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Sample records for adolescence predicts medicine

  1. Medicine use for headache in adolescence predicts medicine use for headache in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health risk behaviours such as smoking and binge drinking track from adolescence to adulthood. Medicine use is associated with smoking and binge drinking among adolescents. Whether medicine-use behaviour tracks from adolescence to adulthood is unknown. AIM: To examine tracking...... from adolescence into adulthood....

  2. Predictive Ability of the Medicine Ball Chest Throw and Vertical Jump Tests for Determining Muscular Strength and Power in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Daniel A.; Davies, Timothy B.; Ibel, Denis; Cobley, Stephen; Sanders, Ross

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the predictive ability of the medicine ball chest throw and vertical jump for muscular strength and power in adolescents. One hundred and ninety adolescents participated in this study. Participants performed trials of the medicine ball chest throw and vertical jump, with vertical jump peak power calculated via an estimation…

  3. Social class variation in medicine use among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Due, Pernille

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about social determinants of adolescents' medicine use. The objective was to analyse the association between the family's social class and adolescents' use of medicine for headache, stomachache, difficulties in getting to sleep, and nervousness. METHODS: Cross......, participation rate 88%, n=5,205. RESULTS: Logistic regression analyses showed that medicine use for all four symptoms increased by decreasing social class, controlled for age and prevalence of the specific symptom for which the medicine was taken. Adjusted OR (95% CI) for medicine use among students from lower...... social classes were: medicine for headache 1.35 (1.11-1.65), medicine for stomachache 1.41 (1.08-1.84), medicine for difficulties in getting to sleep 2.00 (1.30-3.08), and medicine for nervousness 3.22 (1.87-5.56). CONCLUSION: Symptom-adjusted medicine use in a representative sample of Danish adolescents...

  4. Adolescents' medicine use for headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Andersen, Anette; Fotiou, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study reports secular trends in medicine use for headache among adolescents in 20 countries from 1986 to 2010. METHODS: The international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey includes self-reported data about medicine use for headaches among nationally...... representative samples of 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds. We included 20 countries with data from at least three data collection waves, with a total of 380 129 participants. RESULTS: The prevalence of medicine use for headaches varied from 16.5% among Hungarian boys in 1994 to 62.9% among girls in Wales in 1998....... The prevalence was higher among girls than boys in every country and data collection year. The prevalence of medicine use for headaches increased in 12 of 20 countries, most notably in the Czech Republic, Poland, Russia, Sweden and Wales. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of medicine use for headaches among adolescents...

  5. Teachers' assessments of children aged eight predict life satisfaction in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkanen, Meri; Meri, Honkanen; Hurtig, Tuula; Tuula, Hurtig; Taanila, Anja; Anja, Taanila; Moilanen, Irma; Irma, Moilanen; Koponen, Hannu; Hannu, Koponen; Mäki, Pirjo; Pirjo, Mäki; Veijola, Juha; Juha, Veijola; Puustjärvi, Anita; Anita, Puustjärvi; Ebeling, Hanna; Hanna, Ebeling; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Heli, Koivumaa-Honkanen

    2011-09-01

    The objective was to investigate how teachers' assessments of children predict life satisfaction in adolescence. This is a prospective cohort study on the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n = 8,959). Information was gathered from parents, teachers and adolescents using questionnaires at the age of 7, 8 and 15. Response rates were 80-90%. Emotional and behavioural problems were assessed with Rutter Children's Behavioural Questionnaires for teachers (RB2) and parents (RA2) during the first grade at age 8. At adolescence, self-reported life satisfaction was measured with a question including five response alternatives. According to teachers' assessments, 13.9% of the children had high emotional or behavioural problems (RB2 ≥9). These assessments predicted life dissatisfaction in adolescence (OR(crude) = 1.77; 95% CI 1.43-2.20) in several models including also health behaviour and use of psychotropic medicine. However, introducing all the significant variables in the same model, RB2 lost its significance (OR = 1.28; 0.96-1.70), but good school achievement assessed by teachers was still a significant predictor. Life satisfaction in adolescence was associated with a variety of favourable concurrent factors. In conclusion teachers' assessments of children during the first school year predicted life satisfaction in adolescence. In mental health promotion, teachers' early assessments should be utilized for the benefit of children.

  6. [Use of medicines and lifestyles among Italian adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinini, Magda; Vieno, Alessio; Santinello, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence, among adolescents, of medicine use for headache, stomachache, difficulties in getting to sleep and nervousness, and to analyse its association with common lifestyles. Data were taken from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC), a transnational study coordinated by the WHO. The data are collected through a self-administered questionnaire for investigating health and health behaviours. 80 middle schools and 84 high schools were randomly selected from all Italian public and private schools. The questionnaire was filled out by a representative sample of 2667 (50.1% males) 13- and 15- year-old Italian students. Medicine use for headache, stomachache, difficulties in getting to sleep and nervousness, socio-economic status, physical fitness, breakfast, smoking and drunkenness. Females are more likely than boys to use medicines for headache (41.2% vs 30%) and stomachache (29%vs 16.2%), but there are no gender differences regarding medicines for difficulties in getting to sleep and nervousness, which are used less frequently. The prevalence of the use of medicines does not increase with age. The related behaviours are: for headache, breakfast, smoking and drunkenness; for stomachache, physical fitness, breakfast and smoking; for difficulties in getting to sleep and nervousness, drunkenness. The extensive use of medicines in adolescence and its association with some lifestyles suggest the importance to develop education programmes for adolescents.

  7. Predictive medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boenink, Marianne; ten Have, Henk

    2015-01-01

    In the last part of the twentieth century, predictive medicine has gained currency as an important ideal in biomedical research and health care. Research in the genetic and molecular basis of disease suggested that the insights gained might be used to develop tests that predict the future health

  8. Music therapy and music medicine for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, Olivia Swedberg; Gooding, Lori

    2014-07-01

    This article summarizes the research on music therapy and music medicine for children and adolescents with diagnoses commonly treated by psychiatrists. Music therapy and music medicine are defined, effects of music on the brain are described, and music therapy research in psychiatric treatment is discussed. Music therapy research with specific child/adolescent populations is summarized, including disorders usually diagnosed in childhood, substance abuse, mood/anxiety disorders, and eating disorders. Clinical implications are listed, including suggestions for health care professionals seeking to use music medicine techniques. Strengths and weaknesses of music therapy treatment are discussed, as well as areas for future research. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Health complaints and use of medicines among adolescents in Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmanin Ellul R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate self-reported health complaints and the use of medicines among adolescents in Malta.Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to survey self-reported health complaints, the use and the sources of medicines that had been accessed, during the preceding 3 months among adolescents attending secondary schools in Malta. A stratified random sample design generated a sample size of 514 students. The health complaints and use of medicines that were investigated included ear problems/hay fever/cold/cough, headache, skin problems, sport injuries, indigestion/diarrhoea/constipation, eye problems and menstrual pain (for girls. The use of vitamins and antibiotics was also investigated. Results: A total of 477 students participated in the final data collection. Correct information was submitted by 474 students, (aged 14-16 years, who formed the analytical sample, of which 53.8% were girls. The students reported a mean number of 2.70 (SD = 1.39 out of a total of 7 health complaints and 90.3% reported using at least 1 medicine during the preceding 3 months. The community pharmacy was cited as the most commonly accessed source for most of the medicines that were investigated. A proportion of 24.3% of the students had taken at least 1 medicine without adult guidance during the preceding 3 months. Almost 10% of those who had taken antibiotics, had accessed them from the home medicine cabinet.Conclusion: A high proportion of adolescents in Malta reported the use of medicines to alleviate the symptoms of common health complaints. This result is concordant with previous research carried out in the United Kingdom, Germany, Slovakia and Kuwait. A considerable proportion of students in this study had obtained medicines without adult guidance and accessed antibiotics from the home medicine cabinet. This highlights the importance of carefully designed education programs for adolescents that will integrate information about the proper use

  10. Predictors for adolescent visits to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine in a total population (the Young-HUNT Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslak Steinsbekk

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the factors predicting adolescent visits to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study conducted in an adolescent total population in Central Norway (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Studies (HUNT. In Young-HUNT 1, all inhabitants aged 13 to 19 years (N = 8944, 89% response rate were invited to participate, and the youngest group (13 to 15 year olds was surveyed again 4 years later (Young-HUNT 2, N = 2429, 82% response rate. The participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire on health and life style which included a question regarding visits to a CAM practitioner in the last 12 months. RESULTS: One in eleven (8.7%, 95%CI 7.6-9.8% had visited a CAM practitioner, an increase of 26% in 4 years (1.8% points. The final multivariable analysis predicted increased odds of an adolescent becoming a CAM visitor four years later (p<0.05 if she or he had previously visited a CAM practitioner (adjOR 3.4, had musculoskeletal pain (adjOR 1.5, had migraine (adjOR 2.3, used asthma medicines (adjOR 1.8 or suffered from another disease lasting more than three months (adjOR 2.1. Being male predicted reduced odds of visiting a CAM practitioner in the future (adjOR 0.6. CONCLUSION: We can conclude from this study that future visits to a CAM practitioner are predicted by both predisposing factors (being female, having visited a CAM practitioner previously and medical need factors (having had musculoskeletal pain, migraine, used asthma medicines or experienced another disease lasting more than three months. None of the specific variables associated with CAM visits were predictive for CAM visits four years later.

  11. Young adolescents' use of medicine for headache:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Andersen, Anette; Krølner, Rikke

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Use of medicines for headache is common among young adolescents but little is known about their sources of supply and access to medicines. The purpose was to describe sources of supply, availability and accessibility at home and to examine if supply, availability and accessibility were...... associated with medicine use. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in eight schools where all fifth and seventh grade students (11- and 13-year-olds) answered a questionnaire about socio-demographic factors, health and medicine use. Response rate: 84.0%, n = 595. RESULTS: The reported prevalence of headache...... at least monthly was 45.0%, and 42.5% had used medicines for headache during the past month. 68.2% reported that medicines for headache were always available at home, and 22.2% were allowed to use these without asking for permission. Most pupils received medicine from their parents (73.1%) and physicians...

  12. An E-mail Service in a Military Adolescent Medicine Clinic: will teens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of this study was to determine utilization patterns of an Adolescent Medicine Clinic e-mail service. An e-mail service was offered to 6134 patients presenting for care to a military Adolescent Medicine Clinic in San Antonio, Texas over a 6-month period. Families had to complete an authorization form acknowledging ...

  13. The status of adolescent medicine: Building a global adolescent workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lana; Upadhya, Krishna K; Matson, Pamela; Adger, Hoover; Trent, Maria E

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable public health achievements to reduce infant and child mortality and improve the health and well-being of children worldwide have successfully resulted in increased survival and a growing population of young people aged 10–24 years. Population trends indicate that the current generation of 1.8 billion young people is the largest in history, but there is a scarcity of dedicated resources available to effectively meet the health needs of adolescents and young adults worldwide. Growing recognition of the pivotal roles young people play in the cultures, societies, and countries in which they live has spurred an expanding global movement to address the needs of this special population. Building an effective global workforce of highly-skilled adolescent health professionals who understand the unique biological, psychological, behavioral, social, and environmental factors that impact the health of adolescents is a critical step in addressing the health needs of the growing cohort of young people. In this review, we aim to: 1) Define a global assessment of the health needs for adolescents around the world; 2) Describe examples of current training programs and requirements in Adolescent Medicine; 3) Identify existing gaps and barriers to develop an effective adolescent health workforce; and 4) Develop a call for targeted actions to build capacity of the adolescent health workforce, broaden culturally relevant research and evidence-based intervention strategies, and reinforce existing interdisciplinary global networks of youth advocates and adolescent health professionals to maximize the opportunities for training, research, and care delivery. PMID:26167974

  14. Educational Attainment at Age 10-11 Years Predicts Health Risk Behaviors and Injury Risk During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmler, Joanne C; Hill, Rebecca A; Rahman, Muhammad A; Bandyopadhyay, Amrita; Healy, Melanie A; Paranjothy, Shantini; Murphy, Simon; Fletcher, Adam; Hewitt, Gillian; John, Ann; Lyons, Ronan A; Brophy, Sinead T

    2017-08-01

    To examine the effect of educational attainment in primary school on later adolescent health. Education data attainments at age 7 and 11 were linked with (1) primary and secondary care injury consultation/admissions and (2) the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. Cox regression was carried out to examine if attainment in primary school predicts time to injury in adolescence. Pupils that achieve attainment at age 7 but not at age 11 (i.e., declining attainment over time in primary school) are more likely to have an injury during adolescence. These children are also more likely to self-report drinking in adolescence. Interventions aimed at children with declining attainment in primary school could help to improve adolescent health. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of herbal medicinal products among children and adolescents in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Germany is a country with a high use of herbal medicinal products. Population-based data on the use of herbal medicinal products among children are lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, patterns and determinants of herbal medicine use among children and adolescents in Germany. Methods As data base served the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), a representative population based survey conducted 2003–2006 by the Robert Koch Institute. 17,450 boys and girls aged 0–17 years provided information on drug use in the preceding seven days. Herbal medicinal products were defined according to the European and German drug laws. SPSS Complex Sample method was used to estimate prevalence rates and factors associated with herbal medicine use. Results The prevalence rate of herbal medicinal product use amounts to 5.8% (95% confidence interval 5.3-6.3%). Use of herbal medicine declines along with increasing age and shows no difference between boys and girls in younger age groups. Teenage girls are more likely to use herbal medicines than teenage boys. Two thirds of herbal medicines are used for the treatment of coughs and colds; nearly half of herbal medicines are prescribed by medical doctors. Determinants of herbal medicinal product use are younger age, residing in South Germany, having a poor health status, having no immigration background and coming from a higher social class family. Children’s and parents-related health behavior is not found to be associated with herbal medicine use after adjusting for social class. Conclusions Use of herbal medicinal products among children and adolescents between the ages of 0 and 17 years in Germany is widely spread and shows relatively higher rates compared to international data. This study provides a reference on the use of herbal medicinal products for policy-makers, health professionals and parents. Further studies are needed to investigate the

  16. Recommendations for promoting the health and well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adolescents: a position paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Adolescent health care providers frequently care for patients who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered (LGBT), or who may be struggling with or questioning their sexual orientation or gender identity. Whereas these youth have the same health concerns as their non-LGBT peers, LGBT teens may face additional challenges because of the complexity of the coming-out process, as well as societal discrimination and bias against sexual and gender minorities. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine encourages adolescent providers and researchers to incorporate the impact of these developmental processes (and understand the impacts of concurrent potential discrimination) when caring for LGBT adolescents. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine also encourages providers to help positively influence policy related to LGBT adolescents in schools, the foster care system, and the juvenile justice system, and within the family structure. Consistent with other medical organizations, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine rejects the mistaken notion that LGBT orientations are mental disorders, and opposes the use of any type of reparative therapy for LGBT adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Preventive child health care findings on early childhood predict peer-group social status in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2012-12-01

    A disputed social status among peers puts children and adolescents at risk for developing a wide range of problems, such as being bullied. However, there is a lack of knowledge about which early predictors could be used to identify (young) adolescents at risk for a disputed social status. The aim of this study was to assess whether preventive child health care (PCH) findings on early childhood predict neglected and rejected status in early adolescence in a large longitudinal community-based sample. Data came from 898 participants who participated in TRAILS, a longitudinal study. Information on early childhood factors was extracted from the charts of routine PCH visits registered between infancy and age of 4 years. To assess social status, peer nominations were used at age of 10-12 years. Multinomial logistic regression showed that children who had a low birth weight, motor problems, and sleep problems; children of parents with a low educational level (odds ratios [ORs] between 1.71 and 2.90); and those with fewer attention hyperactivity problems (ORs = .43) were more likely to have a neglected status in early adolescence. Boys, children of parents with a low educational level, and children with early externalizing problems were more likely to have a rejected status in early adolescence (ORs between 1.69 and 2.56). PCH findings on early childhood-on motor and social development-are predictive of a neglected and a rejected status in early adolescence. PCH is a good setting to monitor risk factors that predict the social status of young adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ethical reflections of gender equality and equity in adolescence medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzo, P; Caenazzo, L

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences, in both clinical and research environment, exist also in a particular category of patients, adolescents, who constitute a vulnerable group with respect to healthcare decisions. In clinical context, the main ethical issues that may be identified within gender medicine for adolescent patients are related to the information given to the patient and its parents, the adolescent's capacity of understanding considering his/her maturity, vulnerability and autonomy, the consent to medical treatment in relation to the different possible approaches to their different efficacy and possible side effects. Also, with regard to the research context, ethical issues may arise from the participation of female minors in clinical trials. Ethical concerns may also arise in the field of resource allocation in health policies, such as the equitable distribution and access to resources, considering the young age of the subjects involved. A bioethical reflection, which takes into account not only the differences biologically and epidemiologically relevant, but also the main determinants of health in adolescence, might find a role in structured education for diversity and gender equity. Given the magnitude of the problem, to encourage the pursuit of gender equity in health and, in some situations, also to promote the full recognition of the right to health of women are some of the most effective and direct ways to reduce inequalities and to ensure a rational and efficient use of available resources, including through a bioethical reflection on the topic. The Authors show the necessity to differentiate the various aspects of gender differences in adolescence medicine, providing arguments in support of the fact that interventions for health prevention and promotion should be modulated in relation to the gender of the recipients, emphasizing the most important aspects for each group of individuals. This approach could implement personalized medicine, even and especially

  19. Predicting Resilience in Sexually Abused Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Javonda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This research examined factors that predicted resilience in sexually abused adolescents. Using Bronfenbrenner's Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) ecological model, this study considered the proximal and distal factors that would contribute to adolescents' reactions to sexual victimization. This correlational study used hierarchical regression…

  20. Complementary and alternative medicine in child and adolescent psychiatry: legal considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael H; Natbony, Suzanne R; Abbott, Ryan B

    2013-07-01

    The rising popularity of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in child and adolescent psychiatry raises unique ethical and legal concerns for psychiatrists and other conventional health care providers. This article explores these concerns and provides clinical advice for promoting patient health and safety while minimizing the psychiatrist's risk. Although any departure from the conventional standard of care is a potential risk, the risk of malpractice liability for practicing integrative medicine in child and adolescent psychiatry is low. CAM is most safely recommended from a legal standpoint when there is some published evidence of safety and efficacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Self-rated health as predictor of medicine use in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Andersen, Anette

    2008-01-01

    measure was self-reported medicine use during the past month and the determinant was SRH measured by one item. RESULTS: There was an association between poor/fair SRH and medicine use for headache and stomach-ache. The associations remained statistically significant even after adjustment for frequency......PURPOSE: To examine the association between self-rated health (SRH) and medicine use for four common complaints: headache, stomach-ache, difficulties in getting to sleep and nervousness, in a nationally representative sample of adolescents. METHODS: The study population comprised of all students...

  2. Perspectives of family medicine physicians on the importance of adolescent preventive care: a multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jaime L; Aalsma, Matthew C; Gilbert, Amy L; Hensel, Devon J; Rickert, Vaughn I

    2016-01-20

    The study objective was to identify commonalities amongst family medicine physicians who endorse annual adolescent visits. A nationally weighted representative on-line survey was used to explore pediatrician (N = 204) and family medicine physicians (N = 221) beliefs and behaviors surrounding adolescent wellness. Our primary outcome was endorsement that adolescents should receive annual preventive care visits. Pediatricians were significantly more likely (p family medicine physicians, bivariate comparisons were conducted between those who endorsed an annual visit (N = 164) compared to those who did not (N = 57) with significant predictors combined into two multivariate logistic regression models. Model 1 controlled for: patient race, proportion of 13-17 year olds in provider's practice, discussion beliefs scale and discussion behaviors with parents scale. Model 2 controlled for the same first three variables as well as discussion behaviors with adolescents scale. Model 1 showed for each discussion beliefs scale topic selected, family medicine physicians had 1.14 increased odds of endorsing annual visits (p family medicine physicians had 1.15 increased odds of also endorsing the importance of annual visits (p Family medicine physicians that endorse annual visits are significantly more likely to affirm they hold strong beliefs about topics that should be discussed during the annual exam. They also act on these beliefs by talking to parents of teens about these topics. This group appears to focus on quality of care in thought and deed.

  3. Evaluation of adolescent medicine sub-specialty training in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the extent of coverage of curriculum contents pertinent to Adolescent Medicine, as well as the adequacy of facilities and professionals in Nigeria using residents' viewpoint. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: The Intensive Course in Paediatrics of the National Post-graduate Medical ...

  4. International survey of self-reported medicine use among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ebba H; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine gender, age, and country variations in adolescents' self-reported medicine use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional school surveys of representative samples of 11- to 15-year-old girls and boys were used. The 1997/1998 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study was referenced. A sta...

  5. Differences and similarities in medicine use, perceptions and sharing among adolescents in two different educational settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Stense; Ravn, Pernille; Hallgreen, Christine Erikstrup; Kaae, Susanne

    2017-11-23

    Background Evidence suggests that there are differences in medicine habits among adolescents with different sociodemographic backgrounds and that peers might also influence medicine use. More knowledge is needed regarding how these aspects together affect how different young people use medicines. Objective To explore the differences in medicine use, perceptions and sharing between adolescents at two different educational (and socio-demographic) settings and assess the influence of parents and peers. Subjects Fifty-nine students from a private high school (HS) and 34 students from a public vocational school (VS) in Denmark between the ages of 15 and 19 years old were subjects in this study. Methods A questionnaire was used that included background, medicine consumption, perceptions and social interaction. Descriptive analyses along with a Fishers test were used to determine differences and similarities between students' medicine patterns at the school settings. Results Of the 93 respondents, 74% used medicine within the past month, with females using more medicines. A significant difference was found with students at the VS using a higher number of medicines. Analgesics were the most frequently consumed medicine; however, reasons for using medicines appear to vary between the schools. Similarities between the schools were identified for perception of safety, sharing medicine and talking primarily with parents about medicine. Conclusion Fewer differences between students' medicine use at two educational settings than expected were identified, showing that aspects other than social background influence adolescents' use of medicine. A general tendency among young people believing that using medicines is a safe might explain these findings.

  6. Rumination prospectively predicts executive functioning impairments in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Samantha L; Wagner, Clara A; Shapero, Benjamin G; Pendergast, Laura L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-03-01

    The current study tested the resource allocation hypothesis, examining whether baseline rumination or depressive symptom levels prospectively predicted deficits in executive functioning in an adolescent sample. The alternative to this hypothesis was also evaluated by testing whether lower initial levels of executive functioning predicted increases in rumination or depressive symptoms at follow-up. A community sample of 200 adolescents (ages 12-13) completed measures of depressive symptoms, rumination, and executive functioning at baseline and at a follow-up session approximately 15 months later. Adolescents with higher levels of baseline rumination displayed decreases in selective attention and attentional switching at follow-up. Rumination did not predict changes in working memory or sustained and divided attention. Depressive symptoms were not found to predict significant changes in executive functioning scores at follow-up. Baseline executive functioning was not associated with change in rumination or depression over time. Findings partially support the resource allocation hypothesis that engaging in ruminative thoughts consumes cognitive resources that would otherwise be allocated towards difficult tests of executive functioning. Support was not found for the alternative hypothesis that lower levels of initial executive functioning would predict increased rumination or depressive symptoms at follow-up. Our study is the first to find support for the resource allocation hypothesis using a longitudinal design and an adolescent sample. Findings highlight the potentially detrimental effects of rumination on executive functioning during early adolescence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Meal frequencies in early adolescence predict meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht

    2013-01-01

    Health and risk behaviours tend to be maintained from adolescence into adulthood. There is little knowledge on whether meal frequencies in adolescence are maintained into adulthood. We investigated whether breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted meal frequencies...

  8. [Physical activity, screen time, and use of medicines among adolescents: the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Gabriel Gustavo; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Mielke, Grégore Iven; Camargo, Aline Lins; Matijasevich, Alicia; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between physical activity, screen time, and use of medicines among adolescents from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, followed at 11 (N = 4,452), 15 (N = 4,325), and 18 years of age (N = 4,106). The study recorded the use of medicines in the previous 15 days, continuous use of some medication, level of physical activity (by questionnaire and accelerometry), and screen time (TV, computer, and videogame). One-third of adolescents had used at least one medicine in the previous 15 days and approximately 10% were on some continuous medication. In the adjusted analysis, the results showed that higher levels of physical activity at 18 years and less screen time at 15 years in boys were associated with lower overall use of medicines (p adolescence showed lower use of medicines at 18 years of age.

  9. Early adolescent symptoms of social phobia prospectively predict alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahne, Jennifer; Banducci, Anne N; Kurdziel, Gretchen; MacPherson, Laura

    2014-11-01

    The current study examined whether social phobia (SP) symptoms in early adolescence prospectively predicted alcohol use through middle adolescence in a community sample of youth. Data from an ongoing longitudinal study (N = 277) of mechanisms of HIV-related risk behaviors in youth were used to assess the extent to which SP symptoms in early adolescence (mean [SD] age = 11.00 years [0.81]) would predict alcohol use across five annual assessment waves. Adolescents completed measures of SP symptoms, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use at each wave. Higher SP symptoms at baseline predicted higher average odds of alcohol consumption during subsequent waves but did not significantly predict an increase in the odds of alcohol use as a function of time. Within a lagged model, SP symptoms measured at a prior assessment point (1 year earlier) predicted greater odds of drinking alcohol at the following assessment point. Importantly, alcohol use did not significantly predict SP symptoms over time. These results suggest that early SP symptoms are an important risk factor for increased odds of subsequent alcohol use. The present findings highlight that elevated SP symptoms place adolescents at risk for early alcohol use. Early interventions targeting SP symptoms may be crucial for the prevention of problematic alcohol use in early to mid-adolescence. Implications for prevention and treatment approaches are discussed.

  10. Socio-economic differences in use of prescribed and over-the-counter medicine for pain and psychological problems among Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Mette Jorgine; Hansen, Claus Dalsgaard; Andersen, JH

    2014-01-01

    of medicine for pain and psychological problems according to parental educational level and household income. Young girls used twice as much medicine for pain and psychological problems compared to young boys. SES differences based on parental educational level were directly associated with the use...... in the use of prescribed medicine for pain. Conclusion: The risk of use of prescribed medicine for psychological problems increased in adolescents with decreasing parental education, while the risk of overall medicine use and use of over-the-counter medicine was increased in adolescents from low household......The objective for this study was to investigate socio-economic status (SES) differentials in the use of overthe- counter and prescribed medicine for pain and psychological problems among adolescents. Data consisted of questionnaire data on medicine use and health status, collected from 17- to 18...

  11. Validity of childhood adiposity classification in predicting adolescent overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Michael; Zarka, Salman; Bibi, Haim; Haviv, Jacob; Scharf, Shimon; Gdalevich, Michael

    2010-05-03

    Identification of children at risk for adolescent overweight can assist in targeting interventions. Uncertainty remains regarding the validity of current body mass index (BMI) reference values in predicting future risk on a population basis. This study aimed to assess the validity of current childhood adiposity classifications in predicting adolescent overweight and obesity among Israeli youth. Historical cohort study. School-based childhood health studies and adolescent physical examinations. A total of 3 163 subjects surveyed first at age 8-15 and again at age 17-19. Age, sex, height, weight and BMI. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and relative risk of childhood adiposity classification. Childhood overweight and obesity showed low sensitivity and high specificity for predicting adolescent overweight and obesity. Positive predictive values were low and varied by age and sex, but negative predictive values were consistently high in both sexes and all ages (range 0.85-0.99). After adjusting for age and sex, both childhood overweight and obesity substantially increased the risk of adolescent overweight (relative risk [RR] 7.03 and 7.20, respectively) and adolescent obesity (RR 24.34 and 28.41, respectively). Childhood overweight and obesity are strong risk factors for adolescent overweight and obesity among Israeli youth. Normal weight children were at very low risk for adolescent overweight. These findings suggest that population-based health promotion aimed at maintaining normal weight among children should be given preference over risk-guided approaches targeting weight reduction among obese children.

  12. Training needs in adolescent medicine of practising doctors: a Swiss national survey of six disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Barbara; Stronski, Susanne; Michaud, Pierre-André

    2003-08-01

    To assess and compare the training needs in adolescent medicine of doctors within 6 specialties as a basis for the development of pre/postgraduate and continuing medical education (CME) training curricula. Cross-sectional postal survey. Switzerland. National, representative, random sample of 1857 practising doctors in 6 disciplines (general practitioners, paediatricians, gynaecologists, internists, psychiatrists, child psychiatrists) registered with the Swiss Medical Association. Perceived importance of and training interest in 35 topics related to adolescent medicine listed in a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire. A total of 1367 questionnaires were returned, representing a response rate of 73.9%. Clear interest in adolescent medicine was reported by 62.1% of respondents. Topics perceived to be the most important in everyday practice were functional symptoms (71.4%), acne (67.1%), obesity (64.6%), depression-anxiety (68.1%) and communication with adolescents (61.7%). Differences between disciplines were especially marked for gynaecologists, who expressed interest almost exclusively in medical topics specific to their field. In contrast, other disciplines commonly reported a keen interest in psychosocial problems. Accordingly, interest in further training was expressed mostly for functional symptoms (62.4%), eating disorders (56.3%), depression-anxiety (53.7%) and obesity (52.6%). Issues related to injury prevention, chronic disease and confidentiality were rated as low priorities. Regardless of discipline, Swiss primary care doctors expressed a strong interest in adolescent medicine. Continuing medical education courses should include both interdisciplinary courses and discipline-specific sessions. Further training should address epidemiological and legal/ethical issues (e.g. injury prevention, confidentiality, impact of chronic conditions).

  13. Factors predicting changes in physical activity through adolescence: the Young-HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangul, Vegar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Bauman, Adrian; Bratberg, Grete H; Kurtze, Nanna; Midthjell, Kristian

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this prospective population-based study was to analyze predictors of changes in physical activity (PA) levels from early to late adolescence. Data presented are from 2,348 adolescents and their parents who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health study (HUNT 2, 1995-1997) and at follow-up in Young-HUNT 2, 2000-2001 Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire and participated in a clinical examination that included measurements of height and weight. Four patterns of PA emerged in the study: active or inactive at both time points (active maintainers, 13%; inactive maintainers, 59%), inactive and became active (adopters, 12%), active and became inactive (relapsers, 16%). Being overweight, dissatisfied with life, and not actively participating in sports at baseline were significant predictors of change regarding PA among boys at follow-up. For girls, smoking, drinking, low maternal education, and physical inactivity predicted relapsers and inactive maintainers. Higher levels of education and more physically active parents at baseline seemed to protect against decreased PA during follow-up for both genders. Predictors of change in, or maintaining PA status during adolescence differed by gender. These results suggest that PA-promoting interventions should be tailored by gender and focus on encouraging activity for inactive adolescents and maintenance of PA in those already active. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Online communication predicts Belgian adolescents' initiation of romantic and sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbosch, Laura; Beyens, Ine; Vangeel, Laurens; Eggermont, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Online communication is associated with offline romantic and sexual activity among college students. Yet, it is unknown whether online communication is associated with the initiation of romantic and sexual activity among adolescents. This two-wave panel study investigated whether chatting, visiting dating websites, and visiting erotic contact websites predicted adolescents' initiation of romantic and sexual activity. We analyzed two-wave panel data from 1163 Belgian adolescents who participated in the MORES Study. We investigated the longitudinal impact of online communication on the initiation of romantic relationships and sexual intercourse using logistic regression analyses. The odds ratios of initiating a romantic relationship among romantically inexperienced adolescents who frequently used chat rooms, dating websites, or erotic contact websites were two to three times larger than those of non-users. Among sexually inexperienced adolescents who frequently used chat rooms, dating websites, or erotic contact websites, the odds ratios of initiating sexual intercourse were two to five times larger than that among non-users, even after a number of other relevant factors were introduced. This is the first study to demonstrate that online communication predicts the initiation of offline sexual and romantic activity as early as adolescence. Practitioners and parents need to consider the role of online communication in adolescents' developing sexuality. • Adolescents increasingly communicate online with peers. • Online communication predicts romantic and sexual activity among college students. What is New: • Online communication predicts adolescents' offline romantic activity over time. • Online communication predicts adolescents' offline sexual activity over time.

  15. Friends' Alcohol-Related Social Networking Site Activity Predicts Escalations in Adolescent Drinking: Mediation by Peer Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Jacqueline; Rothenberg, W Andrew; Hussong, Andrea M; Jackson, Kristina M

    2017-06-01

    Adolescents' increased use of social networking sites (SNS) coincides with a developmental period of heightened risk for alcohol use initiation. However, little is known regarding associations between adolescents' SNS use and drinking initiation nor the mechanisms of this association. This study examined longitudinal associations among adolescents' exposure to friends' alcohol-related SNS postings, alcohol-favorable peer injunctive norms, and initiation of drinking behaviors. Participants were 658 high-school students who reported on posting of alcohol-related SNS content by self and friends, alcohol-related injunctive norms, and other developmental risk factors for alcohol use at two time points, 1 year apart. Participants also reported on initiation of three drinking behaviors: consuming a full drink, becoming drunk, and heavy episodic drinking (three or more drinks per occasion). Probit regression analyses were used to predict initiation of drinking behaviors from exposure to alcohol-related SNS content. Path analyses examined mediation of this association by peer injunctive norms. Exposure to friends' alcohol-related SNS content predicted adolescents' initiation of drinking and heavy episodic drinking 1 year later, controlling for demographic and known developmental risk factors for alcohol use (i.e., parental monitoring and peer orientation). In addition, alcohol-favorable peer injunctive norms statistically mediated the relationship between alcohol-related SNS exposure and each drinking milestone. Results suggest that social media plays a unique role in contributing to peer influence processes surrounding alcohol use and highlight the need for future investigative and preventive efforts to account for adolescents' changing social environments. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Overview of integrative medicine in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, Deborah R; Popper, Charles W

    2013-07-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) defies simple definition, because the distinction between CAM and conventional medicine is largely arbitrary and fluid. Despite inconclusive data on the efficacy and safety of many CAM treatments in child and adolescent psychiatry, there are enough data on certain treatments to provide guidance to clinicians and researchers. CAM treatments, as adjunctive therapy or monotherapy, can be clinically beneficial and sensible. The low stigma and cost-competitiveness of many CAM psychiatric treatments are highly attractive to children and parents. Physicians need to be knowledgeable about CAM treatments to provide clinically valid informed consent for some conventional treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An E-mail Service in a Military Adolescent Medicine Clinic: will teens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    *Adolescent Medicine Physician, Brooke Army Medical Center, San Antonio, TX,. USA. **Assistant ... into the patient's electronic medical record. At the end of the .... our patients or parents, and privacy concerns were easily addressed.

  18. Indigenous Knowledge of Herbal Medicines among Adolescents in Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alade, Gideon O.; Okpako, Ese; Ajibesin, Kola’ K.; Omobuwajo, Olanrewaju R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of herbal medicines in Nigeria is on the increase. Documented Population based data on the use of herbal medicinal products and indigenous knowledge among the younger generations are lacking in Nigeria and Africa at large. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the extent of use and general knowledge of herbal medicines among adolescents in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Methods: The study covered a total of Two hundred and twenty-eight adolescents randomly selected in Senior Secondary Schools (SSS 1-3) in Amassoma using a semi structured questionnaire/Interview and informal conversation on the respondents. Findings: Nearly all (97%) the respondents have had contact with herbs. Less than 1% had contact with herbs through formal education (teachers/literatures). Stimulation of interest was majorly through parents (53%). Grandparents were the highest (46%) of custodian of indigenous knowledge. Parents were the next (39.7%). Only 39% of the respondents would prefer the use of herbal medicine to modern medicine. Fever was the main ailment mentioned followed by eye ailment and stomach ache. Vernonia amygdalina was the main plant for the treatment of fever. Conclusion: The study revealed that parents are the major custodians of knowledge being transferred to the younger generation and little or none is learnt from Schools. There is therefore the need to include the study of herbal medicines in School’s curricula especially at SS 2 and SS 3 since they are matured enough to appreciate the importance of Herbal medicine so as to prepare them for the promotion of herbal medicine in future and to preserve our indigenous knowledge. PMID:26234964

  19. Predictive factors of alcohol and tobacco use in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Aguirre, Alicia; Alonso-Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi

    2014-01-01

    to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents. a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used. the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year. this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users.

  20. Does Violence in Adolescence Differentially Predict Offending Patterns in Early Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Stephanie M; Piquero, Alex R

    2018-05-01

    Previous research is mixed on whether the commission of a violent offense in adolescence is predictive of criminal career characteristics. In the current study, we addressed the following: (a) What factors predict the commission of serious violence in mid-adolescence? and (b) Does involvement in serious violence in mid-adolescence lead to more chronic and/or more heterogeneous patterns of offending in early adulthood? Data were obtained from the Pathways to Desistance Study, a longitudinal study of serious adolescent offenders in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Phoenix, Arizona. Prior arrests, violence exposure, and gang involvement distinguished adolescents who engaged in violence at baseline. A violent offense at baseline was not predictive of a higher frequency of rearrests but was associated with membership in the low offending trajectory. In conclusion, violent offending in adolescence might be a poor predictor of chronic and heterogeneous patterns of offending throughout the life course.

  1. Quality of Parent-Adolescent Conversations About Sex and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Adam A; Ha, Thao; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; Dishion, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    Studies suggest that the quality of parent-adolescent communication about sex uniquely predicts adolescent sexual behavior. Previous studies have relied predominantly on self-report data. Observational methods, which are not susceptible to self-report biases, may be useful in examining the associations between the quality of parent-adolescent communication about sex and adolescent sexual behavior more objectively. With a sample of adolescents (N = 55, 58% male, 44% white, Mage = 15.8) and their parents, we used hierarchical logistic regression analyses to examine the associations between the observed quality of parent-adolescent communication about dating and sex and the likelihood of adolescents' sexual intercourse. The quality of parent-adolescent communication about dating and sex predicted sexual behavior. Specifically, lecturing was associated with a higher likelihood of adolescents having had sexual intercourse. The quality of parent-adolescent communication about sex is a unique correlate of adolescent sexual behavior and warrants further investigation. Thus, it serves as a potential target of preventive interventions that aim to foster adolescent sexual health behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Predictive factors of alcohol and tobacco use in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Aguirre, Alicia; Alonso-Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents. METHOD: a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used. RESULTS: the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year. CONCLUSION: this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users. PMID:25591103

  3. Predictive factors of alcohol and tobacco use in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Alvarez-Aguirre

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents.METHOD: a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used.RESULTS: the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year.CONCLUSION: this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users.

  4. Theory of mind and switching predict prospective memory performance in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altgassen, Mareike; Vetter, Nora C; Phillips, Louise H; Akgün, Canan; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates ongoing development of prospective memory as well as theory of mind and executive functions across late childhood and adolescence. However, so far the interplay of these processes has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate whether theory of mind and executive control processes (specifically updating, switching, and inhibition) predict prospective memory development across adolescence. In total, 42 adolescents and 41 young adults participated in this study. Young adults outperformed adolescents on tasks of prospective memory, theory of mind, and executive functions. Switching and theory of mind predicted prospective memory performance in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical holistic medicine: holistic adolescent medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Morad, Mohammed; Press, Joseph; Merrick, Joav; Shek, Daniel T L

    2004-08-04

    The holistic medical approach seems to be efficient and can also be used in adolescent medicine. Supporting the teenager to grow and develop is extremely important in order to prevent many of the problems they can carry into adulthood. The simple consciousness-based, holistic medicine--giving love, winning trust, giving holding, and getting permission to help the patient feel, understand, and let go of negative beliefs--is easy for the physician interested in this kind of practice and it requires little previous training for the physician to be able to care for his/her patient. A deeper insight into the principles of holistic treatment and a thorough understanding of our fellow human beings are making it work even better. Holistic medicine is not a miracle cure, but rather a means by which the empathic physician can support the patient in improving his/her future life in respect to quality of life, health, and functional capacity--through coaching the patient to work on him/herself in a hard and disciplined manner. When the patient is young, this work is so much easier. During our lifetime, we have several emotional traumas arranged in the subconscious mind with the smallest at the top, and it is normal for the person to work on a large number of traumatic events that have been processed to varying degrees. Some traumas have been acknowledged, some are still being explored by the person, and yet others are still preconscious, which can be seen for example in the form of muscle tension. Sometimes the young dysfunctional patient carries severe traumas of a violent or sexual nature, but the physician skilled in the holistic medical toolbox can help the patient on his/her way to an excellent quality of life, full self-expression, a love and sex life, and a realization of his/her talents--all that a young patient is typically dreaming about. Biomedicine is not necessary or even recommended when the physical or mental symptoms are caused by disturbances in the personal

  6. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Holistic Adolescent Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The holistic medical approach seems to be efficient and can also be used in adolescent medicine. Supporting the teenager to grow and develop is extremely important in order to prevent many of the problems they can carry into adulthood. The simple consciousness-based, holistic medicine — giving love, winning trust, giving holding, and getting permission to help the patient feel, understand, and let go of negative beliefs — is easy for the physician interested in this kind of practice and it requires little previous training for the physician to be able to care for his/her patient. A deeper insight into the principles of holistic treatment and a thorough understanding of our fellow human beings are making it work even better. Holistic medicine is not a miracle cure, but rather a means by which the empathic physician can support the patient in improving his/her future life in respect to quality of life, health, and functional capacity — through coaching the patient to work on him/herself in a hard and disciplined manner. When the patient is young, this work is so much easier. During our lifetime, we have several emotional traumas arranged in the subconscious mind with the smallest at the top, and it is normal for the person to work on a large number of traumatic events that have been processed to varying degrees. Some traumas have been acknowledged, some are still being explored by the person, and yet others are still preconscious, which can be seen for example in the form of muscle tension. Sometimes the young dysfunctional patient carries severe traumas of a violent or sexual nature, but the physician skilled in the holistic medical toolbox can help the patient on his/her way to an excellent quality of life, full self-expression, a love and sex life, and a realization of his/her talents — all that a young patient is typically dreaming about. Biomedicine is not necessary or even recommended when the physical or mental symptoms are caused

  7. Psychopharmacological Treatment Options for Global Child and Adolescent Mental Health: The WHO Essential Medicines Lists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutcher, Stan; Murphy, Andrea; Gardner, David

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines (EML) and suggests modification for appropriate psychopharmacological treatment of child- and adolescent-onset mental disorders. The EML enlists few of the psychotropic medicines that are useful for the treatment of young people thereby limiting the…

  8. Predicting dropout in adolescents receiving therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Sally; Martin, Peter; Goodyer, Ian M; Wilkinson, Paul; Consortium, Impact; Midgley, Nick

    2017-10-30

    Therapy dropout is a common occurrence, especially in adolescence. This study investigated whether dropout could be predicted from a range of child, family, and treatment factors in a sample of adolescents receiving therapy for depression. This study draws on data from 406 participants of the IMPACT study, a randomized controlled trial, investigating three types of therapy in the treatment of adolescent depression. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of predictors on the odds of dropout. Few pre-treatment predictors of dropout were found, with the only significant predictors being older age, antisocial behaviour, and lower scores of verbal intelligence. Missed sessions and poorer therapeutic alliance early in treatment also predicted dropout. Most child and family factors investigated were not significantly associated with dropout. There may be little about depressed adolescents' presentation prior to therapy starting that indicates their risk of dropout. However, within-treatment factors indicated that warning signs of dropout may be identifiable during the initial phase of therapy. Identifying and targeting early treatment indicators of dropout may provide possibilities for improving engagement. Clinical and methodological significance of this article: In the literature, a great deal of attention has been paid to child and family factors that predict therapy dropout, yet in this study, few pre-treatment characteristics were predictive of dropout. However, findings revealed possible warning signs of dropout in the early part of treatment, as poor therapeutic alliance and missed sessions were both found to be predictive of dropout. These findings call for therapists to be aware of such warning signs and clinical guidelines for managing cases at risk of dropout are warranted.

  9. Transitioning to adolescence: how changes in child personality and overreactive parenting predict adolescent adjustment problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Akker, Alithe L; Deković, Maja; Prinzie, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined how changes in child Big Five personality characteristics and overreactive parenting during the transition from childhood to adolescence predict adolescent adjustment problems. The sample included 290 children, aged 8-9 years. At three moments, with 2-year intervals, mothers, fathers, and a teacher reported on the child's personality, and mothers and fathers reported on their parenting behavior. At the third measurement moment, mothers, fathers, and children reported on the child's adjustment problems. Rank-order stability of the personality dimensions and overreactive parenting were high. Univariate latent growth models revealed mean-level decreases for extraversion, conscientiousness, and imagination. Mean levels of benevolence, emotional stability, and overreactive parenting were stable. Multivariate latent growth models revealed that decreases in extraversion and emotional stability predicted internalizing problems, whereas decreases in benevolence, conscientiousness, and emotional stability predicted externalizing problems. Increases in overreactive parenting predicted externalizing, but not internalizing problems. The associations were similar for boys and girls. The results indicate that changes in child personality and overreactive parenting during the transition to adolescence are associated with adolescent adjustment problems. Overall, child personality was more important than overreactive parenting, and children were more likely to "act out" than to "withdraw" in reaction to overreactive parenting.

  10. HIV/AIDS Medicines - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children and adolescents - HIV medicines, part 9 - English MP3 Children and adolescents - HIV medicines, part 9 - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) MP3 Children and adolescents - HIV medicines, part 9 - English ...

  11. Prediction of tension-type headache risk in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Stepanchenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tension-type headache is the actual problem of adolescent neurology, which is associated with the prevalence of the disease, the tendency of the disease to the chronic course and a negative impact on performance in education, work capacity and quality of patients’ life. The aim. To develop a method for prediction of tension-type headache occurrence in adolescents. Materials and methods. 2342 adolescent boys and girls at the age of 13-17 years in schools of Kharkiv were examined. We used questionnaire to identify the headache. A group of adolescents with tension-type headache - 1430 people (61.1% was selected. The control group included 246 healthy adolescents. Possible risk factors for tension-type headache formation were divided into 4 groups: genetic, biomedical, psychosocial and social. Mathematical prediction of tension-type headache risk in adolescents was performed using the method of intensive indicators normalization of E.N. Shigan, which was based on probabilistic Bayesian’s method. The result was presented in the form of prognostic coefficients. Results. The most informative risk factors for tension-type headache development were the diseases, from which the teenager suffered after 1 year (sleep disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, autonomic disorders in the family history, traumatic brain injury, physical inactivity, poor adaptation of the patient in the kindergarten and school, stresses. Diagnostic scale has been developed to predict the risk of tension-type headache. It includes 23 prognostic factors with their gradation and meaning of integrated risk indicator, depending on individual factor strength influence. The risk of tension-type headache development ranged from 25,27 to 81,43 values of prognostic coefficient (low probability (25,27-43,99, the average probability (43,99-62,71 and high probability (62,71- 81,43. Conclusion. The study of tension-type headache risk factors, which were obtained by using an assessed and

  12. Use of a Self-Reflection Tool to Enhance Resident Learning on an Adolescent Medicine Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Katherine Blumoff; Baldwin, Constance

    2016-08-01

    Adolescent Medicine (AM) educators in pediatric residency programs are seeking new ways to engage learners in adolescent health. This mixed-methods study presents a novel self-reflection tool and addresses whether self-reflection enhanced residents' perception of the value of an adolescent rotation, in particular, its relevance to their future practice. The self-reflection tool included 17 Likert scale items on residents' comfort with the essential tasks of adolescent care and open-ended questions that promoted self-reflection and goal setting. Semi-structured, postrotation interviews encouraged residents to discuss their experiences. Likert scale data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and interview notes and written comments on the self-reflection tool were combined for qualitative data analysis. Residents' pre-to post-self-evaluations showed statistically significant increases in comfort with most of the adolescent health care tasks. Four major themes emerged from our qualitative analysis: (1) the value of observing skilled attendings as role models; (2) the comfort gained through broad and frequent adolescent care experiences; (3) the career relevance of AM; and (4) the ability to set personally meaningful goals for the rotation. Residents used the self-reflection tool to mindfully set goals and found their AM education valuable and relevant to their future careers. Our tool helped make explicit to residents the norms, values, and beliefs of the hidden curriculum applied to the care of adolescents and helped them to improve the self-assessed quality of their rapport and communications with adolescents. We conclude that a structured self-reflection exercise can enhance residents' experiences on an AM rotation. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydrogen Bond Basicity Prediction for Medicinal Chemistry Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Peter W; Montanari, Carlos A; Prokopczyk, Igor M; Ribeiro, Jean F R; Sartori, Geraldo Rodrigues

    2016-05-12

    Hydrogen bonding is discussed in the context of medicinal chemistry design. Minimized molecular electrostatic potential (Vmin) is shown to be an effective predictor of hydrogen bond basicity (pKBHX), and predictive models are presented for a number of hydrogen bond acceptor types relevant to medicinal chemistry. The problems posed by the presence of nonequivalent hydrogen bond acceptor sites in molecular structures are addressed by using nonlinear regression to fit measured pKBHX to calculated Vmin. Predictions are made for hydrogen bond basicity of fluorine in situations where relevant experimental measurements are not available. It is shown how predicted pKBHX can be used to provide insight into the nature of bioisosterism and to profile heterocycles. Examples of pKBHX prediction for molecular structures with multiple, nonequivalent hydrogen bond acceptors are presented.

  14. A patient with autism and severe depression: medical and ethical challenges for an adolescent medicine unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, S Rachel; Ng, Cindy; McDonald, Ann; Walters, Tamara

    2005-10-17

    An adolescent with autism and intellectual disability presented with severe depression related to menstruation. Because of the complex medical, psychiatric and ethical issues involved, her care was coordinated by a hospital-based adolescent medicine unit. After trials of other therapies over an extended period and interdisciplinary and intersectoral case conferencing, it was decided that hysterectomy was the most appropriate management. This case highlights the complexity of adolescent health care in a tertiary hospital, the importance of intersectoral cooperation between hospital and community, and the integral role of interdisciplinary care of adolescent patients with chronic conditions.

  15. The globalization of training in adolescent health and medicine: one size does not fit all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Karen

    2016-08-01

    Adolescent medicine across the globe is practiced within a variety of healthcare models, with the shared vision of the promotion of optimal health outcomes for adolescents. In the past decade, there has been a call for transformation in how health professionals are trained, with recommendations that there be adoption of a global outlook, a multiprofessional perspective and a systems approach that considers the connections between education and health systems. Many individuals and groups are now examining how best to accomplish this educational reform. There are tensions between the call for globally accepted standards of education models and practice (a one-size fits all approach) and the need to promote the ability for education practices to be interpreted and transformed to best suit local contexts. This paper discusses some of the key considerations for 'importing' training program models for adolescent health and medicine, including the importance of cultural alignment and the utilization of best evidence and practice in health professions education.

  16. Identification and Prediction of Drinking Trajectories in Early and Mid-Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Vorst, Haske; Vermulst, Ad A.; Meeus, Wim H. J.; Dekovic, Maja; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of early and mid-adolescents with different drinking trajectories. In addition, we examined whether gender, parental, and peer factors predicted adolescents' membership of these drinking trajectories. We used longitudinal data of 428 families (fathers, mothers, mid-adolescents, and their younger…

  17. Perceptual reasoning predicts handwriting impairments in adolescents with autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Christina T.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Bastian, Amy J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: We have previously shown that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have specific handwriting deficits consisting of poor form, and that these deficits are predicted by their motor abilities. It is not known whether the same handwriting impairments persist into adolescence and whether they remain linked to motor deficits. Methods: A case-control study of handwriting samples from adolescents with and without ASD was performed using the Minnesota Handwriting Assessment. Samples were scored on an individual letter basis in 5 categories: legibility, form, alignment, size, and spacing. Subjects were also administered an intelligence test and the Physical and Neurological Examination for Subtle (Motor) Signs (PANESS). Results: We found that adolescents with ASD, like children, show overall worse performance on a handwriting task than do age- and intelligence-matched controls. Also comparable to children, adolescents with ASD showed motor impairments relative to controls. However, adolescents with ASD differ from children in that Perceptual Reasoning Indices were significantly predictive of handwriting performance whereas measures of motor skills were not. Conclusions: Like children with ASD, adolescents with ASD have poor handwriting quality relative to controls. Despite still demonstrating motor impairments, in adolescents perceptual reasoning is the main predictor of handwriting performance, perhaps reflecting subjects' varied abilities to learn strategies to compensate for their motor impairments. GLOSSARY ASD = autism spectrum disorder; DSM-IV = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition; PANESS = Physical and Neurological Examination for Subtle (Motor) Signs; PRI = Perceptual Reasoning Index; WASI = Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence; WISC = Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV. PMID:21079184

  18. Prediction of insulin resistance with anthropometric measures: lessons from a large adolescent population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedin WK

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available William K Wedin,1 Lizmer Diaz-Gimenez,1 Antonio J Convit1,21Department of Psychiatry, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 2Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, NY, USAObjective: The aim of this study was to describe the minimum number of anthropometric measures that will optimally predict insulin resistance (IR and to characterize the utility of these measures among obese and nonobese adolescents.Research design and methods: Six anthropometric measures (selected from three categories: central adiposity, weight, and body composition were measured from 1298 adolescents attending two New York City public high schools. Body composition was determined by bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA. The homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR, based on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations, was used to estimate IR. Stepwise linear regression analyses were performed to predict HOMA-IR based on the six selected measures, while controlling for age.Results: The stepwise regression retained both waist circumference (WC and percentage of body fat (BF%. Notably, BMI was not retained. WC was a stronger predictor of HOMA-IR than BMI was. A regression model using solely WC performed best among the obese II group, while a model using solely BF% performed best among the lean group. Receiver operator characteristic curves showed the WC and BF% model to be more sensitive in detecting IR than BMI, but with less specificity.Conclusion: WC combined with BF% was the best predictor of HOMA-IR. This finding can be attributed partly to the ability of BF% to model HOMA-IR among leaner participants and to the ability of WC to model HOMA-IR among participants who are more obese. BMI was comparatively weak in predicting IR, suggesting that assessments that are more comprehensive and include body composition analysis could increase detection of IR during adolescence, especially among those who are lean, yet insulin-resistant.Keywords: BMI, bioelectrical impedance

  19. Estimation of Resting Energy Expenditure: Validation of Previous and New Predictive Equations in Obese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar-Tek, Nilüfer; Ağagündüz, Duygu; Çelik, Bülent; Bozbulut, Rukiye

    2017-08-01

    Accurate estimation of resting energy expenditure (REE) in childrenand adolescents is important to establish estimated energy requirements. The aim of the present study was to measure REE in obese children and adolescents by indirect calorimetry method, compare these values with REE values estimated by equations, and develop the most appropriate equation for this group. One hundred and three obese children and adolescents (57 males, 46 females) between 7 and 17 years (10.6 ± 2.19 years) were recruited for the study. REE measurements of subjects were made with indirect calorimetry (COSMED, FitMatePro, Rome, Italy) and body compositions were analyzed. In females, the percentage of accurate prediction varied from 32.6 (World Health Organization [WHO]) to 43.5 (Molnar and Lazzer). The bias for equations was -0.2% (Kim), 3.7% (Molnar), and 22.6% (Derumeaux-Burel). Kim's (266 kcal/d), Schmelzle's (267 kcal/d), and Henry's equations (268 kcal/d) had the lowest root mean square error (RMSE; respectively 266, 267, 268 kcal/d). The equation that has the highest RMSE values among female subjects was the Derumeaux-Burel equation (394 kcal/d). In males, when the Institute of Medicine (IOM) had the lowest accurate prediction value (12.3%), the highest values were found using Schmelzle's (42.1%), Henry's (43.9%), and Müller's equations (fat-free mass, FFM; 45.6%). When Kim and Müller had the smallest bias (-0.6%, 9.9%), Schmelzle's equation had the smallest RMSE (331 kcal/d). The new specific equation based on FFM was generated as follows: REE = 451.722 + (23.202 * FFM). According to Bland-Altman plots, it has been found out that the new equations are distributed randomly in both males and females. Previously developed predictive equations mostly provided unaccurate and biased estimates of REE. However, the new predictive equations allow clinicians to estimate REE in an obese children and adolescents with sufficient and acceptable accuracy.

  20. The cost of empathy: Parent-adolescent conflict predicts emotion dysregulation for highly empathic youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lissa, Caspar J; Hawk, Skyler T; Koot, Hans M; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim H J

    2017-09-01

    Empathy plays a key role in maintaining close relationships and promoting prosocial conflict resolution. However, research has not addressed the potential emotional cost of adolescents' high empathy, particularly when relationships are characterized by more frequent conflict. The present 6-year longitudinal study (N = 467) investigated whether conflict with parents predicted emotion dysregulation more strongly for high-empathy adolescents than for lower-empathy adolescents. Emotion dysregulation was operationalized at both the experiential level, using mood diary data collected for 3 weeks each year, and at the dispositional level, using annual self-report measures. In line with predictions, we found that more frequent adolescent-parent conflict predicted greater day-to-day mood variability and dispositional difficulties in emotion regulation for high-empathy adolescents, but not for average- and low-empathy adolescents. Mood variability and difficulties in emotion regulation, in turn, also predicted increased conflict with parents. These links were not moderated by empathy. Moreover, our research allowed for a novel investigation of the interplay between experiential and dispositional emotion dysregulation. Day-to-day mood variability predicted increasing dispositional difficulties in emotion regulation over time, which suggests that experiential dysregulation becomes consolidated into dispositional difficulties in emotion regulation. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that, for high-empathy adolescents, conflict was a driver of this dysregulation consolidation process. Finally, emotion dysregulation played a role in overtime conflict maintenance for high-empathy adolescents. This suggests that, through emotion dysregulation, high empathy may paradoxically also contribute to maintaining negative adolescent-parent interactions. Our research indicates that high empathy comes at a cost when adolescent-parent relationships are characterized by greater negativity

  1. Predicting weight status stability and change from fifth grade to eighth grade: the significant role of adolescents' social-emotional well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yiting; Gable, Sara

    2013-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to predict weight status stability and change across the transition to adolescence using parent reports of child and household routines and teacher and child self-reports of social-emotional development. Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a nationally representative sample of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999 and were followed through eighth grade. At fifth grade, parents reported on child and household routines and the study child and his/her primary classroom teacher reported on the child's social-emotional functioning. At fifth and eighth grade, children were directly weighed and measured at school. Nine mutually-exclusive weight trajectory groups were created to capture stability or change in weight status from fifth to eighth grade: (1) stable obese (ObeSta); (2) obese to overweight (ObePos1); (3) obese to healthy (ObePos2); (4) stable overweight (OverSta); (5) overweight to healthy (OverPos); (6) overweight to obese (OverNeg); (7) stable healthy (HelSta); (8) healthy to overweight (HelNeg1); and (9) healthy to obese (HelNeg2). Except for breakfast consumption at home, school-provided lunches, nighttime sleep duration, household and child routines did not predict stability or change in weight status. Instead, weight status trajectory across the transition to adolescence was significantly predicted by measures of social-emotional functioning at fifth grade. Assessing children's social-emotional well-being in addition to their lifestyle routines during the transition to adolescence is a noteworthy direction for adolescent obesity prevention and intervention. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Predictability and context determine differences in conflict monitoring between adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Witold X; Roessner, Veit; Beste, Christian

    2015-10-01

    The ability to link contextual information to actions is an important aspect of conflict monitoring and response selection. These mechanisms depend on medial prefrontal networks. Although these areas undergo a protracted development from adolescence to adulthood, it has remained elusive how the influence of contextual information on conflict monitoring is modulated between adolescence and adulthood. Using event-related potentials (ERPs) and source localization techniques we show that the ability to link contextual information to actions is altered and that the predictability of upcoming events is an important factor to consider in this context. In adolescents, conflict monitoring functions are not as much modulated by predictability factors as in adults. It seems that adults exhibit a stronger anticipation of upcoming events than adolescents. This results in disadvantages for adults when the upcoming context is not predictable. In adolescents, problems to predict upcoming events therefore turn out to be beneficial. Two cognitive-neurophysiological factors are important for this: The first factor is related to altered conflict monitoring functions associated with modulations of neural activity in the medial frontal cortex. The second factor is related to altered perceptual processing of target stimuli associated with modulations of neural activity in parieto-occipital areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of early adolescent anxiety disorders on self-esteem development from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Lizmarie; Huang, Yangxin; Chen, Ren; Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

    2013-08-01

    To examine the association between early adolescent anxiety disorders and self-esteem development from early adolescence through young adulthood. Self-esteem was measured at mean ages 13, 16, and 22 for 821 participants from the Children in the Community Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort. Anxiety disorders were measured at mean age 13 years. Multilevel growth models were employed to analyze the change in self-esteem from early adolescence to young adulthood and to evaluate whether adolescent anxiety disorders predict both average and slope of self-esteem development. Self-esteem increased during adolescence and continued to increase in young adulthood. Girls had lower average self-esteem than boys, but this difference disappeared when examining the effect of anxiety. Adolescents with anxiety disorder had lower self-esteem, on average, compared with healthy adolescents (effect size [ES] = -.35, p self-esteem (ES = -.30, p self-esteem from adolescence to young adulthood (β = -.1, p self-esteem development. All but one of the assessed adolescent anxiety disorders were related to lower self-esteem, with social phobia having the greatest impact. OCD predicted a decline in self-esteem trajectory with age. The importance of raising self-esteem in adolescents with anxiety and other mental disorders is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolutionary prediction of medicinal properties in the genus Euphorbia L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Madeleine; Saslis Lagoudakis, Haris; Grace, Olwen M.

