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Sample records for adolescence predicts medicine

  1. Medicine use for headache in adolescence predicts medicine use for headache in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health risk behaviours such as smoking and binge drinking track from adolescence to adulthood. Medicine use is associated with smoking and binge drinking among adolescents. Whether medicine-use behaviour tracks from adolescence to adulthood is unknown. AIM: To examine tracking...... of medicine use for headache from age 15 to 19 to 27. METHODS: A national random sample of 15-year-olds (n = 996) was followed up after four and twelve years respectively in a longitudinal study in Denmark; 614 persons completed questionnaires in all three waves. The main outcome measure was medicine use...... for headache within the past 14 days. RESULTS: Medicine use for headache was common in all age groups and more females than males used medicine in all three age groups: 34.9% vs. 18.0% at age 15, 45.4% vs. 22.1% at age 19 and 44.3% vs. 29.5% at age 27. The risk of using medicine for headache at age 27...

  2. Predictive medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boenink, Marianne; Have, ten Henk

    2015-01-01

    In the last part of the twentieth century, predictive medicine has gained currency as an important ideal in biomedical research and health care. Research in the genetic and molecular basis of disease suggested that the insights gained might be used to develop tests that predict the future health sta

  3. Adolescents' medicine use for headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Andersen, Anette; Fotiou, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study reports secular trends in medicine use for headache among adolescents in 20 countries from 1986 to 2010. METHODS: The international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey includes self-reported data about medicine use for headaches among nationally...... representative samples of 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds. We included 20 countries with data from at least three data collection waves, with a total of 380 129 participants. RESULTS: The prevalence of medicine use for headaches varied from 16.5% among Hungarian boys in 1994 to 62.9% among girls in Wales in 1998....... The prevalence was higher among girls than boys in every country and data collection year. The prevalence of medicine use for headaches increased in 12 of 20 countries, most notably in the Czech Republic, Poland, Russia, Sweden and Wales. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of medicine use for headaches among adolescents...

  4. Cytomics in predictive medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnok, Attila; Valet, Guenther K.

    2004-07-01

    Predictive Medicine aims at the detection of changes in patient's disease state prior to the manifestation of deterioration or improvement of the current status. Patient-specific, disease-course predictions with >95% or >99% accuracy during therapy would be highly valuable for everyday medicine. If these predictors were available, disease aggravation or progression, frequently accompanied by irreversible tissue damage or therapeutic side effects, could then potentially be avoided by early preventive therapy. The molecular analysis of heterogeneous cellular systems (Cytomics) by cytometry in conjunction with pattern-oriented bioinformatic analysis of the multiparametric cytometric and other data provides a promising approach to individualized or personalized medical treatment or disease management. Predictive medicine is best implemented by cell oriented measurements e.g. by flow or image cytometry. Cell oriented gene or protein arrays as well as bead arrays for the capture of solute molecules form serum, plasma, urine or liquor are equally of high value. Clinical applications of predictive medicine by Cytomics will include multi organ failure in sepsis or non infectious posttraumatic shock in intensive care, or the pretherapeutic identification of high risk patients in cancer cytostatic. Early individualized therapy may provide better survival chances for individual patient at concomitant cost containment. Predictive medicine guided early reduction or stop of therapy may lower or abrogate potential therapeutic side effects. Further important aspects of predictive medicine concern the preoperative identification of patients with a tendency for postoperative complications or coronary artery disease patients with an increased tendency for restenosis. As a consequence, better patient care and new forms of inductive scientific hypothesis development based on the interpretation of predictive data patterns are at reach.

  5. Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine

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    ... Grants Awards and Honors Outstanding Achievement in Adolescent Medicine New Investigator Millar Award for Innovative Approaches Hofmann Visiting Professor Litt Visiting Professor DuRant Award for Statistical Rigor Regional Chapter Recognition Award Career Development Award ...

  6. Young adolescents' use of medicine for headache:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Andersen, Anette; Krølner, Rikke

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Use of medicines for headache is common among young adolescents but little is known about their sources of supply and access to medicines. The purpose was to describe sources of supply, availability and accessibility at home and to examine if supply, availability and accessibility were...... use for headache among children and young adolescents is common and control of access may be the key issue for safe medicine use....... associated with medicine use. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in eight schools where all fifth and seventh grade students (11- and 13-year-olds) answered a questionnaire about socio-demographic factors, health and medicine use. Response rate: 84.0%, n = 595. RESULTS: The reported prevalence of headache...

  7. Social class variation in medicine use among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Due, Pernille

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about social determinants of adolescents' medicine use. The objective was to analyse the association between the family's social class and adolescents' use of medicine for headache, stomachache, difficulties in getting to sleep, and nervousness.......Little is known about social determinants of adolescents' medicine use. The objective was to analyse the association between the family's social class and adolescents' use of medicine for headache, stomachache, difficulties in getting to sleep, and nervousness....

  8. Social class variation in medicine use among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Due, Pernille

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about social determinants of adolescents' medicine use. The objective was to analyse the association between the family's social class and adolescents' use of medicine for headache, stomachache, difficulties in getting to sleep, and nervousness. METHODS: Cross...... social classes were: medicine for headache 1.35 (1.11-1.65), medicine for stomachache 1.41 (1.08-1.84), medicine for difficulties in getting to sleep 2.00 (1.30-3.08), and medicine for nervousness 3.22 (1.87-5.56). CONCLUSION: Symptom-adjusted medicine use in a representative sample of Danish adolescents...

  9. Predicting Resilience in Sexually Abused Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Javonda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This research examined factors that predicted resilience in sexually abused adolescents. Using Bronfenbrenner's Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) ecological model, this study considered the proximal and distal factors that would contribute to adolescents' reactions to sexual victimization. This correlational study used hierarchical regression…

  10. Music therapy and music medicine for children and adolescents.

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    Yinger, Olivia Swedberg; Gooding, Lori

    2014-07-01

    This article summarizes the research on music therapy and music medicine for children and adolescents with diagnoses commonly treated by psychiatrists. Music therapy and music medicine are defined, effects of music on the brain are described, and music therapy research in psychiatric treatment is discussed. Music therapy research with specific child/adolescent populations is summarized, including disorders usually diagnosed in childhood, substance abuse, mood/anxiety disorders, and eating disorders. Clinical implications are listed, including suggestions for health care professionals seeking to use music medicine techniques. Strengths and weaknesses of music therapy treatment are discussed, as well as areas for future research.

  11. Sense of coherence and medicine use for headache among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koushede, Vibeke; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between headache, sense of coherence (SOC), and medicine use for headaches in a community-based sample of adolescents. METHODS: Epidemiological cross-sectional study, encompassing 20 out of 23 schools in the network of health-promoting schools in the county...... weekly experience of headaches, that is, frequency of headaches modified the association between SOC and medicine use. CONCLUSIONS: We found that adolescents with low SOC used medicine to cope with headaches to a greater extent than adolescents with high SOC....... standardized questionnaire. The outcome measure was self-reported medicine use for headaches. The determinants were headache frequency and SOC measured by Wold and Torsheim's version for children of Antonovsky's 13-item SOC scale. RESULTS: Analyses adjusted for age group, family social class, exposure...

  12. Health complaints and use of medicines among adolescents in Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmanin Ellul R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate self-reported health complaints and the use of medicines among adolescents in Malta.Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to survey self-reported health complaints, the use and the sources of medicines that had been accessed, during the preceding 3 months among adolescents attending secondary schools in Malta. A stratified random sample design generated a sample size of 514 students. The health complaints and use of medicines that were investigated included ear problems/hay fever/cold/cough, headache, skin problems, sport injuries, indigestion/diarrhoea/constipation, eye problems and menstrual pain (for girls. The use of vitamins and antibiotics was also investigated. Results: A total of 477 students participated in the final data collection. Correct information was submitted by 474 students, (aged 14-16 years, who formed the analytical sample, of which 53.8% were girls. The students reported a mean number of 2.70 (SD = 1.39 out of a total of 7 health complaints and 90.3% reported using at least 1 medicine during the preceding 3 months. The community pharmacy was cited as the most commonly accessed source for most of the medicines that were investigated. A proportion of 24.3% of the students had taken at least 1 medicine without adult guidance during the preceding 3 months. Almost 10% of those who had taken antibiotics, had accessed them from the home medicine cabinet.Conclusion: A high proportion of adolescents in Malta reported the use of medicines to alleviate the symptoms of common health complaints. This result is concordant with previous research carried out in the United Kingdom, Germany, Slovakia and Kuwait. A considerable proportion of students in this study had obtained medicines without adult guidance and accessed antibiotics from the home medicine cabinet. This highlights the importance of carefully designed education programs for adolescents that will integrate information about the proper use

  13. Meal frequencies in early adolescence predict meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht

    2013-01-01

    Health and risk behaviours tend to be maintained from adolescence into adulthood. There is little knowledge on whether meal frequencies in adolescence are maintained into adulthood. We investigated whether breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted meal frequencies...... in late adolescence and in early adulthood. Further, the modifying effect of gender and adolescent family structure were investigated....

  14. Predicting Adolescent Mothers' Transition to Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylod, Deirdre E.; Whitman, Thomas L.; Borkowski, John G.

    1997-01-01

    Investigated relationships among prenatal maternal resources, perceptions about parenting, and children's temperament at 6 months, and adaptation of 90 adolescent mothers three years after the birth of their first child. Found that maternal resources uniquely predicted later maternal cognitive functioning, personal adjustment, and child abuse…

  15. International survey of self-reported medicine use among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ebba H; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine gender, age, and country variations in adolescents' self-reported medicine use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional school surveys of representative samples of 11- to 15-year-old girls and boys were used. The 1997/1998 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study was referenced. A sta...

  16. Ethical reflections of gender equality and equity in adolescence medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzo, P; Caenazzo, L

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences, in both clinical and research environment, exist also in a particular category of patients, adolescents, who constitute a vulnerable group with respect to healthcare decisions. In clinical context, the main ethical issues that may be identified within gender medicine for adolescent patients are related to the information given to the patient and its parents, the adolescent's capacity of understanding considering his/her maturity, vulnerability and autonomy, the consent to medical treatment in relation to the different possible approaches to their different efficacy and possible side effects. Also, with regard to the research context, ethical issues may arise from the participation of female minors in clinical trials. Ethical concerns may also arise in the field of resource allocation in health policies, such as the equitable distribution and access to resources, considering the young age of the subjects involved. A bioethical reflection, which takes into account not only the differences biologically and epidemiologically relevant, but also the main determinants of health in adolescence, might find a role in structured education for diversity and gender equity. Given the magnitude of the problem, to encourage the pursuit of gender equity in health and, in some situations, also to promote the full recognition of the right to health of women are some of the most effective and direct ways to reduce inequalities and to ensure a rational and efficient use of available resources, including through a bioethical reflection on the topic. The Authors show the necessity to differentiate the various aspects of gender differences in adolescence medicine, providing arguments in support of the fact that interventions for health prevention and promotion should be modulated in relation to the gender of the recipients, emphasizing the most important aspects for each group of individuals. This approach could implement personalized medicine, even and especially

  17. Adolescent consent for vaccination: a position paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Abigail; Ford, Carol A; Kahn, Jessica A; Kharbanda, Elyse Olshen; Middleman, Amy B

    2013-10-01

    Vaccines currently recommended for adolescents by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices have the potential to improve the health of youth by preventing conditions such as: tetanus, pertussis, meningococcal disease, influenza, and genital warts, as well as later adult outcomes such as cervical and other human papillomavirus-related cancers. Adolescent vaccine coverage lags behind that for younger age groups. A requirement to obtain parental consent for vaccination can present a significant barrier to improving adolescent vaccine uptake across all health care settings in which adolescents access care. The ability of minors to consent to vaccination can influence whether adolescents receive indicated vaccines during adolescent health care visits when parents are absent and when adolescents are seen for confidential services. State laws govern consent for the delivery of health care to minors. All states have some laws that allow minors to consent to health care based either on their status or on the services they are seeking. Some of these laws would allow them to consent to vaccination. It is the Position of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine that, within ethical and legal guidelines, it will be important to develop strategies that maximize opportunities for minors to receive vaccinations when parents are not physically present, including opportunities for them to give their own consent.

  18. Adolescent conscientiousness predicts lower lifetime unemployment.

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    Egan, Mark; Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M

    2017-04-01

    Existing research on Big Five personality and unemployment has relied on personality measures elicited after the respondents had already spent years in the labor market, an experience that could change personality. We clarify the direction of influence by using the British Cohort Study (N = 4,206) to examine whether conscientiousness and other Big Five personality traits at age 16-17 predict unemployment over age 16-42. Our hypothesis that higher conscientiousness in adolescence would predict lower unemployment was supported. In analyses controlling for intelligence, gender, and parental socioeconomic status, the less conscientious (-1 SD) had a predicted probability of unemployment twice as high (3.4% vs. 1.7%) as the highly conscientious (+1 SD), an effect size comparable to intelligence. Mediation analysis revealed that academic motivation and educational attainment explained only 8.9% of this association. Fostering conscientiousness in early life may be an effective way to reduce unemployment throughout adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Predicting Change in Adolescent Adjustment from Change in Marital Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ming; Conger, Rand D.; Lorenz, Frederick O.

    2005-01-01

    The present prospective, longitudinal study of 451 adolescents and their parents extends earlier research by investigating whether change in marital problems predicts change in adolescent adjustment, after controlling for other marital problems and socioeconomic status. Latent growth curves over a period of 5 years were used, and the results…

  20. Prognostic and predictive biomarkers in colorectal cancer. Towards precision medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimers, Marlies Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to define prognostic and predictive biomarkers in colorectal cancer for improved risk stratification and treatment benefit in the individual patient, with the introduction of precision medicine in the near future as the ultimate goal. By definition, precision medicine is

  1. Empathy development in adolescence predicts social competencies in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemand, Mathias; Steiger, Andrea E; Fend, Helmut A

    2015-04-01

    This 23-year study explored the predictive associations between empathy development in adolescence and self-reported social competencies and outcomes in adulthood. Participants were 1,527 adults aged 35 years (48.3% female). The predictor variable (adolescent empathy) was measured yearly at the ages of 12 to 16 years. The outcome variables (adult empathy, communication skills, social integration, relationship satisfaction, and conflicts in relationships) were measured at the age of 35 years. Five important results stand out. First, longitudinal measurement invariance was established for the measure of adolescent empathy. Second, empathy tended to increase during the adolescent years. Third, significant interindividual differences in level and change of adolescent empathy were found. Fourth, gender was related to level of adolescent empathy, favoring girls over boys. Fifth, not only level but also change in adolescent empathy predicted individual differences in social competencies in adulthood two decades later. These findings demonstrate that developmental processes that are relevant for adjustment reveal long-term social consequences beyond the adolescent years.

  2. Predictable Chronic Mild Stress in Adolescence Increases Resilience in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Suo, Lin; Zhao, Liyan; Si, Jijian; Liu, Jianfeng; Zhu, Weili; Chai, Baisheng; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jiajia; Ding, Zengbo; Luo, Yixiao; Shi, Haishui; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Stress in adolescence has been widely demonstrated to have a lasting impact in humans and animal models. Developmental risk and protective factors play an important role in the responses to stress in adulthood. Mild-to-moderate stress in adolescence may resist the negative impacts of adverse events in adulthood. However, little research on resilience has been conducted. In this study, we used a predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) procedure (5 min of daily restraint stress for 28 days) in a...

  3. Psychopharmacological Treatment Options for Global Child and Adolescent Mental Health: The WHO Essential Medicines Lists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutcher, Stan; Murphy, Andrea; Gardner, David

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines (EML) and suggests modification for appropriate psychopharmacological treatment of child- and adolescent-onset mental disorders. The EML enlists few of the psychotropic medicines that are useful for the treatment of young people thereby limiting the…

  4. Predictors for adolescent visits to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine in a total population (the Young-HUNT Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslak Steinsbekk

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the factors predicting adolescent visits to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study conducted in an adolescent total population in Central Norway (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Studies (HUNT. In Young-HUNT 1, all inhabitants aged 13 to 19 years (N = 8944, 89% response rate were invited to participate, and the youngest group (13 to 15 year olds was surveyed again 4 years later (Young-HUNT 2, N = 2429, 82% response rate. The participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire on health and life style which included a question regarding visits to a CAM practitioner in the last 12 months. RESULTS: One in eleven (8.7%, 95%CI 7.6-9.8% had visited a CAM practitioner, an increase of 26% in 4 years (1.8% points. The final multivariable analysis predicted increased odds of an adolescent becoming a CAM visitor four years later (p<0.05 if she or he had previously visited a CAM practitioner (adjOR 3.4, had musculoskeletal pain (adjOR 1.5, had migraine (adjOR 2.3, used asthma medicines (adjOR 1.8 or suffered from another disease lasting more than three months (adjOR 2.1. Being male predicted reduced odds of visiting a CAM practitioner in the future (adjOR 0.6. CONCLUSION: We can conclude from this study that future visits to a CAM practitioner are predicted by both predisposing factors (being female, having visited a CAM practitioner previously and medical need factors (having had musculoskeletal pain, migraine, used asthma medicines or experienced another disease lasting more than three months. None of the specific variables associated with CAM visits were predictive for CAM visits four years later.

  5. Predicting coping style in adolescence following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    of research investigating the combined effect of several individual characteristics coping. It is of special importance to identify maladaptive coping in adolescents, because they are likely to use these coping styles for the rest of their lives. The present study used a cross-sectional design to investigate...

  6. Predicting coping styles in adolescence following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    , there is a lack of research investigating the interplay between these individual characteristics and their combined effect on different coping styles. It is of special importance to identify maladaptive coping styles in adolescents because they may be prone to use these coping styles for the rest of their lives...

  7. Habituation to a stressor predicts adolescents' adiposity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Objectives: Stress is associated with gains in adiposity. One factor that determines how much stress is experienced is how quickly an adolescent reduces responding (habituates) across repeated stressors. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of body mass index pe...

  8. Predictive factors of alcohol and tobacco use in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Alvarez-Aguirre

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents.METHOD: a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used.RESULTS: the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year.CONCLUSION: this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users.

  9. Sustained attention and prediction: distinct brain maturation trajectories during adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thillay, Alix; Roux, Sylvie; Gissot, Valérie; Carteau-Martin, Isabelle; Knight, Robert T.; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Bidet-Caulet, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a key period for frontal cortex maturation necessary for the development of cognitive ability. Sustained attention and prediction are cognitive functions critical for optimizing sensory processing, and essential to efficiently adapt behaviors in an ever-changing world. The aim of the current study was to investigate the brain developmental trajectories of attentive and predictive processing through adolescence. We recorded EEG in 36 participants from the age of 12–24 years (three age groups: 12–14, 14–17, 18–24 years) to target development during early and late adolescence, and early adulthood. We chose a visual target detection task which loaded upon sustained attention, and we manipulated target predictability. Continued maturation of sustained attention after age 12 was evidenced by improved performance (hits, false alarms (FAs) and sensitivity) in a detection task, associated with a frontal shift in the scalp topographies of the Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) and P3 responses, with increasing age. No effect of age was observed on predictive processing, with all ages showing similar benefits in reaction time, increases in P3 amplitude (indexing predictive value encoding and memorization), increases in CNV amplitude (corresponding to prediction implementation) and reduction in target-P3 latency (reflecting successful prediction building and use), with increased predictive content. This suggests that adolescents extracted and used predictive information to generate predictions as well as adults. The present results show that predictive and attentive processing follow distinct brain developmental trajectories: prediction abilities seem mature by the age of 12 and sustained attention continues to improve after 12-years of age and is associated with maturational changes in the frontal cortices. PMID:26483653

  10. Predictable chronic mild stress in adolescence increases resilience in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Lin; Zhao, Liyan; Si, Jijian; Liu, Jianfeng; Zhu, Weili; Chai, Baisheng; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jiajia; Ding, Zengbo; Luo, Yixiao; Shi, Haishui; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin

    2013-07-01

    Stress in adolescence has been widely demonstrated to have a lasting impact in humans and animal models. Developmental risk and protective factors play an important role in the responses to stress in adulthood. Mild-to-moderate stress in adolescence may resist the negative impacts of adverse events in adulthood. However, little research on resilience has been conducted. In this study, we used a predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) procedure (5 min of daily restraint stress for 28 days) in adolescent rats (postnatal days (PNDs) 28-55) to test the resilience effect of PCMS on depressive-like behavior in the sucrose preference test and forced swim test and anxiety-like behavior in the novelty-suppressed feeding test and elevated plus maze in adulthood. We also investigated the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the brain during the PCMS procedure in adolescence. Moreover, we investigated the effect of PCMS in adolescence on subsequent responses to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS; PNDs 63-83) in adulthood. The results demonstrated that PCMS during adolescence produced antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects and increased mTOR signaling activity in the prefrontal cortex in early adulthood. Either systemic administration or intra-PFC infusion of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin completely blocked the behavioral effects produced by PCMS in adolescence. PCMS during adolescence resisted depressive- and anxiety-like behavior caused by CUS in adulthood. These findings indicate that PCMS in adolescence can contribute to resilience against depression and anxiety caused by stress in adulthood.

  11. [Prediction in medicine--genome contra envirome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdicka, Radim

    2012-01-01

    Human phenotype is governed by its genotype--a set of genetic information materialized in DNA. Using traditional terminology we speak about a little more than 20 thousands genes that differ in strength to become realized and their effect is modified by a large number of other genes. The result originates from firmly established programmes we obtained from our ancestors. Development and activity of such molecules selected for maintenance, copying and transfer of information i.e. nucleic acids can be followed back to the very origin of the life. Nevertheless the final result is achieved not only by confrontation of the original information with other genetic information but largely also by external influences--environment. Though we are relatively successful in understanding what we have inherited from our parents, our knowledge of environmental factors and their effects on formation of the phenotype is still limited. From this point of view medical prediction has always to be very cautious and interpretations at the probability level must be done by a very experienced and responsible professional.

  12. Prediction by data mining, of suicide attempts in Korean adolescents: a national study

    OpenAIRE

    Bae SM; Lee SA; Lee SH

    2015-01-01

    Sung Man Bae,1 Seung A Lee,2 Seung-Hwan Lee2,3 1Department of Counseling Psychology, The Cyber University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea; 2Clinical Emotion and Cognition Research Laboratory, Goyang, South Korea; 3Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, South Korea Objective: This study aimed to develop a prediction model for suicide attempts in Korean adolescents.Methods: We conducted a decision tree analysis of 2,754 middle and hig...

  13. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms : An adolescent population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonvanie, Irma J.; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A. M.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship. I

  14. Does exposure to music videos predict adolescents' sexual attitudes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, J.W.J.; Konig, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether exposure to music videos predicts adolescents' sexual attitudes when controlled for relevant characteristics of individuals and their social environment. Sexual attitudes are related to their music video use (i.e. exposure to music videos, peer group talk about music

  15. Adolescent and young adult medicine is a special and specific area of medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeck, Kate; Towns, Susan; Bennett, David

    2014-06-01

    Adolescent and young adult medicine is a concept that has gained traction in the last decade or so. The medical literature has come primarily from oncology. Advances in neuroscience that document continuing brain development into the third decade, and research that shows risk behaviours associated with adolescence both remain and may increase in the third decade, have been two of the drivers in the conversation around linking these two age groups together as a medical practice group. A third driver of importance is transition care in chronic illness, where older adolescents and young adults continue to have difficulties making effective linkages with adult care. The case for specific training in adolescent and young adult medicine, including the developmental concepts behind it, the benefits of the delineation and the particular challenges in the Australian health-care system, are discussed. On balance, there is a strong case for managing the health issues of adolescents and young adults together. This scenario does not fit easily with the age demarcations that are in place in acute care facilities. However, this is less the case in community services and can work in focused private practice. Such a situation suggests that both paediatric and adult physicians might be interested in adolescent and young adult medicine training and practice.

  16. Predicting Adolescent Drug Abuse: A Review of Issues, Methods and Correlates. Research Issues 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettieri, Dan J., Ed.

    Presented are 18 papers on predicting adolescent drug abuse. The papers have the following titles: "Current Issues in the Epidemiology of Drug Abuse as Related to Psychosocial Studies of Adolescent Drug Use"; "The Quest for Interpersonal Predictors of Marihuana Abuse in Adolescents"; "Assessing the Interpersonal Determinants of Adolescent Drug…

  17. Changes in the association between health complaint frequency and medicine use among adolescents in Scotland between 1998 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Kate Ann; Whitehead, Ross; Andersen, Anette

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Medicines have the potential to cause harm, particularly when adolescents do not follow recommendations for use. In addition, medicine use in adolescence has been shown to track into adulthood. There is therefore a strong rationale to monitor changes in adolescent medicine use over time...... and understand the mechanisms behind these changes METHODS: Data from the 1998, 2006 and 2010 Scotland Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey were modelled using multilevel logistic regression, modelling medicine use for: headache, stomachache, sleeping difficulties and nervousness, as well...

  18. Prenatal substance exposure: What predicts behavioral resilience by early adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebschutz, Jane M; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P; Heymann, Orlaith D; Lange, Allison V; Frank, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (ages 12.4-15.9 years) at risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. Intrauterine substance exposures included in this analysis were cocaine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower intrauterine cocaine exposure level predicted resilience compared with higher cocaine exposure, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.90, 19.00], p = .002), lower violence exposure (AOR = 4.07, 95% CI [1.77, 9.38], p < .001), and absence of intrauterine tobacco exposure (AOR = 3.71, 95% CI [1.28, 10.74], p = .02) predicted behavioral resilience. In conclusion, caregiver supervision in early adolescence, lower violence exposure in childhood, and lack of intrauterine tobacco exposure predicted behavioral resilience among a cohort of early adolescents with significant social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. The Goal Wheel: Adapting Navajo Philosophy and the Medicine Wheel to Work with Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Holly; Bruce, Mary Alice; Stellern, John

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a group counseling model that is based on the indigenous medicine wheel as well as Navajo philosophy by which to help troubled adolescents restore harmony and balance in their lives, through establishing goals and sequential steps to accomplish these goals. The authors call this model the Goal Wheel. A…

  20. Does exposure to music videos predict adolescents' sexual attitudes?

    OpenAIRE

    Beentjes, J.W.J.; Konig, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether exposure to music videos predicts adolescents' sexual attitudes when controlled for relevant characteristics of individuals and their social environment. Sexual attitudes are related to their music video use (i.e. exposure to music videos, peer group talk about music videos, and perceived realism of these videos), personal factors and the sexual norms they perceive in their social environment (i.e. sexual norms of their parents and friends). A survey among Dutc...

  1. Does future-oriented thinking predict adolescent decision making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskritt, Michelle; Doucette, Jesslyn; Robitaille, Lori

    2014-01-01

    A number of theorists, as well as plain common sense, suggest that future-oriented thinking (FOT) should be involved in decision making; therefore, the development of FOT should be related to better quality decision making. FOT and quality of the decision making were measured in adolescents as well as adults in 2 different experiments. Though the results of the first experiment revealed an increase in quality of decision making across adolescence into adulthood, there was no relationship between FOT and decision making. In the second experiment, FOT predicted performance on a more deliberative decision-making task independent of age, but not performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Performance on the IGT was instead related to emotion regulation. The study's findings suggest that FOT can be related to reflective decision making but not necessarily decision making that is more intuitive.

  2. Subclinical bulimia predicts conduct disorder in middle adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viinamäki, Anni; Marttunen, Mauri; Fröjd, Sari; Ruuska, Jaana; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the comorbidity and longitudinal associations between self-reported conduct disorder and subclinical bulimia in a community-based sample of Finnish adolescents in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. There are 2070 adolescents who participated in the survey as ninth graders (mean age 15.5) and followed-up 2 years later. The Youth Self-Report Externalizing scale was used to measure conduct disorder and DSM-IV-based questionnaire to measure bulimia. Co-occurrence of female conduct disorder and subclinical bulimia was found at ages 15 and 17. Subclinical bulimia among girls at age 15 was a risk factor for conduct disorder at age 17, but conduct disorder at age 15 was not predictive of subclinical bulimia at age 17. The pathway from bulimia to conduct disorder may be suggestive of an association with future borderline personality disorder among girls.

  3. Adverse environmental exposures in pregnancy: teratology in adolescent medicine practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaver, Laurie H

    2002-06-01

    A teratogen is any drug, chemical, infectious or physical agent, or maternal disease or altered metabolic state that causes a structural or functional disability by acting on the embryo or fetus. Teratogens are responsible for approximately 10% of all human birth defects. Education of physicians caring for children and adolescents in the basic principles of teratology, the spectrum of human teratogens, and the recognition of associated anomalies is essential, because many maternal exposures and resultant fetal defects are completely preventable.

  4. Ética e medicina preditiva Ethics and predictive medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Márcio Batista Astoni Júnior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A evolução tecnológica dos tempos modernos penetrou o domínio da genética e atingiu o campo da medicina, constituindo-se na chamada medicina preditiva ou pré-sintomática. A medicina preditiva, utilizando-se de testes genéticos, é a competência prognóstica quanto à possibilidade de um indivíduo vir a desenvolver, no futuro, alguma doença ligada aos genes, objetivando prevenila e remediá-la. Entretanto, como qualquer conhecimento, a ciência do diagnóstico pré-sintomático, capaz de manipular a vida alterando a essência mesma do ser, pode produzir tanto "benefícios" quanto "malefícios", o que torna necessário problematizá-la eticamente. O presente artigo, de natureza conceitual, foi escrito almejando este fim.Technological developments in recent times have allowed us to master genetics and this has had an impact on medicine through the creation of the field of predictive or pre-symptomatic medicine. Predictive medicine, using genetic testing produces a prognosis regarding the likelihood of an individual, in the future, developing some kind of genetic disease and aims to prevent and cure it. However, as with any kind of knowledge, the science of pre-symptomatic diagnostics, which is capable of manipulating life itself, can be used for good or for ill. For this reason, there is a need to raise the ethical questions involved. This theoretical article aims to address such issues.

  5. Recommendations for promoting the health and well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adolescents: a position paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Adolescent health care providers frequently care for patients who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered (LGBT), or who may be struggling with or questioning their sexual orientation or gender identity. Whereas these youth have the same health concerns as their non-LGBT peers, LGBT teens may face additional challenges because of the complexity of the coming-out process, as well as societal discrimination and bias against sexual and gender minorities. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine encourages adolescent providers and researchers to incorporate the impact of these developmental processes (and understand the impacts of concurrent potential discrimination) when caring for LGBT adolescents. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine also encourages providers to help positively influence policy related to LGBT adolescents in schools, the foster care system, and the juvenile justice system, and within the family structure. Consistent with other medical organizations, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine rejects the mistaken notion that LGBT orientations are mental disorders, and opposes the use of any type of reparative therapy for LGBT adolescents.

