attitudes, and alcohol use in early adolescence. For selection processes, we hypothesize that adolescents

  19. Altered Brain Response to Drinking Glucose and Fructose in Obese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Ania M; Sinha, Rajita; Arora, Jagriti; Giannini, Cosimo; Kubat, Jessica; Malik, Saima; Van Name, Michelle A; Santoro, Nicola; Savoye, Mary; Duran, Elvira J; Pierpont, Bridget; Cline, Gary; Constable, R Todd; Sherwin, Robert S; Caprio, Sonia

    2016-07-01

    Increased sugar-sweetened beverage consumption has been linked to higher rates of obesity. Using functional MRI, we assessed brain perfusion responses to drinking two commonly consumed monosaccharides, glucose and fructose, in obese and lean adolescents. Marked differences were observed. In response to drinking glucose, obese adolescents exhibited decreased brain perfusion in brain regions involved in executive function (prefrontal cortex [PFC]) and increased perfusion in homeostatic appetite regions of the brain (hypothalamus). Conversely, in response to drinking glucose, lean adolescents demonstrated increased PFC brain perfusion and no change in perfusion in the hypothalamus. In addition, obese adolescents demonstrated attenuated suppression of serum acyl-ghrelin and increased circulating insulin level after glucose ingestion; furthermore, the change in acyl-ghrelin and insulin levels after both glucose and fructose ingestion was associated with increased hypothalamic, thalamic, and hippocampal blood flow in obese relative to lean adolescents. Additionally, in all subjects there was greater perfusion in the ventral striatum with fructose relative to glucose ingestion. Finally, reduced connectivity between executive, homeostatic, and hedonic brain regions was observed in obese adolescents. These data demonstrate that obese adolescents have impaired prefrontal executive control responses to drinking glucose and fructose, while their homeostatic and hedonic responses appear to be heightened. Thus, obesity-related brain adaptations to glucose and fructose consumption in obese adolescents may contribute to excessive consumption of glucose and fructose, thereby promoting further weight gain. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  20. Altered frontal cortical volume and decision making in adolescent cannabis users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Churchwell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anticipating future outcomes is central to decision making and a failure to consider long-term consequences may lead to impulsive choices. Adolescence is a vulnerable period during which underdeveloped prefrontal cortical systems may contribute to poor judgment, impulsive choices, and substance abuse. Conversely, substance abuse during this period may alter neural systems involved in decision making and lead to greater impulsivity. Although a broad neural network which supports decision making undergoes extensive change during adolescent development, one region that may be critical is the medial prefrontal cortex. Altered functional integrity of this region may be specifically related to reward perception, substance abuse, and dependence. In the present investigation, we acquired structural magnetic resonance images (MRI, using a 3T Siemens Trio scanner, from 18 cannabis abusing adolescents (CA; 2 female and 16 male subjects; mean age, 17.7 years; range 16-19 years and 18 healthy controls (HC; 6 female and 12 male subjects; mean age, 17.2 years; range 16-19 years. In order to measure medial orbital prefrontal cortex (moPFC morphology related to substance abuse and impulsivity, semi-automated cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation of MRIs was performed with FreeSurfer. Impulsivity was evaluated with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS. Our results indicate that cannabis abusing adolescents have decreased right moPFC volume compared to controls, p =.01, d = .92, CI.95 = .21, 1.59. Cannabis abusing adolescents also show decreased future orientation, as indexed by the BIS nonplanning subscale, when compared to controls, p = .01, d = .89, CI.95 = .23, 1.55. Moreover, total moPFC volume was positively correlated with age of first use (18 = .49, p < .03, suggesting that alterations in this region may be related to initiation of cannabis use or that early initiation may lead to reduced moPFC volume.

  1. The alteration of gray matter volume and cognitive control in adolescents with internet gaming disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei eWang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Internet gaming disorder (IGD has been investigated by many behavioral and neuroimaging studies, for it has became one of the main behavior disorders among adolescents. However, few studies focused on the relationship between alteration of gray matter volume (GMV and cognitive control feature in IGD adolescents. Methods: Twenty-eight participants with IAD and twenty-eight healthy age and gender matched controls participated in the study. Brain morphology of adolescents with IGD and healthy controls was investigated using an optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM technique. Cognitive control performances were measured by Stroop task, and correlation analysis was performed between brain structural change and behavioral performance in IGD group. Results: The results showed that GMV of the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, precuneus, supplementary motor area (SMA, superior parietal cortex, left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, left insula, and bilateral cerebellum decreased in the IGD participants compared with healthy controls. Moreover, GMV of the ACC was negatively correlated with the incongruent response errors of Stroop task in IGD group. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the alteration of GMV is associated with the performance change of cognitive control in adolescents with IGD, which indicating substantial brain image effects induced by IGD.

  2. Altered BOLD response during inhibitory and error processing in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Wierenga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN are often cognitively rigid and behaviorally over-controlled. We previously showed that adult females recovered from AN relative to healthy comparison females had less prefrontal activation during an inhibition task, which suggested a functional brain correlate of altered inhibitory processing in individuals recovered from AN. However, the degree to which these functional brain alterations are related to disease state and whether error processing is altered in AN individuals is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current study, ill adolescent AN females (n = 11 and matched healthy comparison adolescents (CA with no history of an eating disorder (n = 12 performed a validated stop signal task (SST during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to explore differences in error and inhibitory processing. The groups did not differ on sociodemographic variables or on SST performance. During inhibitory processing, a significant group x difficulty (hard, easy interaction was detected in the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, right middle frontal gyrus (MFG, and left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, which was characterized by less activation in AN compared to CA participants during hard trials. During error processing, a significant group x accuracy (successful inhibit, failed inhibit interaction in bilateral MFG and right PCC was observed, which was characterized by less activation in AN compared to CA participants during error (i.e., failed inhibit trials. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Consistent with our prior findings in recovered AN, ill AN adolescents, relative to CA, showed less inhibition-related activation within the dorsal ACC, MFG and PCC as inhibitory demand increased. In addition, ill AN adolescents, relative to CA, also showed reduced activation to errors in the bilateral MFG and left PCC. These findings suggest that altered prefrontal and cingulate activation during

  3. Gender differences in the sexual behaviour of selected adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the Falaye Adolescent' Sexual Behaviour Inventory (FASBI), adolescents' sexual behaviour was assessed using the proximate determinants of attitude towards pubertal changes and reproductive biology, adolescent source of sex information, adolescent sexual activities (intercourse and contraception) and attitude ...

  4. Perceived Indices of Truancy among Selected Adolescents in Oyo Town: Implications for Behavioural Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adika, Lawrence Olagoke

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated perceived indices of truancy behaviour among selected adolescents in Oyo town. The descriptive survey study had 200 randomly selected adolescents from five secondary schools in Oyo town. A self-designed instrument tagged Adolescent Truancy Scale (ATS) was employed in collecting data for the study and the data was subjected…

  5. The Effect of Speed Alterations on Tempo Note Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Clifford K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the tempo note preferences of 100 randomly selected college-level musicians using familiar orchestral music as stimuli. Subjects heard selections at increased, decreased, and unaltered tempi. Results showed musicians were not accurate in estimating original tempo and showed consistent preference for faster than actual tempo.…

  6. Prenatal cocaine exposure alters alpha2 receptor expression in adolescent rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvers Janelle M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prenatal cocaine exposure produces attentional deficits which to persist through early childhood. Given the role of norepinephrine (NE in attentional processes, we examined the forebrain NE systems from prenatal cocaine exposed rats. Cocaine was administered during pregnancy via the clinically relevant intravenous route of administration. Specifically, we measured α2-adrenergic receptor (α2-AR density in adolescent (35-days-old rats, using [3H]RX821002 (5 nM. Results Sex-specific alterations of α2-AR were found in the hippocampus and amygdala of the cocaine-exposed animals, as well as an upregulation of α2-AR in parietal cortex. Conclusion These data suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure results in a persistent alteration in forebrain NE systems as indicated by alterations in receptor density. These neurochemical changes may underlie behavioral abnormalities observed in offspring attentional processes following prenatal exposure to cocaine.

  7. Altered Autonomic Functions and Distressed Personality Traits in Male Adolescents with Internet Gaming Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L; Park, Chang G; Quinn, Laurie; Kong, In Deok

    2016-11-01

    Internet gaming addiction (IGA) has been associated with many negative health outcomes, especially for youth; however, few studies have examined the physiological parameters and personality features related to this addiction. This study aimed to identify differences in autonomic functions and distressed (type D) personality traits among Korean adolescent males with and without IGA. In a cross-sectional study, 68 adolescent males were recruited in a Korean city using convenience and snowball sampling methods. For each subject, heart rate variability (HRV) parameters were measured as autonomic functions and questionnaires were used to identify IGA and type D personality traits. Data were analyzed using descriptive analyses, t tests, χ 2 tests, and Pearson's correlation. Most HRV parameters significantly differed between the IGA and non-IGA groups (all p gaming was related to alterations in autonomic functions and distressed personality traits in male adolescents. These findings provide further understanding of the IGA phenomenon and highlight the need for interventions that address male adolescents with IGA.

  8. Selectively altering belief formation in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharot, Tali; Kanai, Ryota; Marston, David; Korn, Christoph W.; Rees, Geraint; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    Humans form beliefs asymmetrically; we tend to discount bad news but embrace good news. This reduced impact of unfavorable information on belief updating may have important societal implications, including the generation of financial market bubbles, ill preparedness in the face of natural disasters, and overly aggressive medical decisions. Here, we selectively improved people’s tendency to incorporate bad news into their beliefs by disrupting the function of the left (but not right) inferior frontal gyrus using transcranial magnetic stimulation, thereby eliminating the engrained “good news/bad news effect.” Our results provide an instance of how selective disruption of regional human brain function paradoxically enhances the ability to incorporate unfavorable information into beliefs of vulnerability. PMID:23011798

  9. Alterations of parenchymal microstructure, neuronal connectivity and cerebrovascular resistance at adolescence following mild to moderate traumatic brain injury in early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Maxime; Li, Ying; Santhakumar, Vijayalakshmi; Hyder, Fahmeed; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Kannurpatti, Sridhar

    2018-06-01

    TBI is a leading cause of morbidity in children. To investigate outcome of early developmental TBI during adolescence, a rat model of fluid percussion injury was developed, where previous work reported deficits in sensorimotor behavior and cortical blood flow at adolescence. 1 Based on the non-localized outcome, we hypothesized that multiple neurophysiological components of brain function, namely neuronal connectivity, synapse/axonal microstructural integrity and neurovascular function are altered and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods could be used to determine regional alterations. Adolescent outcomes of developmental TBI were studied 2-months after injury, using functional MRI (fMRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). fMRI based resting state functional connectivity (RSFC), representing neural connectivity, was significantly altered between sham and TBI. RSFC strength decreased in the cortex, hippocampus and thalamus accompanied by decrease in the spatial extent of their corresponding RSFC networks and inter-hemispheric asymmetry. Cerebrovascular reactivity to arterial CO2 changes diminished after TBI across both hemispheres, with a more pronounced decrease in the ipsilateral hippocampus, thalamus and motor cortex. DTI measures of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), reporting on axonal and microstructural integrity of the brain, indicated similar inter-hemispheric asymmetry, with highest change in the ipsilateral hippocampus and regions adjoining the ipsilateral thalamus, hypothalamus and amygdala. TBI-induced corpus callosal microstructural alterations indicated measurable changes in inter-hemispheric structural connectivity. Hippocampus, thalamus and select cortical regions were most consistently affected in multiple imaging markers. The multi-modal MRI results demonstrate cortical and subcortical alterations in neural connectivity, cerebrovascular resistance and parenchymal microstructure in the adolescent brain

  10. Altered default network resting-state functional connectivity in adolescents with Internet gaming addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-na Ding

    Full Text Available Excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. This study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate whether functional connectivity is altered in adolescents with Internet gaming addiction (IGA.Seventeen adolescents with IGA and 24 normal control adolescents underwent a 7.3 minute resting-state fMRI scan. Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. To assess the relationship between IGA symptom severity and PCC connectivity, contrast images representing areas correlated with PCC connectivity were correlated with the scores of the 17 subjects with IGA on the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11 and their hours of Internet use per week.There were no significant differences in the distributions of the age, gender, and years of education between the two groups. The subjects with IGA showed longer Internet use per week (hours (p<0.0001 and higher CIAS (p<0.0001 and BIS-11 (p = 0.01 scores than the controls. Compared with the control group, subjects with IGA exhibited increased functional connectivity in the bilateral cerebellum posterior lobe and middle temporal gyrus. The bilateral inferior parietal lobule and right inferior temporal gyrus exhibited decreased connectivity. Connectivity with the PCC was positively correlated with CIAS scores in the right precuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, thalamus, caudate, nucleus accumbens, supplementary motor area, and lingual gyrus. It was negatively correlated with the right cerebellum anterior lobe and left superior parietal lobule.Our results suggest that adolescents with IGA exhibit different resting-state patterns of brain activity. As these alterations are partially consistent with those in patients with substance addiction, they support the

  11. Selective cognitive empathy deficit in adolescents with restrictive anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calderoni S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sara Calderoni,1 Pamela Fantozzi,1 Sandra Maestro,1 Elena Brunori,1 Antonio Narzisi,1 Giulia Balboni,2 Filippo Muratori1,31Department of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, IRCCS Stella Maris Foundation, 2Department of Surgery, Medical, Molecular and Critical Area Pathology, University of Pisa, 3Department of Developmental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, ItalyBackground: A growing, but conflicting body of literature suggests altered empathic abilities in subjects with anorexia nervosa-restricting type (AN-R. This study aims to characterize the cognitive and affective empathic profiles of adolescents with purely AN-R.Methods: As part of a standardized clinical and research protocol, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI, a valid and reliable self-reported instrument to measure empathy, was administered to 32 female adolescents with AN-R and in 41 healthy controls (HC comparisons, matched for age and gender. Correlational analyses were performed to evaluate the links between empathy scores and psychopathological measures.Results: Patients scored significantly lower than HC on cognitive empathy (CE, while they did not differ from controls on affective empathy (AE. The deficit in CE was not related to either disease severity nor was it related to associated psychopathology.Conclusion: These results, albeit preliminary, suggest that a dysfunctional pattern of CE capacity may be a stable trait of AN-R that should be taken into account not only for the clinical management, but also in preventive and therapeutic intervention.Keywords: anorexia nervosa-restricting type, cognitive empathy, affective empathy, female adolescents, Interpersonal Reactivity Index

  12. Conditional Selection of Genomic Alterations Dictates Cancer Evolution and Oncogenic Dependencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Marco; Raynaud, Franck; Tavernari, Daniele; Battistello, Elena; Sungalee, Stephanie; Saghafinia, Sadegh; Laessle, Titouan; Sanchez-Vega, Francisco; Schultz, Nikolaus; Oricchio, Elisa; Ciriello, Giovanni

    2017-08-14

    Cancer evolves through the emergence and selection of molecular alterations. Cancer genome profiling has revealed that specific events are more or less likely to be co-selected, suggesting that the selection of one event depends on the others. However, the nature of these evolutionary dependencies and their impact remain unclear. Here, we designed SELECT, an algorithmic approach to systematically identify evolutionary dependencies from alteration patterns. By analyzing 6,456 genomes from multiple tumor types, we constructed a map of oncogenic dependencies associated with cellular pathways, transcriptional readouts, and therapeutic response. Finally, modeling of cancer evolution shows that alteration dependencies emerge only under conditional selection. These results provide a framework for the design of strategies to predict cancer progression and therapeutic response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Altered default network resting-state functional connectivity in adolescents with Internet gaming addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei-na; Sun, Jin-hua; Sun, Ya-wen; Zhou, Yan; Li, Lei; Xu, Jian-rong; Du, Ya-song

    2013-01-01

    Excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. This study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether functional connectivity is altered in adolescents with Internet gaming addiction (IGA). Seventeen adolescents with IGA and 24 normal control adolescents underwent a 7.3 minute resting-state fMRI scan. Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. To assess the relationship between IGA symptom severity and PCC connectivity, contrast images representing areas correlated with PCC connectivity were correlated with the scores of the 17 subjects with IGA on the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS) and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and their hours of Internet use per week. There were no significant differences in the distributions of the age, gender, and years of education between the two groups. The subjects with IGA showed longer Internet use per week (hours) (paddiction, they support the hypothesis that IGA as a behavioral addiction that may share similar neurobiological abnormalities with other addictive disorders.

  14. GABA(A) receptor modulation during adolescence alters adult ethanol intake and preference in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulin, Mary W; Amato, Russell J; Winsauer, Peter J

    2012-02-01

    To address the hypothesis that GABA(A) receptor modulation during adolescence may alter the abuse liability of ethanol during adulthood, the effects of adolescent administration of both a positive and negative GABA(A) receptor modulator on adult alcohol intake and preference were assessed. Three groups of adolescent male rats received 12 injections of lorazepam (3.2 mg/kg), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 56 mg/kg), or vehicle on alternate days starting on postnatal day (PD) 35. After this time, the doses were increased to 5.6 and 100 mg/kg, respectively, for 3 more injections on alternate days. Subjects had access to 25 to 30 g of food daily, during the period of the first 6 injections, and 18 to 20 g thereafter. Food intake of each group was measured 60 minutes after food presentation, which occurred immediately after drug administration on injection days or at the same time of day on noninjection days. When subjects reached adulthood (PD 88), ethanol preference was determined on 2 separate occasions, an initial 3-day period and a 12-day period, in which increasing concentrations of ethanol were presented. During each preference test, intake of water, saccharin, and an ethanol/saccharin solution was measured after each 23-hour access period. During adolescence, lorazepam increased 60-minute food intake, and this effect was enhanced under the more restrictive feeding schedule. DHEA had the opposite effect on injection days, decreasing food intake compared with noninjection days. In adulthood, the lorazepam-treated group preferred the 2 lowest concentrations of ethanol/saccharin more than saccharin alone compared with vehicle-treated subjects, which showed no preference for any concentration of ethanol/saccharin over saccharin. DHEA-treated subjects showed no preference among the 3 solutions. These data demonstrate that GABA(A) receptor modulation during adolescence can alter intake and preference for ethanol in adulthood and highlights the importance of drug history

  15. Selection and Socialization Effects in Early Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Propensity Score Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalco, Matthew D.; Trucco, Elisa M.; Coffman, Donna L.; Colder, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    The robust correlation between peer and adolescent alcohol use (AU) has been taken as evidence for both socialization and selection processes in the etiology of adolescent AU. Accumulating evidence from studies using a diverse range of methodological and statistical approaches suggests that both processes are involved. A major challenge in testing whether peer AU predicts an adolescent's drinking (socialization) or whether an adolescent's drinking predicts peer AU (selection) is the myriad of potentially confounding factors that might lead to an overestimation of socialization and selection effects. After creating AU transition groups based on peer and adolescent AU across two waves (N = 765; age = 10-15; 53% female), we test whether transitions into AU by adolescents and peers predict later peer and adolescent AU respectively, using (1) propensity score analysis to balance transition groups on 26 potential confounds, (2) a longitudinal design with three waves to establish temporal precedence, and (3) both adolescent (target) and peer self-report of peer AU to disentangle effects attributable to shared reporter bias. Both selection and socialization were supported using both peer self-report of AU and adolescent-report of peer AU. Although cross-sectional analyses suggested peer self-reported models were associated with smaller effects than perceived peer AU, longitudinal analyses suggest a similar sized effect across reporter of peer AU for both selection and socialization. The implications of these findings for the etiology and treatment of adolescent AU are discussed. PMID:25601099

  16. Alteration in unhealthy nutrition behaviors in adolescents through community intervention: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Mohammadifard

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primary prevention of chronic diseases has been suggested to initiate health promotion activities from childhoods. The impact of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP, a comprehensive community trial, on unhealthy snacks and fast food intake changes was evaluated in Iranian adolescents between 2001 and 2007. METHODS: Healthy Heart Promotion from Childhood (HHPC as one of the IHHP interventional projects was conducted in adolescents aged 11-18 years, selected randomly by multistage random sampling. Isfahan and Najafabad districts were intervention areas (IA and Arak district was reference area (RA. The baseline and post-intervention surveys were conducted on 1941 and 1997 adolescents, respectively. Healthy lifestyle interventions were performed during the 2nd phase of the study targeting about 410000 students in urban and rural areas of the IA via education, environmental and legislation activities. Dietary intake was assessed annually using a fifty-item food frequency questionnaire in both communities. RESULTS: The interaction of year×area demonstrated that the consumption of unhealthy snacks decreased significantly in middle school boys of RA compared to IA (P for interaction=0.01. However, middle school girls (P for interaction = 0.002 and both sexes of high school students in IA showed a significant reduction in fast food consumption against RA (P for interaction < 0.001. CONCLUSION: The HHPC interventions made some improvement in fast food consumption. It did not show significant decrease regarding unhealthy snacks in adolescents. Proper and higher dose of interventions may be effective in achieving this goal.   Keywords: Nutrition, Dietary Behaviour, Adolescent, Lifestyle, Community Trial

  17. Comparison of Selective Attention and Intelligence Profile in Bilingual and Monolingual Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Yousefi

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion Learning a foreign language (e.g. English may be an effective factor in selective attention and intelligence profile of adolescents. Therefore, the role of learning a foreign language should be considered in selective attention and intelligence profile of adolescents.

  18. Very preterm adolescents show gender-dependent alteration of the structural brain correlates of spelling abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Fiona E; Mechelli, Andrea; Allin, Matthew P; Walshe, Muriel; Rifkin, Larry; Murray, Robin M; Nosarti, Chiara

    2011-07-01

    Individuals born very preterm (VPT) are at risk of neurodevelopmental damage and of adverse educational outcomes in childhood and adolescence. The present study used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the association between grey matter and white matter volume and measures of language and executive functioning in VPT born adolescents and term-born controls by gender. VPT individuals (N=218) and controls (N=127) underwent neuropsychological assessment and MRI at age 14-15 as part of a longitudinal study. Differential associations were found between spelling scores and frontal regional grey matter volume when group (VPT and control) and gender (males and females) were investigated. A main effect of group demonstrated a weaker association in VPT adolescents relative to controls between grey matter volume in the left medial and right superior frontal gyri and spelling scores. A main effect of gender revealed spelling scores to be correlated with grey matter volume in the right superior frontal gyrus in females to a greater extent than in males. Furthermore, a significant interaction between group and gender was detected in two regions. Spelling scores showed a stronger association with grey matter volume in a cluster with local maxima in the left medial frontal cortex extending to the caudate nucleus in VPT females than in control females and a weaker association in VPT males compared to control males. In addition, spelling scores showed a stronger association with grey matter volume in left middle frontal gyrus in VPT males compared to control males and a weaker association in VPT females than in control females. When group and gender were investigated, there were no statistically different correlations between structural brain volumes and performance on reading and executive function tests. These data demonstrate that the typical structure-function relationship in respect to spelling abilities appears to be altered in individuals born preterm and the processes

  19. Social and physical environment alter cocaine conditioned place preference and dopaminergic markers in adolescent male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, E; Miller, J; Unterwald, E; Wade, D; Izenwasser, S

    2009-10-20

    This study was done to determine whether social and environmental factors alter cocaine reward and proteins implicated in mediating drug reward in rats during early adolescence. On postnatal day (PND) 23, rats were housed under conditions where both social (number of rats per cage) and environmental (availability of toys) factors were manipulated. Socially isolated rats were housed alone impoverished with no toys (II) or enriched with toys (IE). Social rats were housed two rats/cage with no toys (SI2) or with toys (SE2), or three/cage with (SE3) or without (SI3) toys. On PND 43, cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) sessions began with the post-test done on PND 47. Cocaine CPP was established in response to 5 or 10 mg/kg cocaine in II rats, and CPP was decreased with the addition of cage mates or toys. No CPP was seen to any dose in SI3 or SE3 rats. Enriched housing (SE3) increased dopamine transporter (DAT) protein in the nucleus accumbens compared to II. There also were differential effects of cocaine on tyrosine hydroxylase and DAT depending on housing, with both increased by cocaine in II but not SE3 rats. DARPP-32 was unchanged by housing or cocaine, while phospho-Thr(34)-DARPP-32 was increased by cocaine treatment across conditions. Thus, both social and environmental enrichment decrease cocaine CPP during adolescence and different housing alters proteins that regulate dopaminergic neurotransmission in a manner that may account for the observed differences in cocaine-induced reward.

  20. Peer Influence, Peer Selection and Adolescent Alcohol Use: a Simulation Study Using a Dynamic Network Model of Friendship Ties and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Hipp, John R; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa; Lakon, Cynthia M

    2017-05-01

    While studies suggest that peer influence can in some cases encourage adolescent substance use, recent work demonstrates that peer influence may be on average protective for cigarette smoking, raising questions about whether this effect occurs for other substance use behaviors. Herein, we focus on adolescent drinking, which may follow different social dynamics than smoking. We use a data-calibrated Stochastic Actor-Based (SAB) Model of adolescent friendship tie choice and drinking behavior to explore the impact of manipulating the size of peer influence and selection effects on drinking in two school-based networks. We first fit a SAB Model to data on friendship tie choice and adolescent drinking behavior within two large schools (n = 2178 and n = 976) over three time points using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We then alter the size of the peer influence and selection parameters with all other effects fixed at their estimated values and simulate the social systems forward 1000 times under varying conditions. Whereas peer selection appears to contribute to drinking behavior similarity among adolescents, there is no evidence that it leads to higher levels of drinking at the school level. A stronger peer influence effect lowers the overall level of drinking in both schools. There are many similarities in the patterning of findings between this study of drinking and previous work on smoking, suggesting that peer influence and selection may function similarly with respect to these substances.

  1. An invasive plant alters phenotypic selection on the vegetative growth of a native congener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beans, Carolyn M; Roach, Deborah A

    2015-02-01

    The ecological consequences of plant competition have frequently been tested, but the evolutionary outcomes of these interactions have gone largely unexplored. The study of species invasions can make an important contribution to this field of research by allowing us to watch ecological and evolutionary processes unfold as a novel species is integrated into a plant community. We explored the ecological and evolutionary impact of an invasive jewelweed, Impatiens glandulifera, on a closely related native congener, I. capensis and asked: (1) Does the presence of the invasive jewelweed alter the fitness of native jewelweed populations? (2) Does the invasive jewelweed affect the vegetative growth of the native congener? and (3) Does the invasive jewelweed alter phenotypic selection on the vegetative traits of the native congener? We used a greenhouse competition experiment, an invasive species removal field experiment, and a survey of natural populations. We show that when the invasive jewelweed is present, phenotypic selection favors native jewelweed individuals investing less in rapid upward growth and more in branching and fruiting potential through the production of nodes. This research demonstrates that invasive plants have the potential to greatly alter natural selection on native competitors. Studies investigating altered selection in invaded communities can reveal the potential evolutionary impact of invasive competitors, while deepening our understanding of the more general role of competition in driving plant evolution and permitting species coexistence. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  2. Binge drinking and family history of alcoholism are associated with an altered developmental trajectory of impulsive choice across adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Scott A; Steele, Joel S; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2017-07-01

    To test whether binge drinking, the density of familial alcoholism (FHD) and their interaction are associated with an altered developmental trajectory of impulsive choice across adolescence, and whether more life-time drinks are associated with a greater change in impulsive choice across age. Alcohol-naive adolescents, with varying degrees of FHD, were recruited as part of an ongoing longitudinal study on adolescent development, and were grouped based on whether they remained non-drinkers (n = 83) or initiated binge drinking (n = 33) during follow-up. During all visits, adolescents completed a monetary delay discounting task to measure impulsive choice. The effects of binge-drinking status, FHD and their interaction on impulsive choice across adolescence were tested. Developmental Brain Imaging Laboratory, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA. A total of 116 healthy male and female adolescents (ages 10-17 years at baseline) completed two to four visits between July 2008 and May 2016. Discounting rates were obtained based on adolescents' preference for immediate or delayed rewards. FHD was based on parent-reported prevalence of alcohol use disorder in the participant's first- and second-degree relatives. Binge-drinking status was determined based on the number of recent binge-drinking episodes. There was a significant interaction effect of binge-drinking status and FHD on impulsive choice across age (b = 1.090, P alcohol-naive, greater FHD was associated with a steeper decrease in discounting rates across adolescence (b = -0.633, P alcoholism is associated with a steeper decline in impulsive choice across adolescence, but only in those who remain alcohol-naive. Meanwhile, more life-time drinks during adolescence is associated with increases in impulsive choice across age. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Testing the Effects of Peer Socialization versus Selection on Alcohol and Marijuana Use among Treated Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sara J.; Curry, John F.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relative influence of peer socialization and selection on alcohol and marijuana use among 106 adolescents who received a brief intervention. Adolescents were recruited between 2003 and 2007 and followed for 12 months as part of a SAMHSA-funded study. Cross-lagged panel models using four assessment points examined the longitudinal relationship between adolescent substance use and peer substance involvement separately for alcohol and marijuana. Consistent with community studies, there was evidence of both peer socialization and peer selection for alcohol use, and only evidence of peer selection for marijuana use. Implications for research and intervention are discussed. PMID:23965039

  4. Sensory-specific associations stored in the lateral amygdala allow for selective alteration of fear memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Mataix, Lorenzo; Debiec, Jacek; LeDoux, Joseph E; Doyère, Valérie

    2011-06-29

    Consolidated long-term fear memories become labile and can be disrupted after being reactivated by the presentation of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Whether this is due to an alteration of the conditioned stimulus (CS) representation in the lateral amygdala (LA) is not known. Here, we show in rats that fear memory reactivation through presentation of the aversive US, like CS presentation, triggers a process which, when disrupted, results in a selective depotentiation of CS-evoked neural responses in the LA in correlation with a selective suppression of CS-elicited fear memory. Thus, an aversive US triggers the reconsolidation of its associated predictor representation in LA. This new finding suggests that sensory-specific associations are stored in the lateral amygdala, allowing for their selective alteration by either element of the association.

  5. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in Early Adolescents' Friendship Development: Friendship Selection, Influence, and Prospective Friendship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Hawley, Patricia H.; Little, Todd D.

    2010-01-01

    Friendships are essential for adolescent social development. However, they may be pursued for varying motives, which, in turn, may predict similarity in friendships via social selection or social influence processes, and likely help to explain friendship quality. We examined the effect of early adolescents' (N = 374, 12-14 years) intrinsic and…

  6. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Adolescents: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharko, Alexander M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the existing literature on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-induced sexual dysfunction in adolescents. Method: A literature review of SSRI-induced adverse effects in adolescents focusing on sexual dysfunction was done. Nonsexual SSRI-induced adverse effects were compared in adult and pediatric populations.…

  7. [Parents' unemployment, selected life conditions, adolescents' wellbeing and perceived health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supranowicz, Piotr

    2005-01-01

    Unemployment in Poland is one of the most negative outcomes of the economical transformations taking place in the last decade of the XX and first years of the XXI century. Therefore, the study on an influence of parents' unemployment upon adolescents' life conditions and health was undertaken in Health Promotion and Postgraduate Training Department of the National Institute of Hygiene. The data were collected from randomly selected sample of 783 students aged 14-15 years attending to ten private and public secondary schools (gymnasiums) in Warsaw. A part of the questionnaire elaborated in Health Promotion and Postgraduate Department covered information about negative life events, which had occurred in the previous year, also about a loss of the job by father or mother. The self-assessment of health, and physical and psychical wellbeing measured the perceived health. The study showed that significantly higher percentage of the students, whose father or mother had lost a job in the previous year, noticed also occurrence of father and mother health disorders, lack of support from father and mother, frequent quarrels between parents, too much of home duties, worsening a housing conditions, lack of possibilities to travel away on vacation and lack of own money. The differences were higher, if both the parents were unemployed. Moreover, the children of unemployed parents significantly lower assessed their health, and physical and psychical wellbeing. It is necessary to help immediately the students, whose parents are unemployed, with financial and psychological support in frame of the programmes of unemployment overcoming.

  8. Early Childhood Depression and Alterations in the Trajectory of Gray Matter Maturation in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L; Belden, Andy C; Jackson, Joshua J; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Harms, Michael P; Tillman, Rebecca; Botteron, Kelly; Whalen, Diana; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-01-01

    The trajectory of cortical gray matter development in childhood has been characterized by early neurogenesis and volume increase, peaking at puberty followed by selective elimination and myelination, resulting in volume loss and thinning. This inverted U-shaped trajectory, as well as cortical thickness, has been associated with cognitive and emotional function. Synaptic pruning-based volume decline has been related to experience-dependent plasticity in animals. To date, there have been no data to inform whether and how childhood depression might be associated with this trajectory. To examine the effects of early childhood depression, from the preschool age to the school age period, on cortical gray matter development measured across 3 waves of neuroimaging from late school age to early adolescence. Data were collected in an academic research setting from September 22, 2003, to December 13, 2014, on 193 children aged 3 to 6 years from the St Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area who were observed for up to 11 years in a longitudinal behavioral and neuroimaging study of childhood depression. Multilevel modeling was applied to explore the association between the number of childhood depression symptoms and prior diagnosis of major depressive disorder and the trajectory of gray matter change across 3 scan waves. Data analysis was conducted from October 29, 2014, to September 28, 2015. Volume, thickness, and surface area of cortical gray matter measured using structural magnetic resonance imaging at 3 scan waves. Of the 193 children, 90 had a diagnosis of major depressive disorder; 116 children had 3 full waves of neuroimaging scans. Findings demonstrated marked alterations in cortical gray matter volume loss (slope estimate, -0.93 cm³; 95% CI, -1.75 to -0.10 cm³ per scan wave) and thinning (slope estimate, -0.0044 mm; 95% CI, -0.0077 to -0.0012 mm per scan wave) associated with experiencing an episode of major depressive disorder before the first magnetic resonance

  9. Altered cortical thickness and attentional deficits in adolescent girls and women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Laura A; Stefan, Mihaela; Lee, Seonjoo; Wang, Zhishun; Terranova, Kate; Attia, Evelyn; Marsh, Rachel

    2018-01-12

    Frontostriatal and frontoparietal abnormalities likely contribute to deficits in control and attentional processes in individuals with bulimia nervosa and to the persistence of dysregulated eating across development. This study assessed these processes and cortical thickness in a large sample of adolescent girls and women with bulimia nervosa compared with healthy controls. We collected anatomical MRI data from adolescent girls and women (ages 12-38 yr) with full or subthreshold bulimia nervosa and age-matched healthy controls who also completed the Conners Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II). Groups were compared on task performance and cortical thickness. Mediation analyses explored associations among cortical thickness, CPT-II variables, bulimia nervosa symptoms and age. We included 60 girls and women with bulimia nervosa and 54 controls in the analyses. Compared with healthy participants, those with bulimia nervosa showed increased impulsivity and inattention on the CPT-II, along with reduced thickness of the right pars triangularis, right superior parietal and left dorsal posterior cingulate cortices. In the bulimia nervosa group, exploratory analyses revealed that binge eating frequency correlated inversely with cortical thickness of frontoparietal and insular regions and that reduced frontoparietal thickness mediated the association between age and increased symptom severity and inattention. Binge eating frequency also mediated the association between age and lower prefrontal cortical thickness. These findings are applicable to only girls and women with bulimia nervosa, and our cross-sectional design precludes understanding of whether cortical thickness alterations precede or result from bulimia nervosa symptoms. Structural abnormalities in the frontoparietal and posterior cingulate regions comprising circuits that support control and attentional processes should be investigated as potential contributors to the maintenance of bulimia nervosa and useful

  10. Altered cortical thickness and attentional deficits in adolescent girls and women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Laura A; Stefan, Mihaela; Lee, Seonjoo; Wang, Zhishun; Terranova, Kate; Attia, Evelyn; Marsh, Rachel

    2018-05-01

    Frontostriatal and frontoparietal abnormalities likely contribute to deficits in control and attentional processes in individuals with bulimia nervosa and to the persistence of dysregulated eating across development. This study assessed these processes and cortical thickness in a large sample of adolescent girls and women with bulimia nervosa compared with healthy controls. We collected anatomical MRI data from adolescent girls and women (ages 12-38 yr) with full or subthreshold bulimia nervosa and age-matched healthy controls who also completed the Conners Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II). Groups were compared on task performance and cortical thickness. Mediation analyses explored associations among cortical thickness, CPT-II variables, bulimia nervosa symptoms and age. We included 60 girls and women with bulimia nervosa and 54 controls in the analyses. Compared with healthy participants, those with bulimia nervosa showed increased impulsivity and inattention on the CPT-II, along with reduced thickness of the right pars triangularis, right superior parietal and left dorsal posterior cingulate cortices. In the bulimia nervosa group, exploratory analyses revealed that binge eating frequency correlated inversely with cortical thickness of frontoparietal and insular regions and that reduced frontoparietal thickness mediated the association between age and increased symptom severity and inattention. Binge eating frequency also mediated the association between age and lower prefrontal cortical thickness. These findings are applicable to only girls and women with bulimia nervosa, and our cross-sectional design precludes understanding of whether cortical thickness alterations precede or result from bulimia nervosa symptoms. Structural abnormalities in the frontoparietal and posterior cingulate regions comprising circuits that support control and attentional processes should be investigated as potential contributors to the maintenance of bulimia nervosa and useful

  11. Altered cortical thickness and attentional deficits in adolescent girls and women with bulimia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Mihaela; Lee, Seonjoo; Wang, Zhishun; Terranova, Kate; Attia, Evelyn; Marsh, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Background Frontostriatal and frontoparietal abnormalities likely contribute to deficits in control and attentional processes in individuals with bulimia nervosa and to the persistence of dysregulated eating across development. This study assessed these processes and cortical thickness in a large sample of adolescent girls and women with bulimia nervosa compared with healthy controls. Methods We collected anatomical MRI data from adolescent girls and women (ages 12–38 yr) with full or subthreshold bulimia nervosa and age-matched healthy controls who also completed the Conners Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II). Groups were compared on task performance and cortical thickness. Mediation analyses explored associations among cortical thickness, CPT-II variables, bulimia nervosa symptoms and age. Results We included 60 girls and women with bulimia nervosa and 54 controls in the analyses. Compared with healthy participants, those with bulimia nervosa showed increased impulsivity and inattention on the CPT-II, along with reduced thickness of the right pars triangularis, right superior parietal and left dorsal posterior cingulate cortices. In the bulimia nervosa group, exploratory analyses revealed that binge eating frequency correlated inversely with cortical thickness of frontoparietal and insular regions and that reduced frontoparietal thickness mediated the association between age and increased symptom severity and inattention. Binge eating frequency also mediated the association between age and lower prefrontal cortical thickness. Limitations These findings are applicable to only girls and women with bulimia nervosa, and our cross-sectional design precludes understanding of whether cortical thickness alterations precede or result from bulimia nervosa symptoms. Conclusion Structural abnormalities in the frontoparietal and posterior cingulate regions comprising circuits that support control and attentional processes should be investigated as potential

  12. Does Scoliosis-Specific Exercise Treatment in Adolescence Alter Adult Quality of Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaszewski, Maciej; Cieśliński, Igor; Kowalski, Paweł; Truszczyńska, Aleksandra; Nowobilski, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Health-related quality of life in adults, who in adolescence participated in a scoliosis-specific exercise program, was not previously studied. Design. Cross-sectional study, with retrospective data collection. Material and Methods. Homogenous groups of 68 persons (43 women) aged 30.10 (25–39) years, with mild or moderate scoliosis, and 76 (38 women) able-bodied persons, aged 30.11 (24–38) years, who 16.5 (12–26) years earlier had completed scoliosis-specific exercise or observation regimes, participated. Their respiratory characteristics did not differ from predicted values. The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, and pain scale (VAS) were applied. Results. The transformed WHOQOL-BREF scores ranged from 54.6 ± 11.19 in the physical domain in the mild scoliotic subgroup to 77.1 ± 16.05 in the social domain in the able-bodied subgroup. The ODQ values did not generally exceed 5.3 ± 7.53. Inter- and intragroup differences were nonsignificant. Age, marital status, education, and gender were significantly associated with the ODQ scores. Significant association between the ODQ and WHOQOL-BREF social relationships domain scores with the participation in exercise treatment was found. Conclusions. Participants with the history of exercise treatment generally did not differ significantly from their peers who were only under observation. This study cannot conclude that scoliosis-specific exercise treatment in adolescence alters quality of life in adulthood. PMID:25436225

  13. Does Scoliosis-Specific Exercise Treatment in Adolescence Alter Adult Quality of Life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Płaszewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Health-related quality of life in adults, who in adolescence participated in a scoliosis-specific exercise program, was not previously studied. Design. Cross-sectional study, with retrospective data collection. Material and Methods. Homogenous groups of 68 persons (43 women aged 30.10 (25–39 years, with mild or moderate scoliosis, and 76 (38 women able-bodied persons, aged 30.11 (24–38 years, who 16.5 (12–26 years earlier had completed scoliosis-specific exercise or observation regimes, participated. Their respiratory characteristics did not differ from predicted values. The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, and pain scale (VAS were applied. Results. The transformed WHOQOL-BREF scores ranged from 54.6 ± 11.19 in the physical domain in the mild scoliotic subgroup to 77.1 ± 16.05 in the social domain in the able-bodied subgroup. The ODQ values did not generally exceed 5.3 ± 7.53. Inter- and intragroup differences were nonsignificant. Age, marital status, education, and gender were significantly associated with the ODQ scores. Significant association between the ODQ and WHOQOL-BREF social relationships domain scores with the participation in exercise treatment was found. Conclusions. Participants with the history of exercise treatment generally did not differ significantly from their peers who were only under observation. This study cannot conclude that scoliosis-specific exercise treatment in adolescence alters quality of life in adulthood.

  14. Altered Developmental Trajectories for Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking among Adolescent Substance Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Nora E.; Ryan, Stacy R.; Bray, Bethany C.; Mathias, Charles W.; Acheson, Ashley; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have associated impulsivity and sensation seeking with level of substance use and risk for developing a substance use disorder. These relationships may be particularly apparent during adolescence, when developmental changes in impulsivity and sensation seeking occur at the same time as increased opportunities for substance use. To examine this, the current study measured impulsivity and sensation seeking from pre-adolescence to mid-adolescence in a sample of youth, the majority of whom were identified as being at risk for developing a substance use disorder based on their family history of substance use disorders. Youth were separated into those who did (n = 117) and did not (n = 269) initiate substance use by mid-adolescence. Results showed that substance users were more impulsive and more sensation seeking during pre-adolescence, prior to any significant substance use, and that greater sensation seeking in pre-adolescence was related to heavier substance use by mid-adolescence. In addition, developmental trajectories for substance-using youth showed a greater increase in sensation seeking but a more modest decrease in impulsivity from pre-adolescence to mid-adolescence. Taken together, these results indicate that increased impulsivity and sensation seeking is apparent in adolescent substance users as early as pre-adolescence, that the difference between substance users and non-users becomes larger across early adolescence as their developmental trajectories diverge, and that greater sensation seeking in pre-adolescence may predict increased substance use by mid-adolescence. PMID:27174219

  15. 41 CFR 102-74.135 - Who selects construction and alteration projects that are to be performed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and alteration projects that are to be performed? 102-74.135 Section 102-74.135 Public Contracts and... construction and alteration projects that are to be performed? The Administrator of General Services selects construction and alteration projects to be performed. ...

  16. Bully Victimization: Selection and Influence Within Adolescent Friendship Networks and Cliques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodder, Gerine M A; Scholte, Ron H J; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Giletta, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents tend to form friendships with similar peers and, in turn, their friends further influence adolescents' behaviors and attitudes. Emerging work has shown that these selection and influence processes also might extend to bully victimization. However, no prior work has examined selection and influence effects involved in bully victimization within cliques, despite theoretical account emphasizing the importance of cliques in this regard. This study examined selection and influence processes in adolescence regarding bully victimization both at the level of the entire friendship network and the level of cliques. We used a two-wave design (5-month interval). Participants were 543 adolescents (50.1% male, Mage = 15.8) in secondary education. Stochastic actor-based models indicated that at the level of the larger friendship network, adolescents tended to select friends with similar levels of bully victimization as they themselves. In addition, adolescent friends influenced each other in terms of bully victimization over time. Actor Parter Interdependence models showed that similarities in bully victimization between clique members were not due to selection of clique members. For boys, average clique bully victimization predicted individual bully victimization over time (influence), but not vice versa. No influence was found for girls, indicating that different mechanisms may underlie friend influence on bully victimization for girls and boys. The differences in results at the level of the larger friendship network versus the clique emphasize the importance of taking the type of friendship ties into account in research on selection and influence processes involved in bully victimization.

  17. Alteration of properties of rock during their selection by shooting core lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinin, V F

    1969-01-01

    During the process of intrusion of the core lifter into rock, splitting and dislocation of the granules and crystals which compose it occur. In the core lifters, single small nondisintegrated fragments are sometimes encountered. Data on comparison of porosity of crushed cores and rock from which they were selected indicate increase in porosity and penetration of the filtrate of the drilling solution during the process of coring. The determined residual oil saturation of the core is different from the residual oil saturation of the rock from which they were selected. The permeability of cores of rock with high porosity is altered.

  18. Cobalamin C deficiency in an adolescent with altered mental status and anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmandar, Maria H; Bawcom, Amanda; Romano, Mary E; Hamid, Rizwan

    2014-12-01

    Although cobalamin (cbl) C deficiency is the most common inherited disorder of vitamin B12 metabolism, the late-onset form of the disease can be difficult to recognize because it has a broad phenotypic spectrum. In this report, we describe an adolescent female exposed to unknown illicit substances and sexual abuse who presented with psychosis, anorexia, seizures, and ataxia. The patient's diagnosis was delayed until a metabolic workup was initiated, revealing hyperhomocysteinemia, low normal plasma methionine, and methylmalonic aciduria. Ultimately, cblC deficiency was confirmed when molecular testing showed compound heterozygosity for mutations (c.271dupA and c.482G>A) in the MMACHC gene. This diagnosis led to appropriate treatment with hydroxocobalamin, betaine, and folate, which resulted in improvement of her clinical symptoms and laboratory values. This patient demonstrates a previously unrecognized presentation of late-onset cblC deficiency. Although neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in late-onset disease, seizures and cerebellar involvement are not. Furthermore, anorexia has not been previously described in these patients. This case emphasizes that inborn errors of metabolism should be part of the differential diagnosis for a teenager presenting with altered mental status, especially when the diagnosis is challenging or neurologic symptoms are unexplained. Correct diagnosis of this condition is important because treatment is available and can result in clinical improvement.(1.) Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence: Effects on stress-induced social alterations and social drinking in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Kim, Esther U; Spear, Linda P

    2017-01-01

    We previously observed lasting and sex-specific detrimental consequences of early adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure (AIE), with male, but not female, rats showing social anxiety-like alterations when tested as adults. The present study used Sprague Dawley rats to assess whether social alterations induced by AIE (3.5g/kg, intragastrically, every other day, between postnatal days [P] 25-45) are further exacerbated by stressors later in life. Another aim was to determine whether AIE alone or in combination with stress influenced intake of a sweetened ethanol solution (Experiment 1) or a sweetened solution ("supersac") alone (Experiment 2) under social circumstances. Animals were exposed to restraint on P66-P70 (90min/day) or left nonstressed, with corticosterone (CORT) levels assessed on day 1 and day 5 in Experiment 2. Social anxiety-like behavior emerged after AIE in non-stressed males, but not females, whereas stress-induced social anxiety was evident only in water-exposed males and females. Adult-typical habituation of the CORT response to repeated restraint was not evident in adult animals after AIE, a lack of habituation reminiscent of that normally evident in adolescents. Neither AIE nor stress affected ethanol intake under social circumstances, although AIE and restraint independently increased adolescent-typical play fighting in males during social drinking. Among males, the combination of AIE and restraint suppressed "supersac" intake; this index of depression-like behavior was not seen in females. The results provide experimental evidence associating adolescent alcohol exposure, later stress, anxiety, and depression, with young adolescent males being particularly vulnerable to long-lasting adverse effects of repeated ethanol. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Adolescent plasticity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Induced defences alter the strength and direction of natural selection on reproductive traits in common milkweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K A; Cory, K A; Johnson, M T J

    2017-06-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long sought to understand the ecological processes that generate plant reproductive diversity. Recent evidence indicates that constitutive antiherbivore defences can alter natural selection on reproductive traits, but it is unclear whether induced defences will have the same effect and whether reduced foliar damage in defended plants is the cause of this pattern. In a factorial field experiment using common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L., we induced plant defences using jasmonic acid (JA) and imposed foliar damage using scissors. We found that JA-induced plants experienced selection for more inflorescences that were smaller in size (fewer flowers), whereas control plants only experienced a trend towards selection for larger inflorescences (more flowers); all effects were independent of foliar damage. Our results demonstrate that induced defences can alter both the strength and direction of selection on reproductive traits, and suggest that antiherbivore defences may promote the evolution of plant reproductive diversity. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Relational Aggression in Adolescents at Selected Schools in Lusaka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: School bullying and aggression among children and adolescents have been a source of concern for many researchers globally in the past few decades. Limited research exists regarding relational aggression, largely because research has focused historically on direct verbal and physical aggression, which is ...

  2. Selective Neurocognitive Impairments in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Georges; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Jepsen, Susie; Ballard, Kristin; Nelson, Megan; Houri, Alaa; Kumra, Sanjiv; Cullen, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether major depression in adolescence is characterized by neurocognitive deficits in attention, affective decision making, and cognitive control of emotion processing. Neuropsychological tests including the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, the Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs, the Attention Network…

  3. Income change alters default mode network connectivity for adolescents in poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Weissman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Experiencing poverty during childhood and adolescence may affect brain function. However, income is dynamic, and studies have not addressed whether income change relates to brain function. In the present study, we investigated whether intrinsic functional connectivity of default mode network (DMN regions was influenced by mean family income and family income change. Parents of 68 Mexican-origin adolescents (35 females reported family income annually when adolescents were 10–16 years old. Intercept and slope of income at each of these ages were calculated for each participant. At age 16 years, adolescents completed a resting state functional neuroimaging scan. Adolescents from high and low income families did not differ in their functional connectivity, but for adolescents in families with lower incomes, their connectivity patterns depended on their income slope. Low-income adolescents whose income increased demonstrated greater connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, both DMN regions, and between the PCC and the right inferior frontal gyrus. Increases in income were associated with greater connectivity of the mPFC with the right inferior frontal gyrus and the left superior parietal lobule regardless of mean income. Increases in income, especially among adolescents in poverty, may alleviate stressors, influencing the development of brain networks. Keywords: Adversity, Brain, fMRI, Resting state, Socio-economic status, Youth

  4. Adolescent cannabis use : What is the evidence for functional brain alteration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzetti, V; Alonso-Lana, S.; Youssef, G. J.; Verdejo-Garcia, A.; Suo, C.; Cousijn, J.; Takagi, M.; Yücel, M.; Solowij, N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cannabis use typically commences during adolescence, a period during which the brain undergoes profound remodeling in areas that are high in cannabinoid receptors and that mediate cognitive control and emotion regulation. It is therefore important to determine the impact of adolescent

  5. Income change alters default mode network connectivity for adolescents in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, David G; Conger, Rand D; Robins, Richard W; Hastings, Paul D; Guyer, Amanda E

    2018-04-01

    Experiencing poverty during childhood and adolescence may affect brain function. However, income is dynamic, and studies have not addressed whether income change relates to brain function. In the present study, we investigated whether intrinsic functional connectivity of default mode network (DMN) regions was influenced by mean family income and family income change. Parents of 68 Mexican-origin adolescents (35 females) reported family income annually when adolescents were 10-16 years old. Intercept and slope of income at each of these ages were calculated for each participant. At age 16 years, adolescents completed a resting state functional neuroimaging scan. Adolescents from high and low income families did not differ in their functional connectivity, but for adolescents in families with lower incomes, their connectivity patterns depended on their income slope. Low-income adolescents whose income increased demonstrated greater connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), both DMN regions, and between the PCC and the right inferior frontal gyrus. Increases in income were associated with greater connectivity of the mPFC with the right inferior frontal gyrus and the left superior parietal lobule regardless of mean income. Increases in income, especially among adolescents in poverty, may alleviate stressors, influencing the development of brain networks. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. [Selected eating habits and caries occurrence in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywiec, Ewa; Zalewska, Magdalena; Wójcicka, Anna; Jabłoński, Robert; Olejnik, Beata Janina; Grabowska, Stanisława Zyta; Jamiołkowski, Jacek; Czerech, Ewa; Łuszcz, Anna; Stepek, Agata; Maciorkowska, Elibieta

    2012-01-01

    Normal nutrition is an important element of caries prophylaxis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of chosen bad eating habits on caries occurrence in adolescents. The examination was carried out in the group of 367 (68.5% girls and 31.5% boys) pupils of the 3rd year of high schools in Białystok in 2011. Own questionnaire was used for the evaluation of eating habits. Caries intensity (PUW) was assessed by dental examination. To verify statistic hypotheses, the level of significance was estimated at p Bad eating habits (irregular meals, skipping breakfast, eating between meals as well as overeating sweets) in the developmental age can be a significant caries coefficient in adolescents. 2. High mean coefficient PUW in the examined group of 18-year-old pupils, in relation to abnormal eating habits in the significant percentage of those pupils, indicates the necessity of health education as far as caries prophylaxis is concerned.

  7. Adolescent Social Stress Produces an Enduring Activation of the Rat Locus Coeruleus and Alters its Coherence with the Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitnik, Gerard A; Curtis, Andrè L; Wood, Susan K; Arner, Jay; Valentino, Rita J

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress is associated with the development of psychiatric disorders. Because the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is a major stress-response system that is implicated in psychopathology, developmental differences in the response of this system to stress may contribute to increased vulnerability. Here LC single unit and network activity were compared between adult and adolescent rats during resident-intruder stress. In some rats, LC and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) coherence was quantified. The initial stress tonically activated LC neurons and induced theta oscillations, while simultaneously decreasing LC auditory-evoked responses in both age groups. Stress increased LC-mPFC coherence within the theta range. With repeated exposures, adolescent LC neuronal and network activity remained elevated even in the absence of the stressor and were unresponsive to stressor presentation. In contrast, LC neurons of adult rats exposed to repeated social stress were relatively inhibited in the absence of the stressor and mounted robust responses upon stressor presentation. LC sensory-evoked responses were selectively blunted in adolescent rats exposed to repeated social stress. Finally, repeated stress decreased LC-mPFC coherence in the high frequency range (beta and gamma) while maintaining strong coherence in the theta range, selectively in adolescents. Together, these results suggest that adaptive mechanisms that promote stress recovery and maintain basal activity of the brain norepinephrine system in the absence of stress are not fully developed or are vulnerable stress-induced impairments in adolescence. The resulting sustained activation of the LC-NE system after repeated social stress may adversely impact cognition and future social behavior of adolescents. PMID:26361057

  8. Auditory selective attention in adolescents with major depression: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greimel, E; Trinkl, M; Bartling, J; Bakos, S; Grossheinrich, N; Schulte-Körne, G

    2015-02-01

    Major depression (MD) is associated with deficits in selective attention. Previous studies in adults with MD using event-related potentials (ERPs) reported abnormalities in the neurophysiological correlates of auditory selective attention. However, it is yet unclear whether these findings can be generalized to MD in adolescence. Thus, the aim of the present ERP study was to explore the neural mechanisms of auditory selective attention in adolescents with MD. 24 male and female unmedicated adolescents with MD and 21 control subjects were included in the study. ERPs were collected during an auditory oddball paradigm. Depressive adolescents tended to show a longer N100 latency to target and non-target tones. Moreover, MD subjects showed a prolonged latency of the P200 component to targets. Across groups, longer P200 latency was associated with a decreased tendency of disinhibited behavior as assessed by a behavioral questionnaire. To be able to draw more precise conclusions about differences between the neural bases of selective attention in adolescents vs. adults with MD, future studies should include both age groups and apply the same experimental setting across all subjects. The study provides strong support for abnormalities in the neurophysiolgical bases of selective attention in adolecents with MD at early stages of auditory information processing. Absent group differences in later ERP components reflecting voluntary attentional processes stand in contrast to results reported in adults with MD and may suggest that adolescents with MD possess mechanisms to compensate for abnormalities in the early stages of selective attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Altering Adolescents' Pre-Bedtime Phone Use to Achieve Better Sleep Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, K; Scheeren, R; Gradisar, M

    2018-01-09

    Mobile phone use is often blamed for adolescent sleeping difficulties in the popular and scientific literature, with correlations observed between adolescents' mobile phone use and their bedtime. We aimed to obtain experimental evidence to support these causal claims. A within-subjects experiment (baseline, intervention) was conducted in adolescents' homes, to determine the effect of restricting adolescents' pre-bed mobile phone use on school night sleep habits. Following a baseline week, adolescents were given individualized phone stop times, 1 hour before bed for one school week. An online sleep diary was used to monitor bedtime, lights out time, sleep latency and total sleep. Sixty three adolescents (age range 14-18, M = 16.3, SD = 0.93yrs; 17%male) provided data. During one week of phone restriction, adolescents stopped using their phones earlier (80 min, p phone use. Overall, there are potential benefits of restricted mobile phone use during the pre-sleep period, yet, future research is needed to identify non-technological interventions to increase adherence to phone restriction (e.g., motivational interviewing) or otherwise decrease pre-sleep arousal (e.g., cognitive strategies).

  10. Altered biomarkers of mucosal immunity and reduced vaginal Lactobacillus concentrations in sexually active female adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Pellett Madan

    Full Text Available Genital secretions collected from adult women exhibit in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV and Escherichia coli (E. coli, but prior studies have not investigated this endogenous antimicrobial activity or its mediators in adolescent females.Anti-HSV and anti-E.coli activity were quantified from cervicovaginal lavage (CVL specimens collected from 20 sexually active adolescent females (15-18 years. Soluble immune mediators that may influence this activity were measured in CVL, and concentrations of Lactobacillus jensenii and crispatus were quantified by PCR from vaginal swabs. Results for adolescents were compared to those obtained from 54 healthy, premenopausal adult women. Relative to specimens collected from adults, CVL collected from adolescent subjects had significantly reduced activity against E. coli and diminished concentrations of protein, IgG, and IgA but significantly increased anti-HSV activity and concentrations of interleukin (IL-1α, IL-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Vaginal swabs collected from adolescent subjects had comparable concentrations of L. crispatus but significantly reduced concentrations of L. jensenii, relative to adult swabs.Biomarkers of genital mucosal innate immunity may differ substantially between sexually active adolescents and adult women. These findings warrant further study and may have significant implications for prevention of sexually transmitted infections in adolescent females.