    2016-01-01

    The current decrease of new drugs brought to the market has fostered renewed interest in plant-based drug discovery. Given the alarming rate of biodiversity loss, systematic methodologies in finding new plant-derived drugs are urgently needed. Medicinal uses of plants were proposed as proxy...... for bioactivity, and phylogenetic patterns in medicinal plant uses have suggested that phylogeny can be used as predictive tool. However, the common practice of grouping medicinal plant uses into standardised categories may restrict the relevance of phylogenetic predictions. Standardised categories are mostly...... associated to systems of the human body and only poorly reflect biological responses to the treatment. Here we show that medicinal plant uses interpreted from a perspective of a biological response can reveal different phylogenetic patterns of presumed underlying bioactivity compared to standardised methods...

  5. Weaknesses in executive functioning predict the initiating of adolescents' alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Margot; Janssen, Tim; Monshouwer, Karin; Boendermaker, Wouter; Pronk, Thomas; Wiers, Reinout; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2015-12-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that impairments in executive functioning might be risk factors for the onset of alcohol use rather than a result of heavy alcohol use. In the present study, we examined whether two aspects of executive functioning, working memory and response inhibition, predicted the first alcoholic drink and first binge drinking episode in young adolescents using discrete survival analyses. Adolescents were selected from several Dutch secondary schools including both mainstream and special education (externalizing behavioral problems). Participants were 534 adolescents between 12 and 14 years at baseline. Executive functioning and alcohol use were assessed four times over a period of two years. Working memory uniquely predicted the onset of first drink (p=.01) and first binge drinking episode (p=.04) while response inhibition only uniquely predicted the initiating of the first drink (p=.01). These results suggest that the association of executive functioning and alcohol consumption found in former studies cannot simply be interpreted as an effect of alcohol consumption, as weaknesses in executive functioning, found in alcohol naïve adolescents, predict the initiating of (binge) drinking. Though, prolonged and heavy alcohol use might further weaken already existing deficiencies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Adolescents' technology and face-to-face time use predict objective sleep outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernier, Royette; Heissel, Jennifer A; Sladek, Michael R; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K

    2017-08-01

    The present study examined both within- and between-person associations between adolescents' time use (technology-based activities and face-to-face interactions with friends and family) and sleep behaviors. We also assessed whether age moderated associations between adolescents' time use with friends and family and sleep. Adolescents wore an actigraph monitor and completed brief evening surveys daily for 3 consecutive days. Adolescents (N=71; mean age=14.50 years old, SD=1.84; 43.7% female) were recruited from 3 public high schools in the Midwest. We assessed 8 technology-based activities (eg, texting, working on a computer), as well as time spent engaged in face-to-face interactions with friends and family, via questions on adolescents' evening surveys. Actigraph monitors assessed 3 sleep behaviors: sleep latency, sleep hours, and sleep efficiency. Hierarchical linear models indicated that texting and working on the computer were associated with shorter sleep, whereas time spent talking on the phone predicted longer sleep. Time spent with friends predicted shorter sleep latencies, while family time predicted longer sleep latencies. Age moderated the association between time spent with friends and sleep efficiency, as well as between family time and sleep efficiency. Specifically, longer time spent interacting with friends was associated with higher sleep efficiency but only among younger adolescents. Furthermore, longer family time was associated with higher sleep efficiency but only for older adolescents. Findings are discussed in terms of the importance of regulating adolescents' technology use and improving opportunities for face-to-face interactions with friends, particularly for younger adolescents. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Transitioning HIV-Positive Adolescents to Adult Care: Lessons Learned From Twelve Adolescent Medicine Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Amanda E; Philbin, Morgan M; DuVal, Anna; Ellen, Jonathan; Kapogiannis, Bill; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2016-01-01

    To maximize positive health outcomes for youth with HIV as they transition from youth to adult care, clinical staff need strategies and protocols to help youth maintain clinic engagement and medication adherence. Accordingly, this paper describe transition processes across twelve clinics within the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN) to provide lessons learned and inform the development of transition protocols to improve health outcomes as youth shift from adolescent to adult HIV care. During a large multi-method Care Initiative program evaluation, three annual visits were completed at each site from 2010-2012 and conducted 174 semi-structured interviews with clinical and program staff (baseline n=64, year 1 n=56, year 2=54). The results underscore the value of adhering to recent American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) transition recommendations, including: developing formal transition protocols, preparing youth for transition, facilitating youth's connection to the adult clinic, and identifying necessary strategies for transition evaluation. Transitioning youth with HIV involves targeting individual-, provider-, and system-level factors. Acknowledging and addressing key barriers is essential for developing streamlined, comprehensive, and context-specific transition protocols. Adolescent and adult clinic involvement in transition is essential to reduce service fragmentation, provide coordinated and continuous care, and support individual and community level health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness.

  9. Why don't girls choose technological studies? Adolescents' stereotypes and attitudes towards studies related to medicine or engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sáez, Mercedes; Puertas, Susana; Sáinz, Milagros

    2011-05-01

    Gender differences in choice of studies emerge already in adolescence. Two studies with adolescents are presented, the goal of which is to explore the influence of gender by assessing males and females who choose studies related to Medicine or Engineering. Study 1, correlational (N = 330, mean age 15.9, 56.7% girls), shows that girls who choose technology are more poorly appraised than girls who choose other studies. Study 2 (N = 130; mean age 16.77, 56.2% girls), experimental, measures implicit attitudes (using the IAT) towards males and females from Medicine and Engineering. Implicit attitudes are more favorable towards women if they are studying Medicine and towards men if they study Engineering. The results are analyzed with relation to the percentages of boys and girls in the different fields of study.

  10. Identification and Prediction of Drinking Trajectories in Early and Mid-Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, H. van der; Vermulst, A.A.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Dekovic, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of early and mid-adolescents with different drinking trajectories. In addition, we examined whether gender, parental, and peer factors predicted adolescents' membership of these drinking trajectories. We used longitudinal data of 428 families (fathers,

  11. A Latent Class Analysis of Maternal Responsiveness and Autonomy-Granting in Early Adolescence: Prediction to Later Adolescent Sexual Risk-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to extend empirical inquiry related to the role of parenting on adolescent sexual risk-taking by using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of adolescent-reported mother responsiveness and autonomy-granting in early adolescence and examine associations with sexual risk-taking in mid- and late-adolescence. Utilizing a sample of 12- to 14-year-old adolescents (N = 4,743) from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), results identified a four-class model of maternal responsiveness and autonomy-granting: low responsiveness/high autonomy-granting, moderate responsiveness/moderate autonomy-granting, high responsiveness/low autonomy-granting, high responsiveness/moderate autonomy-granting. Membership in the low responsiveness/high autonomy-granting class predicted greater sexual risk-taking in mid- and late-adolescence compared to all other classes, and membership in the high responsiveness/ moderate autonomy-granting class predicted lower sexual risk-taking. Gender and ethnic differences in responsiveness and autonomy-granting class membership were also found, potentially informing gender and ethnic disparities of adolescent sexual risk-taking. PMID:23828712

  12. Does low self-esteem predict health compromising behaviours among adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgee, R; Williams, S

    2000-10-01

    It is often believed that low self-esteem is associated with such health-compromising behaviours in adolescence as substance use, early sexual activity, eating problems and suicidal ideation. Surprisingly, there is little longitudinal research addressing this issue. This longitudinal study examines the predictive association between both global and academic self-esteem from ages 9 to 13 years, and a variety of health compromising behaviours at age 15, in a large sample of young New Zealanders. Levels of global self-esteem significantly predicted adolescent report of problem eating, suicidal ideation, and multiple health compromising behaviours. Earlier levels of self-esteem were unrelated to later substance use and early sexual activity. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for efforts to raise self-esteem among young people. Copyright 2000 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  13. Evolutionary prediction of medicinal properties in the genus Euphorbia L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Madeleine; Saslis Lagoudakis, Haris; Grace, Olwen M.

    2016-01-01

    The current decrease of new drugs brought to the market has fostered renewed interest in plant-based drug discovery. Given the alarming rate of biodiversity loss, systematic methodologies in finding new plant-derived drugs are urgently needed. Medicinal uses of plants were proposed as proxy for b...... interpretation of medicinal plant uses may therefore allow for a more targeted approach for future phylogeny-guided drug discovery at an early screening stage, which will likely result in higher discovery rates of novel chemistry with functional biological activity.......The current decrease of new drugs brought to the market has fostered renewed interest in plant-based drug discovery. Given the alarming rate of biodiversity loss, systematic methodologies in finding new plant-derived drugs are urgently needed. Medicinal uses of plants were proposed as proxy...... for bioactivity, and phylogenetic patterns in medicinal plant uses have suggested that phylogeny can be used as predictive tool. However, the common practice of grouping medicinal plant uses into standardised categories may restrict the relevance of phylogenetic predictions. Standardised categories are mostly...

  14. [The value of 5-HTT gene polymorphism for the assessment and prediction of male adolescence violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Liu, Xiang; Yang, Zhen-xing; Qiu, Chang-jian; Ma, Xiao-hong

    2012-08-01

    To establish an adolescent violence crime prediction model, and to assess the value of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene polymorphism for the assessment and prediction of violent crime. Investigative tools were used to analyze the difference in personality dimensions, social support, coping styles, aggressiveness, impulsivity, and family condition scale between 223 adolescents with violence behavior and 148 adolescents without violence behavior. The distribution of 5-HTT gene polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR and 5-HTTVNTR) was compared between the two groups. The role of 5-HTT gene polymorphism on adolescent personality, impulsion and aggression scale also was also analyzed. Stepwise logistic regression was used to establish a predictive model for adolescent violent crime. Significant difference was found between the violence group and the control group on multiple dimensions of psychology and environment scales. However, no statistical difference was found with regard to the 5-HTT genotypes and alleles between adolescents with violent behaviors and normal controls. The rate of prediction accuracy was not significantly improved when 5-HTT gene polymorphism was taken into the model. The violent crime of adolescents was closely related with social and environmental factors. No association was found between 5-HTT polymorphisms and adolescent violence criminal behavior.

  15. A study of goiter among female adolescents referred to centre for nuclear medicine, Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elahi, S; Hassan, M.; Syed, Z.; Hyder, S.W.; Nazeer, L.; Nagra, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study goiter and thyroid dysfunction in female adolescents residing in Lahore referred to Centre for Nuclear Medicine (CENUM), Mayo Hospital for thyroid scanning and thyroid function tests. Design: Retrospective study of thyroid size, thyroid scan patterns and serum FT/sub 4/ and TSH levels. Setting: Centre for Nuclear Medicine (CENUM), Mayo Hospital, Lahore. Patients: 350 female adolescent referred during September 2002 to April 2003. Main outcome measures: adolescent goiter, thyroid nodules, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, Graves' disease, toxic multi nodular goiter. Results: Among 350 adolescents 212(60.6%) had goiter of various grades mostly visible. Among goiterous patients 136(64.2%) had diffuse and 76 (35.8%) had nodular presentation. The number of patients with solitary nodular goiter (20.7%) was more than multi nodular goiter (15.1%) and number of patients with solitary cold nodule (16.5%) was more than functioning nodule (4.2%). The incidence of biochemical thyroid dysfunction, both overt and subclinical, was detected in 42(19.8%) patients and was significantly more frequent in patients with nodular than diffuse presentation (29% VS 14.7%; p<0.001) and in multinodular than solitary nodular goiter (p<0.005). More than 80% of the patients with solitary nodular goiter were euthyroid. Simple goiter was detected in 116(54.7%), Graves' disease in 5(2.4%) and toxic multinodular goiter in 4(1.9%) patients. Overall incidence of hypothyroidism was more than double as compared to hyperthyroidism. Incidence of nodularity and hypothyroidism was more in large goiter but duration of goiter was not significant in promoting nodularity. Conclusion: Goiterous adolescents need urgent attention because they don't have just diffuse hypertrophy with normal thyroid function. Many are afflicted with dysfunction and nodularity, particularly solitary cold nodule bearing risk of thyroid malignancy. (author)

  16. Prognostic and predictive biomarkers in colorectal cancer. Towards precision medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimers, Marlies Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to define prognostic and predictive biomarkers in colorectal cancer for improved risk stratification and treatment benefit in the individual patient, with the introduction of precision medicine in the near future as the ultimate goal. By definition, precision medicine is

  17. Predicting Adolescent Drug Abuse: A Review of Issues, Methods and Correlates. Research Issues 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettieri, Dan J., Ed.

    Presented are 18 papers on predicting adolescent drug abuse. The papers have the following titles: "Current Issues in the Epidemiology of Drug Abuse as Related to Psychosocial Studies of Adolescent Drug Use"; "The Quest for Interpersonal Predictors of Marihuana Abuse in Adolescents"; "Assessing the Interpersonal Determinants of Adolescent Drug…

  18. Personality patterns predict the risk of antisocial behavior in Spanish-speaking adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar-Córcoles, Miguel A; Verdejo-García, Antonio; Bouso-Sáiz, José C; Revuelta-Menéndez, Javier; Ramírez-Lira, Ezequiel

    2017-05-01

    There is a renewed interest in incorporating personality variables in criminology theories in order to build models able to integrate personality variables and biological factors with psychosocial and sociocultural factors. The aim of this article is the assessment of personality dimensions that contribute to the prediction of antisocial behavior in adolescents. For this purpose, a sample of adolescents from El Salvador, Mexico, and Spain was obtained. The sample consisted of 1035 participants with a mean age of 16.2. There were 450 adolescents from a forensic population (those who committed a crime) and 585 adolescents from the normal population (no crime committed). All of participants answered personality tests about neuroticism, extraversion, psychoticism, sensation seeking, impulsivity, and violence risk. Principal component analysis of the data identified two independent factors: (i) the disinhibited behavior pattern (PDC), formed by the dimensions of neuroticism, psychoticism, impulsivity and risk of violence; and (ii) the extrovert behavior pattern (PEC), formed by the dimensions of sensation risk and extraversion. Both patterns significantly contributed to the prediction of adolescent antisocial behavior in a logistic regression model which properly classifies a global percentage of 81.9%, 86.8% for non-offense and 72.5% for offense behavior. The classification power of regression equations allows making very satisfactory predictions about adolescent offense commission. Educational level has been classified as a protective factor, while age and gender (male) have been classified as risk factors.

  19. Childhood hyperactivity/inattention and eating disturbances predict binge eating in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Horton, Nicholas J.; Field, Alison E.; Crosby, Ross D.; Solmi, Francesca; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Background Identifying childhood predictors of binge eating and understanding risk mechanisms could help improve prevention and detection efforts. The aim of this study was to examine whether features of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as childhood eating disturbances, predicted binge eating later in adolescence. Method We studied specific risk factors for the development of binge eating during mid-adolescence among 7,120 males and females from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a cohort study of children in the United Kingdom, using data from multiple informants to develop structural equation models. Repeated assessment of eating disturbances during childhood (mid-childhood overeating, late-childhood overeating, and early-adolescent strong desire for food), as well as teacher and parent reported hyperactivity/inattention during mid- and late-childhood, were considered as possible predictors of mid-adolescent binge eating. Results Prevalence of binge eating during mid-adolescence in our sample was 11.6%. The final model of predictors of binge eating during mid-adolescence included direct effects of late-childhood overeating (standardized estimate: 0.145, 95% CI: 0.038, 0.259; p=0.009) and early-adolescent strong desire for food (standardized estimate: 0.088, 95% CI: −0.002, 0.169; p=0.05). Hyperactivity/inattention during late-childhood indirectly predicted binge eating during mid-adolescence (standardized estimate: 0.085, 95% CI: 0.007, 0.128; p=0.03) via late-childhood overeating and early-adolescent strong desire for food. Conclusions Our findings indicate that early ADHD symptoms, in addition to an overeating phenotype, contribute to risk for adolescent binge eating. These findings lend support to the potential role of hyperactivity/inattention in the development of overeating and binge eating. PMID:26098685

  20. Childhood hyperactivity/inattention and eating disturbances predict binge eating in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneville, K R; Calzo, J P; Horton, N J; Field, A E; Crosby, R D; Solmi, F; Micali, N

    2015-01-01

    Identifying childhood predictors of binge eating and understanding risk mechanisms could help improve prevention and detection efforts. The aim of this study was to examine whether features of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as childhood eating disturbances, predicted binge eating later in adolescence. We studied specific risk factors for the development of binge eating during mid-adolescence among 7120 males and females from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a cohort study of children in the UK, using data from multiple informants to develop structural equation models. Repeated assessment of eating disturbances during childhood (mid-childhood overeating, late-childhood overeating and early-adolescent strong desire for food), as well as teacher- and parent-reported hyperactivity/inattention during mid- and late childhood, were considered as possible predictors of mid-adolescent binge eating. Prevalence of binge eating during mid-adolescence in our sample was 11.6%. The final model of predictors of binge eating during mid-adolescence included direct effects of late-childhood overeating [standardized estimate 0.145, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.038–0.259, p = 0.009] and early-adolescent strong desire for food (standardized estimate 0.088, 95% CI −0.002 to 0.169, p = 0.05). Hyperactivity/inattention during late childhood indirectly predicted binge eating during mid-adolescence (standardized estimate 0.085, 95% CI 0.007–0.128, p = 0.03) via late-childhood overeating and early-adolescent strong desire for food. Our findings indicate that early ADHD symptoms, in addition to an overeating phenotype, contribute to risk for adolescent binge eating. These findings lend support to the potential role of hyperactivity/inattention in the development of overeating and binge eating.

  1. Sibling conflict in middle childhood predicts children's adjustment in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Clare M; Burwell, Rebecca A; Briggs, Megan L

    2002-03-01

    Associations between sibling conflict in middle childhood and psychological adjustment in early adolescence were studied in a sample of 80 boys and 56 girls. Parents and children provided self-report data about family relationships and children's adjustment. Parents' hostility to children was assessed from videotaped interactions. Results showed that sibling conflict at Time 1 predicted increases in children's anxiety, depressed mood, and delinquent behavior 2 years later. Moreover, earlier sibling conflict at Time 1 accounted for unique variance in young adolescents' Time 2 anxiety, depressed mood, and delinquent behavior above and beyond the variance explained by earlier maternal hostility and marital conflict. Children's adjustment at Time 1 did not predict sibling conflict at Time 2. Results highlight the unique significance of the earlier sibling relationship for young adolescents' psychological adjustment.

  2. Adolescent expectations of early death predict adult risk behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quynh C Nguyen

    Full Text Available Only a handful of public health studies have investigated expectations of early death among adolescents. Associations have been found between these expectations and risk behaviors in adolescence. However, these beliefs may not only predict worse adolescent outcomes, but worse trajectories in health with ties to negative outcomes that endure into young adulthood. The objectives of this study were to investigate perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations, PSE as a predictor of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and substance use in young adulthood. We examined the predictive capacity of PSE on future suicidal ideation/attempt after accounting for sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, and history of suicide among family and friends to more fully assess its unique contribution to suicide risk. We investigated the influence of PSE on legal and illegal substance use and varying levels of substance use. We utilized the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health initiated in 1994-95 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7-12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II, 2001-02 (Wave III and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24-32. Compared to those who were almost certain of living to age 35, perceiving a 50-50 or less chance of living to age 35 at Waves I or III predicted suicide attempt and ideation as well as regular substance use (i.e., exceeding daily limits for moderate drinking; smoking ≥ a pack/day; and using illicit substances other than marijuana at least weekly at Wave IV. Associations between PSE and detrimental adult outcomes were particularly strong for those reporting persistently low PSE at both Waves I and III. Low PSE at Wave I or Wave III was also related to a doubling and tripling, respectively, of death rates in young adulthood. Long-term and wide-ranging ties between PSE and detrimental outcomes suggest these expectations may contribute to identifying at-risk youth.

  3. Adolescent Reproductive Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs and Future Fatherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Craig F; Duncan, Greg; Peters, Sarah; Rutsohn, Joshua; McDade, Thomas W; Adam, Emma K; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Chase-Lansdale, Patricia Lindsay

    2016-05-01

    With a growing focus on the importance of men's reproductive health, including preconception health, the ways in which young men's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB) predict their reproductive paths are understudied. To determine if reproductive KAB predicts fatherhood status, timing and residency (living with child or not). Reproductive KAB and fatherhood outcomes were analyzed from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a 20-year, nationally representative study of individuals from adolescence into adulthood. Four measures of reproductive KAB were assessed during adolescence in waves I and II. A generalized linear latent and mixed model predicted future fatherhood status (nonfather, resident/nonresident father, adolescent father) and timing while controlling for other socio-demographic variables. Of the 10,253 men, 3,425 were fathers (686 nonresident/2,739 resident) by wave IV. Higher risky sexual behavior scores significantly increased the odds of becoming nonresident father (odds ratio [OR], 1.30; p fatherhood and residency status. Strategies that address adolescent males' reproductive KAB are needed in the prevention of unintended reproductive consequences such as early and nonresident fatherhood. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding mother-adolescent conflict discussions: concurrent and across-time prediction from youths' dispositions and parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Hofer, Claire; Spinrad, Tracy L; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Valiente, Carlos; Losoya, Sandra H; Zhou, Qing; Cumberland, Amanda; Liew, Jeffrey; Reiser, Mark; Maxon, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence is often thought of as a period during which the quality of parent-child interactions can be relatively stressed and conflictual. There are individual differences in this regard, however, with only a modest percent of youths experiencing extremely conflictual relationships with their parents. Nonetheless, there is relatively little empirical research on factors in childhood or adolescence that predict individual differences in the quality of parent-adolescent interactions when dealing with potentially conflictual issues. Understanding such individual differences is critical because the quality of both parenting and the parent-adolescent relationship is predictive of a range of developmental outcomes for adolescents. The goals of the research were to examine dispositional and parenting predictors of the quality of parents' and their adolescent children's emotional displays (anger, positive emotion) and verbalizations (negative or positive) when dealing with conflictual issues, and if prediction over time supported continuity versus discontinuity in the factors related to such conflict. We hypothesized that adolescents' and parents' conflict behaviors would be predicted by both childhood and concurrent parenting and child dispositions (and related problem behaviors) and that we would find evidence of both parent- and child-driven pathways. Mothers and adolescents (N5126, M age513 years) participated in a discussion of conflictual issues. A multimethod, multireporter (mother, teacher, and sometimes adolescent reports) longitudinal approach (over 4 years) was used to assess adolescents' dispositional characteristics (control/ regulation, resiliency, and negative emotionality), youths' externalizing problems, and parenting variables (warmth, positive expressivity, discussion of emotion, positive and negative family expressivity). Higher quality conflict reactions (i.e., less negative and/or more positive) were related to both concurrent and antecedent

  5. Thinning of the lateral prefrontal cortex during adolescence predicts emotion regulation in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Nandita; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Dennison, Meg; Simmons, Julian; Allen, Nicholas B

    2014-11-01

    Adolescence is a crucial period for the development of adaptive emotion regulation strategies. Despite the fact that structural maturation of the prefrontal cortex during adolescence is often assumed to underlie the maturation of emotion regulation strategies, no longitudinal studies have directly assessed this relationship. This study examined whether use of cognitive reappraisal strategies during late adolescence was predicted by (i) absolute prefrontal cortical thickness during early adolescence and (ii) structural maturation of the prefrontal cortex between early and mid-adolescence. Ninety-two adolescents underwent baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans when they were aged approximately 12 and 16 years, respectively. FreeSurfer software was used to obtain cortical thickness estimates for three prefrontal regions [anterior cingulate cortex; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC); ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC)]. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire was completed when adolescents were aged approximately 19 years. Results showed that greater cortical thinning of the left dlPFC and left vlPFC during adolescence was significantly associated with greater use of cognitive reappraisal in females, though no such relationship was evident in males. Furthermore, baseline left dlPFC thickness predicted cognitive reappraisal at trend level. These findings suggest that cortical maturation may play a role in the development of adaptive emotion regulation strategies during adolescence. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Low Social Status Markers: Do They Predict Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Benita; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2011-07-01

    Some markers of social disadvantage are associated robustly with depressive symptoms among adolescents: female gender and lower socioeconomic status (SES), respectively. Others are associated equivocally, notably Black v. White race/ethnicity. Few studies examine whether markers of social disadvantage by gender, SES, and race/ethnicity jointly predict self-reported depressive symptoms during adolescence; this was our goal. Secondary analyses were conducted on data from a socioeconomically diverse community-based cohort study of non-Hispanic Black and White adolescents (N = 1,263, 50.4% female). Multivariable general linear models tested if female gender, Black race/ethnicity, and lower SES (assessed by parent education and household income), and their interactions predicted greater depressive symptoms reported on the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. Models adjusted for age and pubertal status. Univariate analyses revealed more depressive symptoms in females, Blacks, and participants with lower SES. Multivariable models showed females across both racial/ethnic groups reported greater depressive symptoms; Blacks demonstrated more depressive symptoms than did Whites but when SES was included this association disappeared. Exploratory analyses suggested Blacks gained less mental health benefit from increased SES. However there were no statistically significant interactions among gender, race/ethnicity, or SES. Taken together, we conclude that complex patterning among low social status domains within gender, race/ethnicity, and SES predicts depressive symptoms among adolescents.

  7. Association of Elevated Reward Prediction Error Response With Weight Gain in Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGuzman, Marisa; Shott, Megan E; Yang, Tony T; Riederer, Justin; Frank, Guido K W

    2017-06-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric disorder of unknown etiology. Understanding associations between behavior and neurobiology is important in treatment development. Using a novel monetary reward task during functional magnetic resonance brain imaging, the authors tested how brain reward learning in adolescent anorexia nervosa changes with weight restoration. Female adolescents with anorexia nervosa (N=21; mean age, 16.4 years [SD=1.9]) underwent functional MRI (fMRI) before and after treatment; similarly, healthy female control adolescents (N=21; mean age, 15.2 years [SD=2.4]) underwent fMRI on two occasions. Brain function was tested using the reward prediction error construct, a computational model for reward receipt and omission related to motivation and neural dopamine responsiveness. Compared with the control group, the anorexia nervosa group exhibited greater brain response 1) for prediction error regression within the caudate, ventral caudate/nucleus accumbens, and anterior and posterior insula, 2) to unexpected reward receipt in the anterior and posterior insula, and 3) to unexpected reward omission in the caudate body. Prediction error and unexpected reward omission response tended to normalize with treatment, while unexpected reward receipt response remained significantly elevated. Greater caudate prediction error response when underweight was associated with lower weight gain during treatment. Punishment sensitivity correlated positively with ventral caudate prediction error response. Reward system responsiveness is elevated in adolescent anorexia nervosa when underweight and after weight restoration. Heightened prediction error activity in brain reward regions may represent a phenotype of adolescent anorexia nervosa that does not respond well to treatment. Prediction error response could be a neurobiological marker of illness severity that can indicate individual treatment needs.

  8. Are signs of temporomandibular disorders stable and predictable in adolescents with headache?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeström, M-R; Le Bell, Y; Laimi, K; Anttila, P; Aromaa, M; Jämsä, T; Metsähonkala, L; Vahlberg, T; Viander, S; Alanen, P; Sillanpää, M

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to study changes in signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and factors predicting TMD signs in adolescents with and without headache. A population-based sample (n = 212) of 13-year-olds with and without headache was re-examined at the age of 16. The study included a questionnaire, face-to-face interview and somatic examination. In addition, a neurological examination, a muscle evaluation and a stomatognathic examination were performed. Significant changes were seen in TMD signs during the follow-up, but TMD signs at the end of the follow-up could not be predicted by baseline headache, sleeping difficulties, depression or muscle pain. TMD signs at the age of 16 were associated with female gender and muscle pain. We conclude that considerable changes in TMD signs occur in the follow-up of adolescents with and without headache. Headache-related TMD are not predictable in adolescents with and without headache.

  9. Uric Acid Excretion Predicts Increased Blood Pressure Among American Adolescents of African Descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Mrug, Michal; Morris, Anjana Madan; Reynolds, Nina; Patel, Anita; Hill, Danielle C; Feig, Daniel I

    2017-04-01

    Hyperuricemia predicts the incidence of hypertension in adults and its treatment has blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects in adolescents. To date, no studies have examined the predictive usage of hyperuricemia or urinary uric acid excretion on BP changes in adolescents. Mechanistic models suggest that uric acid impairs both endothelial function and vascular compliance, which would potentially exacerbate a myriad of hypertensive mechanisms, yet little is known about interaction of uric acid and other hypertension risk factors. The primary study was aimed at the effects of stress on BP in adolescents. A community sample of 84 low-income, urban adolescents (50% male, 95% African American, mean age = 13.36 ± 1 years) was recruited from public schools. Youth completed a 12-hour (overnight) urine collection at home and their BP was measured during rest and in response to acute psychosocial stress. Seventy-six of the adolescents participated in a follow-up visit at 1.5 years when their resting BP was reassessed. In this substudy, we assessed the relationship of renal urate excretion and BP reactivity. After adjusting for resting BP levels at baseline and other covariates, higher levels of uric acid excretion predicted greater BP reactivity to acute psychosocial stress and higher resting BP at 18 months. Urinary excretion of uric acid can serve as an alternative, noninvasive measure of serum uric acid levels that are predictive of BP changes. As hyperuricemia-associated hypertension is treatable, urban adolescents may benefit from routine screening for hyperuricemia or high uric acid excretion. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Does childhood motor skill proficiency predict adolescent fitness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Van Beurden, Eric; Morgan, Philip J; Brooks, Lyndon O; Beard, John R

    2008-12-01

    To determine whether childhood fundamental motor skill proficiency predicts subsequent adolescent cardiorespiratory fitness. In 2000, children's proficiency in a battery of skills was assessed as part of an elementary school-based intervention. Participants were followed up during 2006/2007 as part of the Physical Activity and Skills Study, and cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using the Multistage Fitness Test. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between childhood fundamental motor skill proficiency and adolescent cardiorespiratory fitness controlling for gender. Composite object control (kick, catch, throw) and locomotor skill (hop, side gallop, vertical jump) were constructed for analysis. A separate linear regression examined the ability of the sprint run to predict cardiorespiratory fitness. Of the 928 original intervention participants, 481 were in 28 schools, 276 (57%) of whom were assessed. Two hundred and forty-four students (88.4%) completed the fitness test. One hundred and twenty-seven were females (52.1%), 60.1% of whom were in grade 10 and 39.0% were in grade 11. As children, almost all 244 completed each motor assessments, except for the sprint run (n = 154, 55.8%). The mean composite skill score in 2000 was 17.7 (SD 5.1). In 2006/2007, the mean number of laps on the Multistage Fitness Test was 50.5 (SD 24.4). Object control proficiency in childhood, adjusting for gender (P = 0.000), was associated with adolescent cardiorespiratory fitness (P = 0.012), accounting for 26% of fitness variation. Children with good object control skills are more likely to become fit adolescents. Fundamental motor skill development in childhood may be an important component of interventions aiming to promote long-term fitness.

  11. Home medicine chests and their relationship with self-medication in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourinho, Francis S V; Bucaretchi, Fábio; Stephan, Celso; Cordeiro, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the contents of home medicine chests and their relationship with self-medication in children and adolescents in the towns of Limeira and Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. This is a descriptive population study based on a home survey of a simple random sample from both towns, comprising 705 households from census sectors selected by means of cluster sampling. age medicines kept at home; and having taken at least one medication during the 15 days prior to the interview. The participants were split into two groups based on medication: self-medication (lay advice) and medical prescription. Tests of linear association were performed, in addition to a descriptive analysis of the variables and multiple logistic regression. A total of 3,619 medicines were found (mean = 5.1/household; 79.6% were pharmaceutical preparations). The rooms most commonly used to store medications were bedrooms (47.5%), kitchens (29.9%), and bathrooms (14.6%); 76.5% were in cardboard boxes and within easy reach of 142 children aged medicines at home is a common practice, and it is important to implement campaigns to encourage rational use, reduced waste and safe storage of medicines.

  12. Adolescents' expectations for the future predict health behaviors in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade, Thomas W; Chyu, Laura; Duncan, Greg J; Hoyt, Lindsay T; Doane, Leah D; Adam, Emma K

    2011-08-01

    Health-related behaviors in adolescence establish trajectories of risk for obesity and chronic degenerative diseases, and they represent an important pathway through which socio-economic environments shape patterns of morbidity and mortality. Most behaviors that promote health involve making choices that may not pay off until the future, but the factors that predict an individual's investment in future health are not known. In this paper we consider whether expectations for the future in two domains relevant to adolescents in the U.S.-perceived chances of living to middle age and perceived chances of attending college-are associated with an individual's engagement in behaviors that protect health in the long run. We focus on adolescence as an important life stage during which habits formed may shape trajectories of disease risk later in life. We use data from a large, nationally representative sample of American youth (the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) to predict levels of physical activity, fast food consumption, and cigarette smoking in young adulthood in relation to perceived life chances in adolescence, controlling for baseline health behaviors and a wide range of potentially confounding factors. We found that adolescents who rated their chances of attending college more highly exercised more frequently and smoked fewer cigarettes in young adulthood. Adolescents with higher expectations of living to age 35 smoked fewer cigarettes as young adults. Parental education was a significant predictor of perceived life chances, as well as health behaviors, but for each outcome the effects of perceived life chances were independent of, and often stronger than, parental education. Perceived life chances in adolescence may therefore play an important role in establishing individual trajectories of health, and in contributing to social gradients in population health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [From the prehypertensive adolescent to the hypertensive adult. Is possible to predict the conversion?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fernández, Guillermo Alberto; Grau-Abalo, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    There are many risk factors for developing hypertension. In the XXI century, smarter ways to investigate are needed, so preventing the turning of an adolescent into a hypertensive adult must be a priority. The aim of this paper is to predict the risk of hypertension onset in adulthood, from cardiovascular tension and risk stratification since adolescence. A representative sample of 125 adolescents from the project "Pesquisaje Escolar en la Adolescencia de Hipertensión Arterial" (PESESCAD-HTA) was studied. They were diagnosed with prehypertension in 2001, and were followed for eight years (96 months) until January 2009. Two predictive indexes were obtained. The first, based on the total cardiovascular risk and the second from the multiplication of these risks with an accuracy index for each of 61.6% and 70.4%, respectively. The index based on the multiplication of cardiovascular risk can predict, with adequate accuracy, the turning of a prehypertensive adolescent into hypertensive once he/she reaches adulthood.

  14. [A prediction model for internet game addiction in adolescents: using a decision tree analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Sook; Kim, Kyung Hee

    2010-06-01

    This study was designed to build a theoretical frame to provide practical help to prevent and manage adolescent internet game addiction by developing a prediction model through a comprehensive analysis of related factors. The participants were 1,318 students studying in elementary, middle, and high schools in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province, Korea. Collected data were analyzed using the SPSS program. Decision Tree Analysis using the Clementine program was applied to build an optimum and significant prediction model to predict internet game addiction related to various factors, especially parent related factors. From the data analyses, the prediction model for factors related to internet game addiction presented with 5 pathways. Causative factors included gender, type of school, siblings, economic status, religion, time spent alone, gaming place, payment to Internet café, frequency, duration, parent's ability to use internet, occupation (mother), trust (father), expectations regarding adolescent's study (mother), supervising (both parents), rearing attitude (both parents). The results suggest preventive and managerial nursing programs for specific groups by path. Use of this predictive model can expand the role of school nurses, not only in counseling addicted adolescents but also, in developing and carrying out programs with parents and approaching adolescents individually through databases and computer programming.

  15. Predicting adolescent perpetration in cyberbullying: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirman, Wannes; Walrave, Michel

    2012-11-01

    This study aims to contribute to the research field on cyberbullying by offering a comprehensive theoretical framework that helps to predict adolescents' perpetration of cyberbullying. One thousand forty-two pupils from 12 to 18 years old in 30 different Belgian secondary schools participated in two surveys within a three-month interval. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether the overall model of theory of planned behavior (TPB) helps to predict adolescents' self-reported perpetration in cyberbullying. Overall, the present study provides strong support for the theoretical utility of the TPB in cyberbullying research. The model accounted for 44.8% of the variance in adolescents' behavioral intention to cyberbully and 33.2% of the variance in self-reported cyberbullying perpetration. We found a strong positive relationship between adolescents' attitude towards cyberbullying and their behavioral intention to perpetrate it. Perceived behavioral control and subjective norm, the other two TPB-constructs, were also significant albeit relatively less important predictors of adolescents' intention to cyberbully. The finding that adolescents' attitude is the most important predictor of perpetration, entails that prevention and intervention strategies should aim at reducing the perceived acceptability of cyberbullying among adolescents by converting neutral or positive attitudes towards this anti-social behavior into negative evaluations.

  16. Adverse events in children and adolescents treated with quetiapine: an analysis of adverse drug reaction reports from the Danish Medicines Agency database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Klaus D.; Wallach-Kildemoes, Helle; Bruhn, Christina H.

    2017-01-01

    Quetiapine is a low-affinity dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, approved for the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in children and adolescents by the Food and Drug Administration, but not by European Medicine Agency. Although knowledge of adverse drug reactions in children...... and adolescents is scarce, quetiapine is increasingly being used for youth in Denmark. The aim of this case study is to discuss adverse drug events (ADEs) spontaneously reported to the Danish Medicines Agency on quetiapine used in the pediatric population in relation to adversive drug reactions (ADRs) reported......, hallucinations. As some of the reported ADEs are life threatening and not listed as ADRs in the SPCs, off-label use of quetiapine in children and adolescents gives rise to safety concerns....

  17. Authoritarian parenting predicts reduced electrocortical response to observed adolescent offspring rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Amanda R; Speed, Brittany C; Nelson, Brady; Bress, Jennifer N; Hajcak, Greg

    2017-03-01

    Parenting styles are robust predictors of offspring outcomes, yet little is known about their neural underpinnings. In this study, 44 parent-adolescent dyads (Mage of adolescent = 12.9) completed a laboratory guessing task while EEG was continuously recorded. In the task, each pair member received feedback about their own monetary wins and losses and also observed the monetary wins and losses of the other member of the pair. We examined the association between self-reported parenting style and parents' electrophysiological responses to watching their adolescent winning and losing money, dubbed the observational Reward Positivity (RewP) and observational feedback negativity (FN), respectively. Self-reported authoritarian parenting predicted reductions in parents' observational RewP but not FN. This predictive relationship remained after adjusting for sex of both participants, parents' responsiveness to their own wins, and parental psychopathology. 'Exploratory analyses found that permissive parenting was associated with a blunting of the adolescents' response to their parents' losses'. These findings suggest that parents' rapid neural responses to their child's successes may relate to the harsh parenting behaviors associated with authoritarian parenting. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Reality television predicts both positive and negative outcomes for adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Salmond, Kimberlee; Modi, Kamla

    2013-06-01

    To assess the influence of media, specifically reality television, on adolescent behavior. A total of 1141 preteen and adolescent girls (age range 11-17) answered questions related to their reality television viewing, personality, self-esteem, relational aggression, appearance focus, and desire for fame. Our results indicated that the influence of reality television on adolescent behavior is complex and potentially related to the adolescents' intended uses and gratifications for using reality television. Reality television viewing was positively related to increased self-esteem and expectations of respect in dating relationships. However, watching reality television also was related to an increased focus on appearance and willingness to compromise other values for fame. Reality television viewing did not predict relational aggression. The potential influences of reality television use on adolescent girls are both positive and negative, defying easy categorization. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adolescent conscientiousness predicts lower lifetime unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Mark; Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M

    2017-04-01

    Existing research on Big Five personality and unemployment has relied on personality measures elicited after the respondents had already spent years in the labor market, an experience that could change personality. We clarify the direction of influence by using the British Cohort Study (N = 4,206) to examine whether conscientiousness and other Big Five personality traits at age 16-17 predict unemployment over age 16-42. Our hypothesis that higher conscientiousness in adolescence would predict lower unemployment was supported. In analyses controlling for intelligence, gender, and parental socioeconomic status, the less conscientious (-1 SD) had a predicted probability of unemployment twice as high (3.4% vs. 1.7%) as the highly conscientious (+1 SD), an effect size comparable to intelligence. Mediation analysis revealed that academic motivation and educational attainment explained only 8.9% of this association. Fostering conscientiousness in early life may be an effective way to reduce unemployment throughout adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Does Exposure to Music Videos Predict Adolescents' Sexual Attitudes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, J.W.J.; Konig, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether exposure to music videos predicts adolescents' sexual attitudes when controlled for relevant characteristics of individuals and their social environment. Sexual attitudes are related to their music video use (i.e. exposure to music videos, peer group talk about music

  1. Predicting placebo response in adolescents with major depressive disorder: The Adolescent Placebo Impact Composite Score (APICS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonezny, Paul A; Mayes, Taryn L; Byerly, Matthew J; Emslie, Graham J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to construct a composite scoring system to predict the probability of placebo response in adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Participants of the current study were 151 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) who were randomized to the placebo arm (placebo transdermal patches) of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the selegiline transdermal patch with placebo (DelBello et al., 2014). The primary outcome of response was defined as a CGI-I score of 1 or 2 (very much or much improved) at week 12 (study-end) or exit. As a first step, a multiple logistic mixed model was used to estimate the odds of placebo response from each predictor in the model, including age, CDRS-R total at baseline (depressive symptom severity), history of recurrent depression (yes vs. no), sex (female vs. male), and race (non-Caucasian vs. Caucasian). On the basis of the initial logistic mixed model analysis, we then constructed an Adolescent Placebo Impact Composite Score (APICS) that became the sole predictor in a re-specified Bayesian logistic regression model to estimate the probability of placebo response. Finally, the AUC for the APICS was tested against a nominal area of 0.50 to evaluate how well the APICS discriminated placebo response status. Among the 151 adolescents, with a mean age of 14.6 years (SD = 1.6) and a mean baseline CDRS-R total of 60.6 (SD = 12.1), 68.2% were females, 50.3% was Caucasian, and 39.7% had a history of recurrent depression. Placebo response rate was 58.3%. Based on the logistic mixed model, the re-specified equation with the highest discriminatory ability to estimate the probability of placebo response was APICS = age + (0.32 × CDRS-R Total at baseline) + (-2.85 × if female) + (-5.50 × if history of recurrent depression) + (-5.85 × if non-Caucasian). The AUC for this model was 0.59 (p = .049). Within a Bayesian decision-theoretic framework, in 95.5% of the time, the 10,000 posterior Monte Carlo samples suggested

  2. Best friend attachment versus peer attachment in the prediction of adolescent psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ross B

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the utility of the newly developed Adolescent Friendship Attachment Scale (AFAS) for the prediction of adolescent psychological health and school attitude. High school students (266 males, 229 females) were recruited from private and public schools in the Australian Capital Territory with ages of participants ranging from 13 to 19 years. Self-report measures of depression, self-esteem, self-competence and school attitude were administered in addition to the AFAS and a short-form of the Inventory of Parental and Peer Attachment (IPPA). Regression analyses revealed that the AFAS Anxious and Avoidant scales added to the prediction of depression, self-esteem, self-competence, and school attitude beyond the contribution of the IPPA. It is concluded that the AFAS taps aspects of adolescent attachment relationships not assessed by the IPPA and provides a useful contribution to research and practice in the area of adolescent psycho-social adjustment.

  3. Low verbal ability predicts later violence in adolescent boys with serious conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, Marko; Lindgren, Maija; Huttunen, Matti; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma; Kalska, Hely; Suvisaari, Jaana; Therman, Sebastian

    2013-10-01

    Delinquent adolescents are a known high-risk group for later criminality. Cognitive deficits correlate with adult criminality, and specific cognitive deficits might predict later criminality in the high-risk adolescents. This study aimed to explore the neuropsychological performance and predictors of adult criminal offending in adolescents with severe behavioural problems. Fifty-three adolescents (33 boys and 20 girls), aged 15-18 years, residing in a reform school due to serious conduct problems, were examined for neuropsychological profile and psychiatric symptoms. Results were compared with a same-age general population control sample, and used for predicting criminality 5 years after the baseline testing. The reform school adolescents' neuropsychological performance was weak on many tasks, and especially on the verbal domain. Five years after the baseline testing, half of the reform school adolescents had obtained a criminal record. Males were overrepresented in both any criminality (75% vs. 10%) and in violent crime (50% vs. 5%). When cognitive variables, psychiatric symptoms and background factors were used as predictors for later offending, low verbal intellectual ability turned out to be the most significant predictor of a criminal record and especially a record of violent crime. Neurocognitive deficits, especially in the verbal and attention domains, are common among delinquent adolescents. Among males, verbal deficits are the best predictors for later criminal offending and violence. Assessing verbal abilities among adolescent population with conduct problems might prove useful as a screening method for inclusion in specific therapies for aggression management.

  4. What Is Trust? Ethics and Risk Governance in Precision Medicine and Predictive Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjekum, Afua; Ienca, Marcello; Vayena, Effy

    2017-12-01

    Trust is a ubiquitous term used in emerging technology (e.g., Big Data, precision medicine), innovation policy, and governance literatures in particular. But what exactly is trust? Even though trust is considered a critical requirement for the successful deployment of precision medicine initiatives, nonetheless, there is a need for further conceptualization with regard to what qualifies as trust, and what factors might establish and sustain trust in precision medicine, predictive analytics, and large-scale biology. These new fields of 21st century medicine and health often deal with the "futures" and hence, trust gains a temporal and ever-present quality for both the present and the futures anticipated by new technologies and predictive analytics. We address these conceptual gaps that have important practical implications in the way we govern risk and unknowns associated with emerging technologies in biology, medicine, and health broadly. We provide an in-depth conceptual analysis and an operative definition of trust dynamics in precision medicine. In addition, we identify three main types of "trust facilitators": (1) technical, (2) ethical, and (3) institutional. This three-dimensional framework on trust is necessary to building and maintaining trust in 21st century knowledge-based innovations that governments and publics invest for progressive societal change, development, and sustainable prosperity. Importantly, we analyze, identify, and deliberate on the dimensions of precision medicine and large-scale biology that have carved out trust as a pertinent tool to its success. Moving forward, we propose a "points to consider" on how best to enhance trust in precision medicine and predictive analytics.

  5. Parenting style as a predictor of adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Wall, Melanie; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2010-04-01

    Current research indicates that specific parenting styles are associated with adolescent overweight, dietary intake, and physical activity; but most of the research has been cross-sectional, making it difficult to determine the temporal order of these associations. The current study adds to the previous research by examining 5-year longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors. Data from Project EAT, a population-based study with adolescents from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds, were used. Adolescents (N = 2,516) from 31 Minnesota schools completed in-class assessments in 1999 (Time 1) and mailed surveys in 2004 (Time 2). Multiple linear regression models were used to predict mean levels of adolescent outcomes at Time 2 from parenting style at Time 1. Time 1 maternal authoritative parenting style predicted lower body mass index in adolescent sons and daughters at Time 2. Time 1 paternal permissive parenting style predicted more fruits and vegetables intake in daughters at Time 2. Significant associations were not found between parenting style and adolescent physical activity. Findings suggest that authoritative parenting style may play a protective role related to adolescent overweight and that the dimension of warmth and/or caring in the parent-adolescent relationship may be important in relation to female adolescent healthy dietary intake. Further exploration of opposite sex parent-adolescent dyad patterns related to parenting style and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors is warranted. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Infant attachment security and early childhood behavioral inhibition interact to predict adolescent social anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Morrarty, Erin; Degnan, Kathryn A; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S; Henderson, Heather A; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-01-01

    Insecure attachment and behavioral inhibition (BI) increase risk for internalizing problems, but few longitudinal studies have examined their interaction in predicting adolescent anxiety. This study included 165 adolescents (ages 14-17 years) selected based on their reactivity to novelty at 4 months. Infant attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation. Multimethod BI assessments were conducted across childhood. Adolescents and their parents independently reported on anxiety. The interaction of attachment and BI significantly predicted adolescent anxiety symptoms, such that BI and anxiety were only associated among adolescents with histories of insecure attachment. Exploratory analyses revealed that this effect was driven by insecure-resistant attachment and that the association between BI and social anxiety was significant only for insecure males. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Cross-Validation of Aerobic Capacity Prediction Models in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ryan Donald; Hannon, James C; Brusseau, Timothy A; Eisenman, Patricia A; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Greg J; Mahar, Matthew T

    2015-08-01

    Cardiorespiratory endurance is a component of health-related fitness. FITNESSGRAM recommends the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) or One mile Run/Walk (1MRW) to assess cardiorespiratory endurance by estimating VO2 Peak. No research has cross-validated prediction models from both PACER and 1MRW, including the New PACER Model and PACER-Mile Equivalent (PACER-MEQ) using current standards. The purpose of this study was to cross-validate prediction models from PACER and 1MRW against measured VO2 Peak in adolescents. Cardiorespiratory endurance data were collected on 90 adolescents aged 13-16 years (Mean = 14.7 ± 1.3 years; 32 girls, 52 boys) who completed the PACER and 1MRW in addition to a laboratory maximal treadmill test to measure VO2 Peak. Multiple correlations among various models with measured VO2 Peak were considered moderately strong (R = .74-0.78), and prediction error (RMSE) ranged from 5.95 ml·kg⁻¹,min⁻¹ to 8.27 ml·kg⁻¹.min⁻¹. Criterion-referenced agreement into FITNESSGRAM's Healthy Fitness Zones was considered fair-to-good among models (Kappa = 0.31-0.62; Agreement = 75.5-89.9%; F = 0.08-0.65). In conclusion, prediction models demonstrated moderately strong linear relationships with measured VO2 Peak, fair prediction error, and fair-to-good criterion referenced agreement with measured VO2 Peak into FITNESSGRAM's Healthy Fitness Zones.

  8. Predicting sexual coercion in early adulthood: The transaction among maltreatment, gang affiliation, and adolescent socialization of coercive relationship norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Thao; Kim, Hanjoe; Christopher, Caroline; Caruthers, Allison; Dishion, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    This study tested a transactional hypothesis predicting early adult sexual coercion from family maltreatment, early adolescent gang affiliation, and socialization of adolescent friendships that support coercive relationship norms. The longitudinal study of a community sample of 998 11-year-olds was intensively assessed in early and middle adolescence and followed to 23-24 years of age. At age 16-17 youth were videotaped with a friend, and their interactions were coded for coercive relationship talk. Structural equation modeling revealed that maltreatment predicted gang affiliation during early adolescence. Both maltreatment and gang affiliation strongly predicted adolescent sexual promiscuity and coercive relationship norms with friends at age 16-17 years. Adolescent sexual promiscuity, however, did not predict sexual coercion in early adulthood. In contrast, higher levels of observed coercive relationship talk with a friend predicted sexual coercion in early adulthood for both males and females. These findings suggest that peers have a socialization function in the development of norms prognostic of sexual coercion, and the need to consider peers in the promotion of healthy relationships.

  9. Cortical thickness predicts the first onset of major depression in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foland-Ross, Lara C; Sacchet, Matthew D; Prasad, Gautam; Gilbert, Brooke; Thompson, Paul M; Gotlib, Ian H

    2015-11-01

    Given the increasing prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder and recent advances in preventative treatments for this disorder, an important challenge in pediatric neuroimaging is the early identification of individuals at risk for depression. We examined whether machine learning can be used to predict the onset of depression at the individual level. Thirty-three never-disordered adolescents (10-15 years old) underwent structural MRI. Participants were followed for 5 years to monitor the emergence of clinically significant depressive symptoms. We used support vector machines (SVMs) to test whether baseline cortical thickness could reliably distinguish adolescents who develop depression from adolescents who remained free of any Axis I disorder. Accuracies from subsampled cross-validated classification were used to assess classifier performance. Baseline cortical thickness correctly predicted the future onset of depression with an overall accuracy of 70% (69% sensitivity, 70% specificity; p=0.021). Examination of SVM feature weights indicated that the right medial orbitofrontal, right precentral, left anterior cingulate, and bilateral insular cortex contributed most strongly to this classification. These findings indicate that cortical gray matter structure can predict the subsequent onset of depression. An important direction for future research is to elucidate mechanisms by which these anomalies in gray matter structure increase risk for developing this disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. ADHD Symptoms in Middle Adolescence Predict Exposure to Person-Related Life Stressors in Late Adolescence in 5-HTTLPR S-allele Homozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinksma, Djûke M; Hoekstra, Pieter J; de Bildt, Annelies; Buitelaar, Jan K; van den Hoofdakker, Barbara J; Hartman, Catharina A; Dietrich, Andrea

    2017-12-19

    Literature suggests that life stressors predict attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and that this relationship is moderated by the serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR). It is less clear whether, on reverse, ADHD symptoms may influence the risk of exposure to life stressors. Furthermore, the role of life stressors may vary across development depending on the type of life stressor. We used threewave longitudinal data of 1,306 adolescents from the general population and clinicreferred cohort of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey. The 5-HTTLPR genotype (SS, LS, LL), parent-reported ADHD symptoms at three time points (T1: Mage = 11.2; T2: Mage = 13.5; T3: Mage = 16.2 years), and the number of personrelated ('dependent') and environment-related ('independent') life stressors occurring between measurements (T1-T2, T2-T3) were assessed. Using path analyses, we examined bidirectional relations between exposure to these life stressors and ADHD symptoms between the separate waves moderated by 5-HTTLPR status. Exposure to life stressors did not predict ADHD symptoms. Rather, we found that in 5-HTTLPR Sallele homozygotes, ADHD symptoms in middle adolescence (T2) predicted exposure to the number of person-related life stressors later in adolescence (T2-T3, p = 0.001). There was no relation with environment-related life stressors. Our study suggests that S-allele homozygotes with higher levels of ADHD symptoms in middle adolescence are more vulnerable to becoming exposed to person-related ('dependent') life stressors in late adolescence. Findings emphasize the need to be aware of social-emotional adversities that may occur in genetically vulnerable adolescents with ADHD symptoms in the transition into adulthood.

  11. Authoritarian parenting predicts reduced electrocortical response to observed adolescent offspring rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Brittany C.; Nelson, Brady; Bress, Jennifer N.; Hajcak, Greg

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Parenting styles are robust predictors of offspring outcomes, yet little is known about their neural underpinnings. In this study, 44 parent-adolescent dyads (Mage of adolescent = 12.9) completed a laboratory guessing task while EEG was continuously recorded. In the task, each pair member received feedback about their own monetary wins and losses and also observed the monetary wins and losses of the other member of the pair. We examined the association between self-reported parenting style and parents’ electrophysiological responses to watching their adolescent winning and losing money, dubbed the observational Reward Positivity (RewP) and observational feedback negativity (FN), respectively. Self-reported authoritarian parenting predicted reductions in parents’ observational RewP but not FN. This predictive relationship remained after adjusting for sex of both participants, parents’ responsiveness to their own wins, and parental psychopathology. ‘Exploratory analyses found that permissive parenting was associated with a blunting of the adolescents’ response to their parents’ losses’. These findings suggest that parents’ rapid neural responses to their child’s successes may relate to the harsh parenting behaviors associated with authoritarian parenting. PMID:27613780

  12. Delinquency, aggression, and attention-related problem behaviors differentially predict adolescent substance use in individuals diagnosed with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, Seth C; Galanopoulos, Stavroula; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    To measure the degree to which childhood and adolescent ratings of aggression, attention, and delinquency are related to adolescent substance use outcomes in youth diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Childhood externalizing disorders have been shown to predict adolescent maladaptive substance use, but few studies have examined the differential predictive utility of two distinct dimensions of externalizing behavior: aggression and delinquency. Ninety-seven clinically referred children with ADHD initially took part in this research protocol when they were on average 9.05 years of age, and were seen again on average 9.30 years later. Participants' parents were administered the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at baseline and follow-up, and youth completed the Youth Self Report (YSR) in adolescence. At follow-up, substance use severity and diagnosis were assessed using semi-structured psychiatric interviews administered separately to parents and adolescents. Linear and binary logistic regressions were used to determine the association of CBCL- and YSR-rated attention problems, aggression, and delinquency to adolescent substance use. Childhood and adolescent delinquency, but not aggression, as rated by parents and youths, predicted adolescent substance use disorders and substance use severity (all p delinquency and aggression with adolescent substance use, ratings of attention problems in childhood and adolescence were negatively associated with substance use outcome. Children with ADHD who exhibit high rates of delinquency are at risk for later substance use and may require targeted prevention, intervention, and follow-up services. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  13. Predictive factors for pregnancy hypertension in primiparous adolescents: analysis of prenatal care, ABPM and microalbuminuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Regina Coeli Marques; Campos, Henry de Holanda; Bruno, Zenilda Vieira; Mota, Rosa Maria Salani

    2006-10-01

    To quantify PH prevalence in primiparous adolescents; define predictive factors for the occurrence of PH and its impact on newborns. We followed 29 primiparous adolescents from the prenatal period through the 12th week of the puerperium, with a mean of sixteen years of age, served at the Outpatient Facility for Adolescents of Maternidade Escola Assis Chateaubriand (MEAC) of Universidade Federal do Ceará (Fortaleza, Brazil). The pregnant adolescents were divided into two groups, that is, those who remained normotensive (Group I) and those who developed PH (Group II). The variables investigated in the assessment of the value of predictability for the development of PH were anthropometric measures, socioeconomic aspects, smoking habit, inheritance for SAH (father/mother), prenatal tests requested in the first prenatal care visit in addition to microalbuminuria and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in the 28th week of gestation. The pregnant adolescents were followed up at delivery and late puerperium (12th week after the puerperium). The newborns to the mothers included in our study were assessed at birth according to the Apgar score and the Capurro method, for weight, height and perinatal hypoxia. The prevalence of PH was 51.7%. Inheritance for SAH presented the highest predictive value for PH with an odds ratio of 10.99. Diastolic arterial pressure equal to or above 70 mmHg at the gestational age of 35 weeks was statistically significant as a predictive value for PH. At ABPM we found a predictive value for PH: diastolic pressure load during alertness, diastolic and systolic pressure load during night sleep, pressure variability and maximum diastolic pressure during sleep. Specifically a maximum diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) at ABPM during the period of night sleep (3)64 mmHg presented an odds ratio of 6 for PH with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 60% for the development of PH. The research for PH predictive factors in primiparous adolescents

  14. Predictive Validity of Delay Discounting Behavior in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isen, Joshua D.; Sparks, Jordan C.; Iacono, William G.

    2014-01-01

    A standard assumption in the delay discounting literature is that individuals who exhibit steeper discounting of hypothetical rewards also experience greater difficulty deferring gratification to real-world rewards. There is ample cross-sectional evidence that delay discounting paradigms reflect a variety of maladaptive psychosocial outcomes, including substance use pathology. We sought to determine whether a computerized assessment of hypothetical delay discounting (HDD) taps into behavioral impulsivity in a community sample of adolescent twins (N = 675). Using a longitudinal design, we hypothesized that greater HDD at age 14–15 predicts real-world impulsive choices and risk for substance use disorders in late adolescence. We also examined the genetic and environmental structure of HDD performance. Individual differences in HDD behavior showed moderate heritability, and were prospectively associated with real-world temporal discounting at age 17–18. Contrary to expectations, HDD was not consistently related to substance use or trait impulsivity. Although a significant association between HDD behavior and past substance use emerged in males, this effect was mediated by cognitive ability. In both sexes, HDD failed to predict a comprehensive index of substance use problems and behavioral disinhibition in late adolescence. In sum, we present some of the first evidence that HDD performance is heritable and predictive of real-world temporal discounting of rewards. Nevertheless, HDD might not serve as a valid marker of substance use disorder risk in younger adolescents, particularly females. PMID:24999868

  15. [Children's and adolescent's use of medicine for aches and psychological problems: secular trends from 1988 to 2006.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn; Andersen, Anette; Due, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Medicine use for aches and psychological problems is common among adolescents. Medicines are toxic and may have harmful side effects. It is therefore important to study change over time and patterns of medicine use. The objective of this paper is to describe self-reported medicine use...... for headaches, stomach-aches, difficulties in falling asleep, and nervousness among 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old boys and girls from 1968 to 2006. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data material is 6 comparable and representative cross-sectional studies of 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from 1988, 1991, 1994, 1998, 2002......: There was a significant increase in 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old student's use of medicine for aches and psychological problems from 1988 to 2006. In the same period, there was a decrease in the prevalence of students who reported pains monthly. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan-5...