  6. Prediction of insulin resistance with anthropometric measures: lessons from a large adolescent population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedin WK

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available William K Wedin,1 Lizmer Diaz-Gimenez,1 Antonio J Convit1,21Department of Psychiatry, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 2Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, NY, USAObjective: The aim of this study was to describe the minimum number of anthropometric measures that will optimally predict insulin resistance (IR and to characterize the utility of these measures among obese and nonobese adolescents.Research design and methods: Six anthropometric measures (selected from three categories: central adiposity, weight, and body composition were measured from 1298 adolescents attending two New York City public high schools. Body composition was determined by bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA. The homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR, based on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations, was used to estimate IR. Stepwise linear regression analyses were performed to predict HOMA-IR based on the six selected measures, while controlling for age.Results: The stepwise regression retained both waist circumference (WC and percentage of body fat (BF%. Notably, BMI was not retained. WC was a stronger predictor of HOMA-IR than BMI was. A regression model using solely WC performed best among the obese II group, while a model using solely BF% performed best among the lean group. Receiver operator characteristic curves showed the WC and BF% model to be more sensitive in detecting IR than BMI, but with less specificity.Conclusion: WC combined with BF% was the best predictor of HOMA-IR. This finding can be attributed partly to the ability of BF% to model HOMA-IR among leaner participants and to the ability of WC to model HOMA-IR among participants who are more obese. BMI was comparatively weak in predicting IR, suggesting that assessments that are more comprehensive and include body composition analysis could increase detection of IR during adolescence, especially among those who are lean, yet insulin-resistant.Keywords: BMI, bioelectrical impedance

  7. Theory of mind and switching predict prospective memory performance in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altgassen, Mareike; Vetter, Nora C; Phillips, Louise H; Akgün, Canan; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates ongoing development of prospective memory as well as theory of mind and executive functions across late childhood and adolescence. However, so far the interplay of these processes has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate whether theory of mind and executive control processes (specifically updating, switching, and inhibition) predict prospective memory development across adolescence. In total, 42 adolescents and 41 young adults participated in this study. Young adults outperformed adolescents on tasks of prospective memory, theory of mind, and executive functions. Switching and theory of mind predicted prospective memory performance in adolescents.

  8. Adolescent health in Colombia: basis for a preventive medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents represent 19.6% of the Colombian population; this requires proper medical training to tackle health problems for this group of age. Violent mortality is high in Colombia but external causes are the most common cause of mortality among teenagers around the world. Invulnerability self-consciousness and exploratory behaviors are related to risk factors such as substance consumption (alcohol, 65%, and tobacco, 35,8%), unsafe sexual conducts (unexpected pregnancy, 21%), and lack of emo...

  9. From cradle to adolescence: the development of Research in European Pediatric Emergency Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintegi, Santiago; Lyttle, Mark D; Maconochie, Ian K; Benito, Javier; Gervaix, Alain; Moll, Henriette; Shavit, Itai; Da Dalt, Liviana; Waisman, Yehezkel

    2014-02-01

    Pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) has been developing rapidly but heterogeneously in many European countries in recent years, and many national PEM societies have been founded to improve the quality of care of ill and injured children and adolescents. Key facets of any such improvement are the development, delivery and translation of high-quality research. Research in European Pediatric Emergency Medicine (REPEM) has developed a robust international structure involving clinicians, academics and national PEM research networks. This structure facilitates research collaboration within Europe and with PEM research networks from other continents. Multicentre research carried out in this way will bring about improvements in the quality of emergency care for children in European emergency departments, and result in a better quality of life for children and adolescents. This paper outlines the background and achievements of REPEM to date and describes the current structure and next steps.

  10. Childhood Psychopathology Predicts Adolescence-Onset Offending: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Nicole; Verhulst, Frank; van Marle, Hjalmar; van der Ende, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Moffitt, Caspi, Harrington, and Milne (2002) found in a follow-up study that many of the supposedly adolescence-limited offenders had committed offenses past adolescence. This finding raises the question of whether adulthood starts later or whether there are two distinct delinquency types, adolescence limited and adolescence onset, each with its…

  11. Is victimization from bullying associated with medicine use among adolescents? A nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Merlo, Juan

    2007-01-01

    for headache, stomachache, difficulties in getting to sleep, and nervousness. The determinant was frequency of exposure to bullying, measured with 1 item. RESULTS: In multivariate models adjusted for age and social class, we found that adolescent victims of bullying used medicine for pains and psychological...... problems more often than did adolescents who were not bullied. The increased odds of using medicine were not explained by the higher prevalence of symptoms among the bullied children. CONCLUSIONS: We found victimization from bullying to be associated with medicine use, even when we controlled...... for the higher prevalence of symptoms among bullied victims. The medications that adolescents use can have adverse effects, in addition to the potentially health-damaging effects of bullying. Policy makers, health care professionals, and school staff should be aware that the adolescent victims of bullying...

  12. Predicting Adolescent Sexual and Contraceptive Behavior: An Application and Test of the Fishbein Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Stephen R.; Sonstegard, Janet S.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a test of the Fishbein model of behavior prediction applied to predict the pregnancy risk-taking behavior of adolescent females (N=244). Analyses of data showed that the Fishbein model of attitude-behavior consistency seems to be applicable to the fertility-related behavior of adolescent females. (LLL)

  13. Predictive and prognostic molecular markers for cancer medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sunali; Shelling, Andrew; Muthukaruppan, Anita; Lasham, Annette; Blenkiron, Cherie; Laking, George; Print, Cristin

    2010-03-01

    Over the last 10 years there has been an explosion of information about the molecular biology of cancer. A challenge in oncology is to translate this information into advances in patient care. While there are well-formed routes for translating new molecular information into drug therapy, the routes for translating new information into sensitive and specific diagnostic, prognostic and predictive tests are still being developed. Similarly, the science of using tumor molecular profiles to select clinical trial participants or to optimize therapy for individual patients is still in its infancy. This review will summarize the current technologies for predicting treatment response and prognosis in cancer medicine, and outline what the future may hold. It will also highlight the potential importance of methods that can integrate molecular, histopathological and clinical information into a synergistic understanding of tumor progression. While these possibilities are without doubt exciting, significant challenges remain if we are to implement them with a strong evidence base in a widely available and cost-effective manner.

  14. Self-rated health as predictor of medicine use in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Andersen, Anette

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the association between self-rated health (SRH) and medicine use for four common complaints: headache, stomach-ache, difficulties in getting to sleep and nervousness, in a nationally representative sample of adolescents. METHODS: The study population comprised of all students...... measure was self-reported medicine use during the past month and the determinant was SRH measured by one item. RESULTS: There was an association between poor/fair SRH and medicine use for headache and stomach-ache. The associations remained statistically significant even after adjustment for frequency...... of the complaint for which the medicine was used: OR (95%CI) for medicine use for headache was 1.54 (1.10-2.14) among boys with poor/fair SRH and 1.50 (1.12-2.03) among girls with poor/fair SRH. A similar association was found between poor SRH and medicine use for stomach-ache for both boys (OR = 3.41 (2...

  15. Predicting adolescent's cyberbullying behavior: A longitudinal risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlett, Christopher P

    2015-06-01

    The current study used the risk factor approach to test the unique and combined influence of several possible risk factors for cyberbullying attitudes and behavior using a four-wave longitudinal design with an adolescent US sample. Participants (N = 96; average age = 15.50 years) completed measures of cyberbullying attitudes, perceptions of anonymity, cyberbullying behavior, and demographics four times throughout the academic school year. Several logistic regression equations were used to test the contribution of these possible risk factors. Results showed that (a) cyberbullying attitudes and previous cyberbullying behavior were important unique risk factors for later cyberbullying behavior, (b) anonymity and previous cyberbullying behavior were valid risk factors for later cyberbullying attitudes, and (c) the likelihood of engaging in later cyberbullying behavior increased with the addition of risk factors. Overall, results show the unique and combined influence of such risk factors for predicting later cyberbullying behavior. Results are discussed in terms of theory.

  16. Neuroscience of inhibition for addiction medicine: From prediction of initiation to prediction of relapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Scott J.; Bederson, Lucia; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2017-01-01

    A core deficit in drug addiction is the inability to inhibit maladaptive drug-seeking behavior. Consistent with this deficit, drug-addicted individuals show reliable cross-sectional differences from healthy non-addicted controls during tasks of response inhibition accompanied by brain activation abnormalities as revealed by functional neuroimaging. However, it is less clear whether inhibition-related deficits predate the transition to problematic use, and, in turn, whether these deficits predict the transition out of problematic substance use. Here, we review longitudinal studies of response inhibition in children/adolescents with little substance experience and longitudinal studies of already-addicted individuals attempting to sustain abstinence. Results show that response inhibition, and its underlying neural correlates, predict both substance use outcomes (onset and abstinence). Neurally, key roles were observed for multiple regions of the frontal cortex (e.g., inferior frontal gyrus, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). In general, less activation of these regions during response inhibition predicted not only the onset of substance use, but interestingly, also better abstinence-related outcomes among individuals already addicted. The role of subcortical areas, although potentially important, is less clear because of inconsistent results and because these regions are less classically reported in studies of healthy response inhibition. Overall, this review indicates that response inhibition is not simply a manifestation of current drug addiction, but rather a core neurocognitive dimension that predicts key substance use outcomes. Early intervention in inhibitory deficits could have high clinical and public health relevance. PMID:26806776

  17. Adolescents' Emotional Experiences of Mother-Adolescent Conflict Predict Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunlicks-Stoessel, Meredith L.; Powers, Sally I.

    2008-01-01

    Research on adolescent emotion has generally focused on expressions of emotion; however, there are reasons to believe that adolescents' experiences of emotion may be related to adolescent development in unique and important ways. This study examined the relation of adolescents' emotional experiences of conflict with their mothers to their…

  18. Weaker Self-Esteem in Adolescence Predicts Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Saari, Antti J; Jukka Kentala; Mattila, Kari J

    2015-01-01

    Background. To study whether weaker self-esteem in adolescence is connected with smoking behavior in adulthood. Methods. An age cohort born in 1979 responded to the Lawrence Self-Esteem Questionnaire (LAWSEQ) at the age of 16 (n = 1,072). Respondents' smoking behavior was monitored annually during adolescence and 75.3% (n = 813) of them remained nonsmokers during adolescence. A follow-up questionnaire eliciting smoking behavior was sent to the adolescent nonsmokers at the age of 29 years. Res...

  19. School Mobility during Childhood Predicts Psychotic Symptoms in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsper, Catherine; Wolke, Dieter; Bryson, Alex; Thompson, Andrew; Singh, Swaran P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, school mobility was identified as a risk factor for psychotic symptoms in early adolescence. The extent to which this risk continues into late adolescence and the trajectories via which this risk manifests remain unexplored. Methods: Psychotic symptoms in 4,720 adolescents aged 18 were ascertained by trained psychologists…

  20. Thinning of the lateral prefrontal cortex during adolescence predicts emotion regulation in females

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayakumar, Nandita; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Dennison, Meg; Simmons, Julian; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a crucial period for the development of adaptive emotion regulation strategies. Despite the fact that structural maturation of the prefrontal cortex during adolescence is often assumed to underlie the maturation of emotion regulation strategies, no longitudinal studies have directly assessed this relationship. This study examined whether use of cognitive reappraisal strategies during late adolescence was predicted by (i) absolute prefrontal cortical thickness during early adole...

  1. Genomic medicine and risk prediction across the disease spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Maritha J; Lückhoff, Hilmar K; Peeters, Armand V; Baatjes, Karin; Schoeman, Mardelle; van der Merwe, Lize; Grant, Kathleen A; Fisher, Leslie R; van der Merwe, Nicole; Pretorius, Jacobus; van Velden, David P; Myburgh, Ettienne J; Pienaar, Fredrieka M; van Rensburg, Susan J; Yako, Yandiswa Y; September, Alison V; Moremi, Kelebogile E; Cronje, Frans J; Tiffin, Nicki; Bouwens, Christianne S H; Bezuidenhout, Juanita; Apffelstaedt, Justus P; Hough, F Stephen; Erasmus, Rajiv T; Schneider, Johann W

    2015-01-01

    Genomic medicine is based on the knowledge that virtually every medical condition, disease susceptibility or response to treatment is caused, regulated or influenced by genes. Genetic testing may therefore add value across the disease spectrum, ranging from single-gene disorders with a Mendelian inheritance pattern to complex multi-factorial diseases. The critical factors for genomic risk prediction are to determine: (1) where the genomic footprint of a particular susceptibility or dysfunction resides within this continuum, and (2) to what extent the genetic determinants are modified by environmental exposures. Regarding the small subset of highly penetrant monogenic disorders, a positive family history and early disease onset are mostly sufficient to determine the appropriateness of genetic testing in the index case and to inform pre-symptomatic diagnosis in at-risk family members. In more prevalent polygenic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), the use of appropriate eligibility criteria is required to ensure a balance between benefit and risk. An additional screening step may therefore be necessary to identify individuals most likely to benefit from genetic testing. This need provided the stimulus for the development of a pathology-supported genetic testing (PSGT) service as a new model for the translational implementation of genomic medicine in clinical practice. PSGT is linked to the establishment of a research database proven to be an invaluable resource for the validation of novel and previously described gene-disease associations replicated in the South African population for a broad range of NCDs associated with increased cardio-metabolic risk. The clinical importance of inquiry concerning family history in determining eligibility for personalized genotyping was supported beyond its current limited role in diagnosing or screening for monogenic subtypes of NCDs. With the recent introduction of advanced microarray-based breast cancer subtyping, genetic testing

  2. Loneliness of Indonesian and Chinese Adolescents as Predicted by Relationships with Friends and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junsheng; Li, Dan; Purwono, Urip; Chen, Xinyin; French, Doran C.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which loneliness of Indonesian and Chinese adolescents was predicted by their intimacy and conflict with friends and parents. The total sample included 1,833 thirteen- and fifteen-year-old adolescents recruited from urban schools. Boys reported more loneliness than girls, and Chinese boys reported more loneliness…

  3. Tipping points in adolescent adjustment: predicting social functioning from adolescents' conflict with parents and friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Katherine B; Dykas, Matthew J; Cassidy, Jude

    2012-10-01

    Despite widespread interest in examining the role of conflict for adolescent development, researchers only rarely have examined adolescents' experiences of conflict across relationships. The present study examined how adolescents' experiences of conflict with parents and friends were linked to their social functioning. Adolescents (n = 189) and their mothers and fathers participated in semistructured discussions about areas of parent-adolescent conflict in the laboratory. In addition, adolescents reported about conflict in their best friendships, and peers reported about adolescents' social acceptance and behavior in social settings. Parent-adolescent conflict was associated with peer-reported aggression and delinquency, and friendship conflict was associated with delinquency and prosocial behavior. In addition, significant Parent-Adolescent Conflict × Friend-Adolescent Conflict interactions revealed that parent-adolescent conflict was associated with poor social functioning only when conflict with best friends was also high. The findings suggest that consideration of conflict across relationships may yield insight into the specific contexts in which conflict is associated with negative outcomes for adolescents.

  4. Phylogenies reveal predictive power of traditional medicine in bioprospecting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C Haris; Savolainen, Vincent; Williamson, Elizabeth M

    2012-01-01

    There is controversy about whether traditional medicine can guide drug discovery, and investment in bioprospecting informed by ethnobotanical data has fluctuated. One view is that traditionally used medicinal plants are not necessarily efficacious and there are no robust methods for distinguishing...... that phylogenetic cross-cultural comparisons can focus screening efforts on a subset of traditionally used plants that are richer in bioactive compounds, and could revitalize the use of traditional knowledge in bioprospecting....

  5. Thinning of the lateral prefrontal cortex during adolescence predicts emotion regulation in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Nandita; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Dennison, Meg; Simmons, Julian; Allen, Nicholas B

    2014-11-01

    Adolescence is a crucial period for the development of adaptive emotion regulation strategies. Despite the fact that structural maturation of the prefrontal cortex during adolescence is often assumed to underlie the maturation of emotion regulation strategies, no longitudinal studies have directly assessed this relationship. This study examined whether use of cognitive reappraisal strategies during late adolescence was predicted by (i) absolute prefrontal cortical thickness during early adolescence and (ii) structural maturation of the prefrontal cortex between early and mid-adolescence. Ninety-two adolescents underwent baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans when they were aged approximately 12 and 16 years, respectively. FreeSurfer software was used to obtain cortical thickness estimates for three prefrontal regions [anterior cingulate cortex; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC); ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC)]. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire was completed when adolescents were aged approximately 19 years. Results showed that greater cortical thinning of the left dlPFC and left vlPFC during adolescence was significantly associated with greater use of cognitive reappraisal in females, though no such relationship was evident in males. Furthermore, baseline left dlPFC thickness predicted cognitive reappraisal at trend level. These findings suggest that cortical maturation may play a role in the development of adaptive emotion regulation strategies during adolescence.

  6. Longitudinal prediction of disruptive behavior disorders in adolescent males from multiple risk domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacosta, Christopher J; Hyde, Luke W; Goodlett, Benjamin D; Shaw, Daniel S

    2013-08-01

    The disruptive behavior disorders are among the most prevalent youth psychiatric disorders, and they predict numerous problematic outcomes in adulthood. This study examined multiple domains of risk during early childhood and early adolescence as longitudinal predictors of disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses among adolescent males. Early adolescent risks in the domains of sociodemographic factors, the caregiving context, and youth attributes were examined as mediators of associations between early childhood risks and disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses. Participants were 309 males from a longitudinal study of low-income mothers and their sons. Caregiving and youth risk during early adolescence each predicted the likelihood of receiving a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis. Furthermore, sociodemographic and caregiving risk during early childhood were indirectly associated with disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses via their association with early adolescent risk. The findings suggest that preventive interventions targeting risk across domains may reduce the prevalence of disruptive behavior disorders.

  7. [Children's and adolescent's use of medicine for aches and psychological problems: secular trends from 1988 to 2006.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn; Andersen, Anette; Due, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Medicine use for aches and psychological problems is common among adolescents. Medicines are toxic and may have harmful side effects. It is therefore important to study change over time and patterns of medicine use. The objective of this paper is to describe self-reported medicine use...... for headaches, stomach-aches, difficulties in falling asleep, and nervousness among 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old boys and girls from 1968 to 2006. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data material is 6 comparable and representative cross-sectional studies of 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from 1988, 1991, 1994, 1998, 2002......, and 2006, total n = 23,871. Data were collected by a validated self-report method for medicine use and prevalence of the corresponding complaints. RESULTS: The proportion of students who used medicine for headaches within the previous month increased from 24.6% in 1988 to 42.0% in 2002 and 41.5% in 2006...

  8. Psychopathology in adolescents and young adults : prediction, course and prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. Ferdinand (Robert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis manuscript contains results of an epidemiological study of psychopathology in adolescents and young adults. The first aim of the study was to determine the development of psychopathology from adolescence into young adulthood. The second aim was to validate recently developed' proced

  9. Factors Predicting Rural Chinese Adolescents' Anxieties, Fears and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijun; Zhang, Ying

    2008-01-01

    This study examined age, gender, birth order and self-perceived level of achievement and popularity, as predictors of anxieties, fears and depression in Chinese adolescents. A sample of 398 rural Chinese adolescents participated in this study. Gender, academic performance and popularity have been found to make the greatest contributions to the…

  10. Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy for Anxiety and Depressive Disorders in Children and Adolescents: An Evidence-Based Medicine Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Scott N.; March, John S.; Brent, David; Albano, Anne Marie; Weersing, V. Robin; Curry, John

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on the cognitive-behavioral treatment of children and adolescents with anxiety and depressive disorders within the conceptual framework of evidence-based medicine. Method: The psychiatric and psychological literature was systematically searched for controlled trials applying cognitive-behavioral treatment to…

  11. Parenting practices, parental attachment and aggressiveness in adolescence: a predictive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallarin, Miriam; Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was twofold: a) to test the mediation role of attachment between parenting practices and aggressiveness, and b) to clarify the differential role of mothers and fathers with regard to aggressiveness. A total of 554 adolescents (330 girls and 224 boys), ages ranging between 16 and 19, completed measures of mothers' and fathers' parenting practices, attachment to mother and to father, and aggressiveness. Acceptance/involvement of each parent positively predicted an adolescent's attachment to that parent, and coercion/imposition negatively predicted attachment to a lesser extent. Using structural equation modeling, a full mediation model provided the most parsimonious explanation for the data. With attachment in the model, the paths between the two parenting practices and aggressiveness were minor and statistically non-significant. Only attachment to the father, was predictive of adolescents' aggressiveness. Results are discussed in the light of the importance of the father-son/daughter relationship in adolescence.

  12. General Report & Recommendations in Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine 2012: White Paper of the European Association of Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubnitschaja Olga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This report is the collective product of word-leading experts working in the branches of integrative medicine by predictive, preventive and personalised medicine (PPPM under the coordination of the European Association for Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine. The general report has been prepared as the consortium document proposed at the EPMA World Congress 2011 which took place in Bonn, Germany. This forum analyzed the overall deficits and trends relevant for the top-science and daily practice in PPPM focused on the patient. Follow-up consultations resulted in a package of recommendations for consideration by research units, educators, healthcare industry, policy-makers, and funding bodies to cover the current knowledge deficit in the field and to introduce integrative approaches for advanced diagnostics, targeted prevention, treatments tailored to the person and cost-effective healthcare.

  13. Weaker Self-Esteem in Adolescence Predicts Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti J. Saari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To study whether weaker self-esteem in adolescence is connected with smoking behavior in adulthood. Methods. An age cohort born in 1979 responded to the Lawrence Self-Esteem Questionnaire (LAWSEQ at the age of 16 n=1,072. Respondents’ smoking behavior was monitored annually during adolescence and 75.3% n=813 of them remained nonsmokers during adolescence. A follow-up questionnaire eliciting smoking behavior was sent to the adolescent nonsmokers at the age of 29 years. Response rate at follow-up was 46.2% n=376. Results. Weaker self-esteem (LAWSEQ score ≥ 3 during the adolescence was not significantly associated with smoking in adulthood. However, those respondents who had weaker self-esteem in adolescence had increased risk of having been smoking regularly (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–3.0 although not all of them were smokers at the time of the follow-up. Conclusions. Those with weaker self-esteem in adolescence are more likely to smoke regularly in adulthood.

  14. Prediction of Log "P": ALOGPS Application in Medicinal Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawski, Jacek; Bernard, Marek K.; Janusz, Anna; Kuzma, Weronika

    2012-01-01

    Molecular hydrophobicity (lipophilicity), usually quantified as log "P" where "P" is the partition coefficient, is an important molecular characteristic in medicinal chemistry and drug design. The log "P" coefficient is one of the principal parameters for the estimation of lipophilicity of chemical compounds and pharmacokinetic properties. The…

  15. To Set Up a Logistic Regression Prediction Model for Hepatotoxicity of Chinese Herbal Medicines Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie; Li, Tianhao; Zhan, Sha; Pan, Meilan; Ma, Zhiguo; Li, Chenghua

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To establish a logistic regression (LR) prediction model for hepatotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicines (HMs) based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory and to provide a statistical basis for predicting hepatotoxicity of HMs. Methods. The correlations of hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs with four properties, five flavors, and channel tropism were analyzed with chi-square test for two-way unordered categorical data. LR prediction model was established and the accuracy of the prediction by this model was evaluated. Results. The hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs were related with four properties (p flavors (p 0.05). There were totally 12 variables from four properties and five flavors for the LR. Four variables, warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors, were selected to establish the LR prediction model, with the cutoff value being 0.204. Conclusions. Warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors were the variables to affect the hepatotoxicity. Based on such results, the established LR prediction model had some predictive power for hepatotoxicity of Chinese HMs. PMID:27656240

  16. To Set Up a Logistic Regression Prediction Model for Hepatotoxicity of Chinese Herbal Medicines Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie; Li, Tianhao; Chen, Lingxiu; Zhan, Sha; Pan, Meilan; Ma, Zhiguo; Li, Chenghua; Zhang, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To establish a logistic regression (LR) prediction model for hepatotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicines (HMs) based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory and to provide a statistical basis for predicting hepatotoxicity of HMs. Methods. The correlations of hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs with four properties, five flavors, and channel tropism were analyzed with chi-square test for two-way unordered categorical data. LR prediction model was established and the accuracy of the prediction by this model was evaluated. Results. The hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs were related with four properties (p 0.05). There were totally 12 variables from four properties and five flavors for the LR. Four variables, warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors, were selected to establish the LR prediction model, with the cutoff value being 0.204. Conclusions. Warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors were the variables to affect the hepatotoxicity. Based on such results, the established LR prediction model had some predictive power for hepatotoxicity of Chinese HMs.

  17. Prescribing patterns of medicine classified as 'antidepressants' in South African children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. P. Serfontein

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The main objective of this study was to characterise prescribing patterns of medicine classified as 'antidepressants' (hereafter simply referred to as antidepressants in children and adolescents in the private health care sector of South Africa. A retrospective drug utilisation design was used to identify patients aged 19 years and younger from a South African pharmaceutical benefit management company’s database, whom were issued at least one antidepressant between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2006. Prescribed daily dosages (PDDs were calculated using the Statistical Analysis System® program. A total of 1 013 patients received a mean number of 2.88 (SD 3.04 prescriptions per patient. Females received more prescriptions than their male counterparts, with the highest prevalence in the 15 ≤ 19 years age group. The pharmacological groups most prescribed were the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (43.0% and the tricyclics (42.7%, with imipramine (22.04% and amitriptyline (19% as the most commonly prescribed drugs. Approximately 30% (n = 2 300 of all antidepressants in the study population were prescribed off-label. Amitriptyline and clomipramine were prescribed at daily dosages higher than recommended in children and adolescents aged 9 ≤ 15 years. Lithium, trimipramine, trazodone and sulpiride were prescribed at sub-therapeutic dosages in adolescents. This study provided insight in the prescribing patterns of medicine classified as antidepressants in South African children and adolescents. These drugs, however, have many indications. Further research is needed to determine reasons why specific drugs are prescribed in this population.

    Opsomming

    Die algemene doelstelling van hierdie studie was om die voorskrifpatrone van middels wat as 'antidepressante' geklassifiseer word (hierna verwys na as slegs antidepressante wat vir kinders en adolessente in die Suid-Afrikaanse private gesondheidsorgsektor

  18. Observed Measures of Negative Parenting Predict Brain Development during Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sarah; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Dennison, Meg; Schwartz, Orli; Simmons, Julian G; Sheeber, Lisa; Allen, Nicholas B

    2016-01-01

    Limited attention has been directed toward the influence of non-abusive parenting behaviour on brain structure in adolescents. It has been suggested that environmental influences during this period are likely to impact the way that the brain develops over time. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between aggressive and positive parenting behaviors on brain development from early to late adolescence, and in turn, psychological and academic functioning during late adolescence, using a multi-wave longitudinal design. Three hundred and sixty seven magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained over three time points from 166 adolescents (11-20 years). At the first time point, observed measures of maternal aggressive and positive behaviors were obtained. At the final time point, measures of psychological and academic functioning were obtained. Results indicated that a higher frequency of maternal aggressive behavior was associated with alterations in the development of right superior frontal and lateral parietal cortical thickness, and of nucleus accumbens volume, in males. Development of the superior frontal cortex in males mediated the relationship between maternal aggressive behaviour and measures of late adolescent functioning. We suggest that our results support an association between negative parenting and adolescent functioning, which may be mediated by immature or delayed brain maturation.

  19. Phylogenies reveal predictive power of traditional medicine in bioprospecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C Haris; Savolainen, Vincent; Williamson, Elizabeth M; Forest, Félix; Wagstaff, Steven J; Baral, Sushim R; Watson, Mark F; Pendry, Colin A; Hawkins, Julie A

    2012-09-25

    There is controversy about whether traditional medicine can guide drug discovery, and investment in bioprospecting informed by ethnobotanical data has fluctuated. One view is that traditionally used medicinal plants are not necessarily efficacious and there are no robust methods for distinguishing those which are most likely to be bioactive when selecting species for further testing. Here, we reconstruct a genus-level molecular phylogenetic tree representing the 20,000 species found in the floras of three disparate biodiversity hotspots: Nepal, New Zealand, and the Cape of South Africa. Borrowing phylogenetic methods from community ecology, we reveal significant clustering of the 1,500 traditionally used species, and provide a direct measure of the relatedness of the three medicinal floras. We demonstrate shared phylogenetic patterns across the floras: related plants from these regions are used to treat medical conditions in the same therapeutic areas. This finding strongly indicates independent discovery of plant efficacy, an interpretation corroborated by the presence of a significantly greater proportion of known bioactive species in these plant groups than in random samples. We conclude that phylogenetic cross-cultural comparisons can focus screening efforts on a subset of traditionally used plants that are richer in bioactive compounds, and could revitalize the use of traditional knowledge in bioprospecting.

  20. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfer, Juliana; Hoffmann, Falk; Bachmann, Christian

    2016-05-25

    Despite limited evidence, complementary and alternative medicine treatments are popular in autism spectrum disorder. The aim of this review was to summarize the available evidence on complementary and alternative medicine use frequency in autism spectrum disorder. A systematic search of three electronic databases was performed. All research studies in English or German reporting data on the frequency of complementary and alternative medicine use in individuals with autism spectrum disorder were included. Two independent reviewers searched the literature, extracted information on study design and results, and assessed study quality using an established quality assessment tool. Twenty studies with a total of 9540 participants were included. The prevalence of any complementary and alternative medicine use ranged from 28% to 95% (median: 54%). Special diets or dietary supplements (including vitamins) were the most frequent complementary and alternative medicine treatments, ranking first in 75% of studies. There was some evidence for a higher prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use in autism spectrum disorder compared to other psychiatric disorders and the general population. Approximately half of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder use complementary and alternative medicine. Doctors should be aware of this and should discuss complementary and alternative medicine use with patients and their carers, especially as the evidence is mixed and some complementary and alternative medicine treatments are potentially harmful.

  1. Predicting adolescent perpetration in cyberbullying: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirman, Wannes; Walrave, Michel

    2012-11-01

    This study aims to contribute to the research field on cyberbullying by offering a comprehensive theoretical framework that helps to predict adolescents' perpetration of cyberbullying. One thousand forty-two pupils from 12 to 18 years old in 30 different Belgian secondary schools participated in two surveys within a three-month interval. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether the overall model of theory of planned behavior (TPB) helps to predict adolescents' self-reported perpetration in cyberbullying. Overall, the present study provides strong support for the theoretical utility of the TPB in cyberbullying research. The model accounted for 44.8% of the variance in adolescents' behavioral intention to cyberbully and 33.2% of the variance in self-reported cyberbullying perpetration. We found a strong positive relationship between adolescents' attitude towards cyberbullying and their behavioral intention to perpetrate it. Perceived behavioral control and subjective norm, the other two TPB-constructs, were also significant albeit relatively less important predictors of adolescents' intention to cyberbully. The finding that adolescents' attitude is the most important predictor of perpetration, entails that prevention and intervention strategies should aim at reducing the perceived acceptability of cyberbullying among adolescents by converting neutral or positive attitudes towards this anti-social behavior into negative evaluations.