  11. Prenatal ethanol exposure modifies locomotor activity and induces selective changes in Met-enk expression in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, P; Reyes-Guzmán, A C; Hernández-Fonseca, K; Méndez, M

    2017-04-01

    Several studies suggest that prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) facilitates ethanol intake. Opioid peptides play a main role in ethanol reinforcement during infancy and adulthood. However, PEE effects upon motor responsiveness elicited by an ethanol challenge and the participation of opioids in these actions remain to be understood. This work assessed the susceptibility of adolescent rats to prenatal and/or postnatal ethanol exposure in terms of behavioral responses, as well as alcohol effects on Met-enk expression in brain areas related to drug reinforcement. Motor parameters (horizontal locomotion, rearings and stereotyped behaviors) in pre- and postnatally ethanol-challenged adolescents were evaluated. Pregnant rats received ethanol (2g/kg) or water during gestational days 17-20. Adolescents at postnatal day 30 (PD30) were tested in a three-trial activity paradigm (habituation, vehicle and drug sessions). Met-enk content was quantitated by radioimmunoassay in several regions: ventral tegmental area [VTA], nucleus accumbens [NAcc], prefrontal cortex [PFC], substantia nigra [SN], caudate-putamen [CP], amygdala, hypothalamus and hippocampus. PEE significantly reduced rearing responses. Ethanol challenge at PD30 decreased horizontal locomotion and showed a tendency to reduce rearings and stereotyped behaviors. PEE increased Met-enk content in the PFC, CP, hypothalamus and hippocampus, but did not alter peptide levels in the amygdala, VTA and NAcc. These findings suggest that PEE selectively modifies behavioral parameters at PD30 and induces specific changes in Met-enk content in regions of the mesocortical and nigrostriatal pathways, the hypothalamus and hippocampus. Prenatal and postnatal ethanol actions on motor activity in adolescents could involve activation of specific neural enkephalinergic pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CLOTHING BUYING MOTIVES AND STORE SELECTION CRITERIA – THE CASE OF CROATIAN ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Knežević

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse Croatian adolescents’ clothing buying motives and their retail store selection criteria. The paper examined their preferences, attitudes and behaviours when buying clothes - whether adolescents with different primary clothing motives would have similar or different store selection criteria. Also, the paper determined how today’s adolescents spend money on clothes and whether they are more inclined to purchase branded clothes or not. Finally, the paper explained whether Croatian adolescents prefer purchasing in small or large specialized apparel stores, or whether they are more prone to online purchasing or even buying clothes in second-hand shops. Also, the society influences in forming adolescents’ attitudes and decisions towards store selection and purchasing preferences of clothes were examined. The research findings showed that shopping centres are the preferred retail format. In addition, adolescents do not have a fully developed attitude on fashion and clothing. Therefore, they strongly refer to opinions of family and friends when choosing clothes. Moreover, the Internet and TV are evaluated as influential channels of consumer communication within this particular group of consumers. Based on the findings, suggestions for service management and marketing strategies are provided for apparel retail companies that target adolescents.

  13. Parent-child associations in selected food group and nutrient intakes among overweight and obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Allison W; Mâsse, Louise C; Barr, Susan I; Lovato, Chris Y; Hanning, Rhona M

    2014-10-01

    Few studies have compared parent-child dietary intake among adolescents who are overweight or obese. The purpose of our study was to determine the relationship between parent-teen intake of selected dietary components among this sample. Baseline data from 165 parent and adolescent (aged 11 to 16 years) pairs who presented for a lifestyle behavior modification intervention were collected between 2010 and 2012. Parent and adolescent dietary intake (servings of fruits and vegetables [F/V]; grams of sugar; and percent energy from total fat, saturated fat, dessert/treats, sugar-sweetened beverages, and snacks) was assessed using web-based 24-hour dietary recalls. Multivariable linear and negative binomial regression models identified associations between parent and child dietary intake adjusting for relevant covariates. A large proportion of adolescents and parents did not meet dietary recommendations for F/V, total fat, and saturated fat. Parent-adolescent intake of F/V, total fat, saturated fat, sugar, sugar-sweetened beverages, and snacks were positively associated (r=0.19 to 0.37). No relationship was observed for dessert/treats. In multivariate models, significant interaction effects suggest that the parent-child association in diet was weaker for fat intake among parents with higher educational attainment (b=-.31; P<0.05) and for snacking among adolescent boys (b=-.30; P<.05). Parent intake of several dietary components important for good health, and related to obesity, was associated with adolescent intake. Helping parents improve their diet may promote improvements in their adolescent's diet and is a potential target for interventions designed to increase healthy eating among adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Simulating Dynamic Network Models and Adolescent Smoking: The Impact of Varying Peer Influence and Peer Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakon, Cynthia M; Hipp, John R; Wang, Cheng; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa

    2015-12-01

    We used a stochastic actor-based approach to examine the effect of peer influence and peer selection--the propensity to choose friends who are similar--on smoking among adolescents. Data were collected from 1994 to 1996 from 2 schools involved in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, with respectively 2178 and 976 students, and different levels of smoking. Our experimental manipulations of the peer influence and selection parameters in a simulation strategy indicated that stronger peer influence decreased school-level smoking. In contrast to the assumption that a smoker may induce a nonsmoker to begin smoking, adherence to antismoking norms may result in an adolescent nonsmoker inducing a smoker to stop smoking and reduce school-level smoking.

  15. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in early adolescents' friendship development: friendship selection, influence, and prospective friendship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Sijtsema, Jelle J; Hawley, Patricia H; Little, Todd D

    2010-12-01

    Friendships are essential for adolescent social development. However, they may be pursued for varying motives, which, in turn, may predict similarity in friendships via social selection or social influence processes, and likely help to explain friendship quality. We examined the effect of early adolescents' (N = 374, 12-14 years) intrinsic and extrinsic friendship motivation on friendship selection and social influence by utilizing social network modeling. In addition, longitudinal relations among motivation and friendship quality were estimated with structural equation modeling. Extrinsic motivation predicted activity in making friendship nominations during the sixth grade and lower friendship quality across time. Intrinsic motivation predicted inactivity in making friendship nominations during the sixth, popularity as a friend across the transition to middle school, and higher friendship quality across time. Social influence effects were observed for both motives, but were more pronounced for intrinsic motivation. Copyright © 2010 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Altered neural connectivity during response inhibition in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and their unaffected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Daan; Hartman, Catharina A; Mennes, Maarten; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Franke, Barbara; Rommelse, Nanda; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Faraone, Stephen V; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hoekstra, Pieter J

    2015-01-01

    Response inhibition is one of the executive functions impaired in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Increasing evidence indicates that altered functional and structural neural connectivity are part of the neurobiological basis of ADHD. Here, we investigated if adolescents with ADHD show altered functional connectivity during response inhibition compared to their unaffected siblings and healthy controls. Response inhibition was assessed using the stop signal paradigm. Functional connectivity was assessed using psycho-physiological interaction analyses applied to BOLD time courses from seed regions within inferior- and superior frontal nodes of the response inhibition network. Resulting networks were compared between adolescents with ADHD (N = 185), their unaffected siblings (N = 111), and controls (N = 125). Control subjects showed stronger functional connectivity than the other two groups within the response inhibition network, while subjects with ADHD showed relatively stronger connectivity between default mode network (DMN) nodes. Stronger connectivity within the response inhibition network was correlated with lower ADHD severity, while stronger connectivity with the DMN was correlated with increased ADHD severity. Siblings showed connectivity patterns similar to controls during successful inhibition and to ADHD subjects during failed inhibition. Additionally, siblings showed decreased connectivity with the primary motor areas as compared to both participants with ADHD and controls. Subjects with ADHD fail to integrate activation within the response inhibition network and to inhibit connectivity with task-irrelevant regions. Unaffected siblings show similar alterations only during failed stop trials, as well as unique suppression of motor areas, suggesting compensatory strategies. These findings support the role of altered functional connectivity in understanding the neurobiology and familial transmission of ADHD.

  17. Altered functional connectivity to stressful stimuli in prenatally cocaine-exposed adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakiniaeiz, Yasmin; Yip, Sarah W; Balodis, Iris M; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Scheinost, Dustin; Constable, R Todd; Mayes, Linda C; Sinha, Rajita; Potenza, Marc N

    2017-11-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is linked to addiction and obesity vulnerability. Neural responses to stressful and appetitive cues in adolescents with PCE versus those without have been differentially linked to substance-use initiation. However, no prior studies have assessed cue-reactivity responses among PCE adolescents using a connectivity-based approach. Twenty-two PCE and 22 non-prenatally drug-exposed (NDE) age-, sex-, IQ- and BMI-matched adolescents participated in individualized guided imagery with appetitive (favorite-food), stressful and neutral-relaxing cue scripts during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjective favorite-food craving scores were collected before and after script exposure. A data-driven voxel-wise intrinsic connectivity distribution analysis was used to identify between-group differences and examine relationships with craving scores. A group-by-cue interaction effect identified a parietal lobe cluster where PCE versus NDE adolescents showed less connectivity during stressful and more connectivity during neutral-relaxing conditions. Follow-up seed-based connectivity analyses revealed that, among PCE adolescents, the parietal seed was positively connected to inferior parietal and sensory areas and negatively connected to corticolimbic during both stress and neutral-relaxing conditions. For NDE, greater parietal connectivity to parietal, cingulate and sensory areas and lesser parietal connectivity to medial prefrontal areas were found during stress compared to neutral-relaxing cueing. Craving scores inversely correlated with corticolimbic connectivity in PCE, but not NDE adolescents, during the favorite-food condition. Findings from this first data-driven intrinsic connectivity analysis of PCE influences on adolescent brain function indicate differences relating to PCE status and craving. These findings provide insight into the developmental impact of in utero drug exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Altered sensory-weighting mechanisms is observed in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allard Paul

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scoliosis is the most common type of spinal deformity. In North American children, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS makes up about 90% of all cases of scoliosis. While its prevalence is about 2% to 3% in children aged between 10 to 16 years, girls are more at risk than boys for severe progression with a ratio of 3.6 to 1. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that idiopathic scoliosis interferes with the mechanisms responsible for sensory-reweighting during balance control. Methods Eight scoliosis patients (seven female and one male; mean age: 16.4 years and nine healthy adolescents (average age 16.5 years participated in the experiment. Visual and ankle proprioceptive information was perturbed (eyes closed and/or tendon vibration suddenly and then returned to normal (eyes open and/or no tendon vibration. An AMTI force platform was used to compute centre of pressure root mean squared velocity and sway density curve. Results For the control condition (eyes open and no tendon vibration, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients had a greater centre of pressure root mean squared velocity (variability than control participants. Reintegration of ankle proprioception, when vision was either available or removed, led to an increased centre of pressure velocity variability for the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients whereas the control participants reduced their centre of pressure velocity variability. Moreover, in the absence of vision, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis exhibited an increased centre of pressure velocity variability when ankle proprioception was returned to normal (i.e. tendon vibration stopped. The analysis of the sway density plot suggests that adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients, during sensory reintegration, do not scale appropriately their balance control commands. Conclusion Altogether, the present results demonstrate that idiopathic scoliosis adolescents have difficulty in

  19. Altered cerebral perfusion in executive, affective, and motor networks during adolescent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tiffany C; Wu, Jing; Shin, David D; Liu, Thomas T; Tapert, Susan F; Yang, Guang; Connolly, Colm G; Frank, Guido K W; Max, Jeffrey E; Wolkowitz, Owen; Eisendrath, Stuart; Hoeft, Fumiko; Banerjee, Dipavo; Hood, Korey; Hendren, Robert L; Paulus, Martin P; Simmons, Alan N; Yang, Tony T

    2013-10-01

    Although substantial literature has reported regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormalities in adults with depression, these studies commonly necessitated the injection of radioisotopes into subjects. The recent development of arterial spin labeling (ASL), however, allows noninvasive measurements of rCBF. Currently, no published ASL studies have examined cerebral perfusion in adolescents with depression. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine baseline cerebral perfusion in adolescent depression using a newly developed ASL technique: pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL). A total of 25 medication-naive adolescents (13-17 years of age) diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 26 well-matched control subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Baseline rCBF was measured via a novel PCASL method that optimizes tagging efficiency. Voxel-based whole brain analyses revealed significant frontal, limbic, paralimbic, and cingulate hypoperfusion in the group with depression (p region-of-interest analyses revealed amygdalar and insular hypoperfusion in the group with depression, as well as hyperperfusion in the putamen and superior insula (p networks. Dysfunction in these regions may contribute to the cognitive, emotional, and psychomotor symptoms commonly present in adolescent depression. These findings point to possible biomarkers for adolescent depression that could inform early interventions and treatments, and establishes a methodology for using PCASL to noninvasively measure rCBF in clinical and healthy adolescent populations. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Disentangling social selection and social influence effects on adolescent smoking: the importance of reciprocity in friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercken, Liesbeth; Candel, Math; Willems, Paul; de Vries, Hein

    2007-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine social selection and social influence within reciprocal and non-reciprocal friendships, and the role of parents and siblings, as factors explaining similarity of smoking behaviour among adolescent friends. A new social selection-social influence model is proposed. Longitudinal design with two measurements. Data were gathered among Dutch high school students in the control group of the European Smoking prevention Framework Approach (ESFA) study. The sample consisted of 1886 adolescents with a mean age of 12.7 years. The main outcome measures were the smoking behaviours of the respondents, best friends, parents and siblings. We tested the social selection-social influence model with structural equation modelling techniques. Social selection and social influence both played an important role in explaining similarity of smoking behaviour among friends. Within non-reciprocal friendships, only social selection explained similarity of smoking behaviour, whereas within reciprocal friendships, social influence and possibly also social selection explained similarity of smoking behaviour. Sibling smoking behaviour was a more important predictor of adolescent smoking behaviour than parental smoking behaviour. Social selection and social influence both promote similarity of smoking behaviour, and the impact of each process differs with the degree of reciprocity of friendships. These insights may contribute to further refinement of smoking prevention strategies.

  1. The TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) : Design, Current Status, and Selected Findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Sijtsema, Jelle; van Oort, Floor; Raven, Dennis; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Verhulst, Frank C

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were as follows: to present a concise overview of the sample, outcomes, determinants, non-response and attrition of the ongoing TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), which started in 2001; to summarize a selection of recent findings on

  2. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in early adolescents' friendship development : Friendship selection, influence, and prospective friendship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Hawley, Patricia H.; Little, Todd D.; Ojanen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Friendships are essential for adolescent social development. However, they may be pursued for varying motives, which, in turn, may predict similarity in friendships via social selection or social influence processes, and likely help to explain friendship quality. We examined the effect of early

  3. Peer selection and socialization in adolescent depression: The role of school transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodwin, N.P.; Mrug, S.; Borch, C.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated homophily in depressive symptoms among adolescent friends, resulting from both peer selection and socialization processes. However, developmental differences and the role of school transitions in these processes have not been elucidated. A sample of 367 (51% female)

  4. The TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS): Design, Current Status, and Selected Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Sijtsema, Jelle; van Oort, Floor; Raven, Dennis; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were as follows: to present a concise overview of the sample, outcomes, determinants, non-response and attrition of the ongoing TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), which started in 2001; to summarize a selection of recent findings on continuity, discontinuity, risk, and protective…

  5. Developmental exposure to chlorpyrifos alters reactivity to environmental and social cues in adolescent mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricceri, Laura; Markina, Nadja; Valanzano, Angela; Fortuna, Stefano; Cometa, Maria Francesca; Meneguz, Annarita; Calamandrei, Gemma

    2003-01-01

    Neonatal mice were treated daily on postnatal days (pnds) 1 through 4 or 11 through 14 with the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), at doses (1 or 3 mg/kg) that do not evoke systemic toxicity. Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was evaluated within 24 h from termination of treatments. Pups treated on pnds 1-4 underwent ultrasonic vocalization tests (pnds 5, 8, and 11) and a homing test (orientation to home nest material, pnd 10). Pups in both treatment schedules were then assessed for locomotor activity (pnd 25), novelty-seeking response (pnd 35), social interactions with an unfamiliar conspecific (pnd 45), and passive avoidance learning (pnd 60). AChE activity was reduced by 25% after CPF 1-4 but not after CPF 11-14 treatment. CPF selectively affected only the G 4 (tetramer) molecular isoform of AChE. Behavioral analysis showed that early CPF treatment failed to affect neonatal behaviors. Locomotor activity on pnd 25 was increased in 11-14 CPF-treated mice at both doses, and CPF-treated animals in both treatment schedules were more active when exposed to environmental novelty in the novelty-seeking test. All CPF-treated mice displayed more agonistic responses, and such effect was more marked in male mice exposed to the low CPF dose on pnds 11-14. Passive avoidance learning was not affected by CPF. These data indicate that developmental exposure to CPF induces long-term behavioral alterations in the mouse species and support the involvement of neural systems in addition to the cholinergic system in the delayed behavioral toxicity of CPF

  6. Adolescent fluoxetine exposure produces enduring, sex-specific alterations of visual discrimination and attention in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRoche, Ronee B; Morgan, Russell E

    2007-01-01

    Over the past two decades the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to treat behavioral disorders in children has grown rapidly, despite little evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of these drugs for use in children. Utilizing a rat model, this study investigated whether post-weaning exposure to a prototype SSRI, fluoxetine (FLX), influenced performance on visual tasks designed to measure discrimination learning, sustained attention, inhibitory control, and reaction time. Additionally, sex differences in response to varying doses of fluoxetine were examined. In Experiment 1, female rats were administered (P.O.) fluoxetine (10 mg/kg ) or vehicle (apple juice) from PND 25 thru PND 49. After a 14 day washout period, subjects were trained to perform a simultaneous visual discrimination task. Subjects were then tested for 20 sessions on a visual attention task that consisted of varied stimulus delays (0, 3, 6, or 9 s) and cue durations (200, 400, or 700 ms). In Experiment 2, both male and female Long-Evans rats (24 F, 24 M) were administered fluoxetine (0, 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg) then tested in the same visual tasks used in Experiment 1, with the addition of open-field and elevated plus-maze testing. Few FLX-related differences were seen in the visual discrimination, open field, or plus-maze tasks. However, results from the visual attention task indicated a dose-dependent reduction in the performance of fluoxetine-treated males, whereas fluoxetine-treated females tended to improve over baseline. These findings indicate that enduring, behaviorally-relevant alterations of the CNS can occur following pharmacological manipulation of the serotonin system during postnatal development.

  7. Altered White Matter Microstructure in Adolescents with Major Depression: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Kathryn R.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Muetzel, Ryan; Mueller, Bryon A.; Camchong, Jazmin; Houri, Alaa; Kurma, Sanjiv; Lim, Kelvin O.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Major depressive disorder (MDD) occurs frequently in adolescents, but the neurobiology of depression in youth is poorly understood. Structural neuroimaging studies in both adult and pediatric populations have implicated frontolimbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which measures white…

  8. Behavioral disturbances, not cognitive deterioration, are associated with altered food selection in seniors with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Carol E; Tam, Carolyn; Chan, Mae; Young, Karen W H; Binns, Malcolm A; van Reekum, Robert

    2005-04-01

    We previously reported alterations in circadian patterns of food intake that are associated with measures of functional and cognitive deterioration in seniors with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study further explored disturbed eating patterns in AD, focusing on alterations in macronutrient (protein, carbohydrate, and fat) selection, and their association with measures of functional and behavioral losses. Forty-nine days of food intake collections were conducted on 32 residents (26 females, 6 males; age = 88.4 +/- 4.1 years; body mass index = 24.1 +/- 4.0 kg/m(2)) with probable AD residing at a nursing home (a fully accredited geriatric teaching facility affiliated with the University of Toronto's Medical School). All residents ate their meals independently. The relationships between patterns of habitual food consumption and measures of cognitive function (Severe Impairment Battery), behavioral disturbances (Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home Version) and behavioral function (London Psychogeriatric Rating Scale) were examined, cross-sectionally. Consistent with our previous studies, breakfast intakes were not predicted by any of the measures of behavioral, cognitive, or functional deterioration, although those residents with greater functional deterioration, especially disengagement, attained lower 24-hour energy intakes. The presence of "psychomotor disturbances," including irritability, agitation, and disinhibition, were strongly associated with shifts in eating patterns toward carbohydrate and away from protein, placing individuals with these conditions at increased risk for inadequate protein intakes. Between-individual differences in intake patterns could not be explained by the use of either anorexic or orexigenic medications. Behavioral, not cognitive, deterioration is associated with appetite modifications that increase risk of poor protein intake, perhaps indicating a common monoaminergic involvement.

  9. Selective alterations of the host cell architecture upon infection with parvovirus minute virus of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nueesch, Juerg P.F.; Lachmann, Sylvie; Rommelaere, Jean

    2005-01-01

    During a productive infection, the prototype strain of parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVMp) induces dramatic morphological alterations to the fibroblast host cell A9, resulting in cell lysis and progeny virus release. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying these changes, we characterized the fate of various cytoskeletal filaments and investigated the nuclear/cytoplasmic compartmentalization of infected cells. While most pronounced effects could be seen on micro- and intermediate filaments, manifest in dramatic rearrangements and degradation of filamentous (F-)actin and vimentin structures, only little impact could be seen on microtubules or the nuclear envelope during the entire monitored time of infection. To further analyze the disruption of the cytoskeletal structures, we investigated the viral impact on selective regulatory pathways. Thereby, we found a correlation between microtubule stability and MVM-induced phosphorylation of α/β tubulin. In contrast, disassembly of actin filaments late in infection could be traced back to the disregulation of two F-actin associated proteins gelsolin and Wiscott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP). Thereby, an increase in the amount of gelsolin, an F-actin severing protein was observed during infection, accounting for the disruption of stress fibers upon infection. Concomitantly, the actin polymerization activity also diminished due to a loss of WASP, the activator protein of the actin polymerization machinery the Arp2/3 complex. No effects could be seen in amount and distribution of other F-actin regulatory factors such as cortactin, cofilin, and profilin. In summary, the selective attack of MVM towards distinct host cell cytoskeletal structures argues for a regulatory feature during infection, rather than a collapse of the host cell as a mere side effect of virus production

  10. Acute stress alters auditory selective attention in humans independent of HPA: a study of evoked potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludger Elling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute stress is a stereotypical, but multimodal response to a present or imminent challenge overcharging an organism. Among the different branches of this multimodal response, the consequences of glucocorticoid secretion have been extensively investigated, mostly in connection with long-term memory (LTM. However, stress responses comprise other endocrine signaling and altered neuronal activity wholly independent of pituitary regulation. To date, knowledge of the impact of such "paracorticoidal" stress responses on higher cognitive functions is scarce. We investigated the impact of an ecological stressor on the ability to direct selective attention using event-related potentials in humans. Based on research in rodents, we assumed that a stress-induced imbalance of catecholaminergic transmission would impair this ability. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The stressor consisted of a single cold pressor test. Auditory negative difference (Nd and mismatch negativity (MMN were recorded in a tonal dichotic listening task. A time series of such tasks confirmed an increased distractibility occurring 4-7 minutes after onset of the stressor as reflected by an attenuated Nd. Salivary cortisol began to rise 8-11 minutes after onset when no further modulations in the event-related potentials (ERP occurred, thus precluding a causal relationship. This effect may be attributed to a stress-induced activation of mesofrontal dopaminergic projections. It may also be attributed to an activation of noradrenergic projections. Known characteristics of the modulation of ERP by different stress-related ligands were used for further disambiguation of causality. The conjuncture of an attenuated Nd and an increased MMN might be interpreted as indicating a dopaminergic influence. The selective effect on the late portion of the Nd provides another tentative clue for this. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Prior studies have deliberately tracked the adrenocortical influence

  11. Spatiotemporal alterations of cortical network activity by selective loss of NOS-expressing interneurons .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eShlosberg

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Deciphering the role of GABAergic neurons in large neuronal networks such as the neocortex forms a particularly complex task as they comprise a highly diverse population. The neuronal isoform of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (nNOS is expressed in the neocortex by specific subsets of GABAergic neurons. These neurons can be identified in live brain slices by the nitric oxide (NO fluorescent indicator DAF-2DA. However, this indicator was found to be highly toxic to the stained neurons. We used this feature to induce acute phototoxic damage to NO-producing neurons in cortical slices, and measured subsequent alterations in parameters of cellular and network activity.Neocortical slices were briefly incubated in DAF-2DA and then illuminated through the 4X objective. Histochemistry for NADPH diaphorase, a marker for nNOS activity, revealed elimination of staining in the illuminated areas following treatment. Whole cell recordings from several neuronal types before, during and after illumination confirmed the selective damage to non fast-spiking interneurons. Treated slices displayed mild disinhibition. The reversal potential of compound synaptic events on pyramidal neurons became more positive, and their decay time constant was elongated, substantiating the removal of an inhibitory conductance. The horizontal decay of local field potentials (LFPs was significantly reduced at distances of 300-400 m from the stimulation, but not when inhibition was non-selectively weakened with the GABAA blocker picrotoxin. Finally, whereas the depression of LFPs along short trains of 40 Hz stimuli was linearly reduced with distance or initial amplitude in control slices, this ordered relationship was disrupted in DAF-treated slices. These results reveal that NO-producing interneurons in the neocortex convey lateral inhibition to neighboring columns, and shape the spatiotemporal dynamics of the network's activity.

  12. Spatiotemporal alterations of cortical network activity by selective loss of NOS-expressing interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlosberg, Dan; Buskila, Yossi; Abu-Ghanem, Yasmin; Amitai, Yael

    2012-01-01

    Deciphering the role of GABAergic neurons in large neuronal networks such as the neocortex forms a particularly complex task as they comprise a highly diverse population. The neuronal isoform of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is expressed in the neocortex by specific subsets of GABAergic neurons. These neurons can be identified in live brain slices by the nitric oxide (NO) fluorescent indicator diaminofluorescein-2 diacetate (DAF-2DA). However, this indicator was found to be highly toxic to the stained neurons. We used this feature to induce acute phototoxic damage to NO-producing neurons in cortical slices, and measured subsequent alterations in parameters of cellular and network activity. Neocortical slices were briefly incubated in DAF-2DA and then illuminated through the 4× objective. Histochemistry for NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d), a marker for nNOS activity, revealed elimination of staining in the illuminated areas following treatment. Whole cell recordings from several neuronal types before, during, and after illumination confirmed the selective damage to non-fast-spiking (FS) interneurons. Treated slices displayed mild disinhibition. The reversal potential of compound synaptic events on pyramidal neurons became more positive, and their decay time constant was elongated, substantiating the removal of an inhibitory conductance. The horizontal decay of local field potentials (LFPs) was significantly reduced at distances of 300-400 μm from the stimulation, but not when inhibition was non-selectively weakened with the GABA(A) blocker picrotoxin. Finally, whereas the depression of LFPs along short trains of 40 Hz stimuli was linearly reduced with distance or initial amplitude in control slices, this ordered relationship was disrupted in DAF-treated slices. These results reveal that NO-producing interneurons in the neocortex convey lateral inhibition to neighboring columns, and shape the spatiotemporal dynamics of the network's activity.

  13. Cortical Volume Alterations in Conduct Disordered Adolescents with and without Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Olvera, Rene; Glahn, David; O'Donnell, Louise; Bearden, Carrie; Soares, Jair; Winkler, Anderson; Pliszka, Steven

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that bipolar disorder (BD) and conduct disorder (CD) are co-occurring disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging has revealed differences in the structure and function of the frontal cortex in these disorders when studied separately; however, the impact of BD comorbidity on brain structure in adolescents with CD has not yet been examined. METHOD: We conducted an optimized voxel based morphometry (VBM) study of juvenile offenders with the following diagnoses...

  14. Successful group psychotherapy of depression in adolescents alters fronto-limbic resting-state connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, J; Metzger, C D; Plener, P L; Koelch, M G; Groen, G; Abler, B

    2017-02-01

    Current resting state imaging findings support suggestions that the neural signature of depression and therefore also its therapy should be conceptualized as a network disorder rather than a dysfunction of specific brain regions. In this study, we compared neural connectivity of adolescent patients with depression (PAT) and matched healthy controls (HC) and analysed pre-to-post changes of seed-based network connectivities in PAT after participation in a cognitive behavioral group psychotherapy (CBT). 38 adolescents (30 female; 19 patients; 13-18 years) underwent an eyes-closed resting-state scan. PAT were scanned before (pre) and after (post) five sessions of CBT. Resting-state functional connectivity was analysed in a seed-based approach for right-sided amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). Symptom severity was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory Revision (BDI-II). Prior to group CBT, between groups amygdala and sgACC connectivity with regions of the default mode network was stronger in the patients group relative to controls. Within the PAT group, a similar pattern significantly decreased after successful CBT. Conversely, seed-based connectivity with affective regions and regions processing cognition and salient stimuli was stronger in HC relative to PAT before CBT. Within the PAT group, a similar pattern changed with CBT. Changes in connectivity correlated with the significant pre-to-post symptom improvement, and pre-treatment amygdala connectivity predicted treatment response in depressed adolescents. Sample size and missing long-term follow-up limit the interpretability. Successful group psychotherapy of depression in adolescents involved connectivity changes in resting state networks to that of healthy controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Can Programmed or Self-Selected Physical Activity Affect Physical Fitness of Adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Cláudio F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the effects of programmed and self-selected physical activities on the physical fitness of adolescents. High school adolescents, aged between 15 and 17 years, were divided into two experimental groups: a a self-selected physical activity group (PAS with 55 students (aged 15.7 ± 0.7 years, who performed physical activities with self-selected rhythm at the following sports: basketball, volleyball, handball, futsal and swimming; and b a physical fitness training group (PFT with 53 students (aged 16.0 ± 0.7 years, who performed programmed physical fitness exercises. Both types of activity were developed during 60 min classes. To assess physical fitness the PROESP-BR protocol was used. The statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures ANOVA. The measurements of pre and post-tests showed significantly different values after PFT in: 9 minute running test, medicine ball throw, horizontal jump, abdominal endurance, running speed and flexibility. After PAS differences were detected in abdominal endurance, agility, running speed and flexibility. The intervention with programmed physical activity promoted more changes in the physical abilities; however, in the self-selected program, agility was improved probably because of the practice of sports. Therefore, physical education teachers can use PFT to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and power of lower and upper limbs and PAS to improve agility of high school adolescents.

  16. Can programmed or self-selected physical activity affect physical fitness of adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Cláudio F; Neto, Gabriel R; Araújo, Adenilson T; Sousa, Maria S C; Sousa, Juliana B C; Batista, Gilmário R; Reis, Victor M M R

    2014-09-29

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of programmed and self-selected physical activities on the physical fitness of adolescents. High school adolescents, aged between 15 and 17 years, were divided into two experimental groups: a) a self-selected physical activity group (PAS) with 55 students (aged 15.7 ± 0.7 years), who performed physical activities with self-selected rhythm at the following sports: basketball, volleyball, handball, futsal and swimming; and b) a physical fitness training group (PFT) with 53 students (aged 16.0 ± 0.7 years), who performed programmed physical fitness exercises. Both types of activity were developed during 60 min classes. To assess physical fitness the PROESP-BR protocol was used. The statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures ANOVA. The measurements of pre and post-tests showed significantly different values after PFT in: 9 minute running test, medicine ball throw, horizontal jump, abdominal endurance, running speed and flexibility. After PAS differences were detected in abdominal endurance, agility, running speed and flexibility. The intervention with programmed physical activity promoted more changes in the physical abilities; however, in the self-selected program, agility was improved probably because of the practice of sports. Therefore, physical education teachers can use PFT to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and power of lower and upper limbs and PAS to improve agility of high school adolescents.

  17. The Selection and Prevalence of Natural and Fortified Calcium Food Sources in the Diets of Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Karen; Watson, Patrice; Lappe, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of calcium-fortified food and dairy food on selected nutrient intakes in the diets of adolescent girls. Design: Randomized controlled trial, secondary analysis. Setting and Participants: Adolescent girls (n = 149) from a midwestern metropolitan area participated in randomized controlled trials of bone physiology…

  18. Methodological Adaptations for Investigating the Perceptions of Language-Impaired Adolescents Regarding the Relative Importance of Selected Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Vicki A.; Brammall, Helen

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the systematic and detailed processes undertaken to modify a research methodology for use with language-impaired adolescents. The original methodology had been used previously with normally achieving adolescents and speech pathologists to obtain their opinions about the relative importance of selected communication skills…

  19. Does Geographic Setting Alter the Roles of Academically Supportive Factors? African American Adolescents' Friendships, Math Self-Concept, and Math Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martin H.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Kibe, Grace W.

    2012-01-01

    The study is one of few to examine how living in rural, suburban, or urban settings may alter factors supporting African Americans adolescents' math performance. The study examines the relationship of math self-concept and perceptions of friends' academic behaviors to African American students' math performance. Participants (N = 1,049) are…

  20. Altered spontaneous brain activity in adolescent boys with pure conduct disorder revealed by regional homogeneity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Xiaocui; Dong, Daifeng; Wang, Xiang; Yao, Shuqiao

    2017-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have revealed abnormal neural activity in several brain regions of adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) performing various tasks. However, little is known about the spontaneous neural activity in people with CD in a resting state. The aims of this study were to investigate CD-associated regional activity abnormalities and to explore the relationship between behavioral impulsivity and regional activity abnormalities. Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) scans were administered to 28 adolescents with CD and 28 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched healthy controls (HCs). The rs-fMRI data were subjected to regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis. ReHo can demonstrate the temporal synchrony of regional blood oxygen level-dependent signals and reflect the coordination of local neuronal activity facilitating similar goals or representations. Compared to HCs, the CD group showed increased ReHo bilaterally in the insula as well as decreased ReHo in the right inferior parietal lobule, right middle temporal gyrus and right fusiform gyrus, left anterior cerebellum anterior, and right posterior cerebellum. In the CD group, mean ReHo values in the left and the right insula correlated positively with Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) total scores. The results suggest that CD is associated with abnormal intrinsic brain activity, mainly in the cerebellum and temporal-parietal-limbic cortices, regions that are related to emotional and cognitive processing. BIS scores in adolescents with CD may reflect severity of abnormal neuronal synchronization in the insula.

  1. Altered structural correlates of impulsivity in adolescents with internet gaming disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin eDu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggested that internet gaming disorder (IGD was associated with impulsivity and structural abnormalities in brain gray matter. However, no morphometric study has examined the association between gray matter and impulsivity in IGD individuals. In this study, 25 adolescents with IGD and 27 healthy controls (HCs were recruited, and the relationship between Barratt impulsiveness scale-11 (BIS score and gray matter volume (GMV was investigated with the voxel-based morphometric (VBM correlation analysis. Then, the intergroup differences in correlation between BIS score and GMV were tested across all gray matter voxels. Our results showed that the correlations between BIS score and GMV of the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, the bilateral insula and the orbitofrontal cortex, the right amygdala and the left fusiform gyrus decreased in the IGD group compared to the HCs. Region-of-interest (ROI analysis revealed that GMV in all these clusters showed significant positive correlations with BIS score in the HCs, while no significant correlation was found in the IGD group. Our findings demonstrated that dysfunction of these brain areas involved in the behavior inhibition, attention and emotion regulation might contribute to impulse control problems in IGD adolescents.

  2. Understanding sex partner selection from the perspective of inner-city black adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Kerrigan, Deanna; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2006-09-01

    Black adolescents in inner-city settings are at increased risk for HIV and other STDs. Sex partner characteristics, as well as individual behavior, influence individuals' STD risk, yet little is known about the process of sex partner selection for adolescents in this setting. Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted during the summer and fall of 2002 with 50 inner-city black adolescents (26 females and 24 males) who had been purposively recruited from an STD clinic. Content analysis was used to study interview texts. Young women desire a monogamous romantic partner, rather than a casual sex partner; however, to fulfill their desire for emotional intimacy, they often accept a relationship with a nonmonogamous partner. Young men seek both physical and emotional benefits from being in a relationship; having a partner helps them to feel wanted, and they gain social status among their peers when they have multiple partners. For men, these benefits may help compensate for an inability to obtain jobs that would improve their financial and, as a result, social status. Both women and men assess partners' STD risk on the basis of appearance. HIV and other STD prevention initiatives must go beyond the scope of traditional messages aimed at behavior change and address the need for social support and socioeconomic opportunities among at-risk, inner-city adolescents.

  3. Influence of parents and friends on children's and adolescents' food intake and food selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Elmo, Alison; Nitecki, Lauren A; Kluczynski, Melissa A; Roemmich, James N

    2011-01-01

    The influence of parents versus friends on youths' eating behavior has not been directly compared, and little is known about the developmental effects of social influences on their eating behavior. The objective was to compare the effects of mothers and friends on children's and adolescents' energy intake from sandwiches and from healthy and unhealthy snacks and dessert foods. Twenty-three children (ages 5-7 y) and 27 adolescents (ages 13-15 y) ate a meal with their mother on one occasion and with a same-sex friend on another occasion. Male and female children consumed less energy from unhealthy snacks when in the presence of their mothers than when in the company of their friends. Conversely, female adolescents consumed less energy from unhealthy snacks and more energy from healthy snacks when they were with their friends than when with their mothers. Food selection is differentially influenced by the source of social influence and the age and sex of the child. Parents may act as an inhibitory influence on unhealthy eating for younger children. Adolescent girls may try to convey a good impression of healthy eating when eating with same-sex friends, but the eating habits of teenage boys are not as influenced by the social context. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00875576.

  4. Speech perception in older listeners with normal hearing:conditions of time alteration, selective word stress, and length of sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soojin; Yu, Jyaehyoung; Chun, Hyungi; Seo, Hyekyung; Han, Woojae

    2014-04-01

    Deficits of the aging auditory system negatively affect older listeners in terms of speech communication, resulting in limitations to their social lives. To improve their perceptual skills, the goal of this study was to investigate the effects of time alteration, selective word stress, and varying sentence lengths on the speech perception of older listeners. Seventeen older people with normal hearing were tested for seven conditions of different time-altered sentences (i.e., ±60%, ±40%, ±20%, 0%), two conditions of selective word stress (i.e., no-stress and stress), and three different lengths of sentences (i.e., short, medium, and long) at the most comfortable level for individuals in quiet circumstances. As time compression increased, sentence perception scores decreased statistically. Compared to a natural (or no stress) condition, the selectively stressed words significantly improved the perceptual scores of these older listeners. Long sentences yielded the worst scores under all time-altered conditions. Interestingly, there was a noticeable positive effect for the selective word stress at the 20% time compression. This pattern of results suggests that a combination of time compression and selective word stress is more effective for understanding speech in older listeners than using the time-expanded condition only.

  5. Altered Cortical Activation in Adolescents With Acute Migraine: A Magnetoencephalography Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jing; deGrauw, Xinyao; Korostenskaja, Milena; Korman, Abraham M.; O’Brien, Hope L.; Kabbouche, Marielle A.; Powers, Scott W.; Hershey, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    To quantitatively assess cortical dysfunction in pediatric migraine, 31 adolescents with acute migraine and age- and gender-matched controls were studied using a magnetoencephalography (MEG) system at a sampling rate of 6,000 Hz. Neuromagnetic brain activation was elicited by a finger-tapping task. The spectral and spatial signatures of magnetoencephalography data in 5 to 2,884 Hz were analyzed using Morlet wavelet and beamformers. Compared with controls, 31 migraine subjects during their headache attack phases (ictal) showed significantly prolonged latencies of neuromagnetic activation in 5 to 30 Hz, increased spectral power in 100 to 200 Hz, and a higher likelihood of neuromagnetic activation in the supplementary motor area, the occipital and ipsilateral sensorimotor cortices, in 2,200 to 2,800 Hz. Of the 31 migraine subjects, 16 migraine subjects during their headache-free phases (interictal) showed that there were no significant differences between interictal and control MEG data except that interictal spectral power in 100 to 200 Hz was significantly decreased. The results demonstrated that migraine subjects had significantly aberrant ictal brain activation, which can normalize interictally. The spread of abnormal ictal brain activation in both low- and high-frequency ranges triggered by movements may play a key role in the cascade of migraine attacks. Perspective This is the first study focusing on the spectral and spatial signatures of cortical dysfunction in adolescents with migraine using MEG signals in a frequency range of 5 to 2,884 Hz. This analyzing aberrant brain activation may be important for developing new therapeutic interventions for migraine in the future. PMID:23792072

  6. Violent media exposure, aggression and CU traits in adolescence: Testing the selection and socialization hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the role of exposure to violent action for later aggression and for later callous-unemotional traits in a sample of Swedish adolescents (N = 77-85), testing the selection and socialization hypotheses. Adolescents reported on violent delinquency and on callous-unemotional (CU) traits at age 15, on their media habits at age 16 and on reactive and proactive aggression and CU traits at age 18. The socialization hypothesis was supported with regard to aggression, that is, violent delinquency did not affect consumption of violent action, but controlling for violent delinquency, consumption of violent action added to proactive aggression and, marginally, to reactive aggression. The selection hypothesis was supported with regard to CU traits, that is, high levels of CU traits predicted frequent consumption of violent action, but consumption of violent action did not affect later levels of CU traits. Frequent violent media use was associated with later aggression. The associations between CU traits and violent media need further study. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Early life exposure to allergen and ozone results in altered development in adolescent rhesus macaque lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herring, M.J.; Putney, L.F.; St George, J.A.; Avdalovic, M.V.; Schelegle, E.S.; Miller, L.A.; Hyde, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    In rhesus macaques, previous studies have shown that episodic exposure to allergen alone or combined with ozone inhalation during the first 6 months of life results in a condition with many of the hallmarks of asthma. This exposure regimen results in altered development of the distal airways and parenchyma (Avdalovic et al., 2012). We hypothesized that the observed alterations in the lung parenchyma would be permanent following a long-term recovery in filtered air (FA) housing. Forty-eight infant rhesus macaques (30 days old) sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) were treated with two week cycles of FA, house dust mite allergen (HDMA), ozone (O 3 ) or HDMA/ozone (HDMA + O 3 ) for five months. At the end of the five months, six animals from each group were necropsied. The other six animals in each group were allowed to recover in FA for 30 more months at which time they were necropsied. Design-based stereology was used to estimate volumes of lung components, number of alveoli, size of alveoli, distribution of alveolar volumes, interalveolar capillary density. After 30 months of recovery, monkeys exposed to HDMA, in either group, had significantly more alveoli than filtered air. These alveoli also had higher capillary densities as compared with FA controls. These results indicate that early life exposure to HDMA alone or HDMA + O 3 alters the development process in the lung alveoli. - Highlights: • Abnormal lung development after postnatal exposure to ozone and allergen • This remodeling is shown as smaller, more numerous alveoli and narrower airways. • Allergen appears to have more of an effect than ozone during recovery. • These animals also have continued airway hyperresponsiveness (Moore et al. 2014)

  8. Early life exposure to allergen and ozone results in altered development in adolescent rhesus macaque lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, M.J.; Putney, L.F.; St George, J.A. [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States); Avdalovic, M.V. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Schelegle, E.S.; Miller, L.A. [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States); Hyde, D.M., E-mail: dmhyde@ucdavis.edu [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-02-15

    In rhesus macaques, previous studies have shown that episodic exposure to allergen alone or combined with ozone inhalation during the first 6 months of life results in a condition with many of the hallmarks of asthma. This exposure regimen results in altered development of the distal airways and parenchyma (Avdalovic et al., 2012). We hypothesized that the observed alterations in the lung parenchyma would be permanent following a long-term recovery in filtered air (FA) housing. Forty-eight infant rhesus macaques (30 days old) sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) were treated with two week cycles of FA, house dust mite allergen (HDMA), ozone (O{sub 3}) or HDMA/ozone (HDMA + O{sub 3}) for five months. At the end of the five months, six animals from each group were necropsied. The other six animals in each group were allowed to recover in FA for 30 more months at which time they were necropsied. Design-based stereology was used to estimate volumes of lung components, number of alveoli, size of alveoli, distribution of alveolar volumes, interalveolar capillary density. After 30 months of recovery, monkeys exposed to HDMA, in either group, had significantly more alveoli than filtered air. These alveoli also had higher capillary densities as compared with FA controls. These results indicate that early life exposure to HDMA alone or HDMA + O{sub 3} alters the development process in the lung alveoli. - Highlights: • Abnormal lung development after postnatal exposure to ozone and allergen • This remodeling is shown as smaller, more numerous alveoli and narrower airways. • Allergen appears to have more of an effect than ozone during recovery. • These animals also have continued airway hyperresponsiveness (Moore et al. 2014)

  9. Pressure to drink but not to smoke: disentangling selection and socialization in adolescent peer networks and peer groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Burk, William J; Laursen, Brett; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-12-01

    This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants identified three school friends and described their alcohol and tobacco use on two occasions one year apart. Actor-based models simultaneously examined changes in peer network ties and changes in individual behaviors for all participants within each school. Multi-level analyses examined changes in individual behaviors for adolescents entering new peer groups and adolescents in stable peer groups, both of which were embedded within the school-based peer networks. Similar results emerged from both analytic methods: Selection and socialization contributed to similarity of alcohol use, but only selection was a factor in tobacco use. Copyright © 2010 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sexual selection and sex differences in the prevalence of childhood externalizing and adolescent internalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Despite the well-established sex difference in prevalence of many childhood and adolescent psychopathological conditions, no integrative metatheory of sex differences in psychopathology exists. This review attempts to provide a metatheoretical framework to guide empirical examination of sex differences in prevalence of childhood-onset "externalizing" and adolescent-onset "internalizing" disorders, based on sexual selection evolutionary theory. Sexual selection theory suggests important between-sex differences in markers, mechanisms, etiology, and developmental timing of risk and resilience relevant to psychopathology. Namely, sexual selection theory hypothesizes that disinhibition and sensation-seeking may be important proximate risk markers for childhood-onset externalizing disorders in males. The theory suggests that these male-biased markers may be a product of their higher exposure to prenatal testosterone, which makes them more susceptible to prenatal stressors with downstream effects on dopaminergic neurotransmission, especially for those with genetic alleles associated with lower dopaminergic function. In contrast, sexual selection theory hypothesizes that negative emotionality, empathy, and cognitive rumination may be important proximate risk markers for adolescent-onset internalizing disorders in females. The theory suggests that these markers are propagated by rapidly rising levels of estradiol at puberty that interact with cortisol and oxytocin. These hormones exert downstream effects on the serotonergic system in such a way as to increase females' sensitivity to interpersonal stressors particularly at puberty and especially for those with lower functional serotonergic activity. Such a metatheory can help integrate prior ideas about sex differences and can also generate new predictions of sex differences in markers, etiology, mechanisms, and developmental timing of common forms of psychopathology. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  11. Cortical Volume Alterations in Conduct Disordered Adolescents with and without Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene L. Olvera

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is increasing evidence that bipolar disorder (BD and conduct disorder (CD are co-occurring disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging has revealed differences in the structure and function of the frontal cortex in these disorders when studied separately; however, the impact of BD comorbidity on brain structure in adolescents with CD has not yet been examined. Method: We conducted an optimized voxel based morphometry (VBM study of juvenile offenders with the following diagnoses: conduct disorder with comorbid bipolar disorder (CD-BD; n = 24, conduct disorder without bipolar disorder (CD; n = 24 and healthy controls (HC, n = 24. Participants were 13–17 years of age, in a residential treatment facility for repeat offenders. The three groups in this study were similar in age, gender, socioeconomic status and ethnicity. Results: We found CD-BD subjects had decreased volume relative to controls at the voxel level in the right medial prefrontal cortex (PFC. Using a Threshold-Free Cluster Enhancement (TFCE technique, the CD-BD subjects had significantly decreased volumes of the right medial prefrontal cortex and portions of the superior and inferior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate and temporal gyrus. The CD subjects did not have differences in brain volume compared to control subjects or CD-BD subjects. Conclusions: Our findings suggest the comorbidity between CD and BD is associated with neurobiological impact namely volumetric differences from healthy controls. Furthermore subjects with this comorbidity had poorer lifetime functioning, more mood and attentional dysfunction, and more medication exposure than subjects with CD who were not BD.

  12. Effects of Rhythmic and Melodic Alterations and Selected Musical Experiences on Rhythmic Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sink, Patricia E.

    1984-01-01

    Study showed that music listening habits and preferences and instrument training may affect ways an individual processes the multiple dimensions of rhythm. Apparent alterations in tempo, duration and pitch characteristics, rhythmic and melodic phrase patterning, and monotony may serve as organizers of rhythmic processing. (Author/RM)

  13. Alterations of Brain Functional Architecture Associated with Psychopathic Traits in Male Adolescents with Conduct Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Weidan; Luo, Qiang; Jiang, Yali; Gao, Yidian; Ming, Qingsen; Yao, Shuqiao

    2017-09-12

    Psychopathic traits of conduct disorder (CD) have a core callous-unemotional (CU) component and an impulsive-antisocial component. Previous task-driven fMRI studies have suggested that psychopathic traits are associated with dysfunction of several brain areas involved in different cognitive functions (e.g., empathy, reward, and response inhibition etc.), but the relationship between psychopathic traits and intrinsic brain functional architecture has not yet been explored in CD. Using a holistic brain-wide functional connectivity analysis, this study delineated the alterations in brain functional networks in patients with conduct disorder. Compared with matched healthy controls, we found decreased anti-synchronization between the fronto-parietal network (FPN) and default mode network (DMN), and increased intra-network synchronization within the frontothalamic-basal ganglia, right frontoparietal, and temporal/limbic/visual networks in CD patients. Correlation analysis showed that the weakened FPN-DMN interaction was associated with CU traits, while the heightened intra-network functional connectivity was related to impulsivity traits in CD patients. Our findings suggest that decoupling of cognitive control (FPN) with social understanding of others (DMN) is associated with the CU traits, and hyper-functions of the reward and motor inhibition systems elevate impulsiveness in CD.

  14. Social instability stress in adolescent male rats alters hippocampal neurogenesis and produces deficits in spatial location memory in adulthood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCormick, C.M.; Thomas, C.M.G.; Sheridan, C.S.; Nixon, F.; Flynn, J.A.; Mathews, I.Z.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing development of the hippocampus in adolescence may be vulnerable to stressors. The effects of social instability stress (SS) in adolescence (daily 1 h isolation and change of cage partner postnatal days 30-45) on cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus (DG) in adolescence (on days 33 and

  15. Eating high fat chow decreases dopamine clearance in adolescent and adult male rats but selectively enhances the locomotor stimulating effects of cocaine in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Michelle G; Horton, Rebecca E; Owens, William A; Daws, Lynette C; France, Charles P

    2015-03-24

    Feeding conditions can influence dopamine neurotransmission and impact behavioral and neurochemical effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems. This study examined whether eating high fat chow alters the locomotor effects of cocaine and dopamine transporter activity in adolescent (postnatal day 25) and adult (postnatal day 75) male Sprague-Dawley rats. Dose-response curves for cocaine-induced locomotor activity were generated in rats with free access to either standard or high fat chow or restricted access to high fat chow (body weight matched to rats eating standard chow). Compared with eating standard chow, eating high fat chow increased the sensitivity of adolescent, but not adult, rats to the acute effects of cocaine. When tested once per week, sensitization to the locomotor effects of cocaine was enhanced in adolescent rats eating high fat chow compared with adolescent rats eating standard chow. Sensitization to cocaine was not different among feeding conditions in adults. When adolescent rats that previously ate high fat chow ate standard chow, sensitivity to cocaine returned to normal. As measured by chronoamperometry, dopamine clearance rate in striatum was decreased in both adolescent and adult rats eating high fat chow compared with age-matched rats eating standard chow. These results suggest that high fat diet-induced reductions in dopamine clearance rate do not always correspond to increased sensitivity to the locomotor effects of cocaine, suggesting that mechanisms other than dopamine transporter might play a role. Moreover, in adolescent but not adult rats, eating high fat chow increases sensitivity to cocaine and enhances the sensitization that develops to cocaine. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  16. Do Physical and Relational Aggression Explain Adolescents' Friendship Selection? The Competing Roles of Network Characteristics, Gender, and Social Status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Berger, Christian; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2011-01-01

    The role of physical and relational aggression in adolescents' friendship selection was examined in a longitudinal sample of 274 Chilean students from 5th and 6th grade followed over 1 year. Longitudinal social network modeling (SIENA) was used to study selection processes for aggression while

  17. A Longitudinal Social Network Analysis of Peer Influence, Peer Selection, and Smoking Behavior Among Adolescents in British Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercken, Liesbeth; Steglich, Christian; Sinclair, Philip; Holliday, Jo; Moore, Laurence; Sinclair, W

    Objective: Similarity in smoking behavior among adolescent friends could be caused by selection of friends on the basis of behavioral similarity, or by influence processes, where behavior is changed to be similar to that of friends. The main aim of the present study is to disentangle selection and

  18. Intermittent Ethanol during Adolescence Leads to Lasting Behavioral Changes in Adulthood and Alters Gene Expression and Histone Methylation in the PFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T. Wolstenholme

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents primarily consume alcohol in binges, which can be particularly harmful to the developing frontal cortex and increase risk for an adult alcohol use disorder. We conducted a study investigating immediate and long lasting changes to the prefrontal cortex (PFC transcriptome to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying adult ethanol behavioral sensitivity following binge ethanol in adolescence. DBA/2J mice were orally dosed with 4 g/kg ethanol intermittently from day 29 to 42. Adolescent mice were tested for anxiety-like behavior and ethanol sensitivity using the loss of righting reflex task. As adults, mice were tested for cognitive changes using the novel object recognition task, ethanol-induced anxiolysis and ethanol sensitivity. Adolescent binge ethanol altered ethanol sensitivity in young mice and led to lasting memory deficits in the object recognition test and greater ethanol sensitivity in adulthood. Using genomic profiling of transcripts in the PFC, we found that binge ethanol reduced myelin-related gene expression and altered chromatin modifying genes involved in histone demethylation at H3K9 and H3K36. We hypothesize that ethanol’s actions on histone methylation may be a switch for future transcriptional changes that underlie the behavioral changes lasting into adulthood.

  19. Interspecific competition alters natural selection on shade avoidance phenotypes in Impatiens capensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoey, Brechann V; Stinchcombe, John R

    2009-08-01

    Shade avoidance syndrome is a known adaptive response for Impatiens capensis growing in dense intraspecific competition. However, I. capensis also grow with dominant interspecific competitors in marshes. Here, we compare the I. capensis shade-avoidance phenotypes produced in the absence and presence of heterospecific competitors, as well as selection on those traits. Two treatments were established in a marsh; in one treatment all heterospecifics were removed, while in the other, all competitors remained. We compared morphological traits, light parameters, seed output and, using phenotypic selection analysis, examined directional and nonlinear selection operating in the different competitive treatments. Average phenotypes, light parameters and seed production all varied depending on competitive treatment. Phenotypic selection analyses revealed different directional, disruptive, stabilizing and correlational selection. The disparities seen in both phenotypes and selection between the treatments related to the important differences in elongation timing depending on the presence of heterospecifics, although environmental covariances between traits and fitness could also contribute. Phenotypes produced by I. capensis depend on their competitive environment, and differing selection on shade-avoidance traits between competitive environments could indirectly select for increased plasticity given gene flow between populations in different competitive contexts.

  20. Early Adolescent Friendship Selection Based on Externalizing Behavior: the Moderating Role of Pubertal Development. The SNARE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Aart; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Steglich, Christian E G; Harakeh, Zeena; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2016-11-01

    This study examined friendship (de-)selection processes in early adolescence. Pubertal development was examined as a potential moderator. It was expected that pubertal development would be associated with an increased tendency for adolescents to select their friends based on their similarities in externalizing behavior engagement (i.e., delinquency, alcohol use, and tobacco use). Data were used from the first three waves of the SNARE (Social Network Analysis of Risk behavior in Early adolescence) study (N = 1144; 50 % boys; M age  = 12.7; SD = 0.47), including students who entered the first year of secondary school. The hypothesis was tested using Stochastic Actor-Based Modeling in SIENA. While taking the network structure into account, and controlling for peer influence effects, the results supported this hypothesis. Early adolescents with higher pubertal development were as likely as their peers to select friends based on similarity in externalizing behavior and especially likely to remain friends with peers who had a similar level of externalizing behavior, and thus break friendship ties with dissimilar friends in this respect. As early adolescents are actively engaged in reorganizing their social context, adolescents with a higher pubertal development are especially likely to lose friendships with peers who do not engage in externalizing behavior, thus losing an important source of adaptive social control (i.e., friends who do not engage in externalizing behavior).

  1. Elucidating the role of select cytoplasmic proteins in altering diffusion of integrin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Suzanne; Arora, Neha; Smith, Emily A

    2012-06-01

    Cytoplasmic proteins that affect integrin diffusion in the cell membrane are identified using a combination of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and RNA interference. Integrin receptors are essential for many cellular events, and alterations in lateral diffusion are one mechanism for modulating their function. In cells expressing native cytoplasmic protein concentrations and spread on a slide containing integrin extracellular ligand, 45 ± 2% of the integrin is mobile with a time-dependent 5.2 ± 0.9 × 10(-9) cm(2)/s diffusion coefficient at 1 s. The time exponent is 0.90 ± 0.07, indicating integrin diffusion moderately slows at longer times. The role of a specific cytoplasmic protein in altering integrin diffusion is revealed through changes in the FRAP curve after reducing the cytoplasmic protein's expression. Decreased expression of cytoplasmic proteins rhea, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), or steamer duck decreases the integrin mobile fraction. For rhea and FAK, there is a concomitant shift to Brownian (i.e., time-independent) diffusion at reduced concentrations of these proteins. In contrast, when the expression of actin 42A, dreadlocks, paxillin, integrin-linked kinase (ILK), or vinculin is reduced, integrin diffusion generally becomes more constrained with an increase in the integrin mobile fraction. This same change in integrin diffusion is measured in the absence of integrin extracellular ligand. The results indicate breaking the extracellular ligand-integrin-cytoskeletal linkage alters integrin diffusion properties, and, in most cases, there is no correlation between integrin and lipid diffusion properties.