  16. Association Between Childhood to Adolescent Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptom Trajectories and Late Adolescent Disordered Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Zeynep; Javaras, Kristin N; Baker, Jessica H; Thornton, Laura M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Bulik, Cynthia M; Larsson, Henrik

    2017-08-01

    Disordered eating is more prevalent among adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms show strong associations with disordered eating, but few investigations of these associations have been longitudinal. Thus, we examined the effect of childhood to adolescent inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom trajectories on late adolescent disordered eating. We used growth mixture modeling to identify distinct inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom trajectories (called "classes") across three time points (ages 8-9, 13-14, and 16-17 years) in the Swedish Twin study of CHild and Adolescent Development. The resulting classes were used to predict Eating Disorder Inventory-2 Bulimia, Drive for Thinness, and Body Dissatisfaction subscales at age 16-17 years, with adjustment for sex and body mass index at age 16-17 years. The combined inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom trajectory classes included: a "low symptom" class characterized by low inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity throughout childhood/adolescence; a "predominantly inattention" class characterized by elevated inattention, but not hyperactivity/impulsivity, throughout childhood/adolescence; a "predominantly hyp/imp" class characterized by elevated hyperactivity/impulsivity, but not inattention, throughout childhood/adolescence; and a "both inattention and hyp/imp" class characterized by elevated inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity throughout childhood/adolescence. After adjusting for sex and body mass index or sex and anxiety/depression symptoms, the "both inattention and hyp/imp" (vs. "low symptom") class predicted significantly higher Eating Disorder Inventory-2 subscale scores during late adolescence. Increased vigilance for disordered eating among children who have both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms throughout childhood and adolescence could aid in early identification of eating

  17. Dental enamel defects predict adolescent health indicators: A cohort study among the Tsimane' of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Erin E; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Mancl, Lloyd A; Eisenberg, Dan T A; Conde, Esther; Hujoel, Philippe P

    2018-05-01

    Bioarchaeological findings have linked defective enamel formation in preadulthood with adult mortality. We investigated how defective enamel formation in infancy and childhood is associated with risk factors for adult morbidity and mortality in adolescents. This cohort study of 349 Amerindian adolescents (10-17 years of age) related extent of enamel defects on the central maxillary incisors (none, less than 1/3, 1/3 to 2/3, more than 2/3) to adolescent anthropometrics (height, weight) and biomarkers (hemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, white blood cell count, and blood pressure). Risk differences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multiple linear regression. Enamel defects and stunted growth were compared in their ability to predict adolescent health indicators using log-binomial regression and receiver operating characteristics (ROCs). Greater extent of defective enamel formation on the tooth surface was associated with shorter height (-1.35 cm, 95% CI: -2.17, -0.53), lower weight (-0.98 kg, 95% CI: -1.70, -0.26), lower hemoglobin (-0.36 g/dL, 95% CI: -0.59, -0.13), lower glycated hemoglobin (-0.04 %A 1c , 95% CI: -0.08, -0.00008), and higher white blood cell count (0.74 10 9 /L, 95% CI: 0.35, 1.14) in adolescence. Extent of enamel defects and stunted growth independently performed similarly as risk factors for adverse adolescent outcomes, including anemia, prediabetes/type II diabetes, elevated WBC count, prehypertension/hypertension, and metabolic health. Defective enamel formation in infancy and childhood predicted adolescent health outcomes and may be primarily associated with infection. Extent of enamel defects and stunted growth may be equally predictive of adverse adolescent health outcomes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. INFLEXIBLE COGNITION PREDICTS FIRST ONSET OF MAJOR DEPRESSIVE EPISODES IN ADOLESCENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Jonathan P; Connolly, Samantha L; Burke, Taylor A; Hamilton, Jessica L; Hamlat, Elissa J; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-04-19

    Major depressive disorder often is characterized by a lack of cognitive and emotional flexibility, resulting in an impaired ability to adapt to situational demands. Adolescence is an important period of risk for the first onset of depression, yet relatively little is known about whether aspects of inflexibility, such as rumination and deficits in attentional shifting, could confer risk for the development of the disorder during this time. In the present study, a sample of 285 never-depressed adolescents completed self-report and behavioral measures of rumination and attentional shifting at a baseline visit, followed by up to 4 years of annual prospective follow-up diagnostic assessments. Survival analyses indicated that adolescents with greater levels of rumination or poorer attentional shifting experienced a shorter time until the first onset of major depressive episodes, even after accounting for baseline symptoms and demographic characteristics. Although girls were twice as likely as boys to experience the first onset of depression, rumination predicted a shorter time until depression onset only for boys. Rumination and attentional shifting were not correlated and predicted time until onset of major depression independently of one another. These results provide evidence that components of cognition that are characterized by rigidity and perseveration confer risk for the first onset of major depression during adolescence. Evaluating rumination and attentional shifting in adolescence may be useful in identifying individuals who are at risk for depression and who may benefit from interventions that target or alter the development of these characteristics. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Predictive equations underestimate resting energy expenditure in female adolescents with phenylketonuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Meghan E.; Schmotzer, Brian J.; Schmotzer, Brian J.; Singh, Rani H.

    2010-01-01

    Resting energy expenditure (REE) is often used to estimate total energy needs. The Schofield equation based on weight and height has been reported to underestimate REE in female children with phenylketonuria (PKU). The objective of this observational, cross-sectional study was to evaluate the agreement of measured REE with predicted REE for female adolescents with PKU. A total of 36 females (aged 11.5-18.7 years) with PKU attending Emory University’s Metabolic Camp (June 2002 – June 2008) underwent indirect calorimetry. Measured REE was compared to six predictive equations using paired Student’s t-tests, regression-based analysis, and assessment of clinical accuracy. The differences between measured and predicted REE were modeled against clinical parameters to determine to if a relationship existed. All six selected equations significantly under predicted measured REE (P< 0.005). The Schofield equation based on weight had the greatest level of agreement, with the lowest mean prediction bias (144 kcal) and highest concordance correlation coefficient (0.626). However, the Schofield equation based on weight lacked clinical accuracy, predicting measured REE within ±10% in only 14 of 36 participants. Clinical parameters were not associated with bias for any of the equations. Predictive equations underestimated measured REE in this group of female adolescents with PKU. Currently, there is no accurate and precise alternative for indirect calorimetry in this population. PMID:20497783

  20. A longitudinal examination of parenting behaviors and perceived discrimination predicting Latino adolescents' ethnic identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Guimond, Amy B

    2010-05-01

    Characteristics of the familial and societal context were examined as predictors of Latino adolescents' (N = 323; 49.5% female) ethnic identity. Consistent with previous work, familial ethnic socialization significantly predicted future levels of ethnic identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation for both male adolescents and female adolescents, although the association was significantly stronger for female adolescents than male adolescents for exploration and resolution. Furthermore, for male adolescents, higher levels of familial ethnic socialization were significantly associated with a faster rate of growth for ethnic identity resolution. In addition, paternal warmth-support emerged as a significant longitudinal predictor of male adolescents', but not female adolescents', ethnic identity exploration. Finally, perceived discrimination was significantly associated with male adolescents', but not female adolescents', ethnic identity exploration and affirmation. Significant gender differences in the relations of interest highlight the need to consider variability in the process of ethnic identity formation by gender. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  1. A Longitudinal Examination of Parenting Behaviors and Perceived Discrimination Predicting Latino Adolescents' Ethnic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Guimond, Amy B.

    2010-01-01

    Characteristics of the familial and societal context were examined as predictors of Latino adolescents' (N = 323; 49.5% female) ethnic identity. Consistent with previous work, familial ethnic socialization significantly predicted future levels of ethnic identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation for both male adolescents and female…

  2. To Set Up a Logistic Regression Prediction Model for Hepatotoxicity of Chinese Herbal Medicines Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie; Li, Tianhao; Zhan, Sha; Pan, Meilan; Ma, Zhiguo; Li, Chenghua

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To establish a logistic regression (LR) prediction model for hepatotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicines (HMs) based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory and to provide a statistical basis for predicting hepatotoxicity of HMs. Methods. The correlations of hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs with four properties, five flavors, and channel tropism were analyzed with chi-square test for two-way unordered categorical data. LR prediction model was established and the accuracy of the prediction by this model was evaluated. Results. The hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs were related with four properties (p 0.05). There were totally 12 variables from four properties and five flavors for the LR. Four variables, warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors, were selected to establish the LR prediction model, with the cutoff value being 0.204. Conclusions. Warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors were the variables to affect the hepatotoxicity. Based on such results, the established LR prediction model had some predictive power for hepatotoxicity of Chinese HMs. PMID:27656240

  3. Peer substance use and homelessness predicting substance abuse from adolescence through early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompsett, Carolyn J; Domoff, Sarah E; Toro, Paul A

    2013-06-01

    Adolescents who experience homelessness are at higher risk for abusing substances, and for being exposed to substance-using peers. The current study used a longitudinal design to track substance abuse, affiliation with substance-using peers, and episodes of homelessness among a sample of 223 adolescents who were housed at the baseline data collection and 148 adolescents who were housed at baseline. Participants were interviewed at six waves over 6.5 years, covering an age range from 13 to 25. Many participants experienced a recurrence of homelessness during follow-up, with 64.6 % of the baseline homeless group and 22.6 % of the baseline housed group reporting an additional episode of homelessness. Both alcohol abuse and other drug abuse symptoms showed an increase in adolescence followed by slowing in early adulthood. Recent homelessness and friend alcohol use predicted alcohol abuse symptoms, and the strength of the influence of friend use decreased over time. Recent homelessness and friend drug use predicted other drug abuse symptoms. Duration of the initial episode of adolescent homelessness showed no influence on substance abuse over time, or the effects of other predictors, highlighting the importance of conceptualizing the experience of homelessness as a recent stressor rather than an enduring personal characteristic.

  4. The Role of Perceived Social Support and Coping Styles in Predicting Adolescents' Positivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çevik, Gülsen Büyüksahin; Yildiz, Mehmet Ali

    2017-01-01

    The current research aims to examine the perceived social support and coping styles predicting positivity. Research participants included 268 adolescents, attending high school, with 147 females (54.9%) and 121 males (45.1%). Adolescents participating in the research were 14 to 18 years old and their average age was 16.12 with SD = 1.01. Research…

  5. Is victimization from bullying associated with medicine use among adolescents? A nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Merlo, Juan

    2007-01-01

    for headache, stomachache, difficulties in getting to sleep, and nervousness. The determinant was frequency of exposure to bullying, measured with 1 item. RESULTS: In multivariate models adjusted for age and social class, we found that adolescent victims of bullying used medicine for pains and psychological...

  6. Using Implicit and Explicit Measures to Predict Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Among Adolescent Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Christine B; Augenstein, Tara M; Frost, Katherine H; Gallagher, Katie; D'Angelo, Eugene J; Nock, Matthew K

    2016-01-01

    To examine the use of implicit and explicit measures to predict adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) before, during, and after inpatient hospitalization. Participants were 123 adolescent psychiatric inpatients who completed measures at hospital admission and discharge. The implicit measure (Self-Injury Implicit Association Test [SI-IAT]) and one of the explicit measures pertained to the NSSI method of cutting. Patients were interviewed at multiple time points at which they reported whether they had engaged in NSSI before their hospital stay, during their hospital stay, and within 3 months after discharge. At baseline, SI-IAT scores differentiated past-year self-injurers and noninjurers (t121 = 4.02, p < .001, d = 0.73). These SI-IAT effects were stronger among patients who engaged in cutting (versus noncutting NSSI methods). Controlling for NSSI history and prospective risk factors, SI-IAT scores predicted patients' subsequent cutting behavior during their hospital stay (odds ratio (OR) = 8.19, CI = 1.56-42.98, p < .05). Patients' explicit self-report uniquely predicted hospital-based and postdischarge cutting, even after controlling for SI-IAT scores (ORs = 1.82-2.34, CIs = 1.25-3.87, p values <.01). Exploratory analyses revealed that in specific cases in which patients explicitly reported low likelihood of NSSI, SI-IAT scores still predicted hospital-based cutting. The SI-IAT is an implicit measure that is outcome-specific, a short-term predictor above and beyond NSSI history, and potentially helpful in cases in which patients at risk for NSSI explicitly report that they would not do so in the future. Ultimately, both implicit and explicit measures can help to predict future incidents of cutting among adolescent inpatients. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Adolescent and Parental Contributions to Parent-Adolescent Hostility Across Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymouth, Bridget B; Buehler, Cheryl

    2016-04-01

    Early adolescence is characterized by increases in parent-adolescent hostility, yet little is known about what predicts these changes. Utilizing a fairly large sample (N = 416, 51 % girls, 91 % European American), this study examined the conjoint and unique influences of adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parental intrusiveness on changes in parent-adolescent hostility across early adolescence. Higher mother and father intrusiveness were associated with increased mother- and father-adolescent hostility. An examination of reciprocal effects revealed that mother- and father-adolescent hostility predicted increased mother and father intrusiveness. Significant associations were not substantiated for adolescent social anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that intrusive parenting has important implications for subsequent parent-adolescent interactions and that similar patterns may characterize some aspects of mother- and father-adolescent relationships.

  8. Evaluation of mandibular bone density to predict osteoporosis in adolescents with constitutional delayed growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dural, Sema; Ozbek, Murat; Kanli, A.; Kanbur, Nuray O.; Derman, O.; Orhan, Kaan; Delilbasi, C.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between constitutional delayed growth (CDG) and mandibular bone trabeculation as well as bone density on panoramic radiographs using a computer software program. Panoramic radiographs obtained from 25 patients with CDG and 25 healthy adolescents were evaluated for this study. Patients were selected from admission to Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Section of Adolescent Medicine in the first half of the year 2002. All panoramic radiographs were taken under standard conditions, and were randomized and then converted to digital images for density analysis using a scanner. The images were transferred to Osiris computer software program for the evaluation of bone density from 4 different regions on the mandible (right and left mandibular angle and condyle). The CDG group had higher values for the risk of osteoporosis considering the right (t=3.360, p=0.002) and the left condyle (t=3.620, p=0.001) (t-test for independent samples). It was also seen that the CDG group was again at higher risk in comparison to the control group when left mandibular angle values were measured (z= -2.447, p=0.014) (Mann Whitney - U test). We suggest that panoramic radiographs, which are transformed into digital format, can be valuable and economic tools for detecting the risk of osteoporosis in adolescents with CDG. (author)

  9. Prediction: The Modern-Day Sport-Science and Sports-Medicine "Quest for the Holy Grail".

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Alan; Fanchini, Maurizio; Coutts, Aaron J

    2017-05-01

    In high-performance sport, science and medicine practitioners employ a variety of physical and psychological tests, training and match monitoring, and injury-screening tools for a variety of reasons, mainly to predict performance, identify talented individuals, and flag when an injury will occur. The ability to "predict" outcomes such as performance, talent, or injury is arguably sport science and medicine's modern-day equivalent of the "Quest for the Holy Grail." The purpose of this invited commentary is to highlight the common misinterpretation of studies investigating association to those actually analyzing prediction and to provide practitioners with simple recommendations to quickly distinguish between methods pertaining to association and those of prediction.

  10. Predicting early onset of intoxication versus drinking—A population-based prospective study of Norwegian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frøydis Enstad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Recent research suggests that early onset of intoxication (EOI may be of greater importance for a wide range of subsequent adverse outcomes than early drinking experiences without intoxication. However, research on antecedents of EOI is scarce. The present study identifies predictors of EOI and whether they differ from those of early onset of drinking (EOD. Methods: Data was drawn from the prospective Tracking Opportunities and Problems (TOPP study of Norwegian families (n=382, which followed up mothers and their children with six data collections from childhood (age 1.5 to adolescence (age 14.5. Self-reports from the adolescents (parenting practices, adolescent's conduct problems and friends' deviant behaviour and their mothers (adolescent temperament, socio-economic factors and household alcohol problems were used to identify predictors of EOI and EOD. Findings: A variety of temperamental, socio-economic, and family factors predicted EOI, whereas EOD was predicted of substantially fewer variables. Particularly, when controlling for relevant covariates, low levels of shyness, own conduct problems and having friends with deviant behaviour prospectively predicted EOI, but not EOD. Conclusions: Future research and prevention efforts should take into consideration that EOI and EOD without getting drunk appear to be predicted by different risk factors in childhood and adolescence. Keywords: Adolescents, Alcohol, Intoxication, Drinking, Onset, Predictors

  11. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms : An adolescent population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonvanie, Irma J.; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A. M.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship.

  12. Does future-oriented thinking predict adolescent decision making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskritt, Michelle; Doucette, Jesslyn; Robitaille, Lori

    2014-01-01

    A number of theorists, as well as plain common sense, suggest that future-oriented thinking (FOT) should be involved in decision making; therefore, the development of FOT should be related to better quality decision making. FOT and quality of the decision making were measured in adolescents as well as adults in 2 different experiments. Though the results of the first experiment revealed an increase in quality of decision making across adolescence into adulthood, there was no relationship between FOT and decision making. In the second experiment, FOT predicted performance on a more deliberative decision-making task independent of age, but not performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Performance on the IGT was instead related to emotion regulation. The study's findings suggest that FOT can be related to reflective decision making but not necessarily decision making that is more intuitive.

  13. Adolescent and Parental Contributions to Parent-Adolescent Hostility across Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymouth, Bridget B.; Buehler, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Early adolescence is characterized by increases in parent-adolescent hostility, yet little is known about what predicts these changes. Utilizing a fairly large sample (N = 416, 51% girls, 91% European American), this study examined the conjoint and unique influences of adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parental intrusiveness on changes in parent-adolescent hostility across early adolescence. Higher mother and father intrusiveness were associated with increased mother- and father-adolescent hostility. An examination of reciprocal effects revealed that mother- and father-adolescent hostility predicted increased mother and father intrusiveness. Significant associations were not substantiated for adolescent social anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that intrusive parenting has important implications for subsequent parent-adolescent interactions and that similar patterns may characterize some aspects of mother- and father-adolescent relationships. PMID:26346035

  14. Gestational weight gain among minority adolescents predicts term birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekambaram, Maheswari; Irigoyen, Matilde; DeFreitas, Johelin; Rajbhandari, Sharina; Geaney, Jessica Lynn; Braitman, Leonard Edward

    2018-03-07

    In adolescents, there is limited evidence on the independent and additive effect of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on infant birth weight. Data also show that this effect may vary by race. We sought to examine the impact of maternal prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain on birth weight and risk of large for gestational age (LGA) in term newborns of minority adolescent mothers. This was a retrospective cohort study of 411 singleton live term infants born to mothers ≤ 18 years. Data were abstracted from electronic medical records. Gestational weight gain was related to infant birth weight (ρ = 0.36, P gain, gestational age and Hispanic ethnicity were independent predictors of birth weight, controlling for maternal age, BMI, parity, tobacco/drug use and preeclampsia. The probability of having an LGA infant increased with weight gain [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.21] but not with BMI. Mothers who gained weight in excess of 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations had a greater risk of having an LGA infant compared to those who gained within recommendations (aOR 5.7, 95% CI 1.6-19.5). Minority adolescents with greater gestational weight gain had infants with higher birth weight and greater risk of LGA; BMI was not associated with either outcome. Further studies are needed to examine the applicability of the 2009 BMI-specific IOM gestational weight gain recommendations to adolescents in minority populations.

  15. Loneliness of Indonesian and Chinese Adolescents as Predicted by Relationships with Friends and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junsheng; Li, Dan; Purwono, Urip; Chen, Xinyin; French, Doran C.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which loneliness of Indonesian and Chinese adolescents was predicted by their intimacy and conflict with friends and parents. The total sample included 1,833 thirteen- and fifteen-year-old adolescents recruited from urban schools. Boys reported more loneliness than girls, and Chinese boys reported more loneliness…

  16. Adolescents' Implicit Theories Predict Desire for Vengeance after Peer Conflicts: Correlational and Experimental Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, David S.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Tirri, Kirsi; Nokelainen, Petri; Dweck, Carol S.

    2011-01-01

    Why do some adolescents respond to interpersonal conflicts vengefully, whereas others seek more positive solutions? Three studies investigated the role of implicit theories of personality in predicting violent or vengeful responses to peer conflicts among adolescents in Grades 9 and 10. They showed that a greater belief that traits are fixed (an…

  17. The effect of daily small text message reminders for medicine compliance amongst young people connected with the outpatient department for child and adolescent psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Karsten; Christiansen, Erik; Attermann Stokholm, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    after 6 months. Aim: In this study we investigated whether text message reminders could improve medicine compliance amongst vulnerable young people with psychiatric disorders who were being treated in the outpatient department for child and adolescent psychiatry and who either are under or were......Background: Many patients with psychiatric illnesses have difficulty maintaining medication over time. Many take their medicine irregularly and studies show that it is the most vulnerable patients who have the greatest problems adhering to treatment. Often only 50% are still under medical treatment...... to commence medicinal treatment. Methods: This study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial including all non-acute referrals to an outpatient department for adolescent psychiatry within a group aged 15-20 years starting medical treatment. The patients were followed until the end of their treatment...

  18. Predicting the Happiness of Adolescents Based on Coping Styles and Religious Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariddanesh, Marjan; Rezaei, Ali Mohammad

    2017-10-11

    The study aimed to predict the happiness of adolescents based on coping styles and religious attitudes. To this end, the correlational research methodology was used. In total, 381 subjects were selected from adolescents of Semnan (Eastern province of Iran), using multistage clustering sampling method. Research tools were Ways of Coping Questionnaire by Lazarus, Golriz and Barahani's Religious Attitude Questionnaire, and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire. Data analysis was performed in SPSS using Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. Results of Pearson's correlation demonstrated a significant positive relationship between happiness of adolescents and variables of problem-focused coping styles (r = 0.31, P happiness (r = -0.184, P happiness in totality. According to the results, it is recommended that use of problem-focused styles be emphasized in addition to strengthening of religious attitudes to increase the happiness of adolescents.

  19. Predicting dating behavior from aggression and self-perceived social status in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kirsty S; Brittain, Heather; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2018-03-14

    We investigated the longitudinal associations between self-reported aggression, self-perceived social status, and dating in adolescence using an intrasexual competition theoretical framework. Participants consisted of 536 students in Grade 9 (age 15), recruited from a community sample, who were assessed on a yearly basis until they were in Grade 11 (age 17). Adolescents self-reported their use of direct and indirect aggression, social status, and number of dating partners. A cross-lagged panel model that controlled for within-time covariance and across-time stability while examining cross-lagged pathways was used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that direct aggression did not predict dating behavior and was negatively associated with self-perceived social status in Grade 10. Self-perceived social status in Grade 9 was positively associated with greater use of indirect aggression in Grade 10. Regarding dating, in Grade 9, self-perceived social status positively predicted more dating partners the following year, while in Grade 10, it was higher levels of indirect aggression that predicted greater dating activity the following year. Overall, there were no significant sex differences in the model. The study supports the utility of evolutionary psychological theory in explaining peer aggression, and suggests that although social status can increase dating opportunities, as adolescents mature, indirect aggression becomes the most successful and strategic means of competing intrasexually and gaining mating advantages. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Positive parenting predicts the development of adolescent brain structure: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Whittle

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Little work has been conducted that examines the effects of positive environmental experiences on brain development to date. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the effects of positive (warm and supportive maternal behavior on structural brain development during adolescence, using longitudinal structural MRI. Participants were 188 (92 female adolescents, who were part of a longitudinal adolescent development study that involved mother–adolescent interactions and MRI scans at approximately 12 years old, and follow-up MRI scans approximately 4 years later. FreeSurfer software was used to estimate the volume of limbic-striatal regions (amygdala, hippocampus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens and the thickness of prefrontal regions (anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices across both time points. Higher frequency of positive maternal behavior during the interactions predicted attenuated volumetric growth in the right amygdala, and accelerated cortical thinning in the right anterior cingulate (males only and left and right orbitofrontal cortices, between baseline and follow up. These results have implications for understanding the biological mediators of risk and protective factors for mental disorders that have onset during adolescence.

  1. The clinical effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy and an alternative medicine approach in reducing symptoms of depression in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkhandeh, Mansoureh; Talib, Mansor Abu; Hunt, Caroline Jane

    2016-05-30

    The main aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of two psychotherapeutic approaches, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and a complementary medicine method Reiki, in reducing depression scores in adolescents. We recruited 188 adolescent patients who were 12-17 years old. Participants were randomly assigned to CBT, Reiki or wait-list. Depression scores were assessed before and after the 12 week interventions or wait-list. CBT showed a significantly greater decrease in Child Depression Inventory (CDI) scores across treatment than both Reiki (peffect for Reiki than did female participants. Both CBT and Reiki were effective in reducing the symptoms of depression over the treatment period, with effect for CBT greater than Reiki. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention for treatment of depression using both cognitive and complementary medicine approaches. However, research that tests complementary therapies over a follow-up period and against a placebo treatment is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical prediction models in reproductive medicine: applications in untreated subfertility and in IVF treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.C. Hunault

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis deals with two prediction problems in reproductive medicine. The first is the prediction in infertile couples of the chance to conceive without treatment. The second deals with the prediction of the chance of conception in couples treated with in vitro fertilization (IVF).

  3. Bullying Predicts Reported Dating Violence and Observed Qualities in Adolescent Dating Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy E; Wolfe, David A

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between reported bullying, reported dating violence, and dating relationship quality measured through couple observations was examined. Given past research demonstrating similarity between peer and dating contexts, we expected that bullying would predict negative dating experiences. Participants with dating experience (n = 585; 238 males, M(age) = 15.06) completed self-report assessments of bullying and dating violence perpetration and victimization. One month later, 44 opposite-sex dyads (M(age) = 15.19) participated in behavioral observations. In 10-min sessions, couples were asked to rank and discuss areas of relationship conflict while being video-recorded. Qualities of the relationship were later coded by trained observers. Regression analysis revealed that bullying positively predicted dating violence perpetration and victimization. Self-reported bullying also predicted observations of lower relationship support and higher withdrawal. Age and gender interactions further qualified these findings. The bullying of boys, but not girls, was significantly related to dating violence perpetration. Age interactions showed that bullying was positively predictive of dating violence perpetration and victimization for older, but not younger adolescents. Positive affect was also negatively predicted by bullying, but only for girls. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that adolescents carry forward strategies learned in the peer context to their dating relationships. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Predictive values of psychiatric symptoms for internet addiction in adolescents: a 2-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the predictive values of psychiatric symptoms for the occurrence of Internet addiction and to determine the sex differences in the predictive value of psychiatric symptoms for the occurrence of Internet addiction in adolescents. Internet addiction, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, social phobia, and hostility were assessed by self-reported questionnaires. Participants were then invited to be assessed for Internet addiction 6, 12, and 24 months later (the second, third, and fourth assessments, respectively). Ten junior high schools in southern Taiwan. A total of 2293 (1179 boys and 1114 girls) adolescents participated in the initial investigation. The course of time. Internet addiction as assessed using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, social phobia, and hostility were found to predict the occurrence of Internet addiction in the 2-year follow-up, and hostility and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were the most significant predictors of Internet addiction in male and female adolescents, respectively. These results suggest that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, hostility, depression, and social phobia should be detected early on and intervention carried out to prevent Internet addiction in adolescents. Also, sex differences in psychiatric comorbidity should be taken into consideration when developing prevention and intervention strategies for Internet addiction.

  5. BMI predicts emotion-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility in adolescents with excess weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Rico, Elena; Río-Valle, Jacqueline S; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Campoy, Cristina; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Adolescent obesity is increasingly viewed as a brain-related dysfunction, whereby reward-driven urges for pleasurable foods "hijack" response selection systems, such that behavioral control progressively shifts from impulsivity to compulsivity. In this study, we aimed to examine the link between personality factors (sensitivity to reward (SR) and punishment (SP), BMI, and outcome measures of impulsivity vs. flexibility in--otherwise healthy--excessive weight adolescents. Sixty-three adolescents (aged 12-17) classified as obese (n = 26), overweight (n = 16), or normal weight (n = 21) participated in the study. We used psychometric assessments of the SR and SP motivational systems, impulsivity (using the UPPS-P scale), and neurocognitive measures with discriminant validity to dissociate inhibition vs. flexibility deficits (using the process-approach version of the Stroop test). We tested the relative contribution of age, SR/SP, and BMI on estimates of impulsivity and inhibition vs. switching performance using multistep hierarchical regression models. BMI significantly predicted elevations in emotion-driven impulsivity (positive and negative urgency) and inferior flexibility performance in adolescents with excess weight--exceeding the predictive capacity of SR and SP. SR was the main predictor of elevations in sensation seeking and lack of premeditation. These findings demonstrate that increases in BMI are specifically associated with elevations in emotion-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility, supporting a dimensional path in which adolescents with excess weight increase their proneness to overindulge when under strong affective states, and their difficulties to switch or reverse habitual behavioral patterns.

  6. Can we predict final outcome of internal medicine residents with in-training evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chierakul, Nitipatana; Pongprasobchai, Supot; Boonyapisit, Kanokwan; Chinthammitr, Yingyong; Pithukpakorn, Manop; Maneesai, Adisak; Srivijitkamol, Apiradee; Koomanachai, Pornpan; Koolvisoot, Ajchara; Tanwandee, Tawesak; Shayakul, Chairat; Kachintorn, Udom

    2011-02-01

    To assess the predictive value of in-training evaluation for determining future success in the internal medicine board certifying examination. Ninety-seven internal medicine residents from Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital who undertake the Thai Board examination during the academic year 2006-2008 were enrolled. Correlation between the scores during internal medicine rotation and final scores in board examination were then examined. Significant positive linear correlation was found between scores from both written and clinical parts of board certifying examination and scores from the first-year summative written and clinical examinations and also the second-year formative written examination (r = 0.43-0.68, p evaluation by attending staffs was less well correlated (r = 0.29-0.36) and the evaluation by nurses or medical students demonstrated inverse relationship (r = -0.2, p = 0.27 and r = -0.13, p = 0.48). Some methods of in-training evaluation can predict successful outcome of board certifying examination. Multisource assessments cannot well extrapolate some aspects of professional competences and qualities.

  7. Applying an extended theory of planned behaviour to predict breakfast consumption in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, S; Davies, E L; Ryan, L; Clegg, M E

    2017-05-01

    Breakfast skipping increases during adolescence and is associated with lower levels of physical activity and weight gain. Theory-based interventions promoting breakfast consumption in adolescents report mixed findings, potentially because of limited research identifying which determinants to target. This study aimed to: (i) utilise the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to identify the relative contribution of attitudes (affective, cognitive and behavioural) to predict intention to eat breakfast and breakfast consumption in adolescents and (ii) determine whether demographic factors moderate the relationship between TPB variables, intention and behaviour. Questionnaires were completed by 434 students (mean 14±0.9 years) measuring breakfast consumption (0-2, 3-6 or 7 days), physical activity levels and TPB measures. Data were analysed by breakfast frequency and demographics using hierarchical and multinomial regression analyses. Breakfast was consumed everyday by 57% of students, with boys more likely to eat a regular breakfast, report higher activity levels and report more positive attitudes towards breakfast than girls (Pbehaviours (Pbehaviour relationship for girls. Findings confirm that the TPB is a successful model for predicting breakfast intentions and behaviours in adolescents. The potential for a direct effect of attitudes on behaviours should be considered in the implementation and design of breakfast interventions.

  8. [Diabetes and predictive medicine--parallax of the present time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybka, J

    2010-04-01

    interpretation of genetic predisposition and individualisation of the level of risk. There is no doubt that interpretation calls for co-operation with clinicians, while results of genetic analyses should presently be not uncritically overestimated. Predictive medicine, however, unquestionably fulfills the preventive focus of modern medicine, and genetic analysis is a perspective diagnostic method.

  9. Amygdala-frontal connectivity predicts internalizing symptom recovery among inpatient adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla; Patriquin, Michelle; Salas, Ramiro; Newlin, Elizabeth; Curtis, Kaylah; Baldwin, Philip; Fowler, Christopher; Frueh, B Christopher

    2018-01-01

    The possibility of using biological measures to predict the trajectory of symptoms among adolescent psychiatric inpatients has important implications. This study aimed to examine emotion regulation ability (measured via self-report) and a hypothesized proxy in resting-state functional connectivity [RSFC] between the amygdala and frontal brain regions as baseline predictors of internalizing symptom recovery during inpatient care. 196 adolescents (61% female; Mage = 15.20; SD = 1.48) completed the Achenbach Brief Problem Monitor (BPM) each week during their inpatient care. RSFC (n = 45) and self-report data of emotion regulation (n = 196) were collected at baseline. The average internalizing symptom score at admission was high (α 0 = 66.52), exceeding the BPM's clinical cut off score of 65. On average, internalizing symptom scores declined significantly, by 0.40 points per week (p = 0.004). While self-reported emotion regulation was associated with admission levels of internalizing problems, it did not predict change in symptoms. RSFC between left amygdala and left superior frontal gyrus was significantly associated with the intercept-higher connectivity was associated with higher internalizing at admission-and the slope- higher connectivity was associated with a more positive slope (i.e., less decline in symptoms). RSFC between the right amygdala and the left superior frontal gyrus was significantly, positively correlated with the slope parameter. Results indicate the potential of biologically-based measures that can be developed further for personalized care in adolescent psychiatry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Adolescents' aggression to parents: longitudinal links with parents' physical aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R

    2014-11-01

    To investigate whether parents' previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents' subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents' concurrent physical aggression (CPA) and to investigate whether adolescents' emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning child-to-parent aggression moderate associations. Adolescents (N = 93) and their parents participated in a prospective longitudinal study. Adolescents and parents reported at waves 1-3 on four types of parents' PPA (mother to adolescent, father to adolescent, mother to father, and father to mother). Wave 3 assessments also included adolescents' emotion dysregulation, attitudes condoning aggression, and externalizing behaviors. At waves 4 and 5, adolescents and parents reported on adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression, property damage, and verbal aggression and on parents' CPA. Parents' PPA emerged as a significant indicator of adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.55; p = .047), property damage (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5, p = .002), and verbal aggression (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15-1.6, p controlling for adolescents' sex, externalizing behaviors, and family income. When controlling for parents' CPA, previous mother-to-adolescent aggression still predicted adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 1.82-17.0, p = .003), and father-to-mother aggression predicted adolescents' parent-directed verbal aggression (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.0-3.3, p = .036). Emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning aggression did not produce direct or moderated the effects. Adolescents' parent-directed aggression deserves greater attention in discourse about lasting, adverse effects of even minor forms of parents' physical aggression. Future research should investigate parent-directed aggression as an early signal of aggression into adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Society for

  11. Stability of executive function and predictions to adaptive behavior from middle childhood to pre-adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline eHarms

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The shift from childhood to adolescence is characterized by rapid remodeling of the brain and increased risk-taking behaviors. Current theories hypothesize that developmental enhancements in sensitivity to affective environmental cues in adolescence may undermine executive function (EF and increase the likelihood of problematic behaviors. In the current study, we examined the extent to which EF in childhood predicts EF in early adolescence. We also tested whether individual differences in neural responses to affective cues (rewards/punishments in childhood serve as a biological marker for EF, sensation-seeking, academic performance, and social skills in early adolescence. At age 8, 84 children completed a gambling task while event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded. We examined the extent to which selections resulting in rewards or losses in this task elicited (i the P300, a post-stimulus waveform reflecting the allocation of attentional resources toward a stimulus, and (ii the SPN, a pre-stimulus anticipatory waveform reflecting a neural representation of a hunch about an outcome that originates in insula and ventromedial PFC. Children also completed a Dimensional Change Card-Sort (DCCS and Flanker task to measure EF. At age 12, 78 children repeated the DCCS and Flanker and completed a battery of questionnaires. Flanker and DCCS accuracy at age 8 predicted Flanker and DCCS performance at age 12, respectively. Individual differences in the magnitude of P300 (to losses vs. rewards and SPN (preceding outcomes with a high probability of punishment at age 8 predicted self-reported sensation seeking (lower and teacher-rated academic performance (higher at age 12. We suggest there is stability in EF from age 8 to 12, and that childhood neural sensitivity to reward and punishment predicts individual differences in sensation seeking and adaptive behaviors in children entering adolescence.

  12. Using the Prototype/Willingness model to predict smoking behaviour among Norwegian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukkelberg, Silje Sommer; Dykstra, Jennifer L

    2009-03-01

    This paper examines cognitive antecedents of non-smoking among adolescents who reported smoking less than 1-2 times a week, and reported non-smoking intentions and willingness, in the framework of the Prototype/Willingness model. Two waves of data were obtained from a nation-wide sample of 760 Norwegian adolescents who responded to a school-based survey on smoking. Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the predictive power of the social reaction pathway (prototype and willingness) of the P/W model, and in addition, the constructs from the Theory of Reasoned Action (subjective norm, attitude and intention). Results demonstrated the unique importance of the social reaction path when examining smoking behaviour among non-smoking adolescents. Implications of the findings and possible applications are discussed.

  13. Ventral striatum activation to prosocial rewards predicts longitudinal declines in adolescent risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Fuligni, Andrew J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Galván, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of intensified emotions and an increase in motivated behaviors and passions. Evidence from developmental neuroscience suggests that this heightened emotionality occurs, in part, due to a peak in functional reactivity to rewarding stimuli, which renders adolescents more oriented toward reward-seeking behaviors. Most prior work has focused on how reward sensitivity may create vulnerabilities, leading to increases in risk taking. Here, we test whether heightened reward sensitivity may potentially be an asset for adolescents when engaged in prosocial activities. Thirty-two adolescents were followed over a one-year period to examine whether ventral striatum activation to prosocial rewards predicts decreases in risk taking over a year. Results show that heightened ventral striatum activation to prosocial stimuli relates to longitudinal declines in risk taking. Therefore, the very same neural region that has conferred vulnerability for adolescent risk taking may also be protective against risk taking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Predicting the Emergence of Sexual Violence in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Thompson, Richard E

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to report the epidemiology of sexual violence (SV) perpetration for both female and male youth across a broad age spectrum. Additionally, the etiology of SV perpetration is examined by identifying prior exposures that predict a first SV perpetration. Six waves of data were collected nationally online, between 2006 and 2012, from 1586 youth between 10 and 21 years of age. Five types of SV were assessed: sexual harassment, sexual assault, coercive sex, attempted rape, and rape. To identify how prior exposures may predict the emergence of SV in adolescence, parsimonious lagged multivariable logistic regression models estimated the odds of first perpetrating each of the five types of SV within the context of other variables (e.g., rape attitudes). Average age at first perpetration was between 15 and 16 years of age, depending on SV type. Several characteristics were more commonly reported by perpetrators than non-perpetrators (e.g., alcohol use, other types of SV perpetration and victimization). After adjusting for potentially influential characteristics, prior exposure to parental spousal abuse and current exposure to violent pornography were each strongly associated with the emergence of SV perpetration-attempted rape being the exception for violent pornography. Current aggressive behavior was also significantly implicated in all types of first SV perpetration except rape. Previous victimization of sexual harassment and current victimization of psychological abuse in relationships were additionally predictive of one's first SV perpetration, albeit in various patterns. In this national longitudinal study of different types of SV perpetration among adolescent men and women, findings suggest several malleable factors that need to be targeted, especially scripts of inter-personal violence that are being modeled by abusive parents in youths' homes and also reinforced by violent pornography. The predictive value of victimization for a subsequent first SV

  15. A Study of the Predictive Validity of the Children's Depression Inventory for Major Depression Disorder in Puerto Rican Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Medina, Carmen L.; Bernal, Guillermo; Rossello, Jeannette; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the predictive validity of the Children's Depression Inventory items for major depression disorder (MDD) in an outpatient clinic sample of Puerto Rican adolescents. The sample consisted of 130 adolescents, 13 to 18 years old. The five most frequent symptoms of the Children's Depression Inventory that best predict the…

  16. Not Missing the Future: A Call to Action for Investigating the Role of Regenerative Medicine Therapies in Pediatric/Adolescent Sports Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Thomas M; Caplan, Arnold; Coleman, Michael; Goodrich, Laurie; Hurd, Jason; Kaplan, Lee D; Noonan, Ben; Schoettle, Philip; Scott, Christopher; Stiene, Henry; Huard, Johnny

    In August 2016, a group including sport medicine clinicians, researchers, and a bioethicist met in Vail, Colorado to discuss regenerative medicine and its potential role in youth sports injuries. There was consensus that a call to action is urgently needed to understand the current evidence base, the risks and rewards, and future directions of research and clinical practice for regenerative medicine therapies in youth sports. We present here a summary of our meeting, which was supported by the National Youth Sports Health and Safety Institute (NYSHSI), a partnership between the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and Sanford Health. The group's goal is to educate practitioners and the public, and to pioneer a means of accumulating meaningful clinical data on regenerative medicine therapies in pediatric and adolescent athletes.

  17. Huntington's disease predictive testing: the case for an assessment approach to requests from adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binedell, J; Soldan, J R; Scourfield, J; Harper, P S

    1996-01-01

    Adolescents who are actively requesting Huntington's predictive testing of their own accord pose a dilemma to those providing testing. In the absence of empirical evidence as regards the impact of genetic testing on minors, current policy and guidelines, based on the ethical principles of non-maleficence and respect for individual autonomy and confidentiality, generally exclude the testing of minors. It is argued that adherence to an age based exclusion criterion in Huntington's disease predictive testing protocols is out of step with trends in UK case law concerning minors' consent to medical treatment. Furthermore, contributions from developmental psychology and research into adolescents' decision making competence suggest that adolescents can make informed choices about their health and personal lives. Criteria for developing an assessment approach to such requests are put forward and the implications of a case by case evaluation of competence to consent in terms of clinicians' tolerance for uncertainty are discussed. PMID:8950670

  18. Adolescents' implicit theories predict desire for vengeance after peer conflicts: correlational and experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, David S; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Tirri, Kirsi; Nokelainen, Petri; Dweck, Carol S

    2011-07-01

    Why do some adolescents respond to interpersonal conflicts vengefully, whereas others seek more positive solutions? Three studies investigated the role of implicit theories of personality in predicting violent or vengeful responses to peer conflicts among adolescents in Grades 9 and 10. They showed that a greater belief that traits are fixed (an entity theory) predicted a stronger desire for revenge after a variety of recalled peer conflicts (Study 1) and after a hypothetical conflict that specifically involved bullying (Study 2). Study 3 experimentally induced a belief in the potential for change (an incremental theory), which resulted in a reduced desire to seek revenge. This effect was mediated by changes in bad-person attributions about the perpetrators, feelings of shame and hatred, and the belief that vengeful ideation is an effective emotion-regulation strategy. Together, the findings illuminate the social-cognitive processes underlying reactions to conflict and suggest potential avenues for reducing violent retaliation in adolescents. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Longitudinal prediction of sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, R; Leichliter, J S; Brackbill, R

    2000-05-01

    Although adolescent use of condoms has been increasing, incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among young people remains high. To identify adolescent behavioral risk factors for acquiring STDs, this study assessed adolescent self-reports of acquired chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and trichomoniasis within 1 year after a baseline interview. We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health for this study. Data were collected in the homes of survey respondents, using audio-computer-assisted self-interview (audio-CASI) technology and interviews. Participants were enrolled in grades 7-11 from 134 U.S. schools. A cohort of 4593 sexually experienced adolescents was followed for 1 year. We conducted separate analyses for both genders. About 3.1% of the male adolescents and nearly 4.7% of the female adolescents reported having had at least one STD after the baseline interview. For both genders, self-reported STD infection before baseline interview was the best predictor of self-reported STD infection 1 year after baseline interview. Female adolescents were more likely to report diagnosis with an STD after baseline if they self-identified as a minority race (other than Asian) and perceived that their mother did not disapprove of their having sex. Female adolescents were less likely to report STDs if they perceived that adults care about them. No additional variables predicted STD diagnosis after baseline for male adolescents. We conclude that past history of STD infection is the most important indicator of subsequent STD infection among adolescents. Thus, this study suggests the benefit of specific clinical efforts designed to promote preventive behavior among adolescents newly diagnosed with an STD.

  20. Does Exposure to Music Videos Predict Adolescents' Sexual Attitudes?

    OpenAIRE

    Beentjes, J.W.J.; Konig, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether exposure to music videos predicts adolescents' sexual attitudes when controlled for relevant characteristics of individuals and their social environment. Sexual attitudes are related to their music video use (i.e. exposure to music videos, peer group talk about music videos, and perceived realism of these videos), personal factors and the sexual norms they perceive in their social environment (i.e. sexual norms of their parents and friends). A survey among Dutc...

  1. A nomogram to predict the probability of passing the American Board of Internal Medicine examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Brateanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background : Although the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM certification is valued as a reflection of physicians’ experience, education, and expertise, limited methods exist to predict performance in the examination. Purpose : The objective of this study was to develop and validate a predictive tool based on variables common to all residency programs, regarding the probability of an internal medicine graduate passing the ABIM certification examination. Methods : The development cohort was obtained from the files of the Cleveland Clinic internal medicine residents who began training between 2004 and 2008. A multivariable logistic regression model was built to predict the ABIM passing rate. The model was represented as a nomogram, which was internally validated with bootstrap resamples. The external validation was done retrospectively on a cohort of residents who graduated from two other independent internal medicine residency programs between 2007 and 2011. Results : Of the 194 Cleveland Clinic graduates used for the nomogram development, 175 (90.2% successfully passed the ABIM certification examination. The final nomogram included four predictors: In-Training Examination (ITE scores in postgraduate year (PGY 1, 2, and 3, and the number of months of overnight calls in the last 6 months of residency. The nomogram achieved a concordance index (CI of 0.98 after correcting for over-fitting bias and allowed for the determination of an estimated probability of passing the ABIM exam. Of the 126 graduates from two other residency programs used for external validation, 116 (92.1% passed the ABIM examination. The nomogram CI in the external validation cohort was 0.94, suggesting outstanding discrimination. Conclusions : A simple user-friendly predictive tool, based on readily available data, was developed to predict the probability of passing the ABIM exam for internal medicine residents. This may guide program directors’ decision

  2. Positive parenting predicts the development of adolescent brain structure: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G; Dennison, Meg; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Schwartz, Orli; Yap, Marie B H; Sheeber, Lisa; Allen, Nicholas B

    2014-04-01

    Little work has been conducted that examines the effects of positive environmental experiences on brain development to date. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the effects of positive (warm and supportive) maternal behavior on structural brain development during adolescence, using longitudinal structural MRI. Participants were 188 (92 female) adolescents, who were part of a longitudinal adolescent development study that involved mother-adolescent interactions and MRI scans at approximately 12 years old, and follow-up MRI scans approximately 4 years later. FreeSurfer software was used to estimate the volume of limbic-striatal regions (amygdala, hippocampus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens) and the thickness of prefrontal regions (anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices) across both time points. Higher frequency of positive maternal behavior during the interactions predicted attenuated volumetric growth in the right amygdala, and accelerated cortical thinning in the right anterior cingulate (males only) and left and right orbitofrontal cortices, between baseline and follow up. These results have implications for understanding the biological mediators of risk and protective factors for mental disorders that have onset during adolescence. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Child physical and sexual abuse and cigarette smoking in adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristman-Valente, Allison N; Brown, Eric C; Herrenkohl, Todd I

    2013-10-01

    Analyses used data from an extended longitudinal study to examine the relationship between childhood physical and sexual abuse (CPA and CSA, respectively) and adolescent and adult smoking behavior. Two questions guided the study: (1) Is there an association between childhood abuse and adolescent and adult smoking behavior? (2) Does the relationship between childhood abuse and later cigarette smoking differ for males and females? A censored-inflated path model was used to assess the impact of child abuse on adolescent and adult lifetime smoking prevalence and smoking frequency. Gender differences in significant model paths were assessed using a multiple-group approach. Results show no significant relation between CPA or CSA and risk of having ever smoked cigarettes in adolescence or adulthood. However, for males, both CPA and CSA had direct effects on adolescent smoking frequency. For females, only CSA predicted increased smoking frequency in adolescence. Adolescent smoking frequency predicted adult smoking frequency more strongly for females compared with males. CPA and CSA are risk factors for higher frequency of smoking in adolescence. Higher frequency of cigarette smoking in adolescence increases the risk of higher smoking frequency in adulthood. Results underscore the need for both primary and secondary prevention and intervention efforts to reduce the likelihood of childhood abuse and to lessen risk for cigarette smoking among those who have been abused. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Externalizing problems in childhood and adolescence predict subsequent educational achievement but for different genetic and environmental reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gary J; Asbury, Kathryn; Plomin, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Childhood behavior problems predict subsequent educational achievement; however, little research has examined the etiology of these links using a longitudinal twin design. Moreover, it is unknown whether genetic and environmental innovations provide incremental prediction for educational achievement from childhood to adolescence. We examined genetic and environmental influences on parental ratings of behavior problems across childhood (age 4) and adolescence (ages 12 and 16) as predictors of educational achievement at age 16 using a longitudinal classical twin design. Shared-environmental influences on anxiety, conduct problems, and peer problems at age 4 predicted educational achievement at age 16. Genetic influences on the externalizing behaviors of conduct problems and hyperactivity at age 4 predicted educational achievement at age 16. Moreover, novel genetic and (to a lesser extent) nonshared-environmental influences acting on conduct problems and hyperactivity emerged at ages 12 and 16, adding to the genetic prediction from age 4. These findings demonstrate that genetic and shared-environmental factors underpinning behavior problems in early childhood predict educational achievement in midadolescence. These findings are consistent with the notion that early-childhood behavior problems reflect the initiation of a life-course persistent trajectory with concomitant implications for social attainment. However, we also find evidence that genetic and nonshared-environment innovations acting on behavior problems have implications for subsequent educational achievement, consistent with recent work arguing that adolescence represents a sensitive period for socioaffective development. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. Lean mass predicts conditioned pain modulation in adolescents across weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzman, S; Hoeger Bement, M

    2016-07-01

    There is a wide continuum of conditioned pain modulation (CPM) in adults with older adults experiencing an attenuated CPM response compared with younger adults. Less is known for adolescents and the role of anthropometrics. Fifty-six adolescents (15.1 ± 1.8 years; 32 normal weight and 24 overweight/obese; 27 boys) completed in a CPM session that included anthropometric testing. Pressure pain thresholds were measured at the nailbed and deltoid muscle (test stimuli) with the foot submerged in a cool or ice water bath (conditioning stimulus). Weight status, body composition (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan), physical activity levels and clinical pain were also evaluated. The CPM response in adolescents was similar across sites (nailbed vs. deltoid), weight status (normal vs. overweight/obese) and sex. CPM measured at the deltoid muscle was positively associated with left arm lean mass but not fat mass; lean mass of the arm uniquely predicted 10% of the CPM magnitude. CPM measured at the nailbed was positively correlated with physical activity levels. These results suggest that lean mass and physical activity levels may contribute to endogenous pain inhibition in adolescents across weight status. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  6. Neural responses to exclusion predict susceptibility to social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B; Cascio, Christopher N; O'Donnell, Matthew Brook; Carp, Joshua; Tinney, Francis J; Bingham, C Raymond; Shope, Jean T; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Pradhan, Anuj K; Simons-Morton, Bruce G

    2014-05-01

    Social influence is prominent across the lifespan, but sensitivity to influence is especially high during adolescence and is often associated with increased risk taking. Such risk taking can have dire consequences. For example, in American adolescents, traffic-related crashes are leading causes of nonfatal injury and death. Neural measures may be especially useful in understanding the basic mechanisms of adolescents' vulnerability to peer influence. We examined neural responses to social exclusion as potential predictors of risk taking in the presence of peers in recently licensed adolescent drivers. Risk taking was assessed in a driving simulator session occurring approximately 1 week after the neuroimaging session. Increased activity in neural systems associated with the distress of social exclusion and mentalizing during an exclusion episode predicted increased risk taking in the presence of a peer (controlling for solo risk behavior) during a driving simulator session outside the neuroimaging laboratory 1 week later. These neural measures predicted risky driving behavior above and beyond self-reports of susceptibility to peer pressure and distress during exclusion. These results address the neural bases of social influence and risk taking; contribute to our understanding of social and emotional function in the adolescent brain; and link neural activity in specific, hypothesized, regions to risk-relevant outcomes beyond the neuroimaging laboratory. Results of this investigation are discussed in terms of the mechanisms underlying risk taking in adolescents and the public health implications for adolescent driving. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Within-person Changes in Individual Symptoms of Depression Predict Subsequent Depressive Episodes in Adolescents: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Morris, Matthew C.; Garber, Judy

    2015-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined which individual symptoms of depression uniquely predicted a subsequent Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in adolescents, and whether these relations differed by sex. Adolescents (N=240) were first interviewed in grade 6 (M=11.86 years old; SD = 0.56; 54% female; 81.5% Caucasian) and then annually through grade 12 regarding their individual symptoms of depression as well as the occurrence of MDEs. Individual symptoms of depression were assessed with the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and depressive episodes were assessed with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE). Results showed that within-person changes in sleep problems and low self-esteem/excessive guilt positively predicted an increased likelihood of an MDE for both boys and girls. Significant sex differences also were found. Within-person changes in anhedonia predicted an increased likelihood of a subsequent MDE among boys, whereas irritability predicted a decreased likelihood of a future MDE among boys, and concentration difficulties predicted a decreased likelihood of an MDE in girls. These results identified individual depressive symptoms that predicted subsequent depressive episodes in male and female adolescents, and may be used to guide the early detection, treatment, and prevention of depressive disorders in youth. PMID:26105209

  8. The interaction between self-regulation and motivation prospectively predicting problem behavior in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jessica D; Colder, Craig R; Trucco, Elisa M; Speidel, Carolyn; Hawk, Larry W; Lengua, Liliana J; Das Eiden, Rina; Wieczorek, William

    2013-01-01

    A large literature suggests associations between self-regulation and motivation and adolescent problem behavior; however, this research has mostly pitted these constructs against one another or tested them in isolation. Following recent neural-systems based theories (e.g., Ernst & Fudge, 2009 ), the present study investigated the interactions between self-regulation and approach and avoidance motivation prospectively predicting delinquency and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. The community sample included 387 adolescents aged 11 to 13 years old (55% female; 17% minority). Laboratory tasks were used to assess self-regulation and approach and avoidance motivation, and adolescent self-reports were used to measure depressive symptoms and delinquency. Analyses suggested that low levels of approach motivation were associated with high levels of depressive symptoms, but only at high levels of self-regulation (p = .01). High levels of approach were associated with high levels of rule breaking, but only at low levels of self-regulation (p theories that posit integration of motivational and self-regulatory individual differences via moderational models to understand adolescent problem behavior.

  9. Body Dissatisfaction Prospectively Predicts Depressive Mood and Low Self-Esteem in Adolescent Girls and Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Susan J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.

    2006-01-01

    This research examined whether body dissatisfaction prospectively predicted depressive mood and low self-esteem in adolescent girls and boys 5 years later. Participants were early-adolescent girls (n = 440, Time 1 M age = 12.7 years) and boys (n = 366, Time 1 M age = 12.8 years) and midadolescent girls (n = 946, Time 1 M age = 15.8 years) and boys…

  10. Predicting adolescent's cyberbullying behavior: A longitudinal risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlett, Christopher P

    2015-06-01

    The current study used the risk factor approach to test the unique and combined influence of several possible risk factors for cyberbullying attitudes and behavior using a four-wave longitudinal design with an adolescent US sample. Participants (N = 96; average age = 15.50 years) completed measures of cyberbullying attitudes, perceptions of anonymity, cyberbullying behavior, and demographics four times throughout the academic school year. Several logistic regression equations were used to test the contribution of these possible risk factors. Results showed that (a) cyberbullying attitudes and previous cyberbullying behavior were important unique risk factors for later cyberbullying behavior, (b) anonymity and previous cyberbullying behavior were valid risk factors for later cyberbullying attitudes, and (c) the likelihood of engaging in later cyberbullying behavior increased with the addition of risk factors. Overall, results show the unique and combined influence of such risk factors for predicting later cyberbullying behavior. Results are discussed in terms of theory. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prediction of adolescents doing physical activity after completing secondary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Murcia, Juan Antonio; Huéscar, Elisa; Cervelló, Eduardo

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study, based on the self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000) was to test the prediction power of student's responsibility, psychological mediators, intrinsic motivation and the importance attached to physical education in the intention to continue to practice some form of physical activity and/or sport, and the possible relationships that exist between these variables. We used a sample of 482 adolescent students in physical education classes, with a mean age of 14.3 years, which were measured for responsibility, psychological mediators, sports motivation, the importance of physical education and intention to be physically active. We completed an analysis of structural equations modelling. The results showed that the responsibility positively predicted psychological mediators, and this predicted intrinsic motivation, which positively predicted the importance students attach to physical education, and this, finally, positively predicted the intention of the student to continue doing sport. Results are discussed in relation to the promotion of student's responsibility towards a greater commitment to the practice of physical exercise.

  12. Bullying as a longitudinal predictor of adolescent dating violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; McNaughton Reyes, Heath Luz; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Basile, Kathleen C; Chang, Ling-Yin; Faris, Robert; Ennett, Susan T

    2014-09-01

    One suggested approach to preventing adolescent dating violence is to prevent behavioral precursors to dating violence, such as bullying. However, no longitudinal study has examined bullying as a behavioral precursor to dating violence. In this study, longitudinal data were used to examine (1) whether direct and indirect bullying perpetration in the sixth grade predicted the onset of physical dating violence perpetration by the eighth grade and (2) whether the associations varied by sex and race/ethnicity of the adolescent. Data were collected in school from sixth graders in three primarily rural counties and then again when students were in the eighth grade. Analyses were conducted with 1,154 adolescents who had not perpetrated dating violence at the sixth-grade assessment. The sample was 47% male, 29% black, and 10% of another race/ethnicity than black or white. Direct bullying, defined as hitting, slapping, or picking on another kid in the sixth grade, predicted the onset of physical dating violence perpetration by the eighth grade, controlling for indirect bullying and potential confounders. Although indirect bullying, defined as spreading false rumors and excluding students from friendship groups, was associated with the onset of physical dating violence perpetration in bivariate analyses, it did not predict the onset of physical dating violence when controlling for direct bullying. None of the associations examined varied by sex or race/ethnicity of the adolescents. Our findings suggest that efforts targeted at preventing direct bullying may also prevent the onset of physical dating violence. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Prediction of suicidality and violence in hospitalized adolescents: comparisons by sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel F; Grilo, Carlos M

    2007-09-01

    To examine psychological correlates of suicidality and violent behaviour in hospitalized adolescents and the extent to which these associations may be affected by their sex. A sample of 487 psychiatric inpatients (207 male, 280 female), aged 12 to 19 years, completed a battery of psychometrically sound self-report measures of psychological functioning, substance abuse, suicidality, and violent behaviour. We conducted multiple regression analyses to determine the joint and independent predictors of suicide risk and violence risk. In subsequent analyses, we examined these associations separately by sex. Multiple regression analysis revealed that 9 variables (sex, age, hopelessness, self-esteem, depression, impulsivity, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, and violence risk) jointly predicted suicide risk and that an analogous model predicted violence risk. However, we found several differences with respect to which variables made significant independent contributions to these 2 predictive models. Female sex, low self-esteem, depression, drug abuse, and violence risk made independent contributions to suicide risk. Male sex, younger age, hopelessness, impulsivity, drug abuse, and suicide risk made independent contributions to violence risk. We observed a few additional differences when we considered male and female subjects separately. We found overlapping but distinctive patterns of prediction for suicide risk and violence risk, as well as some differences between male and female subjects. These results may reflect distinct psychological and behavioural pathways for suicidality and violence in adolescent psychiatric patients and differing risk factors for each sex. Such differences have potential implications for prevention and treatment programs.

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Maternal and Child Internalizing Symptoms Predicting Early Adolescent Emotional Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Katherine M; Nelson, Timothy D; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2017-05-01

    To examine maternal and child internalizing symptoms as predictors of early adolescent emotional eating in a longitudinal framework spanning three critical developmental periods (preschool, elementary school, and early adolescence). Participants were 170 children recruited at preschool age for a longitudinal study. When children were 5.25 years, their mothers completed ratings of their own internalizing symptoms. During the spring of 4th grade, children completed measures of internalizing symptoms. In early adolescence, youth completed a measure of emotional eating. Maternal and child internalizing symptoms predicted adolescent emotional eating. The results indicated that child psychopathology moderated the association between maternal psychopathology (except for maternal anxiety) and early adolescent emotional eating. There was no evidence of mediation. Pediatric psychologists are encouraged to provide early screening of, and interventions for, maternal and child internalizing symptoms to prevent children's emotional eating. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Drug development: EU paediatric legislation, the European Medicines Agency and its Paediatric Committee--adolescents' melanoma as a paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Klaus; Senn, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The European Medicines Agency (EMA) website lists all diseases that officially exist in adults only. The class waiver for juvenile melanoma was revoked in 2008 referring to US SEER statistics. This statistical justification is misleading. Melanoma in adolescents is much rarer than claimed by EMA/Paediatric Committee; < 1 ∕ 4 of adolescents with melanoma need systemic treatment; separate efficacy studies are neither medically justified nor feasible. The scarce adolescent patients should be allowed to participate in adult trials. To force companies to investigate them separately turns them into paediatric hostages, to adapt the term therapeutic orphans coined in 1968 by Shirkey. There are now five melanoma Paediatric Investigation Plans (PIPs). Probably none of the PIP-triggered clinical studies will ever be completed; we propose to call them ghost studies. An oncology research network considering a reasonable trial in melanoma, including adolescents, will compete for recruitment with the PIP-triggered trials designed by regulatory tunnel vision and sponsored by companies under EMA-imposed pressure. EMA/Paediatric Committee's territorial enthusiasm ("our patients") damages oncology research. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Factors predictive for incidence and remission of internet addiction in young adolescents: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Lin, Huang-Chi; Yang, Ming-Jen

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the incidence and remission rates for Internet addiction and the associated predictive factors in young adolescents over a 1-year follow-up. This was a prospective, population-based investigation. Five hundred seventeen students (267 male and 250 female) were recruited from three junior high schools in southern Taiwan. The factors examined included gender, personality, mental health, self-esteem, family function, life satisfaction, and Internet activities. The result revealed that the 1-year incidence and remission rates for Internet addiction were 7.5% and 49.5% respectively. High exploratory excitability, low reward dependence, low self-esteem, low family function, and online game playing predicted the emergency of the Internet addiction. Further, low hostility and low interpersonal sensitivity predicted remission of Internet addiction. The factors predictive incidence and remission of Internet addiction identified in this study could be provided for prevention and promoting remission of Internet addiction in adolescents.