  2. Body Dissatisfaction Prospectively Predicts Depressive Mood and Low Self-Esteem in Adolescent Girls and Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Susan J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.

    2006-01-01

    This research examined whether body dissatisfaction prospectively predicted depressive mood and low self-esteem in adolescent girls and boys 5 years later. Participants were early-adolescent girls (n = 440, Time 1 M age = 12.7 years) and boys (n = 366, Time 1 M age = 12.8 years) and midadolescent girls (n = 946, Time 1 M age = 15.8 years) and boys…

  3. Is the European pediatric medicine regulation working for children and adolescents with cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassal, Gilles; Geoerger, Birgit; Morland, Bruce

    2013-03-15

    The European Pediatric Medicine Regulation was launched in 2007 to provide better medicines for children. Five years later, the number of new anticancer drugs in early development in the pediatric population remains low, and most children with cancer are still largely denied access to innovative drugs in Europe, as compared with the United States. We analyzed individual pediatric investigation plan (PIP) and waiver decisions for oncology drugs and all oncology drugs that have been approved for marketing authorization since 2007 in Europe. Among the 45 approved PIPs, 33% concern leukemias and lymphomas, 29% solid tumors, 13% brain tumors, and 20% a drug for supportive care. No specific PIP exists for life-threatening diseases such as high-risk neuroblastoma, whereas there are several PIPs in extremely rare malignancies in children and adolescents such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor, melanoma, thyroid cancer, and chronic myeloid leukemia. This paradoxical situation is due to approval of a PIP being driven by the adult indication. Twenty-six of 28 authorized new oncology drugs have a potentially relevant mechanism of action for pediatric malignancies, but 50% have been waived because the adult condition does not occur in children. The most striking example is crizotinib. Implementation of the pediatric regulation should no longer be driven by the adult indication but should be guided instead by the biology of pediatric tumors and the mechanism of action of a drug. This change will be achievable through voluntary PIPs submitted by Pharma or revocation of the oncology class waiver list.

  4. Development and Predictive Effects of Eating Disorder Risk Factors during Adolescence: Implications for Prevention Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Marti, C. Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although several prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating disorders, little is known about when these risk factors emerge and escalate, or when they begin to predict future eating disorder onset. The objective of this report was to address these key research gaps. Method Data were examined from a prospective study of 496 community female adolescents (M = 13.5, SD = 0.7 at baseline) who completed eight annual assessments of potential risk factors and eating disorders from preadolescence to young adulthood. Results Three variables exhibited positive linear increases: Perceived pressure to be thin, thin-ideal internalization and body dissatisfaction; three were best characterized as quadratic effects: dieting (essentially little change); negative affectivity (overall decrease), and BMI (overall increase). Elevated body dissatisfaction at ages 13, 14, 15, and 16 predicted DSM-5 eating disorders onset in the 4 year period after each assessment, but the predictive effects of other risk factors were largely confined to age 14; BMI did not predict eating disorders at any age. Discussion The results imply that these risk factors are present by early adolescence, though eating disorders tend to emerge in late adolescence and early adulthood. These findings emphasize the need for efficacious eating disorder prevention programs for early adolescent girls, perhaps targeting 14 year olds, when risk factors appear to be most predictive. In early adolescence, it might be fruitful to target girls with body dissatisfaction, as this was the most consistent predictor of early eating disorder onset in this study. PMID:24599841

  5. Does positive youth development predict adolescent attitudes about sexuality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Erin N; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome for youth. PYD philosophy and theory, bioecological theory (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998), and identity development theory (Erikson, 1983, 1968; Marcia, 1980, 1993) provided the foundation for this study and were used to make the connections between PYD, adolescent sexuality (including attitudes and behavior), and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship. Both self-esteem and sexual experience were significant predictors of attitudes regarding sex, but overall, parents contributed the most influence on the outcome variable. (It should be noted, however, that parental influence was the only factor that was a significant predictor.) Only one of the two involvements in activities variables was a significant predictor of attitudes regarding sex.

  6. Predicting Intentions to Perform Protective Sexual Behaviours among Norwegian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myklestad, Ingri; Rise, Jostein

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the socio-cognitive processes underlying intentions to use condoms and contraceptive pills, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour extended with prototypes in a group of young Norwegian adolescents. The data are derived from a questionnaire survey comprising all pupils in Grade Nine at three schools in Oslo (n = 196). Using…

  7. Pituitary Volume Prospectively Predicts Internalizing Symptoms in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipursky, Amy R.; Whittle, Sarah; Yucel, Murat; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Wood, Stephen J.; Lubman, Dan I.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Early adolescence is a critical time for the development of both internalizing and externalizing disorders. We aimed to investigate whether pituitary volume, an index of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, represents a vulnerability factor for the emergence of internalizing and externalizing symptoms during adolescence…

  8. Self-Esteem and Future Orientation Predict Adolescents' Risk Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Danielle M.; MacPhee, David

    2017-01-01

    This study's purpose was to examine the relations among future orientation, self-esteem, and later adolescent risk behaviors, and to compare two mediational models involving self-esteem versus future orientation as mediators. An ethnically diverse sample of 12- to 14-year-olds (N = 862, 54% female, 53% ethnic minority) was assessed longitudinally.…

  9. Predicting a Longitudinal Guttman Simplex of Adolescent Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Kimberly A.; And Others

    The longitudinal Guttman simplex (LGS), a method of modeling stage sequences or levels over time, allows for individual differences in sequence progression or development. The LGS is particularly appropriate in modeling tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use stages with adolescent subjects where relationships among drugs and degree of involvement may…

  10. Does Positive Youth Development Predict Adolescent Attitudes about Sexuality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Erin N.; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome…

  11. Prediction by data mining, of suicide attempts in Korean adolescents: a national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bae SM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sung Man Bae,1 Seung A Lee,2 Seung-Hwan Lee2,3 1Department of Counseling Psychology, The Cyber University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea; 2Clinical Emotion and Cognition Research Laboratory, Goyang, South Korea; 3Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, South Korea Objective: This study aimed to develop a prediction model for suicide attempts in Korean adolescents.Methods: We conducted a decision tree analysis of 2,754 middle and high school students nationwide. We fixed suicide attempt as the dependent variable and eleven sociodemographic, intrapersonal, and extrapersonal variables as independent variables.Results: The rate of suicide attempts of the total sample was 9.5%, and severity of depression was the strongest variable to predict suicide attempt. The rates of suicide attempts in the depression and potential depression groups were 5.4 and 2.8 times higher than that of the non-depression group. In the depression group, the most powerful factor to predict a suicide attempt was delinquency, and the rate of suicide attempts in those in the depression group with higher delinquency was two times higher than in those in the depression group with lower delinquency. Of special note, the rate of suicide attempts in the depressed females with higher delinquency was the highest. Interestingly, in the potential depression group, the most impactful factor to predict a suicide attempt was intimacy with family, and the rate of suicide attempts of those in the potential depression group with lower intimacy with family was 2.4 times higher than that of those in the potential depression group with higher intimacy with family. And, among the potential depression group, middle school students with lower intimacy with family had a 2.5-times higher rate of suicide attempts than high school students with lower intimacy with family. Finally, in the non-depression group, stress level was the most powerful factor to

  12. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness.

  13. Parent Discrimination Predicts Mexican-American Adolescent Psychological Adjustment 1 Year Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Guadalupe; Gonzales, Nancy A; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    This study examined whether Mexican-American parents' experiences with discrimination are related to adolescent psychological adjustment over time. The extent to which associations between parent discrimination and adolescent adjustment vary as a function of parents' ethnic socialization of their children was also examined. Participants included 344 high school students from Mexican or Mexican-American backgrounds (primarily second generation; ages 14-16 at Wave 1) and their primary caregivers who completed surveys in a 2-year longitudinal study. Results revealed that parent discrimination predicted internalizing symptoms and self-esteem among adolescents 1 year later. Additionally, adolescents were more likely to report low self-esteem in relation to parents' increased experiences of discrimination when parents conveyed ethnic socialization messages to them.

  14. Can Emergency Medicine Residents Predict Cost of Diagnostic Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainter, Christopher R.; Gentges, Joshua A.; Thomas, Stephen H.; Burns, Boyd D.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Diagnostic testing represents a significant portion of healthcare spending, and cost should be considered when ordering such tests. Needless and excessive spending may occur without an appreciation of the impact on the larger healthcare system. Knowledge regarding the cost of diagnostic testing among emergency medicine (EM) residents has not previously been studied. Methods A survey was administered to 20 EM residents from a single ACGME-accredited three-year EM residency program, asking for an estimation of patient charges for 20 commonly ordered laboratory tests and seven radiological exams. We compared responses between residency classes to evaluate whether there was a difference based on level of training. Results The survey completion rate was 100% (20/20 residents). We noted significant discrepancies between the median resident estimates and actual charge to patient for both laboratory and radiological exams. Nearly all responses were an underestimate of the actual cost. The group median underestimation for laboratory testing was $114, for radiographs $57, and for computed tomography exams was $1,058. There was improvement in accuracy with increasing level of training. Conclusion This pilot study demonstrates that EM residents have a poor understanding of the charges burdening patients and health insurance providers. In order to make balanced decisions with regard to diagnostic testing, providers must appreciate these factors. Education regarding the cost of providing emergency care is a potential area for improvement of EM residency curricula, and warrants further attention and investigation. PMID:28116030

  15. Earlier age of smoking initiation may not predict heavier cigarette consumption in later adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Holly E R; Song, Anna V; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies suggest that earlier cigarette smoking initiation in adolescence predicts greater cigarette consumption later in adolescence or adulthood. Results from these studies have been used to inform interventions for adolescent smoking. However, previous studies suffer from several important methodological limitations. The objective of the present study was to address these limitations by longitudinally and prospectively examining whether and how age of initiation of smoking among adolescents predicts cigarette consumption by age 16 or 17. Participants completed an in-class survey every 6 months for 2-3 school years. Participants included 395 adolescents (Mean age=14 years at baseline; 53.2% female) from two public high schools in Northern California (Schools A and B) who completed self-report measures of smoking initiation, number of friends who smoke, and number of whole cigarettes smoked by the final survey time point. Adolescents who were older when they first smoked one whole cigarette were 5.3 to 14.6 times more likely in School A and 2.9 to 4.3 times more likely in School B to have smoked a greater number of cigarettes by age 16 or 17. Results suggested that earlier smoking initiation may not lead to heavier cigarette consumption later in time, as has been previously shown. There may be a period of heightened vulnerability in mid- or late adolescence where smoking experimentation is more likely to lead to greater cigarette consumption. Targeting prevention efforts to adolescents aged 14 to 17 years may further reduce smoking initiation among youth, thus limiting subsequent smoking-related morbidity and mortality in adulthood.

  16. A Study of the Predictive Validity of the Children's Depression Inventory for Major Depression Disorder in Puerto Rican Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Medina, Carmen L.; Bernal, Guillermo; Rossello, Jeannette; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the predictive validity of the Children's Depression Inventory items for major depression disorder (MDD) in an outpatient clinic sample of Puerto Rican adolescents. The sample consisted of 130 adolescents, 13 to 18 years old. The five most frequent symptoms of the Children's Depression Inventory that best predict the…

  17. Childhood Facial Recognition Predicts Adolescent Symptom Severity in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eussen, Mart L J M; Louwerse, Anneke; Herba, Catherine M; Van Gool, Arthur R; Verheij, Fop; Verhulst, Frank C; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2015-06-01

    Limited accuracy and speed in facial recognition (FR) and in the identification of facial emotions (IFE) have been shown in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study aimed at evaluating the predictive value of atypicalities in FR and IFE for future symptom severity in children with ASD. Therefore we performed a seven-year follow-up study in 87 children with ASD. FR and IFE were assessed in childhood (T1: age 6-12) using the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks (ANT). Symptom severity was assessed using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in childhood and again seven years later during adolescence (T2: age 12-19). Multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate whether FR and IFE in childhood predicted ASD symptom severity in adolescence, while controlling for ASD symptom severity in childhood. We found that more accurate FR significantly predicted lower adolescent ASD symptom severity scores (ΔR(2) = .09), even when controlling for childhood ASD symptom severity. IFE was not a significant predictor of ASD symptom severity in adolescence. From these results it can be concluded, that in children with ASD the accuracy of FR in childhood is a relevant predictor of ASD symptom severity in adolescence. Test results on FR in children with ASD may have prognostic value regarding later symptom severity.

  18. Popularity differentially predicts reactive and proactive aggression in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, Sabine; Cillessen, Antonius H N; van den Berg, Yvonne H M; Gommans, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that peer popularity is associated with aggressive behavior. However, it is not yet clear whether popularity is uniquely related to different functions of aggression. In this study, we examined associations between peer-perceived popularity, and reactive and proactive aggression using a cross-sectional and a longitudinal design. Yearly sociometric measures of popularity, and reactive and proactive aggression were gathered from 266 seventh and eight grade adolescents (Mage grade 7 = 12.80, SDage  = .40). Popularity was positively correlated with proactive aggression and negatively correlated with reactive aggression, both concurrently as over time. Curvilinear trends indicated that a significant minority of low versus high popular adolescents showed both functions of aggression. Somewhat stronger effects of popularity on proactive aggression were found for boys than girls. Stably popular adolescents showed the highest levels of proactive aggression, whereas stably unpopular youth showed the highest levels of reactive aggression. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  19. Traditional Oriental Herbal Medicine for Children and Adolescents with ADHD: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuk Wo Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of traditional Oriental herbal medicines (TOHM for children and adolescents with ADHD. Methods. Randomized clinical trials published from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 2010, in English, Chinese, Japanese, or Korean language which evaluated the use of TOHM on ADHD subjects of 18 years old or below, diagnosed based on DSM-IV, were searched from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsyINFO, Cochrane Library, and 10 other databases. Results. Twelve studies involving 1189 subjects met the inclusion criteria. In general, the included studies claimed that TOHM has similar efficacy to methylphenidate and at the same time has fewer side effects compared to methylphenidate. Some studies also suggested that the effect of TOHM sustained better than methylphenidate. However, solid conclusions could not be drawn because the included studies were not of high quality. Risk of bias issues such as randomization, allocation, concealment and blinding were not addressed in most of the studies, and the risk of publication bias could not be ruled out. Conclusion. Currently, there is not strong evidence to say that TOHM is effective in treating the core symptoms of ADHD.

  20. Promoting equity and reducing health disparities among racially/ethnically diverse adolescents: a position paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    With this paper, five key domains of advocacy, clinical care and health promotion, education and health services delivery, workforce and professional development, and research are identified. All five require attention in order to reach the overarching goal of health equity for adolescents and young adults. SAHM believes that achieving health equity is related to its organizational mission and vision and is a key factor in driving excellence in adolescent health and medicine. SAHM will continue to expand its capacity, being introspective as an organization as well as make recommendations to others, in an effort to be collaborative and inclusive of professionals, programs, and systems that represent and serve the diverse populations for whom the Society advocates.

  1. Using Marital Attitudes in Late Adolescence to Predict Later Union Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 982 late adolescents and tracking them throughout young adulthood, this study investigated whether marital attitudes held during the last year of high school were predictive of union transitions to both cohabitation and marriage during young adulthood. Results using both logistic regression and discrete event history models found…

  2. Using Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Healthy Eating among Danish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Chan, Kara; Tsang, Lennon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to apply the theory of planned behavior to predict Danish adolescents' behavioral intention for healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster sample survey of 410 students aged 11 to 16 years studying in Grade 6 to Grade 10 was conducted in Denmark. Findings: Perceived behavioral control followed by…

  3. Adolescents' Sexually Transmitted Disease Protective Attitudes Predict Sexually Transmitted Disease Acquisition in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A.; Danner, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Background: Estimates suggest that about 48% of nearly 19 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) occurring annually in the United States are acquired by persons aged 15-24 years. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that adolescents' attitudes about protecting themselves from STDs predict their laboratory-confirmed…

  4. The Cognitive Processes underlying Affective Decision-making Predicting Adolescent Smoking Behaviors in a Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eXiao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th grade to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1, we tested these adolescents’ decision-making using the Iowa Gambling Task and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the one-year follow-up (Time 2. The Expectancy-Valence (EV Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains versus losses; (ii a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes versus past experiences; and (iii a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population.

  5. BMI predicts emotion-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility in adolescents with excess weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Rico, Elena; Río-Valle, Jacqueline S; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Campoy, Cristina; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Adolescent obesity is increasingly viewed as a brain-related dysfunction, whereby reward-driven urges for pleasurable foods "hijack" response selection systems, such that behavioral control progressively shifts from impulsivity to compulsivity. In this study, we aimed to examine the link between personality factors (sensitivity to reward (SR) and punishment (SP), BMI, and outcome measures of impulsivity vs. flexibility in--otherwise healthy--excessive weight adolescents. Sixty-three adolescents (aged 12-17) classified as obese (n = 26), overweight (n = 16), or normal weight (n = 21) participated in the study. We used psychometric assessments of the SR and SP motivational systems, impulsivity (using the UPPS-P scale), and neurocognitive measures with discriminant validity to dissociate inhibition vs. flexibility deficits (using the process-approach version of the Stroop test). We tested the relative contribution of age, SR/SP, and BMI on estimates of impulsivity and inhibition vs. switching performance using multistep hierarchical regression models. BMI significantly predicted elevations in emotion-driven impulsivity (positive and negative urgency) and inferior flexibility performance in adolescents with excess weight--exceeding the predictive capacity of SR and SP. SR was the main predictor of elevations in sensation seeking and lack of premeditation. These findings demonstrate that increases in BMI are specifically associated with elevations in emotion-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility, supporting a dimensional path in which adolescents with excess weight increase their proneness to overindulge when under strong affective states, and their difficulties to switch or reverse habitual behavioral patterns.

  6. Do conflict resolution and recovery predict the survival of adolescents' romantic relationships?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao Ha

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that being able to resolve and recover from conflicts is of key importance for relationship satisfaction and stability in adults. Less is known about the importance of these relationship dynamics in adolescent romantic relationships. Therefore, this study investigated whether conflict resolution and recovery predict breakups in middle adolescent couples. Couples who are able to resolve and recover from conflict were expected to demonstrate a lower probability of breaking up. In total, 80 adolescent couples (M age = 15.48, SD = 1.16 participated in a 4-wave prospective questionnaire and observational study, with one year between measurements. In addition to self-report measures, adolescents were observed in real-time during conflicts with their partners. Multilevel Proportional Hazard analyses revealed that, contrary to the hypothesis, conflict resolution and conflict recovery did not predict the likelihood of breakup. Survival differences were not attributable to conflict resolution or conflict recovery. More research is needed to consider the unique relationship factors of adolescent romantic relationships to determine why some relationships survive while others do not.

  7. Interactions of adolescent social experiences and dopamine genes to predict physical intimate partner violence perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Edith A.; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We examined the interactions between three dopamine gene alleles (DAT1, DRD2, DRD4) previously associated with violent behavior and two components of the adolescent environment (exposure to violence, school social environment) to predict adulthood physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration among white men and women. Methods We used data from Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a cohort study following individuals from adolescence to adulthood. Based on the prior literature, we categorized participants as at risk for each of the three dopamine genes using this coding scheme: two 10-R alleles for DAT1; at least one A-1 allele for DRD2; at least one 7-R or 8-R allele for DRD4. Adolescent exposure to violence and school social environment was measured in 1994 and 1995 when participants were in high school or middle school. Intimate partner violence perpetration was measured in 2008 when participants were 24 to 32 years old. We used simple and multivariable logistic regression models, including interactions of genes and the adolescent environments for the analysis. Results Presence of risk alleles was not independently associated with IPV perpetration but increasing exposure to violence and disconnection from the school social environment was associated with physical IPV perpetration. The effects of these adolescent experiences on physical IPV perpetration varied by dopamine risk allele status. Among individuals with non-risk dopamine alleles, increased exposure to violence during adolescence and perception of disconnection from the school environment were significantly associated with increased odds of physical IPV perpetration, but individuals with high risk alleles, overall, did not experience the same increase. Conclusion Our results suggested the effects of adolescent environment on adulthood physical IPV perpetration varied by genetic factors. This analysis did not find a direct link between risk alleles

  8. A nomogram to predict the probability of passing the American Board of Internal Medicine examination

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    Andrei Brateanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background : Although the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM certification is valued as a reflection of physicians’ experience, education, and expertise, limited methods exist to predict performance in the examination. Purpose : The objective of this study was to develop and validate a predictive tool based on variables common to all residency programs, regarding the probability of an internal medicine graduate passing the ABIM certification examination. Methods : The development cohort was obtained from the files of the Cleveland Clinic internal medicine residents who began training between 2004 and 2008. A multivariable logistic regression model was built to predict the ABIM passing rate. The model was represented as a nomogram, which was internally validated with bootstrap resamples. The external validation was done retrospectively on a cohort of residents who graduated from two other independent internal medicine residency programs between 2007 and 2011. Results : Of the 194 Cleveland Clinic graduates used for the nomogram development, 175 (90.2% successfully passed the ABIM certification examination. The final nomogram included four predictors: In-Training Examination (ITE scores in postgraduate year (PGY 1, 2, and 3, and the number of months of overnight calls in the last 6 months of residency. The nomogram achieved a concordance index (CI of 0.98 after correcting for over-fitting bias and allowed for the determination of an estimated probability of passing the ABIM exam. Of the 126 graduates from two other residency programs used for external validation, 116 (92.1% passed the ABIM examination. The nomogram CI in the external validation cohort was 0.94, suggesting outstanding discrimination. Conclusions : A simple user-friendly predictive tool, based on readily available data, was developed to predict the probability of passing the ABIM exam for internal medicine residents. This may guide program directors’ decision

  9. Back to the Roots: Prediction of Biologically Active Natural Products from Ayurveda Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polur, Honey; Joshi, Tejal; Workman, Christopher T; Lavekar, Gandhidas; Kouskoumvekaki, Irene

    2011-03-14

    Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine is one of the most ancient, yet living medicinal traditions. In the present work, we developed an in silico library of natural products from Ayurveda medicine, coupled with structural information, plant origin and traditional therapeutic use. Following this, we compared their structures with those of drugs from DrugBank and we constructed a structural similarity network. Information on the traditional therapeutic use of the plants was integrated in the network in order to provide further evidence for the predicted biologically active natural compounds. We hereby present a number of examples where the traditional medicinal use of the plant matches with the medicinal use of the drug that is structurally similar to a plant component. With this approach, we have brought to light a number of obscure compounds of natural origin (e.g. kanugin, norruffscine, isoazadirolide) that could provide the basis and inspiration for further lead development. Apart from the identification of novel natural leads in drug discovery, we envisage that this integrated in silico ethnopharmacology approach could find applications in the elucidation of the molecular basis of Ayurveda medicine and in drug repurposing.

  10. Adolescent neighborhood quality predicts adult dACC response to social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Marlen Z; Beckes, Lane; Chango, Joanna; Allen, Joseph P; Coan, James A

    2015-07-01

    Neuroimaging studies using the social-exclusion paradigm Cyberball indicate increased dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and right insula activity as a function of exclusion. However, comparatively less work has been done on how social status factors may moderate this finding. This study used the Cyberball paradigm with 85 (45 females) socio-economically diverse participants from a larger longitudinal sample. We tested whether neighborhood quality during adolescence would predict subsequent neural responding to social exclusion in young adulthood. Given previous behavioral studies indicating greater social vigilance and negative evaluation as a function of lower status, we expected that lower adolescent neighborhood quality would predict greater dACC activity during exclusion at young adulthood. Our findings indicate that young adults who lived in low-quality neighborhoods in adolescence showed greater dACC activity to social exclusion than those who lived in higher quality neighborhoods. Lower neighborhood quality also predicted greater prefrontal activation in the superior frontal gyrus, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex and the middle frontal gyrus, possibly indicating greater regulatory effort. Finally, this effect was not driven by subsequent ratings of distress during exclusion. In sum, adolescent neighborhood quality appears to potentiate neural responses to social exclusion in young adulthood, effects that are independent of felt distress.

  11. Does psychopathology in childhood predict internet addiction in male adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Mi; Sung, Min-Je; Shin, Kyoung-Min; Lim, Ki Young; Shin, Yun-Mi

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated childhood psychopathology and Internet addiction in adolescents. Initial assessment data were obtained from 1998 to 1999, and a follow-up assessment was performed in 2006, when the original subjects entered middle school. Personal information for the 524 male subjects was obtained from the original data. The subjects were evaluated with the Korean version of the child behavior checklist, which was administered to the children's parents. Demographic and psychosocial factors were also evaluated. Children were reassessed with the self-reported Korea Internet Addiction Scale. Our results indicated that 3.6 % of the subjects had Internet addiction, and revealed a significant relationship between withdrawal and anxiety/depression and future Internet addiction. The results suggest that withdrawal and anxiety/depression during childhood should be considered in the etiology of problematic Internet use in boys. Accordingly, clinicians should consider anxiety/depression and withdrawal during childhood to prevent Internet addiction.

  12. Stability of executive function and predictions to adaptive behavior from middle childhood to pre-adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline eHarms

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The shift from childhood to adolescence is characterized by rapid remodeling of the brain and increased risk-taking behaviors. Current theories hypothesize that developmental enhancements in sensitivity to affective environmental cues in adolescence may undermine executive function (EF and increase the likelihood of problematic behaviors. In the current study, we examined the extent to which EF in childhood predicts EF in early adolescence. We also tested whether individual differences in neural responses to affective cues (rewards/punishments in childhood serve as a biological marker for EF, sensation-seeking, academic performance, and social skills in early adolescence. At age 8, 84 children completed a gambling task while event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded. We examined the extent to which selections resulting in rewards or losses in this task elicited (i the P300, a post-stimulus waveform reflecting the allocation of attentional resources toward a stimulus, and (ii the SPN, a pre-stimulus anticipatory waveform reflecting a neural representation of a hunch about an outcome that originates in insula and ventromedial PFC. Children also completed a Dimensional Change Card-Sort (DCCS and Flanker task to measure EF. At age 12, 78 children repeated the DCCS and Flanker and completed a battery of questionnaires. Flanker and DCCS accuracy at age 8 predicted Flanker and DCCS performance at age 12, respectively. Individual differences in the magnitude of P300 (to losses vs. rewards and SPN (preceding outcomes with a high probability of punishment at age 8 predicted self-reported sensation seeking (lower and teacher-rated academic performance (higher at age 12. We suggest there is stability in EF from age 8 to 12, and that childhood neural sensitivity to reward and punishment predicts individual differences in sensation seeking and adaptive behaviors in children entering adolescence.

  13. How HEXACO Personality Traits Predict Different Selfie-Posting Behaviors among Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, Roberto; Chirumbolo, Antonio; Bianchi, Dora; Ioverno, Salvatore; Morelli, Mara; Nappa, Maria R.

    2017-01-01

    Selfies are self-portrait photos shared on Social Networks. Previous literature has investigated how personality traits, and specifically narcissism, are associated with selfie-posting behaviors. In this contribution we investigated how selfie-posting behaviors are predicted by the six HEXACO personality traits, controlling for age, gender and sexual orientation. The Kinsey scale, three questions about the frequency of own selfies, group selfies and selfies with partner, and 60-item HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised were administered to 750 young people from 13 to 30 years. Females, adolescents and not-exclusively heterosexual people posted more own selfies, and adolescents posted also more group selfies and selfies with partner. Moreover, lower Honesty/Humility, lower Conscientiousness, higher Emotionality and higher Extraversion significantly predict own selfies and group selfies. Finally, only lower Honesty/Humility and higher Emotionality predict selfies with partner. Theoretical and practical implications are provided. PMID:28119662

  14. The interaction between self-regulation and motivation prospectively predicting problem behavior in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jessica D; Colder, Craig R; Trucco, Elisa M; Speidel, Carolyn; Hawk, Larry W; Lengua, Liliana J; Das Eiden, Rina; Wieczorek, William

    2013-01-01

    A large literature suggests associations between self-regulation and motivation and adolescent problem behavior; however, this research has mostly pitted these constructs against one another or tested them in isolation. Following recent neural-systems based theories (e.g., Ernst & Fudge, 2009 ), the present study investigated the interactions between self-regulation and approach and avoidance motivation prospectively predicting delinquency and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. The community sample included 387 adolescents aged 11 to 13 years old (55% female; 17% minority). Laboratory tasks were used to assess self-regulation and approach and avoidance motivation, and adolescent self-reports were used to measure depressive symptoms and delinquency. Analyses suggested that low levels of approach motivation were associated with high levels of depressive symptoms, but only at high levels of self-regulation (p = .01). High levels of approach were associated with high levels of rule breaking, but only at low levels of self-regulation (p theories that posit integration of motivational and self-regulatory individual differences via moderational models to understand adolescent problem behavior.

  15. Positive parenting predicts the development of adolescent brain structure: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G; Dennison, Meg; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Schwartz, Orli; Yap, Marie B H; Sheeber, Lisa; Allen, Nicholas B

    2014-04-01

    Little work has been conducted that examines the effects of positive environmental experiences on brain development to date. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the effects of positive (warm and supportive) maternal behavior on structural brain development during adolescence, using longitudinal structural MRI. Participants were 188 (92 female) adolescents, who were part of a longitudinal adolescent development study that involved mother-adolescent interactions and MRI scans at approximately 12 years old, and follow-up MRI scans approximately 4 years later. FreeSurfer software was used to estimate the volume of limbic-striatal regions (amygdala, hippocampus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens) and the thickness of prefrontal regions (anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices) across both time points. Higher frequency of positive maternal behavior during the interactions predicted attenuated volumetric growth in the right amygdala, and accelerated cortical thinning in the right anterior cingulate (males only) and left and right orbitofrontal cortices, between baseline and follow up. These results have implications for understanding the biological mediators of risk and protective factors for mental disorders that have onset during adolescence.

  16. Positive parenting predicts the development of adolescent brain structure: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Whittle

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Little work has been conducted that examines the effects of positive environmental experiences on brain development to date. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the effects of positive (warm and supportive maternal behavior on structural brain development during adolescence, using longitudinal structural MRI. Participants were 188 (92 female adolescents, who were part of a longitudinal adolescent development study that involved mother–adolescent interactions and MRI scans at approximately 12 years old, and follow-up MRI scans approximately 4 years later. FreeSurfer software was used to estimate the volume of limbic-striatal regions (amygdala, hippocampus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens and the thickness of prefrontal regions (anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices across both time points. Higher frequency of positive maternal behavior during the interactions predicted attenuated volumetric growth in the right amygdala, and accelerated cortical thinning in the right anterior cingulate (males only and left and right orbitofrontal cortices, between baseline and follow up. These results have implications for understanding the biological mediators of risk and protective factors for mental disorders that have onset during adolescence.