  2. Selective blockade of TRPA1 channel attenuates pathological pain without altering noxious cold sensation or body temperature regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Joshi, Shailen K; DiDomenico, Stanley; Perner, Richard J; Mikusa, Joe P; Gauvin, Donna M; Segreti, Jason A; Han, Ping; Zhang, Xu-Feng; Niforatos, Wende; Bianchi, Bruce R; Baker, Scott J; Zhong, Chengmin; Simler, Gricelda H; McDonald, Heath A; Schmidt, Robert G; McGaraughty, Steve P; Chu, Katharine L; Faltynek, Connie R; Kort, Michael E; Reilly, Regina M; Kym, Philip R

    2011-05-01

    Despite the increasing interest in TRPA1 channel as a pain target, its role in cold sensation and body temperature regulation is not clear; the efficacy and particularly side effects resulting from channel blockade remain poorly understood. Here we use a potent, selective, and bioavailable antagonist to address these issues. A-967079 potently blocks human (IC(50): 51 nmol/L, electrophysiology, 67 nmol/L, Ca(2+) assay) and rat TRPA1 (IC(50): 101 nmol/L, electrophysiology, 289 nmol/L, Ca(2+) assay). It is >1000-fold selective over other TRP channels, and is >150-fold selective over 75 other ion channels, enzymes, and G-protein-coupled receptors. Oral dosing of A-967079 produces robust drug exposure in rodents, and exhibits analgesic efficacy in allyl isothiocyanate-induced nocifensive response and osteoarthritic pain in rats (ED(50): 23.2 mg/kg, p.o.). A-967079 attenuates cold allodynia produced by nerve injury but does not alter noxious cold sensation in naive animals, suggesting distinct roles of TRPA1 in physiological and pathological states. Unlike TRPV1 antagonists, A-967079 does not alter body temperature. It also does not produce locomotor or cardiovascular side effects. Collectively, these data provide novel insights into TRPA1 function and suggest that the selective TRPA1 blockade may present a viable strategy for alleviating pain without untoward side effects. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The alterations of plasma ET-1 and NO post selective pericardial devascularization in patients with hepatic portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunxi; Niu Lei; Xia Shaoyou; Peng Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the alterations of plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) post the selective pericardial devascularization in patients with hepatic portal hypertension,and to investigate the relationship between such alterations with illness and therapeutic effects. Methods: Before treatment,plasma ET-1 and NO contents were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and Griss method respectively in 92 patients with hepatic portal hypertension. One day and three weeks after operation, 66 operated cases with selective pericardial devascularization in patients with hepatic protal hypertension were also determined the levels of plasma ET-1 and NO with RIA. Results: The levels of plasma ET-1 and NO were increased in 92 patients with hepatic portal hypertension, and which closely related to the stage of illness. Post effective selective pericardial devascularization the high levels of plasma ET-1 and No were improved and were closely returned to normal after 3 week's. Conclusion: Clinical detection of plasma ET-1 and NO levels were useful for assessment of the therapeutic effects of selective pericardial devascularization in patients with hepatic portal hypertension. (authors)

  4. Altering the selection capabilities of common cloning vectors via restriction enzyme mediated gene disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The cloning of gene sequences forms the basis for many molecular biological studies. One important step in the cloning process is the isolation of bacterial transformants carrying vector DNA. This involves a vector-encoded selectable marker gene, which in most cases, confers resistance to an antibiotic. However, there are a number of circumstances in which a different selectable marker is required or may be preferable. Such situations can include restrictions to host strain choice, two phase cloning experiments and mutagenesis experiments, issues that result in additional unnecessary cloning steps, in which the DNA needs to be subcloned into a vector with a suitable selectable marker. Results We have used restriction enzyme mediated gene disruption to modify the selectable marker gene of a given vector by cloning a different selectable marker gene into the original marker present in that vector. Cloning a new selectable marker into a pre-existing marker was found to change the selection phenotype conferred by that vector, which we were able to demonstrate using multiple commonly used vectors and multiple resistance markers. This methodology was also successfully applied not only to cloning vectors, but also to expression vectors while keeping the expression characteristics of the vector unaltered. Conclusions Changing the selectable marker of a given vector has a number of advantages and applications. This rapid and efficient method could be used for co-expression of recombinant proteins, optimisation of two phase cloning procedures, as well as multiple genetic manipulations within the same host strain without the need to remove a pre-existing selectable marker in a previously genetically modified strain. PMID:23497512

  5. Selective kallikrein inhibitors alter human neutrophil elastase release during extracorporeal circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachtfogel, Y.T.; Hack, C.E.; Nuijens, J.H; Kettner, C.; Reilly, T.M.; Knabb, R.M.; Bischoff, Rainer; Tschesche, H.; Wenzel, H.; Kucich, U.

    1995-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass causes hemorrhagic complications and initiates a biochemical and cellular "whole body inflammatory response." This study investigates whether a variety of selective inhibitors of the contact pathway of intrinsic coagulation modulate complement and neutrophil activation during

  6. Geochemistry and hydrothermal alteration at selected Utah hot springs. Final report: Volume 3 (revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, W.T.; Benson, N.L.; Miller, C.D.

    1976-07-01

    Application of Na-K-Ca geothermometry to warm springs in Utah indicates several areas with sufficiently high apparent temperatures to be of interest as geothermal exploration targets. A zone of warm springs in the Bonneville Basin show Na-K-Ca temperatures from 150/sup 0/C to 233/sup 0/C. Examination of Great Salt Lake, Bonneville sediment pore water, and Jordan Valley well-water chemistry indicates that mixing a small percent of these fluids with warm spring water can cause substantial errors in Na-K-Ca temperature estimates. Other saline deposits which may influence Na-K-Ca temperature estimates are the Paradox formation in southeastern Utah, the Muddy Creek formation in southwestern Utah, the Arapien shale in central Utah, the Preuss formation in northeastern Utah, and Playa salts in much of western Utah. The Roosevelt KGRA is the most attractive target identified by Na-K-Ca geothermometry. Hydrothermal alteration, heavy metal distribution, and water chemistry provide additional characterization of the Roosevelt system. Chemistry of a cool water seep (25/sup 0/C) shows Na-K-Ca temperature of 241/sup 0/C and SiO/sub 2/ temperature of 125/sup 0/C. A Phillips well flowing from below 1500' (457m) shows Na-K-Ca temperature of 262/sup 0/C, SiO/sub 2/ temperature of 262/sup 0/C, and K of 1.5 times the surface spring value. The near surface alteration assemblage is best explained in terms of a decrease in pH of near surface fluids as sulfide oxidizes. Increasing potassium and pH with depth indicates that a K-feldspar stable zone may be intersected with deeper drilling. Geology and alteration were mapped in the Monroe KGRA. (JGB)

  7. Discrimination of uranium alteration zones in selected areas by use of LANDSAT MSS imagery. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kober, C.L.; Procter-Gregg, H.D.

    1977-02-01

    The surface alteration halos of fifty known uranium occurrences in the Western United States have been analyzed to determine spectral signatures in imagery acquired by the LANDSAT Multi-Spectral Scanner. The deposits included veins and metasediments in the northeast of Washington, batholitic districts in the northwest of Idaho, veins and intrusives in a portion of the Colorado Front Range and sedimentary deposits on the Colorado Plateau. Image analysis employed an analog hybrid video processing system composed of a light table, vidicon camera, image analyzer and color output monitor. A complete description of the theory and methodology is provided in the report

  8. Long-term hippocampal glutamate synapse and astrocyte dysfunctions underlying the altered phenotype induced by adolescent THC treatment in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamberletti, Erica; Gabaglio, Marina; Grilli, Massimo; Prini, Pamela; Catanese, Alberto; Pittaluga, Anna; Marchi, Mario; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela

    2016-09-01

    Cannabis use has been frequently associated with sex-dependent effects on brain and behavior. We previously demonstrated that adult female rats exposed to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) during adolescence develop long-term alterations in cognitive performances and emotional reactivity, whereas preliminary evidence suggests the presence of a different phenotype in male rats. To thoroughly depict the behavioral phenotype induced by adolescent THC exposure in male rats, we treated adolescent animals with increasing doses of THC twice a day (PND 35-45) and, at adulthood, we performed a battery of behavioral tests to measure affective- and psychotic-like symptoms as well as cognition. Poorer memory performance and psychotic-like behaviors were present after adolescent THC treatment in male rats, without alterations in the emotional component. At cellular level, the expression of the NMDA receptor subunit, GluN2B, as well as the levels of the AMPA subunits, GluA1 and GluA2, were significantly increased in hippocampal post-synaptic fractions from THC-exposed rats compared to controls. Furthermore, increases in the levels of the pre-synaptic marker, synaptophysin, and the post-synaptic marker, PSD95, were also present. Interestingly, KCl-induced [(3)H]D-ASP release from hippocampal synaptosomes, but not gliosomes, was significantly enhanced in THC-treated rats compared to controls. Moreover, in the same brain region, adolescent THC treatment also resulted in a persistent neuroinflammatory state, characterized by increased expression of the astrocyte marker, GFAP, increased levels of the pro-inflammatory markers, TNF-α, iNOS and COX-2, as well as a concomitant reduction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. Notably, none of these alterations was observed in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Together with our previous findings in females, these data suggest that the sex-dependent detrimental effects induced by adolescent THC exposure on adult behavior may rely on its

  9. Five major controversial issues about fusion level selection in corrective surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choon Sung; Hwang, Chang Ju; Lee, Dong-Ho; Cho, Jae Hwan

    2017-07-01

    Shoulder imbalance, coronal decompensation, and adding-on phenomenon following corrective surgery in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are known to be related to the fusion level selected. Although many studies have assessed the appropriate selection of the proximal and distal fusion level, no definite conclusions have been drawn thus far. We aimed to assess the problems with fusion level selection for corrective surgery in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, and to enhance understanding about these problems. This study is a narrative review. We conducted a literature search of fusion level selection in corrective surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Accordingly, we selected and reviewed five debatable topics related to fusion level selection: (1) selective thoracic fusion; (2) selective thoracolumbar-lumbar (TL-L) fusion; (3) adding-on phenomenon; (4) distal fusion level selection for major TL-L curves; and (5) proximal fusion level selection and shoulder imbalance. Selective fusion can be chosen in specific curve types, although there is a risk of coronal decompensation or adding-on phenomenon. Generally, wider indications for selective fusions are usually associated with more frequent complications. Despite the determination of several indications for selective fusion to avoid such complications, no clear guidelines have been established. Although authors have suggested various criteria to prevent the adding-on phenomenon, no consensus has been reached on the appropriate selection of lower instrumented vertebra. The fusion level selection for major TL-L curves primarily focuses on whether distal fusion can terminate at L3, a topic that remains unclear. Furthermore, because of the presence of several related factors and complications, proximal level selection and shoulder imbalance has been constantly debated and remains controversial from its etiology to its prevention. Although several difficult problems in the diagnosis and

  10. Selective alterations of neurons and circuits related to early memory loss in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María eLlorens-Martín

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A progressive loss of episodic memory is a well-known clinical symptom that characterizes Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The beginning of this loss of memory has been associated with the very early, pathological accumulation of tau and neuronal degeneration observed in the entorhinal cortex (EC. Tau-related pathology is thought to then spread progressively to the hippocampal formation and other brain areas as the disease progresses. The major cortical afferent source of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus is the EC through the perforant pathway. At least two main circuits participate in the connection between EC and the hippocampus; one originating in layer II and the other in layer III of the EC giving rise to the classical trisynaptic (ECII→dentate gyrus→CA3→CA1 and monosynaptic (ECIII→CA1 circuits. Thus, the study of the early pathological changes in these circuits is of great interest. In this review, we will discuss mainly the alterations of the granule cell neurons of the dentate gyrus and the atrophy of CA1 pyramidal neurons that occur in AD in relation to the possible differential alterations of these two main circuits.

  11. The effect of peer influence and selection processes on adolescent alcohol use: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Rachel K; Toumbourou, John W; Hemphill, Sheryl A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol use remains an important public health concern. One of the most salient and consistent predictors for drinking behaviour among young people is peer influence. A systematic review of longitudinal studies that examined the effect of peer influence on adolescent alcohol use between January 1997 and February 2011 is presented. Twenty-two studies fulfilled inclusion criteria and were reviewed. All but one study confirmed affiliation with alcohol-using or deviant peers as prospective predictors for the development of adolescent alcohol use. Findings revealed that existing longitudinal studies that have used multivariate analytic techniques to segregate peer influence (whereby adolescents start drinking after exposure to alcohol-using friends) and peer selection (whereby adolescents that start drinking without alcohol-using friends subsequently seek out drinking peers) effects consistently report significant peer influence effects. However, studies are unable to elucidate the relative contribution and developmental sequence of peer influence and selection. Existing research is synthesised to model the developmental influence of peer processes on adolescent alcohol use. Future research directions are recommended to inform better designed investigations that can lead to more effective endeavours to address peer processes in prevention efforts.

  12. Altered fibre types in gastrocnemius muscle of high wheel-running selected mice with mini-muscle phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guderley, Helga; Joanisse, Denis R; Mokas, Sophie; Bilodeau, Geneviève M; Garland, Theodore

    2008-03-01

    Selective breeding of mice for high voluntary wheel running has favoured characteristics that facilitate sustained, aerobically supported activity, including a "mini-muscle" phenotype with markedly reduced hind limb muscle mass, increased mass-specific activities of oxidative enzymes, decreased % myosin heavy chain IIb, and, in the medial gastrocnemius, reduced twitch speed, reduced mass-specific isotonic power, and increased fatigue resistance. To evaluate whether selection has altered fibre type expression in mice with either "mini" or normal muscle phenotypes, we examined fibre types of red and white gastrocnemius. In both the medial and lateral gastrocnemius, the mini-phenotype increased activities of oxidative enzymes and decreased activities of glycolytic enzymes. In red muscle samples, the mini-phenotype markedly changed fibre types, with the % type I and type IIA fibres and the surface area of type IIA fibres increasing; in addition, mice from selected lines in general had an increased % type IIA fibres and larger type I fibres as compared with mice from control lines. White muscle samples from mini-mice showed dramatic structural alterations, with an atypical distribution of extremely small, unidentifiable fibres surrounded by larger, more oxidative fibres than normally present in white muscle. The increased proportion of oxidative fibres and these atypical small fibres together may explain the reduced mass and increased mitochondrial enzyme activities in mini-muscles. These and previous results demonstrate that extension of selective breeding beyond the time when the response of the selected trait (i.e. distance run) has levelled off can still modify the mechanistic underpinnings of this behaviour.

  13. Postnatal choline supplementation selectively attenuates hippocampal microRNA alterations associated with developmental alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaraman, Sridevi; Idrus, Nirelia M; Miranda, Rajesh C; Thomas, Jennifer D

    2017-05-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can result in a range of physical, neuropathological, and behavioral alterations, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We have shown that supplementation with the nutrient choline reduces the severity of developmental alcohol-associated deficits in hippocampal-dependent behaviors and normalizes some aspects of hippocampal cholinergic development and DNA methylation patterns. Alcohol's developmental effects may also be mediated, in part, by altering microRNAs (miRNAs) that serve as negative regulators of gene translation. To determine whether choline supplementation alters ethanol's long-lasting effects on miRNAs, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 5.25 g/kg/day ethanol from postnatal days (PD) 4-9 via intubation; controls received sham intubations. Subjects were treated with choline chloride (100 mg/kg/day) or saline vehicle subcutaneously (s.c.) from PD 4-21. On PD 22, subjects were sacrificed, and RNA was isolated from the hippocampus. MiRNA expression was assessed with TaqMan Human MicroRNA Panel Low-Density Arrays. Ethanol significantly increased miRNA expression variance, an effect that was attenuated with choline supplementation. Cluster analysis of stably expressed miRNAs that exceeded an ANOVA p < 0.05 criterion indicated that for both male and female offspring, control and ethanol-exposed groups were most dissimilar from each other, with choline-supplemented groups in between. MiRNAs that expressed an average 2-fold change due to ethanol exposure were further analyzed to identify which ethanol-sensitive miRNAs were protected by choline supplementation. We found that at a false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted criterion of p < 0.05, miR-200c was induced by ethanol exposure and that choline prevented this effect. Collectively, our data show that choline supplementation can normalize disturbances in miRNA expression following developmental alcohol exposure and can protect specific miRNAs from induction by

  14. Adolescent binge-pattern alcohol exposure alters genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in the hypothalamus of alcohol-naïve male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimes, AnnaDorothea; Torcaso, Audrey; Pinceti, Elena; Kim, Chun K; Zeleznik-Le, Nancy J; Pak, Toni R

    2017-05-01

    Teenage binge drinking is a major health concern in the United States, with 21% of teenagers reporting binge-pattern drinking behavior in the previous 30 days. Recently, our lab showed that alcohol-naïve offspring of rats exposed to alcohol during adolescence exhibited altered gene expression profiles in the hypothalamus, a brain region involved in stress regulation. We employed Enhanced Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing as an unbiased approach to test the hypothesis that parental exposure to binge-pattern alcohol during adolescence alters DNA methylation profiles in their alcohol-naïve offspring. Wistar rats were administered a repeated binge-ethanol exposure paradigm during early (postnatal day (PND) 37-44) and late (PND 67-74) adolescent development. Animals were mated 24 h after the last ethanol dose and subsequent offspring were produced. Analysis of male PND7 offspring revealed that offspring of alcohol-exposed parents exhibited differential DNA methylation patterns in the hypothalamus. The differentially methylated cytosines (DMCs) were distinct between offspring depending on which parent was exposed to ethanol. Moreover, novel DMCs were observed when both parents were exposed to ethanol and many DMCs from single parent ethanol exposure were not recapitulated with dual parent exposure. We also measured mRNA expression of several differentially methylated genes and some, but not all, showed correlative changes in expression. Importantly, methylation was not a direct predictor of expression levels, underscoring the complexity of transcriptional regulation. Overall, we demonstrate that adolescent binge ethanol exposure causes altered genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in the hypothalamus of alcohol-naïve offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Adolescents with Classical Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Have Alterations in the Surrogate Markers of Cardiovascular Disease but Not in the Endothelial Function. The Possible Benefits of Metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruzzetti, Franca; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Virdis, Agostino; De Negri, Ferdinando; Perini, Daria; Bucci, Fiorella; Giannarelli, Chiara; Gadducci, Angiolo; Taddei, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    To study whether adolescents with the classical form of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have alterations in metabolic and vascular structure and function. The effect of metformin was evaluated. Controlled study. University outpatient clinic. Eighteen nonobese adolescents with PCOS were enrolled. Seventeen healthy age-matched adolescents were recruited as control subjects. The metabolic profile and the endothelial structure and function were evaluated. Hormonal and lipid profile, blood pressure (BP) measurement, fasting glucose and insulin levels, C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine, tissue-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and plasmin-antiplasmin complexes (PAP) were measured. Flow mediated dilation (FMD), central pulse wave velocity (PWV), radial artery pulse wave, and common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were also assessed. Girls with PCOS were also studied 6 months after treatment with metformin (850 mg twice per day). Adolescents with PCOS were insulin resistant and/or hyperinsulinemic and they had higher BP values and levels of CRP and PAI-1 than the control subjects. The levels of tissue-type plasminogen activator and PAP were similar in both groups. FMD, PWV, and IMT were also similar. Metformin significantly (P insulin, BP, CRP, and PAI-1 levels. The PAP levels significantly (P PCOS have alterations in some surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk and they are ameliorated by metformin. No deterioration of vascular structure and function has been detected, probably because of the short duration of exposure to the disease. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Binding among Select Episodic Elements Is Altered via Active Short-Term Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Donna J.; Voss, Joel L.

    2015-01-01

    Of the many elements that comprise an episode, are any disproportionately bound to the others? We tested whether active short-term retrieval selectively increases binding. Individual objects from multiobject displays were retrieved after brief delays. Memory was later tested for the other objects. Cueing with actively retrieved objects facilitated…

  17. Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC) Brain Potential Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Trimmel, Karin; Schätzer, Julia; Trimmel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information) versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental ...

  18. Alterations of mitochondrial DNA in CEM cells selected for resistance toward ddC toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerke, M; Franco, M; Johansson, M; Balzarini, J; Karlsson, A

    2006-01-01

    2 ',3 '-dideoxycytidine (ddC) is a nucleoside analog that has been shown to produce a delayed toxicity which may be due to the depletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). In order to gain further understanding of the events involved in mitochondrial toxicity, two different CEM cell lines were selected for resistance to the delayed ddC toxicity.

  19. Altering spatial priority maps via statistical learning of target selection and distractor filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Oscar; Patacca, Alessia; Di Caro, Valeria; Della Libera, Chiara; Santandrea, Elisa; Chelazzi, Leonardo

    2018-05-01

    The cognitive system has the capacity to learn and make use of environmental regularities - known as statistical learning (SL), including for the implicit guidance of attention. For instance, it is known that attentional selection is biased according to the spatial probability of targets; similarly, changes in distractor filtering can be triggered by the unequal spatial distribution of distractors. Open questions remain regarding the cognitive/neuronal mechanisms underlying SL of target selection and distractor filtering. Crucially, it is unclear whether the two processes rely on shared neuronal machinery, with unavoidable cross-talk, or they are fully independent, an issue that we directly addressed here. In a series of visual search experiments, participants had to discriminate a target stimulus, while ignoring a task-irrelevant salient distractor (when present). We systematically manipulated spatial probabilities of either one or the other stimulus, or both. We then measured performance to evaluate the direct effects of the applied contingent probability distribution (e.g., effects on target selection of the spatial imbalance in target occurrence across locations) as well as its indirect or "transfer" effects (e.g., effects of the same spatial imbalance on distractor filtering across locations). By this approach, we confirmed that SL of both target and distractor location implicitly bias attention. Most importantly, we described substantial indirect effects, with the unequal spatial probability of the target affecting filtering efficiency and, vice versa, the unequal spatial probability of the distractor affecting target selection efficiency across locations. The observed cross-talk demonstrates that SL of target selection and distractor filtering are instantiated via (at least partly) shared neuronal machinery, as further corroborated by strong correlations between direct and indirect effects at the level of individual participants. Our findings are compatible

  20. Smoking-based selection and influence in gender-segregated friendship networks: a social network analysis of adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercken, Liesbeth; Snijders, Tom A B; Steglich, Christian; Vertiainen, Erkki; de Vries, Hein

    2010-07-01

    The main goal of this study was to examine differences between adolescent male and female friendship networks regarding smoking-based selection and influence processes using newly developed social network analysis methods that allow the current state of continuously changing friendship networks to act as a dynamic constraint for changes in smoking behaviour, while allowing current smoking behaviour to be simultaneously a dynamic constraint for changes in friendship networks. Longitudinal design with four measurements. Nine junior high schools in Finland. A total of 1163 adolescents (mean age = 13.6 years) who participated in the control group of the ESFA (European Smoking prevention Framework Approach) study, including 605 males and 558 females. Smoking behaviour of adolescents, parents, siblings and friendship ties. Smoking-based selection of friends was found in male as well as female networks. However, support for influence among friends was found only in female networks. Furthermore, females and males were both influenced by parental smoking behaviour. In Finnish adolescents, both male and female smokers tend to select other smokers as friends but it appears that only females are influenced to smoke by their peer group. This suggests that prevention campaigns targeting resisting peer pressure may be more effective in adolescent girls than boys.

  1. Extrinsic relative to intrinsic goal pursuits and peer dynamics: selection and influence processes among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriez, Bart; Giletta, Matteo; Kuppens, Peter; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2013-10-01

    Self-Determination Theory discerns goals and values in terms of whether they are intrinsic or extrinsic in nature. Although research substantiates the importance of goal preferences for a host of outcomes, few studies examined how such preferences develop, and studies that did pay attention to this focused on parental influence processes. The present study focuses on the role of peers. Social network analyses on longitudinal data gathered among senior high-school students (N = 695) confirm that peer similarity in goal pursuit exists, and that, although this similarity partly originates from adolescents selecting friends on the basis of perceived goal pursuit similarity, it also results from peers actively influencing each other. Hence, friends tend to become more alike in terms of goal pursuit over time. Data also suggest that, although changes in goal pursuit at this age can be predicted from peer dynamics, they cannot be attributed to parental goal promotion efforts. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Somatic hypermutation and antigen-driven selection of B cells are altered in autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Neta S; Hazanov, Helena; Barak, Michal; Edelman, Hanna; Hess, Shira; Shcolnik, Hadas; Dunn-Walters, Deborah; Mehr, Ramit

    2010-12-01

    B cells have been found to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune (AI) diseases. A common feature amongst many AI diseases is the formation of ectopic germinal centers (GC) within the afflicted tissue or organ, in which activated B cells expand and undergo somatic hypermutation (SHM) and antigen-driven selection on their immunoglobulin variable region (IgV) genes. However, it is not yet clear whether these processes occurring in ectopic GCs are identical to those in normal GCs. The analysis of IgV mutations has aided in revealing many aspects concerning B cell expansion, mutation and selection in GC reactions. We have applied several mutation analysis methods, based on lineage tree construction, to a large set of data, containing IgV productive and non-productive heavy and light chain sequences from several different tissues, to examine three of the most profoundly studied AI diseases - Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Sjögren's Syndrome (SS). We have found that RA and MS sequences exhibited normal mutation spectra and targeting motifs, but a stricter selection compared to normal controls, which was more apparent in RA. SS sequence analysis results deviated from normal controls in both mutation spectra and indications of selection, also showing differences between light and heavy chain IgV and between different tissues. The differences revealed between AI diseases and normal control mutation patterns may result from the different microenvironmental influences to which ectopic GCs are exposed, relative to those in normal secondary lymphoid tissues. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adolescent Risk Behaviours and Mealtime Routines: Does Family Meal Frequency Alter the Association between Family Structure and Risk Behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate A.; Kirby, Joanna; Currie, Candace

    2012-01-01

    Family structure is associated with a range of adolescent risk behaviours, with those living in both parent families generally faring best. This study describes the association between family structure and adolescent risk behaviours and assesses the role of the family meal. Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey were…

  4. Urinary Neurotransmitters Are Selectively Altered in Children With Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Predict Cognitive Morbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; McManus, Corena J. T.; Kellermann, Gottfried H.; Samiei, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with cognitive dysfunction, suggesting altered neurotransmitter function. We explored overnight changes in neurotransmitters in the urine of children with and without OSA. Methods: Urine samples were collected from children with OSA and from control subjects before and after sleep studies. A neurocognitive battery assessing general cognitive ability (GCA) was administered to a subset of children with OSA. Samples were subjected to multiple enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for 12 neurotransmitters, and adjusted for creatinine concentrations. Results: The study comprised 50 children with OSA and 20 control subjects. Of the children with OSA, 20 had normal GCA score (mean ± SD) (101.2 ± 14.5) and 16 had a reduced GCA score (87.3 ± 13.9; P neurotransmitters enabled prediction of OSA (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.923; P neurotransmitters in urine may not only predict OSA but also the presence of cognitive deficits. Larger cohort studies appear warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:23306904

  5. Sibling genes as environment: Sibling dopamine genotypes and adolescent health support frequency dependent selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Emily; Conley, Dalton; Siegal, Mark L

    2015-11-01

    While research consistently suggests siblings matter for individual outcomes, it remains unclear why. At the same time, studies of genetic effects on health typically correlate variants of a gene with the average level of behavioral or health measures, ignoring more complicated genetic dynamics. Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, we investigate whether sibling genes moderate individual genetic expression. We compare twin variation in health-related absences and self-rated health by genetic differences at three locations related to dopamine regulation and transport to test sibship-level cross-person gene-gene interactions. Results suggest effects of variation at these genetic locations are moderated by sibling genes. Although the mechanism remains unclear, this evidence is consistent with frequency dependent selection and suggests much genetic research may violate the stable unit treatment value assumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Estrogen alters the diurnal rhythm of alpha 1-adrenergic receptor densities in selected brain regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, N.G.; Wise, P.M.

    1987-11-01

    Norepinephrine regulates the proestrous and estradiol-induced LH surge by binding to alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. The density of alpha 1-receptors may be regulated by estradiol, photoperiod, and noradrenergic neuronal activity. We wished to determine whether alpha 1-receptors exhibit a diurnal rhythm in ovariectomized and/or estradiol-treated female rats, whether estradiol regulates alpha 1-receptors in those areas of brain involved with LH secretion and/or sexual behavior, and whether the concentrations of alpha-receptors vary inversely relative to previously reported norepinephrine turnover patterns. Young female rats, maintained on a 14:10 light-dark cycle were ovariectomized. One week later, half of them were outfitted sc with Silastic capsules containing estradiol. Groups of animals were decapitated 2 days later at 0300, 1000, 1300, 1500, 1800, and 2300 h. Brains were removed, frozen, and sectioned at 20 micron. Sections were incubated with (/sup 3/H)prazosin in Tris-HCl buffer, washed, dried, and exposed to LKB Ultrofilm. The densities of alpha 1-receptors were quantitated using a computerized image analysis system. In ovariectomized rats, the density of alpha 1-receptors exhibited a diurnal rhythm in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), and pineal gland. In SCN and MPN, receptor concentrations were lowest during the middle of the day and rose to peak levels at 1800 h. In the pineal gland, the density of alpha 1-receptors was lowest at middark phase, rose to peak levels before lights on, and remained elevated during the day. Estradiol suppressed the density of alpha 1 binding sites in the SCN, MPN, median eminence, ventromedial nucleus, and the pineal gland but had no effect on the lateral septum. Estrogen treatment altered the rhythm of receptor densities in MPN, median eminence, and the pineal gland.

  7. Estrogen alters the diurnal rhythm of alpha 1-adrenergic receptor densities in selected brain regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiland, N.G.; Wise, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    Norepinephrine regulates the proestrous and estradiol-induced LH surge by binding to alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. The density of alpha 1-receptors may be regulated by estradiol, photoperiod, and noradrenergic neuronal activity. We wished to determine whether alpha 1-receptors exhibit a diurnal rhythm in ovariectomized and/or estradiol-treated female rats, whether estradiol regulates alpha 1-receptors in those areas of brain involved with LH secretion and/or sexual behavior, and whether the concentrations of alpha-receptors vary inversely relative to previously reported norepinephrine turnover patterns. Young female rats, maintained on a 14:10 light-dark cycle were ovariectomized. One week later, half of them were outfitted sc with Silastic capsules containing estradiol. Groups of animals were decapitated 2 days later at 0300, 1000, 1300, 1500, 1800, and 2300 h. Brains were removed, frozen, and sectioned at 20 micron. Sections were incubated with [ 3 H]prazosin in Tris-HCl buffer, washed, dried, and exposed to LKB Ultrofilm. The densities of alpha 1-receptors were quantitated using a computerized image analysis system. In ovariectomized rats, the density of alpha 1-receptors exhibited a diurnal rhythm in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), and pineal gland. In SCN and MPN, receptor concentrations were lowest during the middle of the day and rose to peak levels at 1800 h. In the pineal gland, the density of alpha 1-receptors was lowest at middark phase, rose to peak levels before lights on, and remained elevated during the day. Estradiol suppressed the density of alpha 1 binding sites in the SCN, MPN, median eminence, ventromedial nucleus, and the pineal gland but had no effect on the lateral septum. Estrogen treatment altered the rhythm of receptor densities in MPN, median eminence, and the pineal gland

  8. Antisocial Peer Affiliation and Externalizing Disorders in the Transition from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Selection versus Socialization Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R.; Goodman, Rebecca J.; Erath, Stephen A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated both socialization and selection effects for the relationship between antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing problems in adolescence. Less research has evaluated such effects postadolescence. In this study, a cross-lagged panel analysis was used to evaluate the extent of "socialization" (i.e., the…

  9. Smoking-based selection and influence in gender-segregated friendship networks : a social network analysis of adolescent smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercken, Liesbeth; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Steglich, Christian; Vertiainen, Erkki; Vartiainen, E.; De Vries, H.

    Aims The main goal of this study was to examine differences between adolescent male and female friendship networks regarding smoking-based selection and influence processes using newly developed social network analysis methods that allow the current state of continuously changing friendship networks

  10. Pressure to drink but not to smoke: Disentangling selection and socialization in adolescent peer networks and peer groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiuru, N.; Burk, W.J.; Laursen, B.; Salmela-Aro, K.; Nurmi, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants

  11. Pressure to Drink but Not to Smoke: Disentangling Selection and Socialization in Adolescent Peer Networks and Peer Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Burk, William J.; Laursen, Brett; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants identified three school friends and described…

  12. The Role of Character Strengths in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: An Initial Study on Partner Selection and Mates' Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marco; Ruch, Willibald

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of 24 character strengths in 87 adolescent romantic relationships focusing on their role in partner selection and their role in mates' life satisfaction. Measures included the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth, the Students' Life Satisfaction Scale, and an Ideal Partner Profiler for the…

  13. Treatment of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-Resistant Depression in Adolescents: Predictors and Moderators of Treatment Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Emslie, Graham; Clarke, Greg; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Spirito, Anthony; Vitiello, Benedetto; Iyengar, Satish; Shamseddeen, Wael; Ritz, Louise; Birmaher, Boris; Ryan, Neal; Kennard, Betsy; Mayes, Taryn; DeBar, Lynn; McCracken, James; Strober, Michael; Suddath, Robert; Leonard, Henrietta; Porta, Giovanna; Keller, Martin; Brent, David

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents who did not improve with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) were provided an alternative SSRI plus cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). The superiority of the CBT/combined treatment as compared to medication alone is more evident in youths who had more comorbid disorders, no abuse history, and lower hopelessness.

  14. Do birds of a feather flock together? The variable bases for African American, Asian American, and European American adolescents' selection of similar friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, J V

    2000-03-01

    Variability in adolescent-friend similarity is documented in a diverse sample of African American, Asian American, and European American adolescents. Similarity was greatest for substance use, modest for academic orientations, and low for ethnic identity. Compared with Asian American and European American adolescents, African American adolescents chose friends who were less similar with respect to academic orientation or substance use but more similar with respect to ethnic identity. For all three ethnic groups, personal endorsement of the dimension in question and selection of cross-ethnic-group friends heightened similarity. Similarity was a relative rather than an absolute selection criterion: Adolescents did not choose friends with identical orientations. These findings call for a comprehensive theory of friendship selection sensitive to diversity in adolescents' experiences. Implications for peer influence and self-development are discussed.

  15. Dynamics of excitatory and inhibitory networks are differentially altered by selective attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Adam C.; Morais, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition and excitation form two fundamental modes of neuronal interaction, yet we understand relatively little about their distinct roles in service of perceptual and cognitive processes. We developed a multidimensional waveform analysis to identify fast-spiking (putative inhibitory) and regular-spiking (putative excitatory) neurons in vivo and used this method to analyze how attention affects these two cell classes in visual area V4 of the extrastriate cortex of rhesus macaques. We found that putative inhibitory neurons had both greater increases in firing rate and decreases in correlated variability with attention compared with putative excitatory neurons. Moreover, the time course of attention effects for putative inhibitory neurons more closely tracked the temporal statistics of target probability in our task. Finally, the session-to-session variability in a behavioral measure of attention covaried with the magnitude of this effect. Together, these results suggest that selective targeting of inhibitory neurons and networks is a critical mechanism for attentional modulation. PMID:27466133

  16. Subsurface femtosecond tissue alteration: selectively photobleaching macular degeneration pigments in near retinal contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manevitch, Zakhariya; Lewis, Aaron; Levy, Carol; Zeira, Evelyne; Banin, Eyal; Manevitch, Alexandra; Khatchatouriants, Artium; Pe'er, Jacob; Galun, Eithan; Hemo, Itzhak

    2012-06-14

    This paper uses advances in the ultrafast manipulation of light to address a general need in medicine for a clinical approach that can provide a solution to a variety of disorders requiring subsurface tissue manipulation with ultralow collateral damage. Examples are age-related macular degeneration (AMD), fungal infections, tumors surrounded by overlying tissue, cataracts, etc. Although lasers have revolutionized the use of light in clinical settings, most lasers employed in medicine cannot address such problems of depth-selective tissue manipulation. This arises from the fact that they are mostly based on one photon based laser tissue interactions that provide a cone of excitation where the energy density is sufficiently high to excite heat or fluorescence in the entire cone. Thus, it is difficult to excite a specific depth of a tissue without affecting the overlying surface. However, the advent of femtosecond (fs) lasers has caused a revolution in multiphoton microscopy (Zipfel et al. Nat. Biotechnol. 2003, 21, 1369-1377; Denk et al. Science 1990, 248, 73-76) and fabrication (Kawata et al. Nature 2001, 412, 697-698). With such lasers, the photon energy density is only high enough for multiphoton processes in the focal volume, and this opens a new direction to address subsurface tissue manipulation. Here we show in an AMD animal model, Ccr2 KO knockout mutant mice, noninvasive, selective fs two-photon photobleaching of pigments associated with AMD that accumulate under and in ultraclose proximity to the overlying retina. Pathological evidence is presented that indicates the lack of collateral damage to the overlying retina or other surrounding tissue.

  17. Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC Brain Potential Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Trimmel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes. This study investigated brain direct current (DC potential shifts—which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation—of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest—besides some limitations—that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested “attention shift”. Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed.

  18. Acoustic noise alters selective attention processes as indicated by direct current (DC) brain potential changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmel, Karin; Schätzer, Julia; Trimmel, Michael

    2014-09-26

    Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information) versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes). This study investigated brain direct current (DC) potential shifts-which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation-of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest-besides some limitations-that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested "attention shift". Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed.

  19. Adolescents' selective visual attention for high-status peers: The role of perceiver status and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansu, T.A.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that adolescents' attention for a peer is determined by the peer's status. This study examined how it is also determined by the status of the perceiving adolescent, and the gender of both parties involved (perceiver and perceived). Participants were 122 early adolescents

  20. Smoking among school-going adolescents in selected secondary schools in Peninsular Malaysia- findings from the Malaysian Adolescent Health Risk Behaviour (MyaHRB) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kuang Hock; Lim, Hui Li; Teh, Chien Huey; Kee, Chee Cheong; Khoo, Yi Yi; Ganapathy, Shubash Shander; Jane Ling, Miaw Yn; Mohd Ghazali, Sumarni; Tee, Eng Ong

    2017-01-01

    A multitude of studies have revealed that smoking is a learned behaviour during adolescence and efforts to reduce the incidence of smoking has been identified as long-term measures to curb the smoking menace. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence as well as the intra and inter-personal factors associated with smoking among upper secondary school students in selected schools in Peninsular Malaysia. A study was carried out in 2013, which involved a total of 40 secondary schools. They were randomly selected using a two-stage clustering sampling method. Subsequently, all upper secondary school students (aged 16 to 17 years) from each selected school were recruited into the study. Data was collected using a validated standardised questionnaire. This study revealed that the prevalence of smoking was 14.6% (95% CI:13.3-15.9), and it was significantly higher among males compared to females (27.9% vs 2.4%, p  Malaysian adolescents of school-going age was high, despite implementation of several anti-smoking measures in Malaysia. More robust measures integrating the factors identified in this study are strongly recommended to curb the smoking epidemic among adolescents in Malaysia.

  1. Genetic selection on abdominal fat content alters the reproductive performance of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X Y; Wu, M Q; Wang, S Z; Zhang, H; Du, Z Q; Li, Y M; Cao, Z P; Luan, P; Leng, L; Li, H

    2018-06-01

    The effects of obesity on reproduction have been widely reported in humans and mice. The present study was designed to compare the reproductive performance of lean and fat chicken lines, divergently selected for abdominal fat content. The following parameters were determined and analyzed in the two lines: (1) reproductive traits, including age at first egg and total egg numbers from generations 14 to 18, absolute and relative testicular weights at 7, 14, 25, 30, 45 and 56 weeks of age, semen quality at 30, 45 and 56 weeks of age in generation 18, and fertility and hatchability from generations 14 to 18; (2) reproductive hormones at 7, 14, 25, 30, 45 and 56 weeks of age in generation 18; (3) and the relative mRNA abundance of genes involved in reproduction at 7, 14, 25, 30, 45 and 56 weeks of age in generation 18. In females, birds in the lean line laid more eggs from the first egg to 40 weeks of age than the birds in the fat line. In male broilers, the birds in the lean line had higher absolute and relative testicular weights at 7, 14 and 25 weeks of age, but lower absolute and relative testicular weights at 56 weeks of age than the birds in the fat line. Male birds in the lean line had greater sperm concentrations and larger numbers of motile and morphologically normal sperms at 30, 45 and 56 weeks of age than the birds in the fat line. Fertility and hatchability were also higher in the lean line than in the fat line. Significant differences in the plasma levels of reproductive hormones and the expression of reproduction-associated genes were also found at different ages in the lean and fat birds, in both males and females. These results suggest that reproductive performance is better in lean birds than in fat birds. In view of the unique divergent lines used in this study, these results imply that selecting for abdominal fat deposition negatively affects the reproductive performance of birds.

  2. A new approach for hydrothermal alteration mapping by selecting and interpreting principal components in Landsat ETM+ images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kashkoei Jahroomi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In remote sensing studies, especially those in which multi-spectral image data are used, (i.e., Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper, various statistical methods are often applied for image enhancement and feature extraction (Reddy, 2008. Principal component analysis is a multivariate statistical technique which is frequently used in multidimensional data analysis. This method attempts to extract and place the spectral information into a smaller set of new components that are more interpretable. However, the results obtained from this method are not so straightforward and require somewhat sophisticated techniques to interpret (Drury, 2001. In this paper we present a new approach for mapping of hydrothermal alteration by analyzing and selecting the principal components extracted through processing of Landsat ETM+ images. The study area is located in a mountainous region of southern Kerman. Geologically, it lies in the volcanic belt of central Iran adjacent to the Gogher-Baft ophiolite zone. The region is highly altered with sericitic, propyliticand argillic alterationwell developed, and argillic alteration is limited (Jafari, 2009; Masumi and Ranjbar, 2011. Multispectral data of Landsat ETM+ was acquired (path 181, row 34 in this study. In these images the color composites of Band 7, Band 4 and Band 1 in RGB indicate the lithology outcropping in the study area. The principal component analysis (PCA ofimage data is often implemented computationally using three steps: (1 Calculation of the variance, covariance matrix or correlation matrix of the satellite sensor data. (2 Computation of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the variance-covariance matrix or correlation matrix, and (3 Linear transformation of the image data using the coefficients of the eigenvector matrix. Results By applying PCA to the spectral data, according to the eigenvectors obtained, 6 principal components were extracted from the data set. In the PCA matrix, theeigen

  3. Selective attention to affective value alters how the brain processes olfactory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T; Grabenhorst, Fabian; Margot, Christian; da Silva, Maria A A P; Velazco, Maria Ines

    2008-10-01

    How does selective attention to affect influence sensory processing? In a functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation, when subjects were instructed to remember and rate the pleasantness of a jasmine odor, activations were greater in the medial orbito-frontal and pregenual cingulate cortex than when subjects were instructed to remember and rate the intensity of the odor. When the subjects were instructed to remember and rate the intensity, activations were greater in the inferior frontal gyrus. These top-down effects occurred not only during odor delivery but started in a preparation period after the instruction before odor delivery, and continued after termination of the odor in a short-term memory period. Thus, depending on the context in which odors are presented and whether affect is relevant, the brain prepares itself, responds to, and remembers an odor differently. These findings show that when attention is paid to affective value, the brain systems engaged to prepare for, represent, and remember a sensory stimulus are different from those engaged when attention is directed to the physical properties of a stimulus such as its intensity. This differential biasing of brain regions engaged in processing a sensory stimulus depending on whether the cognitive demand is for affect-related versus more sensory-related processing may be an important aspect of cognition and attention. This has many implications for understanding the effects not only of olfactory but also of other sensory stimuli.

  4. Selective inhibition of miR-92 in hippocampal neurons alters contextual fear memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetere, Gisella; Barbato, Christian; Pezzola, Silvia; Frisone, Paola; Aceti, Massimiliano; Ciotti, MariaTeresa; Cogoni, Carlo; Ammassari-Teule, Martine; Ruberti, Francesca

    2014-12-01

    Post-transcriptional gene regulation mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) is implicated in memory formation; however, the function of miR-92 in this regulation is uncharacterized. The present study shows that training mice in contextual fear conditioning produces a transient increase in miR-92 levels in the hippocampus and decreases several miR-92 gene targets, including: (i) the neuronal Cl(-) extruding K(+) Cl(-) co-transporter 2 (KCC2) protein; (ii) the cytoplasmic polyadenylation protein (CPEB3), an RNA-binding protein regulator of protein synthesis in neurons; and (iii) the transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D), one of the MEF2 genes which negatively regulates memory-induced structural plasticity. Selective inhibition of endogenous miR-92 in CA1 hippocampal neurons, by a sponge lentiviral vector expressing multiple sequences imperfectly complementary to mature miR-92 under the control of the neuronal specific synapsin promoter, leads to up-regulation of KCC2, CPEB3 and MEF2D, impairs contextual fear conditioning, and prevents a memory-induced increase in the spine density. Taken together, the results indicate that neuronal-expressed miR-92 is an endogenous fine regulator of contextual fear memory in mice. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Dynamics of excitatory and inhibitory networks are differentially altered by selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Adam C; Morais, Michael J; Smith, Matthew A

    2016-10-01

    Inhibition and excitation form two fundamental modes of neuronal interaction, yet we understand relatively little about their distinct roles in service of perceptual and cognitive processes. We developed a multidimensional waveform analysis to identify fast-spiking (putative inhibitory) and regular-spiking (putative excitatory) neurons in vivo and used this method to analyze how attention affects these two cell classes in visual area V4 of the extrastriate cortex of rhesus macaques. We found that putative inhibitory neurons had both greater increases in firing rate and decreases in correlated variability with attention compared with putative excitatory neurons. Moreover, the time course of attention effects for putative inhibitory neurons more closely tracked the temporal statistics of target probability in our task. Finally, the session-to-session variability in a behavioral measure of attention covaried with the magnitude of this effect. Together, these results suggest that selective targeting of inhibitory neurons and networks is a critical mechanism for attentional modulation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Adolescent Social Stress Increases Anxiety-like Behavior and Alters Synaptic Transmission, Without Influencing Nicotine Responses, in a Sex-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Michael J; Crowley, Nicole A; Reiss, Dana E; Caulfield, Jasmine I; Luscher, Bernhard; Cavigelli, Sonia A; Kamens, Helen M

    2018-03-01

    Early-life stress is a risk factor for comorbid anxiety and nicotine use. Because little is known about the factors underlying this comorbidity, we investigated the effects of adolescent stress on anxiety-like behavior and nicotine responses within individual animals. Adolescent male and female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to chronic variable social stress (CVSS; repeated cycles of social isolation + social reorganization) or control conditions from postnatal days (PND) 25-59. Anxiety-like behavior and social avoidance were measured in the elevated plus-maze (PND 61-65) and social approach-avoidance test (Experiment 1: PND 140-144; Experiment 2: 95-97), respectively. Acute nicotine-induced locomotor, hypothermic, corticosterone responses, (Experiment 1: PND 56-59; Experiment 2: PND 65-70) and voluntary oral nicotine consumption (Experiment 1: PND 116-135; Experiment 2: 73-92) were also examined. Finally, we assessed prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAC) synaptic transmission (PND 64-80); brain regions that are implicated in anxiety and addiction. Mice exposed to adolescent CVSS displayed increased anxiety-like behavior relative to controls. Further, CVSS altered synaptic excitability in PFC and NAC neurons in a sex-specific manner. For males, CVSS decreased the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in the PFC and NAC, respectively. In females, CVSS decreased the amplitude of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in the NAC. Adolescent CVSS did not affect social avoidance or nicotine responses and anxiety-like behavior was not reliably associated with nicotine responses within individual animals. Taken together, complex interactions between PFC and NAC function may contribute to adolescent stress-induced anxiety-like behavior without influencing nicotine responses. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute stress induces selective alterations in cost/benefit decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Naghmeh; Gray, Megan; Viau, Victor; Floresco, Stan B

    2012-09-01

    Acute stress can exert beneficial or detrimental effects on different forms of cognition. In the present study, we assessed the effects of acute restraint stress on different forms of cost/benefit decision-making, and some of the hormonal and neurochemical mechanisms that may underlie these effects. Effort-based decision-making was assessed where rats chose between a low effort/reward (1 press=2 pellets) or high effort/reward option (4 pellets), with the effort requirement increasing over 4 blocks of trials (2, 5, 10, and 20 lever presses). Restraint stress for 1 h decreased preference for the more costly reward and induced longer choice latencies. Control experiments revealed that the effects on decision-making were not mediated by general reductions in motivation or preference for larger rewards. In contrast, acute stress did not affect delay-discounting, when rats chose between a small/immediate vs larger/delayed reward. The effects of stress on decision-making were not mimicked by treatment with physiological doses of corticosterone (1-3 mg/kg). Blockade of dopamine receptors with flupenthixol (0.25 mg/kg) before restraint did not attenuate stress-induced effects on effort-related choice, but abolished effects on choice latencies. These data suggest that acute stress interferes somewhat selectively with cost/benefit evaluations concerning effort costs. These effects do not appear to be mediated solely by enhanced glucocorticoid activity, whereas dopaminergic activation may contribute to increased deliberation times induced by stress. These findings may provide insight into impairments in decision-making and anergia associated with stress-related disorders, such as depression.

  8. Acute Stress Induces Selective Alterations in Cost/Benefit Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Naghmeh; Gray, Megan; Viau, Victor; Floresco, Stan B

    2012-01-01

    Acute stress can exert beneficial or detrimental effects on different forms of cognition. In the present study, we assessed the effects of acute restraint stress on different forms of cost/benefit decision-making, and some of the hormonal and neurochemical mechanisms that may underlie these effects. Effort-based decision-making was assessed where rats chose between a low effort/reward (1 press=2 pellets) or high effort/reward option (4 pellets), with the effort requirement increasing over 4 blocks of trials (2, 5, 10, and 20 lever presses). Restraint stress for 1 h decreased preference for the more costly reward and induced longer choice latencies. Control experiments revealed that the effects on decision-making were not mediated by general reductions in motivation or preference for larger rewards. In contrast, acute stress did not affect delay-discounting, when rats chose between a small/immediate vs larger/delayed reward. The effects of stress on decision-making were not mimicked by treatment with physiological doses of corticosterone (1–3 mg/kg). Blockade of dopamine receptors with flupenthixol (0.25 mg/kg) before restraint did not attenuate stress-induced effects on effort-related choice, but abolished effects on choice latencies. These data suggest that acute stress interferes somewhat selectively with cost/benefit evaluations concerning effort costs. These effects do not appear to be mediated solely by enhanced glucocorticoid activity, whereas dopaminergic activation may contribute to increased deliberation times induced by stress. These findings may provide insight into impairments in decision-making and anergia associated with stress-related disorders, such as depression. PMID:22569506

  9. Altered gas-exchange at peak exercise in obese adolescents: implications for verification of effort during cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinus, Nastasia; Bervoets, Liene; Massa, Guy; Verboven, Kenneth; Stevens, An; Takken, Tim; Hansen, Dominique

    2017-12-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is advised ahead of exercise intervention in obese adolescents to assess medical safety of exercise and physical fitness. Optimal validity and reliability of test results are required to identify maximal exercise effort. As fat oxidation during exercise is disturbed in obese individuals, it remains an unresolved methodological issue whether the respiratory gas exchange ratio (RER) is a valid marker for maximal effort during exercise testing in this population. RER during maximal exercise testing (RERpeak), and RER trajectories, was compared between obese and lean adolescents and relationships between RERpeak, RER slope and subject characteristics (age, gender, Body Mass Index [BMI], Tanner stage, physical activity level) were explored. Thirty-four obese (BMI: 35.1±5.1 kg/m²) and 18 lean (BMI: 18.8±1.9 kg/m²) adolescents (aged 12-18 years) performed a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test on bike, with comparison of oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), expiratory volume (VE), carbon dioxide output (VCO2), and cycling power output (W). RERpeak (1.09±0.06 vs. 1.14±0.06 in obese vs. lean adolescents, respectively) and RER slope (0.03±0.01 vs. 0.05±0.01 per 10% increase in VO2, in obese vs. lean adolescents, respectively) was significantly lower in obese adolescents, and independently related to BMI (Pexercise testing in this population.

  10. Sample selection may bias the outcome of an adolescent mental health survey: results from a five-year follow-up of 4171 adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekkonen, V; Kivimäki, P; Valtonen, H; Hintikka, J; Tolmunen, T; Lehto, S M; Laukkanen, E

    2015-02-01

    The representativeness of the data is one of the main issues in evaluating the significance of research findings. Dropping out is common in adolescent mental health research, and may distort the results. Nevertheless, very little is known about the types of systematic bias that may affect studies in a) the informed consent phase and b) later in follow-up phases. The authors addressed this gap in knowledge in a five-year follow-up study on a sample of adolescents aged 13-18 years. The data were collected using self-report questionnaires. The baseline sample consisted of 4171 adolescents, 1827 (43.8%) of whom gave consent to be contacted for a follow-up survey, but only 797 (19.1%) participated in the follow-up. Binary logistic regression models were used to explain the participation. Young age, female gender, a high number of hobbies, good performance at school in the native language and general subjects, family disintegration such as divorce, high parental employment, and symptoms of depression and anxiety were associated with both consent and participation. However, the effect of mental health aspects was smaller than the effect of age and gender. This study confirmed the possibility of systematic selection bias by adolescents' sociodemographic characteristics. The representativeness of the study sample might have been improved by more intense recruitment strategies. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Selective alterations in cerebral metabolism within the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system produced by acute cocaine administration in rats

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    Porrino, L.J.; Domer, F.R.; Crane, A.M.; Sokoloff, L.

    1988-05-01

    The 2-(/sup 14/C)deoxyglucose method was used to examine the effects of acute intravenous administration of cocaine on local cerebral glucose utilization in rats. These effects were correlated with the effects of cocaine on locomotor activity assessed simultaneously in the same animals. At the lowest dose of cocaine, 0.5 mg/kg (1.47 mumol/kg), alterations in glucose utilization were restricted to the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Metabolic activity at 1.0 mg/kg (2.9 mumol/kg) was altered in these structures, but in the substantia nigra reticulata and lateral habenula as well. The selectivity of cocaine's effects at low doses demonstrates the particular sensitivity of these structures to cocaine's actions in the brain. In contrast, 5.0 mg/kg (14.7 mumol/kg) produced widespread changes in glucose utilization, particularly in the extrapyramidal system. Only this dose significantly increased locomotor activity above levels in vehicle-treated controls. Rates of glucose utilization were positively correlated with locomotor activity in the globus pallidus, substantia nigra reticulata, and subthalamic nucleus, and negatively correlated in the lateral habenula.

  12. Selection for growth rate and body size have altered the expression profiles of somatotropic axis genes in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Xu, Zhiqiang; Duan, Xiaohua; Li, Qihua; Dou, Tengfei; Gu, Dahai; Rong, Hua; Wang, Kun; Li, Zhengtian; Talpur, Mir Zulqarnain; Huang, Ying; Wang, Shanrong; Yan, Shixiong; Tong, Huiquan; Zhao, Sumei; Zhao, Guiping; Su, Zhengchang; Ge, Changrong

    2018-01-01

    The growth hormone / insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1) pathway of the somatotropic axis is the major controller for growth rate and body size in vertebrates, but the effect of selection on the expression of GH/IGF-1 somatotropic axis genes and their association with body size and growth performance in farm animals is not fully understood. We analyzed a time series of expression profiles of GH/IGF-1 somatotropic axis genes in two chicken breeds, the Daweishan mini chickens and Wuding chickens, and the commercial Avian broilers hybrid exhibiting markedly different body sizes and growth rates. We found that growth rate and feed conversion efficiency in Daweishan mini chickens were significantly lower than those in Wuding chickens and Avian broilers. The Wuding and Daweishan mini chickens showed higher levels of plasma GH, pituitary GH mRNA but lower levels of hepatic growth hormone receptor (GHR) mRNA than in Avian broilers. Daweishan mini chickens showed significantly lower levels of plasma IGF-1, thigh muscle and hepatic IGF-1 mRNA than did Avian broilers and Wuding chickens. These results suggest that the GH part of the somatotropic axis is the main regulator of growth rate, while IGF-1 may regulate both growth rate and body weight. Selection for growth performance and body size have altered the expression profiles of somatotropic axis genes in a breed-, age-, and tissue-specific manner, and manner, and alteration of regulatory mechanisms of these genes might play an important role in the developmental characteristics of chickens. PMID:29630644

  13. Altered insular activation and increased insular functional connectivity during sad and happy face processing in adolescent major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henje Blom, Eva; Connolly, Colm G; Ho, Tiffany C; LeWinn, Kaja Z; Mobayed, Nisreen; Han, Laura; Paulus, Martin P; Wu, Jing; Simmons, Alan N; Yang, Tony T

    2015-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide and occurs commonly first during adolescence. The insular cortex (IC) plays an important role in integrating emotion processing with interoception and has been implicated recently in the pathophysiology of adult and adolescent MDD. However, no studies have yet specifically examined the IC in adolescent MDD during processing of faces in the sad-happy continuum. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the IC during sad and happy face processing in adolescents with MDD compared to healthy controls (HCL). Thirty-one adolescents (22 female) with MDD and 36 (23 female) HCL underwent a well-validated emotional processing fMRI paradigm that included sad and happy face stimuli. The MDD group showed significantly less differential activation of the anterior/middle insular cortex (AMIC) in response to sad versus happy faces compared to the HCL group. AMIC also showed greater functional connectivity with right fusiform gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and right amygdala/parahippocampal gyrus in the MDD compared to HCL group. Moreover, differential activation to sad and happy faces in AMIC correlated negatively with depression severity within the MDD group. Small age-range and cross-sectional nature precluded assessment of development of the AMIC in adolescent depression. Given the role of the IC in integrating bodily stimuli with conscious cognitive and emotional processes, our findings of aberrant AMIC function in adolescent MDD provide a neuroscientific rationale for targeting the AMIC in the development of new treatment modalities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Adolescent opiate exposure in the female rat induces subtle alterations in maternal care and transgenerational effects on play behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L. Johnson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The non-medical use of prescription opiates, such as Vicodin® and MSContin®, has increased dramatically over the past decade. Of particular concern is the rising popularity of these drugs in adolescent female populations. Use during this critical developmental period could have significant long-term consequences for both the female user as well as potential effects on her future offspring. To address this issue, we have begun modeling adolescent opiate exposure in female rats and have observed significant transgenerational effects despite the fact that all drugs are withdrawn several weeks prior to pregnancy. The purpose of the current set of studies was to determine whether adolescent morphine exposure modifies postpartum care. In addition, we also examined juvenile play behavior in both male and female offspring. The choice of the social play paradigm was based on previous findings demonstrating effects of both postpartum care and opioid activity on play behavior. The findings revealed subtle modifications in the maternal behavior of adolescent morphine-exposed females, primarily related to the amount of time females’ spend nursing and in non-nursing contact with their young. In addition, male offspring of adolescent morphine-exposed mothers (MOR-F1 demonstrate decreased rough and tumble play behaviors, with no significant differences in general social behaviors (i.e. social grooming and social exploration. Moreover, there was a tendency toward increased rough and tumble play in MOR-F1 females, demonstrating the sex-specific nature of these effects. Given the importance of the postpartum environment on neurodevelopment, it is possible that modifications in maternal-offspring interactions, related to a history of adolescent opiate exposure, plays a role in the observed transgenerational effects. Overall, these studies indicate that the long-term consequences of adolescent opiate exposure can impact both the female and her future offspring.

  15. Birth weight and cognitive development in adolescence: causal relationship or social selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Bridget K

    2002-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (Add Health), I investigate the relationship between birth weight and cognitive development among adolescents aged 12-17. Initial OLS regression models reveal a significant, positive relationship between low birth weight and verbal ability. Controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, and other adolescent characteristics modifies, but does not eliminate, this relationship. Additional models that stratify the sample by parental education illustrate the greater importance of other family and adolescent characteristics for cognitive development in adolescence, and a diminished role of birth weight. In the final section of the paper, fixed effects models of non-twin full siblings indicate no significant association between birth weight and verbal ability, suggesting that traditional cross-sectional models overstate the influence of birth weight for cognitive development in adolescence.