  17. Subclinical bulimia predicts conduct disorder in middle adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viinamäki, Anni; Marttunen, Mauri; Fröjd, Sari; Ruuska, Jaana; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the comorbidity and longitudinal associations between self-reported conduct disorder and subclinical bulimia in a community-based sample of Finnish adolescents in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. There are 2070 adolescents who participated in the survey as ninth graders (mean age 15.5) and followed-up 2 years later. The Youth Self-Report Externalizing scale was used to measure conduct disorder and DSM-IV-based questionnaire to measure bulimia. Co-occurrence of female conduct disorder and subclinical bulimia was found at ages 15 and 17. Subclinical bulimia among girls at age 15 was a risk factor for conduct disorder at age 17, but conduct disorder at age 15 was not predictive of subclinical bulimia at age 17. The pathway from bulimia to conduct disorder may be suggestive of an association with future borderline personality disorder among girls. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  18. Characterization and Predictive Value of Segmental Curve Flexibility in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Guanfeng; Cheung, Jason P Y; Shigematsu, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A prospective radiographic analysis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients managed with alternate-level pedicle screw fixation was performed. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize segmental curve flexibility and to determine its predictive value...

  19. Memory for Textual Conflicts Predicts Sourcing When Adolescents Read Multiple Expository Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang Lund, Elisabeth; Bråten, Ivar; Brante, Eva W.; Strømsø, Helge I.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether memory for conflicting information predicted mental representation of source-content links (i.e., who said what) in a sample of 86 Norwegian adolescent readers. Participants read four texts presenting conflicting claims about sun exposure and health. With differences in gender, prior knowledge, and interest…

  20. Abusive alcohol consumption among adolescents: a predictive model for maximizing early detection and responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Ferreira, M; de Moraes, C L; Braga, J U; Reichenheim, M E; da Veiga, G V

    2018-03-17

    To present a predictive model of alcohol abuse among adolescents based on prevalence projections in various population subgroups. Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 785 adolescents enrolled in the second year of high school in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Alcohol consumption was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Socio-economic, demographic, family, individuals, and school-related variables were examined as potential predictors. The logit model was used to estimate the prevalence projections. Model fitting was examined in relation to the observed data set, and in a subset, that was generated from 200 subsamples of individuals via a bootstrap process using general fit estimators, discrimination, and calibration measures. About 25.5% of the adolescents were classified as positive for alcohol abuse. Being male, being 17-19 years old, not living with mothers, presenting symptoms suggestive of binge eating, having used a strategy of weight reduction in the last 3 months, and, especially, being a victim of family violence were important predictors of abusive consumption of alcohol. While the model's prevalence projection in the absence of these features was 8%, it reaches 68% in the presence of all predictors. Knowledge of predictive characteristics of alcohol abuse is essential for screening, early detection of positive cases, and establishing interventions to reduce consumption among adolescents. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Predicting incentives to change among adolescents with substance abuse disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Carolyn; Heflinger, Craig Anne

    2004-05-01

    While interest in understanding the incentives to change among individuals with substance abuse disorders is growing, little is known about incentives among adolescents with substance abuse disorders who are participating in formal services. The present research assesses the degree and nature of motivation and treatment readiness among adolescents admitted to substance abuse services, and whether such factors vary across significant subgroups of youth based on their social, legal, or clinical profiles. Data are based on interviews with 249 youth between 12 and 18 years of age who have been admitted to either inpatient, residential, or outpatient substance abuse treatment. Measures are adapted from an instrument developed to assess multiple domains of motivation to change (e.g., intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, treatment readiness). Results suggest that the incentive to change among adolescents with substance-abusing behavior is modest at best, regardless of dimension. Nonetheless, ethnicity, type of substance use, and psychopathology significantly predict incentives to change, though the predictors depend on which dimension is considered. The most robust predictor of incentives is the severity of negative consequences associated with youth's substance use--the greater the severity, the greater the incentives. Findings underscore the need to examine the utility and dimensionality of incentive for treatment planning, while at the same time, they identify factors that treatment planners can consider as they seek ways to enhance incentives and help adolescents with substance use disorders attain positive outcomes.

  2. Harsh Parenting and Food Insecurity in Adolescence: The Association With Emerging Adult Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Brenda J; Gillette, Meghan T; Neppl, Tricia K

    2016-07-01

    As the first study of its kind, the overall purpose of this article was to examine the relationships and interactions between harsh parenting (HP) and food insecurity (FI) in adolescence on the development of overweight/obesity (OW/OB) in emerging adulthood. Data came from the Iowa Youth and Families Project, a longitudinal study of 451 adolescent youth and their families that began in 1989 in the rural Midwest. Adolescents were aged 13 years at the initial assessment, and weight status in emerging adulthood was measured 10 years later at age 23. Experiencing HP in adolescence predicted greater odds of OW/OB at 23 years old. Higher body mass indexes of the adolescent and his or her father in adolescence also increased the odds of being OW/OB at 23 years. Having parents with higher levels of education lowered the odds of being OW/OB in emerging adulthood. Finally, females who experienced high levels of FI and HP in adolescence had higher odds of OW/OB at 23 years in comparison to males. HP, in combination with FI in adolescence, predicted OW/OB for females in emerging adulthood but not for males. This study contributes to an understanding of the interplay between multiple influences in adolescence: namely, parenting and economic influences. Assessing antecedents to OW/OB in emerging adulthood via multiple pathways provides a more complex understanding of how and why adolescents turn into OW/OB adults. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Provider communication behaviors that predict motivation to change in black adolescents with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcone, April Idalski; Naar-King, Sylvie; Brogan, Kathryn E; Albrecht, Terrance; Barton, Ellen; Foster, Tanina; Martin, Tim; Marshall, Sharon

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this research was to identify communication behaviors used by weight loss counselors that mostly strongly predicted black adolescents' motivational statements. Three types of motivational statements were of interest: change talk (CT; statements describing their own desires, abilities, reasons, and need for adhering to weight loss recommendations), commitment language (CML; statements about their intentions or plans for adhering), and counterchange talk (CCT; amotivational statements against change and commitment). Thirty-seven black adolescents with obesity received a single motivational interviewing session targeting weight-related behaviors. The video-recorded transcribed sessions were coded using the Minority Youth Sequential Coding for Observing Process Exchanges generating a sequential chain of communication. Data were then subjected to sequential analysis to determine causal relationships between counselor and adolescent communication. Asking open-ended questions to elicit adolescent CT and emphasizing adolescents' autonomy most often led to CT. Open-ended questions to elicit CML, reflecting adolescent CML, and emphasizing autonomy most often led to CML. In contrast, open-ended questions to elicit CCT, reflecting CCT, reflecting ambivalence, and neutral open-ended questions about the target behavior led to CCT. This study provides clinicians with insight into the most effective way to communicate with black adolescents with obesity about weight loss. Specifically, reflective statements and open questions focusing on their own desires, abilities, reasons, need, and commitment to weight loss recommendations are more likely to increase motivational statements, whereas other types of reflections and questions may be counterproductive. Finally, because adolescents have a strong need for autonomous decision making, emphasizing their autonomy may be particularly effective in evoking motivational statements.

  4. Adolescents and their parents' perceptions about parenting characteristics. Who can better predict the adolescent's academic competence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrina, Santiago; García-Linares, M Cruz; Casanova, Pedro F

    2003-12-01

    This study examined family factors reported by parents and their children in relation to children's academic competence. Adolescents and their parents (N=323) reported about the same family characteristics: parental acceptance and involvement in the children's education. Measures related to children's academic competence were: academic competence rated by the teacher, self-reported grades, perceived academic competence and motivational orientation. The results revealed low interrater agreement in family measures. Moreover, ratings by children about parenting characteristics seem higher than those of their parents in predicting academic-related measures. This was true especially in the case of children's reports on acceptance. However, in the case of involvement, parent's reports contributed towards predicting a higher number of variables.

  5. Psychopathic Traits and Moral Disengagement Interact to Predict Bullying and Cyberbullying Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orue, Izaskun; Calvete, Esther

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test a model in which psychopathic traits (callous-unemotional, grandiose-manipulative, and impulsive-irresponsible) and moral disengagement individually and interactively predict two types of bullying (traditional and cyberbullying) in a community sample of adolescents. A total of 765 adolescents (464 girls and 301 boys) completed measures of moral disengagement and psychopathic traits at Time 1, and measures of bullying and cyberbullying at Time 1 and 1 year later, at Time 2. The results showed that callous-unemotional traits predicted both traditional bullying and cyberbullying, grandiose-manipulative and impulsive-irresponsible traits only predicted traditional bullying, and moral disengagement only predicted cyberbullying. Callous-Unemotional Traits × Moral Disengagement and Grandiose-Manipulative × Moral Disengagement were significantly correlated with the residual change in cyberbullying. Callous-unemotional traits were positively related to cyberbullying at high levels of moral disengagement but not when moral disengagement was low. In contrast, grandiose-manipulative traits were positively related to cyberbullying at low levels of moral disengagement but not when moral disengagement was high. These findings have implications for both prevention and intervention. Integrative approaches that promote moral growth are needed, including a deeper understanding of why bullying is morally wrong and ways to stimulate personality traits that counteract psychopathic traits.

  6. The Cognitive Processes underlying Affective Decision-making Predicting Adolescent Smoking Behaviors in a Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eXiao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th grade to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1, we tested these adolescents’ decision-making using the Iowa Gambling Task and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the one-year follow-up (Time 2. The Expectancy-Valence (EV Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains versus losses; (ii a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes versus past experiences; and (iii a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population.

  7. Physicians' Counseling of Adolescents Regarding E-Cigarette Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Jessica K; Gilkey, Melissa B; Brewer, Noel T

    2015-12-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use now surpasses the use of conventional cigarettes among U.S. adolescents. Given the important role of physicians in preventing adolescent risk behaviors, we sought to understand how physicians communicate about e-cigarettes when counseling adolescent patients and their parents. We also explored physicians' support for regulations aimed at discouraging adolescents' e-cigarette use. A national U.S. sample of 776 pediatricians and family medicine physicians who provide primary care to adolescent patients completed an online survey in Spring 2014. Many physicians (41%) would, if asked, tell their patients that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, and a substantial minority (24%) would recommend e-cigarettes to adolescents for smoking cessation. Most physicians reported routinely screening adolescent patients for cigarette smoking but few routinely screened for e-cigarette use (86% vs. 14%; p buying e-cigarettes. Physicians infrequently screen or counsel their adolescent patients about e-cigarette use, although e-cigarettes often come up during visits. Additional efforts by physicians could help prevent future use by adolescents. Recommending e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid to adolescent patients is inadvisable given the lack of evidence for efficacy in that population. As federal regulation of e-cigarettes remains in limbo, pediatricians and family medicine physicians can offer a powerful voice for informing regulations aimed at reducing use by adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Forgetting the best when predicting the worst: Preliminary observations on neural circuit function in adolescent social anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M. Jarcho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder typically begins in adolescence, a sensitive period for brain development, when increased complexity and salience of peer relationships requires novel forms of social learning. Disordered social learning in adolescence may explain how brain dysfunction promotes social anxiety. Socially anxious adolescents (n = 15 and adults (n = 19 and non-anxious adolescents (n = 24 and adults (n = 32 predicted, then received, social feedback from high and low-value peers while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. A surprise recall task assessed memory biases for feedback. Neural correlates of social evaluation prediction errors (PEs were assessed by comparing engagement to expected and unexpected positive and negative feedback. For socially anxious adolescents, but not adults or healthy participants of either age group, PEs elicited heightened striatal activity and negative fronto-striatal functional connectivity. This occurred selectively to unexpected positive feedback from high-value peers and corresponded with impaired memory for social feedback. While impaired memory also occurred in socially-anxious adults, this impairment was unrelated to brain-based PE activity. Thus, social anxiety in adolescence may relate to altered neural correlates of PEs that contribute to impaired learning about social feedback. Small samples necessitate replication. Nevertheless, results suggest that the relationship between learning and fronto-striatal function may attenuate as development progresses.

  9. Improving adolescent maternal health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nelson R ... of information concerning their bodies and ..... improve quality of healthcare services for adolescents[15] – services that .... equipment, medicines, supplies and technology needed to ensure effective service provision to adolescents.

  10. Concurrent and longitudinal associations between diurnal cortisol and body mass index across adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttle, Paula L; Javaras, Kristin N; Klein, Marjorie H; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Burk, Linnea R; Essex, Marilyn J

    2013-06-01

    Childhood and adolescent obesity have reached epidemic levels; however, little is known about the psychobiological underpinnings of obesity in youth and whether these differ from the mechanisms identified in adults. The current study examines concurrent (i.e., measured at the same point in time) and longitudinal (i.e., using earlier cortisol measures to predict later body mass index [BMI]) associations between diurnal cortisol and BMI across adolescence. Adolescent diurnal cortisol was measured over 3 days at each 11, 13, and 15 years. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to extract average measures of predicted morning, afternoon, evening levels of cortisol and the diurnal slope at each assessment. Adolescent BMI (kg/m(2)) was measured at 11, 13, 15, and 18 years. Sex, family socioeconomic status, mother's BMI, pubertal status, and adolescent mental health were examined as possible confounding variables. Linear regressions revealed that blunted patterns of adolescent cortisol were associated with increased measures of BMI across adolescence both concurrently and longitudinally, particularly when examining measures of cortisol in early adolescence. Multinomial logistic regressions extended the linear regression findings beyond BMI scores to encompass categories of obesity. The current study builds on previous research documenting diurnal cortisol-obesity findings in adults by demonstrating similar findings exist both concurrently and longitudinally in adolescents. Findings suggest the association between cortisol and BMI is developmentally influenced and that blunted diurnal cortisol patterns can be identified in overweight individuals at a younger age than previously thought. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Back to the Roots: Prediction of Biologically Active Natural Products from Ayurveda Traditional Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polur, Honey; Joshi, Tejal; Workman, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine is one of the most ancient, yet living medicinal traditions. In the present work, we developed an in silico library of natural products from Ayurveda medicine, coupled with structural information, plant origin and traditional therapeutic use. Following this....... We hereby present a number of examples where the traditional medicinal use of the plant matches with the medicinal use of the drug that is structurally similar to a plant component. With this approach, we have brought to light a number of obscure compounds of natural origin (e.g. kanugin......, we compared their structures with those of drugs from DrugBank and we constructed a structural similarity network. Information on the traditional therapeutic use of the plants was integrated in the network in order to provide further evidence for the predicted biologically active natural compounds...

  12. The interplay of parental monitoring and socioeconomic status in predicting minor delinquency between and within adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekker, Roderik; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Koot, Hans; Meeus, Wim

    2017-08-01

    This six-wave multi-informant longitudinal study on Dutch adolescents (N = 824; age 12-18) examined the interplay of socioeconomic status with parental monitoring in predicting minor delinquency. Fixed-effects negative binomial regression analyses revealed that this interplay is different within adolescents across time than between adolescents. Between individuals, parental solicitation and control were not significantly associated with delinquency after controlling for SES: Adolescents whose parents exercised more monitoring did not offend less than others. Within individuals, higher levels of parental control were unexpectedly associated with more delinquency, but this relation was dependent on SES: Low-SES adolescents, but not high-SES adolescents, offended more during periods in which their parents exercised more control than during other periods with less control. In contrast to earlier work, this finding suggests that monitoring could be least effective when needed most. Low-SES parents might not use monitoring effectively and become overcontrolling when their child goes astray. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Using Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Healthy Eating among Danish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Chan, Kara; Tsang, Lennon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to apply the theory of planned behavior to predict Danish adolescents' behavioral intention for healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster sample survey of 410 students aged 11 to 16 years studying in Grade 6 to Grade 10 was conducted in Denmark. Findings: Perceived behavioral control followed by…

  14. The Role of Parenting Styles in Predicting Anxiety Thoughts and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khanjani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parents interaction styles with children or teens have an important impact on shaping their character and mental health and the incidence of some psychiatric symptoms. The aim of this study was to predict anxiety thought and obsessive - compulsive symptoms of the adolescents based on parents' parenting styles. Methods: This was a descriptive study. 180 male students in Marand were selected by cluster random sampling. We used Baumrind parents parenting style questionnaire, Wales anxiety thoughts questionnaire and Maudsley obsessive- compulsive questionnaire. Data was analyzed by Pearson's correlation test and multiple regression analysis. Results: Data analysis showed that obsessive- compulsive symptoms and anxiety ideas were positively related to the authoritarian and permissive parenting styles and negatively related to authoritative parenting style. Parenting style is able to predict the level of obsessive - compulsive symptoms and adolescent anxiety ideas. Conclusion: The results showed that parents' parenting style is one of the influencing factors on adolescent health. Parents with authoritative parenting style, have the children with lower obsessive - compulsive symptoms and anxious thoughts.

  15. Multicontextual correlates of adolescent leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Dan J; Wall, Melanie M; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-06-01

    Adolescent moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is influenced by many factors. MVPA-promotion interventions would fare better if these multiple determinants were better understood. To simultaneously assess overall and relative contributions of factors from personal, family, friend, school, and neighborhood contexts to adolescent MVPA. It was hypothesized that (1) key correlates would emerge in each context and (2) factors from more- versus less-proximal contexts would relate more strongly to MVPA. Students in grades 6-12 (n=2,793; mean age=14.4 [SD=2.0] years; 53% girls) were recruited from 20 Minnesota public schools in 2009-2010 to participate in the Eating and Activity in Teens 2010 study. Regression analyses conducted in 2013 examined factors related to weekly MVPA. Data were collected from adolescent participants, their parents and friends, school teachers and administrators, and GIS sources. Fifty multicontextual factors explained 25% of MVPA variance for boys and 27% for girls. Personal factors (e.g., self-efficacy) were most predictive of MVPA, followed by social factors (e.g., support for PA); environmental factors (e.g., access to PA resources) were least predictive of adolescent PA. Gender differences emerged for several predictors (e.g., in mutually adjusted analyses, MVPA among girls, but not boys, related positively to distance to trails and MVPA among female friends and fathers, and related negatively to perceived barriers). Stronger linkages exist between adolescent MVPA and more-proximal (personal, family, and friend) factors compared to more-distal (school and neighborhood) factors, suggesting the importance of working with adolescents, their families, and friends to promote PA. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Basal blood DHEA-S/cortisol levels predicts EMDR treatment response in adolescents with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Mirac Baris; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Say, Gokce Nur; Bozkurt, Abdullah; Şahin, Berkan; Karabekiroğlu, Koray

    2018-04-01

    In literature, recent evidence has shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can be dysregulated in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and HPA axis hormones may predict the psychotherapy treatment response in patients with PTSD. In this study, it was aimed to investigate changing cortisol and DHEA-S levels post-eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy and the relationship between treatment response and basal cortisol, and DHEA-S levels before treatment. The study group comprised 40 adolescents (age, 12-18 years) with PTSD. The PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Child Depression Inventory (CDI) and Child Post-traumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPSRI) and the blood cortisol and DHEA-S were measured with the chemiluminescence method before and after treatment. A maximum of six sessions of EMDR therapy were conducted by an EMDR level-1 trained child psychiatry resident. Treatment response was measured by the pre- to post-treatment decrease in self-reported and clinical PTSD severity. Pre- and post-treatment DHEA-S and cortisol levels did not show any statistically significant difference. Pre-treatment CDI scores were negatively correlated with pre-treatment DHEA-S levels (r: -0.39). ROC analysis demonstrated that the DHEA-S/cortisol ratio predicts treatment response at a medium level (AUC: 0.703, p: .030, sensitivity: 0.65, specificity: 0.86). The results of this study suggested that the DHEA-S/cortisol ratio may predict treatment response in adolescents with PTSD receiving EMDR therapy. The biochemical parameter of HPA-axis activity appears to be an important predictor of positive clinical response in adolescent PTSD patients, and could be used in clinical practice to predict PTSD treatment in the future.

  17. Residential mobility during adolescence: Do even "upward" moves predict dropout risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Molly W; Fowler, Patrick J; Anderson, Courtney Lauren; Lindsay, Constance A

    2015-09-01

    This paper uses the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to investigate the impact of housing instability in adolescence on the likelihood of subsequent graduation from high school. Combining census data, self-reports, and information about respondents' residential changes, we use the variation in households' number of moves and neighborhood quality to predict whether participants obtain a high school diploma. Controlling for major predictors of housing mobility, students experiencing at least one move over a 12-month period have a roughly 50% decreased likelihood of obtaining a high school diploma by the age of 25. These associations are identified regardless of whether students move to a poorer or less-poor neighborhood. Our results carry implications for the development of housing policies and interventions designed for disadvantaged populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Academic performance among adolescents with behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Jin; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Cho, Seong-Jin; Kim, Seog Ju

    2015-01-15

    The present study investigated academic performance among adolescents with behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome (BISS) and attempted to identify independent predictors of academic performance among BISS-related factors. A total of 51 students with BISS and 50 without BISS were recruited from high schools in South Korea based on self-reported weekday sleep durations, weekend oversleep, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Participants reported their academic performance in the form of class quartile ranking. The Korean version of the Composite Scale (KtCS) for morningness/eveningness, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for depression, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-II (BIS-II) for impulsivity were administered. Adolescents with BISS reported poorer academic performance than adolescents without BISS (p = 0.02). Adolescents with BISS also exhibited greater levels of eveningness (p academic performance among adolescents with BISS even after controlling for ESS, KtCS, BDI, and BIS-II (β = 0.42, p academic performance and that sleep debt, as represented by weekend oversleep, predicts poorer academic performance independent of depression, impulsiveness, weekday sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and morningness/eveningness among adolescents with BISS. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  19. Predicting Time to Recovery Among Depressed Adolescents Treated in Two Psychosocial Group Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Kaufman, Noah K.; Clarke, Gregory N.; Stice, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Aims were to identify the demographic, psychopathology, and psychosocial factors predicting time to major depressive disorder (MDD) recovery and moderators of treatment among 114 depressed adolescents recruited from a juvenile justice center and randomized to a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) condition or a life skills-tutoring control…

  20. The Predictive Utility of Narcissism among Children and Adolescents: Evidence for a Distinction between Adaptive and Maladaptive Narcissism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Christopher T.; Frick, Paul J.; Adler, Kristy K.; Grafeman, Sarah J.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the predictive utility of narcissism among a community sample of children and adolescents (N=98) longitudinally. Analyses focused on the differential utility between maladaptive and adaptive narcissism for predicting later delinquency. Maladaptive narcissism significantly predicted self-reported delinquency at one-, two-, and…

  1. Body dissatisfaction prospectively predicts depressive mood and low self-esteem in adolescent girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Susan J; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J; Eisenberg, Marla E

    2006-12-01

    This research examined whether body dissatisfaction prospectively predicted depressive mood and low self-esteem in adolescent girls and boys 5 years later. Participants were early-adolescent girls (n = 440, Time 1 M age = 12.7 years) and boys (n = 366, Time 1 M age = 12.8 years) and midadolescent girls (n = 946, Time 1 M age = 15.8 years) and boys (n = 764, Time 1 M age = 15.9 years). After controlling for Time 1 of the relevant dependent variable, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and body mass index, Time 1 body dissatisfaction was a unique predictor of Time 2 depressive mood and low self-esteem in early-adolescent girls (depressive mood: F = 4.80, p self-esteem: F = 9.64, p p self-esteem: F = 9.38, p low self-esteem in both girls and boys but in different phases of adolescence.

  2. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed

    2016-07-01

    Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  3. Externalizing Problems in Childhood and Adolescence Predict Subsequent Educational Achievement but for Different Genetic and Environmental Reasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gary J.; Asbury, Kathryn; Plomin, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background: Childhood behavior problems predict subsequent educational achievement; however, little research has examined the etiology of these links using a longitudinal twin design. Moreover, it is unknown whether genetic and environmental innovations provide incremental prediction for educational achievement from childhood to adolescence.…

  4. Relationship among Translational Medicine, Evidence-Based Medicine and Precision Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Xin-en HUANG

    2016-01-01

    Translational medicine is a new concept in international medical field. It integrates experimental research results and clinical guidance into the optimal implementation criteria for promoting the prediction, prevention and treatment of diseases. Based on people’s higher demand for medicine and health, appearance of translational medicine changes the mode of medical research.Evidence-based medicine (EBM) refers to cautious and accurate application of the current best research evidence and com...

  5. Predictability of physiological testing and the role of maturation in talent identification for adolescent team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, D T; Naughton, G A; Torode, M

    2006-08-01

    Entrepreneurial marketing of sport increases demands on sport development officers to identify talented individuals for specialist development at the youngest possible age. Talent identification results in the streamlining of resources to produce optimal returns from a sports investment. However, the process of talent identification for team sports is complex and success prediction is imperfect. The aim of this review is to describe existing practices in physiological tests used for talent identification in team sports and discuss the impact of maturity-related differences on the long term outcomes particularly for male participants. Maturation is a major confounding variable in talent identification during adolescence. A myriad of hormonal changes during puberty results in physical and physiological characteristics important for sporting performance. Significant changes during puberty make the prediction of adult performance difficult from adolescent data. Furthermore, for talent identification programs to succeed, valid and reliable testing procedures must be accepted and implemented in a range of performance-related categories. Limited success in scientifically based talent identification is evident in a range of team sports. Genetic advances challenge the ethics of talent identification in adolescent sport. However, the environment remains a significant component of success prediction in sport. Considerations for supporting talented young male athletes are discussed.

  6. Self-reported recurrent pain and medicine use behaviours among 15-year olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobina, I; Villberg, J; Villerusa, A

    2015-01-01

    -old adolescents internationally; (2) to investigate the association between recurrent pain and medicine use behaviours among boys and girls; and (3) to evaluate the consistency of these associations across countries. METHODS: The World Health Organization (WHO) collaborative international Health Behaviour......BACKGROUND: There is considerable variation in adolescent pain prevalence across epidemiological studies, with limited information on pain-related behaviours among adolescents, including medicine use. The aims of this study were (1) to examine the prevalence of recurrent pain among 15-year...... in School-aged Children 2009/2010 study collects data about self-reported aches and medicine use from 36,762 15-year-old adolescents from 22 countries/regions in Europe and the United States. Multi-level multivariate logistic regression, stratified by gender, was used to analyse the association between...

  7. Factors Predicting the Physical Activity Behavior of Female Adolescents: A Test of the Health Promotion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Mohamadian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesPhysical activity behavior begins to decline during adolescence and continues to decrease throughout young adulthood. This study aims to explain factors that influence physical activity behavior in a sample of female adolescents using a health promotion model framework.MethodsThis cross-sectional survey was used to explore physical activity behavior among a sample of female adolescents. Participants completed measures of physical activity, perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem, social support, perceived barriers, and perceived affect. Interactions among the variables were examined using path analysis within a covariance modeling framework.ResultsThe final model accounted for an R2 value of 0.52 for physical activity and offered a good model-data fit. The results indicated that physical activity was predicted by self-esteem (β=0.46, p<0.001, perceived self-efficacy (β=0.40, p<0.001, social support (β=0.24, p<0.001, perceived barriers (β=-0.19, p<0.001, and perceived affect (β=0.17, p<0.001.ConclusionsThe findings of this study showed that the health promotion model was useful to predict physical activity behavior among the Iranian female adolescents. Information related to the predictors of physical activity behavior will help researchers plan more tailored culturally relevant health promotion interventions for this population.

  8. Predicting Bullying: Exploring the Contributions of Childhood Negative Life Experiences in Predicting Adolescent Bullying Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Nadine M; Morris, Robert G; Piquero, Alex R

    2016-07-01

    Although there has been much interest in research on aggression and in particular bullying, a relatively less charted area of research has centered on articulating a better understanding of the mechanisms and processes by which persons are at increased risk for bullying. Furthermore, those studies that have investigated the linkages between childhood experiences and bullying perpetration have been limited with respect to definitional and operational issues, reliance on cross-sectional data, and the lack of assessing competing explanations of bullying perpetration. Using five waves of data from a community-based longitudinal sample of children followed through age 18 (N = 763), the current study examines the extent to which childhood negative life events in a variety of domains predict adolescent bullying. Results show that early childhood experiences, particularly those within the family and school domains, may alter life trajectories and can act as predictors for later adolescent bullying, thereby underscoring the potential importance that relatively minor experiences can have over the long term. Implications for future research based on these analyses are examined. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. The dopamine receptor D4 gene and familial loading interact with perceived parenting in predicting externalizing behavior problems in early adolescence: the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsman, Rianne; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ormel, Johan; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2013-08-30

    Although externalizing behavior problems show in general a high stability over time, the course of externalizing behavior problems may vary from individual to individual. Our main goal was to investigate the predictive role of parenting on externalizing behavior problems. In addition, we investigated the potential moderating role of gender and genetic risk (operationalized as familial loading of externalizing behavior problems (FLE), and presence or absence of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) 7-repeat and 4-repeat allele, respectively). Perceived parenting (rejection, emotional warmth, and overprotection) and FLE were assessed in a population-based sample of 1768 10- to 12-year-old adolescents. Externalizing behavior problems were assessed at the same age and 212 years later by parent report (CBCL) and self-report (YSR). DNA was extracted from blood samples. Parental emotional warmth predicted lower, and parental overprotection and rejection predicted higher levels of externalizing behavior problems. Whereas none of the parenting factors interacted with gender and the DRD4 7-repeat allele, we did find interaction effects with FLE and the DRD4 4-repeat allele. That is, the predictive effect of parental rejection was only observed in adolescents from low FLE families and the predictive effect of parental overprotection was stronger in adolescents not carrying the DRD4 4-repeat allele. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Eating in the absence of hunger during childhood predicts self-reported binge eating in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balantekin, Katherine N; Birch, Leann L; Savage, Jennifer S

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were to examine whether eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) at age 7 predicted reports of self-reported binge eating at age 15 and to identify factors among girls with high-EAH that moderated risk of later binge eating. Subjects included 158 girls assessed at age 7 and age 15. Logistic regression was used to predict binge eating at age 15 from calories consumed during EAH at age 7. A series of logistic regressions were used to examine the odds of reporting binge eating given levels of risk factors (e.g., anxiety) among those with high-EAH in childhood. Girls' EAH intake predicted reports of binge eating at age 15; after adjusting for age 7 BMI, for each additional 100kcal consumed, girls were 1.7 times more likely to report binge eating in adolescence. Among those with high-EAH, BMI, anxiety, depression, dietary restraint, emotional disinhibition, and body dissatisfaction all predicted binge eating. EAH during childhood predicted reports of binge eating during adolescence; girls with elevated BMI, negative affect, and maladaptive eating- and weight-related cognitions were at increased risk. High-EAH in childhood may be useful for indicating those at risk for developing binge eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fat-free mass prediction equations for bioelectric impedance analysis compared to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in obese adolescents: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofsteenge, Geesje H; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Weijs, Peter J M

    2015-10-15

    In clinical practice, patient friendly methods to assess body composition in obese adolescents are needed. Therefore, the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) related fat-free mass (FFM) prediction equations (FFM-BIA) were evaluated in obese adolescents (age 11-18 years) compared to FFM measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (FFM-DXA) and a new population specific FFM-BIA equation is developed. After an overnight fast, the subjects attended the outpatient clinic. After measuring height and weight, a full body scan by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and a BIA measurement was performed. Thirteen predictive FFM-BIA equations based on weight, height, age, resistance, reactance and/or impedance were systematically selected and compared to FFM-DXA. Accuracy of FFM-BIA equations was evaluated by the percentage adolescents predicted within 5% of FFM-DXA measured, the mean percentage difference between predicted and measured values (bias) and the Root Mean Squared prediction Error (RMSE). Multiple linear regression was conducted to develop a new BIA equation. Validation was based on 103 adolescents (60% girls), age 14.5 (sd1.7) years, weight 94.1 (sd15.6) kg and FFM-DXA of 56.1 (sd9.8) kg. The percentage accurate estimations varied between equations from 0 to 68%; bias ranged from -29.3 to +36.3% and RMSE ranged from 2.8 to 12.4 kg. An alternative prediction equation was developed: FFM = 0.527 * H(cm)(2)/Imp + 0.306 * weight - 1.862 (R(2) = 0.92, SEE = 2.85 kg). Percentage accurate prediction was 76%. Compared to DXA, the Gray equation underestimated the FFM with 0.4 kg (55.7 ± 8.3), had an RMSE of 3.2 kg, 63% accurate prediction and the smallest bias of (-0.1%). When split by sex, the Gray equation had the narrowest range in accurate predictions, bias, and RMSE. For the assessment of FFM with BIA, the Gray-FFM equation appears to be the most accurate, but 63% is still not at an acceptable accuracy level for obese adolescents. The new equation appears to

  12. Neuroscience of inhibition for addiction medicine: from prediction of initiation to prediction of relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Scott J; Bederson, Lucia; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2016-01-01

    A core deficit in drug addiction is the inability to inhibit maladaptive drug-seeking behavior. Consistent with this deficit, drug-addicted individuals show reliable cross-sectional differences from healthy nonaddicted controls during tasks of response inhibition accompanied by brain activation abnormalities as revealed by functional neuroimaging. However, it is less clear whether inhibition-related deficits predate the transition to problematic use, and, in turn, whether these deficits predict the transition out of problematic substance use. Here, we review longitudinal studies of response inhibition in children/adolescents with little substance experience and longitudinal studies of already addicted individuals attempting to sustain abstinence. Results show that response inhibition and its underlying neural correlates predict both substance use outcomes (onset and abstinence). Neurally, key roles were observed for multiple regions of the frontal cortex (e.g., inferior frontal gyrus, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). In general, less activation of these regions during response inhibition predicted not only the onset of substance use, but interestingly also better abstinence-related outcomes among individuals already addicted. The role of subcortical areas, although potentially important, is less clear because of inconsistent results and because these regions are less classically reported in studies of healthy response inhibition. Overall, this review indicates that response inhibition is not simply a manifestation of current drug addiction, but rather a core neurocognitive dimension that predicts key substance use outcomes. Early intervention in inhibitory deficits could have high clinical and public health relevance. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Are adolescents with internet addiction prone to aggressive behavior? The mediating effect of clinical comorbidities on the predictability of aggression in adolescents with internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jae-A; Gwak, Ah Reum; Park, Su Mi; Kwon, Jun-Gun; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Kim, Jae-Won; Kim, Dai Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have reported associations between aggression and Internet addiction disorder (IAD), which has also been linked with anxiety, depression, and impulsiveness. However, the causal relationship between aggression and IAD has thus far not been clearly demonstrated. This study was designed to (a) examine the association between aggression and IAD and (b) investigate the mediating effects of anxiety, depression, and impulsivity in cases in which IAD predicts aggression or aggression predicts IAD. A total of 714 middle school students in Seoul, South Korea, were asked to provide demographic information and complete the Young's Internet Addiction Test (Y-IAT), the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Conners-Wells Adolescent Self-Report Scale. Three groups were identified based on the Y-IAT: the usual user group (n=487, 68.2%), the high-risk group (n=191, 26.8%), and the Internet addiction group (n=13, 1.8%). The data revealed a linear association between aggression and IAD such that one variable could be predicted by the other. According to the path analysis, the clinical scales (BAI, BDI, and CASS) had partial or full mediating effects on the ability of aggression to predict IAD, but the clinical scales had no mediating effect on the ability of IAD to predict aggression. The current findings suggest that adolescents with IAD seem to have more aggressive dispositions than do normal adolescents. If more aggressive individuals are clinically prone to Internet addiction, early psychiatric intervention may contribute to the prevention of IAD.

  14. Dominant Goal Orientations Predict Differences in Academic Achievement during Adolescence through Metacognitive Self-Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Sanne; Krabbendam, Lydia; Lee, Nikki; Boschloo, Annemarie; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether academic achievement was predicted by the goal which generally drives a student’s learning behaviour. Secondly, the role of metacognitive self-regulation was examined. The dominant goal orientation was assessed using a new method. 735 adolescents aged 10-19 years read

  15. Tipping points in adolescent adjustment: predicting social functioning from adolescents' conflict with parents and friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Katherine B; Dykas, Matthew J; Cassidy, Jude

    2012-10-01

    Despite widespread interest in examining the role of conflict for adolescent development, researchers only rarely have examined adolescents' experiences of conflict across relationships. The present study examined how adolescents' experiences of conflict with parents and friends were linked to their social functioning. Adolescents (n = 189) and their mothers and fathers participated in semistructured discussions about areas of parent-adolescent conflict in the laboratory. In addition, adolescents reported about conflict in their best friendships, and peers reported about adolescents' social acceptance and behavior in social settings. Parent-adolescent conflict was associated with peer-reported aggression and delinquency, and friendship conflict was associated with delinquency and prosocial behavior. In addition, significant Parent-Adolescent Conflict × Friend-Adolescent Conflict interactions revealed that parent-adolescent conflict was associated with poor social functioning only when conflict with best friends was also high. The findings suggest that consideration of conflict across relationships may yield insight into the specific contexts in which conflict is associated with negative outcomes for adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. The lone gamer: Social exclusion predicts violent video game preferences and fuels aggressive inclinations in adolescent players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Riva, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    Violent video game playing has been linked to a wide range of negative outcomes, especially in adolescents. In the present research, we focused on a potential determinant of adolescents' willingness to play violent video games: social exclusion. We also tested whether exclusion can predict increased aggressiveness following violent video game playing. In two experiments, we predicted that exclusion could increase adolescents' preferences for violent video games and interact with violent game playing fostering adolescents' aggressive inclinations. In Study 1, 121 adolescents (aged 10-18 years) were randomly assigned to a manipulation of social exclusion. Then, they evaluated the violent content of nine different video games (violent, nonviolent, or prosocial) and reported their willingness to play each presented video game. The results showed that excluded participants expressed a greater willingness to play violent games than nonviolent or prosocial games. No such effect was found for included participants. In Study 2, both inclusionary status and video game contents were manipulated. After a manipulation of inclusionary status, 113 adolescents (aged 11-16 years) were randomly assigned to play either a violent or a nonviolent video game. Then, they were given an opportunity to express their aggressive inclinations toward the excluders. Results showed that excluded participants who played a violent game displayed the highest level of aggressive inclinations than participants who were assigned to the other experimental conditions. Overall, these findings suggest that exclusion increases preferences for violent games and that the combination of exclusion and violent game playing fuels aggressive inclinations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The nonlinear dynamics of family problem solving in adolescence: the predictive validity of a peaceful resolution attractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J; Forgatch, Marion; Van Ryzin, Mark; Winter, Charlotte

    2012-07-01

    In this study we examined the videotaped family interactions of a community sample of adolescents and their parents. Youths were assessed in early to late adolescence on their levels of antisocial behavior. At age 16-17, youths and their parents were videotaped interacting while completing a variety of tasks, including family problem solving. The interactions were coded and compared for three developmental patterns of antisocial behavior: early onset, persistent; adolescence onset; and typically developing. The mean duration of conflict bouts was the only interaction pattern that discriminated the 3 groups. In the prediction of future antisocial behavior, parent and youth reports of transition entropy and conflict resolution interacted to account for antisocial behavior at age 18-19. Families with low entropy and peaceful resolutions predicted low levels of youth antisocial behavior at age 18-19. These findings suggest the need to study both attractors and repellers to understand family dynamics associated with health and social and emotional development.

  18. Do psychopathic traits assessed in mid-adolescence predict mental health, psychosocial, and antisocial, including criminal outcomes, over the subsequent 5 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphälä, Malin; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether psychopathic traits assessed in mid-adolescence predicted mental health, psychosocial, and antisocial (including criminal) outcomes 5 years later and would thereby provide advantages over diagnosing conduct disorder (CD). Eighty-six women and 61 men were assessed in mid-adolescence when they first contacted a clinic for substance misuse and were reassessed 5 years later. Assessments in adolescence include the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version (PCL-YV), and depending on their age, either the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children or the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (SCID). Assessments in early adulthood included the SCID, self-reports of psychosocial functioning, aggressive behaviour, and criminality and official criminal records. The antisocial facet score positively predicted the number of anxiety symptoms and likelihood of receiving treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs). Lifestyle and antisocial facet scores negatively predicted Global Assessment of Functioning scores. By contrast, the interpersonal score and male sex independently and positively predicted the number of months worked or studied, as did the interaction of Lifestyle × Sex indicating that among men, but not women, an increase in lifestyle facet score was associated with less time worked or studied. Interpersonal and antisocial scores positively predicted school drop-out. Antisocial facet scores predicted the number of symptoms of antisocial personality disorder, alcohol and SUDs, and violent and nonviolent criminality but much more strongly among males than females. Predictions from numbers of CD symptoms were similar. Psychopathic traits among adolescents who misuse substances predict an array of outcomes over the subsequent 5 years. Information on the levels of these traits may be useful for planning treatment.

  19. Prediction of sport adherence through the influence of autonomy-supportive coaching among spanish adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro, Bartolomé J; Sáenz-López, Pedro; Moreno, Juan A

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a motivational model of the coach-athlete relationship, based on self-determination theory and on the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The sample comprised of 608 athletes (ages of 12-17 years) completed the following measures: interest in athlete's input, praise for autonomous behavior, perceived autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and the intention to be physically active. Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that interest in athletes' input and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived autonomy, and perceived autonomy positively predicted intrinsic motivation. Finally, intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future. The results are discussed in relation to the importance of the climate of autonomy support created by the coach on intrinsic motivation and adherence to sport by adolescent athletes. Further, the results provide information related to the possible objectives of future interventions for the education of coaches, with the goal of providing them with tools and strategies to favor the development of intrinsic motivation among their athletes. In conclusion, the climate of autonomy support created by the coach can predict the autonomy perceived by the athletes which predicts the intrinsic motivation experienced by the athletes, and therefore, their adherence to athletic practice. Key pointsImportance of the climate of autonomy support created by the coach on intrinsic motivation and adherence to sport by adolescent athletes.Interest in athletes' input and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived autonomy, and perceived autonomy positively predicted intrinsic motivation.Intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future.

  20. Predicting violent behavior: The role of violence exposure and future educational aspirations during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Sarah A; Heinze, Justin E; Choe, Daniel Ewon; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2015-10-01

    Few researchers have explored future educational aspirations as a promotive factor against exposure to community violence in relation to adolescents' violent behavior over time. The present study examined the direct and indirect effect of exposure to community violence prior to 9th grade on attitudes about violence and violent behavior in 12th grade, and violent behavior at age 22 via 9th grade future educational aspirations in a sample of urban African American youth (n = 681; 49% male). Multi-group SEM was used to test the moderating effect of gender. Exposure to violence was associated with lower future educational aspirations. For boys, attitudes about violence directly predicted violent behavior at age 22. For boys, future educational aspirations indirectly predicted less violent behavior at age 22. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Body mass index for predicting hyperglycemia and serum lipid changes in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana Carolina R; Alvarez, Marlene M; Kanaan, Salim; Sichieri, Rosely; Veiga, Gloria V

    2009-02-01

    To determine the best cut-offs of body mass index for identifying alterations of blood lipids and glucose in adolescents. A probabilistic sample including 577 adolescent students aged 12-19 years in 2003 (210 males and 367 females) from state public schools in the city of Niterói, Southeastern Brazil, was studied. The Receiver Operating Characteristic curve was used to identify the best age-adjusted BMI cut-off for predicting high levels of serum total cholesterol (> or =150 mg/dL), LDL-C (> or =100 mg/dL), serum triglycerides (> or =100 mg/dL), plasma glucose (> 100 mg/dL) and low levels of HDL-C (international and two American. The most prevalent metabolic alterations (>50%) were: high total cholesterol and low HDL-C. BMI predicted high levels of triglycerides in males, high LDL-C in females, and high total cholesterol and the occurrence of three or more metabolic alterations in both males and females (areas under the curve range: 0.59 to 0.67), with low sensitivity (57%-66%) and low specificity (58%-66%). The best BMI cut-offs for this sample (20.3 kg/m(2) to 21.0 kg/m(2)) were lower than those proposed in the references studied. Although BMI values lower than the International cut-offs were better predictor of some metabolic abnormalities in Brazilian adolescents, overall BMI is not a good predictor of these abnormalities in this population.

  2. The accuracy of body mass prediction for elderly specimens: Implications for paleoanthropology and legal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Tony; Lefèvre, Philippe; Clarys, Jan Pieter; Beauthier, Jean-Pol

    2016-10-01

    Different practices in paleoanthropology and legal medicine raise questions concerning the robustness of body mass (BM) prediction. Integrating personal identification from body mass estimation with skeleton is not a classic approach in legal medicine. The originality of our study is the use of an elderly sample in order to push prediction methods to their limits and to discuss about implications in paleoanthropology and legal medicine. The aim is to observe the accuracy of BM prediction in relation to the body mass index (BMI, index of classification) using five femoral head (FH) methods and one shaft (FSH) method. The sample is composed of 41 dry femurs obtained from dissection where age (c. 82 years) and gender are known, and weight (c. 59.5 kg) and height are measured upon admission to the body leg service. We show that the estimation of the mean BM of the elderly sample is not significantly different to the real mean BM when the appropriate formula is used for the femoral head diameter. In fact, the best prediction is obtained with the McHenry formula (1992), which was based on a sample with an equivalent average mass to that of our sample. In comparison, external shaft diameters, which are known to be more influenced by mechanical stimuli than femoral head diameters, yield less satisfactory results with the McHenry formula (1992) for shaft diameters. Based on all the methods used and the distinctive selected sample, overestimation (always observed with the different femoral head methods) can be restricted to 1.1%. The observed overestimation with the shaft method can be restricted to 7%. However, the estimation of individual BM is much less reliable. The BMI has a strong impact on the accuracy of individual BM prediction, and is unquestionably more reliable for individuals with normal BMI (9.6% vs 16.7% for the best prediction error). In this case, the FH method is also the better predictive method but not if we integrate the total sample (i.e., the FSH

  3. Dispositional mindfulness is predicted by structural development of the insula during late adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Friedel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a critical period of development, in which the increasing social and cognitive demands of independence need to be met by enhanced self-regulatory abilities. The cultivation of mindfulness has been associated with improved self-regulation in adult populations, and it is theorized that one neurodevelopmental mechanism that supports this capacity is the development of the prefrontal cortex. The current study examined the neurodevelopmental mechanisms associated with dispositional mindfulness in adolescence. Using a longitudinal within-persons design, 82 participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI assessments at approximately ages 16 and 19, and also completed self-reported measurements of mindfulness at age 19. It was hypothesized that adolescents who demonstrated greater thinning of frontal cortical regions between the age of 16 and 19 would exhibit higher dispositional mindfulness levels at age 19. Results indicated that, contrary to predictions, adolescents with higher levels of mindfulness demonstrated less thinning in the left anterior insula. By contrast, higher IQ was associated with greater thinning of the right caudal middle frontal and right superior frontal regions. The involvement of insula development in mindfulness is consistent with a direct role for this structure in managing self-regulation, and in doing so concords with recent models of self-referential interoceptive awareness.

  4. Prescribing patterns of medicine classified as 'antidepressants' in South African children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanita R. Burger

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to characterise prescribing patterns of medicine classified as 'antidepressants' (hereafter simply referred to as antidepressants in children and adolescents in the private health care sector of South Africa. A retrospective drug utilisation design was used to identify patients aged 19 years and younger from a South African pharmaceutical benefit management company’s database, whom were issued at least one antidepressant between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2006. Prescribed daily dosages (PDDs were calculated using the Statistical Analysis System® program. A total of 1 013 patients received a mean number of 2.88 (SD 3.04 prescriptions per patient. Females received more prescriptions than their male counterparts, with the highest prevalence in the 15 ≤ 19 years age group. The pharmacological groups most prescribed were the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (43.0% and the tricyclics (42.7%, with imipramine (22.04% and amitriptyline (19% as the most commonly prescribed drugs. Approximately 30% (n = 2 300 of all antidepressants in the study population were prescribed off-label. Amitriptyline and clomipramine were prescribed at daily dosages higher than recommended in children and adolescents aged 9 ≤ 15 years. Lithium, trimipramine, trazodone and sulpiride were prescribed at sub-therapeutic dosages in adolescents. This study provided insight in the prescribing patterns of medicine classified as antidepressants in South African children and adolescents. These drugs, however, have many indications. Further research is needed to determine reasons why specific drugs are prescribed in this population. Opsomming Die algemene doelstelling van hierdie studie was om die voorskrifpatrone van middels wat as 'antidepressante' geklassifiseer word (hierna verwys na as slegs antidepressante wat vir kinders en adolessente in die Suid-Afrikaanse private gesondheidsorgsektor voorgeskryf word, te beskryf. 'n

  5. Will personal values predict the development of smoking and drinking behaviors? A prospective cohort study of children and adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieh, Hsi-Ping; Wu, Wen-Chi; Luh, Dih-Ling; Yen, Lee-Lan; Hurng, Baai-Shyun; Chang, Hsing-Yi

    2016-12-01

    This study examined how personal values predict the development of smoking and drinking behaviors in adolescence. The longitudinal data of 1545 adolescents over a 6-year period were analyzed. The results showed that adolescents who valued health and academics had similarly lower odds of reporting cigarette and alcohol use and those who valued friends had significantly higher odds. While the odds increased over time, the trend on alcohol use lessened for adolescents who valued academics, while the trend accelerated for those who valued friends. The finding suggests the important role that personal values play in adolescent risk behavioral development.

  6. Burn! How implicit and explicit evaluation predict early adolescents' "hot sauce" aggression towards classroom peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansu, T.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    The current study examined to what extent early adolescents' implicit and explicit evaluations of a classmate predict (a) their own aggressive behavior toward that classmate and (b) their classmate's aggressive behavior toward them. Implicit and explicit peer evaluations were assessed among 148

  7. Personalized Cancer Medicine: Molecular Diagnostics, Predictive biomarkers, and Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez de Castro, D; Clarke, P A; Al-Lazikani, B; Workman, P

    2013-01-01

    The progressive elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of cancer has fueled the rational development of targeted drugs for patient populations stratified by genetic characteristics. Here we discuss general challenges relating to molecular diagnostics and describe predictive biomarkers for personalized cancer medicine. We also highlight resistance mechanisms for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitors in lung cancer. We envisage a future requiring the use of longitudinal genome sequencing and other omics technologies alongside combinatorial treatment to overcome cellular and molecular heterogeneity and prevent resistance caused by clonal evolution. PMID:23361103

  8. The nature of adolescent competencies predicted by preschool delay of gratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischel, W; Shoda, Y; Peake, P K

    1988-04-01

    Delay of gratification, assessed in a series of experiments when the subjects were in preschool, was related to parental personality ratings obtained a decade later for 95 of these children in adolescence. Clear and consistent patterns of correlations between self-imposed delay time in preschool and later ratings were found for both sexes over this time span. Delay behavior predicted a set of cognitive and social competencies and stress tolerance consistent with experimental analyses of the process underlying effective delay in the preschool delay situation. Specifically, children who were able to wait longer at age 4 or 5 became adolescents whose parents rated them as more academically and socially competent, verbally fluent, rational, attentive, planful, and able to deal well with frustration and stress. Comparisons with related longitudinal research using other delay situations help to clarify the important features of the situations and person variables involved in different aspects of delay of gratification.

  9. Dream recall and its relationship to sleep, perceived stress, and creativity among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Beck, Johannes; Kalak, Nadeem; Gerber, Markus; Kirov, Roumen; Pühse, Uwe; Hatzinger, Martin; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2011-11-01

    To explore associations between dream recall, gender, sleep, perceived stress, and creativity in a large sample of adolescents. In adults, women report a higher frequency of dream recall than men. Moreover, increased awakenings seem to increase dream recall, whereas low sleep quality is associated with low dream recall. In addition, there is some evidence that dream recall is associated with personality traits such as creativity. For adolescents, comparable data from larger samples are missing to date. A total of 5,580 adolescents (mean age: 18.23 years; 3,711 females and 1,869 males) participated in the present study. Participants completed an Internet-administered questionnaire related to dreaming, sleep, perceived stress, and creativity. As compared with males, female adolescents reported a higher dream recall rate and felt a stronger impact of dreams on the subsequent day. Female adolescents also described themselves as more creative, and reported suffering more from sleep complaints and perceived stress. Multiple regression analyses further revealed that increased dream recall was independently predicted by factors such as female gender, sleep quality, and creativity, whereas perceived stress, awakenings during the night, and sleep duration had no predictive value. Similar to the findings of studies conducted on adults, dream recall was also associated with female gender in a large sample of adolescents. Additionally, it seemed that several different factors such as good mood, increased sleep quality, and creativity influenced dream recall. These results can provide a basis for better understanding the psychology of dreams in adolescence. In contrast to nightmares, recalling dreaming is associated with health and well-being. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A systematic review of the Ayurvedic medicinal herb Bacopa monnieri in child and adolescent populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, James D; Downey, Luke A; Stough, Con

    2016-12-01

    Clinicians utilise critical research to advance their knowledge when prescribing standard and alternative therapies for developmental disorders. Recent research has reported that the traditional Ayurvedic medicine Bacopa monnieri may improve cognitive outcomes in adult populations; however, few studies have investigated its benefits in younger cohorts. The aim of the current review is to systematically assess and critically summarize clinical trial outcomes and safety of Bacopa and its effects on the cognition and behaviour in children and adolescents. PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Google and CINAHL were searched up to August 2015 for trials investigating Bacopa monnieri in child and adolescent populations. There were no restrictions in study design. Cognitive and behavioural outcomes were grouped into validated constructs and effect sizes were calculated for all significant data to allow for direct comparisons. Five studies met inclusion criteria for this review. The results demonstrated significant consistent improvements in the language behaviour cognitive domain and in a number of the memory sub-domains. Significant improvements were also seen in hyperactivity and attention-deficit domains. Overall outcome data demonstrated small to medium effect sizes (mean d=0.42). Safety and tolerability data was well reported for 80% of studies with only 2.3% of all participants reporting mild side-effects. This review highlights the safe use of Bacopa monnieri in child and adolescent populations for improving elements of cognition as well as behaviour and attention-deficit domains. However, there is a significant need for replicated study designs and stringent statistical analysis to validate these outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Utility of the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior for predicting Chinese adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qian; Johnson, C Anderson; Unger, Jennifer B; Lee, Liming; Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Palmer, Paula H; Sun, Ping; Gallaher, Peggy; Pentz, MaryAnn

    2007-05-01

    One third of smokers worldwide live in China. Identifying predictors of smoking is important for prevention program development. This study explored whether the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) predict adolescent smoking in China. Data were obtained from 14,434 middle and high school students (48.6% boys, 51.4% girls) in seven geographically varied cities in China. TRA and TPB were tested by multilevel mediation modeling, and compared by multilevel analyses and likelihood ratio tests. Perceived behavioral control was tested as a main effect in TPB and a moderation effect in TRA. The mediation effects of smoking intention were supported in both models (p<0.001). TPB accounted for significantly more variance than TRA (p<0.001). Perceived behavioral control significantly interacted with attitudes and social norms in TRA (p<0.001). Therefore, TRA and TPB are applicable to China to predict adolescent smoking. TPB is superior to TRA for the prediction and TRA can better predict smoking among students with lower than higher perceived behavioral control.

  12. Predicting Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration: Role of Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence and Parenting Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzman, Natasha E; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Holditch Niolon, Phyllis; Ghazarian, Sharon R

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to adult intimate partner violence (IPV) places youth at risk for a range of outcomes, including perpetration of adolescent dating violence (ADV). However, there is variability in the effect of IPV exposure, as many youth who are exposed to IPV do not go on to exhibit problems. Thus, research is needed to examine contextual factors, such as parenting practices, to more fully explain heterogeneity in outcomes and better predict ADV perpetration. The current research draws from a multisite study to investigate the predictive power of IPV exposure and parenting practices on subsequent ADV perpetration. Participants included 417 adolescents (48.7% female) drawn from middle schools in high-risk, urban communities. IPV exposure, two types of parenting practices (positive parenting/involvement and parental knowledge of their child's dating), and five types of ADV perpetration (threatening behaviors, verbal/emotional abuse, relational abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse) were assessed at baseline (2012) and approximately 5 months later (2013) via adolescent report. Analyses (conducted in 2015) used a structural equation modeling approach. Structural models indicated that IPV exposure was positively related only to relational abuse at follow-up. Further, adolescents who reported parents having less knowledge of dating partners were more likely to report perpetrating two types of ADV (physical and verbal/emotional abuse) at follow-up. Analyses did not demonstrate any significant interaction effects. Results fill a critical gap in understanding of important targets to prevent ADV in middle school and highlight the important role that parents may play in ADV prevention. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. [Prediction instrument for obesity in adolescents at the Policlínico Universitario "Manuel González Díaz", 2013-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña Borrego, Carlos Enrique; Fernández Fernández, María de Lourdes; Fonte Rodríguez, Norge; Piña Rodríguez, Lorena Karla

    Obesity is one of the principal non declarable diseases affecting children and adolescents. With the objective of developing a predictive instrument to identify high-risk adolescents with obesity, a cohort prospective study was carried out at the Policlinic "Manuel González Díaz", Bahía Honda City from 2013-2014. It was developed in three stages. In the first stage, 1800 adolescents from 10-19 years of age were included. The prevalence was identified and the most relevant characteristics of obesity were described (defined as body mass index >97 th percentile according to age and sex). In the second stage we identified the possibility of the diagnosis of factors that increase the probability of obesity. The third stage elaborated and validated an obesity predictor instrument from the results of the initial stages. To apply the instrument to sample A for internal elaboration and validation, sensitivity was 77.78% and specificity was 86.11%. Area under the curve (AUC) receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was 0.86, whereas for sample B the sensitivity was 79.63% and specificity was 92.13%. Positive predictive value (PPV) was 83.5% and negative predictive value (NPV) was 90.05%. The instrument allows predicting the risk for developing obesity in adolescents with acceptable sensitivity and high specificity. Its routine application will be interesting in pediatric health consultations. Copyright © 2014 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. Attachment comes of age: adolescents' narrative coherence and reflective functioning predict well-being in emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Jessica L; Brugnera, Agostino; Zarbo, Cristina; Rabboni, Massimo; Bondi, Emi; Tasca, Giorgio A; Compare, Angelo

    2018-06-04

    This study investigated the effects of adolescents' attachment security and reflective functioning (RF) (assessed by the adult attachment interview [AAI]) in the prediction of well-being in adulthood. Adolescents (N = 79; M = 14.6 years old; SD = 3.5 years) completed the AAI at Time 1 (T1), which was subsequently coded for inferred attachment experiences, narrative coherence, and RF by three nonoverlapping teams of raters. Participants completed the Psychological General Well-being Index at T1 and 8 years later (Time 2, T2). Analyses showed that (a) both adolescent narrative coherence and RF were significant predictors of almost all indices of well-being at T2 in adulthood; (b) both narrative coherence and RF indirectly linked inferred loving parental care and T2 well-being; (c) when included in the same model, RF was a significant indirect effect linking inferred loving parental care and T2 well-being. These findings contribute to theory in suggesting that both RF and narrative coherence are predictive of subsequent psychological well-being and operate as links between inferred parental care and subsequent adjustment. Possible mechanisms underlying these findings are discussed.

  15. Application of social cognitive theory in predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors in overweight and obese Iranian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherniya, Mohammad; Sharma, Manoj; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to use social cognitive theory to predict overweight and obesity behaviors in adolescent girls in Iran. Valid and reliable questionnaires about nutritional and physical activity regarding social cognitive theory constructs (self-efficacy, social support, outcome expectations, and outcome expectancies), dietary habits, and physical activity were filled by 172 overweight and obese girl adolescents. The mean age and body mass index were 13.4 ± 0.6 years and 28.2 ± 3.6 kg/m(2), respectively. Body mass index was significantly related to hours of television viewing (p = .003) and grams of junk food (p = .001). None of the social cognitive theory constructs were found to be significant predictors for servings of fruits and vegetables, grams of junk foods, minutes of physical activity, and hours of sedentary behaviors. In future, more culturally appropriate models need to be developed in Iran that can explain and predict prevention behaviors of obesity in Iranian adolescents. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... House to prevent employers from denying coverage of contraceptives on the basis of moral objections. Call for JAH Editor-in-Chief SAHM has opened a call for a new editor-in-chief of its official scholarly journal, the Journal of Adolescent Health (JAH). Applications are due December 15, 2017 , ...