  17. Predictive factors for latent tuberculosis infection among adolescents in a high-burden area in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Mahomed; T. Hawkridge; S. Verver; L. Geiter; M. Hatherill; D.A. Abrahams; R. Ehrlich; W.A. Hanekom; G.D. Hussey

    2011-01-01

    SETTING: A high tuberculosis (TB) burden area in South Africa (notification rate for all TB cases 1400 per 100 000 population). OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of and predictive factors associated with latent TB infection in adolescents. DESIGN: Adolescents aged 12-18 years were recruited fro

  18. Affective behavior and temperament predict the onset of smoking in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Ali; Allen, Nicholas B; Schwartz, Orli; Simmons, Julian G; Whittle, Sarah; Byrne, Michelle L; Sheeber, Lisa; Lubman, Dan I

    2015-06-01

    Earlier use of tobacco in adolescence is associated with numerous adverse outcomes later in life. Although a number of studies have linked individual differences in affective functioning to adolescent smoking, these have relied primarily on self-report measures, and the contribution of different dimensions of affect to the onset of tobacco use during this period remains unclear. The current study examined these issues in a sample of 180 adolescents recruited from an ongoing prospective, longitudinal study examining emotional development. At approximately age 12, participants completed a questionnaire measure of affective temperament and took part in a family interaction task that was coded observationally to provide measures of dysphoric, aggressive, and positive behaviors. At 2 subsequent assessments, which took place approximately 2.5 years and 4 years after the initial assessment, participants completed a questionnaire measure of substance use. In total, 70 participants initiated smoking between the ages of 12 and 17. An earlier onset of smoking was predicted by more aggressive and less positive observed behavior during the interaction task, as well as lower levels of self-reported temperamental Effortful Control. There were no associations between dysphoric behaviors, or temperamental measures of negative affectivity or surgency and the onset of smoking. The findings add to a small body of literature demonstrating that behavioral components of affect can prospectively predict substance use in adolescence and suggest that different dimensions of affect show unique relationships with early substance use. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Can phylogeny predict chemical diversity and potential medicinal activity of plants? A case study of Amaryllidaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønsted, Nina; Symonds, Matthew RE; Birkholm, Trine;

    2012-01-01

    a predictive approach enabling more efficient selection of plants for the development of traditional medicine and lead discovery. However, this relationship has rarely been rigorously tested and the potential predictive power is consequently unknown. Results: We produced a phylogenetic hypothesis...... for the medicinally important plant subfamily Amaryllidoideae (Amaryllidaceae) based on parsimony and Bayesian analysis of nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial DNA sequences of over 100 species. We tested if alkaloid diversity and activity in bioassays related to the central nervous system are significantly correlated......Background: During evolution, plants and other organisms have developed a diversity of chemical defences, leading to the evolution of various groups of specialized metabolites selected for their endogenous biological function. A correlation between phylogeny and biosynthetic pathways could offer...

  20. Multiple-Family Group Intervention for Incarcerated Male Adolescents Who Sexually Offend and Their Families: Change in Maladaptive Emotion Regulation Predicts Adaptive Change in Adolescent Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiley, Margaret K; Zaremba-Morgan, Ali; Datubo-Brown, Christiana; Pyle, Raven; Cox, Milira

    2015-07-01

    The multiple-family group intervention is an effective, yet affordable, 8-week treatment that is conducted in a juvenile correctional institution in Alabama with adolescents who sexually offend and their families. Data from 115 incarcerated male adolescents and their male and female caregivers collected at pre-, post-, and 1-year follow-up were used to determine that problem behaviors (internalizing, externalizing) decreased over pre- and posttest and the significant decreases in maladaptive emotion regulation predicted those changes. Adolescent-reported anxiety over abandonment and attachment dependence on parents increased significantly; these changes were predicted by decreases in maladaptive emotion regulation. Linear growth models were also fit over the 3 time points and indicate decreases in adolescent problem behavior and maladaptive emotion regulation.

  1. Proteinuria predicts relapse in adolescent and adult minimal change disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Bitencourt Dias

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study sought to outline the clinical and laboratory characteristics of minimal change disease in adolescents and adults and establish the clinical and laboratory characteristics of relapsing and non-relapsing patients. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated patients with confirmed diagnoses of minimal change disease by renal biopsy from 1979 to 2009; the patients were aged >13 years and had minimum 1-year follow-ups. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients with a median age (at diagnosis of 34 (23-49 years were studied, including 23 males and 40 females. At diagnosis, eight (12.7% patients presented with microscopic hematuria, 17 (27% with hypertension and 17 (27% with acute kidney injury. After the initial treatment, 55 (87.3% patients showed complete remission, six (9.5% showed partial remission and two (3.1% were nonresponders. Disease relapse was observed in 34 (54% patients who were initial responders (n = 61. In a comparison between the relapsing patients (n = 34 and the non-relapsing patients (n = 27, only proteinuria at diagnosis showed any significant difference (8.8 (7.1-12.0 vs. 6.0 (3.6-7.3 g/day, respectively, p = 0.001. Proteinuria greater than 7 g/day at the initial screening was associated with relapsing disease. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, minimal change disease in adults may sometimes present concurrently with hematuria, hypertension, and acute kidney injury. The relapsing pattern in our patients was associated with basal proteinuria over 7 g/day.

  2. Socio-economic differences in use of prescribed and over-the-counter medicine for pain and psychological problems among Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Mette Jorgine; Hansen, Claus Dalsgaard; Andersen, JH

    2014-01-01

    of medicine for pain and psychological problems according to parental educational level and household income. Young girls used twice as much medicine for pain and psychological problems compared to young boys. SES differences based on parental educational level were directly associated with the use......The objective for this study was to investigate socio-economic status (SES) differentials in the use of overthe- counter and prescribed medicine for pain and psychological problems among adolescents. Data consisted of questionnaire data on medicine use and health status, collected from 17- to 18...... of prescribed medicine for psychological problems, and SES differences based on household income were directly associated with overall medicine use and use of over-the-counter medicine. Some of the SES differentials disappeared or decreased after adjusting for health status. There were no SES differentials...

  3. Performance of different adiposity measures for predicting cardiovascular risk in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Bovet, Pascal; Ma, Chuanwei; Xi, Bo

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to compare the performance of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR) to predict the presence of at least 3 main CV risk factors in US adolescents. A total of 3621 adolescents (boys: 49.9%) aged 12–17 years from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2012) were included in this study. Measured CV risk factors included systolic/diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose. The AUC of BMI-z score, WC-z score and WHtR-z score to predict at least three CV risk factors were similar (~0.85), irrespective of criteria used to define abnormal levels of CV risk factors. A 1-SD increase in any of three indices to predict CV risk was also similar for the three adiposity scores. For instance, a 1-SD increase risk in BMI-z score, WC-z score and WHtR-z score was 3.32 (95%CI 2.53–4.36), 3.43 (95%CI 2.64–4.46), and 3.45 (95%CI 2.64–4.52), respectively, in the total population using the International Diabetes Federation definition. In addition, the most efficient WHtR cut-off for screening CV risk was ~0.50 in US adolescents. In summary, BMI, WC and WHtR performed similarly well to predict the presence of at least 3 main CV risk factors among US adolescents. PMID:28262726

  4. Early Weight Gain Predicts Outcome in Two Treatments for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, Daniel; Accurso, Erin C.; Lock, James; Agras, Stewart; Bryson, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Determine whether early weight gain predicts full remission at end-of-treatment (EOT) and follow-up in two different treatments for adolescent anorexia nervosa, and to track the rate of weight gain throughout treatment and follow-up. Method Participants were 121 adolescents with AN (mean age = 14.4 years, SD = 1.6), from a two-site (Chicago and Stanford) randomized controlled trial. Adolescents were randomly assigned to family-based treatment (FBT) (n=61) or individual adolescent supportive psychotherapy (AFT) (n=60). Treatment response was assessed using percent of expected body weight (EBW) and the global score on the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE). Full remission was defined as having achieved ≥95% EBW and within one standard deviation of the community norms of the EDE. Full remission was assessed at EOT as well as 12-month follow-up. Results Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that the earliest predictor of remission at EOT was a gain of 5.8 pounds (2.65 kg) by session 3 in FBT (AUC = .670; p=.043), and a gain of 7.1 pounds (3.20 kg) by session 4 in AFT (AUC=0.754, p=.014). Early weight gain did not predict remission at follow-up for either treatment. A survival analysis showed that weight was marginally superior in FBT as opposed to AFT (Wald chi-square=3.692, df=1, p=.055). Conclusion Adolescents with AN who receive either FBT or AFT, and show early weight gain, are likely to remit at EOT. However, FBT is superior to AFT in terms of weight gain throughout treatment and follow-up. PMID:24190844

  5. Can scapular and humeral head position predict shoulder pain in adolescent swimmers and non-swimmers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Leanda; Straker, Leon; Smith, Anne

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether scapular and humeral head position can predict the development of shoulder pain in swimmers, whether those predictors were applicable to non-swimmers and the annual rate of shoulder pain in adolescent swimmers and non-swimmers. Forty-six adolescent swimmers and 43 adolescent non-swimmers were examined prospectively with a questionnaire and anthropometric measures. The questionnaire examined demographic and training variables. Anthropometric measures examined the distances between the T7 spinous process and the inferior scapula (Inferior Kibler) and T3 spinous process and the medial spine of the scapula (Superior Kibler), humeral head position in relation to the acromion using palpation, BMI and chest width. Shoulder pain was re-assessed 12 months later by questionnaire. Shoulder pain in swimmers was best predicted by a larger BMI (OR = 1.48, P = 0.049), a smaller Inferior Kibler distance in abduction (e.g. OR = 0.90, P = 0.009) and a smaller horizontal distance between the anterior humeral head and the anterior acromion (OR = 0.76, P = 0.035). These variables were not significantly predictive of shoulder pain in non-swimmers. Annual prevalence of shoulder pain was 23.9% in swimmers and 30.8% in non-swimmers (χ(2) = 0.50, P = 0.478).

  6. Prediction Model for Predicting Powdery Mildew using ANN for Medicinal Plant— Picrorhiza kurrooa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivling, V. D.; Ghanshyam, C.; Kumar, Rakesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Radhika; Kumar, Dinesh; Sharma, Atul; Sharma, Sudhir Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Plant disease fore casting system is an important system as it can be used for prediction of disease, further it can be used as an alert system to warn the farmers in advance so as to protect their crop from being getting infected. Fore casting system will predict the risk of infection for crop by using the environmental factors that favor in germination of disease. In this study an artificial neural network based system for predicting the risk of powdery mildew in Picrorhiza kurrooa was developed. For development, Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm was used having a single hidden layer of ten nodes. Temperature and duration of wetness are the major environmental factors that favor infection. Experimental data was used as a training set and some percentage of data was used for testing and validation. The performance of the system was measured in the form of the coefficient of correlation (R), coefficient of determination (R2), mean square error and root mean square error. For simulating the network an inter face was developed. Using this interface the network was simulated by putting temperature and wetness duration so as to predict the level of risk at that particular value of the input data.

  7. Prediction Model for Predicting Powdery Mildew using ANN for Medicinal Plant—Picrorhiza kurrooa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivling, V. D.; Ghanshyam, C.; Kumar, Rakesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Radhika; Kumar, Dinesh; Sharma, Atul; Sharma, Sudhir Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Plant disease fore casting system is an important system as it can be used for prediction of disease, further it can be used as an alert system to warn the farmers in advance so as to protect their crop from being getting infected. Fore casting system will predict the risk of infection for crop by using the environmental factors that favor in germination of disease. In this study an artificial neural network based system for predicting the risk of powdery mildew in Picrorhiza kurrooa was developed. For development, Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm was used having a single hidden layer of ten nodes. Temperature and duration of wetness are the major environmental factors that favor infection. Experimental data was used as a training set and some percentage of data was used for testing and validation. The performance of the system was measured in the form of the coefficient of correlation (R), coefficient of determination (R2), mean square error and root mean square error. For simulating the network an inter face was developed. Using this interface the network was simulated by putting temperature and wetness duration so as to predict the level of risk at that particular value of the input data.

  8. The Predictive Utility of Narcissism among Children and Adolescents: Evidence for a Distinction between Adaptive and Maladaptive Narcissism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Christopher T.; Frick, Paul J.; Adler, Kristy K.; Grafeman, Sarah J.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the predictive utility of narcissism among a community sample of children and adolescents (N=98) longitudinally. Analyses focused on the differential utility between maladaptive and adaptive narcissism for predicting later delinquency. Maladaptive narcissism significantly predicted self-reported delinquency at one-, two-, and…

  9. Writing abilities longitudinally predict academic outcomes of adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Stephen J; Langberg, Joshua M; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Evans, Steven W

    2016-09-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience a host of negative academic outcomes, and deficits in reading and mathematics abilities contribute to these academic impairments. Students with ADHD may also have difficulties with written expression, but there has been minimal research in this area and it is not clear whether written expression abilities uniquely contribute to the academic functioning of students with ADHD. The current study included a sample of 104 middle school students diagnosed with ADHD (Grades 6-8). Participants were followed longitudinally to evaluate whether written expression abilities at baseline predicted student grade point average (GPA) and parent ratings of academic impairment 18 months later, after controlling for reading ability and additional relevant covariates. Written expression abilities longitudinally predicted both academic outcomes above and beyond ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, medication use, reading ability, and baseline values of GPA and parent-rated academic impairment. Follow-up analyses revealed that no single aspect of written expression was demonstrably more impactful on academic outcomes than the others, suggesting that writing as an entire process should be the focus of intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Dispositional mindfulness is predicted by structural development of the insula during late adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Friedel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a critical period of development, in which the increasing social and cognitive demands of independence need to be met by enhanced self-regulatory abilities. The cultivation of mindfulness has been associated with improved self-regulation in adult populations, and it is theorized that one neurodevelopmental mechanism that supports this capacity is the development of the prefrontal cortex. The current study examined the neurodevelopmental mechanisms associated with dispositional mindfulness in adolescence. Using a longitudinal within-persons design, 82 participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI assessments at approximately ages 16 and 19, and also completed self-reported measurements of mindfulness at age 19. It was hypothesized that adolescents who demonstrated greater thinning of frontal cortical regions between the age of 16 and 19 would exhibit higher dispositional mindfulness levels at age 19. Results indicated that, contrary to predictions, adolescents with higher levels of mindfulness demonstrated less thinning in the left anterior insula. By contrast, higher IQ was associated with greater thinning of the right caudal middle frontal and right superior frontal regions. The involvement of insula development in mindfulness is consistent with a direct role for this structure in managing self-regulation, and in doing so concords with recent models of self-referential interoceptive awareness.

  11. Dispositional mindfulness is predicted by structural development of the insula during late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, S; Whittle, S L; Vijayakumar, N; Simmons, J G; Byrne, M L; Schwartz, O S; Allen, N B

    2015-08-01

    Adolescence is a critical period of development, in which the increasing social and cognitive demands of independence need to be met by enhanced self-regulatory abilities. The cultivation of mindfulness has been associated with improved self-regulation in adult populations, and it is theorized that one neurodevelopmental mechanism that supports this capacity is the development of the prefrontal cortex. The current study examined the neurodevelopmental mechanisms associated with dispositional mindfulness in adolescence. Using a longitudinal within-persons design, 82 participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessments at approximately ages 16 and 19, and also completed self-reported measurements of mindfulness at age 19. It was hypothesized that adolescents who demonstrated greater thinning of frontal cortical regions between the age of 16 and 19 would exhibit higher dispositional mindfulness levels at age 19. Results indicated that, contrary to predictions, adolescents with higher levels of mindfulness demonstrated less thinning in the left anterior insula. By contrast, higher IQ was associated with greater thinning of the right caudal middle frontal and right superior frontal regions. The involvement of insula development in mindfulness is consistent with a direct role for this structure in managing self-regulation, and in doing so concords with recent models of self-referential interoceptive awareness.

  12. Application of the protection motivation theory in predicting cigarette smoking among adolescents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yaqiong; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Chen, Xinguang; Xie, Nianhua; Chen, Jing; Yang, Niannian; Gong, Jie; Macdonell, Karen Kolmodin

    2014-01-01

    Reducing tobacco use among adolescents in China represents a significant challenge for global tobacco control. Existing behavioral theories developed in the West - such as the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) - may be useful tools to help tackle this challenge. We examined the relationships between PMT factors and self-reported cigarette smoking behavior and intention among a random sample of vocational high school students (N=553) in Wuhan, China. Tobacco-related perceptions were assessed using the PMT Scale for Adolescent Smoking. Among the total sample, 45% had initiated cigarette smoking, and 25% smoked in the past month. Among those who never smoked, 15% indicated being likely or very likely to smoke in a year. Multiple regression modeling analysis indicated the significance of the seven PMT constructs, the four PMT perceptions and the two PMT pathways in predicting intention to smoke and actual smoking behavior. Overall, perceived rewards of smoking, especially intrinsic rewards, were consistently positively related to smoking intentions and behavior, and self-efficacy to avoid smoking was negatively related to smoking. The current study suggests the utility of PMT for further research examining adolescent smoking. PMT-based smoking prevention and clinical smoking cessation intervention programs should focus more on adolescents' perceived rewards from smoking and perceived efficacy of not smoking to reduce their intention to and actual use of tobacco.

  13. Cut-Off Values of Visceral Adiposity to Predict NAFLD in Brazilian Obese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The present study aimed at determining cut-off points of visceral fat to predict NAFLD and analyzed metabolic disorders of obese adolescents. Methods. Cross-sectional study involved 165 obese adolescents ranged in age from 15 to 19 years. Glycemia, hepatic transaminases, lipid profile, and insulin resistance were analyzed. Visceral and subcutaneous fat were measured by ultrasound and body composition by plesthysmography. Results. The NAFLD adolescents had significantly higher values for body mass, BMI-for-age, BMI, total fat, waist circumference, and visceral fat when compared with non-NAFLD obese adolescents in both genders. Moreover, there were significant positive correlations between visceral fat with the variables BMI-for-age (r=0.325,, TG (r=0.277, AST (r=0.509, ALT (r=0.519, WC (r=0.390, and visceral/subcutaneous ratio (r=0.790 for NAFLD group. Total fat, triglycerides, and visceral fat were the independent predictors to NAFLD. Analysis of the ROC curves revealed cut-off points of visceral fat of 4.47 cm for girls and 4.21 cm for boys. Conclusions. The results may suggest that abdominal ultrasonography procedure may be a safe alternative method of assessing visceral adiposity aiming to be considered to the development of preventive and treatment strategies in obese individuals. This clinial trial is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov (NCT01358773.

  14. The clinical effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy and an alternative medicine approach in reducing symptoms of depression in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkhandeh, Mansoureh; Talib, Mansor Abu; Hunt, Caroline Jane

    2016-05-30

    The main aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of two psychotherapeutic approaches, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and a complementary medicine method Reiki, in reducing depression scores in adolescents. We recruited 188 adolescent patients who were 12-17 years old. Participants were randomly assigned to CBT, Reiki or wait-list. Depression scores were assessed before and after the 12 week interventions or wait-list. CBT showed a significantly greater decrease in Child Depression Inventory (CDI) scores across treatment than both Reiki (pReiki also showed greater decreases in CDI scores across treatment relative to the wait-list control condition (p=.031). The analyses indicated a significant interaction between gender, condition and change in CDI scores, such that male participants showed a smaller treatment effect for Reiki than did female participants. Both CBT and Reiki were effective in reducing the symptoms of depression over the treatment period, with effect for CBT greater than Reiki. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention for treatment of depression using both cognitive and complementary medicine approaches. However, research that tests complementary therapies over a follow-up period and against a placebo treatment is required.

  15. Bullying Predicts Reported Dating Violence and Observed Qualities in Adolescent Dating Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy E; Wolfe, David A

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between reported bullying, reported dating violence, and dating relationship quality measured through couple observations was examined. Given past research demonstrating similarity between peer and dating contexts, we expected that bullying would predict negative dating experiences. Participants with dating experience (n = 585; 238 males, M(age) = 15.06) completed self-report assessments of bullying and dating violence perpetration and victimization. One month later, 44 opposite-sex dyads (M(age) = 15.19) participated in behavioral observations. In 10-min sessions, couples were asked to rank and discuss areas of relationship conflict while being video-recorded. Qualities of the relationship were later coded by trained observers. Regression analysis revealed that bullying positively predicted dating violence perpetration and victimization. Self-reported bullying also predicted observations of lower relationship support and higher withdrawal. Age and gender interactions further qualified these findings. The bullying of boys, but not girls, was significantly related to dating violence perpetration. Age interactions showed that bullying was positively predictive of dating violence perpetration and victimization for older, but not younger adolescents. Positive affect was also negatively predicted by bullying, but only for girls. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that adolescents carry forward strategies learned in the peer context to their dating relationships.

  16. The accuracy of body mass prediction for elderly specimens: Implications for paleoanthropology and legal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Tony; Lefèvre, Philippe; Clarys, Jan Pieter; Beauthier, Jean-Pol

    2016-10-01

    Different practices in paleoanthropology and legal medicine raise questions concerning the robustness of body mass (BM) prediction. Integrating personal identification from body mass estimation with skeleton is not a classic approach in legal medicine. The originality of our study is the use of an elderly sample in order to push prediction methods to their limits and to discuss about implications in paleoanthropology and legal medicine. The aim is to observe the accuracy of BM prediction in relation to the body mass index (BMI, index of classification) using five femoral head (FH) methods and one shaft (FSH) method. The sample is composed of 41 dry femurs obtained from dissection where age (c. 82 years) and gender are known, and weight (c. 59.5 kg) and height are measured upon admission to the body leg service. We show that the estimation of the mean BM of the elderly sample is not significantly different to the real mean BM when the appropriate formula is used for the femoral head diameter. In fact, the best prediction is obtained with the McHenry formula (1992), which was based on a sample with an equivalent average mass to that of our sample. In comparison, external shaft diameters, which are known to be more influenced by mechanical stimuli than femoral head diameters, yield less satisfactory results with the McHenry formula (1992) for shaft diameters. Based on all the methods used and the distinctive selected sample, overestimation (always observed with the different femoral head methods) can be restricted to 1.1%. The observed overestimation with the shaft method can be restricted to 7%. However, the estimation of individual BM is much less reliable. The BMI has a strong impact on the accuracy of individual BM prediction, and is unquestionably more reliable for individuals with normal BMI (9.6% vs 16.7% for the best prediction error). In this case, the FH method is also the better predictive method but not if we integrate the total sample (i.e., the FSH

  17. Predicting sexual coercion in early adulthood: The transaction among maltreatment, gang affiliation, and adolescent socialization of coercive relationship norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Thao; Kim, Hanjoe; Christopher, Caroline; Caruthers, Allison; Dishion, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    This study tested a transactional hypothesis predicting early adult sexual coercion from family maltreatment, early adolescent gang affiliation, and socialization of adolescent friendships that support coercive relationship norms. The longitudinal study of a community sample of 998 11-year-olds was intensively assessed in early and middle adolescence and followed to 23-24 years of age. At age 16-17 youth were videotaped with a friend, and their interactions were coded for coercive relationship talk. Structural equation modeling revealed that maltreatment predicted gang affiliation during early adolescence. Both maltreatment and gang affiliation strongly predicted adolescent sexual promiscuity and coercive relationship norms with friends at age 16-17 years. Adolescent sexual promiscuity, however, did not predict sexual coercion in early adulthood. In contrast, higher levels of observed coercive relationship talk with a friend predicted sexual coercion in early adulthood for both males and females. These findings suggest that peers have a socialization function in the development of norms prognostic of sexual coercion, and the need to consider peers in the promotion of healthy relationships.

  18. Predictive distribution modeling for rare Himalayan medicinal plant Berberis aristata DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Rajasri; Gururaja, K V; Ramchandra, T V

    2011-11-01

    Predictive distribution modelling of Berberis aristata DC, a rare threatened plant with high medicinal values has been done with an aim to understand its potential distribution zones in Indian Himalayan region. Bioclimatic and topographic variables were used to develop the distribution model with the help of three different algorithms viz. Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Production (GARP), Bioclim and Maximum entropy (MaxEnt). Maximum entropy has predicted wider potential distribution (10.36%) compared to GARP (4.63%) and Bioclim (2.44%). Validation confirms that these outputs are comparable to the present distribution pattern of the B. aristata. This exercise highlights that this species favours Western Himalaya. However, GARP and MaxEnt's prediction of Eastern Himalayan states (i. e. Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Manipur) are also identified as potential occurrence places require further exploration.

  19. In Eating-Disordered Inpatient Adolescents, Self-Criticism Predicts Nonsuicidal Self-Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhaky, Liat; Shahar, Golan; Stein, Daniel; Fennig, Silvana

    2016-08-01

    We examined the role of depressive traits-self-criticism and dependency-in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal ideation among inpatient adolescents with eating disorders. In two studies (N = 103 and 55), inpatients were assessed for depressive traits, suicidal ideations, and NSSI. In Study 2, motivation for carrying out NSSI was also assessed. In both studies, depression predicted suicidal ideation and self-criticism predicted NSSI. In Study 2, depression and suicidal ideation also predicted NSSI. The automatic positive motivation for NSSI was predicted by dependency and depressive symptoms, and by a two-way interaction between self-criticism and dependency. Consistent with the "self-punishment model," self-criticism appears to constitute a dimension of vulnerability for NSSI.

  20. The Role of Parenting Styles in Predicting Anxiety Thoughts and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khanjani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parents interaction styles with children or teens have an important impact on shaping their character and mental health and the incidence of some psychiatric symptoms. The aim of this study was to predict anxiety thought and obsessive - compulsive symptoms of the adolescents based on parents' parenting styles. Methods: This was a descriptive study. 180 male students in Marand were selected by cluster random sampling. We used Baumrind parents parenting style questionnaire, Wales anxiety thoughts questionnaire and Maudsley obsessive- compulsive questionnaire. Data was analyzed by Pearson's correlation test and multiple regression analysis. Results: Data analysis showed that obsessive- compulsive symptoms and anxiety ideas were positively related to the authoritarian and permissive parenting styles and negatively related to authoritative parenting style. Parenting style is able to predict the level of obsessive - compulsive symptoms and adolescent anxiety ideas. Conclusion: The results showed that parents' parenting style is one of the influencing factors on adolescent health. Parents with authoritative parenting style, have the children with lower obsessive - compulsive symptoms and anxious thoughts.

  1. Fluid reasoning predicts future mathematical performance among children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Chloe T; Bunge, Silvia A; Briones Chiongbian, Victoria; Barrow, Maia; Ferrer, Emilio

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine whether fluid reasoning (FR) plays a significant role in the acquisition of mathematics skills above and beyond the effects of other cognitive and numerical abilities. Using a longitudinal cohort sequential design, we examined how FR measured at three assessment occasions, spaced approximately 1.5years apart, predicted math outcomes for a group of 69 participants between ages 6 and 21years across all three assessment occasions. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the direct and indirect relations between children's previous cognitive abilities and their future math achievement. A model including age, FR, vocabulary, and spatial skills accounted for 90% of the variance in future math achievement. In this model, FR was the only significant predictor of future math achievement; age, vocabulary, and spatial skills were not significant predictors. Thus, FR was the only predictor of future math achievement across a wide age range that spanned primary school and secondary school. These findings build on Cattell's conceptualization of FR as a scaffold for learning, showing that this domain-general ability supports the acquisition of rudimentary math skills as well as the ability to solve more complex mathematical problems.

  2. Childhood and adolescent sexual behaviors predict adult sexual orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith W. Beard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anonymous retrospective data were provided by 3,443 adult participants via computer-assisted self-interview. This was the first study focused on determinants of adult sexual orientation to adjust for the effects of same-sex sibling incest. Five measures of adult sexual orientations (ASOs provided evidence consistent with the theory that ASOs result from early sex-specific romantic attachment, conditioning caused by early sexual experiences with partners, and other experiences, such as early masturbation using human images, acting synergistically with critical period learning, and sexual imprinting. Early same-sex crushes were the most powerful predictor of ASOs, and they also increased the likelihood of engaging in early same-sex partnered and masturbation behaviors. Incestuous experiences with same-sex siblings affected the ASOs of the incest participants. And, lesbian, gay, and bisexual participants tended to have an earlier onset of puberty than heterosexual controls within sexes. However, statistical analyses showed that the incest and puberty effects were mathematically explained by the participant’s early sexual experiences with partners and other experiences such as masturbation using human images. Early same-sex crushes were predicted by nuclear family variables implying that same-sex crushes were more likely when the opposite-sex parent modeled an unsatisfactory heterosexual romantic partner.

  3. Traditional, complementary and alternative medical systems and their contribution to personalisation, prediction and prevention in medicine-person-centred medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti di Sarsina, Paolo; Alivia, Mauro; Guadagni, Paola

    2012-11-06

    Traditional, complementary and alternative medical (TCAM) systems contribute to the foundation of person-centred medicine (PCM), an epistemological orientation for medical science which places the person as a physical, psychological and spiritual entity at the centre of health care and of the therapeutic process. PCM wishes to broaden the bio-molecular reductionistic approach of medical science towards an integration that allows people, doctors, nurses, health-care professionals and patients to become the real protagonists of the health-care scene. The doctor or caregiver needs to act out of empathy to meet the unique value of each human being, which unfolds over the course of a lifetime from conception to natural death. Knowledge of the human being should not be instrumental to economic or political interests, ideology, theories or religious dogma. Research needs to be broadened with methodological tools to investigate person-centred medical interventions. Salutogenesis is a fundamental principle of PCM, promoting health and preventing illness by strengthening the individual's self-healing abilities. TCAM systems also give tools to predict the insurgence of illness and treat it before the appearance of overt organic disease. A task of PCM is to educate people to take better care of their physical, psychological and spiritual health. Health-care education needs to be broadened to give doctors and health-care workers of the future the tools to act in innovative and highly differentiated ways, always guided by deep respect for individual autonomy, personal culture, religion and beliefs.