  16. Do physical and relational aggression explain adolescents' friendship selection? The competing roles of network characteristics, gender, and social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Berger, Christian; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2011-01-01

    The role of physical and relational aggression in adolescents' friendship selection was examined in a longitudinal sample of 274 Chilean students from 5th and 6th grade followed over 1 year. Longitudinal social network modeling (SIENA) was used to study selection processes for aggression while influence processes were controlled for. Furthermore, the effects of network characteristics (i.e., reciprocity and transitivity), gender, and social status on friendship selection were examined. The starting assumption of this study was that selection effects based on aggression might have been overestimated in previous research as a result of failing to consider influence processes and alternative characteristics that steer friendship formation. The results show that selection effects of both physical and relational aggression disappeared when network effects, gender, and social status were taken into account. Particularly gender and perceived popularity appeared to be far more important determinants of friendship selection over time than aggression. Moreover, a peer influence effect was only found for relational aggression, and not for physical aggression. These findings suggest that similarity in aggression among befriended adolescents can be considered to be mainly a by-product rather than a leading dimension in friendship selection. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. "i h8 u": The Influence of Normative Beliefs and Hostile Response Selection in Predicting Adolescents' Mobile Phone Aggression--A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Annemarie; Fleming, Michele J.

    2010-01-01

    Mobile phone aggression (MPA) is a relatively new phenomenon. Using newly developed measures, a pilot study was conducted with 348 adolescents ages 13-17 years to determine the incidence of MPA and victimization in this group of adolescents and to test a proposed model in which hostile response selection mediated the relationship between normative…

  18. The Role of Nice and Nasty Theory of Mind in Teacher-Selected Peer Models for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Lonigro, Antonia; Levanto, Simona; Ferraro, Maurizio; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at verifying if nice and nasty theory of mind behaviors, in association with teachers' peer buddy nomination, could be used to correctly select peer models for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Mentalizing abilities and emotional and behavioral characteristics of 601 adolescents were assessed. Results suggest that teachers…

  19. Adolescent social defeat induced alterations in anxious behavior and cognitive flexibility in adult mice: effects of developmental stage and social condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Negative social experiences during adolescence increase the risk of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Using resident-intruder stress, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social defeat on emotional and cognitive symptoms associated with psychiatric disorders during adulthood and the effects of the developmental stage and social condition on this process. In experiment 1, animals were exposed to social defeat or manipulation for 10 days during early adolescence (EA, PND 28-37, late adolescence (LA, PND 38-47, and adulthood (ADULT, PND 70-79 and then singly housed until the behavioral tests. Behaviors, including social avoidance of the defeat context and cortically mediated cognitive flexibility in an attentional set-shifting task (AST, were assessed during the week following stress or after 6 weeks during adulthood. We determined that social defeat induced significant and continuous social avoidance across age groups at both time points. The mice that experienced social defeat during adulthood exhibited short-term impairments in reversal learning on the AST that dissipated after 6 weeks. In contrast, social defeat during EA but not LA induced a delayed deficit in extra-dimensional set-shifting in adulthood but not during adolescence. In experiment 2, we further examined the effects of social condition (isolation or social housing after stress on the alterations induced by social defeat during EA in adult mice. The adult mice that had experienced stress during EA exhibited social avoidance similar to the avoidance identified in experiment 1 regardless of the isolation or social housing after the stress. However, social housing after the stress ameliorated the cognitive flexibility deficits induced by early adolescent social defeat in the adult mice, and the social condition had no effect on cognitive function. These findings suggest that the effects of social defeat on emotion and cognitive function are differentially

  20. Gene alterations at Drosophila inversion breakpoints provide prima facie evidence for natural selection as an explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Chromosomal inversions have been pervasive during the evolution of the genus Drosophila, but there is significant variation between lineages in the rate of rearrangement fixation. D. mojavensis, an ecological specialist adapted to a cactophilic niche under extreme desert conditions, is a chromosomally derived species with ten fixed inversions, five of them not present in any other species. Results In order to explore the causes of the rapid chromosomal evolution in D. mojavensis, we identified and characterized all breakpoints of seven inversions fixed in chromosome 2, the most dynamic one. One of the inversions presents unequivocal evidence for its generation by ectopic recombination between transposon copies and another two harbor inverted duplications of non-repetitive DNA at the two breakpoints and were likely generated by staggered single-strand breaks and repair by non-homologous end joining. Four out of 14 breakpoints lay in the intergenic region between preexisting duplicated genes, suggesting an adaptive advantage of separating previously tightly linked duplicates. Four out of 14 breakpoints are associated with transposed genes, suggesting these breakpoints are fragile regions. Finally two inversions contain novel genes at their breakpoints and another three show alterations of genes at breakpoints with potential adaptive significance. Conclusions D. mojavensis chromosomal inversions were generated by multiple mechanisms, an observation that does not provide support for increased mutation rate as explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution. On the other hand, we have found a number of gene alterations at the breakpoints with putative adaptive consequences that directly point to natural selection as the cause of D. mojavensis rapid chromosomal evolution. PMID:22296923

  1. Gene alterations at Drosophila inversion breakpoints provide prima facie evidence for natural selection as an explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Yolanda; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2012-02-01

    Chromosomal inversions have been pervasive during the evolution of the genus Drosophila, but there is significant variation between lineages in the rate of rearrangement fixation. D. mojavensis, an ecological specialist adapted to a cactophilic niche under extreme desert conditions, is a chromosomally derived species with ten fixed inversions, five of them not present in any other species. In order to explore the causes of the rapid chromosomal evolution in D. mojavensis, we identified and characterized all breakpoints of seven inversions fixed in chromosome 2, the most dynamic one. One of the inversions presents unequivocal evidence for its generation by ectopic recombination between transposon copies and another two harbor inverted duplications of non-repetitive DNA at the two breakpoints and were likely generated by staggered single-strand breaks and repair by non-homologous end joining. Four out of 14 breakpoints lay in the intergenic region between preexisting duplicated genes, suggesting an adaptive advantage of separating previously tightly linked duplicates. Four out of 14 breakpoints are associated with transposed genes, suggesting these breakpoints are fragile regions. Finally two inversions contain novel genes at their breakpoints and another three show alterations of genes at breakpoints with potential adaptive significance. D. mojavensis chromosomal inversions were generated by multiple mechanisms, an observation that does not provide support for increased mutation rate as explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution. On the other hand, we have found a number of gene alterations at the breakpoints with putative adaptive consequences that directly point to natural selection as the cause of D. mojavensis rapid chromosomal evolution.

  2. Gene alterations at Drosophila inversion breakpoints provide prima facie evidence for natural selection as an explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillén Yolanda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosomal inversions have been pervasive during the evolution of the genus Drosophila, but there is significant variation between lineages in the rate of rearrangement fixation. D. mojavensis, an ecological specialist adapted to a cactophilic niche under extreme desert conditions, is a chromosomally derived species with ten fixed inversions, five of them not present in any other species. Results In order to explore the causes of the rapid chromosomal evolution in D. mojavensis, we identified and characterized all breakpoints of seven inversions fixed in chromosome 2, the most dynamic one. One of the inversions presents unequivocal evidence for its generation by ectopic recombination between transposon copies and another two harbor inverted duplications of non-repetitive DNA at the two breakpoints and were likely generated by staggered single-strand breaks and repair by non-homologous end joining. Four out of 14 breakpoints lay in the intergenic region between preexisting duplicated genes, suggesting an adaptive advantage of separating previously tightly linked duplicates. Four out of 14 breakpoints are associated with transposed genes, suggesting these breakpoints are fragile regions. Finally two inversions contain novel genes at their breakpoints and another three show alterations of genes at breakpoints with potential adaptive significance. Conclusions D. mojavensis chromosomal inversions were generated by multiple mechanisms, an observation that does not provide support for increased mutation rate as explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution. On the other hand, we have found a number of gene alterations at the breakpoints with putative adaptive consequences that directly point to natural selection as the cause of D. mojavensis rapid chromosomal evolution.

  3. Altering the Parenting Role: Parents' Experience of Supporting the Health and Well-Being of Their Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha; Björk, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: In research the relationships between parents and their adolescent daughters have been viewed from problem oriented perspectives, usually exploring negative effects and health-related problems. Health and well-being are complex phenomena and knowledge is needed on how parents can support the health and well-being of their daughter.…

  4. Self-Report Measures of Parent-Adolescent Attachment and Separation-Individuation: A Selective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Gover, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews and critiques three self-report measures of parent-adolescent attachment (Parental Bonding Instrument, Parental Attachment Questionnaire, Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment) and three self-report measures of parent-adolescent separation-individuation (Psychological Separation Inventory, Personal Authority in the Family System…

  5. Adolescents' and their friends' sexual behavior and intention: Selection effects of personality dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baams, L.; Overbeek, G.; van de Bongardt, D.; Reitz, E.; Dubas, J.S.; van Aken, M.A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Using simulation investigation for empirical network analyses (in RSiena) we examined how personality and sexual behavior and intention were related to peer processes in Dutch adolescents. Our main research questions were: (a) do adolescents cluster together in friendship networks based on

  6. Adolescents' and their friends' sexual behavior and intention : Selection effects of personality dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Reitz, Ellen; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-01-01

    Using simulation investigation for empirical network analyses (in RSiena) we examined how personality and sexual behavior and intention were related to peer processes in Dutch adolescents. Our main research questions were: (a) do adolescents cluster together in friendship networks based on

  7. Adolescents' selective visual attention for high-status peers: the role of perceiver status and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansu, Tessa A M; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Karremans, Johan C

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that adolescents' attention for a peer is determined by the peer's status. This study examined how it is also determined by the status of the perceiving adolescent, and the gender of both parties involved (perceiver and perceived). Participants were 122 early adolescents (M age = 11.0 years) who completed sociometric measures and eye-tracking recordings of visual fixations at pictures of high-status (popular) and low-status (unpopular) classmates. Automatic attention (first-gaze preference) and controlled attention (total gaze time) were measured. Target popularity was associated with both measures of attention. These associations were further moderated by perceiver popularity and perceiver and target gender. Popular adolescents attracted attention especially from other popular adolescents. Popular boys attracted attention especially from girls. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. Physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns are associated with selected adolescent health risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Melissa C; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2006-04-01

    Little is known about how physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and various adolescent health risk behaviors are associated. The objective of this study was to examine relationships between PA and sedentary behavior patterns and an array of risk behaviors, including leading causes of adolescent morbidity/mortality. Nationally representative self-reported data were collected (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health; wave I: 1994-1995; II: 1996; N = 11957). Previously developed and validated cluster analyses identified 7 homogeneous groups of adolescents sharing PA and sedentary behaviors. Poisson regression predicted the relative risk of health risk behaviors, other weekly activities, and self-esteem across the 7 PA/sedentary behavior clusters controlling for demographics and socioeconomic status. Main outcome measures were adolescent risk behaviors (eg, truancy, cigarette smoking, sexual intercourse, delinquency), other weekly activities (eg, work, academic performance, sleep), self-esteem. Relative to high television (TV) and video viewers, adolescents in clusters characterized by skating and video gaming, high overall sports and sports participation with parents, using neighborhood recreation center, strict parental control of TV, reporting few activities overall, and being active in school were less likely to participate in a range of risky behaviors, ranging from an adjusted risk ratio (ARR) of 0.42 (outcome: illegal drug use, cluster: strict parental control of TV) to 0.88 (outcome: violence, cluster: sports with parents). Active teens were less likely to have low self-esteem (eg, adolescents engaging in sports with parents, ARR: 0.73) and more likely to have higher grades (eg, active in school, ARR: 1.20). Participation in a range of PA-related behaviors, particularly those characterized by high parental sports/exercise involvement, was associated with favorable adolescent risk profiles. Adolescents with high TV/video viewership were less

  9. Altered neural connectivity during response inhibition in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and their unaffected siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, Daan; Hartman, Catharina A.; Mennes, Maarten; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Franke, Barbara; Rommelse, Nanda; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Faraone, Stephen V.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Response inhibition is one of the executive functions impaired in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Increasing evidence indicates that altered functional and structural neural connectivity are part of the neurobiological basis of ADHD. Here, we investigated if

  10. Extensive evolutionary changes in regulatory element activity during human origins are associated with altered gene expression and positive selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Shibata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular basis for phenotypic differences between humans and other primates remains an outstanding challenge. Mutations in non-coding regulatory DNA that alter gene expression have been hypothesized as a key driver of these phenotypic differences. This has been supported by differential gene expression analyses in general, but not by the identification of specific regulatory elements responsible for changes in transcription and phenotype. To identify the genetic source of regulatory differences, we mapped DNaseI hypersensitive (DHS sites, which mark all types of active gene regulatory elements, genome-wide in the same cell type isolated from human, chimpanzee, and macaque. Most DHS sites were conserved among all three species, as expected based on their central role in regulating transcription. However, we found evidence that several hundred DHS sites were gained or lost on the lineages leading to modern human and chimpanzee. Species-specific DHS site gains are enriched near differentially expressed genes, are positively correlated with increased transcription, show evidence of branch-specific positive selection, and overlap with active chromatin marks. Species-specific sequence differences in transcription factor motifs found within these DHS sites are linked with species-specific changes in chromatin accessibility. Together, these indicate that the regulatory elements identified here are genetic contributors to transcriptional and phenotypic differences among primate species.

  11. Inactivation of a single copy of Crebbp selectively alters pre-mRNA processing in mouse hematopoietic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine E Lemieux

    Full Text Available Global expression analysis of fetal liver hematopoietic stem cells (FL HSCs revealed the presence of unspliced pre-mRNA for a number of genes in normal FL HSCs. In a subset of these genes, Crebbp+/- FL HSCs had less unprocessed pre-mRNA without a corresponding reduction in total mRNA levels. Among the genes thus identified were the key regulators of HSC function Itga4, Msi2 and Tcf4. A similar but much weaker effect was apparent in Ep300+/- FL HSCs, indicating that, in this context as in others, the two paralogs are not interchangeable. As a group, the down-regulated intronic probe sets could discriminate adult HSCs from more mature cell types, suggesting that the underlying mechanism is regulated with differentiation stage and is active in both fetal and adult hematopoiesis. Consistent with increased myelopoiesis in Crebbp hemizygous mice, targeted reduction of CREBBP abundance by shRNA in the multipotent EML cell line triggered spontaneous myeloid differentiation in the absence of the normally required inductive signals. In addition, differences in protein levels between phenotypically distinct EML subpopulations were better predicted by taking into account not only the total mRNA signal but also the amount of unspliced message present. CREBBP thus appears to selectively influence the timing and degree of pre-mRNA processing of genes essential for HSC regulation and thereby has the potential to alter subsequent cell fate decisions in HSCs.

  12. Can Adults Who Have Recovered from Selective Mutism in Childhood and Adolescence Tell Us Anything about the Nature of the Condition and/or Recovery from It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omdal, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    The literature on selective mutism provides little information on the child's own perspective. Six adults who had been selectively mute were interviewed about their childhood and adolescence. Data analysis led to identification of five themes, each of which has potentially important implications for teachers. (1) Origins of selective mutism: all…

  13. Adolescent alcohol exposure alters lysine demethylase 1 (LSD1) expression and histone methylation in the amygdala during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan J; Zhang, Huaibo; Sakharkar, Amul J; Pandey, Subhash C

    2017-09-01

    Alcohol exposure in adolescence is an important risk factor for the development of alcoholism in adulthood. Epigenetic processes are implicated in the persistence of adolescent alcohol exposure-related changes, specifically in the amygdala. We investigated the role of histone methylation mechanisms in the persistent effects of adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure in adulthood. Adolescent rats were exposed to 2 g/kg ethanol (2 days on/off) or intermittent n-saline (AIS) during postnatal days (PND) 28-41 and used for behavioral and epigenetic studies. We found that AIE exposure caused a long-lasting decrease in mRNA and protein levels of lysine demethylase 1(Lsd1) and mRNA levels of Lsd1 + 8a (a neuron-specific splice variant) in specific amygdaloid structures compared with AIS-exposed rats when measured at adulthood. Interestingly, AIE increased histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) levels in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) in adulthood without producing any change in H3K4me2 protein levels. Acute ethanol challenge (2 g/kg) in adulthood attenuated anxiety-like behaviors and the decrease in Lsd1 + 8a mRNA levels in the amygdala induced by AIE. AIE caused an increase in H3K9me2 occupancy at the brain-derived neurotrophic factor exon IV promoter in the amygdala that returned to baseline after acute ethanol challenge in adulthood. These results indicate that AIE specifically modulates epizymes involved in H3K9 dimethylation in the amygdala in adulthood, which are possibly responsible for AIE-induced chromatin remodeling and adult psychopathology such as anxiety. © Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Selective Breeding and Short-Term Access to a Running Wheel Alter Stride Characteristics in House Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claghorn, Gerald C; Thompson, Zoe; Kay, Jarren C; Ordonez, Genesis; Hampton, Thomas G; Garland, Theodore

    Postural and kinematic aspects of running may have evolved to support high runner (HR) mice to run approximately threefold farther than control mice. Mice from four replicate HR lines selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel running show many differences in locomotor behavior and morphology as compared with four nonselected control (C) lines. We hypothesized that HR mice would show stride alterations that have coadapted with locomotor behavior, morphology, and physiology. More specifically, we predicted that HR mice would have stride characteristics that differed from those of C mice in ways that parallel some of the adaptations seen in highly cursorial animals. For example, we predicted that limbs of HR mice would swing closer to the parasagittal plane, resulting in a two-dimensional measurement of narrowed stance width. We also expected that some differences between HR and C mice might be amplified by 6 d of wheel access, as is used to select breeders each generation. We used the DigiGait Imaging System (Mouse Specifics) to capture high-speed videos in ventral view as mice ran on a motorized treadmill across a range of speeds and then to automatically calculate several aspects of strides. Young adults of both sexes were tested both before and after 6 d of wheel access. Stride length, stride frequency, stance width, stance time, brake time, propel time, swing time, duty factor, and paw contact area were analyzed using a nested analysis of covariance, with body mass as a covariate. As expected, body mass and treadmill speed affected nearly every analyzed metric. Six days of wheel access also affected nearly every measure, indicating pervasive training effects, in both HR and C mice. As predicted, stance width was significantly narrower in HR than C mice. Paw contact area and duty factor were significantly greater in minimuscle individuals (subset of HR mice with 50%-reduced hind limb muscle mass) than in normal-muscled HR or C mice. We conclude that

  15. Ethanol during adolescence decreased the BDNF levels in the hippocampus in adult male Wistar rats, but did not alter aggressive and anxiety-like behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Scheidt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To investigate the effects of ethanol exposure in adolescent rats during adulthood by assesssing aggression and anxiety-like behaviors and measuring the levels of inflammatory markers.Methods:Groups of male Wistar rats (mean weight 81.4 g, n = 36 were housed in groups of four until postnatal day (PND 60. From PNDs 30 to 46, rats received one of three treatments: 3 g/kg of ethanol (15% w/v, orally, n = 16, 1.5 g/kg of ethanol (12.5% w/v, PO, n = 12, or water (n = 12 every 48 hours. Animals were assessed for aggressive behavior (resident x intruder test and anxiety-like behaviors (elevated plus maze during adulthood.Results:Animals that received low doses of alcohol showed reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the hippocampus as compared to the control group. No significant difference was found in prefrontal cortex.Conclusions:Intermittent exposure to alcohol during adolescence is associated with lower levels of BDNF in the hippocampus, probably due the episodic administration of alcohol, but alcohol use did not alter the level agression toward a male intruder or anxiety-like behaviors during the adult phase.

  16. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters p35, CDK5 and GSK3β in the medial frontal cortex and hippocampus of adolescent mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L. Goggin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs are the number one cause of preventable mental retardation. An estimated 2–5% of children are diagnosed as having a FASD. While it is known that children prenatally exposed to alcohol experience cognitive deficits and a higher incidence of psychiatric illness later in life, the pathways underlying these abnormalities remain uncertain. GSK3β and CDK5 are protein kinases that are converging points for a vast number of signaling cascades, including those controlling cellular processes critical to learning and memory. We investigated whether levels of GSK3β and CDK5 are affected by moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE, specifically in the hippocampus and medial frontal cortex of the adolescent mouse. In the present work we utilized immunoblotting techniques to demonstrate that moderate PAE increased hippocampal p35 and β-catenin, and decreased total levels of GSK3β, while increasing GSK3β Ser9 and Tyr216 phosphorylation. Interestingly, different alterations were seen in the medial frontal cortex where p35 and CDK5 were decreased and increased total GSK3β was accompanied by reduced Tyr216 of the enzyme. These results suggest that kinase dysregulation during adolescence might be an important contributing factor to the effects of PAE on hippocampal and medial frontal cortical functioning; and by extension, that global modulation of these kinases may produce differing effects depending on brain region.

  17. The role of anthropometric, performance and psychological attributes in predicting selection into an elite development programme in older adolescent rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredrea, Matthew; Dascombe, Ben; Sanctuary, Colin E; Scanlan, Aaron Terrence

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to identify attributes that discriminate selected from non-selected players and predict selection into a rugby league development programme in older adolescent players. Anthropometric, performance and psychological attributes were measured in under-16 (N = 100) and under-18 (N = 60) rugby league players trialling for selection into a development programme with a professional Australian club. Sprint times (P rugby league and indicate talent identification test batteries should be age-specific in older adolescent players.

  18. Walking, cycling and the urban form: A Heckman selection model of active travel mode and distance by young adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity of children and adolescents is a major public health challenge of the modern era but, when adequately promoted and nurtured, active travel offers immediate health benefits and forms future sustainable and healthy travel habits. This study explores jointly the choice...... and the extent of active travel of young adolescents while considering walking and cycling as distinct travel forms, controlling for objective urban form measures, and taking both a "street-buffer" looking at the immediate home surroundings and a "transport-zone" looking at wider neighborhoods. A Heckman...... selection model represents the distance covered while cycling (walking) given the mode choice being bicycle (walk) for a representative sample of 10-15 year-olds from the Capital Region of Denmark extracted from the Danish national travel survey. Results illustrate the necessity of different urban...

  19. Whole blood gene expression in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome: an exploratory cross-sectional study suggesting altered B cell differentiation and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Chinh Bkrong; Alsøe, Lene; Lindvall, Jessica M; Sulheim, Dag; Fagermoen, Even; Winger, Anette; Kaarbø, Mari; Nilsen, Hilde; Wyller, Vegard Bruun

    2017-05-11

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a prevalent and disabling condition affecting adolescents. The pathophysiology is poorly understood, but immune alterations might be an important component. This study compared whole blood gene expression in adolescent CFS patients and healthy controls, and explored associations between gene expression and neuroendocrine markers, immune markers and clinical markers within the CFS group. CFS patients (12-18 years old) were recruited nation-wide to a single referral center as part of the NorCAPITAL project. A broad case definition of CFS was applied, requiring 3 months of unexplained, disabling chronic/relapsing fatigue of new onset, whereas no accompanying symptoms were necessary. Healthy controls having comparable distribution of gender and age were recruited from local schools. Whole blood samples were subjected to RNA sequencing. Immune markers were blood leukocyte counts, plasma cytokines, serum C-reactive protein and immunoglobulins. Neuroendocrine markers encompassed plasma and urine levels of catecholamines and cortisol, as well as heart rate variability indices. Clinical markers consisted of questionnaire scores for symptoms of post-exertional malaise, inflammation, fatigue, depression and trait anxiety, as well as activity recordings. A total of 29 CFS patients and 18 healthy controls were included. We identified 176 genes as differentially expressed in patients compared to controls, adjusting for age and gender factors. Gene set enrichment analyses suggested impairment of B cell differentiation and survival, as well as enhancement of innate antiviral responses and inflammation in the CFS group. A pattern of co-expression could be identified, and this pattern, as well as single gene transcripts, was significantly associated with indices of autonomic nervous activity, plasma cortisol, and blood monocyte and eosinophil counts. Also, an association with symptoms of post-exertional malaise was demonstrated. Adolescent CFS is

  20. Altered Functional Connectivity of Fronto-Cingulo-Striatal Circuits during Error Monitoring in Adolescents with a History of Childhood Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heledd Hart

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment is associated with error hypersensitivity. We examined the effect of childhood abuse and abuse-by-gene (5-HTTLPR, MAOA interaction on functional brain connectivity during error processing in medication/drug-free adolescents. Functional connectivity was compared, using generalized psychophysiological interaction (gPPI analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data, between 22 age- and gender-matched medication-naïve and substance abuse-free adolescents exposed to severe childhood abuse and 27 healthy controls, while they performed an individually adjusted tracking stop-signal task, designed to elicit 50% inhibition failures. During inhibition failures, abused participants relative to healthy controls exhibited reduced connectivity between right and left putamen, bilateral caudate and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and between right supplementary motor area (SMA and right inferior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Abuse-related connectivity abnormalities were associated with longer abuse duration. No group differences in connectivity were observed for successful inhibition. The findings suggest that childhood abuse is associated with decreased functional connectivity in fronto-cingulo-striatal networks during error processing. Furthermore that the severity of connectivity abnormalities increases with abuse duration. Reduced connectivity of error detection networks in maltreated individuals may be linked to constant monitoring of errors in order to avoid mistakes which, in abusive contexts, are often associated with harsh punishment.

  1. Software development to support decision making in the selection of nursing diagnoses and interventions for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kenya de Lima; Évora, Yolanda Dora Martinez; Cintra, Camila Santana Justo

    2015-01-01

    to report the development of a software to support decision-making for the selection of nursing diagnoses and interventions for children and adolescents, based on the nomenclature of nursing diagnoses, outcomes and interventions of a university hospital in Paraiba. a methodological applied study based on software engineering, as proposed by Pressman, developed in three cycles, namely: flow chart construction, development of the navigation interface, and construction of functional expressions and programming development. the software consists of administrative and nursing process screens. The assessment is automatically selected according to age group, the nursing diagnoses are suggested by the system after information is inserted, and can be indicated by the nurse. The interventions for the chosen diagnosis are selected by structuring the care plan. the development of this tool used to document the nursing actions will contribute to decision-making and quality of care.

  2. Software development to support decision making in the selection of nursing diagnoses and interventions for children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenya de Lima Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to report the development of a software to support decision-making for the selection of nursing diagnoses and interventions for children and adolescents, based on the nomenclature of nursing diagnoses, outcomes and interventions of a university hospital in Paraiba.Method: a methodological applied study based on software engineering, as proposed by Pressman, developed in three cycles, namely: flow chart construction, development of the navigation interface, and construction of functional expressions and programming development.Result: the software consists of administrative and nursing process screens. The assessment is automatically selected according to age group, the nursing diagnoses are suggested by the system after information is inserted, and can be indicated by the nurse. The interventions for the chosen diagnosis are selected by structuring the care plan.Conclusion: the development of this tool used to document the nursing actions will contribute to decision-making and quality of care.

  3. Prenatal stress, regardless of concurrent escitalopram treatment, alters behavior and amygdala gene expression of adolescent female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, David E.; Neigh, Gretchen N.; Bourke, Chase H.; Nemeth, Christina L.; Hazra, Rimi; Ryan, Steven J.; Rowson, Sydney; Jairam, Nesha; Sholar, Courtney; Rainnie, Donald G.; Stowe, Zachary N.; Owens, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy has been linked to in utero stress and is associated with long-lasting symptoms in offspring, including anxiety, helplessness, attentional deficits, and social withdrawal. Depression is diagnosed in 10-20% of expectant mothers, but the impact of antidepressant treatment on offspring development is not well documented, particularly for females. Here, we used a prenatal stress model of maternal depression to test the hypothesis that in utero antidepressant treatment could mitigate the effects of prenatal stress. We also investigated the effects of prenatal stress and antidepressant treatment on gene expression related to GABAergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in the amygdala, which may underlie behavioral effects of prenatal stress. Nulliparous female rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps delivering clinically-relevant concentrations of escitalopram and mated. Pregnant dams were exposed to 12 days of mixed-modality stressors, and offspring were behaviorally assessed in adolescence (postnatal day 28) and adulthood (beyond day 90) to determine the extent of behavioral change. We found that in utero stress exposure, regardless of escitalopram treatment, increased anxiety-like behavior in adolescent females and profoundly influenced amygdala expression of the chloride transporters KCC2 and NKCC1, which regulate GABAergic function. In contrast, prenatal escitalopram exposure alone elevated amygdala expression of 5-HT1A receptors. In adulthood, anxiety-like behavior returned to baseline and gene expression effects in the amygdala abated, whereas deficits emerged in novel object recognition for rats exposed to stress during gestation. These findings suggest prenatal stress causes age-dependent deficits in anxiety-like behavior and amygdala function in female offspring, regardless of antidepressant exposure. PMID:26032436

  4. Diethylstilbestrol alters positive and negative selection of T cells in the thymus and modulates T-cell repertoire in the periphery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Nicole; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is known to cause altered immune functions and increased susceptibility to autoimmune disease in humans. In the current study, we investigated the effects of DES on T-cell differentiation in the thymus using the HY-TCR transgenic (Tg) mouse model in which the female mice exhibit positive selection of T cells bearing the Tg TCR, while the male mice show negative selection of such T cells. In female HY-TCR-Tg mice, exposure to DES showed more pronounced decrease in thymic cellularity when compared to male mice. Additionally, female mice also showed a significant decrease in the proportion of double-positive (DP) T cells in the thymus and HY-TCR-specific CD8 + T cells in the periphery. Male mice exhibiting negative selection also showed decreased thymic cellularity following DES exposure. Moreover, the male mice showed increased proportion of double-negative (DN) T cells in the thymus and decreased proportion of CD8 + T cells. The density of expression of HY-TCR on CD8 + cells was increased following DES exposure in both females and males. Finally, the proliferative response of thymocytes to mitogens and peripheral lymph node T cells to male H-Y antigen was significantly altered in female and male mice following DES treatment. Taken together, these data suggest that DES alters T-cell differentiation in the thymus by interfering with positive and negative selection processes, which in turn modulates the T-cell repertoire in the periphery

  5. Selection of fusion levels in idiopathic adolescent scoliosis treated by Harrington-DDT instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, G R; Andersen, M O; Christensen, S B

    1995-01-01

    Clinical records and radiographs of 106 patients treated by Harrington-dorsal transverse traction (DDT) instrumentation for idiopathic adolescent thoracolumbar scoliosis were reviewed. Our strategy was to fuse from one vertebra above the measured curve to two vertebrae below the curve, but to avoid...

  6. Cognitive Control and Attentional Selection in Adolescents with ADHD versus ADD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Laurie; Henderson, John; Nigg, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    An important research question is whether Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is related to early- or late-stage attentional control mechanisms and whether this differentiates a nonhyperactive subtype (ADD). This question was addressed in a sample of 145 ADD/ADHD and typically developing comparison adolescents (aged 13-17). Attentional…

  7. Zinc Supplementation Does Not Alter Indicators of Insulin Secretion and Sensitivity in Black and White Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobene, Andrea J; Kindler, Joseph M; Jenkins, Nathan T; Pollock, Norman K; Laing, Emma M; Grider, Arthur; Lewis, Richard D

    2017-07-01

    Background: Zinc is a micronutrient involved in the production of, and peripheral sensitivity to, pancreatic β cell-derived insulin. To our knowledge, the effect of zinc supplementation on insulin outcomes, and potential risk of diabetes, in otherwise healthy children in the United States has not been investigated. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the influence of zinc supplementation on insulin outcomes in black and white girls in the early stages of adolescence. A secondary objective was to determine relations between baseline zinc concentrations and insulin outcomes. Methods: Healthy black and white girls aged 9-11 y were randomly assigned to daily supplementation of zinc (9 mg elemental Zn/d; n = 75; blacks: n = 35) or placebo ( n = 72; blacks: n = 32) for 4 wk. Fasting serum insulin, glucose, and C-peptide were assessed at baseline and at 4 wk. C-peptide and glucose values were used to calculate the computer model-derived homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR). Changes in outcome measures were compared by using repeated-measures, mixed-model ANOVA. Results: Baseline plasma zinc was not correlated with C-peptide ( r = -0.07), insulin ( r = -0.06), or HOMA2-IR ( r = -0.09) (all P > 0.05) after controlling for race and age. Treatment × time interactions for C-peptide and HOMA2-IR were not significant (both P > 0.05). Although the treatment × race × time interactions for C-peptide and HOMA2-IR were not significant (both P = 0.08), black girls who received the placebo experienced slight increases in C-peptide (15.7%) and HOMA2-IR (17.7%) ( P = 0.06). Conclusions: Four weeks of zinc supplementation had no effect on insulin outcomes in healthy black and white early-adolescent girls, although C-peptide and HOMA2-IR tended to increase in black girls who received placebo. Additional trials that are appropriately powered should further explore the effect of zinc on markers of diabetes risk, and whether race affects this

  8. HYDROTHEMAL ALTERATION MAPPING USING FEATURE-ORIENTED PRINCIPAL COMPONENT SELECTION (FPCS METHOD TO ASTER DATA:WIKKI AND MAWULGO THERMAL SPRINGS, YANKARI PARK, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Abubakar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal systems are essentially associated with hydrothermal alteration mineral assemblages such as iron oxide/hydroxide, clay, sulfate, carbonate and silicate groups. Blind and fossilized geothermal systems are not characterized by obvious surface manifestations like hot springs, geysers and fumaroles, therefore, they could not be easily identifiable using conventional techniques. In this investigation, the applicability of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER were evaluated in discriminating hydrothermal alteration minerals associated with geothermal systems as a proxy in identifying subtle Geothermal systems at Yankari Park in northeastern Nigeria. The area is characterized by a number of thermal springs such as Wikki and Mawulgo. Feature-oriented Principal Component selection (FPCS was applied to ASTER data based on spectral characteristics of hydrothermal alteration minerals for a systematic and selective extraction of the information of interest. Application of FPCS analysis to bands 5, 6 and 8 and bands 1, 2, 3 and 4 datasets of ASTER was used for mapping clay and iron oxide/hydroxide minerals in the zones of Wikki and Mawulgo thermal springs in Yankari Park area. Field survey using GPS and laboratory analysis, including X-ray Diffractometer (XRD and Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD were carried out to verify the image processing results. The results indicate that ASTER dataset reliably and complementarily be used for reconnaissance stage of targeting subtle alteration mineral assemblages associated with geothermal systems.

  9. Do Current Recommendations for Upper Instrumented Vertebra Predict Shoulder Imbalance? An Attempted Validation of Level Selection for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerke, Benjamin T; Cheung, Zoe B; Shifflett, Grant D; Iyer, Sravisht; Derman, Peter B; Cunningham, Matthew E

    2015-10-01

    Shoulder balance for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients is associated with patient satisfaction and self-image. However, few validated systems exist for selecting the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) post-surgical shoulder balance. The purpose is to examine the existing UIV selection criteria and correlate with post-surgical shoulder balance in AIS patients. Patients who underwent spinal fusion at age 10-18 years for AIS over a 6-year period were reviewed. All patients with a minimum of 1-year radiographic follow-up were included. Imbalance was determined to be radiographic shoulder height |RSH| ≥ 15 mm at latest follow-up. Three UIV selection methods were considered: Lenke, Ilharreborde, and Trobisch. A recommended UIV was determined using each method from pre-surgical radiographs. The recommended UIV for each method was compared to the actual UIV instrumented for all three methods; concordance between these levels was defined as "Correct" UIV selection, and discordance was defined as "Incorrect" selection. One hundred seventy-one patients were included with 2.3 ± 1.1 year follow-up. For all methods, "Correct" UIV selection resulted in more shoulder imbalance than "Incorrect" UIV selection. Overall shoulder imbalance incidence was improved from 31.0% (53/171) to 15.2% (26/171). New shoulder imbalance incidence for patients with previously level shoulders was 8.8%. We could not identify a set of UIV selection criteria that accurately predicted post-surgical shoulder balance. Further validated measures are needed in this area. The complexity of proximal thoracic curve correction is underscored in a case example, where shoulder imbalance occurred despite "Correct" UIV selection by all methods.

  10. Has enhanced folate status during pregnancy altered natural selection and possibly Autism prevalence? A closer look at a possible link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Eugene J

    2008-09-01

    higher frequency in Autisic individuals. It is hypothesized here that the enhancement of maternal folate status before and during pregnancy in the last 15 years has altered natural selection by increasing survival rates during pregnancy of infants possessing the MTHFR C677T polymorphism, via reduction in hyperhomocysteinemia associated with this genotype and thereby miscarriage rates. This also points directly to an increased rate of births of infants with higher postnatal requirements for folic acid needed for normal methylation during this critical neurodevelopmental period. If these numbers have increased then so have the absolute number of infants that after birth fail to maintain the higher folate status experienced in utero thus leading to an increased number of cases of developmental disorders such as Autism. Detection of the C677T polymorphism as well as other methionine cycle enzymes related to folate metabolism and methylation at birth as part of newborn screening programs could determine which newborns need be monitored and maintained on diets or supplements that ensure adequate folate status during this critical postnatal neurodevelopment period.

  11. Observed differentials in the levels of selected environmental contaminants among Mexican and other Hispanic American children, adolescents, adults, and senior citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2018-02-01

    Starting with the 2007-2008 cycle, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) also oversampled Hispanics other than Mexicans (OHISP) making it possible to treat OHISP as a separate demographic group along with Mexican Americans (MAs), non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), and non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs). Yet, more often than not, OHISP have been merged with MA to form an all-Hispanic demographic group (HISP) thus limiting comparisons between NHW, NHB, and HISP. Consequently, for the first time, this study was undertaken to evaluate differences in the observed levels of selected environmental contaminants between MA and OHISP from five groups of environmental contaminants, namely, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), iodine uptake inhibitors (IUIs), environmental phenols (EPHs), priority pesticides (PPs), and perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Data for 2007-2010 from NHANES were used to conduct this study. OHISP children born in USA had higher levels of selected PAH metabolites than USA-born MA, and Mexican-born MA adolescents had higher levels of selected PAH metabolites than USA-born MA adolescents. USA-born adolescent MA had higher levels of selected parabens than USA-born adolescent OHISP, and OHISP adults born in another Spanish-speaking country had higher levels of selected parabens than USA-born OHISP adults. USA-born MA adults and seniors had higher levels of selected dichlorophenols than Mexico-born MA adults and seniors, respectively. Females had higher levels of selected PAH metabolites, EPHs, and PPs than males among children, adolescents, adults, and seniors, but the reverse was true for the levels of selected IUIs and PFAAs among adolescents and seniors. Smokers had higher levels of almost all PAH metabolites than non-smokers for adolescents, adults, and seniors. The same was true for urinary thiocynate for adolescents, adults, and seniors. OHISP is a multiracial multiethnic demographic group substantially different from MA with possibly

  12. Diethylstilbestrol alters positive and negative selection of T cells in the thymus and modulates T-cell repertoire in the periphery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nicole [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Nagarkatti, Mitzi [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Nagarkatti, Prakash S [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, PO Box 980613, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, VA 23298-0613 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is known to cause altered immune functions and increased susceptibility to autoimmune disease in humans. In the current study, we investigated the effects of DES on T-cell differentiation in the thymus using the HY-TCR transgenic (Tg) mouse model in which the female mice exhibit positive selection of T cells bearing the Tg TCR, while the male mice show negative selection of such T cells. In female HY-TCR-Tg mice, exposure to DES showed more pronounced decrease in thymic cellularity when compared to male mice. Additionally, female mice also showed a significant decrease in the proportion of double-positive (DP) T cells in the thymus and HY-TCR-specific CD8{sup +} T cells in the periphery. Male mice exhibiting negative selection also showed decreased thymic cellularity following DES exposure. Moreover, the male mice showed increased proportion of double-negative (DN) T cells in the thymus and decreased proportion of CD8{sup +} T cells. The density of expression of HY-TCR on CD8{sup +} cells was increased following DES exposure in both females and males. Finally, the proliferative response of thymocytes to mitogens and peripheral lymph node T cells to male H-Y antigen was significantly altered in female and male mice following DES treatment. Taken together, these data suggest that DES alters T-cell differentiation in the thymus by interfering with positive and negative selection processes, which in turn modulates the T-cell repertoire in the periphery.

  13. The Relationship between Multiple Substance Use, Perceived Academic Achievements, and Selected Socio-Demographic Factors in a Polish Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Joanna; Tabak, Izabela; Dzielska, Anna; Wąż, Krzysztof; Oblacińska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Predictors of high-risk patterns of substance use are often analysed in relation to demographic and school-related factors. The interaction between these factors and the additional impact of family wealth are still new areas of research. The aim of this study was to find determinants of the most common patterns of psychoactive substance use in mid-adolescence, compared to non-users. A sample of 1202 Polish students (46.1% boys, mean age of 15.6 years) was surveyed in 2013/2014. Four patterns of psychoactive substance use were defined using cluster analysis: non-users—71.9%, mainly tobacco and alcohol users—13.7%, high alcohol and cannabis users—7.2%, poly-users—7.2%. The final model contained the main effects of gender and age, and one three-way (perceived academic achievement × gender × family affluence) interaction. Girls with poor perception of school performance (as compared to girls with better achievements) were at significantly higher risk of being poly-users, in both less and more affluent families (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 5.55 and OR = 3.60, respectively). The impact of family affluence was revealed only in interaction with other factors. Patterns of substance use in mid-adolescence are strongly related to perceived academic achievements, and these interact with selected socio-demographic factors. PMID:28009806

  14. The Relationship between Multiple Substance Use, Perceived Academic Achievements, and Selected Socio-Demographic Factors in a Polish Adolescent Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Mazur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Predictors of high-risk patterns of substance use are often analysed in relation to demographic and school-related factors. The interaction between these factors and the additional impact of family wealth are still new areas of research. The aim of this study was to find determinants of the most common patterns of psychoactive substance use in mid-adolescence, compared to non-users. A sample of 1202 Polish students (46.1% boys, mean age of 15.6 years was surveyed in 2013/2014. Four patterns of psychoactive substance use were defined using cluster analysis: non-users—71.9%, mainly tobacco and alcohol users—13.7%, high alcohol and cannabis users—7.2%, poly-users—7.2%. The final model contained the main effects of gender and age, and one three-way (perceived academic achievement × gender × family affluence interaction. Girls with poor perception of school performance (as compared to girls with better achievements were at significantly higher risk of being poly-users, in both less and more affluent families (adjusted odds ratio (OR = 5.55 and OR = 3.60, respectively. The impact of family affluence was revealed only in interaction with other factors. Patterns of substance use in mid-adolescence are strongly related to perceived academic achievements, and these interact with selected socio-demographic factors.

  15. Delineating selection and mediation effects among childhood personality and environmental risk factors in the development of adolescent substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing the large, longitudinal Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 2510; 96 % European American ancestry), we examined the influence of several person-environment transactions on adolescent substance abuse. We focused on the two childhood personality traits found to be most predictive of substance abuse in this sample-socialization (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) and boldness (social engagement and assurance, stress resilience, thrill seeking)-and the environmental variables of antisocial and prosocial peers, academic engagement, parent-child relationship quality, and stressful life events. Path analysis revealed that low socialization had a selection effect for each environmental risk factor, that is, socialization at age 11 predicted environmental risk at age 14, after controlling for the stability of the environmental variables from ages 11 to 14. Antisocial peers and academic engagement at age 14 then mediated some of the risk of low socialization on substance abuse at age 17, but the majority of risk for substance abuse was accounted for by the stability of socialization from age 11 to 14. Boldness at age 11 also increased risk for substance abuse, but did so primarily via a direct effect. The findings help to parse the nature of person-environment transactions across multiple personality traits and contextual risk factors that contribute to adolescent substance abuse.

  16. Delineating Selection and Mediation Effects among Childhood Personality and Environmental Risk Factors in the Development of Adolescent Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M.; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C. Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing the large, longitudinal Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 2510; 96% European American ancestry), we examined the influence of several person-environment transactions on adolescent substance abuse. We focused on the two childhood personality traits found to be most predictive of substance abuse in this sample—socialization (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) and boldness (social engagement and assurance, stress resilience, thrill seeking)—and the environmental variables of antisocial and prosocial peers, academic engagement, parent-child relationship quality, and stressful life events. Path analysis revealed that low socialization had a selection effect for each environmental risk factor, that is, socialization at age 11 predicted environmental risk at age 14, after controlling for the stability of the environmental variables from ages 11 to 14. Antisocial peers and academic engagement at age 14 then mediated some of the risk of low socialization on substance abuse at age 17, but the majority of risk for substance abuse was accounted for by the stability of socialization from age 11 to 14. Boldness at age 11 also increased risk for substance abuse, but did so primarily via a direct effect. The findings help to parse the nature of person-environment transactions across multiple personality traits and contextual risk factors that contribute to adolescent substance abuse. PMID:24337735

  17. Early adolescent substance use in Mexican origin families: Peer selection, peer influence, and parental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J; Conger, Rand D; Robins, Richard W

    2015-12-01

    Because adolescents vary in their susceptibility to peer influence, the current study addresses potential reciprocal effects between associating with deviant peers and use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATOD), as well as the potential buffering role of parental monitoring on these reciprocal effects. 674 children of Mexican origin reported at fifth and seventh grade (10.4 years old at fifth grade) on the degree to which they associated with deviant peers, intended to use alcohol, tobacco or other drugs (ATOD) in the future, and had used controlled substances during the past year. Trained observers rated parental monitoring from video-recorded family interactions at the first assessment. Youth who intended to use ATODs during fifth grade experienced a relative increase in number of deviant peers by seventh grade, and youth with more deviant peers in fifth grade were more likely to use ATODs by seventh grade. Parental monitoring buffered (i.e., moderated) the reciprocal association between involvement with deviant peers and both intent to use ATODs and actual use of ATODs. Parental monitoring can disrupt the reciprocal associations between deviant peers and ATOD use during the transition from childhood to adolescence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An altered Pseudomonas diversity is recovered from soil by using nutrient-poor Pseudomonas-selective soil extract media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagot, N.; Nybroe, O.; Nielsen, P.

    2001-01-01

    We designed five Pseudomonas-selective soil extract NAA media containing the selective properties of trimethoprim and sodium lauroyl sarcosine and 0 to 100% of the amount of Casamino Acids used in the classical Pseudomonas-selective Gould's S1 medium. All of the isolates were confirmed to be Pseu......We designed five Pseudomonas-selective soil extract NAA media containing the selective properties of trimethoprim and sodium lauroyl sarcosine and 0 to 100% of the amount of Casamino Acids used in the classical Pseudomonas-selective Gould's S1 medium. All of the isolates were confirmed....... Several of these analyses showed that the amount of Casamino Acids significantly influenced the diversity of the recovered Pseudomonas isolates. Furthermore, the data suggested that specific Pseudomonas subpopulations were represented on the nutrient-poor media. The NAA 1:100 medium, containing ca. 15 mg...... of organic carbon per liter, consistently gave significantly higher Pseudomonas CFU counts than Gould's S1 when tested on four Danish soils. NAA 1:100 may, therefore, be a better medium than Gould's S1 for enumeration and isolation of Pseudomonas from the low-nutrient soil environment....

  19. Selective dicer suppression in the kidney alters GSK3β/β-catenin pathways promoting a glomerulocystic disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Iervolino

    Full Text Available Dicer is a crucial enzyme for the maturation of miRNAs. Mutations in the Dicer gene are highly associated with Pleuro Pulmonary Blastoma-Family Dysplasia Syndrome (PPB-FDS, OMIM 601200, recently proposed to be renamed Dicer syndrome. Aside from the pulmonary phenotype (blastoma, renal nephroma and thyroid goiter are frequently part of Dicer syndrome. To investigate the renal phenotype, conditional knockout (cKO mice for Dicer in Pax8 expressing cells were generated. Dicer cKO mice progressively develop a glomerulocystic phenotype coupled with urinary concentration impairment, proteinuria and severe renal failure. Higher cellular turnover of the parietal cells of Bowman's capsule precedes the development of the cysts and the primary cilium progressively disappears with cyst-enlargement. Upregulation of GSK3β precedes the development of the glomerulocystic phenotype. Downregulation of β-catenin in the renal cortex and its cytosolic removal in the cells lining the cysts may be associated with observed accumulation of GSK3β. Alterations of β-catenin regulating pathways could promote cystic degeneration as in other models. Thus, miRNAs are fundamental in preserving renal morphology and function. Alteration of the GSK3β/β-catenin pathway could be a crucial mechanism linking miRNA dysregulation and the development of a glomerulocystic disease.

  20. Abuse and Misuse of Selected Dietary Supplements Among Adolescents: a Look at Poison Center Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Jessica M; Morgan, Jill A; Lardieri, Allison B; Kishk, Omayma A; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    The use of dietary supplements has increased and is associated with adverse effects. Indications for use include recreation, body image concerns, mood enhancement, or control of medical conditions. The risk of adverse effects may be enhanced if agents are used improperly. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of abuse and misuse of 4 dietary substances among adolescents reported nationally to poison centers. Secondary outcomes included an assessment of medical outcomes, clinical effects, location of treatments provided, and treatments administered. This descriptive retrospective review assessed data concerning the use of garcinia (Garcinia cambogia), guarana (Paullinia cupana), salvia (Salvia divinorum), and St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) among adolescents reported nationally to poison centers from 2003 to 2014. Adolescents with a singlesubstance exposure to one of the substances of interest coded as intentional abuse or misuse were included. Poison center calls for drug information or those with unrelated clinical effects were excluded. Data were collected from the National Poison Data System. There were 84 cases: 7 cases of Garcinia cambogia, 28 Paullinia cupana, 23 Salvia divinorum, and 26 Hypericum perforatum. Garcinia cambogia was used more frequently by females (100% versus 0%), and Paullinia cupana and Salvia divinorum were used more frequently by males (61% versus 36% and 91% versus 9%, respectively). Abuse, driven by Salvia divinorum, was more common overall than misuse. Abuse was also more common among males than females (p <0.001). Use of these agents fluctuated over time. Overall, use trended down since 2010, except for Garcinia cambogia use. In 62 cases (73.8%), the medical outcome was minor or had no effect or was judged as nontoxic or minimally toxic. Clinical effects were most common with Paullinia cupana and Salvia divinorum. Treatment sites included emergency department (n = 33; 39.3%), non-healthcare facility (n = 24

  1. Contribution of Personality to Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations in Selecting a High School Major among Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dikla; Cinamon, Rachel Gali

    2016-01-01

    The current study focuses on the contribution of five personality traits to the development of self-efficacy and outcome expectations regarding selecting a high school major among adolescents with learning disabilities (LD). Social cognitive career theory and the Big Five personality traits model served as the theoretical framework. Participants…

  2. Selective Attention to Visual Stimuli Using Auditory Distractors Is Altered in Alpha-9 Nicotinic Receptor Subunit Knock-Out Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terreros, Gonzalo; Jorratt, Pascal; Aedo, Cristian; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Delano, Paul H

    2016-07-06

    During selective attention, subjects voluntarily focus their cognitive resources on a specific stimulus while ignoring others. Top-down filtering of peripheral sensory responses by higher structures of the brain has been proposed as one of the mechanisms responsible for selective attention. A prerequisite to accomplish top-down modulation of the activity of peripheral structures is the presence of corticofugal pathways. The mammalian auditory efferent system is a unique neural network that originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the cochlear receptor through the olivocochlear bundle, and it has been proposed to function as a top-down filter of peripheral auditory responses during attention to cross-modal stimuli. However, to date, there is no conclusive evidence of the involvement of olivocochlear neurons in selective attention paradigms. Here, we trained wild-type and α-9 nicotinic receptor subunit knock-out (KO) mice, which lack cholinergic transmission between medial olivocochlear neurons and outer hair cells, in a two-choice visual discrimination task and studied the behavioral consequences of adding different types of auditory distractors. In addition, we evaluated the effects of contralateral noise on auditory nerve responses as a measure of the individual strength of the olivocochlear reflex. We demonstrate that KO mice have a reduced olivocochlear reflex strength and perform poorly in a visual selective attention paradigm. These results confirm that an intact medial olivocochlear transmission aids in ignoring auditory distraction during selective attention to visual stimuli. The auditory efferent system is a neural network that originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the cochlear receptor through the olivocochlear system. It has been proposed to function as a top-down filter of peripheral auditory responses during attention to cross-modal stimuli. However, to date, there is no conclusive evidence of the involvement of olivocochlear

  3. Acquisition of i.v. cocaine self-administration in adolescent and adult male rats selectively bred for high and low saccharin intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jennifer L; Anderson, Marissa M; Nelson, Sarah E; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2007-05-16

    Adolescence and excessive intake of saccharin have each been previously associated with enhanced vulnerability to drug abuse. In the present study, we focused on the relationship between these two factors using male adolescent and adult rats selectively bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) levels of saccharin intake. On postnatal day 25 (adolescents) or 150 (adults), rats were implanted with an intravenous catheter and trained to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) using an autoshaping procedure that consisted of two 6-h sessions. In the first 6 h, rats were given non-contingent cocaine infusions at random intervals 10 times per hour, and during the second 6-h session, rats were allowed to self-administer cocaine under a fixed ratio 1 (FR 1) lever-response contingency. Acquisition was defined as a total of at least 250 infusions over 5 consecutive days, and rats were given 30 days to meet the acquisition criterion. Subsequently, saccharin phenotype scores were determined by comparing 24-h saccharin and water consumption in two-bottle tests to verify HiS/LoS status. Adolescent LoS rats had a faster rate of acquisition of cocaine self-administration than adult LoS rats; however, adolescent and adult HiS rats acquired at the same rate. Both HiS and LoS adolescents had significantly higher saccharin phenotype scores than HiS and LoS adults, respectively. Additionally, saccharin score was negatively correlated with the number of days to meet the acquisition criterion for cocaine self-administration, but this was mostly accounted for by the HiS adolescents. These results suggest that during adolescence, compared with adulthood, rats have both an increased avidity for sweets and vulnerability to initiate drug abuse.

  4. Size-selective predation and predator-induced life-history shifts alter the outcome of competition between planktonic grazers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hülsmann, S.; Rinke, K.; Mooij, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    1.We studied the effect of size-selective predation on the outcome of competition between two differently sized prey species in a homogenous environment. 2. Using a physiologically structured population model, we calculated equilibrium food concentrations for a range of predation scenarios defined

  5. Altered Circulating Levels of Serotonin and Immunological Changes in Laying Hens Divergently Selected for Feather Pecking Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Kjaer, Jørgen B.; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in immunological parameters as well as changes with respect to plasma levels of serotonin and tryptophan in lines selected for and against feather pecking (FP) behavior [high FP (HP) line and low FP (LP) line] for 5 generations. The hens from...... response to infectious bursal disease virus vaccination after 1 wk post-vaccination compared with the control and LP lines. The number of white blood cells (P

  6. Negative Mood Increases Selective Attention to Negatively Valenced Body Parts in Female Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Svaldi

    Full Text Available Previous research has yielded evidence of increased attentional processing of negatively valenced body parts in women with anorexia nervosa (AN, especially for those with high depressive symptomatology. The present study extended previous research by implementing an experimental mood manipulation.In a within-subjects design, female adolescents with AN (n = 12 and an age matched female control group (CG; n = 12 were given a negative and a positive mood induction at a one-week interval. After each mood induction, participants underwent a 3-min mirror exposure, while their eye movements were recorded.After the positive mood induction, both AN and CG participants displayed longer and more frequent gazes towards their self-defined most ugly relative to their self-defined most beautiful body part. However, after the negative mood induction, only females with AN were characterized by increased attention to their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body part, while CG participants' attention distribution was balanced. Furthermore, in the negative (but not in the positive mood induction condition gaze frequency and duration towards the most ugly body part was significantly stronger in the AN group relative to the CG.The results emphasize the role of negative mood in the maintenance of pathological information processing of the self-body. This increased body-related negativity-bias during negative mood may lead to the persistence and aggravation of AN patients' body image disturbance.

  7. The evaluation of selected insomnia predictors in adolescents and young adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszek, Lucyna; Cepuch, Grazyna; Pawlik, Lidia

    2018-03-21

    The purpose of the study was to assess the incidence of insomnia in adolescents and young adults with cystic fibrosis and its impact on the quality of life, and to examine whether demographic and clinical factors and negative emotional states are predictors of insomnia in these patients. The study was conducted among 95 cystic fibrosis patients aged 14-25 years. The study used a personal questionnaire survey, the Athens Insomnia Scale, the Cystic Fibrosis Quality of Life Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Numeric Rating Scale. Insomnia was diagnosed in 38% of cystic fibrosis patients. In patients with insomnia, the level of anxiety (Me: 10 vs. 4; P=0.000) and depression (Me: 6.5 vs. 2; P=0.000) was significantly higher than in the good sleep quality group. The risk of insomnia increases as anxiety (OR: 4.31; 95% CI: 2.20 to 8.41) and depressive symptoms exacerbate (OR: 4.98; 95% CI: 1.84 to 13.43). Insomnia significantly worsens the quality of life in cystic fibrosis patients (ß =-0.5, P=0.000). Insomnia affects a large percentage of cystic fibrosis patients, and anxiety and depression are factors that increase the risk of insomnia. Insomnia decreases the quality of life in cystic fibrosis patients.

  8. Ecstasy use and serotonin syndrome: a neglected danger to adolescents and young adults prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobry, Yuriy; Rice, Timothy; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    At present, there are scarce clinical and basic lab data concerning the risk of acute serotonin toxicity from selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) co-administration. The health care community can strongly benefit from efforts to address the high risks associated with serotonin syndrome from this specific drug combination. The aim of this work is to review the risk of serotonin syndrome in adolescents and young adults prescribed with SSRIs and are concurrently using ecstasy. An electronic search of the major behavioral science bibliographic databases (Pubmed, PsycINFO, Medline) was conducted to retrieve peer-reviewed articles, which detail the clinical characteristics, biological mechanisms and social implications of SSRIs, MDMA, and their potential synergism in causing serotonin syndrome in the pediatric and young adult population. Search terms included "serotonin syndrome", "ecstasy", "MDMA", "pediatric", and "SSRI". Additional references were incorporated from the bibliographies of these retrieved articles. MDMA, in combination with the widely-prescribed SSRI antidepressant class, can lead to rapid, synergistic rise of serotonin (5-HT) concentration in the central nervous system, leading to the acute medical emergency known as serotonin syndrome. This review addresses such complication through an exploration of the theoretical mechanisms and clinical manifestations of this life-threatening pharmacological interaction. The increasing incidences of recreational ecstasy use and SSRI pharmacotherapy among multiple psychiatric disorders in the adolescent population have made this an overlooked yet increasingly relevant danger, which poses a threat to public health. This can be curbed through further research, as well as greater health care provision and attention from a regulatory body owing.