  17. Does Self-Determination Predict the School Engagement of Four Different Motivation Types in Adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raufelder, Diana; Regner, Nicola; Drury, Kate; Eid, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In order to enhance our understanding of inter-individual differences in scholastic motivation, this study examined if self-determination predicts the school engagement of four different motivation types (MT) in a large sample of adolescent students (N = 1088) from Brandenburg, Germany: (1) peer-dependent MT, (2) teacher-dependent MT, (3)…

  18. Childhood Psychopathology Predicts Adolescence-Onset Offending: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Nicole; Verhulst, Frank; van Marle, Hjalmar; van der Ende, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Moffitt, Caspi, Harrington, and Milne (2002) found in a follow-up study that many of the supposedly adolescence-limited offenders had committed offenses past adolescence. This finding raises the question of whether adulthood starts later or whether there are two distinct delinquency types, adolescence limited and adolescence onset, each with its…

  19. What predicts inattention in adolescents? An experience-sampling study comparing chronotype, subjective, and objective sleep parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Timo; Krkovic, Katarina; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-10-01

    Many adolescents sleep insufficiently, which may negatively affect their functioning during the day. To improve sleep interventions, we need a better understanding of the specific sleep-related parameters that predict poor functioning. We investigated to which extent subjective and objective parameters of sleep in the preceding night (state parameters) and the trait variable chronotype predict daytime inattention as an indicator of poor functioning. We conducted an experience-sampling study over one week with 61 adolescents (30 girls, 31 boys; mean age = 15.5 years, standard deviation = 1.1 years). Participants rated their inattention two times each day (morning, afternoon) on a smartphone. Subjective sleep parameters (feeling rested, positive affect upon awakening) were assessed each morning on the smartphone. Objective sleep parameters (total sleep time, sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset) were assessed with a permanently worn actigraph. Chronotype was assessed with a self-rated questionnaire at baseline. We tested the effect of subjective and objective state parameters of sleep on daytime inattention, using multilevel multiple regressions. Then, we tested whether the putative effect of the trait parameter chronotype on inattention is mediated through state sleep parameters, again using multilevel regressions. We found that short sleep time, but no other state sleep parameter, predicted inattention to a small effect. As expected, the trait parameter chronotype also predicted inattention: morningness was associated with less inattention. However, this association was not mediated by state sleep parameters. Our results indicate that short sleep time causes inattention in adolescents. Extended sleep time might thus alleviate inattention to some extent. However, it cannot alleviate the effect of being an 'owl'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prediction and constancy of cognitive-motivational structures in mothers and their adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerstein, A J; Ahern, M M; Pulos, S; Arasteh, J D

    1995-01-01

    Three clinically-derived, cognitive-motivational structures were predicted in 68 adolescents from their caregiving situations as revealed in their mothers' interviews, elicited six years earlier. Basic to each structure is a motivational concern and its related social cognitive style, a style which corresponds to a Piagetian cognitive stage: concrete operational, intuitive or symbolic. Because these structure types parse a non-clinical population, current views of health and accordingly goals of treatment may need modification.

  1. Poor self-control and harsh punishment in childhood prospectively predict borderline personality symptoms in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallquist, Michael N; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2015-08-01

    Developmental theories of borderline personality disorder (BPD) propose that harsh, invalidating parenting of a child with poor self-control and heightened negative emotionality often leads to a coercive cycle of parent-child transactions that increase risk for BPD symptoms such as emotion dysregulation. Although parenting practices and child temperament have previously been linked with BPD, less is known about the prospective influences of caregiver and child characteristics. Using annual longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Girls Study (n = 2,450), our study examined how reciprocal influences among harsh parenting, self-control, and negative emotionality between ages 5 and 14 predicted the development of BPD symptoms in adolescent girls ages 14 to 17. Consistent with developmental theories, we found that harsh punishment, poor self-control, and negative emotionality predicted BPD symptom severity at age 14. Only worsening self-control between ages 12 and 14, however, predicted growth in BPD symptoms from 14 to 17. Furthermore, the effects of harsh punishment and poor self-control on age 14 BPD symptoms were partially mediated by their earlier reciprocal effects on each other between ages 5 and 14. Our findings underscore the need to address both child and parental contributions to dysfunctional transactions in order to stem the development of BPD symptoms. Moreover, problems with self-regulation in early adolescence may indicate heightened risk for subsequent BPD. Altogether, these results increase our understanding of developmental trajectories associated with BPD symptoms in adolescent girls. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Can knowledge alone predict vegetable and fruit consumption among adolescents? A transtheoretical model perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hamid Hussein, Rania Abd

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition clearly plays a role during adolescent development. Nutritional habits are not in line with the recommendations among adolescents. Food habits that are seen more frequently among teens than in other age groups include irregular consumption of meals, and eating away from home (especially fast-food venues). In addition, many young people do not eat enough fruits and vegetables (FVs). We aimed at exploring the knowledge, attitude, and behavior toward FV consumption among adolescent Saudi girls, using a transtheoretical model (TTM). A cross-sectional study was conducted. The target group included adolescent girls aged 18-21 years, students at the Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, at King Abdulaziz University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Of a total sample of 205 participants, 73 were in the Clinical Nutrition Department. FV consumption was assessed among the whole sample, using a Food Frequency questionnaire, and then the TTM determinants were assessed. The study detected significant differences between the two groups with regard to vegetable consumption. The most frequently reported stage of change in the nutrition department was action maintenance with regard to FV consumption; self-efficacy and pros were the most significant positive predictors for FV consumption, whereas the department type (determining knowledge) had a negligible effect. Finally, we detected that TTM determinants of FV intake and their stages of change clustered. Knowledge alone cannot predict FV intake in adolescent girls. TTM stages of change and determinants seem to be somewhat related in FV consumption. Therefore, an integrated dietary change approach for both FV consumption is recommended among adolescents.

  3. Application of Theory of Planned Behavior in Predicting Factors of Substance Abuse in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Bashirian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Adolescence is the most critical period of life as regards commencing drug abuse. The social cost and damage caused by drug abuse in adolescence are enormous, necessitating interventional programs to prevent this behavior. The theory of planned behavior (TPB is perhaps the most influential theory for the prediction of social and health behaviors such as drug abuse.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, samples were collected from male students in four high schools in different regions of Hamedan. The survey was carried out via random cluster sampling of 650 students. Data were collected using the standard self-report questionnaires and were analyzed using SPSS16, chi-squared test, correlation coefficient, and logistic regression analysis.Results: Among the adolescents participating in this study, 11.1% had the experience of cigarette smoking, 3.4% had the experience of drug abuse, and 12% had the experience of intention to abuse drugs. There was a significant relationship between drug abuse and the following variables: smoking experience (p value =0.001, OR=27.238; having drug user parents (p value =0.001, OR=8.630; having friends who had experienced drug abuse (p value =0.001, OR=11.060; having best friends who had experienced drug abuse (p value = 0.001, OR=11.931; family with drug abuse (p value = 0.001, OR=4.311; and having a sibling who abused drugs (p value=0.001, OR=15.815. According to the logistic regression analysis, attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavior control were the most influential predictors of intention to abuse drugs.Conclusion: The use of TPB is beneficial in the predicting and planning for high-risk behaviors. TPB can be used for planning and implementing drug abuse prevention programs in adolescents.

  4. Multitasking With Television Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Claire G; Bickham, David; Ross, Craig S; Rich, Michael

    Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, we explored predictors of adolescents' television (TV) multitasking behaviors. We investigated whether demographic characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, and maternal education) predict adolescents' likelihood of multitasking with TV. We also explored whether characteristics of the TV-multitasking moment (affect, TV genre, attention to people, and media multitasking) predict adolescents' likelihood of paying primary versus secondary attention to TV. Demographic characteristics do not predict TV multitasking. In TV-multitasking moments, primary attention to TV was more likely if adolescents experienced negative affect, watched a drama, or attended to people; it was less likely if they used computers or video games.

  5. Medicine use among adolescents: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study Utilização de medicamentos por adolescentes: a visita de 11 anos da coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa D. Bertoldi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate medicine use and associated factors among adolescents. This was a prospective cohort study including 4,452 adolescents born in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 1993. Information on medicine use in the 15 days prior to the interviews was collected from the mothers. Overall prevalence of medicine use was 30.9%, and 64.7% of the medicines had been prescribed by a physician. The most frequently used pharmacological groups were medicines for the nervous (35.9% and respiratory systems (25.7%. Medicine use was directly associated with socioeconomic status, maternal schooling, complications during pregnancy or delivery, and neonatal problems resulting in the need for intensive care. Underweight and obese adolescents were more likely to use medicines as compared to those with normal body mass index. A direct association was observed between maternal use of hypnotic drugs and sedatives and adolescent medicine use. It is essential to implement educational policies aimed at promoting rational use of medicines by adolescents.O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o uso de medicamentos e fatores associados em adolescentes. Trata-se de estudo de coorte prospectivo, incluindo 4.452 adolescentes nascidos em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, em 1993. As informações sobre o uso de medicamentos pelo adolescente nos 15 dias anteriores à entrevista foram fornecidas pelas mães. A prevalência global de uso de medicamentos foi de 30,9%, sendo que destes, 64,7% foram indicados por médicos. Os grupos farmacológicos mais utilizados foram os medicamentos que atuam nos sistemas nervoso (35,9% e respiratório (25,7%. O uso de medicamentos esteve diretamente associado ao nível econômico, escolaridade da mãe, intercorrência na gravidez ou parto que gerou doença até a adolescência, problema de saúde no momento do nascimento que levou o recém-nascido à UTI, magreza e obesidade. Foi observada uma rela

  6. Physiological indicators of pathologic video game use in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Dyer, W Justin; Densley, Rebecca; Money, Nathan M; Day, Randal D; Harper, James M

    2015-03-01

    Pathologic video game use (PVGU) has been associated with a host of negative psychological, physical, and social outcomes during adolescence; however, little research has examined physiological predictors of such use. The purpose of the study was to examine physiological predictors of the development of PVGU across adolescence. The article involves a 1-year longitudinal study across midadolescence. Participants were 374 adolescents and their parents from a large metropolitan area in the Northwest United States. PVGU was assessed via questionnaire, as were a number of control variables. A number of physiological indicators including respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and galvanic skin conductance (indices of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system activity, respectively) were measured during baseline, a cognitively stimulating task (Rubik's cube), and a family problem-solving task. Less RSA withdrawal to a cognitively simulating task was related to greater pathologic video game symptoms, but less RSA withdrawal to a family problem-solving task was associated with the presence of pathologic video game symptoms (p video game symptoms (p < .01). These findings suggest that adolescents who do not find cognitive tasks stimulating physiologically have a greater severity of PVGU. Additionally, adolescents who show physiological signs of stress in a family task were more likely to have PVGU symptoms and only girls have more severe PVGU levels. This study is the first to show that physiological indicators predict PVGU over time in adolescence and has important implications regarding the prevention and treatment of PVGU in adolescence. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictive capacity of anthropometric indicators for dyslipidemia screening in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadros, Teresa Maria Bianchini; Gordia, Alex Pinheiro; Silva, Rosane Carla Rosendo; Silva, Luciana Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the predictive capacity of anthropometric indicators and their cut-off values for dyslipidemia screening in children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study involving 1139 children and adolescents, of both sexes, aged 6-18 years. Body weight, height, waist circumference, subscapular, and triceps skinfold thickness were measured. The body mass index and waist-to-height ratio were calculated. Children and adolescents exhibiting at least one of the following lipid alterations were defined as having dyslipidemia: elevated total cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein, elevated low-density lipoprotein, and high triglyceride concentration. A receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed and the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity was calculated for the parameters analyzed. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 62.1%. The waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference, subscapular, body mass index, and triceps skinfold thickness, in this order, presented the largest number of significant accuracies, ranging from 0.59 to 0.78. The associations of the anthropometric indicators with dyslipidemia were stronger among adolescents than among children. Significant differences between accuracies of the anthropometric indicators were only observed by the end of adolescence; the accuracy of waist-to-height ratio was higher than that of subscapular (p=0.048) for females, and the accuracy of waist circumference was higher than that of subscapular (p=0.029) and body mass index (p=0.012) for males. In general, the cut-off values of the anthropometric predictors of dyslipidemia increased with age, except for waist-to-height ratio. Sensitivity and specificity varied substantially between anthropometric indicators, ranging from 75.6 to 53.5 and from 75.0 to 50.0, respectively. The anthropometric indicators studied had little utility as screening tools for dyslipidemia, especially in children. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria

  8. The Role of Present Time Perspective in Predicting Early Adolescent Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Carrothers, Jessica; Franzen, Susan P; Miller, Alison L; Reischl, Thomas M; Stoddard, Sarah A; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2018-06-01

    This study investigated the role of present and future time perspectives, and their relationships with subjective norms and beliefs regarding violence, in predicting violent behaviors among urban middle school students in the Midwestern United States. Although present time perspective covaried with subjective norms and beliefs, each made a unique prediction of self-reported violent behaviors. Future time perspective was not a significant predictor when accounting for these relationships. In addition, present orientation moderated the relationship between subjective norms and beliefs and rates of violent behaviors; those with higher present orientations exhibited stronger associations. We replicated this pattern of results in data from new participants in a subsequent wave of the study. Interventions that explicitly address issues related to time perspective may be effective in reducing early adolescent violence.

  9. Reciprocal Effects between Parental Solicitation, Parental Control, Adolescent Disclosure, and Adolescent Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan J. T.; VanderValk, Inge E.; Meeus, Wim

    2010-01-01

    This two-wave multi-informant study examined the bidirectional associations of parental control and solicitation with adolescent disclosure and delinquency. Participants were 289 adolescents (150 females and 139 males, modal age 14) and both parents. Parental solicitation and control did not predict adolescent delinquency, but adolescents'…

  10. Prediction of basal metabolic rate in obese children and adolescents considering pubertal stages and anthropometric characteristics or body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzer, S; Patrizi, A; De Col, A; Saezza, A; Sartorio, A

    2014-06-01

    To develop and crossvalidate new equations for predicting basal metabolic rate (BMR) in obese children and adolescents in relation to pubertal stages, anthropometric characteristics or body composition. A total of 1696 obese Caucasian children and adolescents (mean body mass index z-score: 3.5±0.8) participated in this study. BMR was determined by indirect calorimetry and fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Equations were derived by stepwise multiple regression analysis using a calibration cohort of 848 subjects, and the equations were crossvalidated with a Bland and Altman method in the remaining 848 subjects. Two new specific equations based on gender (1: males; 0: females), pubertal stages (from 1 to 5, assessed according Marshall & Tanner methods) and body weight (BW, kg), stature (m) or body composition (kg) were generated as follows: (1) BMR=(BW × 0.044)+(stature × 2.836)-(pubertal stage × 0.148)+(gender × 0.781)-0.551 (adjusted coefficient of determination (R(2)adj)= 0.69 and root mean squared error (RMSE)=0.954 MJ); (2) BMR=(FFM × 0.082)+(FM × 0.037)-(pubertal stage × 0.125)+(gender × 0.706)+2.528 (R(2)adj= 0.70 and RMSE=0.943 MJ). In the crossvalidation group, mean-predicted BMR was not significantly different from the mean-measured BMR (MBMR) for all children and adolescents, as well as for boys and girls (differenceBMR was predicted accurately (90-110% of MBMR) in 67% of subjects. The new prediction equations considering the pubertal stages allow an accurate and more appropriate (vs equations using chronological age) estimation of BMR in obese children and adolescents.

  11. Factors associated with body image distortion in Korean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun MY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mi-Yeul Hyun,1 Young-Eun Jung,2 Moon-Doo Kim,2 Young-Sook Kwak,2 Sung-Chul Hong,3 Won-Myong Bahk,4 Bo-Hyun Yoon,5 Hye Won Yoon,6 Bora Yoo61College of Nursing, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 2Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 3Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 4Department of Psychiatry, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea; 5Department of Psychiatry, Naju National Hospital, Naju, Korea; 6School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, KoreaPurpose: Body image incorporates cognitive and affective components as well as behaviors related to own body perception. This study evaluated the occurrence of body image distortion and its correlates in Korean adolescents.Methods: In a school-based cross-sectional survey, a total of 2,117 adolescents were recruited. They filled out self-completing questionnaires on body image distortion, eating attitudes, and behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26 and related factors.Results: Body image distortions were found in 51.8 percent of adolescents. Univariate analyses showed that boys and older adolescents had higher rates of body image distortion. In the multivariate analyses, body image distortion was associated with high risk for eating disorders (odds ratio [OR] =1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11–2.58; P=0.015 and being over weight (OR =33.27; 95% CI 15.51–71.35; P<0.001 or obese (OR =9.37; 95% CI 5.06–17.34; P<0.001.Conclusion: These results suggest that body image distortion is relatively common in Korean adolescents, which has implications for adolescents at risk of developing eating disorders.Keywords: body image distortion, high risk for eating disorders, Korean adolescent

  12. Can phylogeny predict chemical diversity and potential medicinal activity of plants? A case study of Amaryllidaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønsted, Nina; Symonds, Matthew R. E.; Birkholm, Trine

    2012-01-01

    a predictive approach enabling more efficient selection of plants for the development of traditional medicine and lead discovery. However, this relationship has rarely been rigorously tested and the potential predictive power is consequently unknown. Results: We produced a phylogenetic hypothesis......Background: During evolution, plants and other organisms have developed a diversity of chemical defences, leading to the evolution of various groups of specialized metabolites selected for their endogenous biological function. A correlation between phylogeny and biosynthetic pathways could offer...... for the medicinally important plant subfamily Amaryllidoideae (Amaryllidaceae) based on parsimony and Bayesian analysis of nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial DNA sequences of over 100 species. We tested if alkaloid diversity and activity in bioassays related to the central nervous system are significantly correlated...

  13. The interplay of parental monitoring and socioeconomic status in predicting minor delinquency between and within adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rekker, Roderik; Keijsers, L.G.M.T.; Branje, Susan; Koot, Hans; Meeus, W.H.J.

    This six-wave multi-informant longitudinal study on Dutch adolescents (N = 824; age 12 18) examined the interplay of socioeconomic status with parental monitoring in predicting minor delinquency. Fixed-effects negative binomial regression analyses revealed that this interplay is different within

  14. Misremembering Past Affect Predicts Adolescents' Future Affective Experience During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaze, Melissa M; Levine, Linda J; Schneider, Margaret

    2017-09-01

    Increasing physical activity among adolescents is a public health priority. Because people are motivated to engage in activities that make them feel good, this study examined predictors of adolescents' feelings during exercise. During the 1st semester of the school year, we assessed 6th-grade students' (N = 136) cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise. Participants also reported their affect during a cardiovascular fitness test and recalled their affect during the fitness test later that semester. During the 2nd semester, the same participants rated their affect during a moderate-intensity exercise task. Affect reported during the moderate-intensity exercise task was predicted by cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise and by misremembering affect during the fitness test as more positive than it actually was. This memory bias mediated the association between appraising exercise as important and experiencing a positive change in affect during the moderate-intensity exercise task. These findings highlight the roles of both cognitive appraisals and memory as factors that may influence affect during exercise. Future work should explore whether affect during exercise can be modified by targeting appraisals and memories related to exercise experiences.

  15. Do health complaints in adolescence negatively predict the chance of entering tertiary education in young adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Låftman, Sara B; Magnusson, Charlotta

    2017-12-01

    Self-reported psychological and psychosomatic health complaints, such as nervousness, sadness, headache and stomach-ache, are common among adolescents, particularly among girls, and studies suggest that the prevalence has risen among adolescent girls during the last few decades. However, only a limited number of studies have investigated the potential long-term consequences of such health complaints. The aim of the current study was to assess whether psychological and psychosomatic health complaints in adolescence predict the chance of entering tertiary education in young adulthood among women and men. The data used are from the Swedish Young-LNU, which is based on a nationally representative sample with self-reported survey information from adolescents aged 10-18 years in 2000 and from the same individuals at ages 20-28 in 2010 ( n=783). Information was also collected from parents and from official registers. Linear probability models showed that self-reported psychological complaints in adolescence were associated with a lower chance of having entered tertiary education 10 years later. This association was accounted for by differences in grade point average (GPA), suggesting that GPA may mediate the association between psychological complaints and later education. The pattern was similar for both genders. Furthermore, among men, psychosomatic complaints in adolescence were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of having entered tertiary education 10 years later when adjusting for GPA and social class in adolescence. A similar but non-significant tendency was found among women. The findings suggest that health complaints in adolescence may have long-term consequences in terms of lower educational attainment.

  16. Fat-free mass prediction equations for bioelectric impedance analysis compared to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in obese adolescents: a validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofsteenge, G.H.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Weijs, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In clinical practice, patient friendly methods to assess body composition in obese adolescents are needed. Therefore, the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) related fat-free mass (FFM) prediction equations (FFM-BIA) were evaluated in obese adolescents (age 11-18 years) compared to

  17. International Youth Justice Systems: Promoting Youth Development and Alternative Approaches: A Position Paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Youth incarceration is an international public health concern among developed and developing countries. Worldwide, youth are held in incarceration, detention, and other secure settings that are inappropriate for their age and developmental stages, jeopardizing their prosocial development, and reintegration into society. Youth incarceration lacks evidence and cost-effectiveness. The well-being of youth is a key indicator of the welfare of families, communities, and society at large; therefore, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) supports a paradigm shift in the role of the justice system as it relates to treatment of youth. SAHM recommends justice systems focus greater attention and resources on identifying and reducing the antecedents of high-risk and criminal behaviors, recognizing the rights and freedom of young persons, and prioritizing the well-being of youth over punitive measures that may harm and disrupt healthy adolescent development. SAHM supports the following positions: (1) incarceration is a last option for selected offenders who have committed the most serious violent crimes and are unable to remain safely in the community; (2) youth justice policies, programs, and practices affecting youth be evidence based and trauma informed; (3) youth justice policies, programs, and practices must incorporate research and ongoing program evaluation; (4) youth justice policies shall protect the privacy and dignity of children younger than 18 years; and (5) health care professionals and media will promote positive portrayals of youth in healthy relationships within their communities and reduce representations and images of youth that are negative, violent, deviant, and threatening. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Role of Family Functioning, Peer Attachment and Academic Performance in predicting of Happiness in Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salehzadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the role of family functioning (FF, academic performance (EP and peer attachment (PA in predicting of happiness adolescent girls. Therefore, 344 high school female students in Yazd were selected through multi-stage random sampling and were asked to complete the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, Family Assessment Device (FAD, and Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment. Students' grade point average was considered as the measure of academic performance.  The results of analysis of regression showed that all the subscales of family functioning and peers attachment and also academic performance have significant correlation with happiness yet only "the roles and relationships" of family performance and peers attachment could predict happiness. Attachment to peers was the strongest factor. However, academic performance did not have a significant role in prediction of student's happiness. In accordance with the findings of developmental psychology, peers and family are the two most important psychological constructs that have the most significant roles in predicting the happiness of adolescent girls. But academic performance did not have a significant role in predicting student's happiness, thereby it can challenge the social common belief in educational systems regarding the strong association between academic performance and well-being and happiness.

  19. Traditional Chinese medicine and new concepts of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine in diagnosis and treatment of suboptimal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Russell, Alyce; Yan, Yuxiang

    2014-02-13

    The premise of disease-related phenotypes is the definition of the counterpart normality in medical sciences. Contrary to clinical practices that can be carefully planned according to clinical needs, heterogeneity and uncontrollability is the essence of humans in carrying out health studies. Full characterization of consistent phenotypes that define the general population is the basis to individual difference normalization in personalized medicine. Self-claimed normal status may not represent health because asymptomatic subjects may carry chronic diseases at their early stage, such as cancer, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Currently, treatments for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) are implemented after disease onset, which is a very much delayed approach from the perspective of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine (PPPM). A NCD pandemic will develop and be accompanied by increased global economic burden for healthcare systems throughout both developed and developing countries. This paper examples the characterization of the suboptimal health status (SHS) which represents a new PPPM challenge in a population with ambiguous health complaints such as general weakness, unexplained medical syndrome (UMS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), post-viral fatigue syndrome (PVFS) and chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS). We applied clinical informatic approaches and developed a questionnaire-suboptimal health status questionnaire-25 (SHSQ-25) for measuring SHS. The validity and reliability of this approach were evaluated in a small pilot study and then in a cross-sectional study of 3,405 participants in China. We found a correlation between SHS and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, plasma glucose, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol among men, and a correlation between SHS and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides

  20. The interplay of parental monitoring and socioeconomic status in predicting minor delinquency between and within adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rekker, Roderik; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Koot, Hans M.; Meeus, Wim

    2017-01-01

    This six-wave multi-informant longitudinal study on Dutch adolescents (N = 824; age 12–18) examined the interplay of socioeconomic status with parental monitoring in predicting minor delinquency. Fixed-effects negative binomial regression analyses revealed that this interplay is different within

  1. Prediction by data mining, of suicide attempts in Korean adolescents: a national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bae SM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sung Man Bae,1 Seung A Lee,2 Seung-Hwan Lee2,3 1Department of Counseling Psychology, The Cyber University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea; 2Clinical Emotion and Cognition Research Laboratory, Goyang, South Korea; 3Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, South Korea Objective: This study aimed to develop a prediction model for suicide attempts in Korean adolescents.Methods: We conducted a decision tree analysis of 2,754 middle and high school students nationwide. We fixed suicide attempt as the dependent variable and eleven sociodemographic, intrapersonal, and extrapersonal variables as independent variables.Results: The rate of suicide attempts of the total sample was 9.5%, and severity of depression was the strongest variable to predict suicide attempt. The rates of suicide attempts in the depression and potential depression groups were 5.4 and 2.8 times higher than that of the non-depression group. In the depression group, the most powerful factor to predict a suicide attempt was delinquency, and the rate of suicide attempts in those in the depression group with higher delinquency was two times higher than in those in the depression group with lower delinquency. Of special note, the rate of suicide attempts in the depressed females with higher delinquency was the highest. Interestingly, in the potential depression group, the most impactful factor to predict a suicide attempt was intimacy with family, and the rate of suicide attempts of those in the potential depression group with lower intimacy with family was 2.4 times higher than that of those in the potential depression group with higher intimacy with family. And, among the potential depression group, middle school students with lower intimacy with family had a 2.5-times higher rate of suicide attempts than high school students with lower intimacy with family. Finally, in the non-depression group, stress level was the most powerful factor to

  2. Sleep Disturbance Predicts Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depressive Symptoms: A Cohort Study of Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fang; Zhou, Ya; Liu, Xianchen

    2017-07-01

    To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between sleep disturbance and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms in a large cohort of adolescents exposed to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. Participants were 1,573 adolescents (mean age at initial survey = 15.0 years, SD = 1.3 years; 46% male) in the Wenchuan Earthquake Adolescent Health Cohort (WEAHC) in Dujiangyan, China, 20 km away from the east epicenter. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Self-Rating Scale, and Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children were used to assess participants' sleep, PTSD symptoms, and depressive symptoms, respectively, at 12 months (T12m) and 24 months (T24m) after the Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on May 12, 2008. At T12m and T24m, 38.3% and 37.5% of participants reported sleep disturbance, 22.5% and 14.0% reported PTSD symptoms, and 41.0% and 38.3% reported depressive symptoms, respectively. The prevalence rates of PTSD and depressive symptoms at T12m and T24m significantly increased with sleep disturbance and short sleep duration. After adjusting for demographics, earthquake exposure, and PTSD/depressive symptoms at T12m, sleep disturbance at T12m was significantly associated with increased risk for PTSD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.80; 95% CI, 1.17-2.75) and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.14-2.02) at T24m. Furthermore, sleep disturbance predicted the persistence of PTSD (OR = 2.35; 95% CI, 1.43-3.85) and depressive symptoms (OR = 2.41; 95% CI, 1.80-3.24). Sleep disturbance, PTSD, and depressive symptoms were prevalent and persistent in adolescents at 12 and 24 months after exposure to the Wenchuan earthquake. Sleep disturbance predicts the development and persistence of PTSD and depressive symptoms. Early assessment and treatment of sleep disturbance may be an important strategy for prevention and intervention of PTSD and depression in adolescent trauma survivors. © Copyright 2017 Physicians

  3. Identification of Viscum album L. miRNAs and prediction of their medicinal values.

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    Wenyan Xie

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of approximately 22 nucleotides single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules that play crucial roles in gene expression. It has been reported that the plant miRNAs might enter mammalian bloodstream and have a functional role in human metabolism, indicating that miRNAs might be one of the hidden bioactive ingredients in medicinal plants. Viscum album L. (Loranthaceae, European mistletoe has been widely used for the treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, but its functional compounds have not been well characterized. We considered that miRNAs might be involved in the pharmacological activities of V. album. High-throughput Illumina sequencing was performed to identify the novel and conserved miRNAs of V. album. The putative human targets were predicted. In total, 699 conserved miRNAs and 1373 novel miRNAs have been identified from V. album. Based on the combined use of TargetScan, miRanda, PITA, and RNAhybrid methods, the intersection of 30697 potential human genes have been predicted as putative targets of 29 novel miRNAs, while 14559 putative targets were highly enriched in 33 KEGG pathways. Interestingly, these highly enriched KEGG pathways were associated with some human diseases, especially cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurological disorders, which might explain the clinical use as well as folk medicine use of mistletoe. However, further experimental validation is necessary to confirm these human targets of mistletoe miRNAs. Additionally, target genes involved in bioactive components synthesis in V. album were predicted as well. A total of 68 miRNAs were predicted to be involved in terpenoid biosynthesis, while two miRNAs including val-miR152 and miR9738 were predicted to target viscotoxins and lectins, respectively, which increased the knowledge regarding miRNA-based regulation of terpenoid biosynthesis, lectin and viscotoxin expressions in V. album.

  4. The coming of age of artificial intelligence in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vimla L; Shortliffe, Edward H; Stefanelli, Mario; Szolovits, Peter; Berthold, Michael R; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2009-05-01

    This paper is based on a panel discussion held at the Artificial Intelligence in Medicine Europe (AIME) conference in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in July 2007. It had been more than 15 years since Edward Shortliffe gave a talk at AIME in which he characterized artificial intelligence (AI) in medicine as being in its "adolescence" (Shortliffe EH. The adolescence of AI in medicine: will the field come of age in the '90s? Artificial Intelligence in Medicine 1993;5:93-106). In this article, the discussants reflect on medical AI research during the subsequent years and characterize the maturity and influence that has been achieved to date. Participants focus on their personal areas of expertise, ranging from clinical decision-making, reasoning under uncertainty, and knowledge representation to systems integration, translational bioinformatics, and cognitive issues in both the modeling of expertise and the creation of acceptable systems.

  5. Quality of relationships with parents and friends in adolescence predicts metabolic risk in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Katherine B; Hoyt, Lindsay Till; Sumner, Jennifer A; McDade, Thomas W; Adam, Emma K

    2015-09-01

    This study was designed to examine whether family and peer relationships in adolescence predict the emergence of metabolic risk factors in young adulthood. Participants from a large, nationally representative cohort study (N = 11,617 for these analyses) reported on their relationship experiences with parents and close friends during adolescence. Fourteen years later, interviewers collected blood samples, as well as anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. Blood samples were analyzed for HbA1c. Ordered logistic regressions revealed that for females, supportive parent-child relationships and close male friendships in adolescence were associated with reduced odds of having elevated metabolic risk markers in young adulthood. These effects remained significant even after controlling for baseline measures of body mass index (BMI) and health and demographic covariates. The protective effects of close relationships were not significant for males, however. Exploratory analyses with 2-parent families revealed that supportive father-child relationships were especially protective for females. These findings suggest that, for females, close and supportive relationships with parents and male friends in adolescence may reduce the risk of metabolic dysregulation in adulthood. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Longitudinal relations between adolescent and parental behaviors, parental knowledge, and internalizing behaviors among urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthe, Rachel C; Sullivan, Terri; Kliewer, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    High prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among adolescents underscore the importance of identifying parental and adolescent behaviors that may lessen the risk for these outcomes. Previous research has shown that parental acceptance, parental knowledge, and child disclosure are negatively associated with internalizing behaviors. It is also important to explore the impact of internalizing behaviors on these parental and child constructs. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between parental acceptance, parental knowledge, child disclosure, and internalizing symptoms across a one-year time period. Participants were 358 adolescents (54 % female) and their primary caregivers, who were primarily African American (92 %). Parents and adolescents provided data through face-to-face interviews. Results showed that parental knowledge and parental acceptance predicted child disclosure, and child disclosure predicted parental knowledge one year later. Higher levels of parental acceptance predicted lower levels of adolescent-reported depressive symptoms, while higher levels of parental report of adolescents' internalizing symptoms predicted lower levels of parental knowledge. No differences in the strength of these relationships were found across grade or gender. These findings highlight the role of the adolescent's perceived acceptance by parents in promoting children's disclosure, and the benefits of parental acceptance in decreasing depressive symptoms over time. Overall, these results show the impact that both adolescent and parental behaviors and internalizing behaviors have on each other across time.

  7. Predicting change in early adolescent problem behavior in the middle school years: a mesosystemic perspective on parenting and peer experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Dishion, Thomas J

    2010-11-01

    The transition into middle school may be a risky period in early adolescence. In particular, friendships, peer status, and parental monitoring during this developmental period can influence the development of problem behavior. This study examined interrelationships among peer and parenting factors that predict changes in problem behavior over the middle school years. A longitudinal sample (580 boys, 698 girls) was assessed in Grades 6 and 8. Peer acceptance, peer rejection, and their interaction predicted increases in problem behavior. Having high-achieving friends predicted less problem behavior. Parental monitoring predicted less problem behavior in general, but also acted as a buffer for students who were most vulnerable to developing problem behavior on the basis of being well liked by some peers, and also disliked by several others. These findings highlight the importance of studying the family-peer mesosystem when considering risk and resilience in early adolescence, and when considering implications for intervention.

  8. Predicting Social Networking Site Use and Online Communication Practices among Adolescents: The Role of Access and Device Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew P. Cingel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given adolescents' heavy social media use, this study examined a number of predictors of adolescent social media use, as well as predictors of online communication practices. Using data collected from a national sample of 467 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17, results indicate that demographics, technology access, and technology ownership are related to social media use and communication practices. Specifically, females log onto and use more constructive communication practices on Facebook compared to males. Additionally, adolescents who own smartphones engage in more constructive online communication practices than those who share regular cell phones or those who do not have access to a cell phone. Overall, results imply that ownership of mobile technologies, such as smartphones and iPads, may be more predictive of social networking site use and online communication practices than general ownership of technology.

  9. Predicting Social Networking Site Use and Online Communication Practices among Adolescents: The Role of Access and Device Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew P. Cingel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Given adolescents' heavy social media use, this study examined a number of predictors of adolescent social media use, as well as predictors of online communication practices. Using data collected from a national sample of 467 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17, results indicate that demographics, technology access, and technology ownership are related to social media use and communication practices. Specifically, females log onto and use more constructive com-munication practices on Facebook compared to males. Additionally, adolescents who own smartphones engage in more constructive online communication practices than those who share regular cell phones or those who do not have access to a cell phone. Overall, results imply that ownership of mobile technologies, such as smartphones and iPads, may be more predictive of social networking site use and online communication practices than general ownership of technology.

  10. Predicting hypothetical willingness to participate (WTP) in a future phase III HIV vaccine trial among high-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocos, Georgina; Kagee, Ashraf; Swartz, Leslie

    2008-11-01

    The present study sought to determine whether the Theory of Planned Behaviour predicted stated hypothetical willingness to participate (WTP) in future Phase III HIV vaccine trials among South African adolescents. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) significantly predicted WTP. Of all the predictors, Subjective norms significantly predicted WTP (OR = 1.19, 95% C.I. = 1.06-1.34). A stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that Subjective Norms (OR = 1.19, 95% C.I. = 1.07-1.34) and Attitude towards participation in an HIV vaccine trial (OR = 1.32, 95% C.I. = 1.00-1.74) were significant predictors of WTP. The addition of Knowledge of HIV vaccines and HIV vaccine trials, Perceived self-risk of HIV infection, Health-promoting behaviours and Attitudes towards HIV/AIDS yielded non-significant results. These findings provide support for the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and suggest that psychosocial factors may play an important role in WTP in Phase III HIV vaccine trials among adolescents.

  11. Predictors of smoking among Swedish adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Joffer, Junia; Burell, Gunilla; Bergström, Erik; Stenlund, Hans; Sjörs, Linda; Jerdén, Lars

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking most often starts in adolescence, implying that understanding of predicting factors for smoking initiation during this time period is essential for successful smoking prevention. The aim of this study was to examine predicting factors in early adolescence for smoking in late adolescence. METHODS: Longitudinal cohort study, involving 649 Swedish adolescents from lower secondary school (12-13 years old) to upper secondary school (17-18 years old). Tobacco habits, behavioural...

  12. Processing speed and executive functions predict real-world everyday living skills in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, O; Penadés, R; Baeza, I; Sánchez-Gistau, V; De la Serna, E; Fonrodona, L; Andrés-Perpiñá, S; Bernardo, M; Castro-Fornieles, J

    2012-06-01

    Cognition and clinical variables are known to be among the most predictive factors of real-world social functioning and daily living skills in adult-onset schizophrenia. Fewer studies have focused on their impact in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS). The aim of this study is to examine the relationships and the predictive value of cognition and clinical variables on real-world daily living skills in a sample of adolescents with EOS. Cognitive, clinical and real-world everyday living skills measures were administered to 45 clinically and pharmacologically stabilized adolescent outpatients with EOS and 45 healthy control subjects matched by age and sex. Multi-variant analyses to compare cognitive and real-world functioning profiles between patients and controls and regression analysis to identify predictors of real-world functioning scores in patients were used. Adolescents with EOS showed a generalized cognitive and real-world daily living skills dysfunction. Several cognitive and clinical variables significantly correlated with real-world daily living skills functioning but only the processing speed and executive functions emerged as independent predictors of everyday living skills scores, explaining 25.1% of the variance. Slowness in processing information and executive dysfunction showed a significant impact on real-world daily living skills in EOS, independently from clinical symptoms and other cognitive variables. Nevertheless, much of the variance in the daily living skills measure remained unaccounted for, suggesting that other factors were involved as well in this young population.

  13. Improving adolescent and young adult health - training the next generation of physician scientists in transdisciplinary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emans, S Jean; Austin, S Bryn; Goodman, Elizabeth; Orr, Donald P; Freeman, Robert; Stoff, David; Litt, Iris F; Schuster, Mark A; Haggerty, Robert; Granger, Robert; Irwin, Charles E

    2010-02-01

    To address the critical shortage of physician scientists in the field of adolescent medicine, a conference of academic leaders and representatives from foundations, National Institutes of Health, Maternal and Child Health Bureau, and the American Board of Pediatrics was convened to discuss training in transdisciplinary research, facilitators and barriers of successful career trajectories, models of training, and mentorship. The following eight recommendations were made to improve training and career development: incorporate more teaching and mentoring on adolescent health research in medical schools; explore opportunities and electives to enhance clinical and research training of residents in adolescent health; broaden educational goals for Adolescent Medicine fellowship research training and develop an intensive transdisciplinary research track; redesign the career pathway for the development of faculty physician scientists transitioning from fellowship to faculty positions; expand formal collaborations between Leadership Education in Adolescent Health/other Adolescent Medicine Fellowship Programs and federal, foundation, and institutional programs; develop research forums at national meetings and opportunities for critical feedback and mentoring across programs; educate Institutional Review Boards about special requirements for high quality adolescent health research; and address the trainee and faculty career development issues specific to women and minorities to enhance opportunities for academic success. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Adolescent Eating Disorders Predict Psychiatric, High-Risk Behaviors and Weight Outcomes in Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, Nadia; Solmi, Francesca; Horton, Nicholas J; Crosby, Ross D; Eddy, Kamryn T; Calzo, Jerel P; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Swanson, Sonja A; Field, Alison E

    2015-08-01

    To investigate whether anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and other specified feeding and eating disorders (OSFED), including purging disorder (PD), subthreshold BN, and BED at ages 14 and 16 years, are prospectively associated with later depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol and substance use, and self-harm. Eating disorders were ascertained at ages 14 and 16 years in 6,140 youth at age 14 (58% of those eligible) and 5,069 at age 16 (52% of those eligible) as part of the prospective Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Outcomes (depression, anxiety disorders, binge drinking, drug use, deliberate self-harm, weight status) were measured using interviews and questionnaires about 2 years after predictors. Generalized estimating equation models adjusting for gender, socio-demographic variables, and prior outcome were used to examine prospective associations between eating disorders and each outcome. All eating disorders were predictive of later anxiety disorders. AN, BN, BED, PD, and OSFED were prospectively associated with depression (respectively AN: odds ratio [OR] = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.00-1.94; BN: OR = 3.39, 95% CI = 1.25-9.20; BED: OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.06-3.75; and PD: OR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.38-4.74). All eating disorders but AN predicted drug use and deliberate self-harm (BN: OR = 5.72, 95% CI = 2.22-14.72; PD: OR = 4.88, 95% CI = 2.78-8.57; subthreshold BN: OR = 3.97, 95% CI = 1.44-10.98; and subthreshold BED: OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.43-3.75). Although BED and BN predicted obesity (respectively OR = 3.58, 95% CI = 1.06-12.14 and OR = 6.42, 95% CI = 1.69-24.30), AN was prospectively associated with underweight. Adolescent eating disorders, including subthreshold presentations, predict negative outcomes, including mental health disorders, substance use, deliberate self-harm, and weight outcomes. This study highlights the high public health and clinical burden of eating disorders

  15. Predictive Validity of the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale for Short-Term Suicidal Behavior: A Danish Study of Adolescents at a High Risk of Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Erlangsen, Annette; Teasdale, Thomas William; Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Larsen, Kim Juul

    2017-07-03

    Using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), we examined the predictive and incremental predictive validity of past-month suicidal behavior and ideation for short-term suicidal behavior among adolescents at high risk of suicide. The study was conducted in 2014 on a sample of 85 adolescents (90.6% females) who participated at follow-up (85.9%) out of the 99 (49.7%) baseline respondents. All adolescents were recruited from a specialized suicide-prevention clinic in Denmark. Through multivariate logistic regression analyses, we examined whether baseline suicidal behavior predicted subsequent suicidal behavior (actual attempts and suicidal behavior of any type, including preparatory acts, aborted, interrupted and actual attempts; mean follow-up of 80.8 days, SD = 52.4). Furthermore, we examined whether suicidal ideation severity and intensity incrementally predicted suicidal behavior at follow-up over and above suicidal behavior at baseline. Actual suicide attempts at baseline strongly predicted suicide attempts at follow-up. Baseline suicidal ideation severity and intensity did not significantly predict future actual attempts over and above baseline attempts. The suicidal ideation intensity items deterrents and duration were significant predictors of subsequent actual attempts after adjustment for baseline suicide attempts and suicidal behavior of any type, respectively. Suicidal ideation severity and intensity, and the intensity items frequency, duration and deterrents, all significantly predicted any type of suicidal behavior at follow-up, also after adjusting for baseline suicidal behavior. The present study points to an incremental predictive validity of the C-SSRS suicidal ideation scales for short-term suicidal behavior of any type among high-risk adolescents.

  16. The Utility of the Prototype/Willingness Model in Predicting Alcohol Use among North American Indigenous Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Brian E.; Hautala, Dane S.; Whitbeck, Les B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we considered the utility of the prototype/willingness model in predicting alcohol use among North-American Indigenous adolescents. Specifically, using longitudinal data, we examined the associations among subjective drinking norms, positive drinker prototypes, drinking expectations (as a proxy of drinking willingness), and…

  17. Racial and Ethnic Profiles of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Young Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Dawn M; Wexler Rainisch, Bethany K

    2012-10-01

    This study describes complementary and alternative medicine use among a national sample of young adults, with an emphasis on characterizing racial and ethnic differences, highlighting variation across subgroups of Hispanics. The authors examined young adults ages 18 to 27 years (n = 14 128) from wave III (2001-2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Prevalence estimates and logistic regression results were weighted and adjusted for complex sample design. The study examined recent complementary and alternative medicine use in the past 12 months, recent use for each of 15 specific complementary and alternative medicine modalities, and the 5 most commonly used modalities (herbs, massage, chiropractic, relaxation, and vitamins). Results showed that 29% of young adults aged 18 to 27 years recently used complementary and alternative medicine. Prevalence was highest among Cuban Americans (42%) and lowest among blacks (22%). Young adults used a diversity of complementary and alternative medicine modalities and there were substantial differences in use across racial and ethnic groups.

  18. The Roles of Perceived Social Support, Coping, and Loneliness in Predicting Internet Addiction in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çevik, Gülsen Büyüksahin; Yildiz, Mehmet Ali

    2017-01-01

    The current research aims to examine the roles of perceived social support, coping, and loneliness when predicting the Internet addiction in adolescents. The research participants included 300 high school students, with an average age of 16.49 and SD = 1.27, attending schools in a city in Southeastern Anatolian Region during 2015-2016 academic…

  19. Can Assessment Reactivity Predict Treatment Outcome among Adolescents with Alcohol and Other Substance Use Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminer, Yifrah; Burleson, Joseph A.; Burke, Rebecca H.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are two-fold: to examine first, if the change from positive to negative alcohol and any other substance use status from baseline assessment to the onset of the first session (i.e., pre-treatment phase) occurs in adolescents, that is, Assessment Reactivity (AR); second, whether AR predicts treatment outcome.…

  20. Development of hypertension in overweight adolescents: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly RK

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca K Kelly,1 Costan G Magnussen,1,2 Matthew A Sabin,3 Michael Cheung,3 Markus Juonala3–5 1Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia; 2Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; 3Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital and University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia; 4Department of Medicine, University of Turku, 5Division of Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland Abstract: The upward trend in adolescent hypertension is widely attributed to the adolescent obesity epidemic. Secular trends in adolescent prehypertension and hypertension have risen in congruence with increasing trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. The correlation between body mass index and blood pressure in adolescence is moderate to strong in most studies and strongest in those classified as overweight or obese. The mechanisms relating to the development of hypertension in overweight adolescents are unclear; however, a number of nonmodifiable and modifiable factors have been implicated. Importantly, certain clinical and biochemical markers in overweight adolescents are indicative of high risk for hypertension, including family history of hypertension and hyperinsulinemia. These characteristics may prove useful in stratifying overweight adolescents as high or low risk of comorbid hypertension. The treatment of overweight and obesity related hypertension in this population focuses on two key modalities: lifestyle change and pharmacotherapy. These approaches focus almost exclusively on weight reduction; however, a number of emerging strategies target hypertension more specifically. Among adolescents with overt hypertension there are also several factors that indicate higher risk of concurrent subclinical disease, persistent adult hypertension, and adult cardiovascular disease. This group may benefit substantially from more

  1. Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors during adolescence: associations with 10-year changes in body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Wall, Melanie; Story, Mary; Standish, Amber R

    2012-01-01

    Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors are common among adolescents and questions exist regarding their long-term effect on weight status. To examine 10-year longitudinal associations between dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors and changes in body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. A diverse population-based sample of middle school and high school adolescents participating in Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults) was followed up for 10 years. Participants (N = 1,902) completed surveys in 1998-1999 (Project EAT-I), 2003-2004 (Project EAT-II), and 2008-2009 (Project EAT-III). Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors at Time 1 and Time 2 were used to predict 10-year changes in BMI at Time 3, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and Time 1 BMI. Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors at both Time 1 and Time 2 predicted greater BMI increases at Time 3 in males and females, as compared with no use of these behaviors. For example, females using unhealthy weight control behaviors at both Time 1 and Time 2 increased their BMI by 4.63 units as compared with 2.29 units in females not using these behaviors (p meals and reporting eating very little (females and males), use of food substitutes (males), and use of diet pills (females). Findings clearly indicate that dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors, as reported by adolescents, predict significant weight gain over time. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Self vs. Other Focus: Predicting Professionalism Remediation of Emergency Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, Robert E; Jones, Woodson S; Hafferty, Fred W; April, Carolyn W; April, Michael D

    2018-01-01

    Unprofessionalism is a major reason for resident dismissal from training. Because of the high stakes involved, residents and educators alike would benefit from information predicting whether they might experience challenges related to this competency. Our objective was to correlate the outcome of professionalism-related remedial actions during residency with the predictor variable of resident response to a standardized interview question: "Why is Medicine important to you?" We conducted a professional development quality improvement (QI) initiative to improve resident education and mentorship by achieving a better understanding of each resident's reasons for valuing a career in medicine. This initiative entailed an interview administered to each resident beginning emergency medicine training at San Antonio Military Medical Center during 2006-2013. The interviews uniformly began with the standardized question "Why is Medicine important to you?" The residency program director documented a free-text summary of each response to this question, the accuracy of which was confirmed by the resident. We analyzed the text of each resident's response after a review of the QI data suggested an association between responses and professionalism actions (retrospective cohort design). Two associate investigators blinded to all interview data, remedial actions, and resident identities categorized each text response as either self-focused (e.g., "I enjoy the challenge") or other-focused (e.g., "I enjoy helping patients"). Additional de-identified data collected included demographics, and expressed personal importance of politics and religion. The primary outcome was a Clinical Competency Committee professionalism remedial action. Of 114 physicians starting residency during 2006-2013, 106 (93.0%) completed the interview. There was good inter-rater reliability in associate investigator categorization of resident responses as either self-focused or other-focused (kappa coefficient 0

  3. Racial Discrimination during Adolescence Predicts Mental Health Deterioration in Adulthood: Gender Differences among Blacks

    OpenAIRE

    Assari, Shervin; Moazen-Zadeh, Ehsan; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite the existing knowledge regarding the negative mental health consequences of perceived racial discrimination, very few researchers have used a longitudinal design with long-term follow-up periods to explore gender differences in this association over time. Objective The current longitudinal study aimed to investigate gender differences in predictive role of an increase in perceived racial discrimination during adolescence for mental health deterioration a decade l...

  4. Application of the protection motivation theory in predicting cigarette smoking among adolescents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yaqiong; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Chen, Xinguang; Xie, Nianhua; Chen, Jing; Yang, Niannian; Gong, Jie; Macdonell, Karen Kolmodin

    2014-01-01

    Reducing tobacco use among adolescents in China represents a significant challenge for global tobacco control. Existing behavioral theories developed in the West - such as the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) - may be useful tools to help tackle this challenge. We examined the relationships between PMT factors and self-reported cigarette smoking behavior and intention among a random sample of vocational high school students (N=553) in Wuhan, China. Tobacco-related perceptions were assessed using the PMT Scale for Adolescent Smoking. Among the total sample, 45% had initiated cigarette smoking, and 25% smoked in the past month. Among those who never smoked, 15% indicated being likely or very likely to smoke in a year. Multiple regression modeling analysis indicated the significance of the seven PMT constructs, the four PMT perceptions and the two PMT pathways in predicting intention to smoke and actual smoking behavior. Overall, perceived rewards of smoking, especially intrinsic rewards, were consistently positively related to smoking intentions and behavior, and self-efficacy to avoid smoking was negatively related to smoking. The current study suggests the utility of PMT for further research examining adolescent smoking. PMT-based smoking prevention and clinical smoking cessation intervention programs should focus more on adolescents' perceived rewards from smoking and perceived efficacy of not smoking to reduce their intention to and actual use of tobacco. © 2013.

  5. Predicting the filial behaviors of Chinese-Malaysian adolescents from perceived parental investments, filial emotions, and parental warmth and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Charissa S L; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Leung, Christy Y Y

    2012-06-01

    The present study examined the mediating role of perceived parental warmth and support in predicting Chinese Malaysian adolescents' filial behaviors from their age, perceived parental investments, and positive filial emotions toward their parents. The effects of these predictors were examined separately for mothers and fathers. Participants included 122 Chinese adolescents (M = 13.14 years; SD = 2.22) in Malaysia. Adolescents' perceived parental investments, filial emotions, and warmth and support from each parent were positively, and age was negatively associated with their filial behaviors. No gender differences were found. Perceived maternal warmth and support significantly mediated the effect of age, perceived investments from, and filial emotions toward mothers on adolescents' filial behaviors, but perceived paternal warmth and support did not have a mediating role. The present study sheds light on the unique maternal versus paternal filial role, and important familial processes in Chinese-Malaysian children and adolescents from a cultural perspective. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Sexy media matter: exposure to sexual content in music, movies, television, and magazines predicts black and white adolescents' sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jane D; L'Engle, Kelly Ladin; Pardun, Carol J; Guo, Guang; Kenneavy, Kristin; Jackson, Christine

    2006-04-01

    To assess over time whether exposure to sexual content in 4 mass media (television, movies, music, and magazines) used by early adolescents predicts sexual behavior in middle adolescence. An in-home longitudinal survey of 1017 black and white adolescents from 14 middle schools in central North Carolina was conducted. Each teen was interviewed at baseline when he or she was 12 to 14 years old and again 2 years later using a computer-assisted self interview (audio computer-assisted self-interview) to ensure confidentiality. A new measure of each teen's sexual media diet (SMD) was constructed by weighting the frequency of use of 4 media by the frequency of sexual content in each television show, movie, music album, and magazine the teen used regularly. White adolescents in the top quintile of sexual media diet when 12 to 14 years old were 2.2 times more likely to have had sexual intercourse when 14 to 16 years old than those who were in the lowest SMD quintile, even after a number of other relevant factors, including baseline sexual behavior, were introduced. The relationship was not statistically significant for black adolescents after controlling for other factors that were more predictive, including parental disapproval of teen sex and perceived permissive peer sexual norms. Exposure to sexual content in music, movies, television, and magazines accelerates white adolescents' sexual activity and increases their risk of engaging in early sexual intercourse. Black teens appear more influenced by perceptions of their parents' expectations and their friends' sexual behavior than by what they see and hear in the media.

  7. Sleep problems predict comorbid externalizing behaviors and depression in young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W

    2015-08-01

    Children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience high rates of sleep problems and are also at increased risk for experiencing comorbid mental health problems. This study provides an initial examination of the 1-year prospective association between sleep problems and comorbid symptoms in youth diagnosed with ADHD. Participants were 81 young adolescents (75 % male) carefully diagnosed with ADHD and their parents. Parents completed measures of their child's sleep problems and ADHD symptoms, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, and general externalizing behavior problems at baseline (M age = 12.2) and externalizing behaviors were assessed again 1 year later. Adolescents completed measures of anxiety and depression at both time-points. Medication use was not associated with sleep problems or comorbid psychopathology symptoms. Regression analyses indicated that, above and beyond demographic characteristics, ADHD symptom severity, and initial levels of comorbidity, sleep problems significantly predicted greater ODD symptoms, general externalizing behavior problems, and depressive symptoms 1 year later. Sleep problems were not concurrently or prospectively associated with anxiety. Although this study precludes making causal inferences, it does nonetheless provide initial evidence of sleep problems predicting later comorbid externalizing behaviors and depression symptoms in youth with ADHD. Additional research is needed with larger samples and multiple time-points to further examine the interrelations of sleep problems and comorbidity.

  8. Sustainable medical research by effective and comprehensive medical skills: overcoming the frontiers by predictive, preventive and personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Guglielmo M

    2014-01-01

    Clinical research and practice require affordable objectives, sustainable tools, rewarding training strategies and meaningful collaboration. Our unit delivers courses on project design and management promoting ideas, useful skills, teaching and exploring implementation of networks and existing collaborations. We investigated the effectiveness of a sustainable approach of comprehensive diagnosis and care and its usefulness within concrete models of research project teaching methodology. The model of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine (PPPM) of adolescent hypertension, developed since 1976 and still active, was displayed. This is a paradigm of comprehensive PPPM aimed at the management of a recognized, but actually neglected, societal and clinical problem. The second model was addressed to the analysis of performance of an outpatient diagnostic and therapy unit and its relationship with the emergency department. Part of the patients, 4,057 cancer patients presenting at the emergency care, were addressed to the outpatient diagnostic and therapy unit for further assessment, treatment and follow-up. The stay in DH was 6.3 ± 2.1 non-consecutive days, with shortage of costs, vs. in-hospital stays. Research planning courses, based on these models, ensued in an increase of competitive project submission and successful funding. Active promotion of interdisciplinary knowledge and skills is warranted. Misleading messages and information are detrimental not only to healthy and sick people but, equally, to all health professionals: efforts for basing on evidence by research any statement are needed. The actual pre-requisite of personalized medicine is the coherent and articulated promotion of the professional quality of staff. Health professionals should and can be skilled in sustainable non-invasive diagnostic procedures, in non-pharmacological intervention, in translational research (from epidemiology to personalized therapy) and in timely dissemination of

  9. Factors associated With Medicaid providers' recommendation of the HPV vaccine to low-income adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Shalanda A; Staras, Stephanie A S; Malo, Teri L; Giuliano, Anna R; Shenkman, Elizabeth; Vadaparampil, Susan T

    2014-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in the United States remains a public health challenge with vaccine rates of 50%. Although health care providers can facilitate HPV vaccination, several factors may impede their ability to universally recommend the vaccine. To maximize the potential of HPV vaccines, it is important to understand challenges providers face in the clinical environment. The study sought to identify factors associated with recommendation of the HPV vaccine for low-income adolescents in the early (9-10), target (11-12), early adolescent catch-up (13-14), and late adolescent catch-up (15-17) vaccination groups. Surveys were mailed between October 2009 and April 2010 to a random sample of Florida-based physicians serving Medicaid-enrolled adolescents. Data were analyzed in 2013. Among early adolescents, discomfort discussing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) with teens (odds ratio [OR] = 1.75), difficulty ensuring vaccine completion (OR = .73), and discomfort discussing STIs with parents (OR = .44) were associated with recommendation. For target adolescents, discomfort discussing STIs with teens (OR = 2.45), time constraints (OR = .70), vaccine efficacy concerns (OR = .65), discomfort discussing STIs with parents (OR = .33), obstetrics/gynecology (OR = .25) and family medicine (OR = .24) specialty, and non-Hispanic black patient (OR = .15) were associated with recommendation. In early catch-up adolescents, concerns that teens will practice riskier behaviors (OR = .57), discomfort discussing STIs with parents (OR = .47), and family medicine specialty (OR = .20) were associated with recommendation. For late catch-up adolescents, family medicine specialty (OR = .13) was associated with recommendation. Modifiable factors that impede or influence provider recommendations of HPV vaccines can be addressed through intervention. Overall, findings suggest that efforts should focus on sexuality communication and family medicine specialty

  10. Interactions of adolescent social experiences and dopamine genes to predict physical intimate partner violence perpetration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Schwab-Reese

    Full Text Available We examined the interactions between three dopamine gene alleles (DAT1, DRD2, DRD4 previously associated with violent behavior and two components of the adolescent environment (exposure to violence, school social environment to predict adulthood physical intimate partner violence (IPV perpetration among white men and women.We used data from Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a cohort study following individuals from adolescence to adulthood. Based on the prior literature, we categorized participants as at risk for each of the three dopamine genes using this coding scheme: two 10-R alleles for DAT1; at least one A-1 allele for DRD2; at least one 7-R or 8-R allele for DRD4. Adolescent exposure to violence and school social environment was measured in 1994 and 1995 when participants were in high school or middle school. Intimate partner violence perpetration was measured in 2008 when participants were 24 to 32 years old. We used simple and multivariable logistic regression models, including interactions of genes and the adolescent environments for the analysis.Presence of risk alleles was not independently associated with IPV perpetration but increasing exposure to violence and disconnection from the school social environment was associated with physical IPV perpetration. The effects of these adolescent experiences on physical IPV perpetration varied by dopamine risk allele status. Among individuals with non-risk dopamine alleles, increased exposure to violence during adolescence and perception of disconnection from the school environment were significantly associated with increased odds of physical IPV perpetration, but individuals with high risk alleles, overall, did not experience the same increase.Our results suggested the effects of adolescent environment on adulthood physical IPV perpetration varied by genetic factors. This analysis did not find a direct link between risk alleles and violence, but

  11. Orbitofrontal cortex activity and connectivity predict future depression symptoms in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingwen; Narayanan, Ananth; Perlman, Greg; Luking, Katherine; DeLorenzo, Christine; Hajcak, Greg; Klein, Daniel N; Kotov, Roman; Mohanty, Aprajita

    2017-10-01

    Major depressive disorder is a leading cause of disability worldwide; however, little is known about pathological mechanisms involved in its development. Research in adolescent depression has focused on reward sensitivity and striatal mechanisms implementing it. The contribution of loss sensitivity to future depression, as well as the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) mechanisms critical for processing losses and rewards, remain unexplored. Furthermore, it is unclear whether OFC functioning interacts with familial history in predicting future depression. In this longitudinal study we recorded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while 229 adolescent females with or without parental history of depression completed a monetary gambling task. We examined if OFC blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response and functional connectivity during loss and win feedback was associated with depression symptoms concurrently and prospectively (9 months later), and whether this relationship was moderated by parental history of depression. Reduced OFC response during loss was associated with higher depression symptoms concurrently and prospectively, even after controlling for concurrent depression, specifically in adolescents with parental history of depression. Similarly, increased OFC-posterior insula connectivity during loss was associated with future depression symptoms but this relationship was not moderated by parental history of depression. This study provides the first evidence for loss-related alterations in OFC functioning and its interaction with familial history of depression as possible mechanisms in the development of depression. While the current fMRI literature has mainly focused on reward, the present findings underscore the need to include prefrontal loss processing in existing developmental models of depression.

  12. Poor sleep quality predicts deficient emotion information processing over time in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Sadeh, Avi; Dahl, Ronald E; Rosenblat-Stein, Shiran

    2011-11-01

    There is deepening understanding of the effects of sleep on emotional information processing. Emotion information processing is a key aspect of social competence, which undergoes important maturational and developmental changes in adolescence; however, most research in this area has focused on adults. Our aim was to test the links between sleep and emotion information processing during early adolescence. Sleep and facial information processing were assessed objectively during 3 assessment waves, separated by 1-year lags. Data were obtained in natural environments-sleep was assessed in home settings, and facial information processing was assessed at school. 94 healthy children (53 girls, 41 boys), aged 10 years at Time 1. N/A. Facial information processing was tested under neutral (gender identification) and emotional (emotional expression identification) conditions. Sleep was assessed in home settings using actigraphy for 7 nights at each assessment wave. Waking > 5 min was considered a night awakening. Using multilevel modeling, elevated night awakenings and decreased sleep efficiency significantly predicted poor performance only in the emotional information processing condition (e.g., b = -1.79, SD = 0.52, confidence interval: lower boundary = -2.82, upper boundary = -0.076, t(416.94) = -3.42, P = 0.001). Poor sleep quality is associated with compromised emotional information processing during early adolescence, a sensitive period in socio-emotional development.