  4. Clinical implications of omics and systems medicine: focus on predictive and individualized treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, M

    2016-03-01

    Many patients with common diseases do not respond to treatment. This is a key challenge to modern health care, which causes both suffering and enormous costs. One important reason for the lack of treatment response is that common diseases are associated with altered interactions between thousands of genes, in combinations that differ between subgroups of patients who do or do not respond to a given treatment. Such subgroups, or even distinct disease entities, have been described recently in asthma, diabetes, autoimmune diseases and cancer. High-throughput techniques (omics) allow identification and characterization of such subgroups or entities. This may have important clinical implications, such as identification of diagnostic markers for individualized medicine, as well as new therapeutic targets for patients who do not respond to existing drugs. For example, whole-genome sequencing may be applied to more accurately guide treatment of neurodevelopmental diseases, or to identify drugs specifically targeting mutated genes in cancer. A study published in 2015 showed that 28% of hepatocellular carcinomas contained mutated genes that potentially could be targeted by drugs already approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. A translational study, which is described in detail, showed how combined omics, computational, functional and clinical studies could identify and validate a novel diagnostic and therapeutic candidate gene in allergy. Another important clinical implication is the identification of potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for predictive and preventative medicine. By combining computational and experimental methods, early disease regulators may be identified and potentially used to predict and treat disease before it becomes symptomatic. Systems medicine is an emerging discipline, which may contribute to such developments through combining omics with computational, functional and clinical studies. The aims of this review are to provide

  5. Parental Socialization and Adolescents' Alcohol Use Behaviors: Predictive Disparities in Parents' versus Adolescents' Perceptions of the Parenting Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latendresse, Shawn J.; Rose, Richard J.; Viken, Richard J.; Pulkkinen, Lea; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M.

    2009-01-01

    Among adolescents, many parenting practices have been associated with the initiation and development of drinking behaviors. However, recent studies suggest discrepancies in parents' and adolescents' perceptions of parenting and their links with adolescent use. In this study, we derive two independent sets of underlying parenting profiles (based on…

  6. The role of peers and families in predicting the loneliness level of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uruk, Ayse Ciftci; Demir, Ayhan

    2003-03-01

    The authors investigated the relative contribution of peer relations, family structure, and demographic variables in predicting loneliness in adolescents. Ninth-grade high school students (N = 756) from 8 different schools representing various socioeconomic status in Ankara, Turkey, completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale (D. Russell, L. A. Peplau, & M. L. Ferguson, 1978), the Family Structure Assessing Instrument (A. Gülerce, 1996), and an author-constructed questionnaire involving demographic information and variables on peer relations. Results of multiple regression analyses indicated that all three sets of variables accounted for 41% of the variance in loneliness scores. Additionally, peer relations contributed 34% of the variance, family structure 14%, and demographic variables 3%. Within the limits of the study, peer relations appear to be the best predictors of adolescent loneliness.

  7. Predicting Persistence of Non-suicidal Self-Injury in Suicidal Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shirley; Kuehn, Kevin; Melvin, Caitlin; Weinstock, Lauren M.; Andover, Margaret S.; Selby, Edward A.; Solomon, Joel B.; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    This study examined prospective predictors of persistent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents admitted to an inpatient psychiatric unit for suicidal behaviors and followed naturalistically for six months. Seventy-one (77%) participants reported NSSI at baseline and 40 (56%) persisted at the six month follow-up. Those who endorsed automatic positive reinforcement (APR) as the predominant reason for NSSI, were more likely to persist in NSSI. Depression over follow-up, but not at baseline, also predicted persistence. These results suggest that helping high risk adolescents to identify alternative ways of generating emotion(s) to counter the effects of APR that may accompany NSSI, should be a high priority treatment target. PMID:25907682

  8. Adolescent Alcohol Use: Protective and Predictive Parent, Peer, and Self-Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handren, Lindsay M; Donaldson, Candice D; Crano, William D

    2016-10-01

    Adolescent alcohol use has been linked with a multitude of problems and a trajectory predictive of problematic use in adulthood. Thus, targeting factors that enhance early prevention efforts is vital. The current study highlights variables that mitigate or predict alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking. Using Monitoring the Future (MTF) data, multiple path analytic models revealed links between parental involvement and alcohol abstinence and initiation. Parental involvement predicted enhanced self-esteem and less self-derogation and was negatively associated with peer alcohol norms for each MTF grade sampled, with stronger associations for 8th and 10th graders than 12th graders. For younger groups, self-esteem predicted increased perceptions of alcohol risk and reduced drinking. Self-derogation was associated with peers' pro-alcohol norms, which was linked to lower risk perceptions, lower personal disapproval of use, and increased drinking. Peer influence had a stronger association with consumption for 8th and 10th graders, whereas 12th graders' drinking was related to personal factors of alcohol risk perception and disapproval. In all grades, general alcohol use had a strong connection to heavy episodic drinking within the past 2 weeks. Across-grade variations in association of parent, peer, and personal factors suggest the desirability of tailored interventions focused on specific factors for each grade level, with the overall goal of attenuating adolescent alcohol use.

  9. Psychopathic Traits and Moral Disengagement Interact to Predict Bullying and Cyberbullying Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orue, Izaskun; Calvete, Esther

    2016-07-19

    The aim of this study was to test a model in which psychopathic traits (callous-unemotional, grandiose-manipulative, and impulsive-irresponsible) and moral disengagement individually and interactively predict two types of bullying (traditional and cyberbullying) in a community sample of adolescents. A total of 765 adolescents (464 girls and 301 boys) completed measures of moral disengagement and psychopathic traits at Time 1, and measures of bullying and cyberbullying at Time 1 and 1 year later, at Time 2. The results showed that callous-unemotional traits predicted both traditional bullying and cyberbullying, grandiose-manipulative and impulsive-irresponsible traits only predicted traditional bullying, and moral disengagement only predicted cyberbullying. Callous-Unemotional Traits × Moral Disengagement and Grandiose-Manipulative × Moral Disengagement were significantly correlated with the residual change in cyberbullying. Callous-unemotional traits were positively related to cyberbullying at high levels of moral disengagement but not when moral disengagement was low. In contrast, grandiose-manipulative traits were positively related to cyberbullying at low levels of moral disengagement but not when moral disengagement was high. These findings have implications for both prevention and intervention. Integrative approaches that promote moral growth are needed, including a deeper understanding of why bullying is morally wrong and ways to stimulate personality traits that counteract psychopathic traits.

  10. Using information of relatives in genomic prediction to apply effective stratified medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. Hong; Weerasinghe, W. M. Shalanee P.; Wray, Naomi R.; Goddard, Michael E.; van der Werf, Julius H. J.

    2017-01-01

    Genomic prediction shows promise for personalised medicine in which diagnosis and treatment are tailored to individuals based on their genetic profiles for complex diseases. We present a theoretical framework to demonstrate that prediction accuracy can be improved by targeting more informative individuals in the data set used to generate the predictors (“discovery sample”) to include those with genetically close relationships with the subjects put forward for risk prediction. Increase of prediction accuracy from closer relationships is achieved under an additive model and does not rely on any family or interaction effects. Using theory, simulations and real data analyses, we show that the predictive accuracy or the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) increased exponentially with decreasing effective size (Ne), i.e. when individuals are closely related. For example, with the sample size of discovery set N = 3000, heritability h2 = 0.5 and population prevalence K = 0.1, AUC value approached to 0.9 and the top percentile of the estimated genetic profile scores had 23 times higher proportion of cases than the general population. This suggests that there is considerable room to increase prediction accuracy by using a design that does not exclude closer relationships. PMID:28181587

  11. Nuclear Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  12. A Critical Review for Developing Accurate and Dynamic Predictive Models Using Machine Learning Methods in Medicine and Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Hamdan O; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Qureshi, Kashif Naseer

    2017-04-01

    Recently, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been used widely in medicine and health care sector. In machine learning, the classification or prediction is a major field of AI. Today, the study of existing predictive models based on machine learning methods is extremely active. Doctors need accurate predictions for the outcomes of their patients' diseases. In addition, for accurate predictions, timing is another significant factor that influences treatment decisions. In this paper, existing predictive models in medicine and health care have critically reviewed. Furthermore, the most famous machine learning methods have explained, and the confusion between a statistical approach and machine learning has clarified. A review of related literature reveals that the predictions of existing predictive models differ even when the same dataset is used. Therefore, existing predictive models are essential, and current methods must be improved.

  13. Greater attention problems during childhood predict poorer executive functioning in late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Naomi P; Haberstick, Brett C; Willcutt, Erik G; Miyake, Akira; Young, Susan E; Corley, Robin P; Hewitt, John K

    2007-10-01

    Attention problems (behavior problems including inattention, disorganization, impulsivity, and hyperactivity) are widely thought to reflect deficits in executive functions (EFs). However, it is unclear whether attention problems differentially relate to distinct EFs and how developmental stability and change predict levels of EFs in late adolescence. We investigated, in an unselected sample, how teacher-rated attention problems from ages 7 to 14 years related to three correlated but separable EFs, measured as latent variables at age 17. Attention problems at all ages significantly predicted later levels of response inhibition and working memory updating, and to some extent set shifting; the relation to inhibiting was stronger than the relations to the other EFs or IQ. Growth models indicated that attention problems were quite stable in this age range, and it was the initial levels of problems, rather than their changes across time, that predicted later EFs. These results support the hypothesis that attention problems primarily reflect difficulties with response inhibition.

  14. Does physical abuse in early childhood predict substance use in adolescence and early adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E

    2010-05-01

    Prospective longitudinal data from 585 families were used to examine parents' reports of child physical abuse in the first 5 years of life as a predictor of substance use at ages 12, 16, and 24. Path analyses revealed that physical abuse in the first 5 years of life predicted subsequent substance use for females but not males. We found a direct effect of early physical abuse on girls'substance use at age 12 and indirect effects on substance use at age 16 and age 24 through substance use at age 12. For boys, age 12 substance use predicted age 16 substance use, and age 16 substance use predicted age 24 substance use, but physical abuse in the first 5 years of life was unrelated to subsequent substance use. These findings suggest that for females, a mechanism of influence of early physical abuse on substance use into early adulthood appears to be through precocious initiation of substance use in early adolescence.

  15. Externalizing Problems in Childhood and Adolescence Predict Subsequent Educational Achievement but for Different Genetic and Environmental Reasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gary J.; Asbury, Kathryn; Plomin, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background: Childhood behavior problems predict subsequent educational achievement; however, little research has examined the etiology of these links using a longitudinal twin design. Moreover, it is unknown whether genetic and environmental innovations provide incremental prediction for educational achievement from childhood to adolescence.…

  16. Predicting success or failure of brace treatment for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Eric; Westover, Lindsey; Jacob, Johith; Donauer, Andreas; Zhao, Vicky H; Parent, Eric C; Moreau, Marc J; Mahood, James K; Hedden, Douglas M; Lou, Edmond H M

    2015-10-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a three-dimensional spinal deformity. Brace treatment is a common non-surgical treatment, intended to prevent progression (worsening) of the condition during adolescence. Estimating a braced patient's risk of progression is an essential part of planning treatment, so method for predicting this risk would be a useful decision support tool for practitioners. This work attempts to discover whether failure of brace treatment (progression) can be predicted at the start of treatment. Records were obtained for 62 AIS patients who had completed brace treatment. Subjects were labeled as "progressive" if their condition had progressed despite brace treatment and "non-progressive" otherwise. Wrapper-based feature selection selected two useful predictor variables from a list of 14 clinical measurements taken from the records. A logistic regression model was trained to classify patients as "progressive" or "non-progressive" using these two variables. The logistic regression model's simplicity and interpretability should facilitate its clinical acceptance. The model was tested on data from an additional 28 patients and found to be 75 % accurate. This accuracy is sufficient to make the predictions clinically useful. It can be used online: http://www.ece.ualberta.ca/~dchalmer/SimpleBracePredictor.html .

  17. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Risk Behavior: Rules on Smoking and Drinking Also Predict Cannabis Use and Early Sexual Debut

    OpenAIRE

    de Looze, Margaretha; van den Eijnden, Regina; Verdurmen, Jacqueline; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Schulten, Ingrid; Vollebergh, Wilma; ter Bogt, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has provided considerable support for idea that increased parental support and control are strong determinants of lower prevalence levels of adolescent risk behavior. Much less is known on the association between specific parenting practices, such as concrete rules with respect to smoking and drinking and adolescent risk behavior. The present paper examined whether such concrete parental rules (1) have an effect on the targeted behaviors and (2) predict other, frequently co-...

  18. Amygdala Response Predicts Trajectory of Symptom Reduction During Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy among Adolescent Girls with PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Cisler, Josh M.; Sigel, Benjamin A.; Kramer, Teresa L.; Smitherman, Sonet; Vanderzee, Karin; Pemberton, Joy; Kilts, Clinton D.

    2015-01-01

    Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is the gold standard treatment for pediatric PTSD. Nonetheless, clinical outcomes in TF-CBT are highly variable, indicating a need to identify reliable predictors that allow forecasting treatment response. Here, we test the hypothesis that functional neuroimaging correlates of emotion processing predict PTSD symptom reduction during Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) among adolescent girls with PTSD. Thirty-four adolescent...

  19. Using Cloninger's Temperament Scales to Predict Substance-Related Behaviors in Adolescents: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christie; Hopfer, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hewitt, John; Stallings, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives We tested one of Cloninger's temperament theories – that high novelty seeking (NS), along with low harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD), and persistence (PE), predicts early-onset substance problems. Methods In a community-based sample of 777 adolescents examined at two time points (mean age 13 and 18, respectively), we examined whether Cloninger's four temperament dimensions at wave 1 predicted five substance-related outcomes at wave 2: age of initiation for cigarettes, alcohol, and illicit drugs, number of substance classes tried, and total number of DSM-IV substance use disorder (SUD) symptoms. Results Cloninger's predicted temperament pattern did significantly predict the number of SUD symptoms at wave 2. For initiation of cigarettes/illicit drugs and number of substance classes tried, HA/NS/PE fit the pattern, but RD did not. For onset of alcohol, only NS and PE fit Cloninger's prediction. Results for NS and PE were most consistent. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Overall, this study provides evidence that Cloninger's theory may hold true for predicting problem use more than for predicting “use” or experimentation. In addition, youth with high novelty seeking and low persistence may find substances especially reinforcing, and identifying these youth and intervening before initiation has occurred may reduce the risk of future substance-related problems. PMID:23617866

  20. Emotion dysregulation and impulsivity additively predict borderline personality disorder features in Italian nonclinical adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Gratz, Kim L; Maffei, Cesare; Borroni, Serena

    2013-11-01

    The present study aimed to test if measures of emotion dysregulation and impulsivity additively predicted dimensional scores of borderline personality disorder assessed using the Borderline Personality Disorder Scale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ in two independent samples of Italian nonclinical adolescents. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that three dimensions of emotion dysregulation (difficulties controlling impulsive behaviours when distressed, limited access to effective emotional regulation strategies and lack of emotional clarity) were significantly associated with BPD features in both samples. Further, impulsivity scores accounted for a significant amount of additional variance in BPD features above and beyond emotion dysregulation.

  1. Racial and Ethnic Profiles of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Young Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Dawn M; Wexler Rainisch, Bethany K

    2012-10-01

    This study describes complementary and alternative medicine use among a national sample of young adults, with an emphasis on characterizing racial and ethnic differences, highlighting variation across subgroups of Hispanics. The authors examined young adults ages 18 to 27 years (n = 14 128) from wave III (2001-2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Prevalence estimates and logistic regression results were weighted and adjusted for complex sample design. The study examined recent complementary and alternative medicine use in the past 12 months, recent use for each of 15 specific complementary and alternative medicine modalities, and the 5 most commonly used modalities (herbs, massage, chiropractic, relaxation, and vitamins). Results showed that 29% of young adults aged 18 to 27 years recently used complementary and alternative medicine. Prevalence was highest among Cuban Americans (42%) and lowest among blacks (22%). Young adults used a diversity of complementary and alternative medicine modalities and there were substantial differences in use across racial and ethnic groups.

  2. Neck circumference as a new anthropometric indicator for prediction of insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cleliani de Cassia da Silva; Mariana Porto Zambon; Vasques,Ana Carolina J.; Ana Maria de B. Rodrigues; Daniella Fernandes Camilo; Antonio, Maria Ângela R. G. M.; Cassani,Roberta Soares L.; Bruno Geloneze

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between neck circumference and insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents with different adiposity levels and pubertal stages, as well as to determine the usefulness of neck circumference to predict insulin resistance in adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 388 adolescents of both genders from ten to 19 years old. The adolescents underwent anthropometric and body composition assessment, including neck and waist cir...

  3. Childhood internalizing and externalizing problems predict the onset of clinical panic attacks over adolescence: the TRAILS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Mathyssek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Panic attacks are a source of individual suffering and are an independent risk factor for later psychopathology. However, much less is known about risk factors for the development of panic attacks, particularly during adolescence when the incidence of panic attacks increases dramatically. We examined whether internalizing and externalizing problems in childhood predict the onset of panic attacks in adolescence. METHOD: This study is part of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS, a Dutch longitudinal population cohort study (N = 1,584. Internalizing and Externalizing Problems were collected using the Youth Self-Report (YSR and the parent-report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL at baseline (age 10-12. At age 18-20, DSM-IV defined panic attacks since baseline were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. We investigated whether early adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Problems predicted panic attacks between ages 10-20 years, using survival analysis in univariate and multivariate models. RESULTS: There were N = 314 (19.8% cases who experienced at least one DSM-IV defined panic attack during adolescence and N = 18 (1.2% who developed panic disorder during adolescence. In univariate analyses, CBCL Total Problems, Internalizing Problems and three of the eight syndrome scales predicted panic attack onset, while on the YSR all broad-band problem scales and each narrow-band syndrome scale predicted panic attack onset. In multivariate analyses, CBCL Social Problems (HR 1.19, p<.05, and YSR Thought Problems (HR 1.15, p<.05 and Social Problems (HR 1.26, p<.01 predicted panic attack onset. CONCLUSION: Risk indicators of panic attack include the wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems. Yet, when adjusted for co-occurring problem behaviors, Social Problems were the most consistent risk factor for panic attack onsets in adolescence.

  4. Predicting impacts of climate change on medicinal asclepiads of Pakistan using Maxent modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanum, Rizwana; Mumtaz, A. S.; Kumar, Sunil

    2013-05-01

    Maximum entropy (Maxent) modeling was used to predict the potential climatic niches of three medicinally important Asclepiad species: Pentatropis spiralis, Tylophora hirsuta, and Vincetoxicum arnottianum. All three species are members of the Asclepiad plant family, yet they differ in ecological requirements, biogeographic importance, and conservation value. Occurrence data were collected from herbarium specimens held in major herbaria of Pakistan and two years (2010 and 2011) of field surveys. The Maxent model performed better than random for the three species with an average test AUC value of 0.74 for P. spiralis, 0.84 for V. arnottianum, and 0.59 for T. hirsuta. Under the future climate change scenario, the Maxent model predicted habitat gains for P. spiralis in southern Punjab and Balochistan, and loss of habitat in south-eastern Sindh. Vincetoxicum arnottianum as well as T. hirsuta would gain habitat in upper Peaks of northern parts of Pakistan. T. hirsuta is predicted to lose most of the habitats in northern Punjab and in parches from lower peaks of Galliat, Zhob, Qalat etc. The predictive modeling approach presented here may be applied to other rare Asclepiad species, especially those under constant extinction threat.

  5. The Risk GP Model: the standard model of prediction in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Jonathan; Flores, Luis J

    2015-12-01

    With the ascent of modern epidemiology in the Twentieth Century came a new standard model of prediction in public health and clinical medicine. In this article, we describe the structure of the model. The standard model uses epidemiological measures-most commonly, risk measures-to predict outcomes (prognosis) and effect sizes (treatment) in a patient population that can then be transformed into probabilities for individual patients. In the first step, a risk measure in a study population is generalized or extrapolated to a target population. In the second step, the risk measure is particularized or transformed to yield probabilistic information relevant to a patient from the target population. Hence, we call the approach the Risk Generalization-Particularization (Risk GP) Model. There are serious problems at both stages, especially with the extent to which the required assumptions will hold and the extent to which we have evidence for the assumptions. Given that there are other models of prediction that use different assumptions, we should not inflexibly commit ourselves to one standard model. Instead, model pluralism should be standard in medical prediction.

  6. Exposure to Movie Reckless Driving in Early Adolescence Predicts Reckless, but Not Inattentive Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien Kostermans

    Full Text Available We examine the association between exposure to depictions of reckless driving in movies and unsafe driving, modeling inattentive and reckless driving as separate outcomes.Data were obtained by telephone from 1,630 US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years at baseline who were drivers at a survey 6 years later. Exposure to movie reckless driving was measured based on movies seen from a randomly selected list of 50 movie titles that had been content coded for reckless driving among characters. Associations were tested with inattentive and reckless driving behaviors in the subsequent survey-controlling for baseline age, sex, socioeconomic status, parental education, school performance, extracurricular activities, daily television and video/computer game exposure, number of movies watched per week, self-regulation and sensation seeking.Exposure to movie reckless driving was common, with approximately 10% of movie characters having driven recklessly. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a significant distinction between items tapping reckless and inattentive driving at the 6th wave. Age and exposure to movie reckless driving at baseline were directly associated with wave-6 reckless (but not inattentive driving. Additionally, growth in sensation seeking mediated a prospective relation between the total number of movies watched per week at baseline and reckless driving, independent of exposure to movie reckless driving. Males and high sensation seekers reported lower seatbelt usage and more reckless driving, whereas lower self-regulation predicted inattentive driving.In this study, exposure to movie reckless driving during early adolescence predicted adolescents' reckless driving, suggesting a direct modeling effect. Other aspects of movies were also associated with reckless driving, with that association mediated through growth in sensation seeking. Predictors of reckless driving were different from predictors of inattentive driving, with lower self

  7. Neural correlates of error monitoring in adolescents prospectively predict initiation of tobacco use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey P. Anokhin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in self-regulation of behavior can play an important role in the initiation of substance use and progression to regular use and dependence. One of the distinct component processes of self-regulation is error monitoring, i.e. detection of a conflict between the intended and actually executed action. Here we examined whether a neural marker of error monitoring, Error-Related Negativity (ERN, predicts future initiation of tobacco use. ERN was assessed in a prospective longitudinal sample at ages 12, 14, and 16 using a flanker task. ERN amplitude showed a significant increase with age during adolescence. Reduced ERN amplitude at ages 14 and 16, as well as slower rate of its developmental changes significantly predicted initiation of tobacco use by age 18 but not transition to regular tobacco use or initiation of marijuana and alcohol use. The present results suggest that attenuated development of the neural mechanisms of error monitoring during adolescence can increase the risk for initiation of tobacco use. The present results also suggest that the role of distinct neurocognitive component processes involved in behavioral regulation may be limited to specific stages of addiction.

  8. Implicit theories of intelligence predict achievement across an adolescent transition: a longitudinal study and an intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Lisa S; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Dweck, Carol Sorich

    2007-01-01

    Two studies explored the role of implicit theories of intelligence in adolescents' mathematics achievement. In Study 1 with 373 7th graders, the belief that intelligence is malleable (incremental theory) predicted an upward trajectory in grades over the two years of junior high school, while a belief that intelligence is fixed (entity theory) predicted a flat trajectory. A mediational model including learning goals, positive beliefs about effort, and causal attributions and strategies was tested. In Study 2, an intervention teaching an incremental theory to 7th graders (N=48) promoted positive change in classroom motivation, compared with a control group (N=43). Simultaneously, students in the control group displayed a continuing downward trajectory in grades, while this decline was reversed for students in the experimental group.

  9. Predicting violent behavior: The role of violence exposure and future educational aspirations during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Sarah A; Heinze, Justin E; Choe, Daniel Ewon; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2015-10-01

    Few researchers have explored future educational aspirations as a promotive factor against exposure to community violence in relation to adolescents' violent behavior over time. The present study examined the direct and indirect effect of exposure to community violence prior to 9th grade on attitudes about violence and violent behavior in 12th grade, and violent behavior at age 22 via 9th grade future educational aspirations in a sample of urban African American youth (n = 681; 49% male). Multi-group SEM was used to test the moderating effect of gender. Exposure to violence was associated with lower future educational aspirations. For boys, attitudes about violence directly predicted violent behavior at age 22. For boys, future educational aspirations indirectly predicted less violent behavior at age 22. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  10. Early adolescent depressive symptoms: prediction from clique isolation, loneliness, and perceived social acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet, Miranda; Brendgen, Mara; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Vitaro, Frank

    2010-11-01

    This study examined whether clique isolation predicted an increase in depressive symptoms and whether this association was mediated by loneliness and perceived social acceptance in 310 children followed from age 11-14 years. Clique isolation was identified through social network analysis, whereas depressive symptoms, loneliness, and perceived social acceptance were assessed using self ratings. While accounting for initial levels of depressive symptoms, peer rejection, and friendlessness at age 11 years, a high probability of being isolated from cliques from age 11 to 13 years predicted depressive symptoms at age 14 years. The link between clique isolation and depressive symptoms was mediated by loneliness, but not by perceived social acceptance. No sex differences were found in the associations between clique isolation and depressive symptoms. These results suggest that clique isolation is a social risk factor for the escalation of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. Implications for research and prevention are discussed.

  11. Body Fat Equations and Electrical Bioimpedance Values in Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Eutrophic and Overweight Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Rocha Faria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze body fat anthropometric equations and electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA in the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors in eutrophic and overweight adolescents. 210 adolescents were divided into eutrophic group (G1 and overweight group (G2. The percentage of body fat (% BF was estimated using 10 body fat anthropometric equations and 2 BIA. We measured lipid profiles, uric acid, insulin, fasting glucose, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and blood pressure. We found that 76.7% of the adolescents exhibited inadequacy of at least one biochemical parameter or clinical cardiovascular risk. Higher values of triglycerides (TG (P=0.001, insulin, and HOMA-IR (P<0.001 were observed in the G2 adolescents. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the % BF from equation (5 was associated with TG, diastolic blood pressure, and insulin in G1. Among the G2 adolescents, the % BF estimated by (5 and (9 was associated with LDL, TG, insulin, and the HOMA-IR. Body fat anthropometric equations were associated with cardiovascular risk factors and should be used to assess the nutritional status of adolescents. In this study, equation (5 was associated with a higher number of cardiovascular risk factors independent of the nutritional status of adolescents.

  12. Forgetting the best when predicting the worst: Preliminary observations on neural circuit function in adolescent social anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M. Jarcho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder typically begins in adolescence, a sensitive period for brain development, when increased complexity and salience of peer relationships requires novel forms of social learning. Disordered social learning in adolescence may explain how brain dysfunction promotes social anxiety. Socially anxious adolescents (n = 15 and adults (n = 19 and non-anxious adolescents (n = 24 and adults (n = 32 predicted, then received, social feedback from high and low-value peers while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. A surprise recall task assessed memory biases for feedback. Neural correlates of social evaluation prediction errors (PEs were assessed by comparing engagement to expected and unexpected positive and negative feedback. For socially anxious adolescents, but not adults or healthy participants of either age group, PEs elicited heightened striatal activity and negative fronto-striatal functional connectivity. This occurred selectively to unexpected positive feedback from high-value peers and corresponded with impaired memory for social feedback. While impaired memory also occurred in socially-anxious adults, this impairment was unrelated to brain-based PE activity. Thus, social anxiety in adolescence may relate to altered neural correlates of PEs that contribute to impaired learning about social feedback. Small samples necessitate replication. Nevertheless, results suggest that the relationship between learning and fronto-striatal function may attenuate as development progresses.

  13. Future Time Perspective: Adolescents' Predictions of Their Interpersonal Lives in the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinn, Lynn M.; Pike, Gary

    1989-01-01

    Investigated adolescent future time perspective in adolescents (N=125) aged 15 to 20 years. Found adolescents did not perceive divorce in their future although periods of singlehood, widowhood, and nuclear family life were perceived as extremely likely, particularly among female adolescents. (Author/ABL)

  14. PREDICTION OF SPORT ADHERENCE THROUGH THE INFLUENCE OF AUTONOMY-SUPPORTIVE COACHING AMONG SPANISH ADOLESCENT ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomé J. Almagro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test a motivational model of the coach-athlete relationship, based on self-determination theory and on the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The sample comprised of 608 athletes (ages of 12-17 years completed the following measures: interest in athlete's input, praise for autonomous behavior, perceived autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and the intention to be physically active. Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that interest in athletes' input and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived autonomy, and perceived autonomy positively predicted intrinsic motivation. Finally, intrinsic motivation predicted the intention to be physically active in the future. The results are discussed in relation to the importance of the climate of autonomy support created by the coach on intrinsic motivation and adherence to sport by adolescent athletes. Further, the results provide information related to the possible objectives of future interventions for the education of coaches, with the goal of providing them with tools and strategies to favor the development of intrinsic motivation among their athletes. In conclusion, the climate of autonomy support created by the coach can predict the autonomy perceived by the athletes which predicts the intrinsic motivation experienced by the athletes, and therefore, their adherence to athletic practice. Key words: Autonomy support, perceived autonomy, intrinsic motivation, sport adherence

  15. Back to the Roots: Prediction of Biologically Active Natural Products from Ayurveda Traditional Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polur, Honey; Joshi, Tejal; Workman, Christopher;

    2011-01-01

    Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine is one of the most ancient, yet living medicinal traditions. In the present work, we developed an in silico library of natural products from Ayurveda medicine, coupled with structural information, plant origin and traditional therapeutic use. Following this...... basis of Ayurveda medicine and in drug repurposing....

  16. Predicting Social Networking Site Use and Online Communication Practices among Adolescents: The Role of Access and Device Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew P. Cingel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Given adolescents' heavy social media use, this study examined a number of predictors of adolescent social media use, as well as predictors of online communication practices. Using data collected from a national sample of 467 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17, results indicate that demographics, technology access, and technology ownership are related to social media use and communication practices. Specifically, females log onto and use more constructive com-munication practices on Facebook compared to males. Additionally, adolescents who own smartphones engage in more constructive online communication practices than those who share regular cell phones or those who do not have access to a cell phone. Overall, results imply that ownership of mobile technologies, such as smartphones and iPads, may be more predictive of social networking site use and online communication practices than general ownership of technology.

  17. Predicting Social Networking Site Use and Online Communication Practices among Adolescents: The Role of Access and Device Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew P. Cingel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given adolescents' heavy social media use, this study examined a number of predictors of adolescent social media use, as well as predictors of online communication practices. Using data collected from a national sample of 467 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17, results indicate that demographics, technology access, and technology ownership are related to social media use and communication practices. Specifically, females log onto and use more constructive communication practices on Facebook compared to males. Additionally, adolescents who own smartphones engage in more constructive online communication practices than those who share regular cell phones or those who do not have access to a cell phone. Overall, results imply that ownership of mobile technologies, such as smartphones and iPads, may be more predictive of social networking site use and online communication practices than general ownership of technology.