  9. 2016 Updates to US Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use and Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use: Highlights for Adolescent Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, Andrea J; Simmons, Katharine B; Godfrey, Emily M; Sucato, Gina S

    2017-04-01

    The US Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (MEC) and US Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use (SPR) provide evidence-based guidance to safely provide contraception counseling and services. Both documents were updated in 2016 and are endorsed by the North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. The purpose of this mini-review is to highlight updates to the US MEC and US SPR that are most relevant to health care providers of adolescents to support dissemination and implementation of these evidence-based best practices. This document is intended to highlight these changes and to complement, not replace, the detailed practice guidance within the US MEC and US SPR. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Selective versus hyperselective posterior fusions in Lenke 5 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: comparison of radiological and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilharreborde, B; Ferrero, E; Angelliaume, A; Lefèvre, Y; Accadbled, F; Simon, A L; de Gauzy, J Sales; Mazda, K

    2017-06-01

    Recent literature has reported that the ]progression risk of Lenke 5 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) during adulthood had been underestimated. Surgery is, therefore, proposed more to young patients with progressive curves. However, choice of the approach and fusion levels remains controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the length of posterior fusion on clinical and radiological outcomes in Lenke 5 AIS. All Lenke 5 AIS operated between 2008 and 2012 were included with a minimum 2-year follow-up. Patients were divided into two groups according to the length of fusion. In the first group (selective), the upper instrumented level (UIV) was the upper end vertebra of the main structural curve and distally the fusion was extended to the stable and neutral vertebra, according to Lenke's classification. In the second group (hyperselective), shorter fusions were performed and the number of levels fused depended on the location of the apex of the curve (at maximum, 2 levels above and below, according to Hall's criteria). Apart from the fusion level selection, the surgical procedure was similar in both groups. Radiological outcomes and SRS-22 scores were reported. 78 patients were included (35 selective and 43 hyperselective). The number of levels fused was significantly higher in the first group (7.8 ± 3 vs 4.3 ± 0.6). None of the patients was fused to L4 in selective group. No correlation was found between length of fusion and complication rate. Eight patients had adding-on phenomenon among which 6 (75%) had initially undergone hyperselective fusions and had significantly higher postoperative lower instrumented vertebra (LIV) tilt. In the adding-on group, LIV was located above the last touching vertebra (LTV) in 62.5% of the cases and above the stable vertebra (SV) in 87.5%. Patients in the selective group reported a significantly lower score in the SRS function domain. Coronal alignment was restored in both groups. Hyperselective

  11. The interplay of friendship networks and social networking sites: longitudinal analysis of selection and influence effects on adolescent smoking and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace C; Soto, Daniel; Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W

    2014-08-01

    We examined the coevolution of adolescent friendships and peer influences with respect to their risk behaviors and social networking site use. Investigators of the Social Network Study collected longitudinal data during fall 2010 and spring 2011 from 10th-grade students in 5 Southern California high schools (n = 1434). We used meta-analyses of stochastic actor-based models to estimate changes in friendship ties and risk behaviors and the effects of Facebook and MySpace use. Significant shifts in adolescent smoking and drinking occurred despite little change in overall prevalence rates. Students with higher levels of alcohol use were more likely to send and receive friendship nominations and become friends with other drinkers. They were also more likely to increase alcohol use if their friends drank more. Adolescents selected friends with similar Facebook and MySpace use habits. Exposure to friends' risky online pictures increased smoking behaviors but had no significant effects on alcohol use. Our findings support a greater focus on friendship selection mechanisms in school-based alcohol use interventions. Social media platforms may help identify at-risk adolescent groups and foster positive norms about risk behaviors.

  12. Bioaccumulation of selected heavy metals and histopathological and hematobiochemical alterations in backyard chickens reared in an industrial area, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Indrajit; Mukhopadhayay, Sunit Kumar; Patra, Amlan Kumar; Pradhan, Saktipada

    2018-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine the concentrations of four heavy metals, cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co), and histopathological lesions in tissues of chickens reared in an industrial area of West Bengal, India. In particular, Mejhia Block was selected as a heavy metal-exposed area and Vatar Block (120 km away from industrially polluted areas) as a reference site. Samples were collected from the backyard chickens in these areas. Concentrations of heavy metals in soil, water, feedstuffs, tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, lung, and muscle), and droppings were greater (p  kidney > lung > spleen > muscle. Heavy metal concentrations were greater in older chickens (> 1 year) than in young chickens (heavy metal exposure. Histological changes revealed necrotic lesions and tubulitis in the kidney, degeneration and necrosis in liver parenchyma, and periarteriolitis, peribronchiolitis, and presence of hemosiderin pigment in the lung of chickens in the exposed site. Results indicated that backyard chickens in heavy metal-exposed site may show pathological lesions in different tissues due to accumulation of heavy metals, and thus, the consumption of chicken meat from the industrially exposed site may pose a potential health risk to local residents of polluted sites.

  13. Assessment of relevant hepatic steatosis in obese adolescents by rapid fat-selective GRE imaging with spatial-spectral excitation: a quantitative comparison with spectroscopic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, Fabian; Schick, Fritz; Ehehalt, Stefan; Binder, Gerhard; Sommer, Julia; Ballweg, Verena; Machann, Juergen; Claussen, Claus D.

    2011-01-01

    To test the feasibility of fat-selective GRE imaging using a spectral-spatial excitation technique for determination of intrahepatic lipid content (IHL) in obese adolescents. Fat-selective MR imaging (1.5 T) was applied to record a single axial slice through a representative liver region within a single breath-hold. The sequence uses six equidistant slice-selective excitation pulses with binomial amplitude ratios to achieve high selectivity for lipid signals after appropriate shimming. IHL MRI content was quantified using signal intensity of adjacent subcutaneous adipose tissue. As the gold standard for IHL quantification, single-voxel stimulated echo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was applied. IHL MRS was quantified using the water peak as a reference. Forty-five MR examinations could be performed, and IHL MRS content ranged from 0.7% to 19.1%. Results from MRS and fat-selective imaging correlated well with Spearman coefficients between r = 0.78 and r = 0.86. There were no relevant regional differences in IHL within the liver parenchyma (p > 0.6359). Fat-selective imaging was able to reliably identify patients with IHL content above 5% with positive/negative likelihood ratio of 11.8 and 0.05, respectively. Fat-selective MR imaging provides both a reliable and a convenient method of rapidly quantifying IHL content in obese adolescents. (orig.)

  14. Assessment of relevant hepatic steatosis in obese adolescents by rapid fat-selective GRE imaging with spatial-spectral excitation: a quantitative comparison with spectroscopic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, Fabian; Schick, Fritz [University Hospital Tuebingen, Section on Experimental Radiology, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Ehehalt, Stefan; Binder, Gerhard [University Children' s Hospital Tuebingen, Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Tuebingen (Germany); Sommer, Julia; Ballweg, Verena; Machann, Juergen [University Hospital Tuebingen, Section on Experimental Radiology, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Claussen, Claus D. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    To test the feasibility of fat-selective GRE imaging using a spectral-spatial excitation technique for determination of intrahepatic lipid content (IHL) in obese adolescents. Fat-selective MR imaging (1.5 T) was applied to record a single axial slice through a representative liver region within a single breath-hold. The sequence uses six equidistant slice-selective excitation pulses with binomial amplitude ratios to achieve high selectivity for lipid signals after appropriate shimming. IHL{sub MRI} content was quantified using signal intensity of adjacent subcutaneous adipose tissue. As the gold standard for IHL quantification, single-voxel stimulated echo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was applied. IHL{sub MRS} was quantified using the water peak as a reference. Forty-five MR examinations could be performed, and IHL{sub MRS} content ranged from 0.7% to 19.1%. Results from MRS and fat-selective imaging correlated well with Spearman coefficients between r = 0.78 and r = 0.86. There were no relevant regional differences in IHL within the liver parenchyma (p > 0.6359). Fat-selective imaging was able to reliably identify patients with IHL content above 5% with positive/negative likelihood ratio of 11.8 and 0.05, respectively. Fat-selective MR imaging provides both a reliable and a convenient method of rapidly quantifying IHL content in obese adolescents. (orig.)

  15. T cell activation and proliferation following acute exercise in human subjects is altered by storage conditions and mitogen selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlik, Jacob A; Deckert, Jake A; Benedict, Stephen H; Bhatta, Anuja; Dunbar, Amanda J; Vardiman, John P; Gallagher, Philip M

    2017-07-01

    Recent work investigating exercise induced changes in immunocompetence suggests that some of the ambiguity in the literature is resultant from different cell isolation protocols and mitogen selection. To understand this effect, we compared post-exercise measures of T cell activation and proliferation using two different stimulation methods (costimulation through CD28 or stimulation with phytohaemagglutinin [PHA]). Further, we investigated whether exercise induced changes are maintained when T cell isolation from whole blood is delayed overnight in either a room temperature or chilled (4°C) environment. As expected, an increased proliferation response was observed post-exercise in T cells isolated from whole blood of previously trained individuals immediately after blood collection. Also, cells stimulated with PHA after resting overnight in whole blood were not adversely impacted by the storage conditions. In contrast, allowing cells to rest overnight in whole blood prior to stimulation through CD28, lessened the proliferation observed by cells following exercise rendering both the room temperature and chilled samples closer to the results seen in the control condition. Changes in early markers of activation (CD25), followed a similar pattern, with activation in PHA stimulated cells remaining fairly robust after overnight storage; whereas cell activation following stimulation through CD3+CD28 was disproportionately decreased by the influence of overnight storage. These findings indicate that decisions regarding cell stimulation methods need to be paired with the timeline for T cell isolation from whole blood. These considerations will be especially important for field based studies of immunocompetence where there is a delay in getting whole blood samples to a lab for processing as well as clinical applications where a failure to isolate T cells in a timely manner may result in loss of the response of interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Social defeat stress induces depression-like behavior and alters spine morphology in the hippocampus of adolescent male C57BL/6 mice

    OpenAIRE

    I?iguez, Sergio D.; Aubry, Antonio; Riggs, Lace M.; Alipio, Jason B.; Zanca, Roseanna M.; Flores-Ramirez, Francisco J.; Hernandez, Mirella A.; Nieto, Steven J.; Musheyev, David; Serrano, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Social stress, including bullying during adolescence, is a risk factor for common psychopathologies such as depression. To investigate the neural mechanisms associated with juvenile social stress-induced mood-related endophenotypes, we examined the behavioral, morphological, and biochemical effects of the social defeat stress model of depression on hippocampal dendritic spines within the CA1 stratum radiatum. Adolescent (postnatal day 35) male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to defeat episodes fo...

  17. A selective HDAC 1/2 inhibitor modulates chromatin and gene expression in brain and alters mouse behavior in two mood-related tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick A Schroeder

    Full Text Available Psychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression, are projected to lead global disease burden within the next decade. Pharmacotherapy, the primary--albeit often ineffective--treatment method, has remained largely unchanged over the past 50 years, highlighting the need for novel target discovery and improved mechanism-based treatments. Here, we examined in wild type mice the impact of chronic, systemic treatment with Compound 60 (Cpd-60, a slow-binding, benzamide-based inhibitor of the class I histone deacetylase (HDAC family members, HDAC1 and HDAC2, in mood-related behavioral assays responsive to clinically effective drugs. Cpd-60 treatment for one week was associated with attenuated locomotor activity following acute amphetamine challenge. Further, treated mice demonstrated decreased immobility in the forced swim test. These changes are consistent with established effects of clinical mood stabilizers and antidepressants, respectively. Whole-genome expression profiling of specific brain regions (prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus from mice treated with Cpd-60 identified gene expression changes, including a small subset of transcripts that significantly overlapped those previously reported in lithium-treated mice. HDAC inhibition in brain was confirmed by increased histone acetylation both globally and, using chromatin immunoprecipitation, at the promoter regions of upregulated transcripts, a finding consistent with in vivo engagement of HDAC targets. In contrast, treatment with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, a non-selective fast-binding, hydroxamic acid HDAC 1/2/3/6 inhibitor, was sufficient to increase histone acetylation in brain, but did not alter mood-related behaviors and had dissimilar transcriptional regulatory effects compared to Cpd-60. These results provide evidence that selective inhibition of HDAC1 and HDAC2 in brain may provide an epigenetic-based target for developing

  18. Exposure to chronic variable social stress during adolescence alters affect-related behaviors and adrenocortical activity in adult male and female inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Michael J; Kamens, Helen M; Cavigelli, Sonia A

    2017-09-01

    Rodent models provide valuable insight into mechanisms that underlie vulnerability to adverse effects of early-life challenges. Few studies have evaluated sex differences in anxiogenic or depressogenic effects of adolescent social stress in a rodent model. Furthermore, adolescent stress studies often use genetically heterogeneous outbred rodents which can lead to variable results. The current study evaluated the effects of adolescent social stress in male and female inbred (BALB/cJ) mice. Adolescent mice were exposed to repeat cycles of alternating social isolation and social novelty for 4 weeks. Adolescent social stress increased anxiety-related behaviors in both sexes and depression-related behavior in females. Locomotion/exploratory behavior was also decreased in both sexes by stress. Previously stressed adult mice produced less basal fecal corticosteroids than controls. Overall, the novel protocol induced sex-specific changes in anxiety- and depression-related behaviors and corticoid production in inbred mice. The chronic variable social stress protocol used here may be beneficial to systematically investigate sex-specific neurobiological mechanisms underlying adolescent stress vulnerability where genetic background can be controlled. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Helping Clinicians Prevent Pregnancy among Sexually Active Adolescents: U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use and U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Emily M

    2015-08-01

    The United States has made substantial progress in reducing teenage birth rates in recent decades, but rates remain high. Teen pregnancy can increase the risk of poor health outcomes and lead to decreased educational attainment, increased poverty, and welfare use, as well as increased cost to taxpayers. One of the most effective ways to prevent teenage pregnancy is through the use of effective birth control methods. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention has made the prevention of teenage pregnancy 1 of its 10 winnable battles. The CDC has released 2 evidence-based clinical guideline documents regarding contraceptive use for adolescents and adults. The first guideline, US Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010, helps clinicians recognize when a contraceptive method may not be safe to use for a particular adolescent but also when not to withhold a contraceptive method that is safe to use. The second document, US Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2013, provides guidance for how to use contraceptive methods safely and effectively once they are deemed safe. Health care providers are encouraged to use these documents to provide safe and effective contraceptive care to patients seeking family planning, including adolescents. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. All rights reserved.

  20. Human T lymphotropic virus type-1 p30II alters cellular gene expression to selectively enhance signaling pathways that activate T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feuer Gerold

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1 is a deltaretrovirus that causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and is implicated in a variety of lymphocyte-mediated disorders. HTLV-1 contains both regulatory and accessory genes in four pX open reading frames. pX ORF-II encodes two proteins, p13II and p30II, which are incompletely defined in the virus life cycle or HTLV-1 pathogenesis. Proviral clones of the virus with pX ORF-II mutations diminish the ability of the virus to maintain viral loads in vivo. Exogenous expression of p30II differentially modulates CREB and Tax-responsive element-mediated transcription through its interaction with CREB-binding protein/p300 and represses tax/rex RNA nuclear export. Results Herein, we further characterized the role of p30II in regulation of cellular gene expression, using stable p30II expression system employing lentiviral vectors to test cellular gene expression with Affymetrix U133A arrays, representing ~33,000 human genes. Reporter assays in Jurkat T cells and RT-PCR in Jurkat and primary CD4+ T-lymphocytes were used to confirm selected gene expression patterns. Our data reveals alterations of interrelated pathways of cell proliferation, T-cell signaling, apoptosis and cell cycle in p30II expressing Jurkat T cells. In all categories, p30II appeared to be an overall repressor of cellular gene expression, while selectively increasing the expression of certain key regulatory genes. Conclusions We are the first to demonstrate that p30II, while repressing the expression of many genes, selectively activates key gene pathways involved in T-cell signaling/activation. Collectively, our data suggests that this complex retrovirus, associated with lymphoproliferative diseases, relies upon accessory gene products to modify cellular environment to promote clonal expansion of the virus genome and thus maintain proviral loads in vivo.

  1. Selective alteration of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and impaired spatial pattern separation performance in the RSK2-deficient mouse model of Coffin-Lowry syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillon, Charlotte; Lunion, Steeve; Desvignes, Nathalie; Hanauer, André; Laroche, Serge; Poirier, Roseline

    2018-07-01

    Adult neurogenesis is involved in certain hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions and is linked to psychiatric diseases including intellectual disabilities. The Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a developmental disorder caused by mutations in the Rsk2 gene and characterized by intellectual disabilities associated with growth retardation. How RSK2-deficiency leads to cognitive dysfunctions in CLS is however poorly understood. Here, using Rsk2 Knock-Out mice, we characterized the impact of RSK2 deficiency on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo. We report that the absence of RSK2 does not affect basal proliferation, differentiation and survival of dentate gyrus adult-born neurons but alters the maturation progression of young immature newborn neurons. Moreover, when RSK2-deficient mice were submitted to spatial learning, in contrast to wild-type mice, proliferation of adult generated neurons was decreased and no pro-survival effect of learning was observed. Thus, learning failed to recruit a selective population of young newborn neurons in association with deficient long-term memory recall. Given the proposed role of the dentate gyrus and of adult-generated newborn neurons in hippocampal-dependent pattern separation function, we explored this function in a delayed non-matching to place task and in an object-place pattern separation task and report severe deficits in spatial pattern separation in Rsk2-KO mice. Together, this study reveals a previously unknown role for RSK2 in the early stages of maturation and learning-dependent involvement of adult-born dentate gyrus neurons. These alterations associated with a deficit in the ability of RSK2-deficient mice to finely discriminate relatively similar spatial configurations, may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in CLS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrolysed inulin alleviates the azoxymethane-induced preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci by altering selected intestinal microbiota in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattananandecha, Thanawat; Sirilun, Sasithorn; Duangjitcharoen, Yodsawee; Sivamaruthi, Bhagavathi Sundaram; Suwannalert, Prasit; Peerajan, Sartjin; Chaiyasut, Chaiyavat

    2016-09-01

    Context Inulin, a non-digestible carbohydrate isolated from Helianthus tuberosus L. (Asteraceae), has been shown to alter the gut beneficial bacteria including Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacteria. Inulin also influences the activities of intestinal microbiota that could prevent the colon cancer development. Objective This study determines the effect of hydrolysed inulin with different degrees of polymerisation on alteration of intestinal microbiota and their activities on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. Materials and methods Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups (three control and three AOM-treated groups) and the animal were fed with either a normal diet or diet containing 10% of long-chain inulin (InuL) or short-chain inulin (InuS), respectively, for 17 weeks. Colon cancer was induced in rats by injecting AOM subcutaneously at the 8th and 9th week of the study period. At the end of the experiment, cecal contents of rats were examined for selected microbiota, organic acids, putrefactive compounds and microbial enzymes. ACF formation was microscopically examined. Results The inulin diets significantly increased the weight and decreased the pH of the caecal content. The rats fed with InuL-supplemented diet showed approximately 2.9- and 6.8-fold increases in the biomass of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacteria, respectively. Naive and AOM-treated rats fed with inulin-supplemented diet showed ∼1.3- and ∼2.2-fold decreases in the biomass of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, respectively. Inulins significantly decreased the colonic concentration of phenol, p-cresol and indole. Reduction in the activity of microbial enzymes such as β-glucuronidase, azoreductase and nitroreductase were observed in inulin-treated animals. Reduction in the ACF formation has been observed in inulin-treated groups. Discussion and conclusion The present study demonstrates that dietary

  3. Use of Selected Nonmedication Mental Health Services by Adolescent Boys and Girls with Serious Emotional or Behavioral ....

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... using data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) found that about 6% of adolescents have serious ... This analysis used data from the 2010–2012 NHIS. Interviewers from the U.S. Census Bureau collect NHIS ...

  4. Subchronic Treatment With Phencyclidine in Adolescence Leads to Impaired Exploratory Behavior in Adult Rats Without Altering Social Interaction or N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Binding Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metaxas, A.; Willems, R.; Kooijman, E.J.M.; Renjaan, V.A.; Klein, P.J.; Windhorst, A.D.; Donck, L.V.; Leysen, J.E.; van Berckel, B.N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Although both the onset of schizophrenia and human phencyclidine (PCP) abuse typically present within the interval from adolescence to early adulthood, the majority of preclinical research employing the PCP model of schizophrenia has been conducted on neonatal or adult animals. The present study was

  5. Maternal Employment and Adolescent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Raymond; Clayton, Mark D.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between maternal employment and adolescent development is enormously complex, and no simple generalizations are possible. Many intervening variables alter the impact that maternal employment has on adolescent development. There is an urgent need to discover what impact this arrangement has on adolescent development. (CJ)

  6. Spontaneous correction of coronal imbalance after selective thoracolumbar-lumbar fusion in patients with Lenke-5C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chang Ju; Lee, Choon Sung; Kim, Hyojune; Lee, Dong-Ho; Cho, Jae Hwan

    2018-03-22

    Coronal imbalance is a complication of corrective surgeries in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). However, few studies about immediate coronal decompensation in Lenke-5C curves have reported its incidence, prognosis, and related factors. To evaluate the development of coronal imbalance after selective thoracolumbar-lumbar (TL/L) fusion (SLF) in Lenke-5C AIS, and to reveal related factors. Retrospective comparative study. This study included 50 consecutive patients with Lenke-5C AIS who underwent SLF at a single center. Whole-spine anteroposterior and lateral radiographs were used to measure radiological parameters. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of coronal imbalance (distance between C7 plumb line and central sacral vertical line >2 cm) in the early (1 month) postoperative period. Various radiological parameters were statistically compared between groups. Of the patients, 28% (14 of 50) showed coronal imbalance in the early postoperative period; however, most of them (13 of 14) showed spontaneous correction during follow-up. The development of coronal imbalance was related to less flexibility of the TL/L curve (51.3% vs. 52.6%, p=.040), greater T10-L2 kyphosis (11.7° vs. 6.4°, p=.034), and greater distal junctional angle (6.0° vs. 3.7°, p=.025) in preoperative radiographs. Lowermost instrumented vertebra (LIV) tilt was greater in the decompensation [+] group in the early postoperative period (8.8° vs. 4.4°, p=.009). However, this difference disappeared in final follow-up with the decrease of LIV tilt in the decompensation [+] group. Less flexibility of the TL/L curve, greater TL kyphosis, and greater distal junctional angle preoperatively were predictive factors for immediate coronal imbalance in Lenke-5C curves. Although coronal imbalance was frequently detected in the early postoperative period after SLF, it was mostly corrected spontaneously with a decrease of LIV tilt. Thus, SLF for Lenke-5C curves can be

  7. A single exposure to cocaine during development elicits regionally-selective changes in basal basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-2) gene expression and alters the trophic response to a second injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, Giuseppe; Caffino, Lucia; Malpighi, Chiara; Melfi, Simona; Racagni, Giorgio; Fumagalli, Fabio

    2015-02-01

    During adolescence, the brain is maturing and more sensitive to drugs of abuse that can influence its developmental trajectory. Recently, attention has been focused on basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) given that its administration early in life enhances the acquisition of cocaine self-administration and sensitization at adulthood (Turner et al. (Pharmacol Biochem Behav 92:100-4, 2009), Clinton et al. (Pharmacol Biochem Behav103:6-17, 2012)). Additionally, we found that abstinence from adolescent cocaine exposure long lastingly dysregulates FGF-2 transcription (Giannotti et al. (Psychopharmacology (Berl) 225:553-60, 2013 ). The objectives of the study are to evaluate if (1) a single injection of cocaine (20 mg/kg) at postnatal day 35 alters FGF-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and (2) the first injection influences the trophic response to a second injection (10 mg/kg) provided 24 h or 7 days later. We found regional differences in the FGF-2 expression pattern as either the first or the second injection of cocaine by themselves upregulated FGF-2 mRNA in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens while downregulating it in the hippocampus. The first injection influences the trophic response of the second. Of note, 24 h after the first injection, accumbal and hippocampal FGF-2 changes produced by cocaine in saline-pretreated rats were prevented in cocaine-pretreated rats. Conversely, in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus 7 days after the first injection, the cocaine-induced FGF-2 changes were modified by the subsequent exposure to the psychostimulant. These findings show that a single cocaine injection is sufficient to produce enduring changes in the adolescent brain and indicate that early cocaine priming alters the mechanisms regulating the trophic response in a brain region-specific fashion.

  8. Inside the Adolescent Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Stacy S.

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Jay Giedd says that the main alterations in the adolescent brain are the inverted U-shaped developmental trajectories with late childhood/early teen peaks for gray matter volume among others. Giedd adds that the adolescent brain is vulnerable to substances that artificially modulate dopamine levels since its reward system is in a state of flux.

  9. Neuro-Oscillatory Mechanisms of Intersensory Selective Attention and Task Switching in School-Aged Children, Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jeremy W.; Foxe, John J.; Molholm, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The ability to attend to one among multiple sources of information is central to everyday functioning. Just as central is the ability to switch attention among competing inputs as the task at hand changes. Such processes develop surprisingly slowly, such that even into adolescence, we remain slower and more error prone at switching among tasks…

  10. Circulating levels of endocannabinoids respond acutely to voluntary exercise, are altered in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running, and differ between the sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Zoe; Argueta, Donovan; Garland, Theodore; DiPatrizio, Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    concentrations than males. For mice housed with wheels, the amount of running during the 30min before sampling was a significant positive predictor of plasma AEA within groups, and HR mice had significantly lower levels of AEA than C mice. Our results suggest that voluntary exercise alters circulating levels of endocannabinoids, and further demonstrate that selective breeding for voluntary exercise is associated with evolutionary changes in the endocannabinoid system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Alterations in the microstructure of white matter in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome measured using tract-based spatial statistics and probabilistic tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Hilmar P; Pépés, Sophia E; Jackson, Georgina M; Draper, Amelia; Morgan, Paul S; Jackson, Stephen R

    2018-04-12

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by repetitive and intermittent motor and vocal tics. TS is thought to reflect fronto-striatal dysfunction and the aetiology of the disorder has been linked to widespread alterations in the functional and structural integrity of the brain. The aim of this study was to assess white matter (WM) abnormalities in a large sample of young patients with TS in comparison to a sample of matched typically developing control individuals (CS) using diffusion MRI. The study included 35 patients with TS (3 females; mean age: 14.0 ± 3.3) and 35 CS (3 females; mean age: 13.9 ± 3.3). Diffusion MRI data was analysed using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and probabilistic tractography. Patients with TS demonstrated both marked and widespread decreases in axial diffusivity (AD) together with altered WM connectivity. Moreover, we showed that tic severity and the frequency of premonitory urges (PU) were associated with increased connectivity between primary motor cortex (M1) and the caudate nuclei, and increased information transfer between M1 and the insula, respectively. This is to our knowledge the first study to employ both TBSS and probabilistic tractography in a sample of young patients with TS. Our results contribute to the limited existing literature demonstrating altered connectivity in TS and confirm previous results suggesting in particular, that altered insular function contributes to increased frequency of PU. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Perceived neighborhood partner availability, partner selection, and risk for sexually transmitted infections within a cohort of adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Pamela A; Chung, Shang-En; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2014-07-01

    This research examined the association between a novel measure of perceived partner availability and discordance between ideal and actual partner characteristics as well as trajectories of ideal partner preferences and perceptions of partner availability over time. A clinic-recruited cohort of adolescent females (N = 92), aged 1619 years, were interviewed quarterly for 12 months using audio computer-assisted self-interview. Participants ranked the importance of characteristics for their ideal main sex partner and then reported on these characteristics for their current main partner. Participants reported on perceptions of availability of ideal sex partners in their neighborhood. Paired t-tests examined discordance between ideal and actual partner characteristics. Random-intercept regression models examined repeated measures. Actual partner ratings were lower than ideal partner preferences for fidelity, equaled ideal preferences for emotional support and exceeded ideal preferences for social/economic status and physical attractiveness. Discordance on emotional support and social/economic status was associated with sex partner concurrency. Participants perceived low availability of ideal sex partners. Those who perceived more availability were less likely to be ideal/actual discordant on fidelity [OR = .88, 95% CI: .78, 1.0]. Neither ideal partner preferences nor perceptions of partner availability changed over 12 months. Current main sex partners met or exceeded ideal partner preferences in all domains except fidelity. If emotional needs are met, adolescents may tolerate partner concurrency in areas of limited partner pools. Urban adolescent females who perceive low availability may be at increased risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI) because they may be more likely to have nonmonogamous partners. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Social defeat stress induces depression-like behavior and alters spine morphology in the hippocampus of adolescent male C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, Sergio D; Aubry, Antonio; Riggs, Lace M; Alipio, Jason B; Zanca, Roseanna M; Flores-Ramirez, Francisco J; Hernandez, Mirella A; Nieto, Steven J; Musheyev, David; Serrano, Peter A

    2016-12-01

    Social stress, including bullying during adolescence, is a risk factor for common psychopathologies such as depression. To investigate the neural mechanisms associated with juvenile social stress-induced mood-related endophenotypes, we examined the behavioral, morphological, and biochemical effects of the social defeat stress model of depression on hippocampal dendritic spines within the CA1 stratum radiatum. Adolescent (postnatal day 35) male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to defeat episodes for 10 consecutive days. Twenty-four h later, separate groups of mice were tested on the social interaction and tail suspension tests. Hippocampi were then dissected and Western blots were conducted to quantify protein levels for various markers important for synaptic plasticity including protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ), protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ), the dopamine-1 (D1) receptor, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and the dopamine transporter (DAT). Furthermore, we examined the presence of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-receptor subunit GluA2 as well as colocalization with the post-synaptic density 95 (PSD95) protein, within different spine subtypes (filopodia, stubby, long-thin, mushroom) using an immunohistochemistry and Golgi-Cox staining technique. The results revealed that social defeat induced a depression-like behavioral profile, as inferred from decreased social interaction levels, increased immobility on the tail suspension test, and decreases in body weight. Whole hippocampal immunoblots revealed decreases in GluA2, with a concomitant increase in DAT and TH levels in the stressed group. Spine morphology analyses further showed that defeated mice displayed a significant decrease in stubby spines, and an increase in long-thin spines within the CA1 stratum radiatum. Further evaluation of GluA2/PSD95 containing-spines demonstrated a decrease of these markers within long-thin and mushroom spine types. Together, these results indicate that juvenile

  14. Gene-environment correlation in the development of adolescent substance abuse: selection effects of child personality and mediation via contextual risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2013-02-01

    We used a longitudinal twin design to examine selection effects of personality traits at age 11 on high-risk environmental contexts at age 14 and the extent to which these contexts mediated risk for substance abuse at age 17. Socialization at age 11 (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) predicted exposure to contextual risk at age 14. Contextual risk partially mediated the effect of socialization on substance abuse, though socialization also had a direct effect. In contrast, boldness at age 11 (social engagement and assurance, thrill seeking, and stress resilience) also predicted substance abuse directly but was unrelated to contextual risk. There was substantial overlap in the genetic and shared environmental influences on socialization and contextual risk, and genetic risk in socialization contributed to substance abuse indirectly via increased exposure to contextual risk. This suggests that active gene-environment correlations related to individual differences in socialization contributed to an early, high-risk developmental trajectory for adolescent substance abuse. In contrast, boldness appeared to index an independent and direct genetic risk factor for adolescent substance abuse.

  15. Selection of persons expressing opinions etc. and attendants in the public hearing concerning the alteration in reactor installations (addition of Unit 3 and 4) in the Genkai Nuclear Power Station of Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission has selected 18 persons expressing opinions etc. and 255 (other) attendants for the public hearing on the alteration of reactor installations (addition of Unit 3 and 4) in Kyushu Electric's Genkai Nuclear Power Station to be held on June 18th, 1984. The order of expressing opinions etc., number of reception, names, addresses, ages and occupations are given of the persons expressing opinions etc. For both the groups, against the selected numbers there are given applicants etc. in number by towns and city. (Mori, K.)

  16. INTAKES OF SELECTED NUTRIENTS, BONE MINERALISATION AND DENSITY OF ADOLESCENT FEMALE SWIMMERS OVER A THREE-YEAR PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Czeczelewski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct three-year monitoring of bone mineralization (BMC and bone mineral density (BMD of adolescent girls engaged in swimming at the time of attaining the peak bone mass and of their counterparts leading a rather sedentary life, considering the intakes of calcium, phosphorus and protein, as well as the proportions among those nutrients. Two groups of girls aged 11–13 years were studied 3 times at yearly intervals: untrained controls (n = 20 and those engaged in competitive swimming (n = 20. Bone density was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA in the lumbar spine (L2 – L4. Nutrient intakes (energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus were assessed from 24-h recalls. The group of swimmers had significantly lower BMI values than the control group. No systematic, significant between-group differences were found in nutrient intake or in bone mineralization variables. Calcium intake was below the recommended norm in all subjects but mean values of bone mineralization variables (BMC, BMD steadily increased in both groups. The BMD z-scores proved negative throughout the three-year period of early adolescence in both groups of girls and that decrease was significant in swimmers. This could have been due to insufficient calcium intake as well as to inadequate calcium-to-phosphate and protein-to-calcium ratios and, when continued, might result in a decreased bone mass in adulthood.

  17. Cyberbullying as a negative result of cyber-culture of Slovak children and adolescents: selected research findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollá Katarína

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyber-culture points out the life in cyberspace and goes beyond national cultures. It is particularly attractive for the young people who use Information and Communications Technologies (ICT to express their attitudes, values, beliefs and thinking. Those do not need to be necessarily in accordance with the standards of an individual society. Cyberculture becomes dangerous. Great risk lies in cyberbullying that represents negative impact of cyber-culture on human behavior. The aim of the study is to detect cyberbullying as a negative impact of cyber-culture among of Slovak children and adolescents. The research was carried out on a sample of 1619 11-18-year old respondents (average age was 14.51. Results of cyberbullying research carried out using Latent Class Analysis (LCA have proved the appropriateness of 3-latent-class module. Relative entropy of the module reached 0.915. It was demonstrated that 52.9% of respondents belonged to the group of uninvolved, 42.7% were victims and 4.4% were victims-aggressors. Being a negative consequence of cyber-culture, cyberbullying is a challenge that educators - including other assisting professions - face when educating children and adolescents to orientate in cyberspace, behave responsibly, express themselves in a way that would not interfere others’ integrity and identity (personal and virtual. The study was written under VEGA MŠVVaŠ SR a SAV č. 1/0244/15: “Detekcia a riešenie kyberšikany”.

  18. Social defeat stress induces depression-like behavior and alters spine morphology in the hippocampus of adolescent male C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio D. Iñiguez

    2016-12-01

    Hippocampi were then dissected and Western blots were conducted to quantify protein levels for various markers important for synaptic plasticity including protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ, protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ, the dopamine-1 (D1 receptor, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, and the dopamine transporter (DAT. Furthermore, we examined the presence of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA-receptor subunit GluA2 as well as colocalization with the post-synaptic density 95 (PSD95 protein, within different spine subtypes (filopodia, stubby, long-thin, mushroom using an immunohistochemistry and Golgi-Cox staining technique. The results revealed that social defeat induced a depression-like behavioral profile, as inferred from decreased social interaction levels, increased immobility on the tail suspension test, and decreases in body weight. Whole hippocampal immunoblots revealed decreases in GluA2, with a concomitant increase in DAT and TH levels in the stressed group. Spine morphology analyses further showed that defeated mice displayed a significant decrease in stubby spines, and an increase in long-thin spines within the CA1 stratum radiatum. Further evaluation of GluA2/PSD95 containing-spines demonstrated a decrease of these markers within long-thin and mushroom spine types. Together, these results indicate that juvenile social stress induces GluA2- and dopamine-associated dysregulation in the hippocampus – a neurobiological mechanism potentially underlying the development of mood-related syndromes as a consequence of adolescent bullying.

  19. A randomised controlled trial of cognitive behaviour therapy in adolescents with major depression treated by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The ADAPT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyer, I M; Dubicka, B; Wilkinson, P; Kelvin, R; Roberts, C; Byford, S; Breen, S; Ford, C; Barrett, B; Leech, A; Rothwell, J; White, L; Harrington, R

    2008-05-01

    To determine if, in the short term, depressed adolescents attending routine NHS Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS), and receiving ongoing active clinical care, treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) plus cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) compared with SSRI alone, results in better healthcare outcomes. A pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT) was conducted on depressed adolescents attending CAMHS who had not responded to a psychosocial brief initial intervention (BII) prior to randomisation. Six English CAMHS participated in the study. A total of 208 patients aged between 11 and 17 years were recruited and randomised. All participants received active routine clinical care in a CAMHS outpatient setting and an SSRI and half were offered CBT. The duration of the trial was a 12-week treatment phase, followed by a 16-week maintenance phase. Follow-up assessments were at 6, 12 and 28 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA). Secondary outcome measures were self-report depressive symptoms, interviewer-rated depressive signs and symptoms, interviewer-rated psychosocial impairment and clinical global impression of response to treatment. Information on resource use was collected in interview at baseline and at the 12- and 28-week follow-up assessments using the Child and Adolescent Service Use Schedule (CA-SUS). Of the 208 patients randomised, 200 (96%) completed the trial to the primary end-point at 12 weeks. By the 28-week follow-up, 174 (84%) participants were re-evaluated. Overall, 193 (93%) participants had been assessed at one or more time points. Clinical characteristics indicated that the trial was conducted on a severely depressed group. There was significant recovery at all time points in both arms. The findings demonstrated no difference in treatment effectiveness for SSRI + CBT over SSRI only for the primary or secondary outcome measures at

  20. Altered self-perception in adult survivors treated for a CNS tumor in childhood or adolescence: population-based outcomes compared with the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörnquist, Lina; Rickardsson, Jenny; Lannering, Birgitta; Gustafsson, Göran; Boman, Krister K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Survivors of pediatric CNS tumors are at risk for persistent tumor/treatment-related morbidity, physical disability and social consequences that may alter self-perception, vital for self-identity, mental health and quality of survival. We studied the long-term impact of childhood CNS tumors and their treatment on the self-perception of adult survivors and compared outcomes with those of the general population. Methods The cohort included 697 Swedish survivors diagnosed with a primary CNS tumor during 1982–2001. Comparison data were randomly collected from a stratified general population sample. Survivors and general population individuals were compared as regards self-perception in 5 domains: body image, sports/physical activities, peers, work, and family, and with a global self-esteem index. Within the survivor group, determinants of impact on self-perception were identified. Results The final analyzed sample included 528 survivors, 75.8% of the entire national cohort. The control sample consisted of 995, 41% of 2500 addressed. Survivors had significantly poorer self-perception outcomes in domains of peers, work, body image, and sports/physical activities, and in the global self-perception measure, compared with those of the general population (all P type and a history of cranial radiation therapy were associated with outcomes. Conclusion An altered self-perception is a potential late effect in adult survivors of pediatric CNS tumors. Self-perception and self-esteem are significant elements of identity, mental health and quality of survival. Therefore, care and psychosocial follow-up of survivors should include measures for identifying disturbances and for assessing the need for psychosocial intervention. PMID:25332406

  1. Western High-Fat Diet Consumption during Adolescence Increases Susceptibility to Traumatic Stress while Selectively Disrupting Hippocampal and Ventricular Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyan-Masih, Priya; Vega-Torres, Julio David; Haddad, Elizabeth; Rainsbury, Sabrina; Baghchechi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Psychological trauma and obesity co-occur frequently and have been identified as major risk factors for psychiatric disorders. Surprisingly, preclinical studies examining how obesity disrupts the ability of the brain to cope with psychological trauma are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine whether an obesogenic Western-like high-fat diet (WD) predisposes rats to post-traumatic stress responsivity. Adolescent Lewis rats (postnatal day 28) were fed ad libitum for 8 weeks with either the experimental WD diet (41.4% kcal from fat) or the control diet (16.5% kcal from fat). We modeled psychological trauma by exposing young adult rats to a cat odor threat. The elevated plus maze and the open field test revealed increased psychological trauma-induced anxiety-like behaviors in the rats that consumed the WD when compared with control animals 1 week after undergoing traumatic stress (p < 0.05). Magnetic resonance imaging showed significant hippocampal atrophy (20% reduction) and lateral ventricular enlargement (50% increase) in the animals fed the WD when compared with controls. These volumetric abnormalities were associated with behavioral indices of anxiety, increased leptin and FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51) levels, and reduced hippocampal blood vessel density. We found asymmetric structural vulnerabilities to the WD, particularly the ventral and left hippocampus and lateral ventricle. This study highlights how WD consumption during adolescence impacts key substrates implicated in post-traumatic stress disorder. Understanding how consumption of a WD affects the developmental trajectories of the stress neurocircuitry is critical, as stress susceptibility imposes a marked vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27844058

  2. Temporal Alterations in the Secretome of the Selective Ligninolytic Fungus Ceriporipsis subvermispora during growth on Aspen Wood Reveal this Organism's Strategy for Degrading Lighnocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaki Hori; Jill Gaskell; Kiyohiko Igarashi; Phil Kersten; Michael Mozuch; Masahiro Samejima; Dan Cullen

    2014-01-01

    The white-rot basidiomycetes efficiently degrade all wood cell wall polymers. Generally, these fungi simultaneously degrade cellulose and lignin, but certain organisms, such as Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, selectively remove lignin in advance of cellulose degradation. However, relatively little is known about themechanismof selective ligninolysis. To...

  3. Experimental alteration of R7T7 nuclear model glass in solutions with different salinities (90/sup 0/C, 1 bar): implications for the selection of geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godon, N.; Thomassin, J.H.; Touray, J.C.; Vernaz, E.

    1988-01-01

    In order to simulate the leaching of nuclear wastes in repositories percolated by solutions of variable salinity, leaching tests of R7T7 glass in solutions with different NaCl contents have been performed at 90/sup 0/C and 1 bar using a static procedure. A comparison of the efficiency of the different leachants indicated that the alteration was maximum in pure water and in 23.7 g (NaCl) kg/sup -1/ solution. In deionized water, uranium- and rare-earth elements simulating the actinides were found quite immobile: they have not been detected in solution but are present in the alteration layer. On the other hand, in the 23.7 g (NaCl) kg/sup -1/ solution, high amounts of uranium, cerium and neodymium have been detected in solution and did not accumulate in the solid phases. In the highest salinity brines, the bulk reactivity of the glass decreased. In all leachants, the alteration layer was structured in two parts: hydrated glass and flakes. The flakes were mainly nickel-and zinc-bearing aluminosilicate phases. When crystallized, the flakes were identified as berthierine.

  4. Ocorrência de rinite, respiração oral e alterações orofaciais em adolescentes asmáticos Occurrence of rhinitis, mouth breathing and orofacial alterations in adolescents with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenice Aparecida de Menezes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: determinar a ocorrência de rinite, respiração oral e alterações orofaciais em adolescentes asmáticos. MÉTODO: estudo do tipo transversal, realizado com 155 adolescentes asmáticos de 12 a 15 anos e de ambos os sexos, atendidos no Instituto Materno Infantil Professor Fernando Figueira. O levantamento de dados consistiu de duas etapas: a primeira para análise dos prontuários dos pacientes e da realização de dois testes para avaliação adicional da função respiratória. Sendo um com o auxílio do espelho de Glatzel e o outro com a contagem do tempo de permanência da água na boca. A segunda por meio de exame clínico para identificação das alterações orofaciais. RESULTADOS: a frequência de rinite alérgica foi elevada (80,6%, não existindo diferença significante entre o sexo feminino (80,9% e o masculino (80,5%. Quanto ao padrão de respiração 32,9% dos asmáticos apresentaram respiração oronasal. As alterações faciais mais frequentes para o sexo masculino foram: olheiras (93,1%, palato ogival (82,8%, lábios ressecados (70,1%, selamento labial inadequado (77,0%, olhos caídos (62,1% e face alongada (57,5%. O sexo feminino apresentou as maiores frequências para as seguintes características: olheiras (91,2%, palato ogival (85,3%, selamento labial inadequado (67,6%, lábios ressecados (63,2% face alongada (66,2% e lábio superior estreito (57,4%. CONCLUSÃO: em adolescentes asmáticos a frequência de rinite alérgica foi alta, bem como a ocorrência de respiração oral e de alterações faciais.PURPOSE: to determine the occurrence of rhinitis, mouth breathing and orofacial alterations in adolescents with asthma. METHOD: cross-sectional study was conducted with 155 adolescents with asthma from 12 to 15 years old and both sexes, treated at the Institute Professor Fernando Figueira. The survey consisted of two phases: the first to review patients' records and carrying out two tests for further evaluation of

  5. Raman-Mössbauer-XRD studies of selected samples from "Los Azulejos" outcrop: A possible analogue for assessing the alteration processes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalla, E. A.; Sanz-Arranz, A.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; Sansano, A.; Medina, J.; Schmanke, D.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Rodríguez-Losada, J. A.; Martínez-Frías, J.; Rull, F.

    2016-06-01

    The outcrop of "Los Azulejos" is visible at the interior of the Cañadas Caldera in Tenerife Island (Spain). It exhibits a great variety of alteration processes that could be considered as terrestrial analogue for several geological processes on Mars. This outcrop is particularly interesting due to the content of clays, zeolite, iron oxides, and sulfates corresponding to a hydrothermal alteration catalogued as "Azulejos" type alteration. A detailed analysis by portable and laboratory Raman systems as well as other different techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy has been carried out (using twin-instruments from Martian lander missions: Mössbauer spectrometer MIMOS-II from the NASA-MER mission of 2001 and the XRD diffractometer from the NASA-MSL Curiosity mission of 2012). The mineral identification presents the following mineral species: magnetite, goethite, hematite, anatase, rutile, quartz, gregoryite, sulfate (thenardite and hexahydrite), diopside, feldspar, analcime, kaolinite and muscovite. Moreover, the in-situ Raman and Micro-Raman measurements have been performed in order to compare the capabilities of the portable system specially focused for the next ESA Exo-Mars mission. The mineral detection confirms the sub-aerial alteration on the surface and the hydrothermal processes by the volcanic fluid circulations in the fresh part. Therefore, the secondary more abundant mineralization acts as the color agent of the rocks. Thus, the zeolite-illite group is the responsible for the bluish coloration, as well as the feldspars and carbonates for the whitish and the iron oxide for the redish parts. The XRD system was capable to detect a minor proportion of pyroxene, which is not visible by Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopy due to the "Azulejos" alteration of the parent material on the outcrop. On the other hand, Mössbauer spectroscopy was capable of detecting different types of iron-oxides (Fe3+/2+-oxide phases). These analyses

  6. Selective alterations of NMDAR function and plasticity in D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens shell following chronic intermittent ethanol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, Rafael; Maier, Esther Y; Buske, Tavanna R; Morrisett, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    A major mouse model widely adopted in recent years to induce pronounced ethanol intake is the ethanol vapor model known as "CIE" or "Chronic Intermittent Ethanol." One critical question concerning this model is whether the rapid induction of high blood ethanol levels for such short time periods is sufficient to induce alterations in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function which may contribute to excessive ethanol intake. In this study, we determined whether such short term intermittent ethanol exposure modulates NMDAR function as well as other prominent electrophysiological properties and the expression of plasticity in both D1 (D1+) and D2 (D1-) dopamine receptor expressing medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell. To distinguish between the two subtypes of MSNs in the NAc we treated Drd1a-TdTomato transgenic mice with CIE vapor and electrophysiological recordings were conducted 24 h after the last vapor exposure. To investigate CIE induced alterations in plasticity, long-term depression (LTD) was induced by pairing low frequency stimulation (LFS) with post synaptic depolarization. In ethanol naïve mice, LFS induced synaptic depression (LTD) was apparent exclusively in D1+ MSNs. Whereas in slices prepared from CIE treated mice, LFS induced synaptic potentiation (LTP) in D1+ MSNs. Furthermore, following CIE exposure, LFS now produced LTD in D1- MSNs. We found that CIE exposure induced an increase in excitability in D1+ MSNs with no change in D1- MSNs. After CIE, we found a significant increase in spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) frequency in D1+ but not D1- MSNs suggesting alterations in baseline α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) mediated signaling. CIE induced changes in NMDAR function were measured using the NMDA/AMPA ratio and input-output curves of isolated NMDAR currents. We observed a significant increase in NMDAR function in D1+ MSNs and a decrease in D1- MSNs after ethanol vapor exposure. The

  7. Altered self-perception in adult survivors treated for a CNS tumor in childhood or adolescence: population-based outcomes compared with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörnquist, Lina; Rickardsson, Jenny; Lannering, Birgitta; Gustafsson, Göran; Boman, Krister K

    2015-05-01

    Survivors of pediatric CNS tumors are at risk for persistent tumor/treatment-related morbidity, physical disability and social consequences that may alter self-perception, vital for self-identity, mental health and quality of survival. We studied the long-term impact of childhood CNS tumors and their treatment on the self-perception of adult survivors and compared outcomes with those of the general population. The cohort included 697 Swedish survivors diagnosed with a primary CNS tumor during 1982-2001. Comparison data were randomly collected from a stratified general population sample. Survivors and general population individuals were compared as regards self-perception in 5 domains: body image, sports/physical activities, peers, work, and family, and with a global self-esteem index. Within the survivor group, determinants of impact on self-perception were identified. The final analyzed sample included 528 survivors, 75.8% of the entire national cohort. The control sample consisted of 995, 41% of 2500 addressed. Survivors had significantly poorer self-perception outcomes in domains of peers, work, body image, and sports/physical activities, and in the global self-perception measure, compared with those of the general population (all P self-perception is a potential late effect in adult survivors of pediatric CNS tumors. Self-perception and self-esteem are significant elements of identity, mental health and quality of survival. Therefore, care and psychosocial follow-up of survivors should include measures for identifying disturbances and for assessing the need for psychosocial intervention. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The analysis of selected parameters of sleep in the population of adolescents in school-age

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    Bogna Andrzejczak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study attempted to analyse selected parameters of sleep among students of secondary schools with taking into consideration the age and sex of the participants. Material: The study enrolled 125 students aged 12–18 from randomly selected secondary schools; 56% of the studied subjects were boys (n = 70, and 44% – girls (n = 55. Method: The students answered 18 questions included in the Sleep Disorders Assessment Questionnaire thus performing an independent, subjective assessment of sleep parameters and of their own behaviours which may affect sleep. Next, certain sleep parameters were compared between the group of girls and boys and between the group of early (12–14 years old and late (15–18 years old adolescents. Results: One in three surveyed persons reported the current or past occurrence of sleep disorders; over a half of these persons reported that these problems lasted for over a month. Over 50% of those surveyed declared that they sleep for less than 8 hours during one night. Nearly half of the students did not go to sleep at regular times and had prolonged sleep latency. The studied persons had the biggest problem with waking up in the morning. Nearly half of the study participants claimed that they wake up during the night, most frequently once or twice. Two third of those surveyed had the feeling that they sleep too short and over a half of them felt tired or sleepy during the day. More than 1/3 of the studied subjects had the feeling of too shallow sleep. Statistically significant differences were noted between girls and boys in terms of the feeling of too short sleep, the feeling of tiredness during the day and the feeling of sleepiness during the day – in case of each of these parameters girls more frequently reported the occurrence of unfavourable phenomena. Only one statistically significant difference was found among the compared age groups – it referred to

  9. Auditory attention in childhood and adolescence: An event-related potential study of spatial selective attention to one of two simultaneous stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karns, Christina M; Isbell, Elif; Giuliano, Ryan J; Neville, Helen J

    2015-06-01

    Auditory selective attention is a critical skill for goal-directed behavior, especially where noisy distractions may impede focusing attention. To better understand the developmental trajectory of auditory spatial selective attention in an acoustically complex environment, in the current study we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) across five age groups: 3-5 years; 10 years; 13 years; 16 years; and young adults. Using a naturalistic dichotic listening paradigm, we characterized the ERP morphology for nonlinguistic and linguistic auditory probes embedded in attended and unattended stories. We documented robust maturational changes in auditory evoked potentials that were specific to the types of probes. Furthermore, we found a remarkable interplay between age and attention-modulation of auditory evoked potentials in terms of morphology and latency from the early years of childhood through young adulthood. The results are consistent with the view that attention can operate across age groups by modulating the amplitude of maturing auditory early-latency evoked potentials or by invoking later endogenous attention processes. Development of these processes is not uniform for probes with different acoustic properties within our acoustically dense speech-based dichotic listening task. In light of the developmental differences we demonstrate, researchers conducting future attention studies of children and adolescents should be wary of combining analyses across diverse ages. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Auditory attention in childhood and adolescence: An event-related potential study of spatial selective attention to one of two simultaneous stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karns, Christina M.; Isbell, Elif; Giuliano, Ryan J.; Neville, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    Auditory selective attention is a critical skill for goal-directed behavior, especially where noisy distractions may impede focusing attention. To better understand the developmental trajectory of auditory spatial selective attention in an acoustically complex environment, in the current study we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in human children across five age groups: 3–5 years; 10 years; 13 years; 16 years; and young adults using a naturalistic dichotic listening paradigm, characterizing the ERP morphology for nonlinguistic and linguistic auditory probes embedded in attended and unattended stories. We documented robust maturational changes in auditory evoked potentials that were specific to the types of probes. Furthermore, we found a remarkable interplay between age and attention-modulation of auditory evoked potentials in terms of morphology and latency from the early years of childhood through young adulthood. The results are consistent with the view that attention can operate across age groups by modulating the amplitude of maturing auditory early-latency evoked potentials or by invoking later endogenous attention processes. Development of these processes is not uniform for probes with different acoustic properties within our acoustically dense speech-based dichotic listening task. In light of the developmental differences we demonstrate, researchers conducting future attention studies of children and adolescents should be wary of combining analyses across diverse ages. PMID:26002721

  11. Cannabis Use Disorder in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Annabelle K; Magid, Viktoriya

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis use in the adolescent population poses a significant threat of addiction potential resulting in altered neurodevelopment. There are multiple mechanisms of treatment of cannabis use disorder including behavioral therapy management and emerging data on treatment via pharmacotherapy. Recognizing the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorder, cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and mitigating factors that influence adolescent engagement in cannabis use allows for comprehensive assessment and management in the adolescent population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fluoxetine, a selective inhibitor of serotonin uptake, potentiates morphine analgesia without altering its discriminative stimulus properties or affinity for opioid receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hynes, M.D.; Lochner, M.A.; Bemis, K.G.; Hymson, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    The analgesic effect of morphine in the rat tail jerk assay was enhanced by the serotonin uptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. Tail jerk latency was not affected by fluoxetine alone. Morphine's affinity for opioid receptors labeled in vitro with 3 H-naloxone or 3 H-D-Ala 2 -D-Leu 5 -enkephalin was not altered by fluoxetine, which has no affinity for these sites at concentrations as high as 1000 nM. In rats trained to discriminate morphine from saline, fluoxetine at doses of 5 or 10 mg/kg were recognized as saline. Increasing the fluoxetine dose to 20 mg/kg did not result in generalization to either saline or morphine. The dose response curve for morphine generalization was not significantly altered by fluoxetine doses of 5 or 10 mg/kg. Those rats treated with the combination of morphine and 20 mg/kg of fluoxetine did not exhibit saline or morphine appropriate responding. Fluoxetine potentiates the analgesic properties of morphine without enhancing its affinity for opioid receptors or its discriminative stimulus properties. 30 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  13. Partnership selection and formation: a case study of developing adolescent health community-researcher partnerships in fifteen U.S. communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Diane M; Deeds, Bethany Griffin; Willard, Nancy; Castor, Judith; Peralta, Ligia; Francisco, Vincent T; Ellen, Jonathan

    2007-06-01

    This study describes the partner selection process in 15 U.S. communities developing community-researcher partnerships for the Connect to Protect (C2P): Partnerships for Youth Prevention Interventions, an initiative of the Adolescent Trials Network for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) Interventions. Each site generated an epidemiological profile of urban youth in their community, selected a focus population and geographic area of youth at risk for HIV, conducted a series of successive structured interviews, and engaged in a process of relationship-building efforts culminating in a collaborative network of community agencies. Sites chose as their primary target population young women who have sex with men (n = 8 sites), young men who have sex with men (n = 6), and intravenous drug users (n = 1). Of 1162 agencies initially interviewed, 281 of 335 approached (84%) agreed to join the partnership (average 19/site). A diverse array of community agencies were represented in the final collaborative network; specific characteristics included: 93% served the sites' target population, 54% were predominantly youth oriented, 59% were located in the geographical area of focus, and 39% reported provision of HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) prevention services. Relationship-building activities, development of collaborative relationships, and lessons learned, including barriers and facilitators to partnership, are also described. Study findings address a major gap in the community partner research literature. Health researchers and policymakers need an effective partner selection framework whereby community-researcher partnerships can develop a solid foundation to address public health concerns.

  14. The Utility of Impulsive Bias and Altered Decision Making as Predictors of Drug Efficacy and Target Selection: Rethinking Behavioral Screening for Antidepressant Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Gerard J; Day, Mark; Hudzik, Thomas J

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive dysfunction may be a core feature of major depressive disorder, including affective processing bias, abnormal response to negative feedback, changes in decision making, and increased impulsivity. Accordingly, a translational medicine paradigm predicts clinical action of novel antidepressants by examining drug-induced changes in affective processing bias. With some exceptions, these concepts have not been systematically applied to preclinical models to test new chemical entities. The purpose of this review is to examine whether an empirically derived behavioral screen for antidepressant drugs may screen for compounds, at least in part, by modulating an impulsive biasing of responding and altered decision making. The differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) 72-second schedule is an operant schedule with a documented fidelity for discriminating antidepressant drugs from nonantidepressant drugs. However, a theoretical basis for this empirical relationship has been lacking. Therefore, this review will discuss whether response bias toward impulsive behavior may be a critical screening characteristic of DRL behavior requiring long inter-response times to obtain rewards. This review will compare and contrast DRL behavior with the five-choice serial reaction time task, a test specifically designed for assessing motoric impulsivity, with respect to psychopharmacological testing and the neural basis of distributed macrocircuits underlying these tasks. This comparison suggests that the existing empirical basis for the DRL 72-second schedule as a pharmacological screen for antidepressant drugs is complemented by a novel hypothesis that altering impulsive response bias for rodents trained on this operant schedule is a previously unrecognized theoretical cornerstone for this screening paradigm. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  15. Iraqi adolescents: self-regard, self-derogation, and perceived threat in war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton-Ford, Steve; Ender, Morten G; Tabatabai, Ahoo

    2008-02-01

    A year into the 2003 US-Iraq war, how were adolescents in Baghdad faring? Conflict-related events typically lower psychological well-being; in contrast, investment in and protection of threatened identities should lead to self-esteem striving and, presumably, better well-being. How threatened do Iraqi adolescents feel? Is their self-esteem related to their sense of threat? Do age, religion, ethnicity, and gender alter the link between perceived threat and self-esteem? We use data from 1000 randomly selected adolescents living in Baghdad during July 2004. Iraqi adolescents reported high levels of threat; those feeling more threatened reported higher levels of self-esteem. Social background correlates with both self-esteem and perceived threat, but controlling for social background does not eliminate the relationship between self-esteem and perceived threat. We interpret our results in light of theory and research concerning social identity, mortality threats, and war trauma.