  13. Predicting High-School Students' Bystander Behavior in Simulated Dating Violence Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N; Rosenfield, David; Yule, Kristen; Sargent, Kelli S; McDonald, Renee

    2016-03-01

    Dating violence among adolescents is associated with a variety of negative health consequences for victims. Bystander programs are being developed and implemented with the intention of preventing such violence, but determinants of high-school students' responsive bystander behavior remain unclear. The present study examines hypothesized determinants of high-school students' bystander behavior in simulated situations of dating violence. Participants were 80 high-school students who completed self-reports of hypothesized determinants of bystander behavior (responsibility, efficacy, and perceived benefits for intervening) at a baseline assessment. A virtual-reality paradigm was used to observationally assess bystander behavior at 1-week and 6-month assessments after baseline. Efficacy for intervening was positively associated with observed bystander behavior at the 1-week and 6-month assessments. Moreover, efficacy predicted bystander behavior over and above feelings of responsibility and perceived benefits for intervening. Contrary to our predictions, neither responsibility nor perceived benefits for intervening were associated with observed bystander behavior. This research advances our understanding of determinants of bystander behavior for high-school students and can inform prevention programming for adolescents. The study also introduces an innovative way to assess high-school students' bystander behavior. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A systems medicine research approach for studying alcohol addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanagel, Rainer; Durstewitz, Daniel; Hansson, Anita; Heinz, Andreas; Kiefer, Falk; Köhr, Georg; Matthäus, Franziska; Nöthen, Markus M; Noori, Hamid R; Obermayer, Klaus; Rietschel, Marcella; Schloss, Patrick; Scholz, Henrike; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael; Sommer, Wolfgang; Vengeliene, Valentina; Walter, Henrik; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Uli S; Stringer, Sven; Smits, Yannick; Derks, Eske M

    2013-11-01

    According to the World Health Organization, about 2 billion people drink alcohol. Excessive alcohol consumption can result in alcohol addiction, which is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric diseases afflicting our society today. Prevention and intervention of alcohol binging in adolescents and treatment of alcoholism are major unmet challenges affecting our health-care system and society alike. Our newly formed German SysMedAlcoholism consortium is using a new systems medicine approach and intends (1) to define individual neurobehavioral risk profiles in adolescents that are predictive of alcohol use disorders later in life and (2) to identify new pharmacological targets and molecules for the treatment of alcoholism. To achieve these goals, we will use omics-information from epigenomics, genetics transcriptomics, neurodynamics, global neurochemical connectomes and neuroimaging (IMAGEN; Schumann et al. ) to feed mathematical prediction modules provided by two Bernstein Centers for Computational Neurosciences (Berlin and Heidelberg/Mannheim), the results of which will subsequently be functionally validated in independent clinical samples and appropriate animal models. This approach will lead to new early intervention strategies and identify innovative molecules for relapse prevention that will be tested in experimental human studies. This research program will ultimately help in consolidating addiction research clusters in Germany that can effectively conduct large clinical trials, implement early intervention strategies and impact political and healthcare decision makers. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Sleep Needs, Patterns, and Difficulties of Adolescents: Summary of a Workshop. Forum on Adolescence (Washington, DC, September 22, 1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mary G., Ed.

    This report summarizes the presentations and discussion at a workshop on adolescent sleep. The workshop was organized by the Board on Children, Youth, and Families and the Forum on Adolescence of the National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. The workshop brought together policy makers, researchers, and practitioners to examine research…

  16. Using theory of planned behavior to predict healthy eating of Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Chan, Kara

    2013-01-01

    in Denmark. Findings - Perceived behavioural control followed by attitudes were the most important factors in predicting behavioural intention. Females and adolescents with a higher BMI were also found to have a stronger behavioural intention. Healthy eating was perceived to be beneficial and useful, and......, to a lesser extent, interesting and desirable. Family, TV programmes, and teachers were influential socialization agents. Research limitations – The survey responses may be affected by a social desirability bias. The survey includes a non-probability sample and results may not be generalized to all Danish...

  17. Adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroids: Aggression and anxiety during exposure predict behavioral responding during withdrawal in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Lesley A; Morrison, Thomas R; Melloni, Richard H

    2013-11-01

    In the U.S. and worldwide anabolic/androgenic steroid use remains high in the adolescent population. This is concerning given that anabolic/androgenic steroid use is associated with a higher incidence of aggressive behavior during exposure and anxiety during withdrawal. This study uses pubertal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) to investigate the hypothesis that an inverse behavioral relationship exists between anabolic/androgenic steroid-induced aggression and anxiety across adolescent exposure and withdrawal. In the first experiment, we examined aggression and anxiety during adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal. Adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid administration produced significant increases in aggression and decreases in anxiety during the exposure period followed by significant decreases in aggression and increases in anxiety during anabolic/androgenic steroid withdrawal. In a second experiment, anabolic/androgenic steroid exposed animals were separated into groups based on their aggressive response during the exposure period and then tested for anxiety during exposure and then for both aggression and anxiety during withdrawal. Data were analyzed using a within-subjects repeated measures predictive analysis. Linear regression analysis revealed that the difference in aggressive responding between the anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal periods was a significant predictor of differences in anxiety for both days of testing. Moreover, the combined data suggest that the decrease in aggressive behavior from exposure to withdrawal predicts an increase in anxiety-like responding within these same animals during this time span. Together these findings indicate that early anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure has potent aggression- and anxiety-eliciting effects and that these behavioral changes occur alongside a predictive relationship that exists between these two behaviors over time. © 2013.

  18. Accuracy of Prediction Equations to Assess Percentage of Body Fat in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome Compared to Air Displacement Plethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Aguero, A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, G.; Ara, I.; Moreno, L. A.; Casajus, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of the published percentage body fat (%BF) prediction equations (Durnin et al., Johnston et al., Brook and Slaughter et al.) from skinfold thickness compared to air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in children and adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Twenty-eight children and adolescents with DS (10-20 years old; 12…

  19. Risk score for predicting adolescent mental health problems among children using parental report only : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, Huibert; Boks, Marco P.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Aukes, Maartje F.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To construct a risk score for adolescent mental health problems among children, using parental data only and without potentially stigmatizing mental health items. METHODS: We prospectively derived a prediction model for mental health problems at age 16 using data from parent report on

  20. Short Sleep Times Predict Obesity in Internal Medicine Clinic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Dolores; Kumar, Ashwani; Nugent, Rebecca; Nugent, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between short sleep times and obesity as defined by body mass index (BMI). We wanted to determine whether this association occurs in patients with chronic medical diagnoses since the number of confounding factors is likely higher in patients than the general population. Methods: Two hundred patients attending internal medicine clinics completed a survey regarding sleep habits, lifestyle characteristics, and medical diagnoses. An independent surveyor collected the information on the questionnaires and reviewed the medical records. Height and weight were measured by clinic personnel. Data were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression. Results: Subjects with short sleep times (< 7 hours) had an increased likelihood of obesity as defined by a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 when compared to the reference group of (8, 9] hours (odds ratio 2.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–8.09). There was a U-shaped relationship between obesity and sleep time in women but not in men. Young age (18 to 49 years), not smoking, drinking alcohol, hypertension, diabetes, and sleep apnea were also associated with obesity in the overall model. Conclusions: This study demonstrates an association between short sleep times and obesity in undifferentiated patients attending an internal medicine clinic using models adjusting for age, lifestyle characteristics, and some medical diagnoses. The U-shaped relationship in women suggests that sleep patterns may have gender specific associations. These observations provide the background for therapeutic trials in weight loss in patients with established medical problems. Citation: Buscemi D; Kumar A; Nugent R; Nugent K. Short sleep times predict obesity in internal medicine clinic patients. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(7):681–688. PMID:18198800

  1. Information processing biases concurrently and prospectively predict depressive symptoms in adolescents: Evidence from a self-referent encoding task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Samantha L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-01-01

    Negative information processing biases have been hypothesised to serve as precursors for the development of depression. The current study examined negative self-referent information processing and depressive symptoms in a community sample of adolescents (N = 291, Mage at baseline = 12.34 ± 0.61, 53% female, 47.4% African-American, 49.5% Caucasian and 3.1% Biracial). Participants completed a computerised self-referent encoding task (SRET) and a measure of depressive symptoms at baseline and completed an additional measure of depressive symptoms nine months later. Several negative information processing biases on the SRET were associated with concurrent depressive symptoms and predicted increases in depressive symptoms at follow-up. Findings partially support the hypothesis that negative information processing biases are associated with depressive symptoms in a nonclinical sample of adolescents, and provide preliminary evidence that these biases prospectively predict increases in depressive symptoms.

  2. How coping styles, cognitive distortions, and attachment predict problem gambling among adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Filipa; Alexandre, Joana; Griffiths, Mark D

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims Recent research suggests that youth problem gambling is associated with several factors, but little is known how these factors might influence or interact each other in predicting this behavior. Consequently, this is the first study to examine the mediation effect of coping styles in the relationship between attachment to parental figures and problem gambling. Methods A total of 988 adolescents and emerging adults were recruited to participate. The first set of analyses tested the adequacy of a model comprising biological, cognitive, and family variables in predicting youth problem gambling. The second set of analyses explored the relationship between family and individual variables in problem gambling behavior. Results The results of the first set of analyses demonstrated that the individual factors of gender, cognitive distortions, and coping styles showed a significant predictive effect on youth problematic gambling, and the family factors of attachment and family structure did not reveal a significant influence on this behavior. The results of the second set of analyses demonstrated that the attachment dimension of angry distress exerted a more indirect influence on problematic gambling, through emotion-focused coping style. Discussion This study revealed that some family variables can have a more indirect effect on youth gambling behavior and provided some insights in how some factors interact in predicting problem gambling. Conclusion These findings suggest that youth gambling is a multifaceted phenomenon, and that the indirect effects of family variables are important in estimating the complex social forces that might influence adolescent decisions to gamble.

  3. Harm Reduction or Harm Introduction? Prevalence and Correlates of E-Cigarette Use Among French Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Laura J; Bazillier-Bruneau, Cécile; Rouëssé, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes are marketed as a tool to give up or reduce cigarette smoking, and their use has risen sharply in recent years. There is concern that use is increasing particularly among adolescents and that they are not being used as a cessation tool but as a novel experience in their own right. The present research assessed prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of e-cigarette use and standard cigarette use and also explored the extent to which e-cigarettes appear to be used as a cessation tool. This was assessed using a questionnaire administered to 1,486 French adolescents aged 16 years. Prevalence of e-cigarette experimentation was high (54%) and comparable to that for standard cigarettes (55%). Furthermore, 20% of those who had experimented with e-cigarettes had never tried standard cigarettes, and among regular smokers of standard cigarettes, intentions to quit were not associated with e-cigarette usage frequency. Experimentation with both e-cigarettes and standard cigarettes was significantly predicted by higher age, higher socioeconomic status, and parental smoking of standard cigarettes (in particular the father). Being male marginally predicted e-cigarette use, whereas being female significantly predicted standard cigarette use. These findings give cause for concern: e-cigarette usage experimentation is extremely high, and is not associated with attempts to quit smoking standard cigarettes. Rather, it is exposing adolescents to a highly addictive drug (nicotine) and may pave the way for a future cigarette habit. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adolescents' protection motivation and smoking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Stemmler, Mark; Bühler, Anneke; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    The protection motivation theory (PMT) is a well-known theory of behaviour change. This study tested the applicability of the sub-constructs of threat and coping appraisal in predicting adolescents' smoking-related behavioural intentions and smoking behaviour longitudinally. Adolescents (N = 494) aged 11-16 years and not currently smoking at baseline participated in the study. Predictive validity of PMT constructs was tested in a path analysis model. Self-efficacy significantly predicted behavioural intention at baseline, which significantly predicted behavioural intention at follow-up, which in turn predicted smoking behaviour at follow-up. The effect of self-efficacy on behavioural intention at follow-up was mediated by behavioural intention at baseline and the effect of self-efficacy on smoking behaviour was mediated by behavioural intention at baseline and follow-up. In conclusion, we found support for one part of the PMT, namely for the predictive validity of the coping appraisal construct self-efficacy in predicting adolescents' smoking-related behavioural intention and smoking behaviour. These results fail to support the appropriateness of the PMT's construct threat appraisal in longitudinally predicting adolescents' smoking as well as the applicability of communicating fear and negative information as preventive interventions for this target group.

  5. Injuries in children and adolescents seen during 2006 at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... b Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab ... Keywords: injuries; children; adolescents; prevalence; prevention ... performance, and may even develop an extent of mental.

  6. Predicting physical activity in adolescents: the role of compensatory health beliefs within the Health Action Process Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berli, Corina; Loretini, Philipp; Radtke, Theda; Hornung, Rainer; Scholz, Urte

    2014-01-01

    Compensatory health beliefs (CHBs), defined as beliefs that healthy behaviours can compensate for unhealthy behaviours, may be one possible factor hindering people in adopting a healthier lifestyle. This study examined the contribution of CHBs to the prediction of adolescents' physical activity within the theoretical framework of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA). The study followed a prospective survey design with assessments at baseline (T1) and two weeks later (T2). Questionnaire data on physical activity, HAPA variables and CHBs were obtained twice from 430 adolescents of four different Swiss schools. Multilevel modelling was applied. CHBs added significantly to the prediction of intentions and change in intentions, in that higher CHBs were associated with lower intentions to be physically active at T2 and a reduction in intentions from T1 to T2. No effect of CHBs emerged for the prediction of self-reported levels of physical activity at T2 and change in physical activity from T1 to T2. Findings emphasise the relevance of examining CHBs in the context of an established health behaviour change model and suggest that CHBs are of particular importance in the process of intention formation.

  7. Motivation and body-related factors as discriminators of change in adolescents' exercise behavior profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillison, Fiona B; Standage, Martyn; Skevington, Suzanne M

    2011-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to explore the relative contributions of weight-related self-perceptions and exercise-related motivation variables in predicting change in leisure-time exercise within a sample of adolescents in the United Kingdom. A cohort of 310 adolescents (51% male, Mean age = 14.08 ± .32 years at baseline) was classified into four groups on the basis of reported change in leisure-time exercise over 10-months: those who maintain, drop out from exercise, take up exercise, and those who were continually inactive. Discriminant function analyses were conducted to predict group membership from adolescents' profiles of motivational and weight-related perceptions at baseline. For boys, the first discriminant function (DF1) revealed that exercise maintainers reported higher identified regulation, introjected regulation, competence, relatedness, and body satisfaction than all other groups (between-group R(2) = .45). DF2 was more indicative of current exercise levels than change, indicating higher intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation for both active groups at baseline (between-group R(2) = .40). In girls, DF1 showed that exercise maintainers reported higher intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, autonomy, competence, relatedness, and lower external regulation than all other groups (between-group R(2) = .58). DF2 indicated that higher body mass index, and perceiving greater pressure to lose weight positively predicted drop out, and negatively predicted exercise uptake (between-group R(2) = .26). Fostering autonomous (self-determined) motivation seems a key determinant to maintaining leisure-time exercise for both boys and girls. Additionally, reducing perceptions of pressure to lose weight and promoting positive interactions with others during exercise may be particularly useful to prevent dropout in girls. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The coming of age of artificial intelligence in medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Vimla L.; Shortliffe, Edward H.; Stefanelli, Mario; Szolovits, Peter; Berthold, Michael R.; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on a panel discussion held at the Artificial Intelligence in Medicine Europe (AIME) conference in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in July 2007. It had been more than 15 years since Edward Shortliffe gave a talk at AIME in which he characterized artificial intelligence (AI) in medicine as being in its “adolescence” (Shortliffe EH. The adolescence of AI in medicine: Will the field come of age in the ‘90s? Artificial Intelligence in Medicine 1993; 5:93–106). In this article, the ...

  9. Parental Qualities as Predictors of Adolescent Conformity: Perceptions from Adolescents, Mothers, and Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Carolyn S.; Peterson, Gary W.

    The purpose of this study was to examine how adolescent and parental perceptions of selected parental qualities predicted adolescent conformity to parental expectations, using symbolic interaction as a conceptual foundation. Self-report questionnaire data were collected from a sample of 326 families with adolescents. Four separate multiple…

  10. The predictive effect of inflammatory markers and lipid accumulation product index on clinical symptoms associated with polycystic ovary syndrome in nonobese adolescents and younger aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tola, Esra Nur; Yalcin, Serenat Eris; Dugan, Nadiye

    2017-07-01

    The aim of our study is to analyse the inflammatory markers and lipid accumulation product (LAP) index in nonobese adolescents and younger aged women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with age and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls and to determine whether the investigated parameters are potential markers for the etiopathogenesis of PCOS. We also aim to determine whether these inflammatory markers are predictive for developing some clinical implications, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and insulin resistance (IR), associated with PCOS. A total of 34 adolescents and younger aged females with PCOS, and 33 age and BMI-matched healthy controls were recruited for our study. All participants were nonobese (BMIpredictive effect of investigated inflammatory markers and LAP index on CVD risk among PCOS patients after adjustment for abdominal obesity. We also found a positive predictive effect of WBC and a negative predictive effect of lymphocytes on IR in PCOS patients after adjustment for abdominal obesity. We did not find any predictor effect of NEO on IR, but it was a positive predictive marker for an elevated HOMA-IR index. Elevated NEO, CRP levels and LAP index could have potential roles in the etiopathogenesis of PCOS in nonobese adolescents and younger aged females,NEO could be a predictive marker for elevated HOMA-IR index, and WBC and lymphocytes could be predictive for the development of IR among nonobese adolescents and younger aged females with PCOS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Increased exhaled nitric oxide predicts new-onset rhinitis and persistent rhinitis in adolescents without allergic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovschi, A; Alving, K; Kalm-Stephens, P; Janson, C; Nordvall, L

    2012-03-01

    The fraction of nitric oxide in exhaled air (FE(NO)) is increased in rhinitis and asthma. We have previously suggested that elevated FE(NO) levels in the absence of asthma symptoms may be a sign of 'early asthma'. In the present study, we hypothesize that elevated exhaled NO levels may also precede rhinitis symptoms. To investigate in a cohort of adolescents whether or not increased exhaled NO levels at the age of 13-14 years predicted new-onset or persistent rhinitis within a 4-year period. A total of 959 randomly selected adolescents (13-14 years) completed a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms at baseline and follow-up, 4 years later. Exhaled NO was measured at baseline. After exclusion of subjects with asthma diagnosis or asthma symptoms at baseline, 657 participants were eligible for the present study. Higher FE(NO) levels at baseline were associated with increased risk for new-onset (P = 0.009) and persistent rhinitis (P = 0.03) within a 4-year period. The risk of new-onset rhinitis was 2.32 (1.23, 4.37) [OR (95% CI)] times higher if FE(NO) > 90th percentile of the group without rhinitis at baseline. This increased risk for new-onset rhinitis was significant [2.49 (1.24, 5.01)] after excluding subjects with allergic symptoms. The risk of persistent rhinitis was 5.11 (1.34, 19.57) times higher if FE(NO) > 90th percentile of the group without rhinitis at baseline. Elevated exhaled nitric oxide levels predicted incident and persistent rhinitis in this population-based study of adolescents. Moreover, these findings were consistent after excluding subjects with allergic symptoms. Thus, it appears that elevation of exhaled NO precedes airway symptoms and predicts development of rhinitis in subjects without allergic symptoms or family history of allergic disease. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Validity of bioelectrical impedance measurement in predicting fat-free mass of Chinese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Hui, Stanley Sai-chuen; Wong, Stephen Heung-sang

    2014-11-15

    The current study aimed to examine the validity of various published bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equations in estimating FFM among Chinese children and adolescents and to develop BIA equations for the estimation of fat-free mass (FFM) appropriate for Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 255 healthy Chinese children and adolescents aged 9 to 19 years old (127 males and 128 females) from Tianjin, China, participated in the BIA measurement at 50 kHz between the hand and the foot. The criterion measure of FFM was also employed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). FFM estimated from 24 published BIA equations was cross-validated against the criterion measure from DEXA. Multiple linear regression was conducted to examine alternative BIA equation for the studied population. FFM estimated from the 24 published BIA equations yielded high correlations with the directly measured FFM from DEXA. However, none of the 24 equations was statistically equivalent with the DEXA-measured FFM. Using multiple linear regression and cross-validation against DEXA measurement, an alternative prediction equation was determined as follows: FFM (kg)=1.613+0.742×height (cm)2/impedance (Ω)+0.151×body weight (kg); R2=0.95; SEE=2.45 kg; CV=6.5, 93.7% of the residuals of all the participants fell within the 95% limits of agreement. BIA was highly correlated with FFM in Chinese children and adolescents. When the new developed BIA equations are applied, BIA can provide a practical and valid measurement of body composition in Chinese children and adolescents.

  13. Predictors of outcome at 1 year in adolescents with DSM-5 restrictive eating disorders: report of the national eating disorders quality improvement collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Sara F; McKenzie, Nicole; Hehn, Rebecca; Monge, Maria C; Kapphahn, Cynthia J; Mammel, Kathleen A; Callahan, S Todd; Sigel, Eric J; Bravender, Terrill; Romano, Mary; Rome, Ellen S; Robinson, Kelly A; Fisher, Martin; Malizio, Joan B; Rosen, David S; Hergenroeder, Albert C; Buckelew, Sara M; Jay, M Susan; Lindenbaum, Jeffrey; Rickert, Vaughn I; Garber, Andrea; Golden, Neville H; Woods, Elizabeth R

    2014-12-01

    The National Eating Disorders Quality Improvement Collaborative evaluated data of patients with restrictive eating disorders to analyze demographics of diagnostic categories and predictors of weight restoration at 1 year. Fourteen Adolescent Medicine eating disorder programs participated in a retrospective review of 700 adolescents aged 9-21 years with three visits, with DSM-5 categories of restrictive eating disorders including anorexia nervosa (AN), atypical AN, and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). Data including demographics, weight and height at intake and follow-up, treatment before intake, and treatment during the year of follow-up were analyzed. At intake, 53.6% met criteria for AN, 33.9% for atypical AN, and 12.4% for ARFID. Adolescents with ARFID were more likely to be male, younger, and had a longer duration of illness before presentation. All sites had a positive change in mean percentage median body mass index (%MBMI) for their population at 1-year follow-up. Controlling for age, gender, duration of illness, diagnosis, and prior higher level of care, only %MBMI at intake was a significant predictor of weight recovery. In the model, there was a 12.7% change in %MBMI (interquartile range, 6.5-19.3). Type of treatment was not predictive, and there were no significant differences between programs in terms of weight restoration. The National Eating Disorders Quality Improvement Collaborative provides a description of the patient population presenting to a national cross-section of 14 Adolescent Medicine eating disorder programs and categorized by DSM-5. Treatment modalities need to be further evaluated to assess for more global aspects of recovery. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Perceived parent-adolescent relationship, perceived parental online behaviors and pathological internet use among adolescents: gender-specific differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Deng, Lin-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescents' perceived relationships with their parents, perceived parental online behaviors, and Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among adolescents. Additional testing was carried out to determine the effect of different genders (parent and adolescent). Cross-sectional data was collected from 4,559 students aged 12 to 21 years in the cities of Beijing and Jinan, People's Republic of China. Participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire concerning their Internet use behavior, perceived parental Internet use behaviors, and perceived parent-adolescent relationship. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for adolescents' age were conducted. Results showed different effects of parent and adolescent gender on perceived parent-adolescent relationship and parent Internet use behavior, as well as some other gender-specific associations. Perceived father-adolescent relationship was the most protective factor against adolescent PIU with perceived maternal Internet use positively predicting PIU for both male and female adolescents. However, perceived paternal Internet use behaviors positively predicted only female adolescent PIU. Results indicated a different effect pathway for fathers and mothers on boys and girls, leading to discussion of the implications for prevention and intervention.

  15. Predicting adolescents' disclosure of personal information in exchange for commercial incentives: an application of an extended theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirman, Wannes; Walrave, Michel; Ponnet, Koen

    2013-02-01

    This study adopts a global theoretical framework to predict adolescents' disclosure of personal information in exchange for incentives offered by commercial Websites. The study postulates and tests the validity of a model based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), including antecedent factors of attitude and perceived behavioral control (PBC). A survey was conducted among 1,042 respondents. Results from SEM analyses show that the hypothesized model fits the empirical data well. The model accounts for 61.9 percent of the variance in adolescents' intention to disclose and 43.7 percent of the variance in self-reported disclosure. Perceived social pressure exerted by significant others (subjective norm) is the most important TPB factor in predicting intention to disclose personal information in exchange for incentives. This finding suggests that in discussions of adolescents' information privacy, the importance of social factors outweighs the individually oriented TPB factors of attitude and PBC. Moreover, privacy concern and trust propensity are significant predictors of respondents' attitudes toward online disclosure in exchange for commercial incentives, whereas the frequency of Internet use significantly affects their level of PBC.

  16. Self vs. Other Focus: Predicting Professionalism Remediation of Emergency Medicine Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Thaxton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Unprofessionalism is a major reason for resident dismissal from training. Because of the high stakes involved, residents and educators alike would benefit from information predicting whether they might experience challenges related to this competency. Our objective was to correlate the outcome of professionalism-related remedial actions during residency with the predictor variable of resident response to a standardized interview question: “Why is Medicine important to you?” Methods We conducted a professional development quality improvement (QI initiative to improve resident education and mentorship by achieving a better understanding of each resident’s reasons for valuing a career in medicine. This initiative entailed an interview administered to each resident beginning emergency medicine training at San Antonio Military Medical Center during 2006–2013. The interviews uniformly began with the standardized question “Why is Medicine important to you?” The residency program director documented a free-text summary of each response to this question, the accuracy of which was confirmed by the resident. We analyzed the text of each resident’s response after a review of the QI data suggested an association between responses and professionalism actions (retrospective cohort design. Two associate investigators blinded to all interview data, remedial actions, and resident identities categorized each text response as either self-focused (e.g., “I enjoy the challenge” or other-focused (e.g., “I enjoy helping patients”. Additional de-identified data collected included demographics, and expressed personal importance of politics and religion. The primary outcome was a Clinical Competency Committee professionalism remedial action. Results Of 114 physicians starting residency during 2006–2013, 106 (93.0% completed the interview. There was good inter-rater reliability in associate investigator categorization of resident

  17. Winter birth, urbanicity and immigrant status predict psychometric schizotypy dimensions in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimarakis, D; Roumeliotaki, T; Roussos, P; Giakoumaki, S G; Bitsios, P

    2018-01-01

    Urbanicity, immigration and winter-birth are stable epidemiological risk factors for schizophrenia, but their relationship to schizotypy is unknown. This is a first examination of the association of these epidemiological risk factors with positive schizotypy, in nonclinical adolescents, controlling for a range of potential and known confounders. We collected socio-demographics, life-style, family and school circumstances, positive schizotypy dimensions and other personality traits from 445 high school pupils (192 males, 158 immigrants) from 9 municipalities in Athens and Heraklion, Greece, which covered a range of host population and migrant densities. Using multivariate hierarchical linear regressions models, we estimated the association of schizotypy dimensions with: (1) demographics of a priori interest (winter-birth, immigrant status, urban characteristics), including family financial and mental health status; (2) factors resulting from principal component analysis (PCA) of the demographic and personal data; (3) factors resulting from PCA of the personality questionnaires. Adolescent women scored higher on schizotypy than men. High anxiety/neuroticism was the most consistent and significant predictor of all schizotypy dimensions in both sexes. In the fully adjusted models, urbanicity predicted magical thinking and unusual experiences in women, while winter-birth and immigration predicted paranoid ideation and unusual experiences respectively in men. These results support the continuum hypothesis and offer potential insights in the nature of risk conferred by winter-birth, urbanicity and immigration and the nature of important sex differences. Controlling for a wide range of potential confounding factors increases the robustness of these results and confidence that these were not spurious associations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Does Personality Predict Depression and Use of an Internet-Based Intervention for Depression among Adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Christian B. Vangberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Focus upon depression and prevention of its occurrence among adolescents is increasing. Novel ways of dealing with this serious problem have become available especially by means of internet-based prevention and treatment programs of depression and anxiety. The use of Internet-based intervention programs among adolescents has revealed some difficulties in implementation that need to be further elucidated. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between personality and adolescent depression and the characteristics of users of an Internet-based intervention program. Method. The Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI, the General Self-Efficacy scale (GSE and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D have been administered to a sample (=1234 of Norwegian senior high-school students. Results. Multiple regression analysis revealed associations between depression and gender, and several JTCI domains and facets. In line with previous findings in adults, high Harm Avoidance and low Self-Directedness emerged as the strongest predictors of adolescent depressive symptoms. Further, in logistic regression analysis with the covariates JTCI, GSE and CES-D, the only significant variables predicting use/non-use were the CES-D and the temperament domain Reward Dependence. Conclusion. The results in this study revealed level of depressive symptoms as the strongest predictor of the use of the Internet based intervention and that personality might provide useful information about the users.

  19. The role of gender and sexual experience in predicting adolescent condom use intentions using the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Antonia; Mullan, Barbara A; Sainsbury, Kirby; Kuczmierczyk, Andrzej R

    2014-08-01

    To examine how the prediction of condom-related cognitions, intentions, and behaviour amongst adolescents may differ according to gender and sexual experience within a theory of planned behaviour (TPB) framework. Adolescents (N = 306) completed questionnaires about sexual experience, condom use, TPB variables, perceived risk, and safe sex knowledge. Significant differences in TPB variables, perceived risk, and knowledge were found; males and sexually experienced participants were generally less positive about condom use. Twenty percent of the variance in attitudes was accounted for by four variables; specifically, female gender, no previous sexual experience, better safe sex knowledge, and greater risk perceptions were associated with more positive attitudes. The prediction of intentions separately amongst sexually experienced (R(2) = 0.468) and inexperienced (R(2) = 0.436) participants revealed that, for the former group, attitudes and subjective norms were the most important considerations. In contrast, among the inexperienced participants, attitudes and the gender-by-perceived risk interaction term represented significant influences. The results suggest that interventions designed to improve adolescents' intentions to use condoms and rates of actual condom use should consider differences in gender and sexual experience.

  20. Economic hardship and Mexican-origin adolescents' adjustment: examining adolescents' perceptions of hardship and parent-adolescent relationship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Melissa Y; Killoren, Sarah E; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2013-10-01

    Studies examining economic hardship consistently have linked family economic hardship to adolescent adjustment via parent and family functioning, but limited attention has been given to adolescents' perceptions of these processes. To address this, the authors investigated the intervening effects of adolescents' perceptions of economic hardship and of parent-adolescent warmth and conflict on the associations between parental economic hardship and adolescent adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms, risky behaviors, and school performance) in a sample of 246 Mexican-origin families. Findings revealed that both mothers' and fathers' reports of economic hardship were positively related to adolescents' reports of economic hardship, which in turn, were negatively related to parent-adolescent warmth and positively related to parent-adolescent conflict with both mothers and fathers. Adolescents' perceptions of economic hardship were indirectly related to (a) depressive symptoms through warmth with mothers and conflict with mothers and fathers, (b) involvement in risky behaviors through conflict with mothers and fathers, and (c) GPA through conflict with fathers. Our findings highlight the importance of adolescents' perceptions of family economic hardship and relationships with mothers and fathers in predicting adolescent adjustment.

  1. Predictive biomarkers for type 2 of diabetes mellitus: Bridging the gap between systems research and personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraniotou, Christina; Karadima, Vasiliki; Bellos, George; Tsangaris, George Th

    2018-03-05

    The global incidence of metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) has assumed epidemic proportions, leading to adverse health and socio-economic impacts. It is therefore of critical importance the early diagnosis of DM2 patients and the detection of those at increased risk of disease. In this respect, Precision Medicine (PM) is an emerging approach that includes practices, tests, decisions and treatments adapted to the characteristics of each patient. With regard to DM2, PM manages a wealth of "omics" data (genomic, metabolic, proteomic, environmental, clinical and paraclinical) to increase the number of clinically validated biomarkers in order to identify patients in early stage even before the prediabetic phase. In this paper, we discuss the epidemic dimension of metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and the urgent demand for novel biomarkers to reduce the incidence or even delay the onset of DM2. Recent research data produced by "multi-omics" technologies (genomics/epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics), suggest that many potential biomarkers might be helpful in the prediction and early diagnosis of DM2. Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine (PPPM) manages and integrates these data to apply personalized, preventive, and therapeutic approaches. This is significant because there is an emerging need for establishing channels for communication and personalized consultation between systems research and precision medicine, as the medicine of the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Motivation and Reasons to Quit: Predictive Validity among Adolescent Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey R.; Mermelstein, Robin

    2004-01-01

    Objectives : To examine reasons to quit among adolescents in a smoking cessation program, and whether reasons were associated with subsequent cessation. Methods : Participants were 351 adolescents. At baseline, adolescents reported motivation, reasons to quit, and stage of change for cessation. Quit status was assessed at end of treatment. Results…

  3. Predicting Suicidal Ideation in Adolescent Boys and Girls: The Role of Psychological Maturity, Personality Traits, Depression and Life Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Vives, Fabia; Dueñas, Jorge Manuel

    2018-04-10

    In recent years, suicide rates have increased in adolescents and the young population, so these age groups are considered as populations at risk. Considering that suicidal ideation is the first sign of possible future suicide behavior, the objective of this study is to determine the relative importance of psychological maturity, personality, depression and life satisfaction in predicting suicidal ideation in adolescents. Results show that depressive symptoms is the variable that best predicts suicidal ideation, but psychological maturity, life satisfaction and emotional stability are predictors as well (R2 = .51, p emotional stability has an indirect relationship with suicidal ideation, through its relationship with depressive symptoms, life satisfaction and identity. Two Multigroup Structural Equation Models were proposed to better understand the relationships between these variables for each sex. The results show that the fit of the model that includes the variable Self-reliance is better for boys than for girls (chi-square contributions of 8.175 for girls and 1.978 for boys) unlike the other model (chi-square contributions of 0.288 for girls and 1.650 for boys). These results suggest that the psychological maturity subscale Self-reliance play a role in suicidal ideation in males but not in females. Although there have been no previous studies on the role of psychological maturity as a predictor of suicidal phenomena, the current study suggests that it is a feature to be considered in the prediction of adolescent suicidal ideation.

  4. Factors predicting the acceptance of herpes simplex virus type 2 antibody testing among adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimet, Gregory D; Rosenthal, Susan L; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Brady, Rebecca C; Tu, Wanzhu; Wu, Jingwei; Bernstein, David I; Stanberry, Lawrence R; Stone, Katherine M; Leichliter, Jami S; Fife, Kenneth H

    2004-11-01

    The rates and determinants of acceptance of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) testing have not been adequately studied. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with acceptance of HSV-2 antibody testing in individuals with no history of genital herpes. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study followed by the offer of free HSV-2 serologic testing at an urban sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic, 2 general adult medical clinics, an urban university campus, and an urban adolescent medicine clinic. A total of 1199 individuals aged 14 to 30 years completed the survey and were offered testing. A total of 68.4% accepted HSV-2 testing. Factors independently associated with acceptance were female sex, older age, having an STD history, having 1 or more sexual partners in the last 6 months, perceived vulnerability to HSV-2 infection, and perceived benefits of HSV-2 testing. Fear of needles predicted rejection of testing, as did attending a general medical clinic versus an STD clinic and nonwhite race. There is a substantial interest in HSV-2 antibody testing across a variety of settings. Those at greatest behavioral and historic risk for HSV-2 infection, women, and persons whose health beliefs are consistent with testing are more likely to accept serologic testing when it is offered.

  5. Gender dysphoria in adolescence: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kaltiala-Heino,Riittakerttu; Bergman,Hannah; Työläjärvi,Marja; Frisen,Louise

    2018-01-01

    Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino,1–3 Hannah Bergman,4 Marja Työläjärvi,2 Louise Frisén4 1Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland; 2Department of Adolescent Psychiatry, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland; 3Vanha Vaasa Hospital, Vaasa, Finland; 4Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Abstract: Increasing numbers of adolescents are seeking treatment at gender identi...

  6. Adolescence and Later Life Disease Burden: Quantifying the Contribution of Adolescent Tobacco Initiation From Longitudinal Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viner, Russell M; Hargreaves, Dougal S; Motta, Janaina Vieira Dos Santos; Horta, Bernardo; Mokdad, Ali H; Patton, George

    2017-08-01

    Adolescence is a time of initiation of behaviors leading to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). We use tobacco to illustrate a novel method for assessing the contribution of adolescence to later burden. Data on initiation of regular smoking during adolescence (10-19 years) and current adult smoking were obtained from the 1958 British Birth Cohort, the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), the Pelotas 1982 Birth Cohort, and the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study. We estimated an "adolescent attributable fraction" (AAF) by calculating the proportion of persisting adult daily smoking initiated 155 countries using contemporary surveillance data. In the 1958 British Birth Cohort, 81.6% of daily smokers at age 50 years initiated adolescent initiation. The adjusted AAF was 69.1. Proportions of smokers initiating Adolescent Health Cohort Study; and 70.9%, 5.8%, and 56.9% in Pelotas males and 89.9%, 6.4%, and 75.9% in females. Initiation adolescent smoking initiation to adult smoking burden is high, suggesting a need to formulate and implement effective actions to reduce smoking initiation in adolescents. Similar trends in other NCD risks suggest that adolescents will be central to future efforts to control NCDs. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictive validity of callous-unemotional traits measured in early adolescence with respect to multiple antisocial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Robert J; Witkiewitz, Katie; Kotler, Julie S

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the predictive validity of youth callous-unemotional (CU) traits, as measured in early adolescence (Grade 7) by the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001), in a longitudinal sample (N = 754). Antisocial outcomes, assessed in adolescence and early adulthood, included self-reported general delinquency from 7th grade through 2 years post-high school, self-reported serious crimes through 2 years post-high school, juvenile and adult arrest records through 1 year post-high school, and antisocial personality disorder symptoms and diagnosis at 2 years post-high school. CU traits measured in 7th grade were highly predictive of 5 of the 6 antisocial outcomes-general delinquency, juvenile and adult arrests, and early adult antisocial personality disorder criterion count and diagnosis-over and above prior and concurrent conduct problem behavior (i.e., criterion counts of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (criterion count). Incorporating a CU traits specifier for those with a diagnosis of conduct disorder improved the positive prediction of antisocial outcomes, with a very low false-positive rate. There was minimal evidence of moderation by sex, race, or urban/rural status. Urban/rural status moderated one finding, with being from an urban area associated with stronger relations between CU traits and adult arrests. Findings clearly support the inclusion of CU traits as a specifier for the diagnosis of conduct disorder, at least with respect to predictive validity. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Impact of early adolescent anxiety disorders on self-esteem development from adolescence to young adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Lizmarie; Huang, Yangxin; Chen, Ren; Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between early adolescent anxiety disorders and self-esteem development from early adolescence to young adulthood. Methods Self-esteem was measured at mean ages 13, 16 and 22 for 821 participants from the Children in the Community Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort. Anxiety disorders were measured at mean age 13 years. Multilevel growth models were employed to analyze the change in self-esteem from early adolescence to young adulthood and to evaluate whether adolescent anxiety disorders predict both average and slope of self-esteem development. Results Self-esteem increased during adolescence and continued to increase in young adulthood. Girls had lower average self-esteem than boys, but this difference disappeared when examining the effect of anxiety. Adolescents with anxiety disorder had lower self-esteem, on average, compared with healthy adolescents (effect size (ES) =−0.35, pself-esteem (ES=−0.30, pself-esteem from adolescence to young-adulthood ( =−0.1, pself-esteem development. Conclusions All but one of the assessed adolescent anxiety disorders were related to lower self-esteem, with social phobia having the greatest impact. OCD predicted a decline in self-esteem trajectory with age. The importance of raising self-esteem in adolescents with anxiety and other mental disorders is discussed. PMID:23648133

  9. Parent and Adolescent Interest in Receiving Adolescent Health Communication Information From Primary Care Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Carol A; Cheek, Courtney; Culhane, Jennifer; Fishman, Jessica; Mathew, Leny; Salek, Elyse C; Webb, David; Jaccard, James

    2016-08-01

    Patient-centered health care recognizes that adolescents and parents are stakeholders in adolescent health. We investigate adolescent and parent interest in receiving information about health topics and parent-teen communication from clinicians. Ninety-one parent-adolescent dyads in one practice completed individual interviews. Items assessed levels of interest in receiving health and health communication information from the adolescent's doctor about 18 topics, including routine, mental health, sexual health, substance use, and injury prevention issues. Analyses tested differences between parents and adolescents, within-dyad correlations, and associations with adolescent gender and age. Most parents were female (84%). Adolescents were evenly divided by gender; 36 were aged 12-13 years, 35 were aged 14-15 years, and 20 were aged 16-17 years. Adolescent race reflected the practice population (60% black; 35% white). The vast majority of parents and adolescents reported moderate or high levels of interest in receiving information about all 18 health issues and information to increase parent-teen communication about these topics. Parents' interest in receiving information varied by adolescent age when the expected salience of topics varied by age (e.g., acne, driving safety), whereas adolescents reported similar interest regardless of age. Adolescent gender influenced parent and adolescent interest. Level of interest in receiving information from doctors within adolescent-parent pairs was not significantly correlated for one-half of topics. Parents and adolescents want health care professionals to help them learn and talk about a wide range of adolescent health topics. Feasible primary care interventions that effectively improve parent-teen health communication, and specific adolescent health outcomes are needed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. COMPUTING THERAPY FOR PRECISION MEDICINE: COLLABORATIVE FILTERING INTEGRATES AND PREDICTS MULTI-ENTITY INTERACTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenbogen, Sam; Wilkins, Angela D; Lichtarge, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Biomedicine produces copious information it cannot fully exploit. Specifically, there is considerable need to integrate knowledge from disparate studies to discover connections across domains. Here, we used a Collaborative Filtering approach, inspired by online recommendation algorithms, in which non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) predicts interactions among chemicals, genes, and diseases only from pairwise information about their interactions. Our approach, applied to matrices derived from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, successfully recovered Chemical-Disease, Chemical-Gene, and Disease-Gene networks in 10-fold cross-validation experiments. Additionally, we could predict each of these interaction matrices from the other two. Integrating all three CTD interaction matrices with NMF led to good predictions of STRING, an independent, external network of protein-protein interactions. Finally, this approach could integrate the CTD and STRING interaction data to improve Chemical-Gene cross-validation performance significantly, and, in a time-stamped study, it predicted information added to CTD after a given date, using only data prior to that date. We conclude that collaborative filtering can integrate information across multiple types of biological entities, and that as a first step towards precision medicine it can compute drug repurposing hypotheses.

  11. Out-of-School Time and Adolescent Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth T H; Vandell, Deborah Lowe

    2015-11-01

    High levels of adolescent substance use are linked to lower academic achievement, reduced schooling, and delinquency. We assess four types of out-of-school time (OST) contexts--unsupervised time with peers, sports, organized activities, and paid employment--in relation to tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use at the end of high school. Other research has examined these OST contexts in isolation, limiting efforts to disentangle potentially confounded relations. Longitudinal data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 766) examined associations between different OST contexts during high school and substance use at the end of high school. Unsupervised time with peers increased the odds of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use, whereas sports increased the odds of alcohol use and decreased the odds of marijuana use. Paid employment increased the odds of tobacco and alcohol use. Unsupervised time with peers predicted increased amounts of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use, whereas sports predicted decreased amounts of tobacco and marijuana use and increased amounts of alcohol use at the end of high school. Although unsupervised time with peers, sports, and paid employment were differentially linked to the odds of substance use, only unsupervised time with peers and sports were significantly associated with the amounts of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use at the end of high school. These findings underscore the value of considering OST contexts in relation to strategies to promote adolescent health. Reducing unsupervised time with peers and increasing sports participation may have positive impacts on reducing substance use. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sense of coherence and medicine use for headache among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koushede, Vibeke; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2009-01-01

    standardized questionnaire. The outcome measure was self-reported medicine use for headaches. The determinants were headache frequency and SOC measured by Wold and Torsheim's version for children of Antonovsky's 13-item SOC scale. RESULTS: Analyses adjusted for age group, family social class, exposure...... to bullying, and headache frequency showed increasing odds for medicine use for headaches (hereafter: medicine use) by decreasing SOC. There was no association between SOC and medicine use among students with a rare experience of headaches but a significant and graded association among students with at least...

  13. Poor attention rather than hyperactivity/impulsivity predicts academic achievement in very preterm and full-term adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, J; Wolke, D; Bartmann, P

    2013-01-01

    Very preterm (VP) children are at particular risk for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) of the inattentive subtype. It is unknown whether the neurodevelopmental pathways to academic underachievement are the same as in the general population. This study investigated whether middle childhood attention or hyperactivity/impulsivity problems are better predictors of VP adolescents' academic achievement. In a geographically defined prospective whole-population sample of VP (full-term control children (n = 286) in South Germany, ADHD subtypes were assessed at 6 years 3 months and 8 years 5 months using multiple data sources. Academic achievement was assessed at 13 years of age. Compared with full-term controls, VLBW/VP children were at higher risk for ADHD inattentive subtype [6 years 3 months: odds ratio (OR) 2.8, p attention measures predicted academic achievement in VLBW/VP and also full-term adolescents, whereas hyperactive/impulsive behaviour did not. Attention is an important prerequisite for learning and predicts long-term academic underachievement. As ADHD inattentive subtype and cognitive impairments are frequent in VLBW/VP children, their study may help to identify the neurofunctional pathways from early brain development and dysfunction to attention problems and academic underachievement.

  14. Marital Conflicts and Parent-Adolescent Conflicts: The Mediator Role of Adolescents' Appraisals of Interparental Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ایرج مختارنیا

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mediating role of adolescents' appraisals from interparents conflict on the relationship of marital conflicts and parent-adolescent conflict. The study was descriptive correlational and the population of this study included students of Qods town of Tehran province. Sample size was 700 students that were selected by multistage random sampling. The data were collected by Parent-Adolescent Conflict Questionnaire (PACQ, Marital Conflict Scale (MCS and Children's Appraisals of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC. The results of structural equation modeling analysis showed that the theoretical model of the study included in the model was properly fitted with the data. This means that the variable of adolescent's appraisals of interparents’ conflict can be considered as a mediator variable in the relationship of marital conflict and parent-adolescent conflict. Furthermore, in this model all direct and indirect paths to predict parent-adolescent conflict were recognized. Therefore, marital conflict can predict parent-adolescent conflicts through mediating factors. Also, it can be concluded that the model of cognitive-contextual is capable of explaining the parent-adolescent conflicts.

  15. Personality Predictors of Successful Development: Toddler Temperament and Adolescent Personality Traits Predict Well-Being and Career Stability in Middle Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to predict both adaptive psychological functioning (well-being) and adaptive social functioning (career stability) in middle adulthood based on behaviors observed in toddlerhood and personality traits measured in adolescence. 83 people participated in an ongoing longitudinal study started in 1961 (58% women). Based on children’s behavior in toddlerhood, three temperamental dimensions were identified – positive affectivity, negative affectivity and disinhibition. In adolescence, extraversion and neuroticism were measured at the age of 16 years. Various aspects of well-being were used as indicators of adaptive psychological functioning in adulthood: life satisfaction, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Career stability was used as an indicator of adaptive social functioning. Job careers of respondents were characterized as stable, unstable or changeable. Extraversion measured at the age of 16 proved to be the best predictor of well-being indicators; in case of self-efficacy it was also childhood disinhibition. Extraversion in adolescence, childhood disinhibition and negative affectivity predicted career stability. Findings are discussed in the context of a theoretical framework of higher order factors of the Big Five personality constructs, stability and plasticity. PMID:25919394

  16. Personality predictors of successful development: toddler temperament and adolescent personality traits predict well-being and career stability in middle adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Blatný

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to predict both adaptive psychological functioning (well-being and adaptive social functioning (career stability in middle adulthood based on behaviors observed in toddlerhood and personality traits measured in adolescence. 83 people participated in an ongoing longitudinal study started in 1961 (58% women. Based on children's behavior in toddlerhood, three temperamental dimensions were identified - positive affectivity, negative affectivity and disinhibition. In adolescence, extraversion and neuroticism were measured at the age of 16 years. Various aspects of well-being were used as indicators of adaptive psychological functioning in adulthood: life satisfaction, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Career stability was used as an indicator of adaptive social functioning. Job careers of respondents were characterized as stable, unstable or changeable. Extraversion measured at the age of 16 proved to be the best predictor of well-being indicators; in case of self-efficacy it was also childhood disinhibition. Extraversion in adolescence, childhood disinhibition and negative affectivity predicted career stability. Findings are discussed in the context of a theoretical framework of higher order factors of the Big Five personality constructs, stability and plasticity.

  17. Predicting adolescent posttraumatic stress in the aftermath of war: differential effects of coping strategies across trauma reminder, loss reminder, and family conflict domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Kathryn H; Kaplow, Julie B; Layne, Christopher M; Benson, Molly A; Compas, Bruce E; Katalinski, Ranka; Pasalic, Hafiza; Bosankic, Nina; Pynoos, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of youth who lived through the Bosnian war were exposed to multiple traumatic events, including interpersonal violence, community destruction, and the loss of a loved one. This study examined factors that predict post-war psychological adjustment, specifically posttraumatic stress, in Bosnian adolescents. Regression analyses evaluated theorized differential relations between three types of post-war stressors - exposure to trauma reminders, loss reminders, and intrafamilial conflict - specific coping strategies, and posttraumatic stress symptom dimensions. We examined 555 Bosnian adolescents, aged 15-19 years, to predict their long-term posttraumatic stress reactions in the aftermath of war. Findings indicated that post-war exposure to trauma reminders, loss reminders, and family conflict, as well as engagement and disengagement coping strategies, predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms. Secondary control engagement coping responses to all three types of post-war stressors were inversely associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms, whereas primary control engagement coping responses to family conflict were inversely associated with hyperarousal symptoms. Disengagement responses to trauma reminders and family conflict were positively associated with re-experiencing symptoms. These findings shed light on ways in which trauma reminders, loss reminders, and family conflict may intersect with coping responses to influence adolescent postwar adjustment.

  18. The Role of Parenting Styles in Predicting Anxiety Thoughts and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Z Khanjani; B Esmaeili Anamage; M Gholamzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Parents interaction styles with children or teens have an important impact on shaping their character and mental health and the incidence of some psychiatric symptoms. The aim of this study was to predict anxiety thought and obsessive - compulsive symptoms of the adolescents based on parents' parenting styles. Methods: This was a descriptive study. 180 male students in Marand were selected by cluster random sampling. We used Baumrind parents parenting style questionnaire, Wales ...

  19. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceived Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Poor Chinese Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationships between parent-adolescent discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics (indexed by parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and parental control) and adolescent developmental outcomes (indexed by achievement motivation and psychological competence) in poor families in Hong Kong. A sample of 275 intact families having at least one child aged 11-16 experiencing economic disadvantage were invited to participate in the study. Fathers and mothers completed the Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale, and adolescents completed the Social-Oriented Achievement Motivation Scale and Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale in addition to paternal and maternal Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale. Results indicated that parents and adolescents had different perceptions of parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and paternal control, with adolescents generally perceived lower levels of parenting behaviors than did their parents. While father-adolescent discrepancy in perceived paternal responsiveness and mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceived maternal control negatively predicted adolescent achievement motivation, mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceptions of maternal responsiveness negatively predicted psychological competence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present findings provided support that parent-child discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics have negative impacts on the developmental outcomes of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present study addresses parent-child discrepancies in perceived parental behaviors as "legitimate" constructs, and explores their links with adolescent psychosocial development, which sheds light for researchers and clinical practitioners in helping the Chinese families experiencing economic disadvantage.

  20. [Computer evaluation of hidden potential of phytochemicals of medicinal plants of the traditional Indian ayurvedic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagunin, A A; Druzhilovsky, D S; Rudik, A V; Filimonov, D A; Gawande, D; Suresh, K; Goel, R; Poroikov, V V

    2015-01-01

    Applicability of our computer programs PASS and PharmaExpert to prediction of biological activity spectra of rather complex and structurally diverse phytocomponents of medicinal plants, both separately and in combinations has been evaluated. The web-resource on phytochemicals of 50 medicinal plants used in Ayurveda was created for the study of hidden therapeutic potential of Traditional Indian Medicine (TIM) (http://ayurveda.pharmaexpert.ru). It contains information on 50 medicinal plants, their using in TIM and their pharmacology activities, also as 1906 phytocomponents. PASS training set was updated by addition of information about 946 natural compounds; then the training procedure and validation were performed, to estimate the quality of PASS prediction. It was shown that the difference between the average accuracy of prediction obtained in leave-5%-out cross-validation (94,467%) and in leave-one-out cross-validation (94,605%) is very small. These results showed high predictive ability of the program. Results of biological activity spectra prediction for all phytocomponents included in our database are in good correspondence with the experimental data. Additional kinds of biological activity predicted with high probability provide the information about most promising directions of further studies. The analysis of prediction results of sets of phytocomponents in each of 50 medicinal plants was made by PharmaExpert software. Based on this analysis, we found that the combination of phytocomponents from Passiflora incarnata may exhibit nootropic, anticonvulsant and antidepressant effects. Experiments carried out in mice models confirmed the predicted effects of Passiflora incarnata extracts.

  1. Mother and adolescent expressed emotion and adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptom development : A six-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hale, William W.; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Nelemans, Stefanie A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    In expressed emotion (EE) theory, it is held that high EE household environments enhance adolescent psychopathological distress. However, no longitudinal study has been conducted to examine if either the mother's EE or the adolescent's perception of EE predicts adolescent internalizing and

  2. Basal Metabolic Rate of Adolescent Modern Pentathlon Athletes: Agreement between Indirect Calorimetry and Predictive Equations and the Correlation with Body Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Luiz Lannes; Fonseca, Sidnei; Castro, Natalia Gomes Casanova de Oliveira e; dos Passos, Renata Baratta; Porto, Cristiana Pedrosa Melo; Pierucci, Anna Paola Trindade Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The accurate estimative of energy needs is crucial for an optimal physical performance among athletes and the basal metabolic rate (BMR) equations often are not well adjusted for adolescent athletes requiring the use of specific methods, such as the golden standard indirect calorimetry (IC). Therefore, we had the aim to analyse the agreement between the BMR of adolescents pentathletes measured by IC and estimated by commonly used predictive equations. Methods Twenty-eight athletes (17 males and 11 females) were evaluated for BMR, using IC and the predictive equations Harris and Benedict (HB), Cunningham (CUN), Henry and Rees (HR) and FAO/WHO/UNU (FAO). Body composition was obtained using DXA and sexual maturity data were retrieved through validated questionnaires. The correlations among anthropometric variables an IC were analysed by T-student test and ICC, while the agreement between IC and the predictive equations was analysed according to Bland and Altman and by survival-agreement plotting. Results The whole sample average BMR measured by IC was significantly different from the estimated by FAO (pBMR when compared with IC (T Test). When compared to the golden standard IC, using Bland and Altman, ICC and Survival-Agreement, the equations underestimated the energy needs of adolescent pentathlon athletes up to 300kcal/day. Therefore, they should be used with caution when estimating individual energy requirements in such populations. PMID:26569101

  3. Factors Predicting Rural Chinese Adolescents' Anxieties, Fears and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijun; Zhang, Ying

    2008-01-01

    This study examined age, gender, birth order and self-perceived level of achievement and popularity, as predictors of anxieties, fears and depression in Chinese adolescents. A sample of 398 rural Chinese adolescents participated in this study. Gender, academic performance and popularity have been found to make the greatest contributions to the…

  4. Transition clinic attendance is associated with improved beliefs and attitudes toward medicine in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Nancy; Jacobson, Kevan; Round, Andrew; Evans, Kathi; Qian, Hong; Bressler, Brian

    2017-08-07

    To evaluated the differences in knowledge, adherence, attitudes, and beliefs about medicine in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) attending transition clinics. We prospectively enrolled patients from July 2012 to June 2013. All adolescents who attended a tertiary-centre-based dedicated IBD transition clinic were invited to participate. Adolescent controls were recruited from university-affiliated gastroenterology offices. Participants completed questionnaires about their disease and reported adherence to prescribed therapy. Beliefs in Medicine Questionnaire was used to evaluate patients' attitudes and beliefs. Beliefs of medication overuse, harm, necessity and concerns were rated on a Likert scale. Based on necessity and concern ratings, attitudes were then characterized as accepting, ambivalent, skeptical and indifferent. One hundred and twelve adolescents were included and 59 attended transition clinics. Self-reported adherence rates were poor, with only 67.4% and 56.8% of patients on any IBD medication were adherent in the transition and control groups, respectively. Adolescents in the transition cohort held significantly stronger beliefs that medications were necessary ( P = 0.0035). Approximately 20% of adolescents in both cohorts had accepting attitudes toward their prescribed medicine. However, compared to the control group, adolescents in the transition cohort were less skeptical of (6.8% vs 20.8%) and more ambivalent (61% vs 34%) (OR = 0.15; 95%CI: 0.03-0.75; P = 0.02) to treatment. Attendance at dedicated transition clinics was associated with differences in attitudes in adolescents with IBD.

  5. Intimacy development in late adolescence: Longitudinal associations with perceived parental autonomy support and adolescents' self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Petegem, Stijn; Brenning, Katrijn; Baudat, Sophie; Beyers, Wim; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J

    2018-03-21

    The present longitudinal study tested for the role of perceived parental autonomy-support and late adolescents' self-worth in their intimacy development. A sample of 497 Belgian late adolescents (M age  = 17.9, 43.5% girls) participated in this two-wave study. Results indicated that perceived autonomy-supportive parenting did not relate significantly to change in adolescents' experienced intimacy (in terms of closeness and mutuality), but was associated with a decrease in unmitigated agency (an excessive focus on the self) and unmitigated communion (an excessive focus on the other) across time. Adolescents' self-worth predicted an increase in experienced intimacy and a decrease in unmitigated agency and communion, and the initial level of experienced intimacy predicted an increase in self-worth. Finally, results suggested that adolescents' self-worth may mediate some of the longitudinal relations between perceived parental autonomy-support and adolescents' intimate functioning. No evidence was found for moderation by romantic involvement, gender or age. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Prediction of Long-Term Outcomes in Young Adults with a History of Adolescent Alcohol-Related Hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, Cornelius; Kraus, Ludwig; Piontek, Daniela; Reis, Olaf; Zimmermann, Ulrich S

    2016-01-01

    Empirical data concerning the long-term psychosocial development of adolescents admitted to inpatient treatment with alcohol intoxication (AIA) are lacking. The aim of this study was to identify the factors that, at the time of admission, predict future substance use, alcohol use disorders (AUD), mental health treatment, delinquency and life satisfaction. We identified 1603 cases of AIA treated between 2000 and 2007 in one of five pediatric departments in Germany. These former patients were invited to participate in a telephone interview. Medical records were retrospectively analyzed extracting potential variables predicting long-term outcomes. Interviews were conducted with 277 individuals, 5-13 [mean 8.3 (SD 2.3)] years after treatment, with a response rate of 22.7%; of these, 44.8% were female. Mean age at the interview was 24.4 (SD 2.2) years. Logistic and linear regression models revealed that being male, using illicit substances and truancy or runaway behavior in adolescence predicted binge drinking, alcohol dependence, use of illicit substances and poor general life satisfaction in young adulthood, explaining between 13 and 24% of the variance for the different outcome variables. This naturalistic study confirms that known risk factors for the development of AUD also apply to AIA. This finding facilitates targeted prevention efforts for those cases of AIA who need more than the standard brief intervention for aftercare. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  7. Adolescent Eating Disorders Predict Psychiatric, High-Risk Behaviors and Weight Outcomes in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, Nadia; Solmi, Francesca; Horton, Nicholas J.; Crosby, Ross D.; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Swanson, Sonja A.; Field, Alison E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and other specified feeding and eating disorders (OSFED), including purging disorder (PD), subthreshold BN, and BED at ages 14 and 16, are prospectively associated with later depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol and substance use, and self-harm. Method Eating disorders were ascertained at 14 and 16 years of age in 6,140 youth at age 14 (58% of those eligible) and 5,069 at age 16 (52% of those eligible) as part of the prospective Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Outcomes (depression, anxiety disorders, binge drinking, drug use, deliberate self-harm, weight status) were measured using interviews and questionnaires about 2 years following predictors. Generalized estimating equation models adjusting for gender, socio-demographic variables, and prior outcome were used to examine prospective associations between eating disorders and each outcome. Results All eating disorders were predictive of later anxiety disorders. AN, BN, BED, PD, and OSFED were prospectively associated with depression (respectively AN: odds ratio [OR]=1.39 [95% CIs: 1.00-1.94]; BN: OR=3.39[1.25-9.20]; BED: OR=2.00 [1.06-3.75]; PD: OR=2.56 [1.38-4.74]). All eating disorders but AN predicted drug use and deliberate self-harm (BN: OR=5.72[2.22-14.72], PD: OR=4.88[2.78-8.57], subthreshold BN: OR=3.97[1.44-10.98], subthreshold BED: OR=2.32[1.43-3.75]). Whilst BED and BN predicted obesity (respectively OR=3.58 [1.06-12.14] and OR=6.42 [1.69-24.30]), AN was prospectively associated with underweight. Conclusions Adolescent eating disorders, including subthreshold presentations, predict negative outcomes, including mental health disorders, substance use, deliberate self-harm, and weight outcomes. This study highlights the high public health and clinical burden of eating disorders among adolescents. PMID:26210334

  8. Adolescents' protection motivation and smoking behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Thrul, Johannes; Stemmler, Mark; Bühler, Anneke; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    The protection motivation theory (PMT) is a well-known theory of behaviour change. This study tested the applicability of the sub-constructs of threat and coping appraisal in predicting adolescents' smoking-related behavioural intentions and smoking behaviour longitudinally. Adolescents (N = 494) aged 11-16 years and not currently smoking at baseline participated in the study. Predictive validity of PMT constructs was tested in a path analysis model. Self-efficacy significantly predicted beha...