  18. Re-Visit to the School Nurse and Adolescents' Medicine Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borup, Ina K.; Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjorn E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine if students who re-visit the school nurse use medicines differently than other students when exposed to aches and psychological problems. Methods: The study includes all 11-, 13- and 15-year-old students from a random sample of schools in Denmark, response rate 87 per cent, n = 5,205. The data collection followed the…

  19. SCALE DEVELOPMENT FOR MEASURING AND PREDICTING ADOLESCENTS' LEISURE TIME PHYSICAL ACTIVITY BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Arribas Galarraga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a scale for assessing and predicting adolescents' physical activity behavior in Spain and Luxembourg using the Theory of Planned Behavior as a framework. The sample was comprised of 613 Spanish (boys = 309, girls = 304; M age =15.28, SD =1.127 and 752 Luxembourgish adolescents (boys = 343, girls = 409; M age = 14.92, SD = 1.198, selected from students of two secondary schools in both countries, with a similar socio-economic status. The initial 43-items were all scored on a 4-point response format using the structured alternative format and translated into Spanish, French and German. In order to ensure the accuracy of the translation, standardized parallel back-translation techniques were employed. Following two pilot tests and subsequent revisions, a second order exploratory factor analysis with oblimin direct rotation was used for factor extraction. Internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities were also tested. The 4-week test-retest correlations confirmed the items' time stability. The same five factors were obtained, explaining 63.76% and 63.64% of the total variance in both samples. Internal consistency for the five factors ranged from α = 0.759 to α = 0. 949 in the Spanish sample and from α = 0.735 to α = 0.952 in the Luxembourgish sample. For both samples, inter-factor correlations were all reported significant and positive, except for Factor 5 where they were significant but negative. The high internal consistency of the subscales, the reported item test-retest reliabilities and the identical factor structure confirm the adequacy of the elaborated questionnaire for assessing the TPB-based constructs when used with a population of adolescents in Spain and Luxembourg. The results give some indication that they may have value in measuring the hypothesized TPB constructs for PA behavior in a cross-cultural context

  20. The nonlinear dynamics of family problem solving in adolescence: the predictive validity of a peaceful resolution attractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J; Forgatch, Marion; Van Ryzin, Mark; Winter, Charlotte

    2012-07-01

    In this study we examined the videotaped family interactions of a community sample of adolescents and their parents. Youths were assessed in early to late adolescence on their levels of antisocial behavior. At age 16-17, youths and their parents were videotaped interacting while completing a variety of tasks, including family problem solving. The interactions were coded and compared for three developmental patterns of antisocial behavior: early onset, persistent; adolescence onset; and typically developing. The mean duration of conflict bouts was the only interaction pattern that discriminated the 3 groups. In the prediction of future antisocial behavior, parent and youth reports of transition entropy and conflict resolution interacted to account for antisocial behavior at age 18-19. Families with low entropy and peaceful resolutions predicted low levels of youth antisocial behavior at age 18-19. These findings suggest the need to study both attractors and repellers to understand family dynamics associated with health and social and emotional development.

  1. Adolescents' functional numeracy is predicted by their school entry number system knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Geary

    Full Text Available One in five adults in the United States is functionally innumerate; they do not possess the mathematical competencies needed for many modern jobs. We administered functional numeracy measures used in studies of young adults' employability and wages to 180 thirteen-year-olds. The adolescents began the study in kindergarten and participated in multiple assessments of intelligence, working memory, mathematical cognition, achievement, and in-class attentive behavior. Their number system knowledge at the beginning of first grade was defined by measures that assessed knowledge of the systematic relations among Arabic numerals and skill at using this knowledge to solve arithmetic problems. Early number system knowledge predicted functional numeracy more than six years later (ß = 0.195, p = .0014 controlling for intelligence, working memory, in-class attentive behavior, mathematical achievement, demographic and other factors, but skill at using counting procedures to solve arithmetic problems did not. In all, we identified specific beginning of schooling numerical knowledge that contributes to individual differences in adolescents' functional numeracy and demonstrated that performance on mathematical achievement tests underestimates the importance of this early knowledge.

  2. Sex differences in structural brain asymmetry predict overt aggression in early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Troy A W; Ohan, Jeneva L; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Simmons, Julian G; Allen, Nicholas B

    2014-04-01

    The devastating social, emotional and economic consequences of human aggression are laid bare nightly on newscasts around the world. Aggression is principally mediated by neural circuitry comprising multiple areas of the prefrontal cortex and limbic system, including the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), amygdala and hippocampus. A striking characteristic of these regions is their structural asymmetry about the midline (i.e. left vs right hemisphere). Variations in these asymmetries have been linked to clinical disorders characterized by aggression and the rate of aggressive behavior in psychiatric patients. Here, we show for the first time that structural asymmetries in prefrontal cortical areas are also linked to aggression in a normal population of early adolescents. Our findings indicate a relationship between parent reports of aggressive behavior in adolescents and structural asymmetries in the limbic and paralimbic ACC and OFC, and moreover, that this relationship varies by sex. Furthermore, while there was no relationship between aggression and structural asymmetries in the amygdala or hippocampus, hippocampal volumes did predict aggression in females. Taken together, the results suggest that structural asymmetries in the prefrontal cortex may influence human aggression, and that the anatomical basis of aggression varies substantially by sex.

  3. Consultation for Disordered Puberty: What Do Adolescent Medicine Patients Teach Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Pierre-André; Ambresin, Anne-Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    The period of adolescence is not only marked by important growth and pubertal events, but is also characterized by important psychosocial changes driven by a search for autonomy and the construction of one's identity. It can thus be easily understood that puberty disorders interfere heavily with these process, requiring from the endocrinologist not only medical knowledge, but also a great deal of emotional and psychological skills. They must progressively move from an educational approach that heavily involves the parents to one of shared information and decision making that places the young patient at the center of the therapeutic process. This can be achieved in several ways: respecting the affective and cognitive development of the adolescent; securing his privacy and (if requested by him) confidentiality; exploring his self-image and self-esteem and adapting the therapeutic process to the patient's expectations; reviewing the teenager's lifestyle, including the issue of sexuality and sexual behavior, and involving him in any therapeutic choice that has to be made, even if it does not match with the parents' expectations. The skills required for this respectful and holistic follow-up often exceed the abilities of any physician; it is thus suggested that a team approach involving a clinical nurse and/or a psychologist and/or social worker(s) be set up whenever possible.

  4. The unique contribution of attitudes toward non-alcoholic drinks to the prediction of adolescents' and young adults' alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roek, M.A.E.; Spijkerman, R.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Lemmers, A.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Attitudes toward alternative behaviors, such as drinking soda instead of alcohol, might contribute to the prediction of young people's drinking behavior. The current study explored the associations between late adolescents' and young adults' attitudes toward alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks and th

  5. Risk score for predicting adolescent mental health problems among children using parental report only : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, Huibert; Boks, Marco P.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Aukes, Maartje F.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To construct a risk score for adolescent mental health problems among children, using parental data only and without potentially stigmatizing mental health items. METHODS: We prospectively derived a prediction model for mental health problems at age 16 using data from parent report on 167

  6. Predicting the Filial Behaviors of Chinese-Malaysian Adolescents from Perceived Parental Investments, Filial Emotions, and Parental Warmth and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Ozdemir, Sevgi Bayram; Leung, Christy Y. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the mediating role of perceived parental warmth and support in predicting Chinese Malaysian adolescents' filial behaviors from their age, perceived parental investments, and positive filial emotions toward their parents. The effects of these predictors were examined separately for mothers and fathers. Participants…

  7. Maternal anxiety predicts favourable treatment outcomes in anxiety-disordered adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legerstee, J.S.; Huizink, A.C.; Gastel, W. van; Liber, J.M.; Treffers, P.D.A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Utens, E.M.W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the differential impact of maternal and paternal internalizing psychopathology on cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) outcome of anxiety-disordered children and adolescents. Method: Participants consisted of 127 children and 51 adolescents with a primary anxiety diagnosis.

  8. Parenting practices and adolescent risk behavior: rules on smoking and drinking also predict cannabis use and early sexual debut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Looze, Margaretha; van den Eijnden, Regina; Verdurmen, Jacqueline; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Schulten, Ingrid; Vollebergh, Wilma; ter Bogt, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Previous research has provided considerable support for idea that increased parental support and control are strong determinants of lower prevalence levels of adolescent risk behavior. Much less is known on the association between specific parenting practices, such as concrete rules with respect to smoking and drinking and adolescent risk behavior. The present paper examined whether such concrete parental rules (1) have an effect on the targeted behaviors and (2) predict other, frequently co-occurring, risk behaviors (i.e., cannabis use and early sexual intercourse). These hypotheses were tested in a nationally representative sample of 12- to 16-year-old adolescents in the Netherlands. We found that both types of rules were associated with a lower prevalence of the targeted behaviors (i.e., smoking and drinking). In addition, independent of adolescent smoking and drinking behaviors, parental rules on smoking predicted a lower prevalence of cannabis use and early sexual intercourse, and parental rules on alcohol use also predicted a lower prevalence of early sexual intercourse. This study showed that concrete parental rule setting is more strongly related to lower levels of risk behaviors in adolescents compared to the more general parenting practices (i.e., support and control). Additionally, the effects of such rules do not only apply to the targeted behavior but extend to related behaviors as well. These findings are relevant to the public health domain and suggest that a single intervention program that addresses a limited number of concrete parenting practices, in combination with traditional support and control practices, may be effective in reducing risk behaviors in adolescence.

  9. Predicting high-risk versus higher-risk substance use during late adolescence from early adolescent risk factors using Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Andrea E; Woodlief, Darren; Malone, Patrick S

    2014-01-01

    Much of the existing risk factor literature focuses on identifying predictors of low-levels of substance use versus higher-levels of substance use. In this paper, we explore more nuanced patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use during late adolescence. Our aims were to: 1) identify subgroups of youth with qualitatively different patterns of ATOD use; and 2) explore whether membership among qualitatively distinct, high-risk classes could be predicted based on early adolescent risk factors. Data came from a selected subsample of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 1,689). Predictors were measured when youth were about 12 years old; ATOD use was assessed when youth were aged 17 years. Results showed that adolescent ATOD use is not a homogenous behavior. Four distinct classes of adolescent ATOD users were derived. Each class had a qualitatively distinct and discriminable pattern of ATOD use. Ecological predictors were shown to differentiate between latent classes, with peer factors playing a particularly important role in differentiating between high-risk and higher-risk users. Implications for prevention and limitations are discussed.

  10. Violent relationships at the social-ecological level: A multi-mediation model to predict adolescent victimization by peers, bullying and depression in early and late adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriol, Xavier; Miranda, Rafael; Acosta, Hedy C.; Mendoza, Michelle C.; Torres-Vallejos, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Background From the social-ecological perspective, exposure to violence at the different developmental levels is fundamental to explain the dynamics of violence and victimization in educational centers. The following study aims at analyzing how these relationships are produced in the Peruvian context, where structural violence situations exist. Methods A multi-mediation structural model with 21,416 Peruvian adolescents (M = 13.69; SD = 0.71) was conducted to determine the influence of violence in the school environment on violence perceived within school and violence exercised by teachers. In addition, it was also intended to determine whether these violent relationships predict depression through loneliness, and bullying through peer victimization. The existence of differences between early and late adolescence was also verified. Results Results confirm that violence in the school setting has high influence on violence exercised by adolescents and teachers within the school. Teacher violence is the most important predictor of depression through loneliness, and encourages peer victimization and the emergence of aggressive behavior. Exposure to violence exercised by support sources—teachers and classmates—explains more than 90% of the total variance explained in bullying behavior. Differences were found between early and late adolescence models. Conclusion The high prevalence of structural violence in school settings facilitates the bullying/victimization dynamics within school. From a social-ecological perspective, this result suggests the importance of network cooperation at a mesosystem level, with teachers from educational centers playing a crucial role in the prevention of bullying/victimization. PMID:28358905

  11. The Role of Peer Group Aggression in Predicting Adolescent Dating Violence and Relationship Quality

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    Ellis, Wendy E.; Chung-Hall, Janet; Dumas, Tara M.

    2013-01-01

    Past research has shown that adolescent peer groups make a significant contribution to shaping behavior but less is known about the role of peer groups in adolescent dating relationships. This longitudinal study examined the contribution of aggressive peer group norms on relationship quality and dating violence among dating adolescents. At the…

  12. Processing Speed and Neurodevelopment in Adolescent-Onset Psychosis: Cognitive Slowing Predicts Social Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Peter; Niendam, Tara A.; Jalbrzikowkski, Maria; Park, Chan Y.; Daley, Melita; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Bearden, Carrie E.

    2012-01-01

    Onset of psychosis may be associated with abnormal adolescent neurodevelopment. Here we examined the neurocognitive profile of first-episode, adolescent onset psychosis (AOP) as compared to typically developing adolescents, and asked whether neurocognitive performance varied differentially as a function of age in the cases compared with controls.…

  13. Are adolescents with internet addiction prone to aggressive behavior? The mediating effect of clinical comorbidities on the predictability of aggression in adolescents with internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jae-A; Gwak, Ah Reum; Park, Su Mi; Kwon, Jun-Gun; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Kim, Jae-Won; Kim, Dai Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have reported associations between aggression and Internet addiction disorder (IAD), which has also been linked with anxiety, depression, and impulsiveness. However, the causal relationship between aggression and IAD has thus far not been clearly demonstrated. This study was designed to (a) examine the association between aggression and IAD and (b) investigate the mediating effects of anxiety, depression, and impulsivity in cases in which IAD predicts aggression or aggression predicts IAD. A total of 714 middle school students in Seoul, South Korea, were asked to provide demographic information and complete the Young's Internet Addiction Test (Y-IAT), the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Conners-Wells Adolescent Self-Report Scale. Three groups were identified based on the Y-IAT: the usual user group (n=487, 68.2%), the high-risk group (n=191, 26.8%), and the Internet addiction group (n=13, 1.8%). The data revealed a linear association between aggression and IAD such that one variable could be predicted by the other. According to the path analysis, the clinical scales (BAI, BDI, and CASS) had partial or full mediating effects on the ability of aggression to predict IAD, but the clinical scales had no mediating effect on the ability of IAD to predict aggression. The current findings suggest that adolescents with IAD seem to have more aggressive dispositions than do normal adolescents. If more aggressive individuals are clinically prone to Internet addiction, early psychiatric intervention may contribute to the prevention of IAD.

  14. Longitudinal prediction and concurrent functioning of adolescent girls demonstrating various profiles of dating violence and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, Debbie; Crooks, Claire V; Wolfe, David A; McIsaac, Caroline; Hughes, Ray; Jaffe, Peter G

    2012-08-01

    Adolescent girls are involved in physical dating violence as both perpetrators and victims, and there are negative consequences associated with each of these behaviors. This article used a prospective design with 519 girls dating in grade 9 to predict profiles of dating violence in grade 11 based on relationships with families of origin (child maltreatment experiences, harsh parenting), and peers (harassment, delinquency, relational aggression). In addition, dating violence profiles were compared on numerous indices of adjustment (school connectedness, grades, self-efficacy and community connectedness) and maladjustment (suicide attempts, distress, delinquency, sexual behavior) for descriptive purposes. The most common profile was no dating violence (n = 367) followed by mutual violence (n = 81). Smaller numbers of girls reported victimization or perpetration only (ns = 39 and 32, respectively). Predicting grade 11 dating violence profile membership from grade 9 relationships was limited, although delinquency, parental rejection, and sexual harassment perpetration predicted membership to the mutually violent group, and delinquency predicted the perpetrator-only group. Compared to the non-violent group, the mutually violent girls in grade 11 had lower grades, poorer self-efficacy, and lower school connectedness and community involvement. Furthermore, they had higher rates of peer aggression and delinquency, were less likely to use condoms and were much more likely to have considered suicide. There were fewer differences among the profiles for girls involved with dating violence. In addition, the victims-only group reported higher rates of sexual intercourse, comparable to the mutually violent group and those involved in nonviolent relationships. Implications for prevention and intervention are highlighted.

  15. Mathematical Models of Pluripotent Stem Cells: At the Dawn of Predictive Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pir, Pınar; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative medicine, ranging from stem cell therapy to organ regeneration, is promising to revolutionize treatments of diseases and aging. These approaches require a perfect understanding of cell reprogramming and differentiation. Predictive modeling of cellular systems has the potential to provide insights about the dynamics of cellular processes, and guide their control. Moreover in many cases, it provides alternative to experimental tests, difficult to perform for practical or ethical reasons. The variety and accuracy of biological processes represented in mathematical models grew in-line with the discovery of underlying molecular mechanisms. High-throughput data generation led to the development of models based on data analysis, as an alternative to more established modeling based on prior mechanistic knowledge. In this chapter, we give an overview of existing mathematical models of pluripotency and cell fate, to illustrate the variety of methods and questions. We conclude that current approaches are yet to overcome a number of limitations: Most of the computational models have so far focused solely on understanding the regulation of pluripotency, and the differentiation of selected cell lineages. In addition, models generally interrogate only a few biological processes. However, a better understanding of the reprogramming process leading to ESCs and iPSCs is required to improve stem-cell therapies. One also needs to understand the links between signaling, metabolism, regulation of gene expression, and the epigenetics machinery.

  16. Adolescent sexuality in the limelight. Study and predictability of condom use through the theory of planned behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eufrosini Barmpagianni

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents' sexual behavior is the focus of attention since increased levels of unintended pregnancy, abortions and sexually transmitted diseases are detected. Psychological, family and social factors contribute to the above mentioned situations. The aim of the present research was to examine the intention of condom use in adolescents of both sexes using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Material- Method: The study population consisted of 378 adolescents, aged 15 to 18. Data was collected by the completion of a questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. The statistical method used was x2, t-test, one-way ANOVA. The data statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS 13.0 program. Results: From the participants, 94.9% reported that they had sufficient knowledge on contraception issues. Friends were the main source of information (20.2%. The majority of adolescents (58.2% had full sexual intercourse at age 15 (30%. Proportionally, adolescents with higher self-efficacy were found to have greater intention to the condom use. The more increased was the degree of the convenience in using condom with a new partner, the more positive was the adolescents' attitude towards the use of condom with a steady partner and the greater was the degree of awareness about sexual issues, the greater the behavioral intention. Conclusions: The degree of the adolescents' self-efficacy, in other words, the more confident they are in their abilities and skills of overcoming possible obstacles, the greater their intention to use condom. According to the results, the factors which strongly predict the intention, in order of importance, were: self – efficacy, degree of control, degree of awareness and the descriptive regularity. The findings are of great importance for the Hellenic science, since there is insufficient and little data on this subject.

  17. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms.

  18. Longer Weekly Sleep Duration Predicts Greater 3-Month BMI Reduction among Obese Adolescents Attending a Clinical Multidisciplinary Weight Management Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany J. Sallinen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine whether baseline levels of self-reported sleep and sleep problems among obese adolescents referred to an outpatient multidisciplinary family-based weight management program predict reduction in BMI 3 months later. Methods: A retrospective medical chart review was conducted for 83 obese adolescents. The following baseline variables were extracted: self-reported sleep duration (weekdays and weekends, and presence of snoring, daytime fatigue, suspected sleep apnea, and physician-diagnosed sleep apnea. Anthropometric data at baseline and 3 months were also collected. Results: On average, adolescents reported significantly less sleeping on weeknights (7.7 ± 1.3 h compared to weekend nights (10.0 ± 1.8 h, t(82 = 10.5, p = 0.0001. Reduction in BMI after 3 months of treatment was predicted by more weekly sleep at baseline (R2 = 0.113, F(1, 80 = 10.2, p = 0.002. Adolescents who reduced their BMI by ≥1 kg/m2 reported greater weekly sleep at baseline compared to adolescents who experienced 2 reduction (60.7 ± 7.5 h vs. 56.4 ± 8.6 h; F(1, 80 = 5.7, p = 0.02. Conclusion: Findings from this study, though correlational, raise the possibility that increased duration of sleep may be associated with weight loss among obese adolescents enrolled in a weight management program. Evidence-based behavioral techniques to improve sleep hygiene and increase sleep duration should be explored in pediatric weight management settings.

  19. Amygdala response predicts trajectory of symptom reduction during Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy among adolescent girls with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisler, Josh M; Sigel, Benjamin A; Kramer, Teresa L; Smitherman, Sonet; Vanderzee, Karin; Pemberton, Joy; Kilts, Clinton D

    2015-12-01

    Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is the gold standard treatment for pediatric PTSD. Nonetheless, clinical outcomes in TF-CBT are highly variable, indicating a need to identify reliable predictors that allow forecasting treatment response. Here, we test the hypothesis that functional neuroimaging correlates of emotion processing predict PTSD symptom reduction during Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) among adolescent girls with PTSD. Thirty-four adolescent girls with PTSD related to physical or sexual assault were enrolled in TF-CBT, delivered in an approximately 12 session format, in an open trial. Prior to treatment, they were engaged in an implicit threat processing task during 3T fMRI, during which they viewed faces depicting fearful or neutral expressions. Among adolescent girls completing TF-CBT (n = 23), slopes of PTSD symptom trajectories during TF-CBT were significantly related to pre-treatment degree of bilateral amygdala activation while viewing fearful vs neutral images. Adolescents with less symptom reduction were characterized by greater amygdala activation to both threat and neutral images (i.e., less threat-safety discrimination), whereas adolescents with greater symptom reduction were characterized by amygdala activation only to threat images. These clinical outcome relationships with pre-treatment bilateral amygdala activation remained when controlling for possible confounding demographic or clinical variables (e.g., concurrent psychotropic medication, comorbid diagnoses). While limited by a lack of a control group, these preliminary results suggest that pre-treatment amygdala reactivity to fear stimuli, a component of neurocircuitry models of PTSD, positively predicts symptom reduction during TF-CBT among assaulted adolescent girls, providing support for an objective measure for forecasting treatment response in this vulnerable population.

  20. Media as a "Super Peer": How Adolescents Interpret Media Messages Predicts Their Perception of Alcohol and Tobacco Use Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Kristen C; Scull, Tracy M; Kupersmidt, Janis B

    2017-02-01

    Adolescents' media environment offers information about who uses substances and what happens as a result-how youth interpret these messages likely determines their impact on normative beliefs about alcohol and tobacco use. The Message Interpretation Processing (MIP) theory predicts that substance use norms are influenced by cognitions associated with the interpretation of media messages. This cross-sectional study examined whether high school adolescents' (n = 817, 48 % female, 64 % white) media-related cognitions (i.e., similarity, realism, desirability, identification) were related to their perceptions of substance use norms. Results revealed that adolescents' media-related cognitions explained a significant amount of variance in perceived social approval for and estimated prevalence of peer alcohol and tobacco use, above and beyond previous use and demographic covariates. Compared to prevalence norms, social approval norms were more closely related to adolescents' media-related cognitions. Results suggest that critical thinking about media messages can inhibit normative perceptions that are likely to increase adolescents' interest in alcohol and tobacco use.

  1. Non-suicidal self-injury prospectively predicts interpersonal stressful life events and depressive symptoms among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Taylor A; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-08-30

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is the deliberate self-harm of one's tissue, engaged in without lethal intent, and occurs frequently among late adolescents. Although research has indicated that NSSI predicts depression, the potential psychosocial mechanisms through which engagement in NSSI makes one susceptible to future depressive symptoms remain unclear. The present study examined whether NSSI increases the risk of experiencing stressful life events, which, in turn, heightens the risk for subsequent depressive symptoms. Drawn from a sample specifically selected for adolescents at high and low risk for developing bipolar spectrum disorders, a total of 110 late-adolescents (mean age=18.74, SD=.69; 73% female) were administered measures of lifetime and past year engagement in NSSI and current depressive symptomatology. Approximately 6 months later, they completed a measure of depressive symptoms and a questionnaire and interview assessing life events that occurred over the 6-month interval. Results suggest that the frequency of lifetime and past year NSSI predicted the occurrence of interpersonal stressful life events beyond the effects of initial depressive symptoms, but only for late adolescent girls. Results further suggest that higher levels of interpersonal stressful life events mediated the relationship between NSSI frequency and prospective increases in depressive symptoms among girls.

  2. Validation of a multifactorial risk factor model used for predicting future caries risk with nevada adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobley Connie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to measure the validity and reliability of a multifactorial Risk Factor Model developed for use in predicting future caries risk in Nevada adolescents in a public health setting. Methods This study examined retrospective data from an oral health surveillance initiative that screened over 51,000 students 13-18 years of age, attending public/private schools in Nevada across six academic years (2002/2003-2007/2008. The Risk Factor Model included ten demographic variables: exposure to fluoridation in the municipal water supply, environmental smoke exposure, race, age, locale (metropolitan vs. rural, tobacco use, Body Mass Index, insurance status, sex, and sealant application. Multiple regression was used in a previous study to establish which significantly contributed to caries risk. Follow-up logistic regression ascertained the weight of contribution and odds ratios of the ten variables. Researchers in this study computed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PVP, negative predictive value (PVN, and prevalence across all six years of screening to assess the validity of the Risk Factor Model. Results Subjects' overall mean caries prevalence across all six years was 66%. Average sensitivity across all six years was 79%; average specificity was 81%; average PVP was 89% and average PVN was 67%. Conclusions Overall, the Risk Factor Model provided a relatively constant, valid measure of caries that could be used in conjunction with a comprehensive risk assessment in population-based screenings by school nurses/nurse practitioners, health educators, and physicians to guide them in assessing potential future caries risk for use in prevention and referral practices.

  3. Information processing biases concurrently and prospectively predict depressive symptoms in adolescents: Evidence from a self-referent encoding task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Samantha L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-01-01

    Negative information processing biases have been hypothesised to serve as precursors for the development of depression. The current study examined negative self-referent information processing and depressive symptoms in a community sample of adolescents (N = 291, Mage at baseline = 12.34 ± 0.61, 53% female, 47.4% African-American, 49.5% Caucasian and 3.1% Biracial). Participants completed a computerised self-referent encoding task (SRET) and a measure of depressive symptoms at baseline and completed an additional measure of depressive symptoms nine months later. Several negative information processing biases on the SRET were associated with concurrent depressive symptoms and predicted increases in depressive symptoms at follow-up. Findings partially support the hypothesis that negative information processing biases are associated with depressive symptoms in a nonclinical sample of adolescents, and provide preliminary evidence that these biases prospectively predict increases in depressive symptoms.

  4. The Predictive Influence of Youth Assets on Drinking and Driving Behaviors in Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegerich, Tamara M; Shults, Ruth A; Oman, Roy F; Vesely, Sara K

    2016-06-01

    Drinking and driving among adolescents and young adults remains a significant public health burden. Etiological research is needed to inform the development and selection of preventive interventions that might reduce alcohol-involved crashes and their tragic consequences. Youth assets-that is, skills, competencies, relationships, and opportunities-can help youth overcome challenges, successfully transition into adulthood, and reduce problem behavior. We examined the predictive influence of individual, relationship, and community assets on drinking and driving (DD) and riding with a drinking driver (RDD). We assessed prospective relationships through analysis of data from the Youth Assets Study, a community-based longitudinal study of socio-demographically diverse youth. Results from calculation of marginal models using a Generalized Estimating Equation approach revealed that parent and peer relationship and school connectedness assets reduced the likelihood of both drinking and driving and riding with a drinking driver approximately 1 year later. The most important and consistent asset that influenced DD and RDD over time was parental monitoring, highlighting the role of parental influence extending beyond the immediate teen driving context into young adulthood. Parenting-focused interventions could influence factors that place youth at risk for injury from DD to RDD, complementing other evidence-based strategies such as school-based instructional programs and zero tolerance Blood Alcohol Concentration laws for young and inexperienced drivers.

  5. Predicting nicotine dependence profiles among adolescent smokers: the roles of personal and social-environmental factors in a longitudinal framework

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    Kleinjan Marloes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several studies have reported that symptoms of nicotine dependence can occur after limited exposure to smoking, the majority of research on nicotine dependence has focused on adult smokers. Insufficient knowledge exists regarding the epidemiology and aetiology of nicotine dependence among adolescent smokers. The objective of the present study is to identify the effects of theoretically driven social and individual predictors of nicotine dependence symptom profiles in a population-based sample of adolescent smokers. Method A longitudinal study among 6,783 adolescents (12 to 14 years old at baseline was conducted. In the first and second year of secondary education, personality traits and exposure to smoking in the social environment were assessed. Two and a half years later, adolescents' smoking status and nicotine dependence symptom profiles were assessed. A total of 796 adolescents were identified as smokers and included in the analyses. Results At follow-up, four distinct dependence symptom profiles were identified: low cravings only, high cravings and withdrawal, high cravings and behavioural dependence, and overall highly dependent. Personality traits of neuroticism and extraversion did not independently predict nicotine dependence profiles, whereas exposure to smoking in the social environment posed a risk for the initial development of nicotine dependence symptoms. However, in combination with environmental exposure to smoking, extraversion and neuroticism increased the risk of developing more severe dependence symptom profiles. Conclusions Nicotine dependence profiles are predicted by interactions between personal and environmental factors. These insights offer important directions for tailoring interventions to prevent the onset and escalation of nicotine dependence. Opportunities for intervention programs that target individuals with a high risk of developing more severe dependence symptom profiles are

  6. A cross-sectional survey of complementary and alternative medicine use by children and adolescents attending the University Hospital of Wales

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    Lim Alissa

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high prevalence of CAM use has been documented worldwide in children and adolescents with chronic illnesses. Only a small number of studies, however, have been conducted in the United Kingdom. The primary aim of this study was to examine the use of CAM by children and adolescents with a wide spectrum of acute and chronic medical problems in a tertiary children's hospital in Wales. Methods Structured personal interviews of 100 inpatients and 400 outpatients were conducted over a 2-month period in 2004. The yearly and monthly prevalence of CAM use were assessed and divided into medicinal and non-medicinal therapies. This use was correlated with socio-demographic factors. Results There were 580 patients approached to attain 500 completed questionnaires. The use of at least one type of CAM in the past year was 41% (95% CI 37–46% and past month 26% (95% CI 23–30%. The yearly prevalence of medicinal CAM was 38% and non-medicinal 12%. The users were more likely to have parents that were tertiary educated (mother: OR = 2.3, 95%CI 1.6–3.3 and a higher family income (Pearson chi-square for trend = 14.3, p None of the inpatient medical records documented CAM use in the past month. Fifty-two percent of medicinal and 38% of non-medicinal CAM users felt their doctor did not need to know about CAM use. Sixty-six percent of CAM users did not disclose the fact to their doctor. Three percent of all participants were using herbs and prescription medicines concurrently. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of CAM use in our study population. Paediatricians need to ensure that they ask parents and older children about their CAM usage and advise caution with regard to potential interactions. CAM is a rapidly expanding industry that requires further evidence-based research to provide more information on the effectiveness and safety of many CAM therapies. Statutory or self-regulation of the different segments of the industry is important

  7. Validity of Some Anthropometric Indicators in the Prediction of High Systolic Blood Pressure Among Indian Adolescents

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    Shobha Rao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In view of the increasing prevalence of obesity in children, it is necessary to investigate the relative performance of different indicators used for its assessment and health consequences.Objectives: To examine concordance between various indicators used for assessing obesity among adolescents and to examine their ability to predict risk of high systolic blood pressure.Design: Cross-sectional study, from two schools catering to affluent class.Subjects: Children in age 9–16 yr (n = 1146 boys and 1036 girls.Measurements: Body weight, height, skinfold thickness at triceps (TSFT and body fat percent by trained investigators and blood pressure measurement by a pediatrician using sphygmomanometer.Results: Prevalence of overweight was lowest with criterion of TSFT (11.7% in boys; 7.6% in girls and was highest using criterion of body fat percent (53.7% in boys and 28.4% in girls. Body mass index (BMI had high significant correlation with each of the indicator and with systolic blood pressure (SBP as well, in both sexes. All the indicators with conventional cut offs showed poor sensitivity for predicting high SBP. However, receiver operating characteristics (ROC cut-offs improved sensitivity considerably, but the values were much lower compared to conventional cut-offs.Conclusions: There is considerable disparity in the estimates of overweight children obtained by different indicators. Lower values of ROC cut-offs highlights the need for population specific customized classification systems for assessing obesity in view of the probable population differences in relative risks of non-communicable adult diseases.