  16. The effects of adolescent methamphetamine exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M Buck

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine use among adolescents is a significant social and public health concern. Despite increased awareness of methamphetamine use among younger people, relatively little research has examined the effects of adolescent methamphetamine use compared to adult use. Thus much remains to be learned about how methamphetamine alters adolescent brain function and behavior. In this article we review recent trends in adolescent methamphetamine use and data examining the effects of adolescent methamphetamine use on the dopaminergic system and behavior in humans and animal models. Future research is warranted to expand our understanding of the effects of adolescent methamphetamine exposure and how those effects differ from those seen in adults.

  17. Predictability and context determine differences in conflict monitoring between adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Witold X; Roessner, Veit; Beste, Christian

    2015-10-01

    The ability to link contextual information to actions is an important aspect of conflict monitoring and response selection. These mechanisms depend on medial prefrontal networks. Although these areas undergo a protracted development from adolescence to adulthood, it has remained elusive how the influence of contextual information on conflict monitoring is modulated between adolescence and adulthood. Using event-related potentials (ERPs) and source localization techniques we show that the ability to link contextual information to actions is altered and that the predictability of upcoming events is an important factor to consider in this context. In adolescents, conflict monitoring functions are not as much modulated by predictability factors as in adults. It seems that adults exhibit a stronger anticipation of upcoming events than adolescents. This results in disadvantages for adults when the upcoming context is not predictable. In adolescents, problems to predict upcoming events therefore turn out to be beneficial. Two cognitive-neurophysiological factors are important for this: The first factor is related to altered conflict monitoring functions associated with modulations of neural activity in the medial frontal cortex. The second factor is related to altered perceptual processing of target stimuli associated with modulations of neural activity in parieto-occipital areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of one-night sleep deprivation on selective attention and isometric force in adolescent karate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Cheikh, Ridha; Latiri, Imed; Dogui, Mohamed; Ben Saad, Helmi

    2017-06-01

    Most of the available literature related to aspects of sleep deprivation is primarily focused on memory and learning, and studies regarding its effects on selective attention and/or physical performance are scarce. Moreover, the available literature includes general population or people involved in team sports (e.g. volleyball). However, only few studies were performed on athletes involved in combat sports (e.g. karate). The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of a total one-night sleep deprivation (1NSD) on activation and inhibition processes of selective attention and on maximal isometric force in karate athletes. Twelve young karate athletes (mean age 16.9±0.8 years) were enrolled. The protocol consists of two successive sessions: a normal night's sleep (NNS) and a total 1NSD. After each night, athletes performed selective attention and muscle strength tests during the same following three times (T) of the day: T1NNS or T11NSD: 8-9 a.m.; T2NNS or T21NSD: 12 a.m.-1 p.m.; T3NNS or T31NSD: 4-5 p.m. Activation (simple [SRT] and choice reaction times [CRT]) and inhibition (negative priming) processes were evaluated using Superlab v. 4.5 software (Cedrus Corporation, San Pedro, CA, USA). Maximal force and maximal force time (MFT) of brachial biceps isometric contraction were evaluated (Ergo System®, Globus, Codognè, Italy). A non-parametric test was used to evaluate the sessions (NNS vs. SND for the same time period) and time (T1NNS vs. 1NSD) effects. All athletes completed all tests after a NNS. Twelve, eleven and four athletes completed all tests at T11NSD, T21NSD and T31NSD, respectively. As for sessions effects, no statistically significant difference was found. As for time effects, a significant increase in SRT at T21NSD vs. T1NNS (345±47 vs. 317±33 ms, respectively), a significant increase in MFT at T21NSD vs. T1NNS (2172±260 vs.1885±292 ms, respectively), and no significant changes in CRT and negative priming reaction time or MFT data

  19. Distinct Escape Pathway by Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1a from a Dominant CD8+ T Cell Response by Selection of Altered Epitope Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Andreas; Skibbe, Kathrin; Steinmann, Eike; Pfaender, Stephanie; Kuntzen, Thomas; Megger, Dominik A; Groten, Svenja; Sitek, Barbara; Lauer, Georg M; Kim, Arthur Y; Pietschmann, Thomas; Allen, Todd M; Timm, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Antiviral CD8(+) T cells are a key component of the adaptive immune response against HCV, but their impact on viral control is influenced by preexisting viral variants in important target epitopes and the development of viral escape mutations. Immunodominant epitopes highly conserved across genotypes therefore are attractive for T cell based prophylactic vaccines. Here, we characterized the CD8(+) T cell response against the highly conserved HLA-B*51-restricted epitope IPFYGKAI1373-1380 located in the helicase domain of NS3 in people who inject drugs (PWID) exposed predominantly to HCV genotypes 1a and 3a. Despite this epitope being conserved in both genotypes, the corresponding CD8(+) T cell response was detected only in PWID infected with genotype 3a and HCV-RNA negative PWID, but not in PWID infected with genotype 1a. In genotype 3a, the detection of strong CD8(+) T cell responses was associated with epitope variants in the autologous virus consistent with immune escape. Analysis of viral sequences from multiple cohorts confirmed HLA-B*51-associated escape mutations inside the epitope in genotype 3a, but not in genotype 1a. Here, a distinct substitution in the N-terminal flanking region located 5 residues upstream of the epitope (S1368P; P = 0.00002) was selected in HLA-B*51-positive individuals. Functional assays revealed that the S1368P substitution impaired recognition of target cells presenting the endogenously processed epitope. The results highlight that, despite an epitope being highly conserved between two genotypes, there are major differences in the selected viral escape pathways and the corresponding T cell responses. HCV is able to evolutionary adapt to CD8(+) T cell immune pressure in multiple ways. Beyond selection of mutations inside targeted epitopes, this study demonstrates that HCV inhibits epitope processing by modification of the epitope flanking region under T cell immune pressure. Selection of a substitution five amino acids upstream of the

  20. High motivation for exercise is associated with altered chromatin regulators of monoamine receptor gene expression in the striatum of selectively bred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, M C; Majdak, P; Perez, S; Reilly, M; Garland, T; Rhodes, J S

    2017-03-01

    Although exercise is critical for health, many lack the motivation to exercise, and it is unclear how motivation might be increased. To uncover the molecular underpinnings of increased motivation for exercise, we analyzed the transcriptome of the striatum in four mouse lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running and four non-selected control lines. The striatum was dissected and RNA was extracted and sequenced from four individuals of each line. We found multiple genes and gene systems with strong relationships to both selection and running history over the previous 6 days. Among these genes were Htr1b, a serotonin receptor subunit and Slc38a2, a marker for both glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic signaling. System analysis of the raw results found enrichment of transcriptional regulation and kinase genes. Further, we identified a splice variant affecting the Wnt-related Golgi signaling gene Tmed5. Using coexpression network analysis, we found a cluster of interrelated coexpression modules with relationships to running behavior. From these modules, we built a network correlated with running that predicts a mechanistic relationship between transcriptional regulation by nucleosome structure and Htr1b expression. The Library of Integrated Network-Based Cellular Signatures identified the protein kinase C δ inhibitor, rottlerin, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Linifanib and the delta-opioid receptor antagonist 7-benzylidenenaltrexone as potential compounds for increasing the motivation to run. Taken together, our findings support a neurobiological framework of exercise motivation where chromatin state leads to differences in dopamine signaling through modulation of both the primary neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA, and by neuromodulators such as serotonin. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  1. A comparison of the nutritional status of adolescents from selected schools of South India and UAE : A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haboubi Ghalib

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the nutritional status of adolescents of Indian origin living in India and the United Arab Emirates to see how variable the prevalence is of stunting and wasting among adolescents of the same ethnic background living in different socio-economic and demographic environments. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Schools in South India and the United Arab Emirates. Participants: A total of 2459 adolescent boys and girls between the ages of 10 and 16 years old. Results and Discussion: Anthropometric measurements from 2459 adolescents between the ages of 10-16 years old, 1200 from India and 1259 from UAE, were collected. The subjects were divided into six age groups with 1-year intervals. Adolescents falling below the age and gender-specific 5 th percentile and 3 rd percentile of the WHO recommended standards were defined as having thinness and stunting accordingly. Regardless of gender, the rate of stunting was higher in Indian adolescents from India (25.5-51% when compared with Indian adolescents in UAE (3.1-21%. Thinness was also more in those in India (42-75.4%. When compared with adolescents living in the UAE (4.5-14.4%. The study was done in two groups having a common ethnicity but living in different socio-economic environments. With the results of this study, we can say that improved economic conditions favor better expression of genetic potential for physical growth.

  2. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.M.

    1984-11-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  3. Altered Ca2+ kinetics associated with α-actinin-3 deficiency may explain positive selection for ACTN3 null allele in human evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart I Head

    Full Text Available Over 1.5 billion people lack the skeletal muscle fast-twitch fibre protein α-actinin-3 due to homozygosity for a common null polymorphism (R577X in the ACTN3 gene. α-Actinin-3 deficiency is detrimental to sprint performance in elite athletes and beneficial to endurance activities. In the human genome, it is very difficult to find single-gene loss-of-function variants that bear signatures of positive selection, yet intriguingly, the ACTN3 null variant has undergone strong positive selection during recent evolution, appearing to provide a survival advantage where food resources are scarce and climate is cold. We have previously demonstrated that α-actinin-3 deficiency in the Actn3 KO mouse results in a shift in fast-twitch fibres towards oxidative metabolism, which would be more "energy efficient" in famine, and beneficial to endurance performance. Prolonged exposure to cold can also induce changes in skeletal muscle similar to those observed with endurance training, and changes in Ca2+ handling by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR are a key factor underlying these adaptations. On this basis, we explored the effects of α-actinin-3 deficiency on Ca2+ kinetics in single flexor digitorum brevis muscle fibres from Actn3 KO mice, using the Ca2+-sensitive dye fura-2. Compared to wild-type, fibres of Actn3 KO mice showed: (i an increased rate of decay of the twitch transient; (ii a fourfold increase in the rate of SR Ca2+ leak; (iii a threefold increase in the rate of SR Ca2+ pumping; and (iv enhanced maintenance of tetanic Ca2+ during fatigue. The SR Ca2+ pump, SERCA1, and the Ca2+-binding proteins, calsequestrin and sarcalumenin, showed markedly increased expression in muscles of KO mice. Together, these changes in Ca2+ handling in the absence of α-actinin-3 are consistent with cold acclimatisation and thermogenesis, and offer an additional explanation for the positive selection of the ACTN3 577X null allele in populations living in cold environments

  4. Alterações fenotípicas em cultivares de alface selecionadas para calor Phenotypical alterations in lettuce genotypes selected for heat tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Conti

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Cultivares de alface selecionadas para o pendoamento lento e as mesmas que lhes deram origem foram analisadas quanto a variações morfológicas, com o objetivo de quantificar possíveis modificações adaptativas para as condições de cultivo em épocas de calor. Cultivares dos grupos "manteiga" (Regina, Glória, IAC 303, IAC 202, Sem Rival e Luciana "folha crespa" (Grand Rapids e Brisa e "americana" (Great Lakes e Mesa 659, foram avaliadas em dois plantios de verão, em Piracicaba, em delineamento de blocos casualizados. No primeiro experimento, (novembro/90, foram avaliadas as características de número de estômatos, espessura de folha e quantidade de clorofila total. No segundo, (setembro/91, foram avaliados o peso seco, peso fresco, porcentagem de matéria seca, tempo para pendoamento e número de folhas. As cultivares selecionadas para calor no grupo "manteiga" (Glória e Regina, apresentaram maior número de estômatos (respectivamente 9487/cm² e 7973/cm² e folhas mais grossas (respectivamente 556 mm e 439 mm e também, acumularam maior quantidade de matéria seca (respectivamente 24,55 g e 25,50 g. A cultivar selecionada para calor do grupo "folha crespa" (Brisa acumulou maior quantidade de matéria verde (446,77g e seca (22,40 g, da mesma forma que apresentou maior quantidade de estômatos (7.279/cm². Para as cultivares do grupo "americana", observou-se diferença significativa apenas para espessura de folha, sendo que a cultivar Mesa 659 apresentou folhas mais grossas (589 mm. Constataram-se aumentos significativos da biomassa vegetal nas cultivares selecionadas para calor em relação àquelas não selecionadas. As cultivares que atingiram maior produtividade de matéria seca por planta foram Mesa 659 (28,74 g, Great Lakes (27,17 g e Regina. Os resultados comprovaram que a seleção para o pendoamento lento indiretamente produziu variações adaptativas nas plantas de alface.Lettuce cultivars selected for slow bolting and

  5. impact of life style on body Weight in adolescents on the basis of questionnaire findings in selected group of youth from rural and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ścibor

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Overweight and primary obesity in children and adolescents is a crucial problem in public health. Obese children and adolescents are especially susceptible to obesity in adulthood and consequently exposed to many obesity related diseases. Objective: Evaluation of overweight and primary obesity in urban and rural youth populations and comparison of life style concerning: physical activity, sedentary behaviors, dietary habits among overweight and obese adolescents and their peers with proper Body Mass Index value. Materials and methods: The study was performed in the group of 136 students from junior high school. The students with BMI value over 85th percentile of sex-specific growth charts were classified as overweight. Research tool was a questionnaire. Results: 15,9% of adolescents were overweight, out of which 4,5% were obese. There was not a significant relation between Body Mass Index and the place of residence. Overweight and obese adolescents revealed lower physical activity and tendency to spend much more time playing computer games. Adolescents with overweight or obesity did not regularly have breakfast at weekends, more often had sweets and sweet drinks and also high energy and very salty snacks instead. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity is a serious problem among students from junior high school population which calls for taking immediate preventive measures to promote healthy lifestyle among children and adolescents.

  6. Selective translational repression of HIV-1 RNA by Sam68DeltaC occurs by altering PABP1 binding to unspliced viral RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soros Vanessa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIV-1 structural proteins are translated from incompletely spliced 9 kb and 4 kb mRNAs, which are transported to the cytoplasm by Crm1. It has been assumed that once in the cytoplasm, translation of incompletely spliced HIV-1 mRNAs occurs in the same manner as host mRNAs. Previous analyses have demonstrated that Sam68 and a mutant thereof, Sam68ΔC, have dramatic effects on HIV gene expression, strongly enhancing and inhibiting viral structural protein synthesis, respectively. While investigating the inhibition of incompletely spliced HIV-1 mRNAs by Sam68ΔC, we determined that the effect was independent of the perinuclear bundling of the viral RNA. Inhibition was dependent upon the nuclear export pathway used, as translation of viral RNA exported via the Tap/CTE export pathway was not blocked by Sam68ΔC. We demonstrate that inhibition of HIV expression by Sam68ΔC is correlated with a loss of PABP1 binding with no attendant change in polyadenosine tail length of the affected RNAs. The capacity of Sam68ΔC to selectively inhibit translation of HIV-1 RNAs exported by Crm1 suggests that it is able to recognize unique characteristics of these viral RNPs, a property that could lead to new therapeutic approaches to controlling HIV-1 replication.

  7. N-linked glycans do not affect plasma membrane localization of multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) but selectively alter its prostaglandin E2 transport activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M Fahad; Conseil, Gwenaëlle; Cole, Susan P C

    2016-01-22

    Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) is a member of subfamily C of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of membrane transport proteins. MRP4 mediates the ATP-dependent efflux of many endogenous and exogenous solutes across the plasma membrane, and in polarized cells, it localizes to the apical or basolateral plasma membrane depending on the tissue type. MRP4 is a 170 kDa glycoprotein and here we show that MRP4 is simultaneously N-glycosylated at Asn746 and Asn754. Furthermore, confocal immunofluorescence studies showed that N-glycans do not affect MRP4's apical membrane localization in polarized LLC-PK1 cells or basolateral membrane localization in polarized MDCKI cells. However, vesicular transport assays showed that N-glycans differentially affect MRP4's ability to transport prostaglandin E2, but not estradiol glucuronide. Together these data indicate that N-glycosylation at Asn746 and Asn754 is not essential for plasma membrane localization of MRP4 but cause substrate-selective effects on its transport activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. PRMT5 Is Upregulated in HTLV-1-Mediated T-Cell Transformation and Selective Inhibition Alters Viral Gene Expression and Infected Cell Survival

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    Amanda R. Panfil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1 is a tumorigenic retrovirus responsible for development of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL. This disease manifests after a long clinical latency period of up to 2–3 decades. Two viral gene products, Tax and HBZ, have transforming properties and play a role in the pathogenic process. Genetic and epigenetic cellular changes also occur in HTLV-1-infected cells, which contribute to transformation and disease development. However, the role of cellular factors in transformation is not completely understood. Herein, we examined the role of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5 on HTLV-1-mediated cellular transformation and viral gene expression. We found PRMT5 expression was upregulated during HTLV-1-mediated T-cell transformation, as well as in established lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma cell lines and ATLL patient PBMCs. shRNA-mediated reduction in PRMT5 protein levels or its inhibition by a small molecule inhibitor (PRMT5i in HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes resulted in increased viral gene expression and decreased cellular proliferation. PRMT5i also had selective toxicity in HTLV-1-transformed T-cells. Finally, we demonstrated that PRMT5 and the HTLV-1 p30 protein had an additive inhibitory effect on HTLV-1 gene expression. Our study provides evidence for PRMT5 as a host cell factor important in HTLV-1-mediated T-cell transformation, and a potential target for ATLL treatment.

  9. Bisphenol A Causes Liver Damage and Selectively Alters the Neurochemical Coding of Intrahepatic Parasympathetic Nerves in Juvenile Porcine Models under Physiological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Thoene

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an extremely common polymer that is used in typical everyday products throughout the world, especially in food and beverage containers. Within the last ten years, it has been found that the BPA monomer tends to leach into foodstuffs, and nanogram concentrations of it may cause a variety of deleterious health effects. These health problems are very evident in developing children and in young adults. The aim of this study was to expose developing pigs to dietary BPA at both legally acceptable and ten-fold higher levels. Livers that had been exposed to BPA showed vacuolar degeneration, sinusoidal dilatation, vascular congestion and glycogen depletion that increased with exposure levels. Furthermore, the livers of these models were then examined for irregularities and double-labeled immunofluorescence was used to check the innervated hepatic samples for varying neuronal expression of selected neuronal markers in the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS. It was found that both the PSNS and all of the neuronal markers showed increased expression, with some of them being significant even at recommended safe exposure levels. The implications are quite serious since these effects have been observed at recommended safe levels with expression increasing in-line with exposure levels. The increased neuronal markers studied here have been previously correlated with behavioral/psychological disorders of children and young adults, as well as with childhood obesity and diabetes. However, further research must be performed in order to develop a mechanism for the above-mentioned correlations.

  10. Acquisition of i.v. cocaine self-administration in adolescent and adult male rats selectively bred for high and low saccharin intake

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Jennifer L.; Anderson, Marissa M.; Nelson, Sarah E.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence and excessive intake of saccharin have each been previously associated with enhanced vulnerability to drug abuse. In the present study, we focused on the relationship between these two factors using male adolescent and adult rats bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) levels of saccharin intake. On postnatal day 25 (adolescents) or 150 (adults), rats were implanted with an intravenous catheter and trained to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) using an autoshaping procedure that consis...

  11. Selected Aspects of Molecular Diagnostics of Constitutional Alterations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genes Associated with Increased Risk of Breast Cancer in the Polish Population

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    Górski Bohdan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study was undertaken to determine: 1 Type and prevalence of founder mutations BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in Polish families with strong aggregation of breast and/or ovarian cancer. 2 Risk of breast and/or ovarian cancer depending on type of BRCA1 gene mutation. 3 Prevalence of BRCA1 mutation and of other alleles presumably linked with predisposition to breast cancer in unselected Polish patients with breast cancer. 4 Risk of breast cancer in patients with 5972C/T polymorphism that alters the BRCA2 protein structure. Summary of the results 1. Among 66 families from several regions in Poland with a strong aggregation of breast/ovarian cancer, founder mutation of the BRCA1 gene were disclosed in 34 families and of the BRCA2 gene in on family. Altogether, seven different mutations were disclosed. Five mutations were found in at least two families in this group. The most frequent mutation was 5382insC (18 families, followed by C61G (7 families and 4153delA (4 families. 2. Among 200 families representative for Poland with strong aggregation of breast/ovarian cancer, mutation of the BRCA1 gene were found in 122 families (61% and of the BRCA2 gene in seven families (3,5%. 119 out of 122 mutations of the BRCA1 gene (97,5% were repeatable. Three recurrent mutations of the BRCA1 gene (5382insC, C61G, 4153delA characteristic for the Polish population were disclosed in 111 families representing 86% of all pathogenic sequences of this gene. 3. The risk of ovarian cancer in carriers of the three most frequent recurrent mutation of the BRCA1 gene in Poland is similar (OR 43.6 for 5382insC and 50 for 4153delA. The risk of breast cancer is significantly different for 4153delA (OR 1 and for other mutations (OR 10.9. 4. Among 2012 unselected breast cancers diagnosed in hospitals of nine Polish cities, mutations of the BRCA1 gene (5382insC, C61G, 4153delA were disclosed in 2.9% patients. CHEK2 alternation (1100delC, IVS2+1G>A, I157T was

  12. Sexual dimorphism of the incidence of significant relationships between selected parameters of feet and characteristics of trunk in adolescents aged 14 – 18 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Mrozkowiak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction. Symmetry, asymmetry, mutual relationships and concomitance have become a subject of interest of numerous researchers. The analysis of the findings obtained in the own study conducted among adolescents aged 14-18 years revealed an incidental nature and randomness of the distribution of significant correlations in each age and gender range, which made it impossible to show any regularities or dependencies between the measured parameters. Material and method. The examinations carried out in the group of teenagers aged 14 to 18 years recorded 2,343 observations, including 1,148 girls and 1,195 boys, concerning the size of 89 parameters describing trunk and feet. The station for an assessment of selected features using the photogrammetric method consisted of a computer, a card, software, a display monitor, a printer and a projection-reception device with a camera.     Findings 1. The number of feet parameters revealing significant relationships with trunk parameters which differentiated the female gender from the male one was greater; likewise, the features in women revealed a more frequent relationship. Additionally, female sex was differentiated by morphological traits, the abnormal positioning of toes and the longitudinal arch of feet. 2. The number of trunk parameters correlating with foot parameters was observed to be bigger in the female gender than in the male one. The parameters in female subjects showed more relationships and the parameters which differentiated female sex included the frontal plane and the sagittal plane to a lesser extent, whereas male gender was characterized by the sagittal plane.

  13. Stress Reactivity and Corticolimbic Response to Emotional Faces in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Chaplin, Tara M.; Wang, Fei; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C.; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Adolescence is a critical period in the development of lifelong patterns of responding to stress. Understanding underpinnings of variations in stress reactivity in adolescents is important, as adolescents with altered stress reactivity are vulnerable to negative risk-taking behaviors including substance use, and have increased lifelong…

  14. Insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Cristina dos Santos Romualdo

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: The results confirmed that insulin resistance is present in many obese children and adolescents, and that this condition is associated with alterations that represent an increased risk for developing metabolic disorders in adulthood.

  15. Effectiveness of a selective intervention program targeting personality risk factors for alcohol misuse among young adolescents: results of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.; Goossens, F.; Conrod, P.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Kleinjan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim The effectiveness of Preventure was tested on drinking behaviour of young adolescents in secondary education in the Netherlands. Design A cluster randomized controlled trial was carried out, with participants assigned randomly to a two-session coping skills intervention or a control

  16. Differential Selection or Differential Socialization? Examining the Effects of Part-Time Work on School Disengagement Behaviors among South Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moosung; Ju, Eunsu

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting on the fast-growing number of adolescents involved in part-time work in South Korea, we pay special attention to the effects of part-time work on school disengagement in this age group. While research on this issue in Korea is still scarce, a handful of existing studies have documented the undesirable effects of part-time work on…

  17. Weighing in on the Issue: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Influence of Selected Individual Factors and the Sports Context on the Developmental Trajectories of Eating Pathology among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Kristen; Lerner, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders, and related issues (e.g., body dissatisfaction, weight control behaviors), represent pressing and prevalent health problems that affect American adolescents with alarming frequency and potentially chronic consequences. However, more longitudinal research is needed to elucidate the developmental processes that increase or maintain…

  18. Gender-specific effects of prenatal and adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke on auditory and visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Leslie K; Slotkin, Theodore A; Mencl, W Einar; Frost, Stephen J; Pugh, Kenneth R

    2007-12-01

    Prenatal exposure to active maternal tobacco smoking elevates risk of cognitive and auditory processing deficits, and of smoking in offspring. Recent preclinical work has demonstrated a sex-specific pattern of reduction in cortical cholinergic markers following prenatal, adolescent, or combined prenatal and adolescent exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive component of tobacco smoke. Given the importance of cortical cholinergic neurotransmission to attentional function, we examined auditory and visual selective and divided attention in 181 male and female adolescent smokers and nonsmokers with and without prenatal exposure to maternal smoking. Groups did not differ in age, educational attainment, symptoms of inattention, or years of parent education. A subset of 63 subjects also underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an auditory and visual selective and divided attention task. Among females, exposure to tobacco smoke during prenatal or adolescent development was associated with reductions in auditory and visual attention performance accuracy that were greatest in female smokers with prenatal exposure (combined exposure). Among males, combined exposure was associated with marked deficits in auditory attention, suggesting greater vulnerability of neurocircuitry supporting auditory attention to insult stemming from developmental exposure to tobacco smoke in males. Activation of brain regions that support auditory attention was greater in adolescents with prenatal or adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke relative to adolescents with neither prenatal nor adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke. These findings extend earlier preclinical work and suggest that, in humans, prenatal and adolescent exposure to nicotine exerts gender-specific deleterious effects on auditory and visual attention, with concomitant alterations in the efficiency of neurocircuitry supporting auditory attention.

  19. [Adolescent pathological gambling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, A; Karila, L; Lejoyeux, M

    2015-05-01

    Although experts have long thought that the problems of gambling involved only adults, recent studies tend to show that teenagers are also affected. The objective of this paper is to show the characteristics of pathological gambling in adolescents. This review focuses on the clinical features, prevalence, psychopathology, prevention and treatment of this disorder. A review of the medical literature was conducted, using PubMed, using the following keywords alone or combined: pathological gambling, dependence, addiction and adolescents. We selected 12 English articles from 1997 to 2014. Recent work estimate that between 4 and 8% of adolescents suffer from problem gambling, and the prevalence of pathological gambling is 2-4 times higher in adolescents than in adults. The term adolescent pathological gambler starts early around the age of 10-12 years, with a quick change of status from casual to that of problem gambler and player. Complications appear quickly and comorbidities are common. There is no curative pharmacological treatment approved by health authorities. Pathological gambling among adolescents has grown significantly in recent years and should be promptly taken care of. Further studies must be performed to improve our understanding of this problem among adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of a culturally tailored physical activity promotion program on selected self-regulation skills and attitudes in adolescents of an underserved, multiethnic milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberge, Suzanne; Bush, Paula Louise; Chagnon, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    To implement a culturally tailored physical activity (PA) promotion program (FunAction) and to assess its impact on five self-regulation skills and attitudes in adolescents. Design . The design and implementation of the FunAction program were informed by social marketing principles. The study used a quasi-experimental approach to assess the impact of the program on specific outcome variables. A multiethnic, underserved middle school in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The intervention group was made up of grade 8 students (n  =  165) and the control group was made up of grade 7 students (n  =  137). During the 16-week intervention, adolescents were able to choose from a variety of 45-minute cardiovascular PAs offered daily during their school lunch period. Adolescents participated in the activities on a voluntary basis. A self-report questionnaire was administered preintervention and postintervention to measure adolescents' scores on the following self-regulation skills and attitudes: self-control, self-esteem, attention/concentration, social competence, and interethnic relationships. Three-way repeated measures analyses of variance and correlational analyses were used. Results . A significant improvement was observed only in attention/concentration. Girls' attention/concentration scores improved significantly in the intervention group compared to the control group (F(1,127)  =  16.26, p marketing principles can help encourage adolescents from underserved, multiethnic milieus to participate in PA during their school lunch hour. Furthermore, voluntary participation in a culturally tailored PA program can improve youths' attention/concentration.

  1. Parental Qualities as Predictors of Adolescent Conformity: Perceptions from Adolescents, Mothers, and Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Carolyn S.; Peterson, Gary W.

    The purpose of this study was to examine how adolescent and parental perceptions of selected parental qualities predicted adolescent conformity to parental expectations, using symbolic interaction as a conceptual foundation. Self-report questionnaire data were collected from a sample of 326 families with adolescents. Four separate multiple…

  2. Relationship between sport participation and the physical, motor performance and anthropometric components of a selected group of grade 10 adolescents / Ninette Duvenhage

    OpenAIRE

    Duvenhage, Ninette

    2012-01-01

    Sport participation is positively associated with an increase in various physical, motor performance and anthropometric components, however, these benefits are influenced by the gender, race and the type of sport children participate in. Despite this, no researchers have investigated this association and the possible role of gender, race and the nature of sport participation on the possible benefits that can be derived among South African adolescents. It is against this background...

  3. An adult-based insulin resistance genetic risk score associates with insulin resistance, metabolic traits and altered fat distribution in Danish children and adolescents who are overweight or obese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graae, Anne-Sofie; Hollensted, Mette; Kloppenborg, Julie T

    2018-01-01

    and adolescents from a population-based study. Anthropometric data, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans, BP, fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin and fasting plasma lipid measurements were obtained, and HOMA-IR was calculated. The GRS53 was examined for association with metabolic traits in children...... by linear regressions using an additive genetic model. In overweight/obese children and adolescents, the GRS53 associated with higher HOMA-IR (β = 0.109 ± 0.050 (SE); p = 2.73 × 10-2), fasting plasma glucose (β = 0.010 ± 0.005 mmol/l; p = 2.51 × 10-2) and systolic BP SD score (β = 0.026 ± 0.012; p = 3...

  4. Adolescent rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshman, David

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents are commonly seen as irrational, a position supported to varying degrees by many developmentalists, who often appeal to recent research on adolescent brains. Careful review of relevant evidence, however, shows that (1) adults are less rational than is generally assumed, (2) adolescents (and adults) are categorically different from children with respect to the attainment of advanced levels of rationality and psychological functioning, and (3) adolescents and adults do not differ categorically from each other with respect to any rational competencies, irrational tendencies, brain structures, or neurological functioning. Development often continues in adolescence and beyond but categorical claims about adolescents as distinct from adults cannot be justified. A review of U.S. Supreme Court decisions concerning intellectual freedom, reproductive freedom, and criminal responsibility shows ongoing ambivalence and confusion about the rationality of adolescents. Developmental theory and research suggest that adolescents should be conceptualized as young adults, not immature brains, with important implications for their roles, rights, and responsibilities.

  5. Peers and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus, Kimberly

    2003-05-01

    There is a considerable body of empirical research that has identified adolescent peer relationships as a primary factor involved in adolescent cigarette smoking. Despite this large research base, many questions remain unanswered about the mechanisms by which peers affect youths' smoking behavior. Understanding these processes of influence is key to the development of prevention and intervention programs designed to address adolescent smoking as a significant public health concern. In this paper, theoretical frameworks and empirical findings are reviewed critically which inform the current state of knowledge regarding peer influences on teenage smoking. Specifically, social learning theory, primary socialization theory, social identity theory and social network theory are discussed. Empirical findings regarding peer influence and selection, as well as multiple reference points in adolescent friendships, including best friendships, romantic relationships, peer groups and social crowds, are also reviewed. Review of this work reveals the contribution that peers have in adolescents' use of tobacco, in some cases promoting use, and in other cases deterring it. This review also suggests that peer influences on smoking are more subtle than commonly thought and need to be examined more carefully, including consideration of larger social contexts, e.g. the family, neighborhood, and media. Recommendations for future investigations are made, as well as suggestions for specific methodological approaches that offer promise for advancing our knowledge of the contribution of peers on adolescent tobacco use.

  6. Risky Sexual Behaviours among Adolescents in Owerri Municipal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-03-01

    Mar 1, 2009 ... exist between adolescents RSBs and age at first sexual experience or adolescent perception of parental ... of unwanted pregnancy, abortion or contracting and ... in India and ... mixed), from where the random selection.

  7. Selective Visual Attention Towards Oneself and Associated State Body Satisfaction: an Eye-Tracking Study in Adolescents with Different Types of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Anika; Schneider, Silvia; Waldorf, Manuel; Braks, Karsten; Huber, Thomas J; Adolph, Dirk; Vocks, Silja

    2017-11-01

    The development of eating disorders is associated with a body-related attentional bias. Although eating disorders are especially prevalent in adolescence, so far, no study has analyzed gaze patterns and state body image in response to viewing one's own body in youth. To fill this gap, the present study aimed to examine a body-related attentional bias and state body satisfaction in adolescents with various forms of eating disorders. Girls with anorexia nervosa, restrictive type (AN-R; n = 30), anorexia nervosa, binge eating/purging type (AN-BP; n = 26), bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 22), clinical controls with anxiety disorders (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 43) looked at photographs of their own and a peer's body, while their spontaneous eye movements were recorded. After stimulus presentation, state body satisfaction and individual attractiveness ratings for areas of the presented stimuli were assessed. An analysis of variance revealed that participants of all subgroups showed an attentive preference for unattractive areas of one's own body. Girls with AN-R attended significantly longer to unattractive body areas than both control groups and significantly shorter to attractive body areas than healthy controls. State body dissatisfaction was more prominent in all eating disorder subgroups, with significantly lower scores in BN compared to AN-R. In general, the higher the state body dissatisfaction, the stronger was the deficit orientation on one's own body. The attentional bias towards unattractive body areas, which is most pronounced in AN-R, indicates that interventions aiming to modify distorted attention might be promising in the prevention and treatment of eating disorders in adolescence.

  8. Cognitive control network connectivity in adolescent women with and without a parental history of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Clasen

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Depressed parents may transmit depression vulnerability to their adolescent daughters via alterations in functional connectivity within neural circuits that underlie cognitive control of emotional information.

  9. Detection rates, trends in and factors affecting observed levels of selected volatile organic compounds in blood among US adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2017-12-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed to evaluate detection rates, trend in and factors affecting the observed levels of 1,4-dichlorobenzene, benzene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, styrene, toluene, and m/p-xylene among US adolescents and adults over 2005-2012. Over 2005-20102, among adolescents, detection rates declined by more than 50% for benzene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene, and among adults, detection rates declined by more than 50% for ethylbenzene and o-xylene and by a little less than 50% for benzene. Among adults, adjusted levels of 1, 4-dichlorobenzene, benzene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, toluene, and m/p-xylene decreased by 13.7%, 17.1%, 20%, 17.7%, 23.2%, and 18.7% respectively for every two-year survey cycle. Among adolescents, percentage decline in the levels of 1, 4-dichlorobenzene, benzene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, styrene, toluene, and m/p-xylene was 15.2%, 21.4%, 19.3%, 16.1%, 47.8%, and 17.7% respectively for every two year survey period. The ratio of adjusted geometric means for adult smokers as compared to adult nonsmokers was 10.7 for benzene, 3.5 for ethylbenzene, 2.0 for o-xylene, 3.4 for styrene, 3.5 for toluene, and 2.2 for m/p-xylene. Among adolescents, gender did not affect the adjusted levels of any of the seven VOCs, and the order in which adjusted levels for 1, 4-dichlorobenzene by race/ethnicity was observed was: non-Hispanic white (0.038ng/mL)non-Hispanic black (0.178ng/mL) and most of the pairwise comparisons were statistically significantly different (pvs. 0.025ng/mL). For adults, gender did not affect the adjusted levels of 1, 4-dicholorobenzene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, styrene, toluene, and m/p-xylene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Exposure of mother rats to chronic unpredictable stress before pregnancy alters the metabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate in the right hippocampus of offspring in early adolescence in a sexually dimorphic manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuejun; Shen, Zhiwei; Hu, Liu; Xia, Fang; Li, Yuewa; Zhuang, Jingwen; Chen, Peishan; Huang, Qingjun

    2016-12-30

    There is increasing evidence that mothers' exposure to stress before or during pregnancy is linked to an incidence of psychiatric disorders in offspring. However, a few studies have estimated the role of sex in the detrimental effects of pre-gestational stress on the offspring rats at early adolescence. Sex differences regarding the metabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate in the right hippocampus were investigated by MRS when the offspring rats reached 30 days. Additionally, the impact of pre-gestational stress exposed on an additional short-term acute stressor, such as forced swim, was examined in the male and female offspring rats. Our findings showed female offspring rats were more vulnerable to stressful conditions for either pre-gestational stress or acute stress in early adolescence, and had decreased GABA/Cr+PCr and Glu/Cr+PCr in the right hippocampus. Interestingly, in response to forced swim, male offspring rats whose mothers were exposed to pre-gestational stress were more affected by the short-term acute stressor and this was manifested by change of Glu/GABA and Glu/Gln in the right hippocampus. These data indicated that although female offspring rats were more vulnerable to pre-gestational stress from their mothers than males, in response to an additional acute stressor they showed better response. Therefore, both sexually dimorphic manner and combination of stressful procedures should be carefully considered in the study of stress-related psychiatric disorders in early adolescence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Forgetting the best when predicting the worst: Preliminary observations on neural circuit function in adolescent social anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M. Jarcho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder typically begins in adolescence, a sensitive period for brain development, when increased complexity and salience of peer relationships requires novel forms of social learning. Disordered social learning in adolescence may explain how brain dysfunction promotes social anxiety. Socially anxious adolescents (n = 15 and adults (n = 19 and non-anxious adolescents (n = 24 and adults (n = 32 predicted, then received, social feedback from high and low-value peers while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. A surprise recall task assessed memory biases for feedback. Neural correlates of social evaluation prediction errors (PEs were assessed by comparing engagement to expected and unexpected positive and negative feedback. For socially anxious adolescents, but not adults or healthy participants of either age group, PEs elicited heightened striatal activity and negative fronto-striatal functional connectivity. This occurred selectively to unexpected positive feedback from high-value peers and corresponded with impaired memory for social feedback. While impaired memory also occurred in socially-anxious adults, this impairment was unrelated to brain-based PE activity. Thus, social anxiety in adolescence may relate to altered neural correlates of PEs that contribute to impaired learning about social feedback. Small samples necessitate replication. Nevertheless, results suggest that the relationship between learning and fronto-striatal function may attenuate as development progresses.

  12. Socioeconomic status and self-reported oral health in Iranian adolescents: the role of selected oral health behaviors and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaghi, Vahid; Underwood, Martin; Marinho, Valeria; Eldridge, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated health inequality for self-reported oral health outcomes among adolescents. The role of oral health behaviors and psychological factors in explaining oral health inequality was investigated using the hypothesis of mediation. This was a cross-sectional study that used self-completed questionnaires. This study sampled 639 (315 male and 324 female) 15- to 17-year-old adolescents (second and third grade high school students) of both sexes in the city of Sanandaj in the province of Kurdistan, western Iran. Socioeconomic indicators of the study were subjective socioeconomic status, wealth index, and parental education. Oral health behaviors were measured as toothbrushing frequency, dental flossing frequency, and dental visits. Psychological factors were self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Self-reported oral health outcomes were single item self-rated oral health and the experience of dental pain. Regression analysis was used to test four conditions for the hypothesis of mediation. The results showed that the inequality is present in oral health for some pairs of relationships between socioeconomic status and oral health outcomes. Adjustment for oral health behaviors and psychological factors, individually and simultaneously, led to loss of statistical significance for some pairs of the relationships. However, adjustment for oral health behaviors and psychological factors led to only small changes in the associations between socioeconomic status and self-reported oral health outcomes. This study found a graded oral health inequality, but no strong evidence to support the hypothesis that oral health behaviors and psychological factors mediate oral health inequality for self-reported oral health outcomes. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  13. Response rates and selection problems, with emphasis on mental health variables and DNA sampling, in large population-based, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of adolescents in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Lars

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selection bias is a threat to the internal validity of epidemiological studies. In light of a growing number of studies which aim to provide DNA, as well as a considerable number of invitees who declined to participate, we discuss response rates, predictors of lost to follow-up and failure to provide DNA, and the presence of possible selection bias, based on five samples of adolescents. Methods We included nearly 7,000 adolescents from two longitudinal studies of 18/19 year olds with two corresponding cross-sectional baseline studies at age 15/16 (10th graders, and one cross-sectional study of 13th graders (18/19 years old. DNA was sampled from the cheek mucosa of 18/19 year olds. Predictors of lost to follow-up and failure to provide DNA were studied by Poisson regression. Selection bias in the follow-up at age 18/19 was estimated through investigation of prevalence ratios (PRs between selected exposures (physical activity, smoking and outcome variables (general health, mental distress, externalizing problems measured at baseline. Results Out of 5,750 who participated at age 15/16, we lost 42% at follow-up at age 18/19. The percentage of participants who gave their consent to DNA provision was as high as the percentage that consented to a linkage of data with other health registers and surveys, approximately 90%. Significant predictors of lost to follow-up and failure to provide DNA samples in the present genetic epidemiological study were: male gender; non-western ethnicity; postal survey compared with school-based; low educational plans; low education and income of father; low perceived family economy; unmarried parents; poor self-reported health; externalized symptoms and smoking, with some differences in subgroups of ethnicity and gender. The association measures (PRs were quite similar among participants and all invitees, with some minor discrepancies in subgroups of non-western boys and girls. Conclusions Lost to

  14. Response rates and selection problems, with emphasis on mental health variables and DNA sampling, in large population-based, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of adolescents in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjertness, Espen; Sagatun, Ase; Green, Kristian; Lien, Lars; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Selmer, Randi

    2010-10-12

    Selection bias is a threat to the internal validity of epidemiological studies. In light of a growing number of studies which aim to provide DNA, as well as a considerable number of invitees who declined to participate, we discuss response rates, predictors of lost to follow-up and failure to provide DNA, and the presence of possible selection bias, based on five samples of adolescents. We included nearly 7,000 adolescents from two longitudinal studies of 18/19 year olds with two corresponding cross-sectional baseline studies at age 15/16 (10th graders), and one cross-sectional study of 13th graders (18/19 years old). DNA was sampled from the cheek mucosa of 18/19 year olds. Predictors of lost to follow-up and failure to provide DNA were studied by Poisson regression. Selection bias in the follow-up at age 18/19 was estimated through investigation of prevalence ratios (PRs) between selected exposures (physical activity, smoking) and outcome variables (general health, mental distress, externalizing problems) measured at baseline. Out of 5,750 who participated at age 15/16, we lost 42% at follow-up at age 18/19. The percentage of participants who gave their consent to DNA provision was as high as the percentage that consented to a linkage of data with other health registers and surveys, approximately 90%. Significant predictors of lost to follow-up and failure to provide DNA samples in the present genetic epidemiological study were: male gender; non-western ethnicity; postal survey compared with school-based; low educational plans; low education and income of father; low perceived family economy; unmarried parents; poor self-reported health; externalized symptoms and smoking, with some differences in subgroups of ethnicity and gender. The association measures (PRs) were quite similar among participants and all invitees, with some minor discrepancies in subgroups of non-western boys and girls. Lost to follow-up had marginal impact on the estimated prevalence ratios

  15. Growth at adolescence. Clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, W A

    1985-03-01

    Several highly significant changes occur within a relatively short period of time during adolescence. Great alteration in physique, developmental progress in thinking, and psychologic gains toward attaining ego identity take place but not always synchronously. Attention is paid to physical changes because they are visible and are of intense concern to adolescents, but physicians and other professionals should remember cognitive and psychosocial growth are affected by physical growth, and vice versa. Often there is a temporary disequilibrium in the relationship of these three areas of growth, and this can affect one or another part of the developmental pattern. It is therefore necessary to remind ourselves of the diversity of adolescent growth, and of adolescents, when caring for a young patient and be cognizant of growth in areas other than physical. More and more children with congenital or acquired handicaps are living to become adolescents and perhaps adults. Handicaps can be limited to one of the three major areas of growth or involve them all in varying degrees. For example, sickle cell disease, Crohn's disease, or ulcerative colitis may postpone physical growth for a significant period; this lack of pubertal change can affect psychosocial development but usually does not impair cognitive growth. Mental retardation may have no apparent effect on physical growth but can handicap the adolescent's psychosocial development. Growth still occurs in a sequential pattern but often it seems that handicapped youngsters reach a developmental milestone by a series of "detours." Physicians must recognize these lags or differences and try to facilitate progress, promote self-esteem, and provide understanding. Much can be done with anticipatory guidance. Adolescence often provides the opportunity to overcome past damage or, in some instances, to start anew on a more optimal program for physical and psychosocial growth. Young adolescent boys and girls usually look to the

  16. Adolescent murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, A; Bradford, J M; Bourget, D; Jones, B; Carmichael, M

    1991-10-01

    Clinical, developmental and environmental factors were retrospectively studied in 14 adolescent murderers who had been referred to a forensic psychiatric clinic over an 11 year period. Results of these analyses were compared with findings from previous reports. The majority of subjects came from split families. There was a greater than expected degree of psychiatric illness in the adolescents. Previous psychiatric contact, antisocial behaviour and substance abuse were common among these adolescents. A tentative profile of adolescents who are likely to commit murder can therefore be drawn up, which may suggest direction for preventive action and rehabilitation.

  17. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  18. Sleep and its importance in adolescence and in common adolescent somatic and psychiatric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Br

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Serge Brand1, Roumen Kirov21Depression and Sleep Research Unit, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2Institute of Neurobiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, BulgariaThe authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Restoring sleep is strongly associated with a better physical, cognitive, and psychological well-being. By contrast, poor or disordered sleep is related to impairment of cognitive and psychological functioning and worsened physical health. These associations are well documented not only in adults but also in children and adolescents. Importantly, adolescence is hallmarked by dramatic maturational changes in sleep and its neurobiological regulation, hormonal status, and many psychosocial and physical processes. Thus, the role of sleep in mental and physical health during adolescence and in adolescent patients is complex. However, it has so far received little attention. This review first presents contemporary views about the complex neurobiology of sleep and its functions with important implications for adolescence. Second, existing complex relationships between common adolescent somatic/organic, sleep-related, and psychiatric disorders and certain sleep alterations are discussed. It is concluded that poor or altered sleep in adolescent patients may trigger and maintain many psychiatric and physical disorders or combinations of these conditions, which presumably hinder recovery and may cross into later stages of life. Therefore, timely diagnosis and management of sleep problems appear critical for growth and development in adolescent patients.Keywords: cognitive, psychological, neurobiology, growth, development, sleep physiology, rapid eye movement, non-REM sleep, behavioral disorders, adolescents

  19. Effects of a selective educational system on fatigue, sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and depression among senior high school adolescents in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen TY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tien-Yu Chen,1,2 Yu-Ching Chou,3 Nian-Sheng Tzeng,1,2,4 Hsin-An Chang,1,2,4 Shin-Chang Kuo,1,2,5 Pei-Yin Pan,1,2 Yi-Wei Yeh,1,2,5 Chin-Bin Yeh,1,2 Wei-Chung Mao1,2,6 1Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, 2School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, 3School of Public Health, National Defense Medical Center, 4Student Counseling Center, National Defense Medical Center, 5Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, 6Institute of Brain Science, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Objective: The aim of the study reported here was to clarify the effects of academic pressure on fatigue, sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and depression among senior high school adolescents in Taiwan. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 757 senior high school adolescents who were classified into four groups: Grade 1 (n=261, Grade 2 (n=228, Grade 3T (n=199; Grade 3 students who had another college entrance test to take, and Grade 3S (n=69; Grade 3 students who had succeeded in their college application. Fatigue, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and depression were assessed using the Chinese version of the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory – Short Form, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index-Taiwan Form, the Chinese version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and the Chinese version of the Beck Depression Inventory®-II (BDI-II, respectively. Results: Physical, emotional, and mental fatigue scores were all higher in higher-grade groups. The Grade 3T (test students had the worst fatigue severity, and the Grade 3S (success students had the least fatigue severity. More than half of the students (60.9% went to bed after 12 am, and they had on average 6.0 hours of sleep per night. More than 30% of the students in Grade 2 (37.3% and Grades 3T/S (30.2%/30.4% possibly had daily sleepiness problems. The students in Grade 3T had the worst BDI-II score (13.27±9.24, and the Grade 3S

  20. Adenylyl cylases 1 and 8 mediate select striatal-dependent behaviors and sensitivity to ethanol stimulation in the adolescent period following acute neonatal ethanol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susick, Laura L; Lowing, Jennifer L; Bosse, Kelly E; Hildebrandt, Clara C; Chrumka, Alexandria C; Conti, Alana C

    2014-08-01

    Neonatal alcohol exposure in rodents causes dramatic neurodegenerative effects throughout the developing nervous system, particularly in the striatum, acutely after exposure. These acute neurodegenerative effects are augmented in mice lacking adenylyl cyclases 1 and 8 (AC1/8) as neonatal mice with a genetic deletion of both AC isoforms (DKO) have increased vulnerability to ethanol-induced striatal neurotoxicity compared to wild type (WT) controls. While neonatal ethanol exposure is known to negatively impact cognitive behaviors, such as executive functioning and working memory in adolescent and adult animals, the threshold of ethanol exposure required to impinge upon developmental behaviors in mice has not been extensively examined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the behavioral effects of neonatal ethanol exposure using various striatal-dependent developmental benchmarks and to assess the impact of AC1/8 deletion on this developmental progression. WT and DKO mice were treated with 2.5 g/kg ethanol or saline on postnatal day (P)6 and later subjected to the wire suspension, negative geotaxis, postural reflex, grid hang, tail suspension and accelerating rotarod tests at various time points. At P30, mice were evaluated for their hypnotic responses to 4.0 g/kg ethanol by using the loss of righting reflex assay and ethanol-induced stimulation of locomotor activity after 2.0 g/kg ethanol. Ethanol exposure significantly impaired DKO performance in the negative geotaxis test while genetic deletion of AC1/8 alone increased grid hang time and decreased immobility time in the tail suspension test with a concomitant increase in hindlimb clasping behavior. Locomotor stimulation was significantly increased in animals that received ethanol as neonates, peaking significantly in ethanol-treated DKO mice compared to ethanol-treated WT controls, while sedation duration following high-dose ethanol challenge was unaffected. These data indicate that the

  1. Adolescent Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Susan; Seligman, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Discusses legal and developmental aspects of adolescent abuse, as distinguished from child abuse. The role of the school counselor in identifying and counseling abused adolescents and their families is discussed and several forms of intervention and support services are described. (JAC)

  2. Regulation of adolescent sleep: implications for behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carskadon, Mary A; Acebo, Christine; Jenni, Oskar G

    2004-06-01

    Adolescent development is accompanied by profound changes in the timing and amounts of sleep and wakefulness. Many aspects of these changes result from altered psychosocial and life-style circumstances that accompany adolescence. The maturation of biological processes regulating sleep/wake systems, however, may be strongly related to the sleep timing and amount during adolescence-either as "compelling" or "permissive" factors. The two-process model of sleep regulation posits a fundamental sleep-wake homeostatic process (process S) working in concert with the circadian biological timing system (process C) as the primary intrinsic regulatory factors. How do these systems change during adolescence? We present data from adolescent participants examining EEG markers of sleep homeostasis to evaluate whether process S shows maturational changes permissive of altered sleep patterns across puberty. Our data indicate that certain aspects of the homeostatic system are unchanged from late childhood to young adulthood, while other features change in a manner that is permissive of later bedtimes in older adolescents. We also show alterations of the circadian timing system indicating a possible circadian substrate for later adolescent sleep timing. The circadian parameters we have assessed include phase, period, melatonin secretory pattern, light sensitivity, and phase relationships, all of which show evidence of changes during pubertal development with potential to alter sleep patterns substantially. However the changes are mediated-whether through process S, process C, or by a combination-many adolescents have too little sleep at the wrong circadian phase. This pattern is associated with increased risks for excessive sleepiness, difficulty with mood regulation, impaired academic performance, learning difficulties, school tardiness and absenteeism, and accidents and injuries.

  3. Too Many Friends: Social Integration, Network Cohesion and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falci, Christina; McNeely, Clea

    2009-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of adolescents, we examine associations among social integration (network size), network cohesion (alter-density), perceptions of social relationships (e.g., social support) and adolescent depressive symptoms. We find that adolescents with either too large or too small a network have higher levels of…

  4. Measurement and Design Issues in the Study of Adolescent Sexual Behavior and the Evaluation of Adolescent Sexual Health Behavior Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael; Palacios, Rebecca; Penhollow, Tina M.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the quality of research and commentary concerning adolescent sexuality and evaluation of both comprehensive sexuality education and abstinence education programs, this article aims to help readers (1) select appropriate measures to study adolescent sexual behavior, (2) develop appropriate study designs to evaluate adolescent sexual…

  5. Internet mediated adolescent relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício de Souza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute towards the comprehension of the adhesion of adolescent to digital technologies and their usage in the search for or consolidation of relationships with their peers. The objective was to analyze the role of blogs in the maintenance and establishment of relationships among adolescents from the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Three boys’ blogs and three girls’ blogs were selected, and five pages of each blog were selected, in a total of 30 pages. Categories were elaborated from reading the posts left at the 30 pages and subsequently used to classify and quantify the posts. Messages and comments left at the blogs had a positive affective connotation, in search for approximation and contact with the blog owner. Messages were also noted for gender differences. It was concluded that some determined patterns of offline interaction guided the establishment of online relationships.

  6. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    and rules. The article examines the reasons for both resistance and selectiveness to Europeanization of the Danish minority policy through a “path dependency” perspective accentuating decision makers’ reluctance to deviate from existing institutional commitments, even in subsequently significantly altered...... political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  7. Neurochemical Changes after Acute Binge Toluene Inhalation in Adolescent and Adult Rats: A High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K.; Galloway, Matthew P.; McMechan, Andrew P.; Irtenkauf, Susan; Hannigan, John H.; Bowen, Scott E.

    2009-01-01

    Inhalant abuse in young people is a growing public health concern. We reported previously that acute toluene intoxication in young rats, using a pattern of exposures that approximate abuse patterns of inhalant use in humans, significantly altered neurochemical measures in select brain regions. In this study, adolescent and young adult rats were exposed similarly to an acute (2 × 15 min), high dose (8000 − 12000 ppm) of toluene and high-resolution magic angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-MAS 1H-MRS) was used to assess neurochemical profiles of tissue samples from a number of brain regions collected immediately following solvent exposure. The current investigation focused on N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), choline-containing compounds, creatine, glutamate, GABA, and glutamine. Contrary to our predictions, no significant alterations were found in levels of NAA, choline, creatine, glutamate, or glutamine in adolescent animals. In contrast to these minimal effects in adolescents, binge toluene exposure altered several neurochemical parameters in young adult rats, including decreased levels of choline and GABA in the frontal cortex and striatum and lowered glutamine and NAA levels in the frontal cortex. One of the more robust findings was a wide-ranging increase in lactate after toluene exposure in adult animals, an effect not observed in adolescents. These age-dependent effects of toluene are distinct from those reported previously in juvenile rats and suggest a developmental difference in vulnerability to the effects of inhalants. Specifically, the results suggest that the neurochemical response to toluene in adolescents is attenuated compared to adults, and imply an association between these neurochemical differences and age-influenced differences in solvent abuse in humans. PMID:19628036

  8. Clinical Perspective Cognitive behavioral therapy for adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many interventions are available for treating adolescent depression. This paper attempts to present a summary of cognitive behavioral therapies/techniques that might be useful for treating depression in Asian immigrant adolescents. Articles were selected by conducting a literature search on Psyc-Info. Prevalence ...

  9. Mass Media Influence on Adolescent Consumer Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Roy L.; And Others

    Questionnaires completed by 607 middle school and high school students provided data about the learning of selected advertising-related cognitions among adolescents and on the short-term effect of these cognitions and other communication variables on adolescent consumption behavior. Among the findings were the following: susceptibility to…

  10. Factors Associated With Adolescent Malnutrition Among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the factors associated with malnutrition among adolescents in senior secondary schools in The Abuja Municipal area council. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among adolescents (10-19 years) in secondary schools. A multistage sampling technique was employed to select a total of 1700 ...

  11. Risky choice and brain CRF after adolescent ethanol vapor exposure and social stress in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutros, Nathalie; Der-Avakian, Andre; Semenova, Svetlana; Lee, Soon; Markou, Athina

    2016-09-15

    Adolescent ethanol exposure increases risky choice and alters corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) systems in adulthood. The impact of stress on risky choice after adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure is not known. We investigated time-specific effects of AIE vapor exposure during early adolescence on risky choice after stress or no stress in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were exposed to air or AIE vapor on postnatal days 28-42 (adolescence) and were exposed to 10days of social defeat or no stress on postnatal days 172-181 (adulthood). Risky choice was assessed in the probability discounting task under baseline conditions and after days 1 and 10 of social defeat. CRF and CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1) mRNA levels were assessed in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) 24h post-stress to evaluate persistent effects of stress on the brain. AIE exposure had no effect on risky choice either at baseline or after social defeat. Additionally, neither acute nor chronic social defeat affected risky choice in air-exposed rats. In the PFC, chronic social defeat selectively decreased CRF mRNA levels in air-exposed rats and increased CRFR1 mRNA levels in all rats. AIE exposure increased CRF mRNA levels in the CeA with no effect of social stress. Our results indicate no effect of ethanol exposure via vapor during early adolescence on risky choice, while our previous findings indicated that AIE exposure via gavage affected risky choice. Both AIE exposure and social defeat altered CRF and CRFR1 mRNA levels in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Food Insecurity and Rural Adolescent Personal Health, Home, and Academic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafelt, Amy; Hearst, Mary O.; Wang, Qi; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food-insecure (FIS) adolescents struggle in school and with health and mental health more often than food-secure (FS) adolescents. Rural communities experience important disparities in health, but little is known about rural FIS adolescents. This study aims to describe select characteristics of rural adolescents by food-security…

  13. Neurocognitive Correlates of White Matter Quality in Adolescent Substance Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bava, Sunita; Jacobus, Joanna; Mahmood, Omar; Yang, Tony T.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Progressive myelination during adolescence implicates an increased vulnerability to neurotoxic substances and enduring neurocognitive consequences. This study examined the cognitive manifestations of altered white matter microstructure in chronic marijuana and alcohol-using (MJ + ALC) adolescents. Methods: Thirty-six MJ + ALC…

  14. Correlation between parent-adolescent communication and adolescents' premarital sex risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyatuti; Hafilah Shabrina, Citra; Yuni Nursasi, Astuti

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have indicated the parent-adolescent relationship has a correlation to adolescents' premarital sex behavior risk. Therefore, the aim of this study was to discover the influence of parent-adolescent communication on adolescents' risk of sexual issues. This was a quantitative study with a cross-sectional design. The population of this study consisted of students from a high school in Jakarta. A purposive sampling technique was used, which resulted in the selection of 253 students as samples. A PACS (Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale) questionnaire was applied. The results showed that 59.3% of the adolescents studied were at risk for engaging in premarital sex, while the risk for adolescents with positive communication with their parents was 56.5%. Bivariate analysis also showed a significant correlation between gender and parent-adolescent communication and the risk of adolescent premarital sex behavior (α adolescents. Communication must align with adolescents' developmental tasks. Nurses can also create a promotion program on the topic of communication for parents and adolescents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Parental Monitoring, Parent-Adolescent Communication, and Adolescents' Trust in Their Parents in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuhua Ying

    Full Text Available Trust is an important aspect of interpersonal relationships, but little is known about adolescents' interpersonal trust. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations among parental monitoring, parent-adolescent communication, and adolescents' trust in their parents in China.Data in this study were collected as part of the cross-sectional study of children in China. 3349 adolescents (female 48.6%, age range of 12-15 years were randomly selected from 35 secondary schools in April, 2009 and administered to the Adolescent Interpersonal Trust Scale, the Parental Monitoring Scale, and the Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale.Adolescents' trust in their parents was positively related to parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication. Furthermore, parent-adolescent communication mediated the association between parental monitoring and adolescents' trust in their parents. The mediation model fit data of both genders and three age groups equally well.Parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication play an importance role in fostering adolescents' trust in their parents.