  9. Single Mother Parenting and Adolescent Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-10-01

    Children raised in single-mother families are at increased risk for psychopathology, but the mechanisms that help explain this relationship are understudied. In a community sample of diverse adolescents (N = 385, 52 % female, 48 % Caucasian) and their mothers, we hypothesized that single mothers would be more likely than cohabitating mothers to engage in negative parenting behaviors, which would predict adolescent psychopathology prospectively. Single mothers were more likely to engage in psychologically controlling behaviors, which predicted to their adolescent offspring experiencing higher rates of depressive symptoms and externalizing disorders. Girls were more susceptible to depressive symptoms via psychologically controlling parenting than boys in single-mother families. Further, single mothers were more likely to engage in rejecting parenting behaviors, which predicted to a higher prevalence of adolescent externalizing disorders. Surprisingly, rejection in single-mother families predicted to less severe anxiety symptoms in adolescents relative to two-parent families. It is likely that single mothers are not inherently inferior parents relative to cohabitating mothers; rather, their parenting practices are often compromised by a myriad of demands and stressors. Consistent with this postulate, low socioeconomic status was associated with single motherhood and negative parenting behaviors. Clinical implications and study limitations are discussed.

  10. Pattern recognition and functional neuroimaging help to discriminate healthy adolescents at risk for mood disorders from low risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão-Miranda, Janaina; Oliveira, Leticia; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Marquand, Andre; Brammer, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Phillips, Mary L

    2012-01-01

    There are no known biological measures that accurately predict future development of psychiatric disorders in individual at-risk adolescents. We investigated whether machine learning and fMRI could help to: 1. differentiate healthy adolescents genetically at-risk for bipolar disorder and other Axis I psychiatric disorders from healthy adolescents at low risk of developing these disorders; 2. identify those healthy genetically at-risk adolescents who were most likely to develop future Axis I disorders. 16 healthy offspring genetically at risk for bipolar disorder and other Axis I disorders by virtue of having a parent with bipolar disorder and 16 healthy, age- and gender-matched low-risk offspring of healthy parents with no history of psychiatric disorders (12-17 year-olds) performed two emotional face gender-labeling tasks (happy/neutral; fearful/neutral) during fMRI. We used Gaussian Process Classifiers (GPC), a machine learning approach that assigns a predictive probability of group membership to an individual person, to differentiate groups and to identify those at-risk adolescents most likely to develop future Axis I disorders. Using GPC, activity to neutral faces presented during the happy experiment accurately and significantly differentiated groups, achieving 75% accuracy (sensitivity = 75%, specificity = 75%). Furthermore, predictive probabilities were significantly higher for those at-risk adolescents who subsequently developed an Axis I disorder than for those at-risk adolescents remaining healthy at follow-up. We show that a combination of two promising techniques, machine learning and neuroimaging, not only discriminates healthy low-risk from healthy adolescents genetically at-risk for Axis I disorders, but may ultimately help to predict which at-risk adolescents subsequently develop these disorders.

  11. The association of alcohol outlet density with illegal underage adolescent purchasing of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Bosco; Toumbourou, John W; Livingston, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Although previous studies have suggested that greater community densities of alcohol sales outlets are associated with greater alcohol use and problems, the mechanisms are unclear. The present study examined whether density was associated with increased purchasing of alcohol by adolescents younger than the legal purchase age of 18 in Australia. The number of alcohol outlets per 10,000 population was identified within geographic regions in Victoria, Australia. A state-representative student survey (N = 10,143) identified adolescent reports of purchasing alcohol, and multilevel modeling was then used to predict the effects for different densities of outlet types (packaged, club, on-premise, general, and overall). Each extra sales outlet per 10,000 population was associated with a significant increase in the risk of underage adolescent purchasing. The strongest effect was for club density (odds ratio = 1.22) and packaged (takeaway) outlet density (odds ratio = 1.12). Males, older children, smokers, and those with substance-using friends were more likely to purchase alcohol. One mechanism by which alcohol sales outlet density may influence population rates of alcohol use and related problems is through increasing the illegal underage purchasing of alcohol. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Perceived Parent-Adolescent Relationship, Perceived Parental Online Behaviors and Pathological Internet Use among Adolescents: Gender-Specific Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Deng, Lin-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescents’ perceived relationships with their parents, perceived parental online behaviors, and Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among adolescents. Additional testing was carried out to determine the effect of different genders (parent and adolescent). Cross-sectional data was collected from 4,559 students aged 12 to 21 years in the cities of Beijing and Jinan, People’s Republic of China. Participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire concerning their Internet use behavior, perceived parental Internet use behaviors, and perceived parent-adolescent relationship. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for adolescents’ age were conducted. Results showed different effects of parent and adolescent gender on perceived parent-adolescent relationship and parent Internet use behavior, as well as some other gender-specific associations. Perceived father-adolescent relationship was the most protective factor against adolescent PIU with perceived maternal Internet use positively predicting PIU for both male and female adolescents. However, perceived paternal Internet use behaviors positively predicted only female adolescent PIU. Results indicated a different effect pathway for fathers and mothers on boys and girls, leading to discussion of the implications for prevention and intervention. PMID:24098710

  13. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia Moderates the Relation between Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Adolescents' Social Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Graaff, Jolien; Meeus, Wim; de Wied, Minet; van Boxtel, Anton; van Lier, Pol; Branje, Susan

    2016-02-01

    This 2-wave longitudinal study aimed (1) to investigate whether high resting RSA predicted adolescents' lower externalizing behavior and higher empathic concern, and (2) to address the potential moderating role of resting RSA in the association between parent-adolescent relationship quality and adolescents' externalizing behavior and empathic concern. In a sample of 379 adolescents (212 boys, 167 girls), resting RSA was assessed during a laboratory session, and adolescents reported on parental support, negative interaction with parents, empathic concern and externalizing behavior during a home visit. We found no support for high resting RSA predicting low externalizing behavior or high empathic concern. However, in line with our hypotheses, we did find several instances of RSA functioning as a moderator, although the interaction patterns varied. First, negative interaction with parents was a negative predictor of externalizing behavior for girls low in resting RSA, whereas the association was non-significant for girls with high RSA. Second, higher negative interaction with parents predicted lower empathic concern for boys high in resting RSA, whereas the association was reversed for boys with low resting RSA. Third, parental support was a positive predictor of empathic concern for girls high in resting RSA, whereas the association was non-significant for girls low in resting RSA. The findings suggest that adolescents with different levels of resting RSA respond differentially to relationship quality with parents.

  14. Sensation Seeking Predicting Growth in Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byck, Gayle R.; Swann, Greg; Schalet, Benjamin; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    There is limited literature on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent risk behaviors, particularly among African Americans. We tested the association between psychometrically-derived subscales of the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and the intercepts and slopes of individual growth curves of conduct problems, sexual risk taking, and substance use from ages 13-18 years by sex. Boys and girls had different associations between sensation seeking and baseline levels and growth of risk behaviors. The Pleasure Seeking scale was associated with baseline levels of conduct problems in boys and girls, baseline substance use in boys, and growth in sexual risk taking and substance use by girls. Girls had the same pattern of associations with the Danger/Novelty scale as the Pleasure Seeking scale. Knowledge about the relationships between adolescent risk taking and sensation seeking can help in the targeted design of prevention and intervention programs for the understudied population of very low-income, African American adolescents. PMID:25112599

  15. Predicting the Filial Behaviors of Chinese-Malaysian Adolescents from Perceived Parental Investments, Filial Emotions, and Parental Warmth and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Ozdemir, Sevgi Bayram; Leung, Christy Y. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the mediating role of perceived parental warmth and support in predicting Chinese Malaysian adolescents' filial behaviors from their age, perceived parental investments, and positive filial emotions toward their parents. The effects of these predictors were examined separately for mothers and fathers. Participants…

  16. Do smoking attitudes predict behaviour? A longitudinal study on the bi-directional relations between adolescents' smoking attitudes and behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Rebecca N H; Engels, Rutger C M E; Vermulst, Ad A; Scholte, Ron H J

    2008-10-01

    Prevention and intervention programmes focus frequently upon retaining or creating negative attitudes towards smoking in an effort to prevent adolescents from smoking. As the focus upon attitudes is central in these programmes it is essential to know whether smoking attitudes actually precede smoking behaviour or, conversely, are affected by it. Therefore, in the present study we examined to what extent bi-directional relations existed between smoking attitudes and behaviour. Data were used from the three annual waves of the 'Family and Health' project. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires individually at their homes. Addresses of families consisting of two parents and two adolescents were obtained from the records of 22 municipalities in the Netherlands. At baseline, 428 families participated with a response rate of 94% at the third measurement. Self-reports were used to assess adolescents' smoking attitudes and behaviour. Associations between smoking attitudes and behaviour were tested using structural equation modelling. Findings revealed that smoking attitudes did not predict smoking consistently over time. However, past smoking affected subsequent attitudes moderately, suggesting that adolescents who started to smoke developed less negative attitudes towards smoking. The current findings imply that smoking behaviour predominantly shapes smoking-related attitudes, rather than vice versa. Focusing merely on smoking attitudes is probably not enough to prevent adolescents from smoking.

  17. Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Parental Concern and Concordance Between Parent and Adolescent Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Elon; Richardson, Laura P; Katzman, Katherine; Spielvogle, Heather; Arghira, Adriana Cristina; Zhou, Chuan; McCarty, Carolyn A

    We investigated which adolescent health risk behaviors are of concern to parents generally, according to adolescent age, gender, and in the context of perceived risk. We compared adolescent and parent reports of the presence of health-risk behaviors and factors predicting agreement. Three hundred adolescents aged 13 to 18 years (mean, 14.5 years; 52% female) who presenting for well care completed an electronic screening tool used to assess health-risk behaviors. Parents completed parallel measures of their child's behavior and parental concern. Adolescent and parent reports were compared using McNemar test. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine predictors of agreement. High parental concern was most commonly reported for screen time and diet. When parents identified their adolescent as at-risk, high parental concern was near universal for mental health but less commonly reported for substance use. There were no differences in parental concern according to adolescent gender. Parents of older adolescents expressed more concern regarding physical activity and alcohol. Compared with adolescents, parents were more likely to report risk regarding anxiety, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity, and less likely to report risk regarding screen time, sleep, and marijuana use. Younger adolescent age and higher family relationship quality were predictive of stronger parent-adolescent agreement. Parents in well-care visits commonly have concerns about adolescent lifestyle behaviors. Although parents are more likely to report concern when they know about a behavior, parental concern is not always aligned with parental awareness of risk, particularly for substance use. Parent report of higher prevalence of some risk behaviors suggests their input might assist in risk identification. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Racial Discrimination during Adolescence Predicts Mental Health Deterioration in Adulthood: Gender Differences among Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Moazen-Zadeh, Ehsan; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2017-01-01

    Despite the existing knowledge regarding the negative mental health consequences of perceived racial discrimination, very few researchers have used a longitudinal design with long-term follow-up periods to explore gender differences in this association over time. The current longitudinal study aimed to investigate gender differences in predictive role of an increase in perceived racial discrimination during adolescence for mental health deterioration a decade later when they are transitioning to young adulthood. Current study followed 681 Black youths for 18 years from 1994 (mean age 15) to 2012 (mean age 32). All participants spent their adolescence and transition to young adulthood in an economically disadvantaged urban area in the Midwest of the United States. Independent variable was perceived racial discrimination measured in 1999 and 2002. Outcomes were psychological symptoms (anxiety and depression) measured in 1999 and at end of follow-up (2012). Covariates included sociodemographics (age, family structure, and parental employment) measured in 1994. Gender was used to define groups in a multigroup structural equation model to test moderating effects. Multigroup structural equation modeling showed that among male Black youth, an increase in perceived racial discrimination from age 20 to 23 was predictive for an increase in symptoms of anxiety and depression from age 20 to 32. Among female Black youth, change in perceived racial discrimination did not predict future change in depressive or anxiety symptoms. While racial discrimination is associated with negative mental health consequences for both genders, male and female Black youth differ in regard to long-term effects of an increase in perceived discrimination on deterioration of psychological symptoms. Black males seem to be more susceptible than Black females to the psychological effects of an increase in racial discrimination over time.

  19. Racial Discrimination during Adolescence Predicts Mental Health Deterioration in Adulthood: Gender Differences among Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDespite the existing knowledge regarding the negative mental health consequences of perceived racial discrimination, very few researchers have used a longitudinal design with long-term follow-up periods to explore gender differences in this association over time.ObjectiveThe current longitudinal study aimed to investigate gender differences in predictive role of an increase in perceived racial discrimination during adolescence for mental health deterioration a decade later when they are transitioning to young adulthood.MethodsCurrent study followed 681 Black youths for 18 years from 1994 (mean age 15 to 2012 (mean age 32. All participants spent their adolescence and transition to young adulthood in an economically disadvantaged urban area in the Midwest of the United States. Independent variable was perceived racial discrimination measured in 1999 and 2002. Outcomes were psychological symptoms (anxiety and depression measured in 1999 and at end of follow-up (2012. Covariates included sociodemographics (age, family structure, and parental employment measured in 1994. Gender was used to define groups in a multigroup structural equation model to test moderating effects.ResultsMultigroup structural equation modeling showed that among male Black youth, an increase in perceived racial discrimination from age 20 to 23 was predictive for an increase in symptoms of anxiety and depression from age 20 to 32. Among female Black youth, change in perceived racial discrimination did not predict future change in depressive or anxiety symptoms.ConclusionWhile racial discrimination is associated with negative mental health consequences for both genders, male and female Black youth differ in regard to long-term effects of an increase in perceived discrimination on deterioration of psychological symptoms. Black males seem to be more susceptible than Black females to the psychological effects of an increase in racial discrimination over time.

  20. Structure provided by parents in middle childhood predicts cortisol reactivity in adolescence among the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbogen, Mark A; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that childhood exposure to adversity influences later functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Parenting style in childhood, a putative moderator of adversity, may be important in determining HPA reactivity in adolescence. As part of a prospective, longitudinal study, saliva was collected at awakening and 30 and 60 min later over 2 days among 27 offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (high risk; 16.7+/-1.5 years) and 26 offspring of parents with no mental disorders (low risk; 16.2+/-1.7 years). In addition, 24 of the high risk and 22 of the low risk adolescents completed the "Trier Social Stress Test" (TSST). Parents had rated their parenting style when their offspring were 6-13 years of age. Low levels of structure (i.e. organization and consistency) provided by parents in middle childhood were predictive of an elevated cortisol response following awakening (beta=-0.36; padolescents' mood and behavior. The level of structure provided by parents in childhood predicted independent measures of cortisol reactivity in adolescence, suggesting that parenting style may regulate different aspects of HPA reactivity.

  1. High peer popularity longitudinally predicts adolescent health risk behavior, or does it?: an examination of linear and quadratic associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinstein, Mitchell J; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia C; Helms, Sarah W; Brechwald, Whitney A; Rancourt, Diana

    2011-10-01

    In contrast to prior work, recent theory suggests that high, not low, levels of adolescent peer popularity may be associated with health risk behavior. This study examined (a) whether popularity may be uniquely associated with cigarette use, marijuana use, and sexual risk behavior, beyond the predictive effects of aggression; (b) whether the longitudinal association between popularity and health risk behavior may be curvilinear; and (c) gender moderation. A total of 336 adolescents, initially in 10-11th grades, reported cigarette use, marijuana use, and number of sexual intercourse partners at two time points 18 months apart. Sociometric peer nominations were used to examine popularity and aggression. Longitudinal quadratic effects and gender moderation suggest that both high and low levels of popularity predict some, but not all, health risk behaviors. New theoretical models can be useful for understanding the complex manner in which health risk behaviors may be reinforced within the peer context.

  2. Rural adolescents' access to adolescent friendly health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor-Turner, Molly A; Randall, Brandy A; Brennan, Alison L; Anderson, Melinda K; Gross, Dean A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess rural North Dakota adolescents' experiences in accessing adolescent-friendly health services and to examine the relationship between rural adolescents' communication with health care providers and risk behaviors. Data are from the Rural Adolescent Health Survey (RAHS), an anonymous survey of 14- to 19-year-olds (n = 322) attending secondary schools in four frontier counties of North Dakota. Descriptive statistics were used to assess participants' access to adolescent-friendly health services characterized as accessible, acceptable, and appropriate. Logistic regressions were used to examine whether participant-reported risk behaviors predicted communication with health care providers about individual health risk behaviors. Rural adolescents reported high access to acceptable primary health care services but low levels of effective health care services. Participant report of engaging in high-risk behaviors was associated with having received information from health care providers about the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. These findings reveal missed opportunities for primary care providers in rural settings to provide fundamental health promotion to adolescents. Copyright © 2014 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Contraceptive practices and pregnancy intendedness among pregnant adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanjakornsiripan W

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wakul Lanjakornsiripan, Siriruthai Amnatbuddee, Kanok Seejorn, Yuthapong Werawatakul, Pilaiwan Kleebkaow, Ratana Komwilaisak, Sanguanchoke Luanratanakorn Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Background: Adolescent pregnancy is a major health problem in many developing countries.Objective: To assess contraceptive practices and pregnancy intendedness in pregnant adolescents.Materials and methods: This study was prospectively conducted from September 2013 to June 2014. All consecutively pregnant women between 15 and 19 years old attending the Antenatal Clinic at Srinagarind Hospital and the Khon Kaen Branch of the Planned Parenthood Association of Thailand were invited for participation. Face-to-face interviews by trained interviewers using standardized questionnaires were carried out. Logistic regression was used to determine an adjusted odds ratio (aOR and 95% confidence interval (CI of independent predictors.Results: Two hundred participants were enrolled. Mean age was 17.2 years. One hundred and eighteen (59.0% were currently in school. Seventy-five (37.5% participants had never used any contraceptive methods. Of the 125 participants who had ever used contraception, regular use of contraceptives was reported in only 21 participants (16.8%. Only two participants (1.0% had ever used an intrauterine device or implant. Participants’ age was a significant independent factor associated with non-use of contraceptives (aOR, 6.42; 95% CI, 2.94–14.04. Of the 200 participants, 132 (66.0% declared that the pregnancy was unintended. Significant independent factors predicting unintended pregnancy were educational status (aOR, 6.17; 95% CI, 3.27–13.75 and participants’ age (aOR, 5.76; 95% CI, 2.42–13.70.Conclusion: Non-use and use of contraceptive methods with high failure rates were major reasons leading to adolescent pregnancies. Participants’ age was an independent factor

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Problems in Sexual Functioning and Related Sexual Distress Among Middle to Late Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Byers, E Sandra; Brotto, Lori A; Majerovich, Jo Ann; Fletcher, Jason

    2016-09-01

    Rates of sexual dysfunctions are high among adults, but little is known about problems in sexual functioning among adolescents. We completed a comprehensive assessment of problems in sexual functioning and related distress over a 2-year period among adolescents (16-21 years). A sample of 405 adolescents completed five online surveys over 2 years. The main outcome measures were clinical cutoff scores on the International Index of Erectile Function and Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool for male adolescents and the Female Sexual Function Index for female adolescents. A secondary outcome was clinical levels of distress. The majority of sexually active adolescents (78.6% of the male and 84.4% of the female) reported a sexual problem over the course; rates did not differ significantly by gender. Common problems for males were low sexual satisfaction (47.9%), low desire (46.2%), and problems in erectile function (45.3%). Common problems for females were inability to reach orgasm (59.2%), low satisfaction (48.3%), and pain (46.9%). Models predicting problems over time showed increased odds among those not in a sexual relationship. Odds of reporting a distressing sexual problem decreased over time for female but not male adolescents. Problems in sexual functioning emerge early in individuals' sexual lives, are often distressing, and appear not to fluctuate over time. Additional efforts to identify key factors linked to onset will help elucidate possible mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of anthropometric, performance and psychological attributes in predicting selection into an elite development programme in older adolescent rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredrea, Matthew; Dascombe, Ben; Sanctuary, Colin E; Scanlan, Aaron Terrence

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to identify attributes that discriminate selected from non-selected players and predict selection into a rugby league development programme in older adolescent players. Anthropometric, performance and psychological attributes were measured in under-16 (N = 100) and under-18 (N = 60) rugby league players trialling for selection into a development programme with a professional Australian club. Sprint times (P rugby league and indicate talent identification test batteries should be age-specific in older adolescent players.

  6. Approaching the adolescent-headed family: a review of teen parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savio Beers, Lee A; Hollo, Ruth E

    2009-10-01

    In the USA, as many as 1 in 6 women nationwide become adolescent mothers, making adolescent pregnancy and childbearing issues a frequently encountered occurrence by pediatricians and adolescent medicine health care providers. Both social and medical programs focus on prevention and management of adolescent pregnancies; however, caring for the adolescent-headed family is less well understood. For many teen parents, various environmental and behavioral risks contributed to early childbearing and parenting. Following delivery of the infant, many of these same psycho-social, environmental, and educational factors continue to play a role in the teen's ability to parent effectively. This review explores these factors in relation to teen parenting as well as describes the limited data available on outcomes of adolescent mothers and their infants. Despite negative social stereotypes regarding adolescent fathers, research suggesting that most fathers desire involvement with their infants and the impact of and factors influencing father involvement is explored. Understanding the dynamics of the coparenting relationship, an expanding field of study, will aid practitioners in strengthening and supporting teen parenting by both mothers and fathers. As most teen parents continue to reside with their families, teen parenting has an important impact on the multi-generational family structure. These relationships can serve both to support and at times to hinder the adolescent parents' development as an individual and as a parent. Successful interventions and programs to support the adolescent-headed family take on various forms but are usually comprehensive and multidisciplinary and consider the developmental status of both the parent and the child. To best care for adolescent-headed families, pediatricians and adolescent medicine providers should understand the psychosocial, developmental, educational, and relationship issues that influence adolescent parenting.

  7. Violent relationships at the social-ecological level: A multi-mediation model to predict adolescent victimization by peers, bullying and depression in early and late adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Oriol

    Full Text Available From the social-ecological perspective, exposure to violence at the different developmental levels is fundamental to explain the dynamics of violence and victimization in educational centers. The following study aims at analyzing how these relationships are produced in the Peruvian context, where structural violence situations exist.A multi-mediation structural model with 21,416 Peruvian adolescents (M = 13.69; SD = 0.71 was conducted to determine the influence of violence in the school environment on violence perceived within school and violence exercised by teachers. In addition, it was also intended to determine whether these violent relationships predict depression through loneliness, and bullying through peer victimization. The existence of differences between early and late adolescence was also verified.Results confirm that violence in the school setting has high influence on violence exercised by adolescents and teachers within the school. Teacher violence is the most important predictor of depression through loneliness, and encourages peer victimization and the emergence of aggressive behavior. Exposure to violence exercised by support sources-teachers and classmates-explains more than 90% of the total variance explained in bullying behavior. Differences were found between early and late adolescence models.The high prevalence of structural violence in school settings facilitates the bullying/victimization dynamics within school. From a social-ecological perspective, this result suggests the importance of network cooperation at a mesosystem level, with teachers from educational centers playing a crucial role in the prevention of bullying/victimization.

  8. Violent relationships at the social-ecological level: A multi-mediation model to predict adolescent victimization by peers, bullying and depression in early and late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriol, Xavier; Miranda, Rafael; Amutio, Alberto; Acosta, Hedy C; Mendoza, Michelle C; Torres-Vallejos, Javier

    2017-01-01

    From the social-ecological perspective, exposure to violence at the different developmental levels is fundamental to explain the dynamics of violence and victimization in educational centers. The following study aims at analyzing how these relationships are produced in the Peruvian context, where structural violence situations exist. A multi-mediation structural model with 21,416 Peruvian adolescents (M = 13.69; SD = 0.71) was conducted to determine the influence of violence in the school environment on violence perceived within school and violence exercised by teachers. In addition, it was also intended to determine whether these violent relationships predict depression through loneliness, and bullying through peer victimization. The existence of differences between early and late adolescence was also verified. Results confirm that violence in the school setting has high influence on violence exercised by adolescents and teachers within the school. Teacher violence is the most important predictor of depression through loneliness, and encourages peer victimization and the emergence of aggressive behavior. Exposure to violence exercised by support sources-teachers and classmates-explains more than 90% of the total variance explained in bullying behavior. Differences were found between early and late adolescence models. The high prevalence of structural violence in school settings facilitates the bullying/victimization dynamics within school. From a social-ecological perspective, this result suggests the importance of network cooperation at a mesosystem level, with teachers from educational centers playing a crucial role in the prevention of bullying/victimization.

  9. Adding Perspective: Predicting Adolescent Sunscreen Use with an Extended Health Action Process Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Natalie; Schüz, Benjamin; Eid, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Diseases such as skin cancer often have a very long latency period. For adolescents, especially, it may be difficult to grasp that current risk behavior is related to future health outcomes. This study examines the role of health-related time perspective (i.e. the degree to which short-term outcomes are discounted over long-time health benefits) within the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA). More specifically, based on expectancy*value theory, we tested whether time perspective interacts with self-efficacy, the central variable in this approach. A longitudinal study with three measurement points across one year assessed 156 high school students. Data were analyzed using structural equation models. While time perspective had no direct association with sunscreen use intentions, there was an interaction effect with self-efficacy; the shorter the time perspective, the smaller the association of self-efficacy with intention. Intention in turn predicted planning and sunscreen use at Time 3 (one year later). In order to maximise the impact of early onset measures for skin cancer prevention targeting the motivation for sunscreen use in adolescents, time perspective should be addressed in comprehensive sun protection interventions. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  10. Are They Listening? Parental Social Coaching and Parenting Emotional Climate Predict Adolescent Receptivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, Kim D; Erath, Stephen A; Pettit, Gregory S; Tu, Kelly M

    2016-12-01

    Associations linking parenting emotional climate and quality of parental social coaching with young adolescents' receptivity to parental social coaching were examined (N = 80). Parenting emotional climate was assessed with adolescent-reported parental warmth and hostility. Quality of parental social coaching (i.e., prosocial advice, benign framing) was assessed via parent-report and behavioral observations during a parent-adolescent discussion about negative peer evaluation. An adolescent receptivity latent variable score was derived from observations of adolescents' behavior during the discussion, change in adolescents' peer response plan following the discussion, and adolescent-reported tendency to seek social advice from the parent. Parenting climate moderated associations between coaching and receptivity: Higher quality coaching was associated with greater receptivity in the context of a more positive climate. Analyses suggested a stronger association between coaching and receptivity among younger compared to older adolescents. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  11. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishola Rawatlal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescence represents a challenging transitional period where changes in biological, emotional, cognitive and social domains can increase the risk of developing internalised problems including subthreshold depression. Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family functioning may increase risk for depressive symptoms or may reduce such risk. Adolescent-parent attachment, adolescent-perceived support from parents and family functioning were examined as correlates of depressive symptom presentation within this age group. Methods. Participants included a maternal parent and an adolescent (65.5% female from each family. Adolescents were in Grade 7 (n=175 or Grade 10 (n=31. Data were collected through home interviews. The Self-Report of Family Inventory (SFI, Experiences of Close Relationships Scale (ECR, Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI, Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were used to assess depression, parental support and attachment.  Results. Two models were examined: one with adolescent report of depressive symptoms as the outcome and a second with parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms as the outcome. The model predicting adolescent-reported depressive symptoms was significant with older age, higher levels of avoidant attachment, and higher levels of youth-reported dysfunctional family interaction associated with more depressive symptomatology. In the model predicting parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms only higher levels of dysfunctional family interaction, as reported by the parent, were associated with higher levels of internalising symptoms. Conclusion. Positive family communication, cohesion and support predictive of a secure parent-adolescent attachment relationship reduced the risk of a depressive symptom outcome. Secure adolescents were able to regulate their emotions, knowing that they could seek out secure base attachment relations

  12. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Longitudinal Links with Maternal Empathy and Psychological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Lente L A A; der Graaff, Jolien Van; Meeus, Wim H J; Branje, Susan J T

    2016-08-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi: 10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01 , 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, through mothers' psychological control use. Less empathic mothers may be less sensitive to adolescents' need for psychological autonomy, and thus prone to violating this need using psychological control, which may in turn predict adolescents' depressive symptoms. Moreover, according to interpersonal theory of depression (Coyne in Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 186-193. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.85.2.186 , 1976), adolescents' depressive symptoms may elicit rejecting responses, such as mothers' psychological control. For six waves, 497 adolescents (57 % boys, M age T1 = 13.03) annually completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control, while mothers reported on their empathy. Cross-lagged path analyses showed that throughout adolescence, both mothers' affective and cognitive empathy indirectly predicted boys' and girls' depressive symptoms, through psychological control. Additionally, depressive symptoms predicted psychological control for boys, and early adolescent girls. These results highlight the importance of (1) mothers' affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, and (2) taking gender into account when examining adolescent-effects.

  13. Lower education among low-income Brazilian adolescent females is associated with planned pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal-Cury A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alexandre Faisal-Cury,1 Karen M Tabb,2 Guilherme Niciunovas,3 Carrie Cunningham,4 Paulo R Menezes,1 Hsiang Huang4,5 1Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2School of Social Work, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA; 3School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Department of Psychiatry, Cambridge Health Alliance, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA, USA; 5Department of Psychiatry, Laboratory of Psychopathology and Psychiatric Therapeutics (LIM-23, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Adolescent pregnancy has social, economic, and educational consequences and is also linked to adverse perinatal outcomes. However, studies show a positive relationship between pregnancy and increased social status among low-income adolescents. This study aims to assess the association between planned pregnancy and years of schooling among low-income Brazilian adolescents. This is a secondary analysis of a cohort study conducted from May 2005 to March 2007 in public primary care clinics in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants (n=168 completed a detailed structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between years of schooling and planned pregnancy. After adjusting for the covariates income, wealth score, crowding, age, marital status, and race, planned pregnancy was independently associated with lower years of education (odds ratio: 1.82; 95% confidence interval: 1.02–3.23. Although this finding may be related to these adolescents having less access to information and health services, another possible explanation is that they have a greater desire to have children during adolescence. Keywords: adolescent pregnancy, planned pregnancy, Brazil, low-income population, women

  14. Exposure to Violence Predicting Cortisol Response During Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Understanding Moderating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Justin E.; Miller, Alison L.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on the association between violence and biological stress regulation has been largely cross-sectional, and has also focused on childhood. Using longitudinal data from a low-income, high-risk, predominantly African-American sample (n = 266; 57 % female), we tested hypotheses about the influence of cumulative exposure to violence during adolescence and early adulthood on cortisol responses in early adulthood. We found that cumulative exposure to violence predicted an attenuated cortisol response. Further, we tested whether sex, mothers’ support, or fathers’ support moderated the effect of exposure to violence on cortisol responses. We found that the effect of cumulative exposure to violence on cortisol was modified by sex; specifically, males exposed to violence exhibited a more attenuated response pattern. In addition, the effect of cumulative exposure to violence on cortisol was moderated by the presence of fathers’ support during adolescence. The findings contribute to a better understanding of how cumulative exposure to violence influences biological outcomes, emphasizing the need to understand sex and parental support as moderators of risk. PMID:24458765

  15. SCALE DEVELOPMENT FOR MEASURING AND PREDICTING ADOLESCENTS' LEISURE TIME PHYSICAL ACTIVITY BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Arribas Galarraga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a scale for assessing and predicting adolescents' physical activity behavior in Spain and Luxembourg using the Theory of Planned Behavior as a framework. The sample was comprised of 613 Spanish (boys = 309, girls = 304; M age =15.28, SD =1.127 and 752 Luxembourgish adolescents (boys = 343, girls = 409; M age = 14.92, SD = 1.198, selected from students of two secondary schools in both countries, with a similar socio-economic status. The initial 43-items were all scored on a 4-point response format using the structured alternative format and translated into Spanish, French and German. In order to ensure the accuracy of the translation, standardized parallel back-translation techniques were employed. Following two pilot tests and subsequent revisions, a second order exploratory factor analysis with oblimin direct rotation was used for factor extraction. Internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities were also tested. The 4-week test-retest correlations confirmed the items' time stability. The same five factors were obtained, explaining 63.76% and 63.64% of the total variance in both samples. Internal consistency for the five factors ranged from α = 0.759 to α = 0. 949 in the Spanish sample and from α = 0.735 to α = 0.952 in the Luxembourgish sample. For both samples, inter-factor correlations were all reported significant and positive, except for Factor 5 where they were significant but negative. The high internal consistency of the subscales, the reported item test-retest reliabilities and the identical factor structure confirm the adequacy of the elaborated questionnaire for assessing the TPB-based constructs when used with a population of adolescents in Spain and Luxembourg. The results give some indication that they may have value in measuring the hypothesized TPB constructs for PA behavior in a cross-cultural context

  16. Transitions in Friendship Attachment During Adolescence are Associated With Developmental Trajectories of Depression Through Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie H; Heinze, Justin E; Miller, Alison L; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2016-03-01

    Forming secure friendship attachments during adolescence are important for mental health; few, however, have specifically examined the ways in which the transitions in attachment during adolescence may influence future mental health outcomes among African Americans. The present study examines how transitions in attachment in adolescence predicted changes in depression symptoms from late adolescents through adulthood in an African-American sample. We used growth curve modeling to examine the association between transitions in friendship attachment and changes in depression symptoms in adulthood. At age 16 years, 346 (64.0%) adolescents reported secure attachment with 195 (36.0%) reporting either avoidant or resistant attachment. At age 17 years, 340 (62.9%) reported secure attachment and 201 (37.2%) reported avoidant or resistant attachment. The largest percentage of participants (46.2%) reported stable-secure attachment across the two time points. Results of the growth model indicated that adolescents who reported a stable-secure attachment style had lower levels of depression symptoms during adulthood than those individuals who transitioned from secure-to-insecure, from insecure-to-secure, or were in the stable-insecure group. Interestingly enough, individuals in both the attachment transition groups had a faster declining rate of depression symptoms over time compared to the two stability groups. Data support existing research showing an association between transitions in attachment during adolescence and depression through adulthood. Furthermore, these study findings suggest there may be protective features associated with transitioning between attachment styles during adolescence on later depression, compared to African Americans who remain stable in their attachment style. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Leveraging Neuroscience to Inform Adolescent Health: The Need for an Innovative Transdisciplinary Developmental Science of Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dahl, Ronald E

    2017-03-01

    In this article, we consider how to leverage some of the rapid advances in developmental neuroscience in ways that can improve adolescent health. We provide a brief overview of several key areas of scientific progress relevant to these issues. We then focus on two examples of important health problems that increase sharply during adolescence: sleep problems and affective disorders. These examples illustrate how an integrative, developmental science approach provides new insights into treatment and intervention. They also highlight a cornerstone principle: how a deeper understanding of potentially modifiable factors-at key developmental inflection points along the trajectory toward clinical disorders-is beginning to inform, and may eventually transform, a broad range of innovative early intervention strategies to improve adolescent health. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Impact of a Sexual and Reproductive Health Intervention for American Indian Adolescents on Predictors of Condom Use Intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingey, Lauren; Chambers, Rachel; Rosenstock, Summer; Lee, Angelita; Goklish, Novalene; Larzelere, Francene

    2017-03-01

    American Indian (AI) adolescents experience inequalities in sexual health, in particular, early sexual initiation. Condom use intention is an established predictor of condom use and is an important construct for evaluating interventions among adolescents who are not yet sexually active. This analysis evaluated the impact of Respecting the Circle of Life (RCL), a sexual and reproductive health intervention for AI adolescents, on predictors of condom use intention. We utilized a cluster randomized controlled trial design to evaluate RCL among 267 AIs ages 13-19. We examined baseline psychosocial and theoretical variables associated with condom use intention. Generalized estimating equation regression models determined which baseline variables predictive of condom use intention were impacted. Mean sample age was 15.1 years (standard deviation 1.7) and 56% were female; 22% had initiated sex. A larger proportion of RCL versus control participants had condom use intention post intervention (relative risk [RR] = 1.39, p = .008), especially younger (ages 13-15; RR = 1.42, p = .007) and sexually inexperienced adolescents (RR = 1.44, p = .01); these differences attenuated at additional follow-up. Baseline predictors of condom use intention included being sexually experienced, having condom use self-efficacy, as well as response efficacy and severity (both theoretical constructs). Of these, the RCL intervention significantly impacted condom use self-efficacy and response efficacy. Results demonstrate RCL intervention efficacy impacting variables predictive of condom use intention at baseline, with greater differences among younger, sexually inexperienced adolescents. To sustain intervention impact, future RCL implementation should reinforce education and training in condom use self-efficacy and response efficacy and recruit younger, sexually inexperienced AI adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  19. Trends in standard workup performed by pediatric subspecialists for the diagnosis of adolescent polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Sarah E; Uliassi, Nicole W; Sullivan, Shannon D; Tuchman, Lisa K; Mehra, Rinku; Gomez-Lobo, Veronica

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify trends in the clinical workup, diagnosis, and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome by pediatric endocrinologists, pediatric gynecologists, and adolescent medicine specialists. Retrospective chart review. Tertiary care medical center. Females aged 11-18 y who were evaluated for PCOS from June 2009 to October 2011 were included. Any patients with coexisting diagnoses of other primary etiology for amenorrhea were excluded. Patients were identified by ICD-9 codes for PCOS, hypersecretion of ovarian androgens, irregular menses, hirsutism, oligomenorrhea, or amenorrhea. 261 patients were included: 144 from endocrinology, 9 from gynecology, and 108 from adolescent pediatric practices. There were no significant differences in the androgen labs ordered by the subspecialties. Gynecologists ordered pelvic ultrasonography for 89% (n = 8) of patients, compared to 9% (n = 10) by adolescent medicine specialists and 24% (n = 34) by endocrinologists (P PCOS with metformin (58%, n = 66), compared to gynecologists (14%, n = 1) and adolescent medicine specialists (5%, n = 3) (P PCOS are evident among pediatric subspecialties, reflecting lack of standardized care for adolescents. Quantifying outcomes based on diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are important next steps. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A modified Elixhauser score for predicting in-hospital mortality in internal medicine admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbian, Fabio; De Giorgi, Alfredo; Maietti, Elisa; Gallerani, Massimo; Pala, Marco; Cappadona, Rosaria; Manfredini, Roberto; Fedeli, Ugo

    2017-05-01

    In-hospital mortality (IHM) is an indicator of the quality of care provided. The two most widely used scores for predicting IHM by International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes are the Elixhauser (EI) and the Charlson Comorbidity indexes. Our aim was to obtain new measures based on internal medicine ICD codes for the original EI, to detect risk for IHM. This single-center retrospective study included hospital admissions for any cause in the department of internal medicine between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2013, recorded in the hospital database. The EI was calculated for evaluation of comorbidity, then we added age, gender and diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. IHM was our outcome. Only predictors positively associated with IHM were taken into consideration and the Sullivan's method was applied in order to modify the parameter estimates of the regression model into an index. We analyzed 75,586 admissions (53.4% females) and mean age was 72.7±16.3years. IHM was 7.9% and mean score was 12.1±7.6. The points assigned to each condition ranged from 0 to 16, and the possible range of the score varied between 0 and 89. In our population the score ranged from 0 to 54, and it was higher in the deceased group. Receiver operating characteristic curve of the new score was 0.721 (95% CI 0.714-0.727, pInternal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Home Medicine Chests And Their Relationship With Self-medication In Children And Adolescents [farmácias Domiciliares E Sua Relação Com A Automedicação Em Crianças E Adolescentes

    OpenAIRE

    Tourinho F.S.V.; Bucaretchi F.; Stephan C.; Cordeiro R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the contents of home medicine chests and their relationship with self-medication in children and adolescents in the towns of Limeira and Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Methods: This is a descriptive population study based on ahome survey of a simple random sample from both towns, comprising 705 households from census sectors selected by means of cluster sampling. Inclusion criteria: age ≤ 18 years; an obligatory interview with at least one guardian; inventory of medicines k...

  2. Implications of marijuana legalization for adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely available and marketed in different forms, or what effects different patterns of adolescent use will have on cognition, the development of marijuana use disorders, school performance, and the development of psychotic illnesses. Also unclear is whether adolescent users will be experiencing higher levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) compared with previous generations of users due to higher potencies. Although previous studies of the effects of adolescent marijuana use provide some guidance for current policy and public health recommendations, many new studies will be needed that answer questions in the context of use within a legal adult environment. Claims that marijuana has medicinal benefits create additional challenges for adolescent prevention efforts, as they contrast with messages of its harmfulness. Prevention and treatment approaches will need to address perceptions of the safety of marijuana, claims of its medicinal use, and consider family-wide effects as older siblings and parents may increasingly openly consume and advocate for marijuana use. Guidance for primary care physicians will be needed regarded screening and counseling. Widespread legalization and acceptance of marijuana implies that as law enforcement approaches for marijuana control decline, public health, medical, and scientific efforts to understand and reduce negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use need to be substantially increased to levels commensurate with those efforts for tobacco and alcohol.

  3. Childhood temperament predictors of adolescent physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Janssen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Many patterns of physical activity involvement are established early in life. To date, the role of easily identifiable early-life individual predictors of PA, such as childhood temperament, remains relatively unexplored. Here, we tested whether childhood temperamental activity level, high intensity pleasure, low intensity pleasure, and surgency predicted engagement in physical activity (PA patterns 11 years later in adolescence. Methods Data came from a longitudinal community study (N = 206 participants, 53% females, 70% Caucasian. Parents reported their children’s temperamental characteristics using the Child Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ when children were 4 & 5 years old. Approximately 11 years later, adolescents completed self-reports of PA using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Ordered logistic regression, ordinary least squares linear regression, and Zero-inflated Poisson regression models were used to predict adolescent PA from childhood temperament. Race, socioeconomic status, and adolescent body mass index were used as covariates. Results Males with greater childhood temperamental activity level engaged in greater adolescent PA volume (B = .42, SE = .13 and a 1 SD difference in childhood temperamental activity level predicted 29.7% more strenuous adolescent PA per week. Males’ high intensity pleasure predicted higher adolescent PA volume (B = .28, SE = .12. Males’ surgency positively predicted more frequent PA activity (B = .47, SE = .23, OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.54 and PA volume (B = .31, SE = .12. No predictions from females’ childhood temperament to later PA engagement were identified. Conclusions Childhood temperament may influence the formation of later PA habits, particularly in males. Boys with high temperamental activity level, high intensity

  4. Fertility Preservation for Transgender Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Diane; Simons, Lisa; Johnson, Emilie K; Lockart, Barbara A; Finlayson, Courtney

    2017-07-01

    To describe fertility preservation (FP) utilization by transgender adolescents within a pediatric gender clinic between July 2013 and July 2016. A retrospective chart review was conducted to abstract demographic and clinical information among adolescents initiating gender-affirming hormones, including patient age at initial FP consultation, birth-assigned sex, race/ethnicity, and outcome of FP consultation. In our sample of 105 transgender adolescents, a total of 13 (seven transgender men and six transgender women) between the age of 14.2 and 20.6 years were seen in formal consultation for FP before initiating hormones. Of these adolescents, four completed sperm cryopreservation and one completed oocyte cryopreservation. Rates of FP utilization among transgender youth were low, which is consistent with a recently published report of FP utilization among transgender youth at another pediatric institution. Identified barriers to FP in our sample included cost, invasiveness of procedures, and desire not to delay medical transition. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. P4 Medicine versus Hippocrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulciani, Simonetta; Di Lonardo, Anna; Fagnani, Corrado; Taruscio, Domenica

    2017-01-01

    Hippocrates was the first to raise awareness of medicine as a science. He asserted the body being a unified whole and emphasized the importance of preventive and predictive medicine, spurring physicians to foster patient collaboration. Recent achievements today have permitted a new approach "P4 medicine" - Predictive, Preventive, Personalized and Participatory - with the aim of depicting an individual's health history and molecular profile in determining the best medical intervention in maintaining or restoring wellbeing. There is a link, which brings together Hippocrates and P4 Medicine. This review will elaborate further this statement, considering the scientific achievements that paved the way for recent medical approaches. Emphasis will be given to the social impact of new diagnostic and therapeutic protocols, considering their costs and their success probabilities.

  6. Substance Use among Adolescent Mothers: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Shawna L Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2013-05-01

    Maternal substance abuse is a critical problem, and adolescent mothers appear to be at high risk for such behaviors. We review studies on postpartum adolescent substance use to explore the extent of this problem and avenues for new research. Authors screened 1,300 studies, identifying 12 articles on substance use among postpartum adolescent mothers for this review. Adolescent mothers reported greater substance use before pregnancy compared to other adolescent females. Although some adolescents continued substance use during pregnancy, most stopped using only to resume within six months after birth. Comparisons of use to national samples of nulliparous adolescent females showed a higher prevalence of substance use in this population. Substances used often varied by race/ethnicity, with white mothers more likely to smoke cigarettes and use marijuana, and Black mothers more likely than whites to drink and use drugs. Of all identified studies, only one focused on Hispanics. Beliefs about drug use grew less negative as girls transitioned from pregnancy to parenthood. As they transitioned to adulthood, substance use remained prevalent and stable. Psychological distress and low self-esteem appeared to influence continued use. Friends' cigarette smoking predicted early initiation of and persistent smoking, while increased education predicted quitting. Early initiation of substances often predicted problem behaviors. Adolescent mothers are a vulnerable population, implicating use of problem behavior theory or the self-medication hypothesis in future research. Multiple avenues for new studies are needed to help identify effective treatment and intervention for this understudied population.

  7. Promoting homework adherence in cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbluth, Nathaniel J; Shirk, Stephen R

    2013-01-01

    This study used prospective, observational methods to evaluate six features of therapist behavior as predictors of homework adherence in cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression, with the goal of identifying therapist strategies with the potential to improve adolescent adherence. Therapist behaviors were expected to interact with initial levels of client resistance or adherence to predict subsequent homework completion. Participants were 50 referred adolescents (33 female, 54% ethnic minority) ages 14 to 18 (M = 15.9) meeting diagnostic criteria for a depressive disorder, and without comorbid psychotic disorder, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, or concurrent treatments. Therapist homework-related behaviors were coded from audiotapes of Sessions 1 and 2 and used to predict adolescents' homework adherence, coded from audiotapes of Sessions 2 and 3. Several therapist behaviors were predictive of subsequent homework adherence, particularly for initially resistant or nonadherent adolescents. Stronger homework rationale and greater time allocated to explaining homework in Session 1 predicted greater adherence at Session 2, particularly for initially resistant adolescents. Stronger rationale and eliciting reactions/troubleshooting obstacles in Session 2 predicted greater adherence at Session 3, particularly for adolescents who were less adherent to prior homework. Strategies such as providing a strong rationale, allocating more time to assigning homework, and eliciting reactions/troubleshooting obstacles may be effective ways to bolster homework adherence among initially less engaged, depressed teens.

  8. Adolescent personality factors in self-ratings and peer nominations and their prediction of peer acceptance and peer rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, R H; van Aken, M A; van Lieshout, C F

    1997-12-01

    In this study, the robustness of the Big Five personality factors in adolescents' self-ratings and peer nominations was investigated. Data were obtained on 2,001 adolescents attending secondary school (885 girls; 1,116 boys; M age = 14.5 years). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on the self-ratings confirmed the Big Five personality factors. In contrast, exploratory analysis on the peer nominations revealed five different factors: Aggression-Inattentiveness, Achievement-Withdrawal, Self-Confidence, Sociability, and Emotionality-Nervousness. It is suggested that peers evaluate group members not in terms of their personality but in terms of their group reputation. Peer evaluations contributed substantially to the prediction of peer acceptance and rejection; the Big Five personality factors based on self-ratings did not.

  9. The role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution in predicting shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Israel; Shulman, Shmuel

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution patterns in shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescent couples. Data were used from 55 couples aged 15-18 years. Partners completed the Romantic Attraction scale and were observed negotiating a disagreement. Three and 6 months later, they were asked to report whether they were still together. Findings indicated that partners' romantic attraction and the tendency to minimize disagreements during interaction predicted shorter relationship maintenance. In contrast, longer relationship maintenance was predicted by partners' capability to resolve conflicts constructively in a positive atmosphere. Findings are embedded and discussed within Fisher's (2004) evolutionary theory of love.

  10. Predicting later problematic cannabis use from psychopathological symptoms during childhood and adolescence: Results of a 25-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohsel, Katrin; Baldus, Christiane; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Thomasius, Rainer; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal substance among adolescents and young adults. Problematic cannabis use is often associated with comorbid psychopathological problems. The purpose of the current study was to elucidate the underlying developmental processes connecting externalizing and internalizing psychopathology in childhood and adolescence with problematic cannabis use in young adulthood. Data were drawn from the Mannheim Study of Children at Risk, an ongoing epidemiological cohort study from birth to adulthood. For n=307 participants, symptom scores of conduct/oppositional defiant disorder, attention problems, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and internalizing disorders were available for the periods of childhood (4.5-11 years) and adolescence (15 years). At age 25 years, problematic cannabis use was assessed via clinical interview and a self-rating questionnaire. At age 25 years, problematic cannabis use was identified in n=28 participants (9.1%). Childhood conduct/oppositional behavior problems were predictive of problematic cannabis use during young adulthood when comorbid symptoms were controlled for. No such effect was found for childhood attention, hyperactivity/impulsivity or internalizing problems. With respect to psychopathological symptoms during adolescence, only attention problems were significantly related to later problematic cannabis use when controlling for comorbidity. The current study highlights the role of conduct/oppositional behavior problems during childhood and attention problems during adolescence in later problematic cannabis use. It sheds more light on the developmental sequence of childhood and adolescence psychopathology and young adult cannabis use, which is a prerequisite for effective prevention approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Parental Overprotection Predicts the Development of Functional Somatic Symptoms in Young Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Janssens, Karin A. M.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine whether parental overprotection contributes to die development of functional somatic symptoms (FSS) in young adolescents. In addition, we aimed to study whether this potential effect of parental overprotection is mediated by parenting distress and/or moderated by the adolescent's sex. Study design FSS were measured in 2230 adolescents (ages 10 to 12 years from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey) by the Somatic Complaints subscale of the Youth Self Report at...

  12. Influences of combined therapies with traditional Chinese medicine on pulmonary function and surface average electromyogram ratio in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-ping SHEN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To evaluate the influences of traditional Chinese medicinal combined therapies on pulmonary function and surface average electromyogram (AEMG ratio in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. Methods  One hundred and twenty outpatients with mild and moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were randomly divided into a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM group and a brace group. TCM group patients underwent i Navigation of the spinal balance (twice a day, 40min/ time, until to skeletal maturity; ii Balance manipulation (twice a week, 25min/time, lasted 12 months; iii Small needle-knife therapy (once a week, 10 times. The brace group patients were treated with a Milwaukee brace. The Cobb angle was measured after 12 and 24 months of treatment, pulmonary function was determined after 12 months of treatment, and AEMG ratio of the surface electromyogram was measured 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after treatment, and intergroup comparison was performed. Results  The Cobb angle significantly decreased in both groups 12 months after treatment (P0.05 in the TCM group and brace group, respectively, 12 months after treatment and 62.5% and 34.7% (P<0.05, respectively, 24 months aftertreatment. Pulmonary function was significantly improved 12 months after treatment in TCM group (P<0.05 but significantly decreased in brace group (P<0.05. The AEMG ratio was significantly reduced (P<0.01 and tended to remain at 1 after stopping treatment in TCM group, showed that the muscle imbalance existed on both sides of the scoliosis, but was adverse in brace group (P<0.05, showed that the muscle imbalance aggravated. No side effect of the therapeutic method was found. Conclusions  The spinal balance therapy based on traditional Chinese medicine theory has excellent therapeutic efficacy and safety, and can significantly ameliorate the imbalance existed on both sides of the scoliosis, improve lung function index, and have better compliance. The AEMG ratio is a

  13. Predicting Unprotected Sex and Unplanned Pregnancy among Urban African-American Adolescent Girls Using the Theory of Gender and Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet E; Zenilman, Jonathan; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina; DiClemente, Ralph

    2016-06-01

    Reproductive coercion has been hypothesized as a cause of unprotected sex and unplanned pregnancies, but research has focused on a narrow set of potential sources of reproductive coercion. We identified and evaluated eight potential sources of reproductive coercion from the Theory of Gender and Power including economic inequality between adolescent girls and their boyfriends, cohabitation, and age differences. The sample comprised sexually active African-American female adolescents, ages 15-21. At baseline (n = 715), 6 months (n = 607), and 12 months (n = 605), participants completed a 40-min interview and were tested for semen Y-chromosome with polymerase chain reaction from a self-administered vaginal swab. We predicted unprotected sex and pregnancy using multivariate regression controlling for demographics, economic factors, relationship attributes, and intervention status using a Poisson working model. Factors associated with unprotected sex included cohabitation (incidence risk ratio (IRR) 1.48, 95 % confidence interval (1.22, 1.81)), physical abuse (IRR 1.55 (1.21, 2.00)), emotional abuse (IRR 1.31 (1.06, 1.63)), and having a boyfriend as a primary source of spending money (IRR 1.18 (1.00, 1.39)). Factors associated with unplanned pregnancy 6 months later included being at least 4 years younger than the boyfriend (IRR 1.68 (1.14, 2.49)) and cohabitation (2.19 (1.35, 3.56)). Among minors, cohabitation predicted even larger risks of unprotected sex (IRR 1.93 (1.23, 3.03)) and unplanned pregnancy (3.84 (1.47, 10.0)). Adolescent cohabitation is a marker for unprotected sex and unplanned pregnancy, especially among minors. Cohabitation may have stemmed from greater commitment, but the shortage of affordable housing in urban areas could induce women to stay in relationships for housing. Pregnancy prevention interventions should attempt to delay cohabitation until adulthood and help cohabiting adolescents to find affordable housing.

  14. Predictors of Early Childbirth Among Female Adolescents in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Bryn; Van Wert, Melissa

    2017-08-01

    Placement into foster care is driven by a number of factors, many of which are associated with adolescent childbirth. Yet, there are few studies that identify the experiences and characteristics that predict adolescent childbirth among girls who spend time in foster care. A longitudinal, population-based data set was constructed by probabilistically matching California child protective service records for female foster youth to maternal information available on vital birth records for children born between 2001 and 2010. Rates of childbirth among girls in foster care after their 10th birthday were generated. Chi-square tests assessed differences and survival models were specified to determine the rate of childbearing across key characteristics. Among the 30,339 girls who spent time in foster care as adolescents, 18.3% (5,567) gave birth for the first time before their 20th birthday. At a bivariate level, significant differences (p foster care placement experiences. In the fully adjusted survival model, the highest birth rates were observed among girls who entered care between ages 13 and 16 years; had been in care for relatively short periods of time; lived in congregate care at the estimated date of conception; had a history of running away; and were Latina, black, or Native American. The results suggest that there are identifiable risk factors associated with early childbirth among girls in foster care, which can help determine the timing and location of reproductive health services to minimize unintended pregnancy and maximize adolescent health and well-being. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Grandmothers’ Familism Values, Adolescent Mothers’ Parenting Efficacy, and Children’s Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Jahromi, Laudan B.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined intergenerational processes related to familism values among grandmothers, adolescent mothers, and their children. Mexican-origin families (N = 180) participated in in-home interviews during adolescent mothers’ third trimester of pregnancy and 10-, 24-, 48-, and 60-months postpartum. Using longitudinal path analyses, we linked grandmothers’ familism values and behaviors to adolescent mothers’ parenting processes and, in turn, their child’s well-being, taking into account developmentally relevant needs of adolescent mothers. Results revealed that grandmothers’ familism values before the birth of the baby predicted child-rearing support and communication within the grandmother-adolescent mother dyad after the birth of the baby. Support, but not communication, was in turn predictive of adolescent mothers’ parenting self-efficacy, but only at high levels of autonomy granting within the grandmother-adolescent mother dyad. Finally, adolescent mothers’ parenting self-efficacy predicted children’s greater social competence (48 months old), which in turn, predicted greater academic functioning (60 months old). Our findings shed light on the behavioral correlates of familism values within Mexican-origin families with adolescent mothers and highlight the need to consider factors that are developmentally salient (e.g., autonomy) when understanding how familism behaviors benefit adolescent mothers and their children. PMID:26075734

  16. An extended version of the theory of planned behaviour: the role of self-efficacy and past behaviour in predicting the physical activity of Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to use an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB), which incorporated additional self-efficacy and past behaviour, to predict the intention to engage in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and the MVPA level of Chinese adolescents. Questionnaires that focused on MVPA, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control (PBC), self-efficacy and past behaviour related to the MVPA engagement were administered to a sample of 488 young people. Multiple regression analyses provided moderate support for TPB. Three TPB constructs predicted 28.7% of the variance in intentions to engage in MVPA, and that PBC, but not intention, explained 3.4% of the variance in MVPA. Self-efficacy significantly affected intention and behaviour over and above the influence of TPB. Past behaviour had a small but significant improvement in the prediction of intention, but no improvement in the prediction of MVPA. Based on the results, interventions should target adolescent self-efficacy and PBC in physical activity participation.

  17. Lifestyle and precision diabetes medicine: will genomics help optimise the prediction, prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes through lifestyle therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Paul W; Poveda, Alaitz

    2017-05-01

    Precision diabetes medicine, the optimisation of therapy using patient-level biomarker data, has stimulated enormous interest throughout society as it provides hope of more effective, less costly and safer ways of preventing, treating, and perhaps even curing the disease. While precision diabetes medicine is often framed in the context of pharmacotherapy, using biomarkers to personalise lifestyle recommendations, intended to lower type 2 diabetes risk or to slow progression, is also conceivable. There are at least four ways in which this might work: (1) by helping to predict a person's susceptibility to adverse lifestyle exposures; (2) by facilitating the stratification of type 2 diabetes into subclasses, some of which may be prevented or treated optimally with specific lifestyle interventions; (3) by aiding the discovery of prognostic biomarkers that help guide timing and intensity of lifestyle interventions; (4) by predicting treatment response. In this review we overview the rationale for precision diabetes medicine, specifically as it relates to lifestyle; we also scrutinise existing evidence, discuss the barriers germane to research in this field and consider how this work is likely to proceed.

  18. Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine as the hardcore of ‘Horizon 2020’: EPMA position paper

    OpenAIRE

    Golubnitschaja, Olga; Kinkorova, Judita; Costigliola, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The European Association for Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine (EPMA) considers acute problems in medical sciences as well as the quality and management of medical services challenging health care systems in Europe and worldwide. This actuality has motivated the representatives of EPMA to comment on the efforts in promoting an integrative approach based on multidisciplinary expertise to advance health care-related research and management. The current paper provides a global ove...