  8. Parental Behaviors during Family Interactions Predict Changes in Depression and Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Orli S.; Dudgeon, Paul; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective, longitudinal relations between parental behaviors observed during parent-adolescent interactions, and the development of depression and anxiety symptoms in a community-based sample of 194 adolescents. Positive and negative parental behaviors were examined, with negative behaviors operationalized to…

  9. Possible Insomnia Predicts Some Risky Behaviors among Adolescents when Controlling for Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catrett, Christina D.; Gaultney, Jane F.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether previously reported links between sleep and risk taking among adolescents (E. M. O'Brien & J. A. Mindell, 2005) are associated--concurrently, longitudinally, or both--with sleep or underlying depression. The present study analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 4,353 adolescents in the United…

  10. Trajectories of Psychosocial Problems in Adolescents Predicted by Findings From Early Well-Child Assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F.; Huisman, Mark; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Stewart, Roy E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe trajectories of emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents and to identify early indicators of these trajectories using data from routine well-child assessments at ages 0-4 years. Methods: Data from three assessment waves of adolescents (n = 1,816) of the TRAILS were used

  11. Cumulative Family Risk Predicts Increases in Adjustment Difficulties across Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Cheryl; Gerard, Jean M.

    2013-01-01

    Family is an important socialization context for youth as they move through early adolescence. A significant feature of this complex socialization context is the accumulation of potential family risk factors that may compromise youth adjustment. This study examined cumulative family risk and adolescents' adjustment difficulties in 416 two-parent…

  12. Predicting the health economic performance of new non-fusion surgery in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, J. Marjan; Boomkamp, Inge S. M.; Steuten, Lotte M. G.; Verkerke, Bart G. J.; IJzerman, Maarten J.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) can lead to pain, impaired spinal function, and socio-psychological problems. Conventional surgical treatment of severe forms of AIS fuses the vertebrae, thereby restricting spinal function and growth of the adolescents. Non-fusion surgical treatment (NFS) is be

  13. Predicting Parental Home and School Involvement in High School African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, DeMarquis

    2011-01-01

    Predictors of parental home and school involvement for high school adolescents were examined within two groups of urban African American parents from various socioeconomic levels. Home involvement was defined as parent-adolescent communication about school and learning, while school involvement was defined in terms of parent attendance and…

  14. Predicting Suicide Risks among Outpatient Adolescents Using the Family Environment Scale: Implications for Practice and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, Christopher F.; Lam, Sarah K. Y.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to identify characteristics of family functioning that relate to suicide potential in an outpatient adolescent population. Participants included 51 adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 who were involved in outpatient counselling. The Family Environment Scale and the Suicide Probability Scale were used to assess…

  15. Anticipating Their Future: Adolescent Values for the Future Predict Adult Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Andrea K.; Wray-Lake, Laura; Warren, Michael; Maggs, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent future values--beliefs about what will matter to them in the future--may shape their adult behavior. Utilizing a national longitudinal British sample, this study examined whether adolescent future values in six domains (i.e., family responsibility, full-time job, personal responsibility, autonomy, civic responsibility, and hedonistic…

  16. Predicting Educational Outcomes and Psychological Well-Being in Adolescents Using Time Attitude Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.

    2014-01-01

    Using cluster analysis of Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (ATAS) scores in a sample of 300 adolescents ("M" age = 16 years; "SD" = 1.25; 60% male; 41% European American; 25.3% Asian American; 11% African American; 10.3% Latino), the authors identified five time attitude profiles based on positive and negative attitudes toward…

  17. Prediction of Work Efficiency in Early Adolescence under the Effects of Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosnaric, Samo; Planinsec, Jurij

    2008-01-01

    This is a short summary of research on how different stress factors in the work environment (climate, light, noise) affect work performance of early adolescents. Due to the complexity of the measurements, the research consisted of a small sample of male adolescents (N = 20); average age 13.5 years (SD = 0.25). Tasks were used which demanded…

  18. The role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution in predicting shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Israel; Shulman, Shmuel

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution patterns in shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescent couples. Data were used from 55 couples aged 15-18 years. Partners completed the Romantic Attraction scale and were observed negotiating a disagreement. Three and 6 months later, they were asked to report whether they were still together. Findings indicated that partners' romantic attraction and the tendency to minimize disagreements during interaction predicted shorter relationship maintenance. In contrast, longer relationship maintenance was predicted by partners' capability to resolve conflicts constructively in a positive atmosphere. Findings are embedded and discussed within Fisher's (2004) evolutionary theory of love.

  19. Predicting airway hyperreactivity to mannitol using exhaled nitric oxide in an unselected sample of adolescents and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrild, A; Malinovschi, A; Porsbjerg, C;

    2013-01-01

    the diagnostic accuracy of FeNO using absolute and normalized values to predict the presence of AHR to inhaled mannitol in an unselected population. Levels of FeNO and AHR to inhaled, dry-powder mannitol was measured in 180 unselected, steroid-naïve, non-smoking adolescents and young adults. The area under...... and specific tool for predicting the response to inhaled mannitol in an unselected sample of non-smoking, steroid-naïve subjects, and a low FeNO indicates that extra diagnostic work-up using inhaled mannitol will add very little extra information....

  20. Factors affecting linkage to care and engagement in care for newly diagnosed HIV-positive adolescents within fifteen adolescent medicine clinics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbin, Morgan M; Tanner, Amanda E; DuVal, Anna; Ellen, Jonathan M; Xu, Jiahong; Kapogiannis, Bill; Bethel, Jim; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2014-08-01

    Early linkage to care and engagement in care are critical for initiation of medical interventions. However, over 50 % of newly diagnosed persons do not receive HIV-related care within 6 months of diagnosis. We evaluated a linkage to care and engagement in care initiative for HIV-positive adolescents in 15 U.S.-based clinics. Structural and client-level factors (e.g. demographic and behavioral characteristics, clinic staff and location) were evaluated as predictors of successful linkage and engagement. Within 32 months, 1,172/1,679 (69.8 %) of adolescents were linked to care of which 1,043/1,172 (89 %) were engaged in care. Only 62.1 % (1,043/1,679) of adolescents were linked and engaged in care. Linkage to care failure was attributed to adolescent, provider, and clinic-specific factors. Many adolescents provided incomplete data during the linkage process or failed to attend appointments, both associated with failure to linkage to care. Additional improvements in HIV care will require creative approaches to coordinated data sharing, as well as continued outreach services to support newly diagnosed adolescents.

  1. Predicting growth and curve progression in the individual patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: design of a prospective longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veldhuizen Albert G

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scoliosis is present in 3-5% of the children in the adolescent age group, with a higher incidence in females. Treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is mainly dependent on the progression of the scoliotic curve. There is a close relationship between curve progression and rapid (spinal growth of the patient during puberty. However, until present time no conclusive method was found for predicting the timing and magnitude of the pubertal growth spurt in total body height, or the curve progression of the idiopathic scoliosis. The goal of this study is to determine the predictive value of several maturity indicators that reflect growth or remaining growth potential, in order to predict timing of the peak growth velocity of total body height in the individual patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Furthermore, different parameters are evaluated for their correlation with curve progression in the individual scoliosis patient. Methods/design This prospective, longitudinal cohort study will be incorporated in the usual care of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. All new patients between 8 and 17 years with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (Cobb angle >10 degrees visiting the outpatient clinic of the University Medical Center Groningen are included in this study. Follow up will take place every 6 months. The present study will use a new ultra-low dose X-ray system which can make total body X-rays. Several maturity indicators are evaluated like different body length dimensions, secondary sexual characteristics, skeletal age in hand and wrist, skeletal age in the elbow, the Risser sign, the status of the triradiate cartilage, and EMG ratios of the paraspinal muscle activity. Correlations of all dimensions will be calculated in relationship to the timing of the pubertal growth spurt, and to the progression of the scoliotic curve. An algorithm will be made for the optimal treatment strategy in the individual patient

  2. A Latent Class Analysis of Maternal Responsiveness and Autonomy-Granting in Early Adolescence: Prediction to Later Adolescent Sexual Risk-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to extend empirical inquiry related to the role of parenting on adolescent sexual risk-taking by using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of adolescent-reported mother responsiveness and autonomy-granting in early adolescence and examine associations with sexual risk-taking in mid- and late-adolescence.…

  3. Application of social cognitive theory in predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors in overweight and obese Iranian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherniya, Mohammad; Sharma, Manoj; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to use social cognitive theory to predict overweight and obesity behaviors in adolescent girls in Iran. Valid and reliable questionnaires about nutritional and physical activity regarding social cognitive theory constructs (self-efficacy, social support, outcome expectations, and outcome expectancies), dietary habits, and physical activity were filled by 172 overweight and obese girl adolescents. The mean age and body mass index were 13.4 ± 0.6 years and 28.2 ± 3.6 kg/m(2), respectively. Body mass index was significantly related to hours of television viewing (p = .003) and grams of junk food (p = .001). None of the social cognitive theory constructs were found to be significant predictors for servings of fruits and vegetables, grams of junk foods, minutes of physical activity, and hours of sedentary behaviors. In future, more culturally appropriate models need to be developed in Iran that can explain and predict prevention behaviors of obesity in Iranian adolescents.

  4. Aerobic exercise interacts with neurotrophic factors to predict cognitive functioning in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tatia M C; Wong, Mark Lawrence; Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Lee, Jada Chia-Di; Yau, Suk-Yu; So, Kwok-Fai

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings have suggested that aerobic exercise may have a positive effect on brain functioning, in addition to its well-recognized beneficial effects on human physiology. This study confirmed the cognitive effects of aerobic exercise on the human brain. It also examined the relationships between exercise and the serum levels of neurotrophic factors (BDNF, IGI-1, and VEGF). A total of 91 healthy teens who exercised regularly participated in this study. A between-group design was adopted to compare cognitive functioning subserved by the frontal and temporal brain regions and the serum levels of neurotrophic factors between 45 regular exercisers and 46 matched controls. The exercisers performed significantly better than the controls on the frontal and temporal functioning parameters measured. This beneficial cognitive effect was region-specific because no such positive cognitive effect on task-tapping occipital functioning was observed. With respect to the serum levels of the neurotrophic factors, a negative correlation between neurotrophic factors (BDNF and VEGF) with frontal and medial-temporal lobe function was revealed. Furthermore, the levels of BDNF and VEGF interacted with exercise status in predicting frontal and temporal lobe function. This is the first report of the interaction effects of exercise and neurotrophic factors on cognitive functioning. Herein, we report preliminary evidence of the beneficial effects of regular aerobic exercise in improving cognitive functions in teens. These beneficial effects are region-specific and are associated with the serum levels of neurotrophic factors. Our findings lay the path for future studies looking at ways to translate these beneficial effects to therapeutic strategies for adolescents.

  5. Utility of the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior for predicting Chinese adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qian; Johnson, C Anderson; Unger, Jennifer B; Lee, Liming; Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Palmer, Paula H; Sun, Ping; Gallaher, Peggy; Pentz, MaryAnn

    2007-05-01

    One third of smokers worldwide live in China. Identifying predictors of smoking is important for prevention program development. This study explored whether the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) predict adolescent smoking in China. Data were obtained from 14,434 middle and high school students (48.6% boys, 51.4% girls) in seven geographically varied cities in China. TRA and TPB were tested by multilevel mediation modeling, and compared by multilevel analyses and likelihood ratio tests. Perceived behavioral control was tested as a main effect in TPB and a moderation effect in TRA. The mediation effects of smoking intention were supported in both models (p<0.001). TPB accounted for significantly more variance than TRA (p<0.001). Perceived behavioral control significantly interacted with attitudes and social norms in TRA (p<0.001). Therefore, TRA and TPB are applicable to China to predict adolescent smoking. TPB is superior to TRA for the prediction and TRA can better predict smoking among students with lower than higher perceived behavioral control.

  6. Preschool externalizing behavior predicts gender-specific variation in adolescent neural structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Z K Caldwell

    Full Text Available Dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus is believed to underlie the development of much psychopathology. However, to date only limited longitudinal data relate early behavior with neural structure later in life. Our objective was to examine the relationship of early life externalizing behavior with adolescent brain structure. We report here the first longitudinal study linking externalizing behavior during preschool to brain structure during adolescence. We examined the relationship of preschool externalizing behavior with amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex volumes at age 15 years in a community sample of 76 adolescents followed longitudinally since their mothers' pregnancy. A significant gender by externalizing behavior interaction revealed that males-but not females-with greater early childhood externalizing behavior had smaller amygdala volumes at adolescence (t = 2.33, p = .023. No significant results were found for the hippocampus or the prefrontal cortex. Greater early externalizing behavior also related to smaller volume of a cluster including the angular gyrus and tempoparietal junction across genders. Results were not attributable to the impact of preschool anxiety, preschool maternal stress, school-age internalizing or externalizing behaviors, or adolescent substance use. These findings demonstrate a novel, gender-specific relationship between early-childhood externalizing behavior and adolescent amygdala volume, as well as a cross-gender result for the angular gyrus and tempoparietal junction.

  7. Emotional closeness to parents and grandparents: A moderated mediation model predicting adolescent adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet

    2015-09-01

    Warm and emotionally close relationships with parents and grandparents have been found in previous studies to be linked with better adolescent adjustment. The present study, informed by Family Systems Theory and Intergenerational Solidarity Theory, uses a moderated mediation model analyzing the contribution of the dynamics of these intergenerational relationships to adolescent adjustment. Specifically, it examines the mediating role of emotional closeness to the closest grandparent in the relationship between emotional closeness to a parent (the offspring of the closest grandparent) and adolescent adjustment difficulties. The model also examines the moderating role of emotional closeness to parents in the relationship between emotional closeness to grandparents and adjustment difficulties. The study was based on a sample of 1,405 Jewish Israeli secondary school students (ages 12-18) who completed a structured questionnaire. It was found that emotional closeness to the closest grandparent was more strongly associated with reduced adjustment difficulties among adolescents with higher levels of emotional closeness to their parents. In addition, adolescent adjustment and emotional closeness to parents was partially mediated by emotional closeness to grandparents. Examining the family conditions under which adolescents' relationships with grandparents is stronger and more beneficial for them can help elucidate variations in grandparent-grandchild ties and expand our understanding of the mechanisms that shape child outcomes.

  8. Thriving in School: The Role of Sixth-Grade Adolescent-Parent-School Relationships in Predicting Eighth-Grade Academic Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Daniel F; Syvertsen, Amy K; Mincemoyer, Claudia; Chilenski, Sarah Meyer; Olson, Jonathan R; Berrena, Elaine; Greenberg, Mark; Spoth, Richard

    2016-11-01

    The present study uses an ecological systems perspective to examine how parental involvement in school-related activities in sixth grade influences early adolescents' school bonding and academic achievement in eighth grade. Results of multilevel models of multiple data sources (i.e., adolescents, parents, and principals) suggested that parents' involvement in school, as reported by the adolescent in sixth grade, was a significant predictor of school bonding and academic grades in eighth grade. Furthermore, parent reports of guidance, support, and involvement in school and non-school activities were unrelated to their adolescents' grades and school bonding. Finally, schools' efforts to engage parents did not consistently predict an association between parental involvement and adolescent outcomes.

  9. Evolutionary prediction of medicinal properties in the genus Euphorbia L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Madeleine; Saslis Lagoudakis, Haris; Grace, Olwen M.;

    2016-01-01

    The current decrease of new drugs brought to the market has fostered renewed interest in plant-based drug discovery. Given the alarming rate of biodiversity loss, systematic methodologies in finding new plant-derived drugs are urgently needed. Medicinal uses of plants were proposed as proxy...

  10. Evolutionary prediction of medicinal properties in the genus Euphorbia L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Madeleine; Saslis Lagoudakis, Haris; Grace, Olwen M.

    2016-01-01

    The current decrease of new drugs brought to the market has fostered renewed interest in plant-based drug discovery. Given the alarming rate of biodiversity loss, systematic methodologies in finding new plant-derived drugs are urgently needed. Medicinal uses of plants were proposed as proxy for b...

  11. Prediction of alcohol drinking in adolescents: Personality-traits, behavior, brain responses, and genetic variations in the context of reward sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Angela; Müller, Kathrin U; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Papadopoulos, Dimitri; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Smolka, Michael; Ströhle, Andreas; Rietschel, Marcella; Flor, Herta; Schumann, Gunter; Nees, Frauke

    2016-07-01

    Adolescence is a time that can set the course of alcohol abuse later in life. Sensitivity to reward on multiple levels is a major factor in this development. We examined 736 adolescents from the IMAGEN longitudinal study for alcohol drinking during early (mean age=14.37) and again later (mean age=16.45) adolescence. Conducting structural equation modeling we evaluated the contribution of reward-related personality traits, behavior, brain responses and candidate genes. Personality seems to be most important in explaining alcohol drinking in early adolescence. However, genetic variations in ANKK1 (rs1800497) and HOMER1 (rs7713917) play an equal role in predicting alcohol drinking two years later and are most important in predicting the increase in alcohol consumption. We hypothesize that the initiation of alcohol use may be driven more strongly by personality while the transition to increased alcohol use is more genetically influenced.

  12. Do online assessed self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity-related constructs predict onset of substance use in adolescents?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Tim; Larsen, Helle; Peeters, Margot; Boendermaker, Wouter; Vollebergh, Wilma; Wiers, Reinout

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction To prospectively predict the onset of use of alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana among Dutch adolescents, using behavioral and self-report measures of impulsivity-related facets. Specifically, we investigated whether behavioral measures of impulsivity predicted the onset of subst

  13. Girls’ challenging social experiences in early adolescence predict neural response to rewards and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melynda D. Casement

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental models of psychopathology posit that exposure to social stressors may confer risk for depression in adolescent girls by disrupting neural reward circuitry. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the relationship between early adolescent social stressors and later neural reward processing and depressive symptoms. Participants were 120 girls from an ongoing longitudinal study of precursors to depression across adolescent development. Low parental warmth, peer victimization, and depressive symptoms were assessed when the girls were 11 and 12 years old, and participants completed a monetary reward guessing fMRI task and assessment of depressive symptoms at age 16. Results indicate that low parental warmth was associated with increased response to potential rewards in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, striatum, and amygdala, whereas peer victimization was associated with decreased response to potential rewards in the mPFC. Furthermore, concurrent depressive symptoms were associated with increased reward anticipation response in mPFC and striatal regions that were also associated with early adolescent psychosocial stressors, with mPFC and striatal response mediating the association between social stressors and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with developmental models that emphasize the adverse impact of early psychosocial stressors on neural reward processing and risk for depression in adolescence.

  14. The Role of Attachment Style in Predicting Repetition of Adolescent Self-Harm: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazebrook, Katie; Townsend, Ellen; Sayal, Kapil

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated whether insecure attachment is associated with poorer outcomes at 6-month follow-up in adolescents who self-harm. At baseline the Child Attachment Interview was administered to 52 adolescents (13-17 years) referred to specialist child and adolescent mental health services and with a recent history of self-harm. Participants also completed self-report measures of self-harm, peer attachment, anxiety, and depression and were administered the means end problem-solving task. Self-harm behavior and problem-solving skills were assessed again at 6-month follow-up. At baseline, 14 (27%) were securely attached to their mothers. In the 49 (94%) adolescents followed-up, those with insecure maternal attachment and insecure peer attachment were more likely to have repeated self-harm. In addition, securely attached adolescents showed greater improvement in problem-solving skills. These findings indicate that secure maternal and peer attachments may help recovery from self-harm, possibly by supporting the acquisition of problem-solving skills, and highlights the importance of social connections and attachments for youth with a history of self-harm.

  15. Cumulative family risk predicts increases in adjustment difficulties across early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Cheryl; Gerard, Jean M

    2013-06-01

    Family is an important socialization context for youth as they move through early adolescence. A significant feature of this complex socialization context is the accumulation of potential family risk factors that may compromise youth adjustment. This study examined cumulative family risk and adolescents' adjustment difficulties in 416 two-parent families using four waves of annual longitudinal data (51% female youth). Risk factors in four family domains were examined: socioeconomic, parents' psychological realm, marital, and parenting. Cumulative family risk experienced while in 6th grade was associated concurrently with daughters' higher internalizing problems and with increased internalizing problems during early adolescence. Cumulative family risk was associated concurrently with sons' higher externalizing problems and with daughters' increased externalizing problems over time. Cumulative family risk was associated concurrently with lower grades and with declining grades over time for both daughters and sons. The number of risk domains also was associated with youths' adjustment difficulties during early adolescence, providing evidence that risk in two-parent families involves more than ineffective parenting. These findings suggest a critical need to provide strong support for families in reducing a variety of stressors across multiple family domains as their children traverse early adolescence.

  16. Data mining predictive models for pervasive intelligent decision support in intensive care medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Portela, Filipe; Pinto, Filipe; Santos, Manuel Filipe

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of an Intelligent Decision Support System (IDSS) in a critical area like the Intensive Medicine is a complex and difficult process. In this area, their professionals don’t have much time to document the cases, because the patient direct care is always first. With the objective to reduce significantly the manual records and, enabling, at the same time, the possibility of developing an IDSS which can help in the decision making process, all data acquisition process ...

  17. Parasympathetic nervous system activity predicts mood repair use and its effectiveness among adolescents with and without histories of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Bylsma, Lauren M; Jennings, J Richard; George, Charles; Baji, Ildikó; Benák, István; Dochnal, Roberta; Halas, Kitti; Kapornai, Krisztina; Kiss, Enikő; Makai, Attila; Varga, Hedvig; Vetró, Ágnes; Kovacs, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Depressive disorders that onset in the juvenile years have been linked to far-reaching adverse consequences, making it imperative to elucidate key mechanisms and contributory factors. Excessive use of regulatory responses that exacerbate sadness (maladaptive mood repair) or insufficient use of regulatory responses that reduce it (adaptive mood repair) may reflect behavioral mechanisms of depression risk. Cardiac vagal control, indexed by patterns of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), has received attention as a putative physiological risk factor for depression. Although mood repair and RSA are related, the nature of this relationship is not well characterized in the context of depression risk. Therefore, we tested alternative models of the relationships between RSA patterns (at rest and in response to a sad film), trait mood repair, and the effectiveness of a mood repair response in the laboratory (state mood repair) among adolescents with depression histories (n = 210) and emotionally healthy peers (n = 161). In our data, a mediation model best explained the association between the key constructs: Adolescents with normative RSA patterns exhibited lower levels of depression and trait maladaptive mood repair, and benefited more from instructed (state) mood repair in the laboratory. By contrast, adolescents with atypical RSA patterns exhibited higher levels of depression and dispositional maladaptive mood repair, which, in turn, mediated the relations of RSA patterns and depression symptoms. Atypical RSA patterns also predicted reduced benefits from laboratory mood repair.

  18. Sorting Test, Tower Test and BRIEF-SR do not predict school performance of healthy adolescents in preuniversity education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie eBoschloo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions (EF such as self-monitoring, planning and organizing are known to develop through childhood and adolescence. They are of potential importance for learning and school performance. Earlier research into the relation between executive functions and school performance did not provide clear results possibly because confounding factors such as educational track, boy-girl differences and parental education were not taken into account. The present study therefore investigated the relation between executive function tests and school performance in a highly controlled sample of 173 healthy adolescents aged 12-18. Only students in the pre-university educational track were used and the performance of boys was compared to that of girls. Results showed that there was no relation between the report marks obtained and the performance on executive function tests, notably the Sorting Test and the Tower Test of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Functions System (D-KEFS. Likewise, no relation was found between the report marks and the scores on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function – Self-Report Version (BRIEF-SR after these were controlled for grade, sex, and level of parental education.The findings indicate that executive functioning as measured with widely used instruments such as the BRIEF-SR does not predict school performance of adolescents in preuniversity education any better than a student’s grade, sex, and level of parental education. ed

  19. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters predicting substance abuse in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donbaek, Dagmar Feddern; Elklit, Ask; Pedersen, Mads Uffe

    2014-01-01

    . Therefore, we studied this issue in relation to alcohol abuse (AA) and drug abuse (DA) in a probability sample of Danish 15- to 18-year-olds (n=1,988) in the form of an online survey using self-report questionnaires following the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM......The majority of studies exploring the mental health disorders posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorders (substance abuse and dependence) have shown high co-morbidity rates in adolescents, indicating a well-established relationship. However, only a few studies have attempted...... disorders in adolescents whilst underpinning the importance of acknowledging the specific functional mechanisms underlying the common co-occurrence of PTSD and substance abuse in adolescence....

  20. Does Sedentary Behavior Predict Academic Performance in Adolescents or the Other Way Round? A Longitudinal Path Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizandra, Jorge; Devís-Devís, José; Pérez-Gimeno, Esther; Valencia-Peris, Alexandra; Peiró-Velert, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether adolescents' time spent on sedentary behaviors (academic, technological-based and social-based activities) was a better predictor of academic performance than the reverse. A cohort of 755 adolescents participated in a three-year period study. Structural Equation Modeling techniques were used to test plausible causal hypotheses. Four competing models were analyzed to determine which model best fitted the data. The Best Model was separately tested by gender. The Best Model showed that academic performance was a better predictor of sedentary behaviors than the other way round. It also indicated that students who obtained excellent academic results were more likely to succeed academically three years later. Moreover, adolescents who spent more time in the three different types of sedentary behaviors were more likely to engage longer in those sedentary behaviors after the three-year period. The better the adolescents performed academically, the less time they devoted to social-based activities and more to academic activities. An inverse relationship emerged between time dedicated to technological-based activities and academic sedentary activities. A moderating auto-regressive effect by gender indicated that boys were more likely to spend more time on technological-based activities three years later than girls. To conclude, previous academic performance predicts better sedentary behaviors three years later than the reverse. The positive longitudinal auto-regressive effects on the four variables under study reinforce the 'success breeds success' hypothesis, with academic performance and social-based activities emerging as the strongest ones. Technological-based activities showed a moderating effect by gender and a negative longitudinal association with academic activities that supports a displacement hypothesis. Other longitudinal and covariate effects reflect the complex relationships among sedentary behaviors and academic performance and the

  1. Prevalence and co-occurrence of psychiatric symptom clusters in the U.S. adolescent population using DISC predictive scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega William A

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To estimate 12-month prevalence and co-occurrence of symptoms of specific mental problems among US adolescents (12–17 years by age, sex and racial/ethnic subgroups. Method Data from the 2000 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse (NHSDA adolescent sample are used to estimate prevalence and co-occurrence rates using the DISC predictive scales. Multiple logistic regressions were used to derive significant correlates of each domain of DPS-derived symptom cluster indicators of psychiatric problems and of severe comorbidity, with control of demographics and environmental factors. Setting The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA, a national household probability sample, includes a nationally representative sample of 12–17 year-old adolescents (N = 19,430, through in-home surveys. Results Three out of five adolescents screened positive for at least one DPS symptom cluster with estimates for specific symptom cluster ranging over 9.7% (substance use disorder, 13.4% (affective, 36.3% (disruptive-behavior, and 40.1% (anxiety. Co-occurrence was high with almost one-third of any DPS symptom cluster reporting multiple positive screens of four or more clusters. Blacks and younger females were most likely to report mental health problems and co-occurrence. Conclusion Mental health problems among U.S. youth may be far more common than previously believed, although these symptoms have not yet reached the point of clinical impairment. The data speak to important patterns of age, gender and racial/ethnic differences in mental health problems deserving of further study.

  2. The Contributions of Psychological Maturity and Personality in the Prediction of Adolescent Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Elisa; Morales-Vives, Fabia

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies show that intelligence and impulsiveness are important predictors of academic achievement in adolescence. However, it is not clear what contribution is made by the big five personality traits, because some studies suggest that Conscientiousness, Extraversion and Openness to experience are predictors while others show precisely the…

  3. Do Guilt- and Shame-Proneness Differentially Predict Prosocial, Aggressive, and Withdrawn Behaviors during Early Adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Sanna; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Salmivalli, Christina

    2014-01-01

    In this short-term longitudinal study, we systematically examined the distinctiveness of guilt- and shame-proneness in early adolescents (N = 395, mean age = 11.8 years) in terms of differential relations with peer reported prosocial behavior, withdrawal, and aggression. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that guilt-proneness…

  4. Parental Warmth, Control, and Involvement in Schooling: Predicting Academic Achievement among Korean American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoungho; Rohner, Ronald P.

    2002-01-01

    Explored the relationship between parenting style and academic achievement of Korean American adolescents, investigating the influence of perceived parental warmth and control and improvement in schooling. Survey data indicated that authoritative paternal parenting related to optimal academic achievement. Differences in maternal parenting styles…

  5. Exposure to movie reckless driving in early adolescence predicts reckless, but not inattentive driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostermans, E.; Stoolmiller, M.; Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Sargent, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examine the association between exposure to depictions of reckless driving in movies and unsafe driving, modeling inattentive and reckless driving as separate outcomes. Methods Data were obtained by telephone from 1,630 US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years at baseline who were drivers at

  6. Do conflict resolution and recovery predict the survival of adolescents' romantic relationships?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ha, P.T.; Overbeek, G.J.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that being able to resolve and recover from conflicts is of key importance for relationship satisfaction and stability in adults. Less is known about the importance of these relationship dynamics in adolescent romantic relationships. Therefore, this study investigated whe

  7. Emotional and Adrenocortical Regulation in Early Adolescence: Prediction by Attachment Security and Disorganization in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Gottfried; Zimmermann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine differences in emotion expression and emotion regulation in emotion-eliciting situations in early adolescence from a bio-psycho-social perspective, specifically investigating the influence of early mother-infant attachment and attachment disorganization on behavioural and adrenocortical responses. The…

  8. Personality characteristics in adolescence predict long-term changes in body fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppes, Lando L J; de Boer, Michiel R; Samoocha, David

    2008-01-01

    Five personality characteristics were assessed in 312 adolescent boys and girls, and investigated in relation to the change in body fat percentage over 22 years of follow up. Boys with low levels of Social Inadequacy and girls with high levels of Recalcitrance showed relatively large gains in body...