  16. Variant BDNF-Val66Met Polymorphism is Associated with Layer-Specific Alterations in GABAergic Innervation of Pyramidal Neurons, Elevated Anxiety and Reduced Vulnerability of Adolescent Male Mice to Activity-Based Anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Surgent, Olivia; Rana, Barkha S; Lee, Francis; Aoki, Chiye

    2017-08-01

    Previously, we determined that rodents' vulnerability to food restriction (FR)-evoked wheel running during adolescence (activity-based anorexia, ABA) is associated with failures to increase GABAergic innervation of hippocampal and medial prefrontal pyramidal neurons. Since brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes GABAergic synaptogenesis, we hypothesized that individual differences in this vulnerability may arise from differences in the link between BDNF bioavailability and FR-evoked wheel running. We tested this hypothesis in male BDNF-Val66Met knock-in mice (BDNFMet/Met), known for reduction in the activity-dependent BDNF secretion and elevated anxiety-like behaviors. We found that 1) in the absence of FR or a wheel (i.e., control), BDNFMet/Met mice are more anxious than wild-type (WT) littermates, 2) electron microscopically verified GABAergic innervations of pyramidal neurons of BDNFMet/Met mice are reduced at distal dendrites in hippocampal CA1 and medial prefrontal cortex, 3) following ABA, WT mice exhibit anxiety equal to those of the BDNFMet/Met mice and have lost GABAergic innervation along distal dendrites, 4) BDNFMet/Met mice show blunted ABA vulnerability, and 5) unexpectedly, GABAergic innervation is higher at somata of BDNFMet/Met mice than of WT. We conclude that lamina-specific GABAergic inhibition is important for regulating anxiety, whether arising from environmental stress, such as food deprivation, or genetically, such as BDNFMet/Met single nucleotide polymorphism. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Does adolescents' religiousness moderate links between harsh parenting and adolescent substance use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Farley, Julee P; Holmes, Christopher J; Longo, Gregory S

    2014-12-01

    Extant literature suggests that religiousness is inversely related to adolescent substance use; yet, no systematic investigation has examined whether religiousness may be a protective factor against substance use in the presence of risk factors. We examined whether religiousness moderates the links between parents' psychological and physical aggression and adolescent substance use directly and indirectly through adolescent self-control. The sample comprised adolescents (n = 220, 45% female) and their primary caregivers. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested that adolescents with low religiousness were likely to engage in substance use when subjected to harsh parenting, but there was no association between harsh parenting and substance use among adolescents with high religiousness. Furthermore, although harsh parenting was related to poor adolescent self-control regardless of religiousness levels, poor self-control was significantly related to substance use for adolescents with low religiousness, whereas the link between poor self-control and substance use did not exist for adolescents with high religiousness. The findings present the first evidence that adolescent religiousness may be a powerful buffering factor that can positively alter pathways to substance use in the presence of risk factors such as harsh parenting and poor self-control.

  18. Anterior Cortical Development During Adolescence in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najt, Pablo; Wang, Fei; Spencer, Linda; Johnston, Jennifer A Y; Cox Lippard, Elizabeth T; Pittman, Brian P; Lacadie, Cheryl; Staib, Lawrence H; Papademetris, Xenophon; Blumberg, Hilary P

    2016-02-15

    Increasing evidence supports a neurodevelopmental model for bipolar disorder (BD), with adolescence as a critical period in its development. Developmental abnormalities of anterior paralimbic and heteromodal frontal cortices, key structures in emotional regulation processes and central in BD, are implicated. However, few longitudinal studies have been conducted, limiting understanding of trajectory alterations in BD. In this study, we performed longitudinal neuroimaging of adolescents with and without BD and assessed volume changes over time, including changes in tissue overall and within gray and white matter. Larger decreases over time in anterior cortical volumes in the adolescents with BD were hypothesized. Gray matter decreases and white matter increases are typically observed during adolescence in anterior cortices. It was hypothesized that volume decreases over time in BD would reflect alterations in those processes, showing larger gray matter contraction and decreased white matter expansion. Two high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained approximately 2 years apart for 35 adolescents with bipolar I disorder (BDI) and 37 healthy adolescents. Differences over time between groups were investigated for volume overall and specifically for gray and white matter. Relative to healthy adolescents, adolescents with BDI showed greater volume contraction over time in a region including insula and orbitofrontal, rostral, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (p adolescence in BDI in anterior cortices, including altered developmental trajectories of anterior gray and white matter. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Adolescents, pregnancy, and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Rebecca S; Brandon, Anna R

    2014-06-01

    Pregnancy during adolescence is a risk factor for adverse medical and psychosocial outcomes, including psychiatric illness. Psychiatric illness is linked with obstetric complications along with impaired maternal functioning in the postpartum period. This article provides a comprehensive review of the research examining the intersection of psychopathology and adolescent pregnancy and the postpartum period. A literature search was conducted using PubMed (Medline), PsycINFO, and CINAHL for articles published between 1990 and 2013 that examined depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and psychosis during pregnancy and the postpartum period in adolescents age 21 years or younger. Articles were selected that covered the following topics: Prevalence or incidence, comorbidity, psychosocial correlates, birth outcomes, parenting, child outcomes, and psychosocial treatment. Forty articles were found and reviewed. There is a substantial research base examining self-reported depressive symptoms in adolescents during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Existing research suggests that pregnant and parenting adolescents are at greater risk for experiencing depressive symptoms than pregnant and postpartum adult women. Depression in the perinatal period is also a risk factor for substance and alcohol abuse and a harsher parenting style in adolescents. Areas for future research in this population include investigating the prevalence, psychosocial correlates, and outcomes of clinically diagnosed Major Depressive Disorder, developing and empirically validating psychotherapeutic treatments, and focusing upon other psychiatric diagnoses such as bipolar disorder, anxiety, and psychosis. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation Exposure in Scoliosis Kyphosis Adolescent Back Pain Spondylolysis For Adolescents For Adults Common Questions & Glossary Resources ... Radiation Exposure in Scoliosis Kyphosis Adolescent Back Pain Spondylolysis For Adolescents For Adults Juvenile Idiopathic Scoliosis Diagnosed ...

  1. Adolescent alcohol exposure: Are there separable vulnerable periods within adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2015-09-01

    There are two key alcohol use patterns among human adolescents that confer increased vulnerability for later alcohol abuse/dependence, along with neurocognitive alterations: (a) early initiation of use during adolescence, and (b) high rates of binge drinking that are particularly prevalent late in adolescence. The central thesis of this review is that lasting neurobehavioral outcomes of these two adolescent exposure patterns may differ. Although it is difficult to disentangle consequences of early use from later binge drinking in human studies given the substantial overlap between groups, these two types of problematic adolescent use are differentially heritable and hence separable to some extent. Although few studies using animal models have manipulated alcohol exposure age, those studies that have have typically observed timing-specific exposure effects, with more marked (or at least different patterns of) lasting consequences evident after exposures during early-mid adolescence than late-adolescence/emerging adulthood, and effects often restricted to male rats in those few instances where sex differences have been explored. As one example, adult male rats exposed to ethanol during early-mid adolescence (postnatal days [P] 25-45) were found to be socially anxious and to retain adolescent-typical ethanol-induced social facilitation into adulthood, effects that were not evident after exposure during late-adolescence/emerging adulthood (P45-65); exposure at the later interval, however, induced lasting tolerance to ethanol's social inhibitory effects that was not evident after exposure early in adolescence. Females, in contrast, were little influenced by ethanol exposure at either interval. Exposure timing effects have likewise been reported following social isolation as well as after repeated exposure to other drugs such as nicotine (and cannabinoids), with effects often, although not always, more pronounced in males where studied. Consistent with these timing

  2. holistic development of adolescents for social intelligence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-31

    Mar 31, 2015 ... International Journal of Basic, Applied and Innovative Research ... this study assesses the relationship between emotional maturity (EM), ... personality (SP) among 100 randomly selected adolescent students from .... Parental support for spiritual individuation and peers interested in discussing spiritual.

  3. Impact of parents’ nutritional knowledge on the nutrition and frequency of consumption of selected products in children and adolescents practicing football in a football club in Bydgoszcz, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Anna Ameryk

    2017-02-01

    A correlation between the parents’ nutritional knowledge and the frequency of consumption of selected products by their children was observed. Parents with insufficient knowledge less frequently served dark bread and thick groats than those with good and sufficient knowledge. Parents with good and sufficient knowledge less frequently served instant soups, canned meat, energy and isotonic drinks. No impact of the parents’ knowledge was observed with reference to white cheese, vegetable oils and sweets. Nutritional education of the parents of young athletes is necessary regardless of their nutritional knowledge. Improving eating habits can positively affect children’s development and achievements in sports.   Keywords: Nutrition; Knowledge; Sport; Young Athletes; Eating habits.

  4. Decision-making in the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Robbins, Trevor W

    2012-09-01

    Adolescence is characterized by making risky decisions. Early lesion and neuroimaging studies in adults pointed to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and related structures as having a key role in decision-making. More recent studies have fractionated decision-making processes into its various components, including the representation of value, response selection (including inter-temporal choice and cognitive control), associative learning, and affective and social aspects. These different aspects of decision-making have been the focus of investigation in recent studies of the adolescent brain. Evidence points to a dissociation between the relatively slow, linear development of impulse control and response inhibition during adolescence versus the nonlinear development of the reward system, which is often hyper-responsive to rewards in adolescence. This suggests that decision-making in adolescence may be particularly modulated by emotion and social factors, for example, when adolescents are with peers or in other affective ('hot') contexts.

  5. Differential influence of social versus isolate housing on vicarious fear learning in adolescent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panksepp, Jules B; Lahvis, Garet P

    2016-04-01

    Laboratory rodents can adopt the pain or fear of nearby conspecifics. This phenotype conceptually lies within the domain of empathy, a bio-psycho-social process through which individuals come to share each other's emotion. Using a model of cue-conditioned fear, we show here that the expression of vicarious fear varies with respect to whether mice are raised socially or in solitude during adolescence. The impact of the adolescent housing environment was selective: (a) vicarious fear was more influenced than directly acquired fear, (b) "long-term" (24-h postconditioning) vicarious fear memories were stronger than "short-term" (15-min postconditioning) memories in socially reared mice whereas the opposite was true for isolate mice, and (c) females were more fearful than males. Housing differences during adolescence did not alter the general mobility of mice or their vocal response to receiving the unconditioned stimulus. Previous work with this mouse model underscored a genetic influence on vicarious fear learning, and the present study complements these findings by elucidating an interaction between the adolescent social environment and vicarious experience. Collectively, these findings are relevant to developing models of empathy amenable to mechanistic exploitation in the laboratory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Adolescent Gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Carly E; Divasta, Amy D

    2017-06-01

    Gynecomastia, defined as the presence of glandular breast tissue in men, is a common, typically benign physical exam finding during adolescence. Although the exact pathogenesis of gynecomastia is unknown, it is likely due to a hormonal imbalance between estrogens and androgens. Most cases are idiopathic and do not require further evaluation if the history and physical examination are reassuring. Although the majority of cases will resolve spontaneously, surgical correction may be an option for adolescents with persistent and problematic gynecomastia. Gynecomastia can have significant negative impact on one's self-esteem, and it is crucial that primary care providers screen adolescents with gynecomastia for mental health concerns. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the true incidence and prevalence of gynecomastia in adolescent males, and to further investigate the short-term and long-term physical and emotional effects of gynecomastia. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.

  7. Selection of Fusion Levels Using the Fulcrum Bending Radiograph for the Management of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients with Alternate Level Pedicle Screw Strategy: Clinical Decision-making and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samartzis, Dino; Leung, Yee; Shigematsu, Hideki; Natarajan, Deepa; Stokes, Oliver; Mak, Kin-Cheung; Yao, Guanfeng; Luk, Keith D K; Cheung, Kenneth M C

    2015-01-01

    Selecting fusion levels based on the Luk et al criteria for operative management of thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with hook and hybrid systems yields acceptable curve correction and balance parameters; however, it is unknown whether utilizing a purely pedicle screw strategy is effective. Utilizing the fulcrum bending radiographic (FBR) to assess curve flexibility to select fusion levels, the following study assessed the efficacy of pedicle screw fixation with alternate level screw strategy (ALSS) for thoracic AIS. A retrospective study with prospective radiographic data collection/analyses (preoperative, postoperative 1-week and minimum 2-year follow-up) of 28 operative thoracic AIS patients undergoing ALSS was performed. Standing coronal/sagittal and FBR Cobb angles, FBR flexibility, fulcrum bending correction index (FBCI), trunkal shift, radiographic shoulder height (RSH), and list were assessed on x-rays. Fusion level selection was based on the Luk et al criteria and compared to conventional techniques. In the primary curve, the mean preoperative and postoperative 1 week and last follow-up standing coronal Cobb angles were 59.9, 17.2 and 20.0 degrees, respectively. Eighteen patients (64.3%) had distal levels saved (mean: 1.6 levels) in comparison to conventional techniques. Mean immediate and last follow-up FBCIs were 122.6% and 115.0%, respectively. Sagittal alignment did not statistically differ between any assessment intervals (p>0.05). A decrease in trunkal shift was noted from preoperative to last follow-up (p = 0.003). No statistically significant difference from preoperative to last follow-up was noted in RSH and list (p>0.05). No "add-on" of other vertebra or decompensation was noted and all patients achieved fusion. This is the first report to note that using the FBR for decision-making in selecting fusion levels in thoracic AIS patients undergoing management with pedicle screw constructs (e.g. ALSS) is a cost-effective strategy that

  8. Radiation protection philosophy alters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firmin, G.

    1977-01-01

    Two significant events that have taken place this year in the field of radiation protection are reported. New SI units have been proposed (and effectively adopted), and the ICRP has revised its recommendations. Changes of emphasis in the latest recommendations (ICRP Publication 26) imply an altered radiation protection philosophy, in particular the relation of dose limits to estimates of average risk, an altered view of the critical organ approach and a new attitude to genetic dose to the population. (author)

  9. Treatment of adolescent lumber spondylolysis with modified Boston brace. Selection of the patients with bone scintigraphy and repair of the part defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, Hiroyuki; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Kaneda, Kiyoshi; Sato, Eishu [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-06-01

    Results of brace treatment of 29 spondylolysis patients were reported. Patients were those who were diagnosed by scout roentgenography and accumulated {sup 99m}Tc at spondylolytic site by bone scintigraphy or by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) which being found more convenient to see the accumulation than the scintigraphy. Coaptation after brace treatment was observed by flat and tomographic roentgenography. Under limited sports activity, the hard brace was used for about 4 months and then soft one, for 2 months. Coaptation and repair were observed for 46 (79%) of 58 part defects in the 29 patients. Since lumber spine spondylolysis is mostly caused by fatigue fracture and bone metabolism is activated at the lesional site, {sup 99m}Tc accumulation can be seen at the spondylolytic site by bone scintigraphy with high frequency. Therefore, the rate of repair can be increased when brace treatment was applied for patients with positive bone scintigraphy findings. The scintigraphy was thus useful far selecting patients suitable for brace treatment. (K.H.)

  10. Treatment of adolescent lumber spondylolysis with modified Boston brace. Selection of the patients with bone scintigraphy and repair of the part defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Hiroyuki; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Kaneda, Kiyoshi; Sato, Eishu

    1996-01-01

    Results of brace treatment of 29 spondylolysis patients were reported. Patients were those who were diagnosed by scout roentgenography and accumulated 99m Tc at spondylolytic site by bone scintigraphy or by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) which being found more convenient to see the accumulation than the scintigraphy. Coaptation after brace treatment was observed by flat and tomographic roentgenography. Under limited sports activity, the hard brace was used for about 4 months and then soft one, for 2 months. Coaptation and repair were observed for 46 (79%) of 58 part defects in the 29 patients. Since lumber spine spondylolysis is mostly caused by fatigue fracture and bone metabolism is activated at the lesional site, 99m Tc accumulation can be seen at the spondylolytic site by bone scintigraphy with high frequency. Therefore, the rate of repair can be increased when brace treatment was applied for patients with positive bone scintigraphy findings. The scintigraphy was thus useful far selecting patients suitable for brace treatment. (K.H.)

  11. Adolescent Exposure to Methylphenidate Increases Impulsive Choice Later in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarish Abbas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH is known to temporarily reduce impulsive choice and promote self-control. What is not sufficiently understood is how repeated treatment with MPH affects impulsive choice in the long run, and whether any such effect is contingent on exposure at certain developmental stages.Methods: Using an animal model for impulsive choice, we examined first whether giving MPH through early adolescence alters delay discounting, an operational measure of impulsive choice, later in adulthood. We then tested whether equivalent long-term effects are observed if exposure to the drug occurred during adulthood. Starting on postnatal day 25 or postnatal day 60, male rats received one of a range of doses of MPH for 10 consecutive days. Twenty-six days later, all rats were trained to choose between a lever that produced a small immediate reward and a lever that produced a large reward after a range of delays.Results: Rats showed a long-term decrease in the selection of the delayed larger reward when treated with moderate doses of MPH during early adolescence, but not when treated with the lower or higher doses. In contrast, no differences were observed in the selection of the delayed larger reward in animals that were treated with various doses of MPH during adulthood.Conclusions: Our findings suggest effects of MPH on impulsive choice that are contingent on dosage and on the developmental period of exposure. When administered during adolescence, moderate doses of MPH increase impulsive choice long after the end of treatment, whereas these same doses administered during adulthood were without effect

  12. Adolescents beliefs of the role of self concept and government policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -entry of adolescents into school in Abia State. Four continuing education and two skills acquisition schools were randomly selected for the study. One hundred and sixty two (162) adolescents who re-enrolled in these schools participated in ...

  13. Aphasia rehabilitation during adolescence: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laures-Gore, Jacqueline; McCusker, Tiffany; Hartley, Leila L

    2017-06-01

    Descriptions of speech-language interventions addressing the unique aspects of aphasia in adolescence appear to be nonexistent. The current paper presents the case of a male adolescent who experienced a stroke with resultant aphasia and the speech and language therapy he received. Furthermore, we discuss the issues that are unique to an adolescent with aphasia and how they were addressed with this particular patient. Traditional language and apraxia therapy was provided to this patient with inclusion of technology and academic topics. The patient demonstrated improvements in his speech and language abilities, most notably his reading comprehension and speech production. Age-related issues, including academic needs, group treatment, socialization, adherence/compliance, independence and family involvement, emerged during intervention. Although aphasia therapy for adolescents may be similar in many aspects to selected interventions for adults, it is necessary for the clinician to be mindful of age-related issues throughout the course of therapy. Goals and interventions should be selected based on factors salient to an adolescent as well as the potential long-term impact of therapy. Implications for Research Aphasia and its treatment in adolescence need to be further explored. Academics and technology are important aspects of aphasia treatment in adolescence. Issues specific to adolescence such as socialization, adherence/compliance, and independence are important to address in speech-language therapy.

  14. Effectiveness of participatory adolescent strategic health action (PASHA for lifestyle modification among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha P Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lifestyle modification is one of the methods to promote healthy lifestyle among adolescents. In this study, the researcher planned to develop, implement and evaluate a need based Participatory Adolescent Strategic Health Action (PASHA for lifestyle modification among selected adolescents. Materials and Methods: An evaluative approach with Quasi experimental one group pretest post test design (time series was adopted. Sample constituted 103 adolescents, aged 12-17 years studying in high schools and pre university colleges of Udupi district selected based on convenient sampling. Data was gathered using reliable and valid tools. Results: The mean combined preventive health lifestyle score among all adolescents increased from 75.65-81.56. Similarly the number of adolescents with healthy lifestyle score also increased from 28.2-53.4% after practicing for 180 days. Analysis of all the components of lifestyle showed that the adolescents had adopted healthy lifestyle practices in all the components of lifestyle. The number of adolescents with combined health status score also showed an increase from 31.1-54.4% after implementing PASHA practice. Analysis of reported outcome among subjects indicated that PASHA was motivating to improve their lifestyle practices. Conclusion: PASHA was found to be effective in lifestyle modification of adolescents. It is reiterated that when lifestyle modification is to be done, a strategy to improve self directedness and self efficacy should be adopted.

  15. Music and Alterity Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Martí

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of alterity constitutes an important issue in anthropological research and, therefore, in the study of musical practices, as well. Without it, we could hardly understand other kinds of music situated in different spaces and time from the observer. In order to effectively approach these musical practices, we have to develop strategies to help us reduce as much as possible that which distorts the vision of the other. However, beyond the strictly epistemological and methodological issues, the study of music cannot ignore the ethical question related to the manner in which Western thought has understood and treated the other: through a hierarchical and stereotypical type of thinking based on the condition of otherness. Throughout the article, different alterity procedures are presented and discussed, such as synecdochization, exoticization, undervaluation, overvaluation, misunderstanding and exclusion. Taking these different alterity strategies into account may help us to better understand how the musical other is constructed, used and ultimately instrumentalized.

  16. Structural and Functional Imaging Studies in Chronic Cannabis Users: A Systematic Review of Adolescent and Adult Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalla, Albert; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Yücel, Murat; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Crippa, Jose Alexandre; Nogué, Santiago; Torrens, Marta; Pujol, Jesús; Farré, Magí; Martin-Santos, Rocio

    2013-01-01

    Background The growing concern about cannabis use, the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, has led to a significant increase in the number of human studies using neuroimaging techniques to determine the effect of cannabis on brain structure and function. We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence of the impact of chronic cannabis use on brain structure and function in adults and adolescents. Methods Papers published until August 2012 were included from EMBASE, Medline, PubMed and LILACS databases following a comprehensive search strategy and pre-determined set of criteria for article selection. Only neuroimaging studies involving chronic cannabis users with a matched control group were considered. Results One hundred and forty-two studies were identified, of which 43 met the established criteria. Eight studies were in adolescent population. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence of morphological brain alterations in both population groups, particularly in the medial temporal and frontal cortices, as well as the cerebellum. These effects may be related to the amount of cannabis exposure. Functional neuroimaging studies suggest different patterns of resting global and brain activity during the performance of several cognitive tasks both in adolescents and adults, which may indicate compensatory effects in response to chronic cannabis exposure. Limitations However, the results pointed out methodological limitations of the work conducted to date and considerable heterogeneity in the findings. Conclusion Chronic cannabis use may alter brain structure and function in adult and adolescent population. Further studies should consider the use of convergent methodology, prospective large samples involving adolescent to adulthood subjects, and data-sharing initiatives. PMID:23390554

  17. Structural and functional imaging studies in chronic cannabis users: a systematic review of adolescent and adult findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Batalla

    Full Text Available The growing concern about cannabis use, the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, has led to a significant increase in the number of human studies using neuroimaging techniques to determine the effect of cannabis on brain structure and function. We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence of the impact of chronic cannabis use on brain structure and function in adults and adolescents.Papers published until August 2012 were included from EMBASE, Medline, PubMed and LILACS databases following a comprehensive search strategy and pre-determined set of criteria for article selection. Only neuroimaging studies involving chronic cannabis users with a matched control group were considered.One hundred and forty-two studies were identified, of which 43 met the established criteria. Eight studies were in adolescent population. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence of morphological brain alterations in both population groups, particularly in the medial temporal and frontal cortices, as well as the cerebellum. These effects may be related to the amount of cannabis exposure. Functional neuroimaging studies suggest different patterns of resting global and brain activity during the performance of several cognitive tasks both in adolescents and adults, which may indicate compensatory effects in response to chronic cannabis exposure.However, the results pointed out methodological limitations of the work conducted to date and considerable heterogeneity in the findings.Chronic cannabis use may alter brain structure and function in adult and adolescent population. Further studies should consider the use of convergent methodology, prospective large samples involving adolescent to adulthood subjects, and data-sharing initiatives.

  18. Punishing adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Should an adolescent offender be punished more leniently than an adult offender? Many theorists believe the answer to be in the affirmative. According to the diminished culpability model, adolescents are less mature than adults and, therefore, less responsible for their wrongdoings and should...... consequently be punished less harshly. This article concerns the first part of the model: the relation between immaturity and diminished responsibility. It is argued that this relation faces three normative challenges which do not allow for easy answers and which are still widely ignored in the comprehensive...

  19. Contraceptive counseling for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Julia; Santelli, John S

    2015-11-01

    The majority of adolescents become sexually active during their teenage years, making contraceptive counseling an important aspect of routine adolescent healthcare. However, many healthcare providers express discomfort when it comes to counseling adolescents about contraceptive options. This Special Report highlights the evidence supporting age-appropriate contraceptive counseling for adolescents and focuses on best practices for addressing adolescents' questions and concerns about contraceptive methods.

  20. Transformation of Adolescent Peer Relations in the Social Media Context: Part 2-Application to Peer Group Processes and Future Directions for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Jacqueline; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2018-04-07

    As social media use becomes increasingly widespread among adolescents, research in this area has accumulated rapidly. Researchers have shown a growing interest in the impact of social media on adolescents' peer experiences, including the ways that the social media context shapes a variety of peer relations constructs. This paper represents Part 2 of a two-part theoretical review. In this review, we offer a new model for understanding the transformative role of social media in adolescents' peer experiences, with the goal of stimulating future empirical work that is grounded in theory. The transformation framework suggests that the features of the social media context transform adolescents' peer experiences by changing their frequency or immediacy, amplifying demands, altering their qualitative nature, and/or offering new opportunities for compensatory or novel behaviors. In the current paper, we consider the ways that social media may transform peer relations constructs that often occur at the group level. Our review focuses on three key constructs: peer victimization, peer status, and peer influence. We selectively review and highlight existing evidence for the transformation of these domains through social media. In addition, we discuss methodological considerations and key conceptual principles for future work. The current framework offers a new theoretical perspective through which peer relations researchers may consider adolescent social media use.

  1. Understanding Adolescents' Categorisation of Animal Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Melanie; Lawrence, Alistair B

    2017-08-30

    Categorisations are a means of investigating cognitive maps. The present study, for the first time, investigates adolescents' spontaneous categorisation of 34 animal species. Furthermore, explicit evaluations of 16 selected animals in terms of their perceived utility and likeability were analysed. 105 British adolescents, 54% female, mean age 14.5 (SD = 1.6) participated in the study. Results of multidimensional scaling (MDS) techniques indicate 3-dimensional data representation regardless of gender or age. Property fittings show that affect and perceived utility of animals explain two of the MDS dimensions, and hence partly explain adolescents' categorisation. Additionally, hierarchical cluster analyses show a differentiation between farm animals, birds, pet animals, and wild animals possibly explaining MDS dimension 3. The results suggest that utility perceptions predominantly underlie adolescents' categorisations and become even more dominant in older adolescents, which potentially has an influence on attitudes to animals with implications for animal welfare, conservation, and education.

  2. Adolescent homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronski Huwiler, S M; Remafedi, G

    1998-01-01

    Homosexuality has existed in all civilizations, but societal disapproval and cultural taboos have negatively influenced its recognition. A significant percentage of youths identify themselves as homosexual, and even more experience sex with the same sex or are confused about sexual feelings. A unifying etiological theory attributes the expression of sexual orientation to genes that shape the central nervous system's development, organization, and structure via prenatal sex steroids. Environmental factors may influence the expression of genetic potential. Several models of psychosocial development describe initial stages of awareness and confusion about same-sex attractions, followed by acknowledgement of homosexuality, disclosure to others, and eventual integration of sexual identity into a comprehensive sense of self. Stressors related to isolation, stigma, and violence may predispose homosexual adolescents to impaired social, emotional, and physical health, resulting in depression and suicide, school problems, substance abuse, running away eating disorders, risky sexual behavior, and illegal conduct. As with all adolescents, the overall goals in the care of homosexual youth are to promote normal adolescent development, social and emotional well-being, and physical health. A comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach is required to address medical, mental health, and psychosocial issues within the context of the adolescents' community and culture.

  3. [Adolescent sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2010-01-01

    The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions.

  4. Parental knowledge is an environmental influence on adolescent externalizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Narusyte, Jurgita; Lichtenstein, Paul; Ganiban, Jody M; Spotts, Erica L; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2015-02-01

    There is evidence both that parental monitoring is an environmental influence serving to diminish adolescent externalizing problems and that this association may be driven by adolescents' characteristics via genetic and/or environmental mechanisms, such that adolescents with fewer problems tell their parents more, and therefore appear to be better monitored. Without information on how parents' and children's genes and environments influence correlated parent and child behaviors, it is impossible to clarify the mechanisms underlying this association. The present study used the Extended Children of Twins model to distinguish types of gene-environment correlation and direct environmental effects underlying associations between parental knowledge and adolescent (age 11-22 years) externalizing behavior with a Swedish sample of 909 twin parents and their adolescent offspring and a US-based sample of 405 White adolescent siblings and their parents. Results suggest that more parental knowledge is associated with less adolescent externalizing via a direct environmental influence independent of any genetic influences. There was no evidence of a child-driven explanation of the association between parental knowledge and adolescent externalizing problems. In this sample of adolescents, parental knowledge exerted an environmental influence on adolescent externalizing after accounting for genetic influences of parents and adolescents. Because the association between parenting and child development originates in the parent, treatment for adolescent externalizing must not only include parents but should also focus on altering their parental style. Thus, findings suggest that teaching parents better knowledge-related monitoring strategies is likely to help reduce externalizing problems in adolescents. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. Peri-adolescent asthma symptoms cause adult anxiety-related behavior and neurobiological processes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Jasmine I; Caruso, Michael J; Michael, Kerry C; Bourne, Rebecca A; Chirichella, Nicole R; Klein, Laura C; Craig, Timothy; Bonneau, Robert H; August, Avery; Cavigelli, Sonia A

    2017-05-30

    Human and animal studies have shown that physical challenges and stressors during adolescence can have significant influences on behavioral and neurobiological development associated with internalizing disorders such as anxiety and depression. Given the prevalence of asthma during adolescence and increased rates of internalizing disorders in humans with asthma, we used a mouse model to test if and which symptoms of adolescent allergic asthma (airway inflammation or labored breathing) cause adult anxiety- and depression-related behavior and brain function. To mimic symptoms of allergic asthma in young BALB/cJ mice (postnatal days [P] 7-57; N=98), we induced lung inflammation with repeated intranasal administration of house dust mite extract (most common aeroallergen for humans) and bronchoconstriction with aerosolized methacholine (non-selective muscarinic receptor agonist). Three experimental groups, in addition to a control group, included: (1) "Airway inflammation only", allergen exposure 3 times/week, (2) "Labored breathing only", methacholine exposure once/week, and (3) "Airway inflammation+Labored breathing", allergen and methacholine exposure. Compared to controls, mice that experienced methacholine-induced labored breathing during adolescence displayed a ∼20% decrease in time on open arms of the elevated plus maze in early adulthood (P60), a ∼30% decrease in brainstem serotonin transporter (SERT) mRNA expression and a ∼50% increase in hippocampal serotonin receptor 1a (5Htr1a) and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (Crhr1) expression in adulthood (P75). This is the first evidence that experimentally-induced clinical symptoms of adolescent asthma alter adult anxiety-related behavior and brain function several weeks after completion of asthma manipulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparing the effect of short-term detraining on athletic performance of elite competitive children and adolescent swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Sedaghati

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Optimum functioning of the competitive swimmers depends on the adaptations in power and strength of superficial, upper and lower limbs and interaction with core stabilizing muscles of the body. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of short periods of detraining on exercise performance of elite competitive children and adolescents swimmers. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 48 female participants with a history of more than 2 years (Damash Team of professional exercise at Alborz province were selected based on available sampling and were assigned into 2 equal groups of children and adolescents based on their age. During the two periods, dependent variables, endurance of the trunk flexors, lateralis and flexors of the trunk, strength of the trunk muscles, dynamic balance and the performance of the swimmers (50 and 100 m were evaluated. Results: Comparison of the results for swimming speed (50 m showed a significant difference between the adolescent and children groups (P=0.001. In addition, total endurance of trunk muscles, power of trunk muscles and the dynamic balance in adolescents showed a significant difference (P=0.01, but the dynamic balance and swimming speed (50 and 100 m were significant only in the children group (P=0.001. Conclusion: A 25-day detraining period results in a considerable alteration in the trunk muscle function, balance, and exercise performance of the competitive swimmers, especially among the children.

  7. Alterations in reproductive hormones during heat stress in dairy cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alterations in reproductive hormones during heat stress in dairy cattle. ... Heat stress reduces the degree of dominance of the selected follicle and this can be seen as reduced steroidogenic capacity of its theca and ... from 32 Countries:.

  8. STRESS AMONG SCHOOL GOING ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajitha Cholakottil

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Adolescence is a period when individuals become independent from their parents. The period of adolescence itself is recognized as a period of ‘stress and storm’. Stressful life events of both major and minor magnitude in the lives of adolescents are significantly related to their emotional behavioural problems. Studies on prevalence and pattern of stressors in adolescents using semi structured interview techniques and sound methodology is limited in developing countries. Knowing the magnitude of problem will help us in policy making. MATERIALS AND METHODS Adolescents from 8th, 9th and 10th standards of four schools in two districts of Kerala were selected by random sampling method. Students with Children Behaviour Questionnaire score CBQ more than 9 and their parents were analysed for the level of stress using Checklist of stressful life events CLSLE and were compared with that of control group. RESULTS Out of 720 subjects screened 120 16.6% were found to be disturbed based on CBQ scores. CBQ score was significantly higher in disturbed group compared to undisturbed group. CLSLE scores shows disturbed group had higher stressors in “general”, “school or academic” and “self” areas compared to control group. Stressors that are commonly reported by both the groups are decline in academic performance, breaking up with close friend, argument between father and mother and punishment by parents. CONCLUSION School going adolescents are exposed to stress. The academic pressure is one of the major precursors for the stress. Introduction of stress management techniques in school curriculum can be helpful. This study emphasis that stressed feelings among adolescents should not be neglected, but has to be properly intervened, so as to avoid a larger destruction.

  9. 4. Relational Aggression in Adolescents at Selected

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    relational aggression and the psychological well- being of perpetrators. ... Difficulties Questionnaire - Youth version. Results: Results from ... INTRODUCTION: School bullying and aggression among children and ... social isolation and lower self esteem than their peers. .... significant moderate positive relationship between.

  10. Immunization alters body odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Bruce A; Opiekun, Maryanne; Yamazaki, Kunio; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2014-04-10

    Infections have been shown to alter body odor. Because immune activation accompanies both infection and immunization, we tested the hypothesis that classical immunization might similarly result in the alteration of body odors detectable by trained biosensor mice. Using a Y-maze, we trained biosensor mice to distinguish between urine odors from rabies-vaccinated (RV) and unvaccinated control mice. RV-trained mice generalized this training to mice immunized with the equine West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine compared with urine of corresponding controls. These results suggest that there are similarities between body odors of mice immunized with these two vaccines. This conclusion was reinforced when mice could not be trained to directly discriminate between urine odors of RV- versus WNV-treated mice. Next, we trained biosensor mice to discriminate the urine odors of mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; a general elicitor of innate immunological responses) from the urine of control mice. These LPS-trained biosensors could distinguish between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and RV-treated mouse urine. Finally, biosensor mice trained to distinguish between the odors of RV-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine did not generalize this training to discriminate between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine. From these experiments, we conclude that: (1) immunization alters urine odor in similar ways for RV and WNV immunizations; and (2) immune activation with LPS also alters urine odor but in ways different from those of RV and WNV. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Neurotic manifestations in adolescents with thalassemia major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorjani, J D; Issac, Chithira

    2006-07-01

    To study the neurotic manifestations in thalassemic adolescents as a consequence of long-term illness. From July 2003, thirty six thalassemic adolescents and forty normal adolescents were selected with age ranging from 13 to 18 and with same socio economic status and family background. Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire by Crown and Crisp [1966] was administered and Mann Whiteny 'U' test was employed to measure free-floating anxiety, phobia, somatic anxiety, obsession, depression, hysteria and total neuroticism score. An interview was conducted along with the questionnaire to detect the problems in depth. Parents of thalassemic adolescents were interviewed subsequently to realize the behavioral problems existing along with neuroticism. Thirty-six of thalassemic and all forty normal adolescents returned the questionnaires. The responses suggest a marked difference in total neuroticism score and all other variables except that of hysteria. The interview on parents of thalassemic adolescents exposed various behavioral problems in these adolescents. Thalassemic adolescents were having higher scores in neuroticism. Some behavioral problems are also found to exist along with neurotic manifestations. There remains a need to improve the management of thalassemia in terms of psychological aspects in order to improve the mental health of this group.

  12. Paternal Age Alters Social Development in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, Magdalena; Haworth, Claire M A; Ronald, Angelica; Krapohl, Eva; Happé, Francesca; Mill, Jonathan; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Fernandes, Cathy; Reichenberg, Abraham; Rijsdijk, Frühling

    2017-05-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) at conception has been linked with autism and schizophrenia in offspring, neurodevelopmental disorders that affect social functioning. The current study explored the effects of paternal age on social development in the general population. We used multilevel growth modeling to investigate APA effects on socioemotional development from early childhood until adolescence, as measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) sample. We also investigated genetic and environmental underpinnings of the paternal age effects on development, using the Additive genetics, Common environment, unique Environment (ACE) and gene-environment (GxE) models. In the general population, both very young and advanced paternal ages were associated with altered trajectory of social development (intercept: p = .01; slope: p = .03). No other behavioral domain was affected by either young or advanced age at fatherhood, suggesting specificity of paternal age effects. Increased importance of genetic factors in social development was recorded in the offspring of older but not very young fathers, suggesting distinct underpinnings of the paternal age effects at these two extremes. Our findings highlight that the APA-related deficits that lead to autism and schizophrenia are likely continuously distributed in the population. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. How Setswana Cultural Beliefs and Practices on Sexuality Affect Teachers' and Adolescents' Sexual Decisions, Practices, and Experiences as well as HIV/AIDS and STI Prevention in Select Botswanan Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nleya, Paul T; Segale, Emelda

    2015-01-01

    The article reports on the aspects of a Botswana Ministry of Education and Skills Development (MoE & SD) HIV/AIDS Instructional Television (ITV) project modeled on a similar HIV/AIDS program implemented in Brazil. This Teacher Capacity Building Project (TCBP) in Botswana is in its initial years of implementation. Its overall goal is to contribute to the prevention and mitigation of the impact of HIV and AIDS by strengthening the capacity of the education and communication sectors to deliver interactive, distance HIV/AIDS education primarily to teachers so that they act as agents of behavior change among the in-school youth. One of the components of the TCBP program is a live teacher education television HIV/AIDS program called Talk Back program. Talk Back is a collaborative effort of the MoE & SD and the Botswana national television station. The Talk Back program involves development and implementation of weekly 1 hour live HIV/AIDS education interactive TV broadcasts for teachers. The development of the live programs is guided by a curriculum that provides a wide range of themes related to HIV/AIDS and education. This article reports the results of a survey of a sample of teachers and students at junior secondary schools and senior secondary schools, first, on their views and opinions regarding the Talk Back program as a TCBP. Second, how Setswana cultural beliefs, myths, and practices on sexuality affect teachers' and adolescents' sexual decisions, practices, and experiences as well as HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infection prevention. A questionnaire survey and focus group interviews were used as data collection instruments in selected secondary schools. The findings of the study suggest that the Talk Back program has not met much success as a TCBP. The findings further suggest that several myths, beliefs, misconceptions, and attitudes about HIV/AIDS exist among Botswana teachers and students and thus make it difficult for the Talk Back program to impart

  14. The relationship between adolescent depressive symptomology and substance abuse

    OpenAIRE

    L.G. Blore; S. Schulze; A.C. Lessing

    2004-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the phenomena of adolescent depressive symptomology, substance abuse and the relationship between the two phenomena in a South African context. The influence of moderator variables was also examined. Another objective was to determine risk factors for the before mentioned. This was done by using a questionnaire with a sample of 1298 conveniently selected adolescents in a South African high school. It was determined that adolescents become progressively unhapp...

  15. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative–motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increased lifetime risks for the development of alcohol dependence, violence, and injuries. Brain synapses, myelination, and neural circuits mature in adolescence to adult levels in parallel with increased reflection on the consequence of actions and reduced impulsivity and thrill seeking. Alcohol binge drinking could alter human development, but variations in genetics, peer groups, family structure, early life experiences, and the emergence of psychopathology in humans confound studies. As adolescence is common to mammalian species, preclinical models of binge drinking provide insight into the direct impact of alcohol on adolescent development. This review relates human findings to basic science studies, particularly the preclinical studies of the Neurobiology of Adolescent Drinking in Adulthood (NADIA) Consortium. These studies focus on persistent adult changes in neurobiology and behavior following adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE), a model of underage drinking. NADIA studies and others find that AIE results in the following: increases in adult alcohol drinking, disinhibition, and social anxiety; altered adult synapses, cognition, and sleep; reduced adult neurogenesis, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurons; and increased neuroimmune gene expression and epigenetic modifiers of gene expression. Many of these effects are specific to adolescents and not found in parallel adult studies. AIE can cause a persistence of adolescent-like synaptic physiology, behavior, and sensitivity

  16. Decision making and executive function in male adolescents with early-onset or adolescence-onset conduct disorder and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Graeme; van Goozen, Stephanie H M; Stollery, Sarah J; Aitken, Michael R F; Savage, Justin; Moore, Simon C; Goodyer, Ian M

    2009-07-15

    Although conduct disorder (CD) is associated with an increased susceptibility to substance use disorders, little is known about decision-making processes or reward mechanisms in CD. This study investigated decision making under varying motivational conditions in CD. Performances on the Risky Choice Task (RCT) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were assessed in 156 adolescents (84 control subjects, 34 with adolescence-onset CD, and 38 with early-onset CD). The RCT was performed twice, once under normal motivational conditions and once under conditions of increased motivation and psychosocial stress. Increased motivation and stress led to more cautious decision making and changes in framing effects on the RCT in all groups, although such effects were least pronounced in the early-onset CD group. Participants from both CD subgroups selected the risky choice more frequently than control subjects. Under normal motivational conditions, early-onset CD participants chose the risky choice more frequently in trials occurring after small gains, relative to control subjects and adolescence-onset CD participants. Following adjustment for IQ differences, the groups did not differ significantly in terms of WCST performance. Differences in decision making between control subjects and individuals with CD suggest that the balance between sensitivity to reward and punishment is shifted in this disorder, particularly the early-onset form. Our data on modulation of decision making according to previous outcomes suggest altered reward mechanisms in early-onset CD. The WCST data suggest that impairments in global executive function do not underlie altered decision making in CD.

  17. Adolescents' Compliance-Resistance: Effects of Parents' Compliance Strategy and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kim D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined choice of compliance-resisting behaviors among adolescents. Findings from 118 high school students revealed significant differences in resistance strategy the adolescent selected on basis of parent gender, adolescent gender, and compliance-gaining strategy (manipulation, nonnegotiation, emotional appeal, personal rejection, empathic…

  18. Sex Stereotypes and School Adolescents' Sexual Behaviour in Osun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, Bayode Isaiah

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the association between sex stereotypes and the sexual behaviour of Nigerian school-going adolescents. It also ascertained the effects of age and sex on adolescents' beliefs about sex stereotypes. The study sample consisted of 658 (male = 287, female = 371) adolescents from nine randomly selected secondary schools in three…

  19. A Study of Investigating Adolescents' Eating out Behavior by Using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian-Syung; Lan, Yu-Hua; Chen, Pin-Chang; Lo, Wen-Chi

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to understand the factors affecting adolescents' eating out behavior, as well as to develop scientific principles for selection of factors affecting adolescents' eating out behavior. According to literature review and expert questionnaire survey, this study obtained the factors affecting adolescents' choice to eat…

  20. Altered metabolism in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locasale Jason W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer cells have different metabolic requirements from their normal counterparts. Understanding the consequences of this differential metabolism requires a detailed understanding of glucose metabolism and its relation to energy production in cancer cells. A recent study in BMC Systems Biology by Vasquez et al. developed a mathematical model to assess some features of this altered metabolism. Here, we take a broader look at the regulation of energy metabolism in cancer cells, considering their anabolic as well as catabolic needs. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1752-0509/4/58/

  1. Dimensions of Adolescent Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mael, Fred A.; Morath, Ray A.; McLellan, Jeffrey A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines positive and negative correlates of adolescent work as a function of work dimensions. Results indicate that concurrent costs and benefits of adolescent employment may depend on dimensions of work as well as adolescent characteristics. Adolescent employment was generally related to subsequent work motivation and nonacademic performance.…

  2. Spirituality in adolescent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Meaghann S; Wratchford, Dale

    2017-07-01

    Adolescence, the transition between childhood and adulthood, represents a time of rapid biological, neurocognitive, and psychosocial changes. These changes have important implications for the development and evolution of adolescent spirituality, particularly for adolescents with chronic or life-limiting illnesses. To contribute positively to adolescent spiritual formation, palliative care teams benefit from understanding the normative changes expected to occur during adolescence. This paper provides a narrative review of adolescent spirituality while recognizing the role of religious, familial, and cultural influences on spiritual development during the teenage years. By giving explicit attention to the contextual norms surrounding adolescence and still recognizing each adolescent-aged patient as unique, palliative care teams can help adolescents transition toward meaningful and sustainable spiritual growth. This paper reviews the clinical and research implications relevant to integrating adolescent spiritual health as part of comprehensive palliative care.

  3. Brain Structures Associated with Internet Addiction Tendency in Adolescent Online Game Players

    OpenAIRE

    Nannan Pan; Yongxin Yang; Xin Du; Xin Qi; Guijin Du; Yang Zhang; Xiaodong Li; Quan Zhang

    2018-01-01

    With the development of the Internet, an increasing number of adolescents play online game excessively, which leads to adverse effects on individuals and society. Previous studies have demonstrated altered gray-matter volume (GMV) in individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD), but the relationship between the tendency to IGD and the GMV across whole brain is still unclear in adolescents. In the present study, anatomical imaging with high resolution was performed on 67 male adolescents wh...

  4. Peer influence on the study habit of secondary school adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of peer group on the study habit of secondary school adolescents. A sample of two hundred and ninety two (292) students was randomly selected from nine schools in two Local Government Areas of Ogun State. Two instruments were used to collect data. They are: Adolescents' Peer ...

  5. Menstruation: Experiences of Adolescent Slum Dwelling Girls of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mubeen

    Bengal and cluster sampling was used to select 798 post menarcheal adolescent girls residing in the slums. Data on .... From separate lists of the adolescent girls in the age ... back of the paper and the numbers of a currency note were used to ...

  6. Peer Contagion and Adolescent Depression: The Role of Failure Anticipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret; Branje, Susan J. T.; Stattin, Hakan; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the mechanisms underlying peer contagion of depressive symptoms in adolescence. Five annual measurements of data were gathered from a large (N = 842) community-based network of adolescents (M = 14.3 years at first measurement). Results showed that, after controlling for selection and deselection of friends on the…

  7. Sports Group: An Alternative Treatment Modality for Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, J. Emmett; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A therapeutic program of sports activities was instituted for selected adolescents in an out-patient psychiatric clinic. Adolescents who could not benefit maximally from individual psychotherapy and who had problems with self-esteem, body image, and peer relationships were expected to benefit. Results are presented through case illustrations.…

  8. The Influence of Peer Pressure on Adolescents' Social Behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the influence of peer pressure on adolescent social behavior. A sample size of 100 participants was randomly selected from five secondary schools in Amuwo-Odofin Local Education District of Lagos State. A twenty item Peer Pressure on Adolescents Behaviour Questionnaire (PPABQ) was ...

  9. Substance Use and the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Spirito, Anthony; Emslie, Graham; Clarke, Greg; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Vitiello, Benedetto; Ryan, Neal; Birmaher, Boris; Mayes, Taryn; Onorato, Matthew; Zelazny, Jamie; Brent, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Despite the known association between substance use disorders and major depressive disorder (MDD) among adolescents, little is known regarding substance use among adolescents with MDD. Method: Youths with MDD who had not improved after an adequate selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor trial (N = 334) were enrolled in the Treatment of…

  10. Investigation of Relationship between Aggression and Sociometric Popularity in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuzer, Yasemin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to determine the linear and curvilinear relationships between adolescent aggression and sociometric popularity. 524 adolescents randomly selected from 20 elementary schools in Nigde city center formed the study group. The participants were from 8th grade in 20 different classrooms. The research data were collected by…

  11. Parental mediation of adolescent media use and demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research in Western nations suggests that parents' involvement in their children's media use can make a difference in how adolescents select, process and respond to sexual television messages. Little or no published research has investigated this issue in sub-Saharan Africa, even though adolescents and young adults ...

  12. Social Class Privilege and Adolescent Women's Perceived Career Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapour, Anne Scott; Heppner, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the perceived career options of 10 White adolescent young women who experienced social class privilege in their families of origin. The model of contextual privilege and career selection for adolescent White women emerged from the data, and it describes how social class privilege, gender, achievement expectations,…

  13. Mental Health Stigma among Adolescents: Implications for School Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranke, Derrick; Floersch, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated adolescents with a mental health diagnosis and their experience of stigma in schools. Forty adolescents between the ages of twelve and seventeen who met DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric illness and who were prescribed psychiatric medication were selected. The Teen Subjective Experience of Medication Interview was used to…

  14. Gender Consciousness among Urban Adolescents in Osun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempted to find out whether adolescents express their consciousness about the two dimensions of gender (public and private) and to determine the level ofmanifestations of gender consciousness among early and late adolescents. For the purpose of this study, 100(M=56, F=44) were randomly selected from ...

  15. Ausubel's Satellization Theory: Application to Some Research on Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzonsky, Michael D.

    1978-01-01

    Ausubel's theory of personality development in adolescence examines the role that social factors, especially parent-child relationships, play in the adolescent's struggle to find himself. An overview of this theory is presented and some parallels between it and Eriksonian theory are pointed out. Also examines some selected examples of research on…

  16. Antidepressants and Suicidal Ideation in Adolescence: A Paradoxical Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Eric E.

    2009-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a rapid increase in the number and types of psychopharmacological medications that are available for the treatment of depression in children and adolescents. Parents and adolescents often raise questions as to the potential increase in suicidal ideation associated with the use of primarily selective serotonin…

  17. Development of Adolescent Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    de Goede, I.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation on “Development of Adolescent Relationships” addresses relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners in adolescence from a developmental perspective. By studying both parent-adolescent relationships and peer relationships at the same time, as well as interrelations between these types of relationships, this dissertation provides more information on the processes taking place in relationships during adolescence. Findings indicate that parent-adolescent relationsh...

  18. Altered Positive Affect in Clinically Anxious Youth: the Role of Social Context and Anxiety Subtype

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, JK; Lee, GE; Wright, AGC; Gilchrist, DE; Forbes, EE; McMakin, DL; Dahl, RE; Ladouceur, CD; Ryan, ND; Silk, JS

    2017-01-01

    © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Anxious youth may experience altered positive affect (PA) relative to healthy youth, perhaps because of greater sensitivity to social experiences. Altered PA may be especially evident during the transition to adolescence, a period in which positive social events increase in salience and value. The current study evaluated whether anxious youth show differences in baseline PA, rate of return to baseline, and variability around baseline PA and te...

  19. School Sports and Adolescent Steroid Use: National Trends and Race-Ethnic Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Lv; Braddock, Jomills Henry, II

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, it has been reported that 4% to 12% of male adolescents and 0.5% to 2.9% of female adolescents have used anabolic steroids to enhance sports performance or favorably alter body size. Although medical, legal, and ethical issues related to the nonmedical use of anabolic steroids have been widely publicized, a growing number of…

  20. Preliminary findings demonstrating latent effects of early adolescent marijuana use onset on cortical architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M. Filbey

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Divergent patterns between current MJ use and elements of cortical architecture were associated with early MJ use onset. Considering brain development in early adolescence, findings are consistent with disruptions in pruning. However, divergence with continued use for many years thereafter suggests altered trajectories of brain maturation during late adolescence and beyond.

  1. The Longitudinal Impact of Adolescent Drug Use on Socioeconomic Outcomes in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, Clifford L.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates how drug use in adolescence contributes to socioeconomic outcomes in young adulthood. Several studies have investigated whether drug problems alter the life course in ways that are detrimental to young adult achievement, but findings are inconsistent. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to…

  2. Adolescent vulnerability to cardiovascular consequences of chronic social stress: Immediate and long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fábio C; Duarte, Josiane O; Leão, Rodrigo M; Hummel, Luiz F V; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that disruption of social bonds and perceived isolation (loneliness) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Adolescence is proposed as a period of vulnerability to stress. Nevertheless, the impact of chronic social stress during this ontogenic period in cardiovascular function is poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the impact in cardiovascular function of social isolation for 3 weeks in adolescent and adult male rats. Also, the long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence were investigated longitudinally. Social isolation reduced body weight in adolescent, but not in adult animals. Disruption of social bonds during adolescence increased arterial pressure without affecting heart rate and pulse pressure (PP). Nevertheless, social isolation in adulthood reduced systolic arterial pressure and increased diastolic arterial pressure, which in turn decreased PP without affecting mean arterial pressure. Cardiovascular changes in adolescents, but not adults, were followed by facilitation of both baroreflex sensitivity and vascular reactivity to the vasodilator agent acetylcholine. Vascular responsiveness to either the vasodilator agent sodium nitroprusside or the vasoconstrictor agent phenylephrine was not affected by social isolation. Except for the changes in body weight and baroreflex sensitivity, all alterations evoked by social isolation during adolescence were reversed in adulthood after moving animals from isolated to collective housing. These findings suggest a vulnerability of adolescents to the effects of chronic social isolation in cardiovascular function. However, results indicate minimal cardiovascular consequences in adulthood of disruption of social bonds during adolescence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Empathic skills and theory of mind in female adolescents with conduct disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Arango Tobón, Olber E.; Olivera-La Rosa, Antonio; Restrepo Tamayo, Viviana; Puerta Lopera, Isabel C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Most studies on conduct disorder (CD) have focused on male adolescents, disregarding analysis of this psychopathology in women. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in empathy and theory of mind (ToM) in a group of adolescent women with CD and a control group. Method: Thirty-six adolescent women were selected from an initial sample of 239 adolescents (CD group = 18, control group = 18). Empathy and ToM were evaluated through objective instruments. Mean comparisons...

  4. Nucleus Accumbens MC4-R Stimulation Reduces Food and Ethanol Intake in Adult Rats Regardless of Binge-Like Ethanol Exposure during Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Carvajal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The melanocortin (MC system regulates feeding and ethanol consumption. Recent evidence shows that melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4-R stimulation within the nucleus accumbens (NAc elicits anorectic responses and reduces ethanol consumption and ethanol palatability in adult rats. Ethanol exposure during adolescence causes long-lasting changes in neural pathways critically involved in neurobehavioral responses to ethanol. In this regard, binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence reduces basal alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH and alters the levels of agouti-related peptide (AgRP in hypothalamic and limbic areas. Given the protective role of MC against excessive ethanol consumption, disturbances in the MC system induced by binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence might contribute to excessive ethanol consumption during adulthood. In the present study, we evaluated whether binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence leads to elevated ethanol intake and/or eating disturbance during adulthood. Toward that aim, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with ethanol (3 g/kg i.p.; BEP group or saline (SP group for 14 days (PND 25 to PND 38. On PND73, all the groups were given access to 20% ethanol on an intermittent schedule. Our results showed that adult rats given intermittent access (IAE to 20% ethanol achieved high spontaneous ethanol intake that was not significantly enhanced by binge-like ethanol pretreatment during adolescence. However, BEP group exhibited an increase in food intake without a parallel increase in body weight (BW relative to SP group suggesting caloric efficiency disturbance. Additionally, we evaluated whether binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence alters the expected reduction in feeding and ethanol consumption following NAc shell administration of a selective MC4-R agonist in adult rats showing high rates of ethanol consumption. For that, animals in each pretreatment condition (SP and BEP were divided into

  5. Effect of framing on adolescents' decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Y C; Lin, C; Worthley, J

    1996-12-01

    92 young adolescents were tested using Tversky and Kahneman's (1981) decision problems for framing effects. A notable number of young adolescents tested were not influenced by the context of the decision problems, thus they selected the same response option for positively and negatively framed problems. Parallel information was not available in Tversky and Kahneman's study for adults because they used a between-subjects design. However, for present adolescents who selected different response options for different framing problems, the response pattern exhibited by them resembled the general pattern exhibited by the adults tested in Tversky and Kahneman's study-negative frames led them to accept risk to avoid certain loss; positive frames prevented them from risking what they were certain to gain. Boys and girls were similar in their susceptibility to framing effects as were honors students in mathematics as compared to nonhonors students. Although the positive vs negative framing only influenced some of the young adolescents tested in this study, because the influence was consistent, researchers and educators interested in adolescents' decisions involving risky choices might use framing principles to design and assess cognitive interventions for high-risk behaviors among young adolescents.

  6. Marital Conflicts and Parent-Adolescent Conflicts: The Mediator Role of Adolescents' Appraisals of Interparental Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ایرج مختارنیا

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mediating role of adolescents' appraisals from interparents conflict on the relationship of marital conflicts and parent-adolescent conflict. The study was descriptive correlational and the population of this study included students of Qods town of Tehran province. Sample size was 700 students that were selected by multistage random sampling. The data were collected by Parent-Adolescent Conflict Questionnaire (PACQ, Marital Conflict Scale (MCS and Children's Appraisals of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC. The results of structural equation modeling analysis showed that the theoretical model of the study included in the model was properly fitted with the data. This means that the variable of adolescent's appraisals of interparents’ conflict can be considered as a mediator variable in the relationship of marital conflict and parent-adolescent conflict. Furthermore, in this model all direct and indirect paths to predict parent-adolescent conflict were recognized. Therefore, marital conflict can predict parent-adolescent conflicts through mediating factors. Also, it can be concluded that the model of cognitive-contextual is capable of explaining the parent-adolescent conflicts.