  19. Factors predicting publication of sexual medicine abstracts presented at the annual meeting of the American Urological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berookhim, Boback M; Kaya, Yekta; Deveci, Serkan; Nelson, Christian J; Mulhall, John P

    2013-10-01

    At sexual medicine meetings throughout the world, hundreds of scientific abstracts are presented each year. To our knowledge, no previous studies have looked at the rate of publication of these studies in a peer-reviewed journal. To define the fate of abstracts presented at sexual medicine sessions at the annual meeting of the American Urological Association (AUA) and to describe the factors predicting ultimate publication in scientific journals. All abstracts presented at the 2006 and 2007 AUA annual meeting were surveyed to find sexual medicine abstracts. Publication status as of October 2009 was assessed using the Medline database. Abstract parameters were recorded including number of authors, country of origin, clinical or basic research, and area of sexual research. Predictors of publication were analyzed using a multivariable model. Publication status of all sexual medicine abstracts presented at the 2006 and 2007 AUA annual meetings. A total of 208 sexual medicine abstracts were presented in 2006 and 2007. Fifty-one percent of these were published by October 2009. On univariate analysis, the predictors of publication in a peer-reviewed journal included the number of authors (r=0.22, Pacademic centers (RR 2.7, CI 1.7-4.3, Pacademic center (OR 5.9, CI 2.8-12.7, Pmedicine abstracts presented at the 2006 and 2007 annual AUA meetings have been published within 2 to 3 years of the date of presentation. Studies originating from academic centers were six times more likely to be published in a peer-reviewed journal. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. The influence of discrepancies between adolescent and parent ratings of family dynamics on the well-being of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Jaimee; Jose, Paul E

    2012-12-01

    The present study examined whether discrepancies between adolescent and parent ratings of family dynamics predict adolescent well-being over time. Self-report data from 972 adolescent-parent dyads collected at two time points separated by one year were analyzed. Both adolescents and parents rated a variety of family dynamics (e.g., cohesion), and adolescents reported on their levels of well-being (confidence, purpose in life, and positive relations with others). Significant discrepancies between adolescents' and parents' perceptions of family functioning were found for all positive family dynamics, but not for family conflict. Furthermore, discrepancies increased over time and larger discrepancies were noted for older adolescents. Results from the residualized path model showed that discrepancies were bidirectionally related to adolescent well-being. In addition, age was found to moderate the predictive model. Specifically, 14-15 year olds (year 10) were found to be more stable in their well-being over time than younger adolescents. Also, results indicate that well-being is a significantly stronger negative predictor of discrepancies over time for the 14-15 year olds (year 10) than the for 10-11 year olds (year 6). The authors suggest that future research would benefit from investigations of the relationship between divergent perspectives of family members and adjustment outcomes of adolescents. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. VALIDATION OF THE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT INTERNATIONAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY QUESTIONNAIRES IN IRANIAN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

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    Zahra Faghihimani

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract    BACKGROUND: With reference to the importance of physical activity during childhood and adolescence in their health promotion and prevention of chronic diseases during adulthood, it is necessary to have a reliable and valid method for evaluating physical activity level in this age group. Physical activity questionnaire child (PAQ-C and adolescents (PAQ-A have been designed for this purpose. This study aimed to validate these questionnaires in a representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents.    METHODS: After translating the PAQ-C and PAQ-A to Persian, the face and content validities of these questionnaires were assessed by a committee of experts of different specialties including specialists in pediatrics, community medicine, social specialist and sport medicine. After minor modification of some items of the questionnaires according to the available types of physical activity and the socio-cultural conditions, the final questionnaires were prepared. Thereafter, 82 children and adolescents with 8 to 18 years of age completed the questionnaires.    RESULTS: To assess the questionnaire reliability Iranian students and the validity accreditation was modified and got from the committee. A Cronbach’s alpha of 0.894 was produced at the end of the analysis showing it has been reliable for this population.    CONCLUSION: According to the results found in this survey, PAQ questionnaire can be used as a reliable and valid method for next studies; so health planning based on Iranian students’ physical activity will be possible in future.      Keywords: Physical Activity Questionnaire, Reliability, Validity.

  2. Waist-to-Height Ratio Is a Better Anthropometric Index than Waist Circumference and BMI in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome among Obese Mexican Adolescents

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    Edel Rafael Rodea-Montero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the degree of association between anthropometric indices and components of metabolic syndrome (MS and to determine optimal cut-off points of these indices for predicting MS in obese adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional study with a sample of (n=110 Mexican obese adolescents grouped by sex and the presence/absence of MS. BMI percentile, waist circumference (WC, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR were tested. ROC curves of the anthropometric indices were created to identify whether an index was a significant predictor of MS. Results. BMI percentile, WC, and WHtR were significantly correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. As predictors of MS overall patients, the BMI percentile generated an area under curve (AUC of 0.651 (P=0.008, cut-off point above the 99th percentile. WC generated an AUC of 0.704 (P<0.001, cut-off point of ≥90 cm. WHtR demonstrated an AUC of 0.652 (P=0.008, cut-off point of 0.60. WHtR ≥0.62 and WHtR ≥0.61 generate AUC of 0.737 (P=0.006 and AUC of 0.717 (P=0.014 for predicting hypertension and insulin resistance, respectively, in females. Conclusion. WHtR is a better tool than WC and BMI for identifying cardiometabolic risk. The overall criterion (WHtR ≥ 0.6 could be appropriate for predicting MS in obese Mexican adolescents.

  3. Basal Metabolic Rate of Adolescent Modern Pentathlon Athletes: Agreement between Indirect Calorimetry and Predictive Equations and the Correlation with Body Parameters.

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    Luiz Lannes Loureiro

    Full Text Available The accurate estimative of energy needs is crucial for an optimal physical performance among athletes and the basal metabolic rate (BMR equations often are not well adjusted for adolescent athletes requiring the use of specific methods, such as the golden standard indirect calorimetry (IC. Therefore, we had the aim to analyse the agreement between the BMR of adolescents pentathletes measured by IC and estimated by commonly used predictive equations.Twenty-eight athletes (17 males and 11 females were evaluated for BMR, using IC and the predictive equations Harris and Benedict (HB, Cunningham (CUN, Henry and Rees (HR and FAO/WHO/UNU (FAO. Body composition was obtained using DXA and sexual maturity data were retrieved through validated questionnaires. The correlations among anthropometric variables an IC were analysed by T-student test and ICC, while the agreement between IC and the predictive equations was analysed according to Bland and Altman and by survival-agreement plotting.The whole sample average BMR measured by IC was significantly different from the estimated by FAO (p<0.05. Adjusting data by gender FAO and HR equations were statistically different from IC (p <0.05 among males, while female differed only for the HR equation (p <0.05.The FAO equation underestimated athletes' BMR when compared with IC (T Test. When compared to the golden standard IC, using Bland and Altman, ICC and Survival-Agreement, the equations underestimated the energy needs of adolescent pentathlon athletes up to 300kcal/day. Therefore, they should be used with caution when estimating individual energy requirements in such populations.

  4. Predicting volumes of metabolically important whole-body adipose tissue compartments in overweight and obese adolescents by different MRI approaches and anthropometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, Fabian; Ehehalt, Stefan; Sommer, Julia; Ballweg, Verena; Machann, Jürgen; Binder, Gerhard; Claussen, Claus D.; Schick, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate 5-slice stack/single-slice MRI approaches and anthropometric measures as predictors for metabolically relevant whole-body adipose tissue (AT) compartments in overweight/obese adolescents. Methods: Forty adolescents (22 males, age 11.4–16.1 years) were included with a BMI above the 90th percentile. Volumes of whole-body AT compartments, i.e. total AT (TAT), subcutaneous AT (SCAT) and visceral AT (VAT), were determined using a breath-hold T1-weighted-FSE-MR-sequence and semi-automated segmentation serving as the gold standard. SCAT, VAT and TAT was estimated by either axially oriented single-slices or 5-slice-stacks centred at specific anatomic landmarks (umbilicus, head of femur and humerus). Furthermore, anthropometric measures were also evaluated as predictors of whole-body AT compartments. Results: Strong correlations were found for both genders between TAT/SCAT and single-slice evaluation (e.g. whole-body SCAT-SCAT at umbilicus level: r = 0.91 (m), r = 0.92 (f)) or anthropometry (SCAT-BMI: r = 0.93 (m, f)). VAT was correlated to VAT at umbilicus (r = 0.71 (m), r = 0.94 (f)) but only weakly to anthropometry. Conclusions: Anthropometric measures and single-slice MRI can accurately predict TAT/SCAT which cannot be improved by evaluation of 5-slice stacks. Prediction of VAT by 5-slice stack/single-slice MRI protocols seems only to be accurate in females. Anthropometry cannot be reliably used for prediction of VAT in both genders. Thus, MRI seems to be necessary for quantification of VAT in overweight/obese adolescents of both genders.

  5. Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine as the hardcore of ‘Horizon 2020’: EPMA position paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The European Association for Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine (EPMA) considers acute problems in medical sciences as well as the quality and management of medical services challenging health care systems in Europe and worldwide. This actuality has motivated the representatives of EPMA to comment on the efforts in promoting an integrative approach based on multidisciplinary expertise to advance health care-related research and management. The current paper provides a global overview of the problems related to medical services: pandemic scenario in the progression of common non-communicable diseases, delayed interventional approaches of reactive medicine, poor economy of health care systems, lack of specialised educational programmes, problematic ethical aspects of several treatments as well as inadequate communication among professional groups and policymakers. In the form of individual paragraphs, the article presents a consolidated position of PPPM professionals towards the new European programme ‘Horizon 2020’ providing the long-lasting instruments for scientific and technological progress in medical services and health care-related programmes. In the author's opinion, Horizon 2020 provides unlimited room for research and implementation in Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine. However, the overall success of the programme strongly depends on the effective communication and consolidation of professionals relevant for PPPM as well as the communication quality with policymakers. Smart political decision is the prerequisite of the effective PPPM implementation in the health care sector. This position is focused on the patients' needs, innovative medical sciences, optimal health and disease management, expert recommendations for the relevant medical fields and optimal solutions which have a potential to advance health care services if the long-term strategies were to be effectively implemented as proposed here. PMID:24708704

  6. Predictors of parent-reported quality of life of adolescents with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Marion; Eisemann, Nora; Arnaud, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Parent-reporting is needed to examine Quality of Life (QoL) of children with cerebral palsy (CP) across all severities. This study examines whether QoL changes between childhood and adolescence, and what predicts adolescent QoL. METHOD: SPARCLE is a European cohort study of children with CP...... domain). Associations were assessed using linear regression. RESULTS: Between childhood and adolescence, average QoL reduced in six domains (1.3-3.8 points, pChildhood...... QoL was a strong predictor of all domains of adolescent QoL. Severe impairments of motor function, IQ or communication predicted higher adolescent QoL on some domains; except that severe motor impairment predicted lower adolescent QoL on the Autonomy domain. More psychological problems and higher...

  7. Multidisciplinary management of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Bowen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael E Bowen1,2, Russell L Rothman2,31Veterans Affairs Quality Scholars Fellowship Program, Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Tennessee Valley Geriatric Research Education Clinical Center, Nashville, TN, USA; 2Division of General Internal Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medicine, 3Vanderbilt Eskind Diabetes Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Although once considered a disease of adults, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in youth is increasing at a significant rate. Similar to adults, youth with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk for developing hypertension, lipid abnormalities, renal disease, and other diabetes-related complications. However, children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes also face many unique management challenges that are different from adults with type 2 diabetes or children with type 1 diabetes. To deliver safe, effective, high-quality, cost-effective health care to adolescents with type 2 diabetes, reorganization and redesign of health care systems are needed. Multidisciplinary health care teams, which allow individuals with specialized training to maximally utilize their skills within an organized diabetes treatment team, may increase efficiency and effectiveness and may improve outcomes in children with type 2 diabetes. This review article provides a brief review of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents, provides an overview of multidisciplinary health care teams, and discusses the role of multidisciplinary health care management in youth with type 2 diabetes.Keywords: adolescent, type 2 diabetes, multidisciplinary

  8. Gender dysphoria in adolescence: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltiala-Heino R

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino,1–3 Hannah Bergman,4 Marja Työläjärvi,2 Louise Frisén4 1Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland; 2Department of Adolescent Psychiatry, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland; 3Vanha Vaasa Hospital, Vaasa, Finland; 4Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Abstract: Increasing numbers of adolescents are seeking treatment at gender identity services in Western countries. An increasingly accepted treatment model that includes puberty suppression with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs starting during the early stages of puberty, cross-sex hormonal treatment starting at ~16 years of age and possibly surgical treatments in legal adulthood, is often indicated for adolescents with childhood gender dysphoria (GD that intensifies during puberty. However, virtually nothing is known regarding adolescent-onset GD, its progression and factors that influence the completion of the developmental tasks of adolescence among young people with GD and/or transgender identity. Consolidation of identity development is a central developmental goal of adolescence, but we still do not know enough about how gender identity and gender variance actually evolve. Treatment-seeking adolescents with GD present with considerable psychiatric comorbidity. There is little research on how GD and/or transgender identity are associated with completion of developmental tasks of adolescence. Keywords: gender dysphoria, gender identity, adolescence, developmental tasks

  9. Separation-individuation and assertiveness in late adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan, Sevda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An adolescent can experience some problems regarding assertiveness during the course of separation-individuation from their caregivers. The purpose of this study is to describe the relationship between separation-individuation and assertiveness, which was examined in terms of how assertiveness predicts the separation-individuation of Turkish late adolescents. The sampling group consisted of 283 university students. The data gathered were analyzed by involving several simple regression analysis method. The findings revealed that aassertiveness predicts separation anxiety in a meaningful way. Furthermore, the assertiveness predicts engulfment anxiety, peer enmeshment, need denial, practicing-mirroring, rejection expectancy, and healthy separation. These findings suggest that psycho-educational studies improving assertiveness can be carried out for the late adolescents who experience separation-individuation problems.

  10. Positive Illusions? The Accuracy of Academic Self-Appraisals in Adolescents With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Todd; Martinussen, Rhonda

    2016-08-01

    Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) overestimate their academic competencies (AC) relative to performance and informant indicators (i.e., positive illusory bias; PIB). Do adolescents with ADHD exhibit this PIB and does it render self-views inaccurate? We examined the magnitude of the AC-PIB in adolescents with and without ADHD, the predictive accuracy of parent and adolescent AC ratings, and whether executive functions (EF) predict the AC-PIB. Adolescents (49 ADHD; 47 typically developing) completed math and EF tests, and self-rated their AC. Parents rated their adolescents' AC and EF. Adolescents with ADHD performed more poorly on the math task (vs. comparison group) but had a larger AC-PIB relative to parents' ratings. EFs predicted the PIB within the full sample. Adolescents' AC ratings, regardless of ADHD status, were more predictive of math performance than their parents' AC ratings. Adolescents with ADHD appear self-aware in their AC despite a modest PIB; nuanced self-appraisals may depend on EFs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Habituation to a stressor predicts adolescents' adiposity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Objectives: Stress is associated with gains in adiposity. One factor that determines how much stress is experienced is how quickly an adolescent reduces responding (habituates) across repeated stressors. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of body mass index pe...

  12. An Assertiveness Scale for Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Yul; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Developed a 33-item, situation-specific instrument that measures assertiveness of adolescents. Based on data from 682 elementary and secondary school students, adequate reliability and validity of the Assertiveness Scale for Adolescents (ASA) were obtained when tested against several variables about which predictions could be made. (BH)

  13. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being of Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T

    1999-08-01

    Adolescents' (N = 378) perceptions of and satisfaction with parenting styles, perceived parent-adolescent conflict, perceived frequency of parent-adolescent communication and related feelings, perceived parent-adolescent relationship, and mental health were assessed with rating scales and structured interviews on 2 occasions separated by 1 year. Results showed that the questionnaire and interview measures at each time could be grouped into 2 stable factors: Paternal Parenthood Qualities (PPQ) and Maternal Parenthood Qualities (MPQ). Although both factors generally had significant concurrent and longitudinal correlations with adolescents' mental health, PPQ at Time 1-predicted changes in adolescent life satisfaction, hopelessness, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 2, whereas MPQ at Time 1 did not predict those changes. Adolescents' mental health at Time 1 was found to predict changes in MPQ but not PPQ at Time 2. Relative to maternal qualities, paternal qualities were generally found to exert a stronger impact on adolescent psychological well-being.

  14. Preschool externalizing behavior predicts gender-specific variation in adolescent neural structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Z K Caldwell

    Full Text Available Dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus is believed to underlie the development of much psychopathology. However, to date only limited longitudinal data relate early behavior with neural structure later in life. Our objective was to examine the relationship of early life externalizing behavior with adolescent brain structure. We report here the first longitudinal study linking externalizing behavior during preschool to brain structure during adolescence. We examined the relationship of preschool externalizing behavior with amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex volumes at age 15 years in a community sample of 76 adolescents followed longitudinally since their mothers' pregnancy. A significant gender by externalizing behavior interaction revealed that males-but not females-with greater early childhood externalizing behavior had smaller amygdala volumes at adolescence (t = 2.33, p = .023. No significant results were found for the hippocampus or the prefrontal cortex. Greater early externalizing behavior also related to smaller volume of a cluster including the angular gyrus and tempoparietal junction across genders. Results were not attributable to the impact of preschool anxiety, preschool maternal stress, school-age internalizing or externalizing behaviors, or adolescent substance use. These findings demonstrate a novel, gender-specific relationship between early-childhood externalizing behavior and adolescent amygdala volume, as well as a cross-gender result for the angular gyrus and tempoparietal junction.

  15. Self-reported barriers to medication adherence among chronically ill adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Signe; Boisen, Kirsten A

    2014-01-01

    's views. Data was analyzed using a thematic synthesis approach. RESULTS: Of 3,655 records 28 articles with both quantitative, qualitative, and q-methodology study designs were included in the review. The synthesis led to the following key themes: Relations, adolescent development, health and illness......, forgetfulness, organization, medicine complexity, and financial costs. Most reported barriers to adherence were not unique to specific diseases. CONCLUSION: Some barriers seem to be specific to adolescence; for example, relations to parents and peers and adolescent development. Knowledge and assessment...

  16. Predicting Internet risks: a longitudinal panel study of gratifications-sought, Internet addiction symptoms, and social media use among children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Louis

    2014-01-01

    This study used longitudinal panel survey data collected from 417 adolescents at 2 points in time 1 year apart. It examined relationships between Internet risks changes in Time 2 and social media gratifications-sought, Internet addiction symptoms, and social media use all measured at Time 1. By controlling for age, gender, education, and criterion variable scores in Internet addiction at Time 1, entertainment and instant messaging use at Time 1 significantly predicted increased Internet addiction measured at Time 2. The study also controlled for demographics and scores of criterion variables in Internet risks: targeted for harassment, privacy exposed, and pornographic or violent content consumed in Time 1. Gratifications-sought (including status-gaining, expressing opinions, and identity experimentation), Internet addiction symptoms (including withdrawal and negative life consequences), and social media use (in particular, blogs, and Facebook) significantly predicted Internet risk changes in Time 2. These findings suggest that, with their predictive power, these predictors at Time 1 could be used to identify those adolescents who are likely to develop Internet addiction symptoms and the likelihood of experiencing Internet risks based on their previous gratifications-sought, previous addiction symptoms, and their habits of social media use at Time 1. PMID:25750792

  17. Predicting Internet risks: a longitudinal panel study of gratifications-sought, Internet addiction symptoms, and social media use among children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Louis

    2014-01-01

    This study used longitudinal panel survey data collected from 417 adolescents at 2 points in time 1 year apart. It examined relationships between Internet risks changes in Time 2 and social media gratifications-sought, Internet addiction symptoms, and social media use all measured at Time 1. By controlling for age, gender, education, and criterion variable scores in Internet addiction at Time 1, entertainment and instant messaging use at Time 1 significantly predicted increased Internet addiction measured at Time 2. The study also controlled for demographics and scores of criterion variables in Internet risks: targeted for harassment, privacy exposed, and pornographic or violent content consumed in Time 1. Gratifications-sought (including status-gaining, expressing opinions, and identity experimentation), Internet addiction symptoms (including withdrawal and negative life consequences), and social media use (in particular, blogs, and Facebook) significantly predicted Internet risk changes in Time 2. These findings suggest that, with their predictive power, these predictors at Time 1 could be used to identify those adolescents who are likely to develop Internet addiction symptoms and the likelihood of experiencing Internet risks based on their previous gratifications-sought, previous addiction symptoms, and their habits of social media use at Time 1.

  18. Mothers' and fathers' autonomy-relevant parenting: longitudinal links with adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Laird, Robert D; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this study was to advance the understanding of separate and joint effects of mothers' and fathers' autonomy-relevant parenting during early and middle adolescence. In a sample of 518 families, adolescents (49 % female; 83 % European American, 16 % African American, 1 % other ethnic groups) reported on their mothers' and fathers' psychological control and knowledge about adolescents' whereabouts, friends, and activities at ages 13 and 16. Mothers and adolescents reported on adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behaviors at ages 12, 14, 15, and 17. Adolescents perceived their mothers as using more psychological control and having more knowledge than their fathers, but there was moderate concordance between adolescents' perceptions of their mothers and fathers. More parental psychological control predicted increases in boys' and girls' internalizing problems and girls' externalizing problems. More parental knowledge predicted decreases in boys' externalizing and internalizing problems. The perceived levels of behavior of mothers and fathers did not interact with one another in predicting adolescent adjustment. The results generalize across early and late adolescence and across mothers' and adolescents' reports of behavior problems. Autonomy-relevant mothering and fathering predict changes in behavior problems during early and late adolescence, but only autonomy-relevant fathering accounts for unique variance in adolescent behavior problems.

  19. Adolescent risk-taking is predicted by individual differences in cognitive control over emotional, but not non-emotional, response conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botdorf, Morgan; Rosenbaum, Gail M; Patrianakos, Jamie; Steinberg, Laurence; Chein, Jason M

    2017-08-01

    While much research on adolescent risk behaviour has focused on the development of prefrontal self-regulatory mechanisms, prior studies have elicited mixed evidence of a relationship between individual differences in the capacity for self-regulation and individual differences in risk taking. To explain these inconsistent findings, it has been suggested that the capacity for self-regulation may be, for most adolescents, adequately mature to produce adaptive behaviour in non-affective, "cold" circumstances, but that adolescents have a more difficult time exerting control in affective, "hot" contexts. To further explore this claim, the present study examined individual differences in self-control in the face of affective and non-affective response conflict, and examined whether differences in the functioning of cognitive control processes under these different conditions was related to risk taking. Participants completed a cognitive Stroop task, an emotional Stroop task, and a risky driving task known as the Stoplight game. Regression analyses showed that performance on the emotional Stroop task predicted laboratory risk-taking in the driving task, whereas performance on the cognitive Stroop task did not exhibit the same trend. This pattern of results is consistent with theories of adolescent risk-taking that emphasise the impacts of affective contextual influences on the ability to enact effective cognitive control.

  20. Adolescent Sexual Behavior in Two Ethnic Minority Samples: The Role of Family Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kim S.; Forehand, Rex; Kotchick, Beth A.

    1999-01-01

    Findings indicate that family-structure variables (family income, parental education, marital status) failed to predict adolescent sexual behavior. In contrast, each family process variable (maternal monitoring, mother-adolescent general communication, maternal attitudes about adolescent sexual behavior) predicted multiple indices of adolescent…

  1. The treatment of adolescent transsexuals: changing insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Delemarre-van d Waal, H.A.; Gooren, L.J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Treatment of individuals with gender identity disorder (GID) has in medicine nearly always met with a great deal of skepticism. Professionals largely follow the Standards of Care of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health. For adolescents, specific guidelines have

  2. Role of social support in adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam Bryant; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Leichtweis, Richard N

    2015-03-01

    The present study examined the relative contributions of perceptions of social support from parents, close friends, and school on current suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempt (SA) history in a clinical sample of adolescents. Participants were 143 adolescents (64% female; 81% white; range, 12-18 years; M = 15.38; standard deviation = 1.43) admitted to a partial hospitalization program. Data were collected with well-validated assessments and a structured clinical interview. Main and interactive effects of perceptions of social support on SI were tested with linear regression. Main and interactive effects of social support on the odds of SA were tested with logistic regression. Results from the linear regression analysis revealed that perceptions of lower school support independently predicted greater severity of SI, accounting for parent and close friend support. Further, the relationship between lower perceived school support and SI was the strongest among those who perceived lower versus higher parental support. Results from the logistic regression analysis revealed that perceptions of lower parental support independently predicted SA history, accounting for school and close friend support. Further, those who perceived lower support from school and close friends reported the greatest odds of an SA history. Results address a significant gap in the social support and suicide literature by demonstrating that perceptions of parent and school support are relatively more important than peer support in understanding suicidal thoughts and history of suicidal behavior. Results suggest that improving social support across these domains may be important in suicide prevention efforts. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Personality Predictors of Successful Development: Toddler Temperament and Adolescent Personality Traits Predict Well-Being and Career Stability in Middle Adulthood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blatný, Marek; Millová, Katarína; Jelínek, Martin; Osecká, Terezie

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2015), s. 1-21 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : personality * temperament * well-being * social functioning * prediction * longitudinal study * life -span psychology * childhood * adolescence * adulthood Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  4. Personality Predictors of Successful Development: Toddler Temperament and Adolescent Personality Traits Predict Well-Being and Career Stability in Middle Adulthood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blatný, Marek; Millová, Katarína; Jelínek, Martin; Osecká, Terezie

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2015), s. 1-21 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : personality * temperament * well-being * social functioning * prediction * longitudinal study * life-span psychology * childhood * adolescence * adulthood Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  5. Assessing an Adolescent's Capacity for Autonomous Decision-Making in Clinical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Pierre-André; Blum, Robert Wm; Benaroyo, Lazare; Zermatten, Jean; Baltag, Valentina

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide policy guidance on how to assess the capacity of minor adolescents for autonomous decision-making without a third party authorization, in the field of clinical care. In June 2014, a two-day meeting gathered 20 professionals from all continents, working in the field of adolescent medicine, neurosciences, developmental and clinical psychology, sociology, ethics, and law. Formal presentations and discussions were based on a literature search and the participants' experience. The assessment of adolescent decision-making capacity includes the following: (1) a review of the legal context consistent with the principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child; (2) an empathetic relationship between the adolescent and the health care professional/team; (3) the respect of the adolescent's developmental stage and capacities; (4) the inclusion, if relevant, of relatives, peers, teachers, or social and mental health providers with the adolescent's consent; (5) the control of coercion and other social forces that influence decision-making; and (6) a deliberative stepwise appraisal of the adolescent's decision-making process. This stepwise approach, already used among adults with psychiatric disorders, includes understanding the different facets of the given situation, reasoning on the involved issues, appreciating the outcomes linked with the decision(s), and expressing a choice. Contextual and psychosocial factors play pivotal roles in the assessment of adolescents' decision-making capacity. The evaluation must be guided by a well-established procedure, and health professionals should be trained accordingly. These proposals are the first to have been developed by a multicultural, multidisciplinary expert panel. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Built environment predictors of active travel to school among rural adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Madeline A; Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Gibson, Lucinda; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Swain, Karin; Xie, Haiyi; Owens, Peter M

    2011-03-01

    Most studies of active travel to school (ATS) have been conducted in urban or suburban areas and focused on young children. Little is known about ATS among rural adolescents. To describe adolescent ATS in two predominantly rural states and determine if school neighborhood built environment characteristics (BECs) predict ATS after adjusting for school and individual characteristics. Sixteen BECs were assessed through census data and onsite observations of 45 school neighborhoods in 2007. ATS and individual characteristics were assessed through telephone surveys with 1552 adolescents and their parents between 2007 and 2008. Active travelers were defined as those who walked/cycled to/from school ≥1 day/week. Hierarchic linear modeling was used for analysis, conducted in 2009. Slightly less than half (n=735) of the sample lived within 3 miles of school, of whom 388 (52.8%) were active travelers. ATS frequency varied by season, ranging from a mean of 1.7 (SD=2.0) days/week in the winter to 3.7 (SD=1.6) in the spring. Adolescents who attended schools in highly dense residential neighborhoods with sidewalks were most likely to be active travelers. ATS frequency was greater in school neighborhoods with high residential and intersection densities, on-street parking, food outlets, and taller and continuous buildings with small setbacks. The BECs that support safe travel may be necessary to allow for ATS, whereas ATS frequency among adolescents may be influenced by a wider variety of design characteristics. Additional strategies to promote ATS and physical activity are needed in rural areas because of long commuting distances for many students. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Adolescents' protection motivation and smoking behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thrul, J.; Stemmler, M.; Bühler, A.; Kuntsche, E.N.

    2013-01-01

    The protection motivation theory (PMT) is a well-known theory of behaviour change. This study tested the applicability of the sub-constructs of threat and coping appraisal in predicting adolescents' smoking-related behavioural intentions and smoking behaviour longitudinally. Adolescents (N = 494)

  8. Longitudinal associations between delinquent behaviour of friends and delinquent behaviour of adolescents: Moderation by adolescent personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagt, M.; Dubas, J.S.; Dekovic, M.; Haselager, G.J.T.; Aken, M.A.G. van

    2015-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined whether personality traits (parent-rated Big Five personality traits) render some adolescents more susceptible than others to delinquent behaviour of friends, predicting rank-order changes in adolescents' self-reported delinquent behaviour. We examine

  9. Physical activity and its related motivational attributes in adolescents with different BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J; Kim, Y H

    2013-03-01

    A number of obesity studies have been focused on identifying the relationships between socioeconomic status and physical activity involvement. In behavioral medicine, the limited data are available on obese people's physical activity and its related psychological predictors based on psychological theories. To identify the differences in physical activity and its related motivational attributes among normal weight, overweight, and obese adolescents and to find the effect of body mass index (BMI) and the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) constructs in predicting physical activity. One thousand seventy-one students ranging from seventh to ninth grades were randomly selected from three junior high schools in Seoul (359 normal weight students, 468 overweight students, and 244 obese students). A Korean version of Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 and Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire were applied to measure the participants' motivational attributes and physical activity. Overweight and obese adolescents showed higher scores on amotivation and externally motivated regulations for physical activity than their normal weight counterparts. Internal regulation was more significant for physical activity in normal weight adolescent. However, there was no difference in physical activity among the three groups. Additionally, the findings identified that BMI and the SDT constructs were significant to explain physical activity. This study offers fundamental knowledge in gaining a clearer understanding of the types of motivation most likely to contribute to the initiation and promotion of physical activity in overweight and obese adolescents.

  10. Transition clinic attendance is associated with improved beliefs and attitudes toward medicine in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Nancy; Jacobson, Kevan; Round, Andrew; Evans, Kathi; Qian, Hong; Bressler, Brian

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluated the differences in knowledge, adherence, attitudes, and beliefs about medicine in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) attending transition clinics. METHODS We prospectively enrolled patients from July 2012 to June 2013. All adolescents who attended a tertiary-centre-based dedicated IBD transition clinic were invited to participate. Adolescent controls were recruited from university-affiliated gastroenterology offices. Participants completed questionnaires about ...

  11. Medicinal electrochemistry: integration of electrochemistry, medicinal chemistry and computational chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, M O; Maltarollo, V G; de Toledo, R A; Shim, H; Santos, M C; Honorio, K M

    2014-01-01

    Over the last centuries, there were many important discoveries in medicine that were crucial for gaining a better understanding of several physiological processes. Molecular modelling techniques are powerful tools that have been successfully used to analyse and interface medicinal chemistry studies with electrochemical experimental results. This special combination can help to comprehend medicinal chemistry problems, such as predicting biological activity and understanding drug action mechanisms. Electrochemistry has provided better comprehension of biological reactions and, as a result of many technological improvements, the combination of electrochemical techniques and biosensors has become an appealing choice for pharmaceutical and biomedical analyses. Therefore, this review will briefly outline the present scope and future advances related to the integration of electrochemical and medicinal chemistry approaches based on various applications from recent studies.

  12. Treatment of Acute Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents: What Are Providers Doing in Various Specialties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguelet, Patricia S; Buyers, Eliza M; Lange-Liss, Jill H; Scott, Stephen M

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether variability exists in the management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in adolescents between pediatric Emergency Department (ED) physicians, pediatric gynecologists, and adolescent medicine specialists. Retrospective chart review. Tertiary care medical center ED. We included girls aged 9-22 years who presented from July 2008 to June 2014 with the complaint of acute AUB. Patients were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision codes for heavy menstrual bleeding, AUB, and irregular menses. Exclusion criteria included pregnancy and current use of hormonal therapy. One hundred fifty patients were included. Among those evaluated, 61% (n = 92) were prescribed hormonal medication to stop their bleeding by providers from the ED, Adolescent Medicine, or Pediatric Gynecology. ED physicians prescribed mostly single-dose and multidose taper combined oral contraceptive pills (85%; n = 24), compared with Adolescent Medicine (54%, n = 7), and Gynecology (28%, n = 13). Pediatric gynecologists were more likely than ED physicians to treat patients with norethindrone acetate, either alone or in combination with a single dose combined oral contraceptive pill (61%, n = 33 vs 7%, n = 2; P bleeding, side effects, and patient satisfaction are valuable next steps. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Facilitators and barriers to antiretroviral therapy adherence among adolescents in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankrah DNA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Daniel NA Ankrah,1,2 Ellen S Koster,2 Aukje K Mantel-Teeuwisse,2 Daniel K Arhinful,3 Irene A Agyepong,4 Margaret Lartey5,6 1Pharmacy Department, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana; 2Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences (UIPS, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana (Legon, 4Health Policy, Planning and Management, University of Ghana School of Public Health, 5Department of Medicine, University of Ghana Medical School, 6Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana Introduction: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART is known to be challenging among adolescents living with HIV/AIDS, notwithstanding the life-saving importance of this therapy. Of the global total number of adolescents living with HIV in 2013, 83% reside in sub-Saharan Africa. The study aimed to identify facilitators of and barriers to antiretroviral treatment adherence among adolescents in Ghana. Methods: A cross-sectional qualitative study using semi-structured interviews for data collection was carried out among adolescents (aged 12–19 years at the adolescents HIV clinic at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana. Predominantly open-ended questions relating to ART were used. Interviews were done until saturation. In total, 19 interviews were conducted. Analysis was done manually to maintain proximity with the text. Findings: The main facilitators were support from health care providers, parental support, patient’s knowledge of disease and self-motivation, patient’s perceived positive outcomes, and dispensed formulation. The identified barriers were patient’s forgetfulness to take medicines, perceived stigmatization due to disclosure, financial barriers, and adverse effects of ART. Support from health care workers was the most frequently mentioned facilitator, and patient’s forgetfulness and perceived

  14. Parental overprotection predicts the development of functional somatic symptoms in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Karin A M; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2009-06-01

    To examine whether parental overprotection contributes to the development of functional somatic symptoms (FSS) in young adolescents. In addition, we aimed to study whether this potential effect of parental overprotection is mediated by parenting distress and/or moderated by the adolescent's sex. FSS were measured in 2230 adolescents (ages 10 to 12 years from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey) by the Somatic Complaints subscale of the Youth Self Report at baseline and at follow-up 2 1/2 years later. Parental overprotection as perceived by the child was assessed by means of the EMBU-C (Swedish acronym for my memories of upbringing-child version). Parents completed the Parenting Stress Index. Linear regression analyses were performed adjusted for FSS at baseline and sex. Parental overprotection was a predictor of the development of FSS in young adolescents (beta = 0.055, P overprotection was a predictor of the development of FSS in girls (beta = 0.085, P overprotection was a predictor of the development of FSS in boys (beta = 0.072, P overprotection and FSS was found. Parental overprotection may play a role in the development of FSS in young adolescents.

  15. Parenting and antisocial behavior: a model of the relationship between adolescent self-disclosure, parental closeness, parental control, and adolescent antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieno, Alessio; Nation, Maury; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo

    2009-11-01

    This study used data collected from a sample of 840 Italian adolescents (418 boys; M age = 12.58) and their parents (657 mothers; M age = 43.78) to explore the relations between parenting, adolescent self-disclosure, and antisocial behavior. In the hypothesized model, parenting practices (e.g., parental monitoring and control) have direct effects on parental knowledge and antisocial behavior. Parenting style (e.g., parent-child closeness), on the other hand, is directly related to adolescent self-disclosure, which in turn is positively related to parental knowledge and negatively related to adolescents' antisocial behavior. A structural equation model, which incorporated data from parents and adolescents, largely supported the hypothesized model. Gender-specific models also found some gender differences among adolescents and parents, as the hypothesized model adequately fit the subsample of mothers but not fathers. Mothers' closeness to girls predicted their knowledge of their daughters' behavior; mothers' control predicted boys' antisocial behavior.

  16. Peer relations in adolescents: effects of parenting and adolescents' self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deković, M; Meeus, W

    1997-04-01

    In this study we examined the link between the parent-adolescent relationship and the adolescent's relationship with peers. The proposed model assumes that the quality of the parent-child relationship affects the adolescent's self-concept, which in turn affects the adolescent's integration into the world of peers. The sample consisted of 508 families with adolescents (12- to 18-years-old). The data were obtained at the subjects' homes, where a battery of questionnaires was administered individually to mothers, fathers and adolescents. Several constructs relating to the quality of parent-child relationship were assessed: parental acceptance, attachment, involvement, responsiveness, love withdrawal and monitoring of the child. The measures of the adolescent's self-concept included Harter's Perceived Competence Scale for Adolescents and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. The indicators of the quality of peer relations were: degree of peer activity, having a best friend, perceived acceptance by peers and attachment to peers. Assessment of the hypothesized model showed that the adolescent's self-concept serves a mediating role in the relationship between maternal child-rearing style and involvement with peers. The mediating role of self-concept was greatest for maternal acceptance. Paternal child-rearing style, however, appeared to have an independent effect on the adolescent's involvement with peers that is not accounted for by the adolescent's self-concept. The prediction of the quality of adolescents' peer relations yielded similar results for both mothers and fathers. The results suggest that a positive self-concept and warm supportive parenting each contribute unique variance to satisfactory peer relations.

  17. Adolescent Personality in Social Contexts: Pals, Partners, and Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current dissertation was to show how adolescent personality was linked to youths’ developmental outcomes. Our findings suggest that adolescent personality has concurrent and predictive relations to a variety of important developmental outcomes. Specifically, adolescent personality was

  18. Racial differences in parenting dimensions and adolescent condom use at sexual debut.

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    Cox, Mary F

    2006-01-01

    Parenting style may be a determinant in reducing adolescent risk behavior. Previous studies have relied on a typological parenting approach, with classification into four groups: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful. In this study, two distinct parenting dimensions, demandingness and responsiveness, were examined as independent predictors of adolescent condom use. This study used a subsample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) that included 153 adolescent-mother pairs. Maternal demandingness and responsiveness were measured using Wave I mother interviews. Logistic regression analyses were used to predict adolescent condom use at sexual debut at Wave II and to assess moderation by gender and race. (1) Maternal demandingness predicted increased likelihood of condom use in African American adolescents but decreased likelihood of condom use in White adolescents; (2) maternal responsiveness did not predict condom use; and (3) gender moderation was not present. To provide appropriate family counseling, public health nurses need to consider racial differences in contraceptive practices. Education regarding parental supervision practices should be considered as part of nursing interventions intended to increase condom use in African American adolescents.

  19. Consent, competence, and confidentiality related to psychiatric conditions in adolescent medicine practice.

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    Campbell, Amy T

    2006-02-01

    Health care for adolescents with psychiatric conditions plays out on a complex stage with considerable state variation, based on a mix of statutory and case law. Added to this are less defined factors such as level of trust in community providers, level of cooperation between generalists and specialists, and local regulatory stances toward adolescent health care and mental health care. And, of course, there is the great diversity in diagnosis and maturity level, as well as family cohesion, from patient to patient (and even within a given patient across time). Finally, this situation resides within a larger environment of stigma vis-a-vis mental health care, most notably evident in the United States in disparate insurance coverage of mental versus physical health treatment. With so complex and varied a picture, clinicians should consult with legal counsel to understand applicable state law and local regulatory guidance (if any)and should also seek out ethical consultation when law does not apply or is not decisive, leaving ongoing concerns. And, as with clinical decision-making, in law and ethics "facts matter" [4]. A growing body of law carves out exceptions to general requirements for parental consent, including in mental health care. Ethically informed discussion around capacity determinations, the consent process, and confidentiality can help engage adolescents as "emerging adults"while remaining mindful of risky behavior and "immediate future" orientation that can be hallmarks of adolescence [30]. Respect for the adolescent, parental responsibility toward their child's best interests, and the family unit generally are paramount. Respect--coupled with caution, greater disclosure and cultural sensitivity, and a participatory approach to decision-making that seeks out the least restrictive and coercive options-can help avoid potential legal traps. How best to proceed? It truly depends-with law and ethics the start (not end) of the discussion and analysis.

  20. PREDICTION OF SPORT ADHERENCE THROUGH THE INFLUENCE OF AUTONOMY-SUPPORTIVE COACHING AMONG SPANISH ADOLESCENT ATHLETES

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    Bartolomé J. Almagro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test a motivational model of the coach-athlete relationship, based on self-determination theory and on the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The sample comprised of 608 athletes (ages of 12-17 years completed the following measures: interest in athlete's input, praise for autonomous behavior, perceived autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and the intention to be physically active. Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that interest in athletes' input and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived autonomy, and perceived autonomy positively predicted intrinsic motivation. Finally, intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future. The results are discussed in relation to the importance of the climate of autonomy support created by the coach on intrinsic motivation and adherence to sport by adolescent athletes. Further, the results provide information related to the possible objectives of future interventions for the education of coaches, with the goal of providing them with tools and strategies to favor the development of intrinsic motivation among their athletes. In conclusion, the climate of autonomy support created by the coach can predict the autonomy perceived by the athletes which predicts the intrinsic motivation experienced by the athletes, and therefore, their adherence to athletic practice. Key words: Autonomy support, perceived autonomy, intrinsic motivation, sport adherence

  1. Can phylogeny predict chemical diversity and potential medicinal activity of plants? A case study of amaryllidaceae

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    Rønsted Nina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During evolution, plants and other organisms have developed a diversity of chemical defences, leading to the evolution of various groups of specialized metabolites selected for their endogenous biological function. A correlation between phylogeny and biosynthetic pathways could offer a predictive approach enabling more efficient selection of plants for the development of traditional medicine and lead discovery. However, this relationship has rarely been rigorously tested and the potential predictive power is consequently unknown. Results We produced a phylogenetic hypothesis for the medicinally important plant subfamily Amaryllidoideae (Amaryllidaceae based on parsimony and Bayesian analysis of nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial DNA sequences of over 100 species. We tested if alkaloid diversity and activity in bioassays related to the central nervous system are significantly correlated with phylogeny and found evidence for a significant phylogenetic signal in these traits, although the effect is not strong. Conclusions Several genera are non-monophyletic emphasizing the importance of using phylogeny for interpretation of character distribution. Alkaloid diversity and in vitro inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE and binding to the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT are significantly correlated with phylogeny. This has implications for the use of phylogenies to interpret chemical evolution and biosynthetic pathways, to select candidate taxa for lead discovery, and to make recommendations for policies regarding traditional use and conservation priorities.

  2. Case-Based Teaching for Interprofessional Postgraduate Trainees in Adolescent Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Holly C; Ziniel, Sonja; Touloumtzis, Currie; Pitts, Sarah; Goncalves, Adrianne; Emans, Jean; Burke, Pam

    2016-05-01

    Adolescent health providers increasingly work in interprofessional environments. There is a lack of evidence regarding best educational practices for preparing the adolescent health care workforce of the future. We developed, implemented, and evaluated an interprofessional longitudinal case-based curriculum for postgraduate trainees in adolescent health. Faculty in an academic adolescent medicine division worked collaboratively with recent trainees to develop six teaching cases illustrative of interprofessional care of adolescents. During the 2013-2014 academic year, seven trainees (two social workers, two physicians, one nurse practitioner, one psychologist, and one dietician) completed the six month-long case modules while simultaneously working together in an interprofessional clinic. Trainees completed four-item pre- and post-case questionnaires that assessed confidence with assessment and diagnosis, comfort with counseling skills, ability to devise a treatment plan, and understanding of their colleagues' role for each of the six cases. Participants completed the 19-item Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale and the 12-item Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale at three time points during the academic year and a 15-minute interview after their final session. Confidence with assessment/diagnosis, comfort counseling adolescents, and the ability to devise treatment plans increased for most case topics, as did understanding of the role of others on the interprofessional team. Mean Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale and Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale scores were high at baseline and similar at all three time points. Interviews highlighted the value of role clarity, communication, and learning within interprofessional teams along with modeling from interprofessional faculty. Case-based learning in conjunction with collaborative practice provided a successful teaching strategy for interprofessionals in adolescent health

  3. Autonomous Motivation and Fruit/Vegetable Intake in Parent–Adolescent Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Laura A.; Bolger, Niall; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Patrick, Heather; Oh, April Y.; Nebeling, Linda C.; Hennessy, Erin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Autonomous motivation (motivation to engage in a behavior because of personal choice, interest, or value) is often associated with health behaviors. The present study contributes to research on motivation and eating behaviors by examining: (1) how autonomous motivation is correlated within parent–adolescent dyads; and (2) whether parent- and adolescent-reported autonomous motivation predicts the parent–adolescent correlation in fruit and vegetable (FV) intake frequency. Methods Data were drawn from the Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating (FLASHE) Study, a cross-sectional U.S. survey of parent–adolescent dyads led by the National Cancer Institute and fielded between April and October 2014. In 2016, data were analyzed from dyads who had responses on a six-item self-report measure of daily frequency of FV consumption and a two-item self-report measure of autonomous motivation for consuming FVs. Results Parents' and adolescents' reports of autonomous motivation and FV intake frequency were positively correlated. Both parents' and adolescents' autonomous motivation predicted higher levels of their own FV intake frequency and that of their dyad partner (p-values ≤0.001). These effects of autonomous motivation explained 22.6% of the parent–adolescent correlation in FV intake frequency. Actor effects (one's motivation predicting their own FV intake frequency) were stronger than partner effects (one's motivation predicting their partner's FV intake frequency). Conclusions Parent–adolescent similarity in autonomous motivation for healthy eating may contribute to similarity in eating behaviors. Future research should further examine how individual-level health behavior correlates influence health behaviors within dyads. PMID:28526363

  4. Autonomous Motivation and Fruit/Vegetable Intake in Parent-Adolescent Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Laura A; Bolger, Niall; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Patrick, Heather; Oh, April Y; Nebeling, Linda C; Hennessy, Erin

    2017-06-01

    Autonomous motivation (motivation to engage in a behavior because of personal choice, interest, or value) is often associated with health behaviors. The present study contributes to research on motivation and eating behaviors by examining (1) how autonomous motivation is correlated within parent-adolescent dyads and (2) whether parent- and adolescent-reported autonomous motivation predicts the parent-adolescent correlation in fruit and vegetable (FV) intake frequency. Data were drawn from the Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating (FLASHE) Study, a cross-sectional U.S. survey of parent-adolescent dyads led by the National Cancer Institute and fielded between April and October 2014. In 2016, data were analyzed from dyads who had responses on a six-item self-report measure of daily frequency of FV consumption and a two-item self-report measure of autonomous motivation for consuming FVs. Parents' and adolescents' reports of autonomous motivation and FV intake frequency were positively correlated. Both parents' and adolescents' autonomous motivation predicted higher levels of their own FV intake frequency and that of their dyad partner (p-values ≤0.001). These effects of autonomous motivation explained 22.6% of the parent-adolescent correlation in FV intake frequency. Actor effects (one's motivation predicting their own FV intake frequency) were stronger than partner effects (one's motivation predicting their partner's FV intake frequency). Parent-adolescent similarity in autonomous motivation for healthy eating may contribute to similarity in eating behaviors. Future research should further examine how individual-level health behavior correlates influence health behaviors within dyads. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The Longitudinal Interplay of Maternal Warmth and Adolescents' Self-Disclosure in Predicting Maternal Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H.; Gondoli, Dawn M.; Grundy, Amber M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal associations among maternal warmth, adolescents' self-disclosure, and maternal knowledge during the transition to adolescence. Three years of self-report data were collected from 131 married mothers and their adolescents. Results from longitudinal analysis using adolescent reports indicated that greater…

  6. CAUSES OF DEATH IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS ACCORDING TO THE MATERIAL OF THE INSTITUTE OF FORENSIC MEDICINE IN NIŠ FOR THE PERIOD 2003-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Stojanović

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the causes of death in children and adolescents for a ten-year period (2003-2012 according to data from the autopsy records of the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Niš. The causes of death (natural or violent were analyzed in relation to sex, age, season, and environment (rural and urban areas, socio-economic and living conditions, and the number of children in the family. The results obtained were statistically analyzed, plotted and discussed in relation to data from the literature available. Regarding the autopsy cases of children and adolescents (194, 106 (54.63% were the cases of violent causes of death and 87 were the cases (44.84% of natural causes of death, while in one case the cause of death could not be determined due to late-stage decomposition alterations of the corpse. The most common natural causes of death were asphyxia, immaturity of the fetus and acute pneumonia. Most common causes of violent death were contusion of the brain, destruction of the brain and brainstem, polytrauma, and bleeding.

  7. Late-Adolescent Delinquency: Risks and Resilience for Girls Differing in Risk at the Start of Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Tia; Morash, Merry; Park, Suyeon

    2011-01-01

    Based on resilience and feminist criminological theories, several individual, family, and community characteristics were hypothesized to predict late-adolescent delinquency for girls varying in early-adolescent risk. Girls aged 12 and 13 were interviewed each year as part of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Predictors of…

  8. Development and validation of a predictive equation for lean body mass in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Bethany J; Platt, Robert W; Zemel, Babette S

    2012-05-01

    Lean body mass (LBM) is not easy to measure directly in the field or clinical setting. Equations to predict LBM from simple anthropometric measures, which account for the differing contributions of fat and lean to body weight at different ages and levels of adiposity, would be useful to both human biologists and clinicians. To develop and validate equations to predict LBM in children and adolescents across the entire range of the adiposity spectrum. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure LBM in 836 healthy children (437 females) and linear regression was used to develop sex-specific equations to estimate LBM from height, weight, age, body mass index (BMI) for age z-score and population ancestry. Equations were validated using bootstrapping methods and in a local independent sample of 332 children and in national data collected by NHANES. The mean difference between measured and predicted LBM was - 0.12% (95% limits of agreement - 11.3% to 8.5%) for males and - 0.14% ( - 11.9% to 10.9%) for females. Equations performed equally well across the entire adiposity spectrum, as estimated by BMI z-score. Validation indicated no over-fitting. LBM was predicted within 5% of measured LBM in the validation sample. The equations estimate LBM accurately from simple anthropometric measures.

  9. Adolescents' struggles with swallowing tablets: barriers, strategies and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Dana Lee; Tulinius, Ditte; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2008-01-01

    To explore adolescents' struggles with taking oral medications. Copenhagen, Denmark. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 89 adolescents (33 boys, 56 girls) between the ages of 11 and 20. Adolescents were recruited through four public schools. To identify struggles with taking oral medication, interview transcripts were systematically searched for statements including the terms swallow, chew, crush and eat. Thematic analysis of the identified statements was carried out to reveal dominant themes in the adolescents' accounts. Over one-third of the adolescents spontaneously provided accounts of the difficulties they experienced with taking oral medications, especially with swallowing tablets. Three themes were dominant in their narratives: barriers, strategies and learning. Barriers experienced by the adolescents involved the medications' properties, e.g. taste. Adolescents developed strategies to overcome these barriers, e.g. crushing tablets. Via a process of learning-by-doing and the acquisition of increased experience and autonomy, many adolescents mastered the skill of swallowing tablets. Many adolescents experienced barriers in their attempts to swallow tablets. They developed various strategies to overcome these barriers and gradually mastered taking medicines in a learning-by-doing process.

  10. Anticipating Their Future: Adolescent Values for the Future Predict Adult Behaviors

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    Finlay, Andrea K.; Wray-Lake, Laura; Warren, Michael; Maggs, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent future values--beliefs about what will matter to them in the future--may shape their adult behavior. Utilizing a national longitudinal British sample, this study examined whether adolescent future values in six domains (i.e., family responsibility, full-time job, personal responsibility, autonomy, civic responsibility, and hedonistic…

  11. Adolescent and parent diabetes distress in type 1 diabetes: the role of self-efficacy, perceived consequences, family responsibility and adolescent-parent discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, G Urquhart; Walsh, Jennifer; Queralt, Victoria; Nouwen, Arie

    2013-04-01

    To examine the association of adolescent and parent diabetes distress with perceived consequences, dietary self-efficacy, and discrepancies in diabetes family responsibility, in type 1 diabetes (T1D). 203 adolescents with T1D, aged 12-18, and their parents completed self-report questionnaires cross-sectionally. Higher HbA1c, greater perceived negative consequences of diabetes, and reduced self-efficacy predicted adolescent diabetes distress. Higher HbA1c predicted parental diabetes distress, as did diabetes family responsibility disagreements when both family members claimed responsibility, and parents' perception of reduced adolescent self-efficacy. Dietary self-efficacy and perceived negative consequences of diabetes are important factors to consider in assessing and managing adolescent diabetes distress. Perceptions of family responsibility for self-care tasks and parental confidence in adolescents' self-management have implications for parental diabetes distress. Clinical implications support long-held recommendations of taking a family-perspective of T1D care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Six-Year Predictive Test of Adolescent Family Relationship Quality and Effortful Control Pathways to Emerging Adult Social and Emotional Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Caruthers, Allison S.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined how a multimethod (youth report, parent report, direct observation) assessment of family relationship quality (cohesion and conflict) in adolescence (age 16 –17) predicted growth and maintenance of effortful control across ages 17, 22, and 23 years old, and, ultimately, subjective well-being, emotional distress, and aggressive behavior in emerging adulthood (23). A diverse sample of 792 youth at age 17 and their families, and youth at ages 22 and 23, were studied to examine family cohesion and conflict and the growth and maintenance of effortful control as predictors of emerging adult social and emotional health. Results indicated that family cohesion and conflict during late adolescence and mean-level effortful control at age 22 each served as unique pathways to emerging adult adjustment. These findings underscore the importance of family functioning during adolescence and the maintenance of effortful control into emerging adulthood for understanding adjustment during the emerging adulthood period. PMID:22709261

  13. Training Pediatric Residents and Pediatricians about Adolescent Mental Health Problems: A Proof-of-Concept Pilot for a Proposed National Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutner, Lawrence; Olson, Cheryl K.; Schlozman, Steven; Goldstein, Mark; Warner, Dorothy; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article presents a DVD-based educational program intended to help pediatric residents and practicing pediatricians recognize and respond to adolescent depression in busy primary care settings. Methods: Representatives from pediatrics and adolescent medicine, child and adolescent psychiatry and psychology, and experts in the…

  14. Parental knowledge of adolescent activities: links with parental attachment style and adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason D; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Lejuez, C W; Cassidy, Jude

    2015-04-01

    Parents' knowledge of their adolescents' whereabouts and activities is a robust predictor of adolescent risk behavior, including the use of drugs and alcohol. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to identify parental characteristics that are associated with the degree of parental knowledge. The present study is the first to examine how parental attachment style relates to mother, father, and adolescent reports of parental knowledge. Further, we used structural equation modeling to test the associations among parents' attachment styles, reports of parental knowledge, and adolescents' alcohol and marijuana use. Participants included 203 adolescents (M age = 14.02, SD = .91) living in 2-parent households and their parent(s). As predicted, mothers' and fathers' insecure attachment styles were negatively associated with self-reported and adolescent-reported parental knowledge, and all 3 reports of parental knowledge were negatively related to adolescent substance use. Mothers' and fathers' attachment styles were unrelated to adolescent substance use. However, evidence emerged for indirect effects of parental attachment style on adolescent substance use through reports of parental knowledge. Implications for prevention efforts and the importance of multiple reporters within the family are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Physical Activity and Sociodemographic Correlates of Adolescent Exergamers.

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    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Cook, Brian; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2018-05-01

    Exergame use (or active video games that promote physical activity [PA]) has the potential to increase PA in youth, but there is a scarcity of information about PA of youth who are current exergamers. The current study examined PA behaviors in exergamers versus nonexergamers. Adolescents (N = 2,793; mean age = 14.4 ± 2.0 years) participating in EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) self-reported sociodemographic characteristics and exergaming and PA behavior. Height and weight were measured. Both male and female exergamers tended to be younger and black compared with nonexergamers (p strategy for adolescent girls. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Predicting Postsurgical Satisfaction in Adolescents With Idiopathic Scoliosis: The Role of Presurgical Functioning and Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieberg, Christine B; Manganella, Juliana; Manalo, Gem; Simons, Laura E; Hresko, M Timothy

    2017-12-01

    There is a need to better assess patient satisfaction and surgical outcomes. The purpose of the current study is to identify how preoperative expectations can impact postsurgical satisfaction among youth with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis undergoing spinal fusion surgery. The present study includes patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis undergoing spinal fusion surgery enrolled in a prospective, multicentered registry examining postsurgical outcomes. The Scoliosis Research Society Questionnaire-Version 30, which assesses pain, self-image, mental health, and satisfaction with management, along with the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire, which measures surgical expectations was administered to 190 patients before surgery and 1 and 2 years postoperatively. Regression analyses with bootstrapping (with n=5000 bootstrap samples) were conducted with 99% bias-corrected confidence intervals to examine the extent to which preoperative expectations for spinal appearance mediated the relationship between presurgical mental health and pain and 2-year postsurgical satisfaction. Results indicate that preoperative mental health, pain, and expectations are predictive of postsurgical satisfaction. With the shifting health care system, physicians may want to consider patient mental health, pain, and expectations before surgery to optimize satisfaction and ultimately improve clinical care and patient outcomes. Level I-prognostic study.

  17. Processing Speed and Neurodevelopment in Adolescent-Onset Psychosis: Cognitive Slowing Predicts Social Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Peter; Niendam, Tara A.; Jalbrzikowkski, Maria; Park, Chan Y.; Daley, Melita; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Bearden, Carrie E.

    2012-01-01

    Onset of psychosis may be associated with abnormal adolescent neurodevelopment. Here we examined the neurocognitive profile of first-episode, adolescent onset psychosis (AOP) as compared to typically developing adolescents, and asked whether neurocognitive performance varied differentially as a function of age in the cases compared with controls.…

  18. Meaningful Use of a Confidential Adolescent Patient Portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lindsay A; Martinko, Thomas; Budd, Pamela; Mercado, Rebeccah; Schentrup, Anzeela M

    2016-02-01

    To design and evaluate the usage of an adolescent patient portal specifically adapted for adolescent health care needs that also satisfied institutional meaningful use guidelines regarding electronic health records. Key stakeholders at one academic health care center adopted an online portal and opted to designate a patient portal specifically for adolescents to maximize confidentiality in compliance with state privacy laws. This study analyzed aggregate electronic health record data of adolescents' (ages 12-17.9 years) uptake, usage, and functionality of this portal and compared it to parent portal usage for younger children (ages 0-11 years). Differences in means were calculated using paired t tests. The portal was used similarly between parents of young children and adolescents, with almost 1,000 enrollees in each group from September 1, 2012 to March 31, 2015. There were no gender differences in enrollment. Adolescents were less likely than parents of younger children to review appointments (73% vs. 85%), laboratory tests (67% vs. 79%), problem lists (40% vs. 78%), or allergies (45% vs. 77%, all p values adolescents sent 1,397 confidential messages. Institutional decisions for implementing meaningful use requirements can align with goals of adolescent health. Patient portals can enhance adolescent health care quality and adolescents readily use a confidential portal. Implementation of meaningful use requirements should be checked against adolescent health care needs to maximize confidentiality and promote health communication. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Individuation or Identification? Self-Objectification and the Mother-Adolescent Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Budge, Stephanie L.; Lindberg, Sara M.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2013-01-01

    Do adolescents model their mothers’ self-objectification? We measured self-objectification (body surveillance and body shame), body mass index (BMI), body esteem, and quality of the mother-adolescent relationship in 179 female and 162 male adolescents at age 15, as well as self-objectification in their mothers. Initial analyses indicated no improvement in model fit if paths were allowed to differ for females and males; therefore a single model was tested for the combined sample. Findings revealed that mothers’ body surveillance negatively predicted adolescents’ body surveillance. Mothers’ body shame was unrelated to adolescents’ body shame, but positively predicted adolescents’ body surveillance. Results for the relationship between mothers’ and adolescents’ self-objectification suggest that adolescents engaged in more individuation than modeling. A more positive mother-adolescent relationship predicted lower body shame and higher body esteem in adolescents, suggesting that the quality of the relationship with the mother may be a protective factor for adolescents’ body image. Mother-adolescent relationship quality did not moderate the association between mothers’ and adolescents’ self-objectification. These findings contribute to our understanding about the sociocultural role of parents in adolescents’ body image and inform interventions addressing negative body image in this age group. The quality of the mother-adolescent relationship is a clear point of entry for such interventions. Therapists should work with adolescents and their mothers toward a more positive relationship quality, which could then positively impact adolescents’ body image. PMID:24363490

  20. Taking Bioinformatics to Systems Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, Antoine H C; Moerland, Perry D

    2016-01-01

    Systems medicine promotes a range of approaches and strategies to study human health and disease at a systems level with the aim of improving the overall well-being of (healthy) individuals, and preventing, diagnosing, or curing disease. In this chapter we discuss how bioinformatics critically contributes to systems medicine. First, we explain the role of bioinformatics in the management and analysis of data. In particular we show the importance of publicly available biological and clinical repositories to support systems medicine studies. Second, we discuss how the integration and analysis of multiple types of omics data through integrative bioinformatics may facilitate the determination of more predictive and robust disease signatures, lead to a better understanding of (patho)physiological molecular mechanisms, and facilitate personalized medicine. Third, we focus on network analysis and discuss how gene networks can be constructed from omics data and how these networks can be decomposed into smaller modules. We discuss how the resulting modules can be used to generate experimentally testable hypotheses, provide insight into disease mechanisms, and lead to predictive models. Throughout, we provide several examples demonstrating how bioinformatics contributes to systems medicine and discuss future challenges in bioinformatics that need to be addressed to enable the advancement of systems medicine.

  1. Does body fat percentage predict post-exercise heart rate response in non-obese children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezdimirovic, Tatjana; Stajer, Valdemar; Semeredi, Sasa; Calleja-Gonzalez, Julio; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2017-05-24

    A correlation between adiposity and post-exercise autonomic regulation has been established in overweight and obese children. However, little information exists about this link in non-obese youth. The main purpose of this cross-sectional study was to describe the relationship between body fat percentage (BFP) and heart rate recovery after exercise [post-exercise heart rate (PEHR)], a marker of autonomic regulation, in normal-weight children and adolescents. We evaluated the body composition of 183 children and adolescents (age 15.0±2.3 years; 132 boys and 51 girls) who performed a maximal graded exercise test on a treadmill, with the heart rate monitored during and immediately after exercise. A strong positive trend was observed in the association between BFP and PEHR (r=0.14; p=0.06). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that our model explained 18.3% of the variance in PEHR (p=0.00), yet BFP acco