  7. [Effectiveness of institutional policies to prevent adolescent alcohol use: The view of experts and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Cristian; del Moral, Gonzalo; Musitu, Gonzalo; Sánchez, Juan Carlos; John, Bev

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain the views of a sample of adolescents and experts on adolescence, family, school, local policies and media, regarding the effectiveness of institutional policies to prevent adolescent alcohol use. Four educational centers in the province of Seville. Head office of the Alcohol and Society Foundation in Madrid. Qualitative study using the method proposed by Grounded theory (Glaser and Strauss, 1967). Data were collected from 10 discussion groups guided by semistructured interviews. The data were analyzed using Atlas ti 5 software. A total of 32 national experts and 40 adolescents of both sexes aged 15 to 20 years living in the province of Seville, selected by theoretical intentional sampling. The experts believed that most of the evaluated preventive actions were effective, while adolescents disputed the preventive impact of most of them. Adolescents proposed actions focused on the reduction of supply of alcohol. Experts proposed a mixed model as the most effective strategy to prevent alcohol consumption in adolescents, combining supply and demand reduction policies, depending on specific short and long term objectives. We have obtained, not only an overview of what is working (or not) from the view of adolescents and experts, but also the key points that should be taken into account for designing effective prevention policies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Bariatric surgery for severely obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Dominic A; Baur, Louise

    2014-09-01

    Severe obesity is increasing in adolescents and is associated with cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnoea, polycystic ovarian syndrome and a range of musculoskeletal problems. Premature death is the inevitable outcome of persistent severe obesity in adolescents. In adults with severe obesity, medical and lifestyle interventions have been shown to be expensive and less effective in terms of weight loss than has bariatric surgery. The single completed randomised controlled trial in adolescents shows the same outcome. This is supported by meta analyses of bariatric surgery in adolescent subjects. A more aggressive approach to severe obesity, utilising bariatric surgery in selected cases, within the context of a multi-disciplinary team, is required. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Pollutant Induced Altered Behaviours in Fish: A Review of Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of environmental pollution has become a global phenomenon in recent years, of importance is the aquatic environment, which acts as a sink for these contaminants which pose serious threuts to many organisms especially fish. For many years direct mortality have been the major methods of assisting the effects of ...

  10. Determinants of Adolescent Reproductive Health Problems in Awka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    The result revealed that sexual transmitted diseases, hypertensive diseases, ... Adolescence is the period in the developmental stage of a human being when ... used to select two antenatal clinics from Awka and Amawbia town. The sample for ...

  11. Influences On Gambling Among Adolescents In Ibadan Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... on the relationship between the mass media, parental and peer influences on gambling among adolescent. Five hundred students were randomly selected for the study from fifteen ...

  12. Risky behaviour and psychosocial correlates in adolescents – is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is that psychological and behavioural variables associated with adolescence may increase risk of developing TB. The study .... selection was based on which schools the study team were visiting on ..... focus groups or participant interviews.

  13. School, family and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez, Aina; Leiva, Alfonso; Gorreto, Lucia; Estela, Andreu; Tejera, Elena; Torrent, Maties

    2013-01-01

    The socio-cultural environment is an important factor involved with the onset of smoking during adolescence. Initiation of cigarette smoking occurs almost exclusively during this stage. In this context we aimed to analyze the association of school and family factors with adolescent smoking by a cross-sectional study of 16 secondary schools randomly selected from the Balearic Islands involved 3673 students and 530 teachers. The prevalence of regular smoking (at least one cigarette per week) was 4.8% among first year students, 11.6% among second year students, 14.1% among third year students, 20.9% among fourth year students and 22% among teachers. Among first and second year students, there were independent associations between regular smoking and adolescents' perception of being allowed to smoke at home, belonging to a single parent family, poor relationship with parents, poor academic performance, lack of interest in studies and teachers' perception of smoking in the presence of pupils. Among third and fourth year students, there were independent associations between regular smoking and poor relationship with parents, adolescents' perception of being allowed to smoke at home, poor academic performance, lack of control over student misbehavior and the school attended. The school policies and practices affect student related health behavior regarding smoking, independent of individual and family factors.

  14. SEDAH. Data Server for hydrologic alteration evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Romero, R.; Magdaleno Mas, F.; Ortiz Rodriguez, J.; Fernandez Yuste, J. A.; Martinez Santa-Maria, C.

    2011-01-01

    Several tasks and studies have been developed from 2008 till 2010 all around the country in order to evaluate the hydrologic alteration of water bodies. In most cases this alteraction has been evaluated through IAHRIS (Martinez and Fernandez, 2006). The necessity of creating a new toll that allowed a better performance of the National Flow-Stage Stations Network data was showed up by developing these works. The output data series should match IAHRIS and IHA. SEDAH (Data Server for Evaluating Hydrologic Alteration) Helps to solve some of these problems by supplying an easy way to select flow stations, dates, flow series typology, etc. Moreover, other useful utilities are: a preliminary appraisement of quality data, calssification of altered or reference flow series and exportation of data in different file formats. The web application works with different data bases, daily, monthly and annual series belonging to, wither actual series from flow station data or completed series by statistical procedures. Through SEDAH the user has easy access to all this huge information ready for being applied in hydrologic alteration assessment, environmental fows regime, river restoration projects, etc. Furthermore, this first phase of the application constitute the basis for future powerful functionalities related to the natural flow series obtaining. (Author) 5 refs.

  15. Adolescent and Young Adult Injuries in Developing Economies: A Comparative Analysis from Oman and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Taber, Niloufer; Mehmood, Amber; Hung, Yuen Wai; Botchey, Isaac; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Hyder, Adnan A

    Adolescence is a distinct period of rapid and dramatic biological, cognitive, psychological, and social development. The burden of injuries among young people (aged 10-24) is both substantial and maldistributed across regions and levels of economic development. Our objective was to compare sociodemographic correlates of injury cause, intentionality, and mortality between Kenya and Oman, 2 countries with different levels of economic development and position in the demographic and epidemiologic transitions. Data on 566 patients in Oman and 5859 in Kenya between 10 and 24 years old were extracted from 2 separate multicenter trauma registries. Multivariable log binomial and Poisson regressions were used to evaluate social and demographic factors associated with injury cause, intentionality, and mortality. Literature on adolescent development was used to parameterize variables, and Akaike information criteria were used in the final model selections. The trauma registry data indicated a substantial burden of adolescent and young adult injury in both Oman and Kenya, particularly among males. The data indicated significant differences between countries (P < .001) in age category, gender distributions, level of education, occupation, cause of injury, and place where injury occurred. Consistent with other literature, road traffic injuries emerged as the most common type of injury as well as the most severe and fatal, with interpersonal violence also resulting in severe injury across contexts. Both road traffic injuries and interpersonal violence were more common among older adolescents and young adults. Education and being in school were protective against injury, after controlling for gender, age category, occupation, and country. A rising burden of injuries among young people has been documented in every region of the world, irrespective on income status or level of development. Cost-effective injury control measures targeting this age group exist, including involvement

  16. Early intervention for adolescents at high risk for the development of bipolar disorder: pilot study of Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy (IPSRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Tina R; Fersch-Podrat, Rachael; Axelson, David A; Gilbert, Alison; Hlastala, Stefanie A; Birmaher, Boris; Frank, Ellen

    2014-03-01

    Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy (IPSRT) delays bipolar disorder (BP) recurrence in adults by stabilizing daily routines and sleep/wake cycles. Because adolescence is a key developmental stage for illness onset and altered social and sleep patterns, this period may prove optimal for intervention with adolescents at-risk for BP. We describe a treatment development trial of IPSRT for adolescents at-risk for BP by virtue of a positive family history. Adolescents with a first-degree relative with BP were evaluated for Axis I psychopathology via semistructured interview, and relatives' BP diagnoses were confirmed via record review. IPSRT consisted of 12 sessions delivered over 6 months. Outcome variables including sleep, mood symptoms, and functioning were assessed via clinician interview and self-/parent-report at pretreatment, 3 months, and posttreatment (6 months). Thirteen adolescents attended at least one IPSRT session. Half of the sample denied Axis I psychopathology at intake; the remainder met criteria for a range of internalizing and externalizing disorders. Families reported high satisfaction with IPSRT, yet, on average, participants attended about half of scheduled sessions. Missed sessions were primarily associated with parental BP illness severity. Data indicate significant change in select sleep/circadian patterns (i.e., less weekend sleeping in and oversleeping) with treatment. Preliminary data suggest the IPSRT focus on stabilizing daily rhythms and interpersonal relationships may be beneficial for adolescents at-risk for BP. Controlled trials with longitudinal follow-up are needed to examine whether early intervention for at-risk youth helps prevent or delay disorder. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Music alters visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jolij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  18. Genetic Alterations in Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bralten, Linda B. C.; French, Pim J.

    2011-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor and have a dismal prognosis. Understanding the genetic alterations that drive glioma formation and progression may help improve patient prognosis by identification of novel treatment targets. Recently, two major studies have performed in-depth mutation analysis of glioblastomas (the most common and aggressive subtype of glioma). This systematic approach revealed three major pathways that are affected in glioblastomas: The receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, the TP53 pathway and the pRB pathway. Apart from frequent mutations in the IDH1/2 gene, much less is known about the causal genetic changes of grade II and III (anaplastic) gliomas. Exceptions include TP53 mutations and fusion genes involving the BRAF gene in astrocytic and pilocytic glioma subtypes, respectively. In this review, we provide an update on all common events involved in the initiation and/or progression across the different subtypes of glioma and provide future directions for research into the genetic changes

  19. Altered Perspectives: Immersive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.

    2016-12-01

    Immersive environments provide an exciting experiential technology to visualize the natural world. Given the increasing accessibility of 360o cameras and virtual reality headsets we are now able to visualize artistic principles and scientific concepts in a fully immersive environment. The technology has become popular for photographers as well as designers, industry, educational groups, and museums. Here we show a sci-art perspective on the use of optics and light in the capture and manipulation of 360o images and video of geologic phenomena and cultural heritage sites in Alaska, England, and France. Additionally, we will generate intentionally altered perspectives to lend a surrealistic quality to the landscapes. Locations include the Catacombs of Paris, the Palace of Versailles, and the Northern Lights over Fairbanks, Alaska. Some 360o view cameras now use small portable dual lens technology extending beyond the 180o fish eye lens previously used, providing better coverage and image quality. Virtual reality headsets range in level of sophistication and cost, with the most affordable versions using smart phones and Google Cardboard viewers. The equipment used in this presentation includes a Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera. Here we will demonstrate the use of 360o imaging with attendees being able to be part of the immersive environment and experience our locations as if they were visiting themselves.

  20. Adolescent Perspectives Following Ostomy Surgery: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Lynn D; Hamilton, Rebekah J

    2016-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to provide a theoretical account of how adolescents aged 13 to 18 years process the experience of having an ostomy. Qualitative study using grounded theory design. The sample comprised of 12 English-speaking adolescents aged 13-18 years: 10 with an ostomy and 2 with medical management of their disease. Respondents completed audio-recorded interviews that were transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method until data saturation occurred. Dedoose, a Web-based qualitative methods management tool, was used to capture major themes arising from the data. Study results indicate that for adolescents between 13 and 18 years of age, processing the experience of having an ostomy includes concepts of the "physical self" and "social self" with the goal of "normalizing." Subcategories of physical self include (a) changing reality, (b) learning, and (c) adapting. Subcategories of social self include (a) reentering and (b) disclosing. This study sheds light on how adolescents process the experience of having an ostomy and how health care providers can assist adolescents to move through the process to get back to their desired "normal" state. Health care providers can facilitate the adolescent through the ostomy experience by being proactive in conversations not only about care issues but also about school and family concerns and spirituality. Further research is needed in understanding how parents process their adolescents' ostomy surgery experience and how spirituality assists adolescents in coping and adjustment with body-altering events.

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1999-01-01

    From a clinical point of view, the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) among children and adolescents seems to be low. However, many children have dermatitis, most often atopic dermatitis. In selected cases, ACD is suspected, and the child is tested. The question remains, whether...... the prevalence of ACD in children really is low or whether the possibility of ACD is not sufficiently considered. During the last decade, reports have appeared on series of children and adolescents with contact allergy and ACD. Few cases have been reported in infants, but the development of contact allergy...... and ACD increases with age. Most studies include selected groups of children and adolescents with suspected ACD. Few studies have examined unselected populations, and most consider only the prevalence of contact allergy without evaluating the clinical relevance, e.g., the prevalence of ACD. Furthermore...

  2. Adolescents with gender dysphoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Klink, D.T.

    2015-01-01

    Young people with gender dysphoria are increasingly seen by pediatric endocrinologists. Mental health child specialists assess the adolescent and give advice about psychological or medical treatment. Provided they fulfill eligibility and readiness criteria, adolescents may receive pubertal

  3. Adolescent and School Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Adolescent and School Health Note: Javascript is disabled or ... help strengthen their capacity to improve child and adolescent health. More > DASH Home About DASH At A ...

  4. Encyclopedia of adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, B.B.; Prinstein, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    The period of adolescence involves growth, adaptation, and dramatic reorganization in almost every aspect of social and psychological development. The Encyclopedia of Adolescence offers an exhaustive and comprehensive review of current theory and research findings pertaining to this critical decade

  5. Preterm birth and structural brain alterations in early adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Nosarti, Chiara; Nam, Kie Woo; Walshe, Muriel; Murray, Robin M.; Cuddy, Marion; Rifkin, Larry; Allin, Matthew P.G.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in cortical development and impaired neurodevelopmental outcomes have been described following very preterm (VPT) birth in childhood and adolescence, but only a few studies to date have investigated grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) maturation in VPT samples in early adult life. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) we studied regional GM and WM volumes in 68 VPT-born individuals (mean gestational age 30 weeks) and 43 term-born controls aged 19–20 years, and their association w...

  6. Group therapy for adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Nada Hribar

    2001-01-01

    The group included adolescents from secondary school and some students. The group had weekly sessions or twice on mounth. The adolescents had varied simptoms: depressive, anxiety, psychosomatic disorders, learning difficulties, cunduct problems. All of adolescents were common on many problems in social interactions. The goal of therapeutic work were: to increase assertiveness skills and to reduce the anxious in social situations. The adolescents in group raised a self-esteem and developed som...

  7. A cluster-randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of delaying onset of adolescent substance abuse on cognitive development and addiction following a selective, personality-targeted intervention programme: the Co-Venture trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Mâsse, Benoit; Pihl, Robert O; Stewart, Sherry H; Séguin, Jean R; Conrod, Patricia J

    2017-10-01

    Substance use and binge drinking during early adolescence are associated with neurocognitive abnormalities, mental health problems and an increased risk for future addiction. The trial aims to evaluate the protective effects of an evidence-based substance use prevention programme on the onset of alcohol and drug use in adolescence, as well as on cognitive, mental health and addiction outcomes over 5 years. Thirty-eight high schools will be recruited, with a final sample of 31 schools assigned to intervention or control conditions (3826 youth). Brief personality-targeted interventions will be delivered to high-risk youth attending intervention schools during the first year of the trial. Control school participants will receive no intervention above what is offered to them in the regular curriculum by their respective schools. Public/private French and English high schools in Montreal (Canada). All grade 7 students (12-13 years old) will be invited to participate. High-risk youth will be identified as those scoring one standard deviation or more above the school mean on one of the four personality subscales of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (40-45% youth). Self-reported substance use and mental health symptoms and cognitive functioning measured annually throughout 5 years. Primary outcomes are the onset of substance use disorders at 4 years post-intervention (year 5). Secondary intermediate outcomes are the onset of alcohol and substance use 2 years post-intervention and neuropsychological functions; namely, the protective effects of substance use prevention on cognitive functions generally, and executive functions and reward sensitivity specifically. This longitudinal, cluster-randomized controlled trial will investigate the impact of a brief personality-targeted intervention program on reducing the onset of addiction 4 years-post intervention. Results will tease apart the developmental sequences of uptake and growth in substance use and cognitive

  8. Adolescence and Mythology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, Dimitris; Soumaki, Eugenia; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    The article begins with a brief exploration of the various aspects of adolescent's psychic qualities as these are described in Greek mythology. It is argued that myths are an integral part of the way that adolescence is perceived and myths play an important role in adolescents' psychic and external world, as well as in their mythological thinking.…

  9. Development of Adolescent Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, I.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation on “Development of Adolescent Relationships” addresses relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners in adolescence from a developmental perspective. By studying both parent-adolescent relationships and peer relationships at the same time, as well as interrelations

  10. Psychosocial Dysfunction among Adolescents Who Abuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... ... study was carried out among adolescents selected from five secondary schools in Abakaliki. ... and four students were abusers of one or more substances. ... Psychosocial dysfunction was however not related to age, gender, or social classes in the study population but was related to the abuse of multiple.

  11. Grounded Theory for Creating Adolescent Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacy, Cheryl Melissa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to discover the impact on adolescent reading motivation as students were given an opportunity to select recreational reading material and read consistently during class time. This study also explored the motivational impact of student engagement from dialogue with peers about their reading…

  12. The impact of junk foods on the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Amy C; Rank, Michelle M

    2017-12-01

    Adolescence is a significant period of physical, social, and emotional development, and is characterized by prominent neurobiological changes in the brain. The maturational processes that occur in brain regions responsible for cognitive control and reward seeking may underpin excessive consumption of palatable high fat and high sugar "junk" foods during adolescence. Recent studies have highlighted the negative impact of these foods on brain function, resulting in cognitive impairments and altered reward processing. The increased neuroplasticity during adolescence may render the brain vulnerable to the negative effects of these foods on cognition and behavior. In this review, we describe the mechanisms by which junk food diets influence neurodevelopment during adolescence. Diet can lead to alterations in dopamine-mediated reward signaling, and inhibitory neurotransmission controlled by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), two major neurotransmitter systems that are under construction across adolescence. We propose that poor dietary choices may derail the normal adolescent maturation process and influence neurodevelopmental trajectories, which can predispose individuals to dysregulated eating and impulsive behaviors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Improving snacking patterns in overweight Mexican American adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle school students are known to eat at times other than regular meals, preferring to snack between classes or after school. These eating episodes often include high calorie foods with little nutritional value. Assisting adolescents to alter these patterns may be beneficial for weight management....

  14. Postretrieval Extinction in Adolescence Prevents Return of Juvenile Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn E.; Monfils, Marie-H.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic experiences early in life can contribute to the development of mood and anxiety disorders that manifest during adolescence and young adulthood. In young rats exposed to acute fear or stress, alterations in neural development can lead to enduring behavioral abnormalities. Here, we used a modified extinction intervention…

  15. Adolescents on the Edge: Stories and Lessons to Transform Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, ReLeah Cossett; Baca, Jimmy Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Fusing Jimmy Santiago Baca's talents as a writer of memoir with ReLeah Cossett Lent's expertise in building and empowering classroom communities, this book offers a completely new approach to reaching at-risk adolescents. Centered around conflicts and life-altering choices, Baca's gripping personal narratives--delivered through short stories and…

  16. Comparing Multi-Informant Assessment Measures of Parental Monitoring and Their Links with Adolescent Delinquent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augenstein, Tara M.; Thomas, Sarah A.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Daruwala, Samantha; Reyes, Shelby M.; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S.; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective Parents’ poor monitoring of adolescents’ whereabouts and activities is commonly linked to adolescents’ increased engagement in delinquent behaviors. Yet, different domains of parental monitoring (parental monitoring behaviors vs. parental knowledge) and reports from multiple informants (parent vs. adolescent) may vary in their links to delinquent behavior. Design Seventy-four parental caregivers and 74 adolescents completed survey measures of parental monitoring and knowledge, and adolescents completed self-report surveys of delinquent behavior. Results We observed low-to-moderate magnitudes of correspondence between parent- and adolescent-reports of parental monitoring behaviors and parental knowledge. Adolescent self-reported delinquent behavior related to parent and adolescent reports of parental monitoring behaviors and parental knowledge, with adolescents who self-reported engagement in delinquent behaviors evidencing lower levels of parental knowledge and higher levels of poor monitoring compared to adolescents who did not self-report engagement in delinquent behaviors. Adolescent self-reported engagement in delinquent behaviors evidenced stronger links to parental monitoring when based on adolescent reports of monitoring (relative to parent reports), whereas stronger links held between adolescent self-reported delinquent behavior and parental knowledge when based on parent reports of knowledge (relative to adolescent reports). Conclusions Links between monitoring and adolescents’ delinquent behavior vary by the kind of monitoring measure completed as well as the informant completing the measure. These findings inform measurement selection in research and clinical assessments of parental monitoring and adolescent delinquent behavior. PMID:27482171

  17. Induced abortions among adolescent women in rural Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganatra, Bela; Hirve, Siddhi

    2002-05-01

    In a study in rural Maharashtra, India, adolescents constituted 13.1% of the 1717 married women who had an induced abortion during an 18-month period in 1996-1998. The 197 adolescents who were subsequently interviewed had a lesser role in the decision-making process on abortion than women older than them. Most abortions were obtained in the private sector. Though spacing was the main reason for adolescents seeking abortion, prior contraceptive use among them was low. Additionally, they were less likely to receive post-abortion contraceptive counselling or to adopt contraception. Sex selection accounted for more than a fifth of abortions among adolescents. Additional qualitative data from 43 never-married and separated adolescents seeking abortion showed that non-consensual sex made many pregnancies unwanted, and cost, limited mobility, lack of family and partner support and the need for privacy to prevent stigma led many to go to traditional providers, even though safer options existed. Family planning programmes need to address the contraceptive needs of newly married adolescent women as well as unmarried adolescents. Informing adolescents of their legal rights, sensitising providers to adopt an empathetic attitude, and exploring innovative ways of increasing access to safe services for unmarried adolescents are all recommended.

  18. Stress and obesity/metabolic syndrome in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervanidou, Panagiota; Chrousos, George P

    2011-09-01

    Chronic distress contributes to the development of obesity and comorbid states. Stress is the disturbance of the complex dynamic equilibrium that all organisms must maintain, and is associated with activation of the Stress system comprising of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the arousal/sympathetic nervous systems. The stress system functions in a baseline circadian fashion and interacts with other systems of the organism to regulate a variety of behavioral, endocrine, metabolic, immune and cardiovascular functions. The experience of perceived or real uncontrollable intense and/or chronic stress (distress) may lead to several psychopathologic conditions, including anxiety, depressive and psychosomatic disorders, substance abuse, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis, as well as impaired reproductive and immune functions. Developing children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the effects of chronic stress. Both behavioral and biological pathways are involved in the connection between chronic stress and obesity in adults and children. Emotional "comfort" eating, lack of sleep, impulsive behaviours and selection of specific foods often characterize stressed individuals. In addition to specific behaviours, dysregulation of the stress system through increased secretion of cortisol and catecholamines, especially in the evening hours, and in concert with concurrently elevated insulin concentrations, leads to development of central obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. In children, chronic alterations in cortisol secretion may have additional effects on cognitive and emotional development, timing of puberty and final stature. Obese children and adolescents are frequently entangled in a vicious cycle between distress, impairing self-image and distorted self-image, maintaining and worsening distress.

  19. fMRI correlates of risky decision-making in adolescent alcohol users : : the role of abstinence

    OpenAIRE

    Bazinet, Alissa Dyan

    2013-01-01

    A neurobiological model of risk-taking suggests that differential timing in the maturation of the brain networks associated with emotional processing and cognitive control may predispose adolescents to risky behavior, including alcohol and other substance use. Heavy alcohol use during adolescence has been shown to alter normative brain functioning, though it remains unknown whether alterations normalize with sustained abstinence or persist after cessation of use. The present study utilized fM...

  20. Nutrition in adolescent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenders, C M; McElrath, T F; Scholl, T O

    2000-06-01

    Prevention of unintended adolescent pregnancy is a primary goal of the American Academy of Pediatrics and of many health providers. Nevertheless, many adolescents become pregnant every year in America. Pediatricians therefore should be aware of nutritional recommendations for pregnant adolescents to provide optimal care. The importance of nutrition during pregnancy is here reviewed from a pediatric perspective. Pregnancy, particularly during adolescence, is a time of extreme nutritional risk. The adolescents most likely to become pregnant are often those with inadequate nutritional status and unfavorable socio-economic background. There is increasing evidence of competition for nutrients between the growing pregnant adolescent and her fetus. Also, the prenatal environment has been implicated in the development of obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes in both the mother and her offspring. Many adolescents have poor diet quality and poor knowledge of appropriate nutrition; these habits may not change during pregnancy. Current knowledge and recommendations regarding the intake of energy, calcium, and folate are discussed in detail.

  1. Alterations in subspecific characters of groundnut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouli, C.; Patil, S.H.; Kale, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recombination of beneficial characters associated in the cultivars of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea, L.) belonging to the two subspecies hypogaea and fastigiata had little success in conventional breeding programme. The cultures of ssp. hypogaea have the desirable characters for the crop improvement viz; various growth habits, profuse branching, large pod, seed dormancy and stress tolerance. Sequential flowering, early maturity, compact fruiting habit and high kernel outturn are the other useful characters present in ssp. fastigiata cultures. Mutation research in a popular variety, Spanish Improved belonging to ssp. fastigiata led to the selection of various mutants. One among the mutants had large pod, a characteristic of hypogaea ssp. Hybridization among the mutants and improved cultivars as well as radiation treatment of selected cultures resulted in the isolation of cultures having not only combinations and alterations of characters in both subspecies, but also modifications. These cultures are classified into major groups and their significance in the groundnut improvement is discussed. (author)

  2. Závislost adolescentů na sociální síti Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Šopfová, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with addictions among adolescents on the social network Face-book. The aim of the thesis is to identify the symptoms of the Facebook addiction between adolescents at the selected school. The main methodological instrument was a questionnaire survey, which found out that nearly one quarter of adolescents spend almost the entire day on Facebook, and further nearly double number of adolescents (44 %) spend more than 6 hours on Facebook, where mostly communicate with friends. In...

  3. Altered brain connectivity in sagittal craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Joel S; Brooks, Eric D; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vander Wyk, Brent; Jou, Roger J; Steinbacher, Derek M; Constable, R Todd; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Persing, John A

    2014-06-01

    Sagittal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis (sNSC) is the most common form of NSC. The condition is associated with a high prevalence (> 50%) of deficits in executive function. The authors employed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional MRI to evaluate whether hypothesized structural and functional connectivity differences underlie the observed neurocognitive morbidity of sNSC. Using a 3-T Siemens Trio MRI system, the authors collected DTI and resting-state functional connectivity MRI data in 8 adolescent patients (mean age 12.3 years) with sNSC that had been previously corrected via total vault cranioplasty and 8 control children (mean age 12.3 years) without craniosynostosis. Data were analyzed using the FMRIB Software Library and BioImageSuite. Analyses of the DTI data revealed white matter alterations approaching statistical significance in all supratentorial lobes. Statistically significant group differences (sNSC right supramarginal gyrus. Analysis of the resting-state seed in relation to whole-brain data revealed significant increases in negative connectivity (anticorrelations) of Brodmann area 8 to the prefrontal cortex (Montreal Neurological Institute [MNI] center of mass coordinates [x, y, z]: -6, 53, 6) and anterior cingulate cortex (MNI coordinates 6, 43, 14) in the sNSC group relative to controls. Furthermore, in the sNSC patients versus controls, the Brodmann area 7, 39, and 40 seed had decreased connectivity to left angular gyrus (MNI coordinates -31, -61, 34), posterior cingulate cortex (MNI coordinates 13, -52, 18), precuneus (MNI coordinates 10, -55, 54), left and right parahippocampus (MNI coordinates -13, -52, 2 and MNI coordinates 11, -50, 2, respectively), lingual (MNI coordinates -11, -86, -10), and fusiform gyri (MNI coordinates -30, -79, -18). Intrinsic connectivity analysis also revealed altered connectivity between central nodes in the default mode network in sNSC relative to controls; the left and right posterior cingulate cortices

  4. Health and School Performance among Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    adult educational achievement. Data are taken from a birth cohort study of all adolescents born in 1989 (n=3,058) living in a rural county in Denmark. Information was obtained from questionnaires (sent to the adolescents and their parents) and from different national registers (e.g. hospitalization......This study examines the impact of a wide range of health measures on school performance at the end of compulsory school (9 years of school). The key questions raised are whether different health problems lowers school performance contributing to a health selection process that could lead to lower...... health and school performance....

  5. Simulation of selected genealogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, P F

    2000-02-01

    Algorithms for generating genealogies with selection conditional on the sample configuration of n genes in one-locus, two-allele haploid and diploid models are presented. Enhanced integro-recursions using the ancestral selection graph, introduced by S. M. Krone and C. Neuhauser (1997, Theor. Popul. Biol. 51, 210-237), which is the non-neutral analogue of the coalescent, enables accessible simulation of the embedded genealogy. A Monte Carlo simulation scheme based on that of R. C. Griffiths and S. Tavaré (1996, Math. Comput. Modelling 23, 141-158), is adopted to consider the estimation of ancestral times under selection. Simulations show that selection alters the expected depth of the conditional ancestral trees, depending on a mutation-selection balance. As a consequence, branch lengths are shown to be an ineffective criterion for detecting the presence of selection. Several examples are given which quantify the effects of selection on the conditional expected time to the most recent common ancestor. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  6. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Considerations for Research in Adolescent Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C. Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent depression is a prevalent disorder with substantial morbidity and mortality. Current treatment interventions do not target relevant pathophysiology and are frequently ineffective, thereby leading to a substantial burden for individuals, families, and society. During adolescence, the prefrontal cortex undergoes extensive structural and functional changes. Recent work suggests that frontolimbic development in depressed adolescents is delayed or aberrant. The judicious application of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques to the prefrontal cortex may present a promising opportunity for durable interventions in adolescent depression. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS applies a low-intensity, continuous current that alters cortical excitability. While this modality does not elicit action potentials, it is thought to manipulate neuronal activity and neuroplasticity. Specifically, tDCS may modulate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels and effect changes through long-term potentiation or long-term depression-like mechanisms. This mini-review considers the neurobiological rationale for developing tDCS protocols in adolescent depression, reviews existing work in adult mood disorders, surveys the existing tDCS literature in adolescent populations, reviews safety studies, and discusses distinct ethical considerations in work with adolescents.

  7. Gynecologic and Obstetric Consequences of Obesity in Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Montemayor, Leticia; Hernández-Escobar, Claudia; Lara-Torre, Eduardo; Nieblas, Bianca; Gómez-Carmona, Merith

    2017-04-01

    In the past few decades, there has been an overwhelming increase in childhood and adolescent obesity worldwide. Besides the well recognized cardiometabolic complications and other physical conditions associated with obesity, during adolescence, it causes psychological and social distress in a period of life that is already sensitive for a girl. This in turn increases their risk of low self-esteem and depression. Furthermore, obesity diminishes health-related quality of life and years of life. Overweight and obese teenagers are more likely to have gynecologic and obstetric complications, during adolescence and also later in life. Consequences of obese and overweight childhood and adolescence include sexual maturation and reproductive dysfunction, alterations in menstruation, dysmenorrhea, risky sexual behavior, and inefficient use of contraception, polycystic ovary syndrome, bone density abnormalities, macromastia, and an increased risk of breast and endometrial cancer. Obese adolescents are at greater risk of pregnancy and perinatal complications, such as preeclampsia, gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, primary cesarean delivery, and induction of labor, to mention a few. Evidence shows that infants born to obese teenagers are also more likely to have complications including preterm or post-term delivery, small-for-gestational age newborns, macrosomia, meconium aspiration, respiratory distress, and even stillbirth, among others. This comprehensive review focuses on the gynecological and obstetric consequences of obesity in adolescent girls. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gesundheit und Pflege im Alter

    OpenAIRE

    Pfaff, Martin

    1989-01-01

    Gesundheit und Pflege im Alter : d. Gesundheitsreformgesetz (GRG) ; Möglichkeiten, Grenzen u. weitere Vorschläge / Martin Pfaff ; Klaus Deimer. - In: Expertengespräch "Pflege in der Familie". - Augsburg, 1989. - Getr. Zählung

  9. Bariatric surgery in adolescents: what's the rationale? What's rational?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Heather; Smith, Kevin C; Ward, Wendy L

    2012-06-01

    Rates of obesity in adolescents continue to rise, and available lifestyle and pharmacological interventions have had limited success in reducing excess weight and risk for comorbid health issues. However, ongoing health risks, psychosocial issues, and increased risk of mortality place these adolescents in jeopardy and warrant ongoing investigation for available treatments. Bariatric surgery for adults has had positive medical and psychological outcomes. However, bariatric surgery is a relatively new option for adolescents. Initial findings suggest positive results for excess weight loss and psychosocial improvements, but not without possible risks. Selection of appropriate candidates is essential in the process, specifically considering developmental maturity, family support, and resultant disease burden without surgery. Surgery is not a panacea for the obesity epidemic. Outcome studies are limited and long-term results are unknown, but for extremely obese adolescents, bariatric surgery is promising and should be considered a viable option for appropriate adolescent candidates.

  10. Effects of voluntary alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during rat adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S McMurray

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30-50, rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses.

  11. First selection, then influence : Developmental differences in friendship dynamics regarding academic achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, Mariola Claudia; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Steglich, Christian; Veenstra, René

    This study concerns peer selection and influence dynamics in early adolescents' friendships regarding academic achievement. Using longitudinal social network analysis (RSiena), both selection and influence processes were investigated for students' average grades and their cluster-specific grades

  12. Preterm birth and structural brain alterations in early adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Nosarti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in cortical development and impaired neurodevelopmental outcomes have been described following very preterm (VPT birth in childhood and adolescence, but only a few studies to date have investigated grey matter (GM and white matter (WM maturation in VPT samples in early adult life. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM we studied regional GM and WM volumes in 68 VPT-born individuals (mean gestational age 30 weeks and 43 term-born controls aged 19–20 years, and their association with cognitive outcomes (Hayling Sentence Completion Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Visual Reproduction test of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and gestational age. Structural MRI data were obtained with a 1.5 Tesla system and analysed using the VBM8 toolbox in SPM8 with a customized study-specific template. Similarly to results obtained at adolescent assessment, VPT young adults compared to controls demonstrated reduced GM volume in temporal, frontal, insular and occipital areas, thalamus, caudate nucleus and putamen. Increases in GM volume were noted in medial/anterior frontal gyrus. Smaller subcortical WM volume in the VPT group was observed in temporal, parietal and frontal regions, and in a cluster centred on posterior corpus callosum/thalamus/fornix. Larger subcortical WM volume was found predominantly in posterior brain regions, in areas beneath the parahippocampal and occipital gyri and in cerebellum. Gestational age was associated with GM and WM volumes in areas where VPT individuals demonstrated GM and WM volumetric alterations, especially in temporal, parietal and occipital regions. VPT participants scored lower than controls on measures of IQ, executive function and non-verbal memory. When investigating GM and WM alterations and cognitive outcome scores, subcortical WM volume in an area beneath the left inferior frontal gyrus accounted for 14% of the variance of full-scale IQ (F = 12.9, p < 0.0001. WM volume in posterior corpus

  13. Forearm bone mineralization in recently diagnosed female adolescents with a premenarchal onset of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggen, Inge; Vanbesien, Jesse; Gies, Inge; Van den Eede, Ursula; Lampo, Annik; Louis, Olivia; De Schepper, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Data available on bone mineralization by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) in adolescents with an early onset anorexia nervosa (AN) is limited. We investigated whether a disturbed bone mineralization can be observed at the distal radius in recently diagnosed female adolescents with AN and a premenarchal onset of this disease. Twenty-four premenarchal patients with AN and 22 healthy females which were age and height matched, were selected from our reference database; both groups underwent a pQCT bone assessment at the distal radius of the nondominant arm. The patients age ranged between 13.3 and 18.4 years. Their percent weight loss ranged between 5 and 36% (median 23%) and occurred within the preceding 3 to 44 months. Trabecular volumetric bone mineral density of the patient group was significantly lower than the comparison group (185.6 ± 30.2 vs.209.3 ± 34.0 mm(2) ; p = 0.02). Bone cross-sectional area, bone mineral content, total volumetric bone mineral density and periosteal circumference were also lower, albeit not significantly. The bone parameters were unrelated to the under nutrition severity and duration. In premenarchal patients with AN the trabecular bone mineralization of the forearm is significantly reduced, this might be an early indicator of altered bone mineral accrual. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:809-812). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Long-term effects of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in adolescent and adult rats: radial-arm maze performance and operant food reinforced responding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise Risher

    Full Text Available Adolescence is not only a critical period of late-stage neurological development in humans, but is also a period in which ethanol consumption is often at its highest. Given the prevalence of ethanol use during this vulnerable developmental period we assessed the long-term effects of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE exposure during adolescence, compared to adulthood, on performance in the radial-arm maze (RAM and operant food-reinforced responding in male rats.Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to CIE (or saline and then allowed to recover. Animals were then trained in either the RAM task or an operant task using fixed- and progressive- ratio schedules. After baseline testing was completed all animals received an acute ethanol challenge while blood ethanol levels (BECs were monitored in a subset of animals. CIE exposure during adolescence, but not adulthood decreased the amount of time that animals spent in the open portions of the RAM arms (reminiscent of deficits in risk-reward integration and rendered animals more susceptible to the acute effects of an ethanol challenge on working memory tasks. The operant food reinforced task showed that these effects were not due to altered food motivation or to differential sensitivity to the nonspecific performance-disrupting effects of ethanol. However, CIE pre-treated animals had lower BEC levels than controls during the acute ethanol challenges indicating persistent pharmacokinetic tolerance to ethanol after the CIE treatment. There was little evidence of enduring effects of CIE alone on traditional measures of spatial and working memory.These effects indicate that adolescence is a time of selective vulnerability to the long-term effects of repeated ethanol exposure on neurobehavioral function and acute ethanol sensitivity. The positive and negative findings reported here help to further define the nature and extent of the impairments observed after adolescent CIE and provide direction for future

  15. Long-Term Effects of Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure in Adolescent and Adult Rats: Radial-Arm Maze Performance and Operant Food Reinforced Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risher, Mary-Louise; Fleming, Rebekah L.; Boutros, Nathalie; Semenova, Svetlana; Wilson, Wilkie A.; Levin, Edward D.; Markou, Athina; Swartzwelder, H. Scott; Acheson, Shawn K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescence is not only a critical period of late-stage neurological development in humans, but is also a period in which ethanol consumption is often at its highest. Given the prevalence of ethanol use during this vulnerable developmental period we assessed the long-term effects of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure during adolescence, compared to adulthood, on performance in the radial-arm maze (RAM) and operant food-reinforced responding in male rats. Methodology/Principal Findings Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to CIE (or saline) and then allowed to recover. Animals were then trained in either the RAM task or an operant task using fixed- and progressive- ratio schedules. After baseline testing was completed all animals received an acute ethanol challenge while blood ethanol levels (BECs) were monitored in a subset of animals. CIE exposure during adolescence, but not adulthood decreased the amount of time that animals spent in the open portions of the RAM arms (reminiscent of deficits in risk-reward integration) and rendered animals more susceptible to the acute effects of an ethanol challenge on working memory tasks. The operant food reinforced task showed that these effects were not due to altered food motivation or to differential sensitivity to the nonspecific performance-disrupting effects of ethanol. However, CIE pre-treated animals had lower BEC levels than controls during the acute ethanol challenges indicating persistent pharmacokinetic tolerance to ethanol after the CIE treatment. There was little evidence of enduring effects of CIE alone on traditional measures of spatial and working memory. Conclusions/Significance These effects indicate that adolescence is a time of selective vulnerability to the long-term effects of repeated ethanol exposure on neurobehavioral function and acute ethanol sensitivity. The positive and negative findings reported here help to further define the nature and extent of the impairments observed

  16. Adolescent childbearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, M

    1991-05-01

    The concern for the consequences of adolescent pregnancy are discussed. Childbirth among unmarried teenagers results in a higher incidence of low birth weight babies, a higher infant mortality and morbidity rate, a higher percentage of childbirth complications, a decreased likelihood of completing school, a higher risk of unemployment and welfare dependency, limited vocational opportunities, larger families, and vulnerability to psychological problems and distress. In 1988, 66% of all births to teens occurred outside of marriage. Out of wedlock live births to teens 14 years rose from 80.8% in 1970 to 92.5% in 1986, and for teens 15-19 years, 29.5% to 60.8%. 70% have a repeat pregnancy within the 1st year following their 1st childbirth. 50% have a 2nd child within 3 years. Most 2nd pregnancies occur in teenagers who are not using effective contractive methods, and the pregnancy is frequently unplanned and unwanted. The factors affecting the rate of 2nd pregnancy are age, race, marital status, education, and economic status. Teenage mothers tend to come from disadvantaged backgrounds, and childbearing compounds the poverty. Aid to families with dependent children 50% of payments were to teen mothers for the birth of their 1st child. Teen fathers are usually low income providers. The public costs are high. Some teen fathers abandon their children after birth, but many are interested in supporting their child. Specific programs to help prepare fathers are needed. Teenage mothers are stressed by child care arrangements, living arrangements, employment, school, relationships with peers, relationships with parents, housework and errands, health, finances, job counseling, community services, and child care information. Parents play an important role in guiding sexual involvement and early childbearing, and need to understand why teens get pregnant and to keep channels of communication open. Teens are influenced by media, peer pressure, lack of self-esteem, unhappiness

  17. Common periodontal diseases of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghutaimel, Hayat; Riba, Hisham; Al-Kahtani, Salem; Al-Duhaimi, Saad

    2014-01-01

    Background. Since 2000, studies, experiments, and clinical observations revealed high prevalence of periodontal diseases among children and adolescents. Therefore, this paper was designed to provide an update for dental practitioners on epidemiology, microbiology, pathology, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of periodontal diseases in children and adolescents. Methods. This paper reviews the current literature concerning periodontal diseases in pediatric dentistry. It includes MEDLINE database search using key terms: "periodontal diseases in children," "Periodontal diseasesin adolescents," "periodontal diseases risk factors," "microbiology of periodontal diseases," "classification of periodontal diseases," "epidemiology of periodontal diseases," and "treatment of periodontal diseases." Articles were evaluated by title and/or abstract and relevance to pediatric dentistry. Sixty-five citations were selected by this method and by the references within the chosen articles. A review of the comprehensive textbooks on pediatric dentistry and periodontology was done. Some recommendations were based on the opinions of experienced researchers and clinicians, when data were inconclusive.

  18. Does Adolescents’ Religiousness Moderate Links between Harsh Parenting and Adolescent Substance Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Farley, Julee P.; Holmes, Christopher J.; Longo, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Extant literature suggests that religiousness is inversely related to adolescent substance use; yet, no systematic investigation has examined whether religiousness may be a protective factor against substance use in the presence of risk factors. We examined whether religiousness moderates the links between parents’ psychological and physical aggression and adolescent substance use directly and indirectly through adolescent self-control. The sample comprised adolescents (N = 220, 45% female) and their primary caregivers. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested that adolescents with low religiousness were likely to engage in substance use when subjected to harsh parenting, but there was no association between harsh parenting and substance use among adolescents with high religiousness. Furthermore, although harsh parenting was related to poor adolescent self-control regardless of religiousness levels, poor self-control was significantly related to substance use for adolescents with low religiousness, whereas the link between poor self-control and substance use did not exist for adolescents with high religiousness. The findings present the first evidence that adolescent religiousness may be a powerful buffering factor that can positively alter pathways to substance use in the presence of risk factors such as harsh parenting and poor self-control. PMID:24979658

  19. Chronic Nicotine Treatment During Adolescence Attenuates the Effects of Acute Nicotine in Adult Contextual Fear Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Erica D; Gould, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent onset of nicotine abuse is correlated with worse chances at successful abstinence in adulthood. One reason for this may be due to enduring learning deficits resulting from nicotine use during adolescence. Previous work has indicated that chronic nicotine administration beginning in late adolescence (PND38) caused learning deficits in contextual fear when tested in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic nicotine treatment during adolescence would alter sensitivity to nicotine's cognitive enhancing properties in adulthood. C57BL/6J mice received saline or chronic nicotine (12.6mg/kg/day) during adolescence (postnatal day 38) or adulthood (postnatal day 54) for a period of 12 days. Following a 30-day protracted abstinence, mice received either an acute injection of saline or nicotine (0.045, 0.18, and 0.36mg/kg) prior to training and testing a mouse model of contextual fear. It was found that chronic nicotine administration in adult mice did not alter sensitivity to acute nicotine following a protracted abstinence. In adolescent mice, chronic nicotine administration disrupted adult learning and decreased sensitivity to acute nicotine in adulthood as only the highest dose tested (0.36mg/kg) was able to enhance contextual fear learning. These results suggest that adolescent nicotine exposure impairs learning in adulthood, which could increase the risk for continued nicotine use in adulthood by requiring administration of higher doses of nicotine to reverse learning impairments caused by adolescent nicotine exposure. Results from this study add to the growing body of literature suggesting chronic nicotine exposure during adolescence leads to impaired learning in adulthood and demonstrates that nicotine exposure during adolescence attenuates the cognitive enhancing effects of acute nicotine in adulthood, which suggests altered cholinergic function. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for

  20. Smoking behavior among adolescents in Thailand and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirirassamee, Tawima; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Borland, Ron; Omar, Maizurah; Driezen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the smoking behavior among adolescents in Thailand and Malaysia. Population-based, national surveys were conducted among 1,704 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 18 from Thailand (n = 927) and Malaysia (n = 777). Respondents were selected using multistage cluster sampling. Respondents were asked to complete self-administered questionnaires. Approximately 5% of Thai and Malaysian adolescents were current smokers, while an additional 8.6% of Thai and 8.1% of Malaysian adolescents reported being beginning smokers. On average, Thai smokers reported first smoking a whole cigarette at 14.6 years old (SD = 1.9), while Malaysian smokers at age 13.9 years (SD = 2.2). More than half of Thai smokers (60.4%) reported they bought cigarettes themselves and 29.9% got cigarettes from friends. In Malaysia, most smokers (68.3%) reported they bought cigarettes themselves, only 20.7% got cigarettes from friends. Seventy-six percent of Thai adolescent smokers smoked factory-made brands as their usual brand compared to 27.7% of Malaysian adolescent smokers. Eight percent of Thai adolescents and 10% of Malaysian adolescents reported smoking hand-rolled cigarettes. Approximately half of Thais and more than 40% of Malaysian smokers reported they tried to quit smoking within the past month. The smoking prevalence of Thai adolescents is close to that of Malaysian adolescents. Factory-made cigarette consumption is an important problem in Thai adolescents and needs to be targeted.

  1. Adolescent exposure to THC in female rats disrupts developmental changes in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Tiziana; Prini, Pamela; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Zamberletti, Erica; Trusel, Massimo; Melis, Miriam; Sagheddu, Claudia; Ligresti, Alessia; Tonini, Raffaella; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Parolaro, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Current concepts suggest that exposure to THC during adolescence may act as a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. However, the molecular underpinnings of this vulnerability are still poorly understood. To analyze this, we investigated whether and how THC exposure in female rats interferes with different maturational events occurring in the prefrontal cortex during adolescence through biochemical, pharmacological and electrophysiological means. We found that the endocannabinoid system undergoes maturational processes during adolescence and that THC exposure disrupts them, leading to impairment of both endocannabinoid signaling and endocannabinoid-mediated LTD in the adult prefrontal cortex. THC also altered the maturational fluctuations of NMDA subunits, leading to larger amounts of gluN2B at adulthood. Adult animals exposed to THC during adolescence also showed increased AMPA gluA1 with no changes in gluA2 subunits. Finally, adolescent THC exposure altered cognition at adulthood. All these effects seem to be triggered by the disruption of the physiological role played by the endocannabinoid system during adolescence. Indeed, blockade of CB1 receptors from early to late adolescence seems to prevent the occurrence of pruning at glutamatergic synapses. These results suggest that vulnerability of adolescent female rats to long-lasting THC adverse effects might partly reside in disruption of the pivotal role played by the endocannabinoid system in the prefrontal cortex maturation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Political knowledge and awareness in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, A; Gunter, B

    1983-12-01

    Although some work has been done on adolescents' political attitudes, very little work has been done on their political knowledge. This study aimed to replicate a large study carried out eight years ago (Stradling, 1977) to see whether recent political changes altered adolescents' political knowledge and secondly to investigate the determinants (demographic, media usage, interest) of this knowledge. The results were strikingly similar to those of Stradling despite the smaller sample and the changes over time. The subjects appeared to know most about responsibility for public services and party political leaders and least about party political or parliamentary procedure. The canonical variable that best predicted overall knowledge was interest in politics and current affairs and to a lesser extent TV news watching and discussions with adults. The results are discussed in terms of political socialization and limitations of this work are considered.

  3. Effects of cannabis on the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Joanna; Tapert, Susan F

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews neuroimaging, neurocognitive, and preclinical findings on the effects of cannabis on the adolescent brain. Marijuana is the second most widely used intoxicant in adolescence, and teens who engage in heavy marijuana use often show disadvantages in neurocognitive performance, macrostructural and microstructural brain development, and alterations in brain functioning. It remains unclear whether such disadvantages reflect pre-existing differences that lead to increased substances use and further changes in brain architecture and behavioral outcomes. Future work should focus on prospective investigations to help disentangle dose-dependent effects from pre-existing effects, and to better understand the interactive relationships with other commonly abused substances (e.g., alcohol) to better understand the role of regular cannabis use on neurodevelopmental trajectories.

  4. Effects of Cannabis on the Adolescent Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Joanna; Tapert, Susan F.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews neuroimaging, neurocognitive, and preclinical findings on the effects of cannabis on the adolescent brain. Marijuana is the second most widely used intoxicant in adolescence, and teens who engage in heavy marijuana use often show disadvantages in neurocognitive performance, macrostructural and microstructural brain development, and alterations in brain functioning. It remains unclear whether such disadvantages reflect pre-existing differences that lead to increased substances use and further changes in brain architecture and behavioral outcomes. Future work should focus on prospective investigations to help disentangle dose-dependent effects from pre-existing effects, and to better understand the interactive relationships with other commonly abused substances (e.g., alcohol) to better understand the role of regular cannabis use on neurodevelopmental trajectories. PMID:23829363

  5. Neural correlates of proactive and reactive aggression in adolescent twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaling; Joshi, Shantanu H; Jahanshad, Neda; Thompson, Paul M; Baker, Laura A

    2017-05-01

    Verbal and physical aggression begin early in life and steadily decline thereafter in normal development. As a result, elevated aggressive behavior in adolescence may signal atypical development and greater vulnerability for negative mental and health outcomes. Converging evidence suggests that brain disturbances in regions involved in impulse control, emotional regulation, and sensation seeking may contribute to heightened aggression. However, little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying subtypes of aggression (i.e., proactive and reactive aggression) and whether they differ between males and females. Using a sample of 106 14-year-old adolescent twins, this study found that striatal enlargement was associated with both proactive and reactive aggression. We also found that volumetric alterations in several frontal regions including smaller middle frontal and larger orbitofrontal cortex were correlated with higher levels of aggression in adolescent twins. In addition, cortical thickness analysis showed that thickness alterations in many overlapping regions including middle frontal, superior frontal, and anterior cingulate cortex and temporal regions were associated with aggression in adolescent twins. Results support the involvement of fronto-limbic-striatal circuit in the etiology of aggression during adolescence. Aggr. Behav. 43:230-240, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Childhood antecedents of adolescent personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, D P; Cohen, P; Skodol, A; Bezirganian, S; Brook, J S

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the childhood antecedents of personality disorders that are diagnosed in adolescence. A randomly selected community sample of 641 youths was assessed initially in childhood and followed longitudinally over 10 years. Childhood behavior ratings were based on maternal report; diagnoses of adolescent personality disorders were based on data obtained from both maternal and youth informants. Four composite measures of childhood behavior problems were used: conduct problems, depressive symptoms, anxiety/fear, and immaturity. Adolescent personality disorders were considered present only if the disorders persisted over a 2-year period. For all analyses, personality disorders were grouped into the three clusters (A, B, and C) of DSM-III-R. Logistic regression analyses indicated that all four of the putative childhood antecedents were associated with greater odds of an adolescent personality disorder 10 years later. Childhood conduct problems remained an independent predictor of personality disorders in all three clusters, even when other childhood problems were included in the same regression model. Additionally, depressive symptoms emerged as an independent predictor of cluster A personality disorders in boys, while immaturity was an independent predictor of cluster B personality disorders in girls. No moderating effects of age at time of childhood assessment were found. These results support the view that personality disorders can be traced to childhood emotional and behavioral disturbances and suggest that these problems have both general and specific relationships to adolescent personality functioning.

  7. Executive function in adolescents with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchi, S; Jerman, O; Dal Pont, E; Alberti, A; Vianello, R

    2010-04-01

    The present work is aimed at analysing executive function (EF) in adolescents with Down Syndrome (DS). So far, EF has been analysed mainly in adults with DS, showing a pattern of impairment. However, less is known about children and adolescents with this syndrome. Studying adolescents with DS might help us better understand whether performances on EF tasks of individuals with DS are determined by age or by Alzheimer disease, as some studies suggest, or whether their performances are directly related to DS cognitive profile. A battery of EF tasks assessing set shifting, planning/problem-solving, working memory, inhibition/perseveration and fluency, as well as a tasks assessing sustained attention has been administered to a group of 15 adolescents with DS and 15 typically developing children matched for mental age. All EF tasks were selected from previous studies with individuals with intellectual disabilities or from developmental literature and are thought to be useful for the samples considered. The present results revealed that the group of individuals with DS performed at a significantly lower level on tasks assessing set shifting, planning/problem-solving, working memory and inhibition/perseveration, but not on the tasks assessing fluency. In addition, individuals with DS demonstrated a greater number of errors and less strategy use for the sustained attention task. The results suggest a broad impairment in EF in adolescents with DS, and are consistent with several similar studies conducted with adults with DS. We assume that EF deficit is a characteristic of DS.

  8. Why adolescent boys dream of becoming professional athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, D A; Gibbons, J L; Sebben, D J; Wiley, D C

    1999-06-01

    A review of studies which investigated drawings of the ideal man and the occupational aspirations of boys (ages 11-18 years) from several countries indicated that becoming a professional athlete was a popular but unrealistic aspiration for many adolescent boys. Boys who were athletes and nonathletes from diverse ethnic groups and nationalities dreamed of becoming professional athletes. In two additional studies in the United States of America, adolescents were asked why they thought boys most often selected professional athlete as a possible future occupation. Adolescents perceived professional athletes as rich, famous, and glorified. Enhancement of status and financial gain were ranked as more important than the desire to play sports.

  9. On the pathologically altered pulmonary pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, M.A.; Kinoshenko, Yu.T.

    1982-01-01

    The notions ''normal'' and ''pathologically altered pulmonary pattern'' are specified. A grouping of lung pattern alterations based on morphopathogenetic features is provided: blood and lymphatic vascular alterations, changes in the bronchi, lung stroma, and combined alterations. Radiologic appearance of the altered pulmonary pattern is classified in keeping with the basic principles of an X-ray shade examination. The terms, such as ''enriching'', ''strengthening'', ''deformation'', etc., used for describing the pathologically altered pulmonary pattern are defined

  10. Group therapy for adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Hribar

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The group included adolescents from secondary school and some students. The group had weekly sessions or twice on mounth. The adolescents had varied simptoms: depressive, anxiety, psychosomatic disorders, learning difficulties, cunduct problems. All of adolescents were common on many problems in social interactions. The goal of therapeutic work were: to increase assertiveness skills and to reduce the anxious in social situations. The adolescents in group raised a self-esteem and developed some assertiveness skills: eye contact" and effective communication skills, persistence, refusing and requesting, giving and receiving critism, etc. The methods of work and techniques were based on principles of cognitive-behaviour therapy.

  11. Chronic atomoxetine treatment during adolescence does not influence decision-making on a rodent gambling task, but does modulate amphetamine's effect on impulsive action in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Mason M; Murch, W Spencer; Clark, Luke; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2016-06-01

    In addition to the symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder exhibit impaired performance on tests of real-world cost/benefit decision-making. Atomoxetine, a nonstimulant drug approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor administered chronically during adolescence, a time during which the frontal brain regions necessary for executive function undergo extensive maturation. This treatment protocol can affect behavior well into adulthood, but whether it produces long-term changes in complex decision-making has not been investigated. Twenty-four Long-Evans rats were administered saline or 1.0 mg/kg atomoxetine daily from postnatal day 40 to 54. Two weeks after treatment, the adult rats were trained and assessed on the rodent gambling task, in which the animals chose from four options varying in reward, punishment, and uncertainty. Impulsive action was also measured by recording the number of premature responses made. Regardless of the treatment administered during adolescence, rats learned to favor the advantageous options characterized by small, low-penalty rewards in lieu of the larger, higher-penalty reward options. Rodent gambling task performance was then assessed following acute treatment with atomoxetine (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) and amphetamine (0.3-1.5 mg/kg). Across groups, the highest dose of atomoxetine impaired decision-making and decreased premature responding at all doses tested. Amphetamine also impaired choice performance, but selectively increased impulsive action in rats that had previously received atomoxetine treatment during adolescence. These findings contribute to our understanding of the long-term effects associated with chronic adolescent atomoxetine exposure and suggest that this treatment does not alter decision-making under conditions of risk and uncertainty in adulthood.

  12. Relevamiento de recursos de salud en tres zonas seleccionadas de Ciudad de Buenos Aires: Una mirada desde la protección integral y las políticas públicas de infancia y adolescencia Health resources evaluation in three selected areas of Buenos Aires City: An approach based on integral protection and infancy and adolescence public policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Luciani Conde

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En el marco del Proyecto "Protección integral y políticas públicas de infancia y adolescencia: el derecho a la salud de niñas/os y adolescentes en situación de desamparo y desafiliación social de la ciudad de Buenos Aires", esta presentación se basa en uno sus objetivos: identificar la presencia de Organizaciones estatales y de la Sociedad Civil que desarrollen prácticas relacionadas a la salud de niños/as y adolescentes. Es un estudio exploratorio-descriptivo inscripto en el enfoque de Investigación en Sistemas y Servicios de Salud. Se realizó un relevamiento en campo en tres zonas geográficas: Palermo, Boca/Barracas y Chacarita. Las Unidades de Análisis se seleccionaron en base a tres criterios: 1-Pertenecer al Sector Público Estatal o la Sociedad Civil, 2-Desarrollar prácticas relacionadas a salud, 3-Implementar acciones destinadas a la infancia. Se presentan los resultados y conclusiones obtenidas del procesamiento de datos cuanti-cualitativos, recolectados durante seis cuatrimestres en base al cuestionario diseñado y administrado.As part of the project "Integral protection and childhood infancy and adolescence public policies: the right to health of abandoned children and adolescents not covered by social security and health care programs in Buenos Aires City", this