  9. Subjective Invulnerability and Perceptions of Tobacco-Related Benefits Predict Adolescent Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Holly E. R.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors that influence adolescents' decisions to start smoking is necessary to improve interventions for reducing tobacco use. The current longitudinal study was designed to determine the direction of influence between feelings of invulnerability to harm and cigarette smoking, and to test whether the perceived risks and benefits of…

  10. Attachment in Adolescence: Overlap with Parenting and Unique Prediction of Behavioural Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephen; Briskman, Jacqueline; Woolgar, Matthew; Humayun, Sajid; O'Connor, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attachment theory was conceptualized by Bowlby as relevant across the life span, from "cradle to grave". The research literature on attachment in infants and preschool-aged children is extensive, but it is limited in adolescence. In particular, it is unclear whether or not attachment security is distinguishable from other qualities of…

  11. Brain volumes predict neurodevelopment in adolescents after surgery for congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rhein, Michael; Buchmann, Andreas; Hagmann, Cornelia; Huber, Reto; Klaver, Peter; Knirsch, Walter; Latal, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Patients with complex congenital heart disease are at risk for neurodevelopmental impairments. Evidence suggests that brain maturation can be delayed and pre- and postoperative brain injury may occur, and there is limited information on the long-term effect of congenital heart disease on brain development and function in adolescent patients. At a mean age of 13.8 years, 39 adolescent survivors of childhood cardiopulmonary bypass surgery with no structural brain lesions evident through conventional cerebral magnetic resonance imaging and 32 healthy control subjects underwent extensive neurodevelopmental assessment and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebral scans were analysed quantitatively using surface-based and voxel-based morphometry. Compared with control subjects, patients had lower total brain (P = 0.003), white matter (P = 0.004) and cortical grey matter (P = 0.005) volumes, whereas cerebrospinal fluid volumes were not different. Regional brain volume reduction ranged from 5.3% (cortical grey matter) to 11% (corpus callosum). Adolescents with cyanotic heart disease showed more brain volume loss than those with acyanotic heart disease, particularly in the white matter, thalami, hippocampi and corpus callosum (all P-values Brain volume reduction correlated significantly with cognitive, motor and executive functions (grey matter: P < 0.05, white matter: P < 0.01). Our findings suggest that there are long-lasting cerebral changes in adolescent survivors of cardiopulmonary bypass surgery for congenital heart disease and that these changes are associated with functional outcome.

  12. Theory of mind and switching predict prospective memory performance in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altgassen, A.M.; Vetter, N.C.; Phillips, L.H.; Akgün, C.; Kliegel, M.

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates ongoing development of prospective memory as well as theory of mind and executive functions across late childhood and adolescence. However, so far the interplay of these processes has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate whether the

  13. Adolescents' Changing Future Expectations Predict the Timing of Adult Role Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Sarah J.; Crockett, Lisa J.; Peugh, James

    2016-01-01

    Individual differences in the transition to adulthood are well established. This study examines the extent to which heterogeneity in pathways to adulthood that have been observed in the broader U.S. population are mirrored in adolescents' expectations regarding when they will experience key adult role transitions (e.g., marriage). Patterns of…

  14. Readiness to Recover in Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: Prediction of Hospital Admission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ametller, L.; Castro, J.; Serrano, E.; Martinez, E.; Toro, J.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To determine if motivation to change in anorexia nervosa during treatment is a predictor of hospitalisation in adolescent patients. Method: The Anorexia Nervosa Stages of Change Questionnaire (ANSOCQ), the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered to a group of 70 anorexia nervosa…

  15. Testing Social Cognitive Theory as a Theoretical Framework to Predict Smoking Relapse among Daily Smoking Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zundert, R.M.P. van; Nijhof, L.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Predictors of adolescent smoking relapse are largely unknown, since studies either focus on relapse among adults, or address (long-term) smoking cessation but not relapse. In the present study, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) was used as a theoretical framework to examine the first and second lapses,

  16. Parenting Practices, Parental Attachment and Aggressiveness in Adolescence: A Predictive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallarin, Miriam; Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was twofold: a) to test the mediation role of attachment between parenting practices and aggressiveness, and b) to clarify the differential role of mothers and fathers with regard to aggressiveness. A total of 554 adolescents (330 girls and 224 boys), ages ranging between 16 and 19, completed measures of mothers' and fathers'…

  17. The 220-age equation does not predict maximum heart rate in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Maltais, Desiree B.; Takken, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Our primary purpose was to provide maximum heart rate (HR(max)) values for ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). The secondary purpose was to determine the effects of age, sex, ambulatory ability, height, and weight on HR(max). In 362 ambulatory children and adolescents with CP (213 males an

  18. Cognitive impairment effects of early life stress in adolescents can be predicted with early biomarkers: Impacts of sex, experience, and cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Holland, Freedom H; Ganguly, Prabarna; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2016-09-01

    Childhood adversity increases vulnerability to psychiatric disorders that emerge in adolescence, in a sex-dependent manner. Early adversity modeled in rodents with maternal separation (MS) affects cognition and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuitry. Humans and animals exposed to early life adversity also display heightened circulating inflammatory cytokines, however the predictive relationship of these early measures with later behavioral deficits is unknown. Here, male and female rats were exposed to MS or control rearing during the postnatal period (P2-21). Blood samples were taken at distinct developmental time points for analysis of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, and IL-10, followed by win-shift cognitive testing and analysis of mPFC parvalbumin (PVB) immunofluorescent interneurons in adolescence. Regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationship between early cytokines and adolescent behavioral measures. We observed sex- and age-dependent effects of MS on circulating cytokines. MS also yielded adolescent decreases in mPFC PVB and cognitive deficits, which were predicted by early cytokine expression in a sex- and experience-dependent manner. Taken together, the present data reveals that circulating cytokines and PVB levels are predictive of adolescent cognitive deficits, and therefore provide compelling evidence for a putative role of early biomarkers in mediating MS-induced behavioral dysfunction. Importantly, predictive relationships often depended on sex and on MS history, suggesting that early life experiences may yield individualistic mechanisms of vulnerability compared to the general population.

  19. 青少年性态度对青少年危险性行为的预测作用研究%The Prediction Function of Adolescent Sexual Attitude to Adolescent Risk Sexual Behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭骁; 侯婵娟; 姚树桥

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the prediction function of adolescent sexual attitude to adolescent risk sexual behaviors.Methods:According to convenience sampling method,a total of 1128 middle school students,from grade 7 to grade 12 were recruited from three schools of two cities in China.They were investigated with Subjective Socioeconomic Status Scale for Chinese Adolescents (SSS-CA),Barratt Impulsiveness Scale(BIS),Adolescent Health Related Risky Behavior Inventory (AHRBI),Attitudes Toward Sexuality Scale(ATSS),Adolescent Psychosexual Health Questionnaire,and general demographic form at the same time.Results:The openness of the sexual attitudes of adolescents in China closes to medium level.Unconditioned logistic regression analysis showed that adolescent sexual attitudes could significantly predict the possibility of adolescent risky sexual behaviors,after controlling the variables of age,gender,drinking behaviors,impulsiveness and sexual knowledge.Conclusion:The adolescent sexual attitudes could significantly predict the possibility of adolescent risk sexual behaviors.%目的:探讨青少年性态度对青少年危险性行为的预测作用.方法:采用方便取样方法,从长沙市两所普通中学、北京市一所普通中学,以班级为单位对初一至高三学生进行现场测评.采用的测评工具有:一般人口学资料调查表、青少年主观社会经济地位量表(SSS-CA)、Barratt冲动量表(RIS)、青少年健康相关危险行为问卷(AHRBI)、性态度量表(ATSS)、青春期性心理健康量表.采用SPSS 19.0对数据进行统计分析.结果:我国青少年性态度处于中等开放水平.控制年龄、性别、性知识、饮酒行为、冲动等变量后非条件Logistic回归分析显示青少年性态度对青少年危险性行为具有显著预测作用.结论:青少年性态度对青少年危险性行为具有显著预测作用.

  20. International Youth Justice Systems: Promoting Youth Development and Alternative Approaches: A Position Paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Youth incarceration is an international public health concern among developed and developing countries. Worldwide, youth are held in incarceration, detention, and other secure settings that are inappropriate for their age and developmental stages, jeopardizing their prosocial development, and reintegration into society. Youth incarceration lacks evidence and cost-effectiveness. The well-being of youth is a key indicator of the welfare of families, communities, and society at large; therefore, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) supports a paradigm shift in the role of the justice system as it relates to treatment of youth. SAHM recommends justice systems focus greater attention and resources on identifying and reducing the antecedents of high-risk and criminal behaviors, recognizing the rights and freedom of young persons, and prioritizing the well-being of youth over punitive measures that may harm and disrupt healthy adolescent development. SAHM supports the following positions: (1) incarceration is a last option for selected offenders who have committed the most serious violent crimes and are unable to remain safely in the community; (2) youth justice policies, programs, and practices affecting youth be evidence based and trauma informed; (3) youth justice policies, programs, and practices must incorporate research and ongoing program evaluation; (4) youth justice policies shall protect the privacy and dignity of children younger than 18 years; and (5) health care professionals and media will promote positive portrayals of youth in healthy relationships within their communities and reduce representations and images of youth that are negative, violent, deviant, and threatening.

  1. Predicting Unprotected Sex and Unplanned Pregnancy among Urban African-American Adolescent Girls Using the Theory of Gender and Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet E; Zenilman, Jonathan; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina; DiClemente, Ralph

    2016-06-01

    Reproductive coercion has been hypothesized as a cause of unprotected sex and unplanned pregnancies, but research has focused on a narrow set of potential sources of reproductive coercion. We identified and evaluated eight potential sources of reproductive coercion from the Theory of Gender and Power including economic inequality between adolescent girls and their boyfriends, cohabitation, and age differences. The sample comprised sexually active African-American female adolescents, ages 15-21. At baseline (n = 715), 6 months (n = 607), and 12 months (n = 605), participants completed a 40-min interview and were tested for semen Y-chromosome with polymerase chain reaction from a self-administered vaginal swab. We predicted unprotected sex and pregnancy using multivariate regression controlling for demographics, economic factors, relationship attributes, and intervention status using a Poisson working model. Factors associated with unprotected sex included cohabitation (incidence risk ratio (IRR) 1.48, 95 % confidence interval (1.22, 1.81)), physical abuse (IRR 1.55 (1.21, 2.00)), emotional abuse (IRR 1.31 (1.06, 1.63)), and having a boyfriend as a primary source of spending money (IRR 1.18 (1.00, 1.39)). Factors associated with unplanned pregnancy 6 months later included being at least 4 years younger than the boyfriend (IRR 1.68 (1.14, 2.49)) and cohabitation (2.19 (1.35, 3.56)). Among minors, cohabitation predicted even larger risks of unprotected sex (IRR 1.93 (1.23, 3.03)) and unplanned pregnancy (3.84 (1.47, 10.0)). Adolescent cohabitation is a marker for unprotected sex and unplanned pregnancy, especially among minors. Cohabitation may have stemmed from greater commitment, but the shortage of affordable housing in urban areas could induce women to stay in relationships for housing. Pregnancy prevention interventions should attempt to delay cohabitation until adulthood and help cohabiting adolescents to find affordable housing.

  2. Risk factors that predict future onset of each DSM-5 eating disorder: Predictive specificity in high-risk adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Gau, Jeff M; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Because no single report has examined risk factors that predict future onset each type of eating disorder and core symptom dimensions that crosscut disorders, we addressed these aims to advance knowledge regarding risk factor specificity. Data from 3 prevention trials that targeted young women with body dissatisfaction (N = 1,272; Mage = 18.5, SD = 4.2) and collected annual diagnostic interview data over 3-year follow-up were combined to identify predictors of subthreshold/threshold anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and purging disorder (PD). Negative affect and functional impairment predicted onset of all eating disorders. Thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, overeating, and mental health care predicted onset of subthreshold/threshold BN, BED, and PD; positive thinness expectations, denial of cost of pursuing the thin ideal, and fasting predicted onset of 2 of these 3 disorders. Similar risk factors predicted core eating disorder symptom onset. Low BMI and dieting specifically predicted onset of subthreshold/threshold AN or low BMI. Only a subset of factors showed unique predictive effects in multivariate models, likely due to moderate correlations between the risk factors (M r = .14). Results provide support for the theory that pursuit of the thin ideal and the resulting body dissatisfaction, dieting, and unhealthy weight control behaviors increase risk for binge/purge spectrum eating disorders, but suggest that youth who are inherently lean, rather than purposely pursuing the thin ideal, are at risk for AN. Impaired interpersonal functioning and negative affect are transdiagnostic risk factors, suggesting these factors should be targeted in prevention programs. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Lower neighborhood quality in adolescence predicts higher mesolimbic sensitivity to reward anticipation in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Z. Gonzalez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Life history theory suggests that adult reward sensitivity should be best explained by childhood, but not current, socioeconomic conditions. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, 83 participants from a larger longitudinal sample completed the monetary incentive delay (MID task in adulthood (∼25 years old. Parent-reports of neighborhood quality and parental SES were collected when participants were 13 years of age. Current income level was collected concurrently with scanning. Lower adolescent neighborhood quality, but neither lower current income nor parental SES, was associated with heightened sensitivity to the anticipation of monetary gain in putative mesolimbic reward areas. Lower adolescent neighborhood quality was also associated with heightened sensitivity to the anticipation of monetary loss activation in visuo-motor areas. Lower current income was associated with heightened sensitivity to anticipated loss in occipital areas and the operculum. We tested whether externalizing behaviors in childhood or adulthood could better account for neighborhood quality findings, but they did not. Findings suggest that neighborhood ecology in adolescence is associated with greater neural reward sensitivity in adulthood above the influence of parental SES or current income and not mediated through impulsivity and externalizing behaviors.

  4. Low and decreasing self-esteem during adolescence predict adult depression two decades later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Andrea E; Allemand, Mathias; Robins, Richard W; Fend, Helmut A

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies revealed that low self-esteem is prospectively associated with depression. However, self-esteem has been shown to change over time. We thus hypothesized that not only level but also change in self-esteem affect depression. Using data from a 23-year longitudinal study (N = 1,527), we therefore examined the prospective effects of global and domain-specific self-esteem (physical attractiveness, academic competence) level and change on depressive symptoms 2 decades later. Self-esteem was assessed annually from age 12 to 16, and depression was assessed at age 16 and 35. Results from latent growth curve analyses demonstrated that both level and change in self-esteem served as predictors for adult depression. Individuals who entered adolescence with low self-esteem, and/or whose self-esteem declined further during the adolescent years, were more likely to exhibit symptoms of depression 2 decades later as adults; this pattern held both for global and domain-specific self-esteem. These findings highlight the importance of adolescent self-esteem development for mental health outcomes in adulthood.

  5. Nursing, Pharmacy, or Medicine? Disgust Sensitivity Predicts Career Interest among Trainee Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consedine, Nathan S.; Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Windsor, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Given global demand on health workforces, understanding student enrollment motivations are critical. Prior studies have concentrated on variation in career and lifestyle values; the current work evaluated the importance of disgust sensitivity in the prediction of health career interests. We argue that emotional proclivities may be important and…

  6. Prediction of Early Recurrence of Liver Cancer by a Novel Discrete Bayes Decision Rule for Personalized Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a novel diagnostic method for predicting the early recurrence of liver cancer with high accuracy for personalized medicine. The difficulty with cancer treatment is that even if the types of cancer are the same, the cancers vary depending on the patient. Thus, remarkable attention has been paid to personalized medicine. Unfortunately, although the Tokyo Score, the Modified JIS, and the TNM classification have been proposed as liver scoring systems, none of these scoring systems have met the needs of clinical practice. In this paper, we convert continuous and discrete data to categorical data and keep the natively categorical data as is. Then, we propose a discrete Bayes decision rule that can deal with the categorical data. This may lead to its use with various types of laboratory data. Experimental results show that the proposed method produced a sensitivity of 0.86 and a specificity of 0.49 for the test samples. This suggests that our method may be superior to the well-known Tokyo Score, the Modified JIS, and the TNM classification in terms of sensitivity. Additional comparative study shows that if the numbers of test samples in two classes are the same, this method works well in terms of the F1 measure compared to the existing scoring methods. PMID:27800494

  7. Latino adolescents' ethnic identity: is there a developmental progression and does growth in ethnic identity predict growth in self-esteem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A; Guimond, Amy B

    2009-01-01

    The current longitudinal study of 323 Latino adolescents (50.5% male; M age = 15.31 years) examined whether ethnic identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation demonstrated significant growth over a 4-year period and whether growth in ethnic identity predicted growth in self-esteem. Findings from multiple-group latent growth curve models revealed that exploration, resolution, and affirmation all increased significantly from middle to late adolescence for Latina girls. For Latino boys, only affirmation increased significantly. Furthermore, only growth in exploration predicted growth in boys' and girls' self-esteem. This research indicates that patterns of growth in ethnic identity vary by adolescent sex. Furthermore, findings underscore the need to examine the unique contributions of each ethnic identity component, rather than using a composite ethnic identity score.

  8. Is chemical synthetic accessibility computationally predictable for drug and lead-like molecules? A comparative assessment between medicinal and computational chemists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Pascal

    2012-08-01

    The design of lead and drug-like molecules with expected desired properties and feasible chemical synthesis is one of the main objectives of computational and medicinal chemists. Prediction of synthetic feasibility of de novo molecules is often achieved by the use of in-silico tools or by advices received from medicinal and to a lesser extent from computational chemists. However, the validation of predictive tools is often performed on selection of compounds from external databases. In this study, we compare the synthetic accessibility (SA) score predicted by SYLVIA and the score estimated by medicinal chemists who synthesized the molecules. Therefore, we solicited 11 bench-based medicinal and computational chemists to score 119 lead-like molecules synthesized by same medicinal chemists. Their scores were compared with score calculated from SYLVIA software. Irrespective of the starting material database, we obtained a good agreement between average of medicinal and computational chemist scores for the ensemble of compounds; as well as between all chemists and SYLVIA SA scores with a correlation of 0.7. Furthermore, analysis of the marketed drugs since 1970 shows some consistency in average SYLVIA SA scores. Compounds entered in different phases of clinical trials show some large variation in synthetic accessibility scores due to natural-derived molecular scaffolds. Here, we proposed that the selection of compounds based on synthetically accessibility should not be done solely by one individual chemist to avoid personal gut-feeling appreciation from its experience but by a group of medicinal and computational chemists. By assessing synthetic accessibility of hundreds of compounds synthesized by medicinal chemists, we show that SYLVIA can be used efficiently to rank and prioritize virtual compound libraries in drug discovery processes.

  9. Influences of combined therapies with traditional Chinese medicine on pulmonary function and surface average electromyogram ratio in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-ping SHEN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To evaluate the influences of traditional Chinese medicinal combined therapies on pulmonary function and surface average electromyogram (AEMG ratio in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. Methods  One hundred and twenty outpatients with mild and moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were randomly divided into a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM group and a brace group. TCM group patients underwent i Navigation of the spinal balance (twice a day, 40min/ time, until to skeletal maturity; ii Balance manipulation (twice a week, 25min/time, lasted 12 months; iii Small needle-knife therapy (once a week, 10 times. The brace group patients were treated with a Milwaukee brace. The Cobb angle was measured after 12 and 24 months of treatment, pulmonary function was determined after 12 months of treatment, and AEMG ratio of the surface electromyogram was measured 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after treatment, and intergroup comparison was performed. Results  The Cobb angle significantly decreased in both groups 12 months after treatment (P0.05 in the TCM group and brace group, respectively, 12 months after treatment and 62.5% and 34.7% (P<0.05, respectively, 24 months aftertreatment. Pulmonary function was significantly improved 12 months after treatment in TCM group (P<0.05 but significantly decreased in brace group (P<0.05. The AEMG ratio was significantly reduced (P<0.01 and tended to remain at 1 after stopping treatment in TCM group, showed that the muscle imbalance existed on both sides of the scoliosis, but was adverse in brace group (P<0.05, showed that the muscle imbalance aggravated. No side effect of the therapeutic method was found. Conclusions  The spinal balance therapy based on traditional Chinese medicine theory has excellent therapeutic efficacy and safety, and can significantly ameliorate the imbalance existed on both sides of the scoliosis, improve lung function index, and have better compliance. The AEMG ratio is a

  10. The Effect of the Attachment Styles and Self-Efficacy of Adolescents Preparing for University Entrance Tests in Turkey on Predicting Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzen, Evren; Odaci, Hatice

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of attachment styles and self-efficacy of adolescents preparing for university entrance exams in Turkey on predicting test anxieties. The study group consisted of 884 final-year high school students (423 female and 461 male) attending different types of high school, preparing for university…

  11. Predicting antisocial behavior among latino young adolescents: an ecological systems analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamon, Mary Keegan; Mulder, Cray

    2005-01-01

    The authors used data from a national sample of 420 Latino young adolescents to examine multiple predictors of antisocial behavior within an ecological systems framework. They found that boys and youths who lived a higher proportion of their life in poverty exhibited higher levels of antisocial behavior, and mothers' acculturation was associated with lower levels. Neighborhood and school environments, exposure to deviant peer pressure, and 3 parenting practices--parent-youth attachment, physical punishment, and mothers' monitoring--were related to Latino youth antisocial behavior. Neighborhood quality and peer pressure explained the relation between poverty and an increased risk for antisocial behavior.

  12. Is medicine use in adolescence risk behavior? Cross-sectional survey of school-aged children from 11 to 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the association between smoking, drunkenness, and medicine use for headache, stomachache, difficulties in getting to sleep, and nervousness in a representative sample of 11- to 15-year-old school-aged children. METHODS: Design: Cross-sectional school-based survey. Setting......: A random sample of schools in Denmark in 2002. Participants: All students in the fifth, seventh and ninth grades in these schools, n = 4824. Measurements: Self-reported medicine use for headache, stomachache, difficulties in getting to sleep, and nervousness within the last month; self-reported experience...

  13. Within-person changes in mindfulness and self-compassion predict enhanced emotional well-being in healthy, but stressed adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galla, Brian M

    2016-06-01

    Meditation training programs for adolescents are predicated on the assumptions that mindfulness and self-compassion can be directly cultivated, and further, that doing so is beneficial for emotional well-being. Yet, very little research with adolescents has tested these assumptions directly. In the current study, I examined longitudinal relationships between changes in mindfulness and self-compassion and changes in emotional well-being among healthy, but stressed adolescents who participated in five-day, intensive meditation retreats. Immediately before and after the retreats, and then three months later, 132 adolescents (Mage = 16.76 years, 61% female) completed questionnaires measuring mindfulness, self-compassion, and emotional well-being. Repeated measures ANOVA showed adolescents improved in mindfulness, self-compassion, and all indices of emotional well-being immediately following the retreat (Cohen's d = |0.39-1.19|), and many of these improvements were maintained three months later (Cohen's d = |0.04-0.68|). Further, multilevel growth curve analyses with time-varying covariates indicated within-person changes in self-compassion predicted enhanced emotional well-being more consistently than within-person changes in mindfulness. Specifically, increases in self-compassion predicted reductions in perceived stress, rumination, depressive symptoms, and negative affect, and conversely, increases in positive affect and life satisfaction (pseudo-R(2) variance explained = 5.9% and 15.8%, ps < 0.01).

  14. Increased marijuana use and gender predict poorer cognitive functioning in adolescents and emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisdahl, Krista M; Price, Jenessa S

    2012-07-01

    This study sought to characterize neuropsychological functioning in MJ-using adolescents and emerging adults (ages 18-26) and to investigate whether gender moderated these effects. Data were collected from 59 teens and emerging adults including MJ users (n = 23, 56% female) and controls (n = 35, 50% female) aged 18-26 (M = 21 years). Exclusionary criteria included independent Axis I disorders (besides SUD), and medical and neurologic disorders. After controlling for reading ability, gender, subclinical depressive symptoms, body mass index, and alcohol and other drug use, increased MJ use was associated with slower psychomotor speed/sequencing ability (p cognitive inhibition errors (p ability (p cognitive inhibition in a dose-dependent manner in young adults, findings that are consistent with other samples of adolescent MJ users. Male MJ users demonstrated greater cognitive slowing than females. Future studies need to examine the neural substrates underlying with these cognitive deficits and whether cognitive rehabilitation or exercise interventions may serve as a viable treatments of cognitive deficits in emerging adult MJ users.

  15. Developing a predictive tool for psychological well-being among Chinese adolescents in the presence of missing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsang Bill Y

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-dimensional behavioral rating scales like the CBCL and YSR are available for diagnosing psychosocial maladjustment in adolescents, but these are unsuitable for large-scale usage since they are time-consuming and their many sensitive questions often lead to missing data. This research applies multiple imputation to tackle the effects of missing data in order to develop a simple questionnaire-based predictive instrument for psychosocial maladjustment. Methods Questionnaires from 2919 Chinese sixth graders in 21 schools were collected, but 86% of the students were missing one or more of the variables for analysis. Fifteen (10 training, 5 validation samples were imputed using multivariate imputation chain equations. A ten-variable instrument was constructed by applying stepwise variable selection algorithms to the training samples, and its predictive performance was evaluated on the validation samples. Results The instrument had an AUC of 0.75 (95% CI: 0.73 to 0.78 and a calibration slope of 0.98 (95% CI: 0.86 to 1.09. The prevalence of psychosocial maladjustment was 18%. If a score of > 1 was used to define a negative test, then 80% of the students would be classified as negative. The resulting test had a diagnostic odds ratio of 5.64 (95% CI: 4.39 to 7.24, with negative and positive predictive values of 88% and 43%, and negative and positive likelihood ratios of 0.61 and 3.41, respectively. Conclusions Multiple imputation together with internal validation provided a simple method for deriving a predictive instrument in the presence of missing data. The instrument's high negative predictive value implies that in populations with similar prevalences of psychosocial maladjustment test-negative students can be confidently excluded as being normal, thus saving 80% of the resources for confirmatory psychological testing.

  16. Multivariate Models of Parent-Late Adolescent Gender Dyads: The Importance of Parenting Processes in Predicting Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Although parent-adolescent interactions have been examined, relevant variables have not been integrated into a multivariate model. As a result, this study examined a multivariate model of parent-late adolescent gender dyads in an attempt to capture important predictors in late adolescents' important and unique transition to adulthood. The sample…

  17. Predicting Use and Maintenance of Use of Substances in Scottish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzias, A.; Power, K. G.; Swanson, V.

    2001-01-01

    Studied the roles of demographic, school, nonschool, and personality factors in predicting the use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs and maintenance of this use. Findings for 425 Scottish secondary school students show different predictive factors. Discusses implications of the findings for decreasing the prevalence of substance use. (SLD)

  18. Knowledge of juvenile sex offender registration laws predicts adolescent sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Margaret C; Najdowski, Cynthia J; Wiley, Tisha R A

    2013-01-01

    Because juveniles can now be registered as sex offenders, we conducted a pilot study to investigate awareness of these policies and sexual behavior histories in a convenience sample of 53 young adults (ages 18 to 23, 79% women). These preliminary data revealed that 42% percent of participants were unaware that youth under the age of 18 can be registered as sex offenders, and when informed that they can be, participants were unaware of the breadth of adolescent sexual behavior that warrants registration. Furthermore, those unaware of juvenile registration policies, compared to those who were aware, were marginally more likely to have had sex prior to age 18. Thus, youth most at risk of registration were least aware of this possibility, suggesting that juvenile registration likely does little to deter many behaviors that are considered to be juvenile sex offenses.

  19. Prior adversities predict posttraumatic stress reactions in adolescents following the Oslo Terror events 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Ø. Nordanger

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Former studies suggest that prior exposure to adverse experiences such as violence or sexual abuse increases vulnerability to posttraumatic stress reactions in victims of subsequent trauma. However, little is known about how such a history affects responses to terror in the general adolescent population. Objective: To explore the role of prior exposure to adverse experiences as risk factors for posttraumatic stress reactions to the Oslo Terror events. Method: We used data from 10,220 high school students in a large cross-sectional survey of adolescents in Norway that took place seven months after the Oslo Terror events. Prior exposure assessed was: direct exposure to violence, witnessing of violence, and unwanted sexual acts. We explored how these prior adversities interact with well-established risk factors such as proximity to the events, perceived life threat during the terror events, and gender. Results: All types of prior exposure as well as the other risk factors were associated with terror-related posttraumatic stress reactions. The effects of prior adversities were, although small, independent of adolescents’ proximity to the terror events. Among prior adversities, only the effect of direct exposure to violence was moderated by perceived life threat. Exposure to prior adversities increased the risk of posttraumatic stress reactions equally for both genders, but proximity to the terror events and perceived life threat increased the risk more in females. Conclusions: Terror events can have a more destabilizing impact on victims of prior adversities, independent of their level of exposure. The findings may be relevant to mental health workers and others providing post-trauma health care.

  20. Application of Theory of Planned Behavior in Predicting of effective Factors on heterosexual relationship in girls Adolescence of Birjand city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Sarzehi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Puberty is one of the most critical periods in life that makes individual to feel and behave in a different way. One of the major issues faced young people is the conflict between spiritual values, customary and familiar to the freedom or non-freedom of heterosexual relationships and how to deal with it. Therefore, this study aimed to determine Predicting Factors heterosexual relationship in girls Adolescence of Birjand city. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, samples were collected from   girl students in high schools in different regions of Birjand in 2015. The survey was carried out via simple random sampling of 395 students. Data were collected by the validated and reliable questionnaire based on theory of planned behavior. The gathered data were analyzed using SPSS20 and descriptive statistical tests and , Pearson correlation, logistic regression , t- test and ANOVA tests in significant level less than 0.05... Results: Among the adolescents participating in this study 43.9% with an average duration was about 15±7 months. Logistic regression analysis showed that attitudes (P≤0.001, intention (P≤0.001, mother's occupation (p=0.03, family size (p=0.01, birth (p=0.03 and the satellite programs watching (p=0.01 strong predictor for the heterosexual relationship individuals were studied. Conclusion: According to the results of this study showed that the attitude and intention for the relationship with the opposite sex were strong predictors. So the theory of planned behavior can be used as an effective method for planning and intervention to prevent heterosexual relationship.

  1. Age and markers of Leydig cell function, but not of Sertoli cell function predict the success of sperm retrieval in adolescents and adults with Klinefelter's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohayem, J; Fricke, R; Czeloth, K; Mallidis, C; Wistuba, J; Krallmann, C; Zitzmann, M; Kliesch, S

    2015-09-01

    Microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (mTESE), combined with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) represents a chance for azoospermic men with Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) to father children. The objective of this study was to identify predictive factors for the success of mTESE from adolescents and adults with KS. The clinical data of 50 late pubertal adolescents (13-19 years) and 85 adult patients (20-61 years) with non-mosaic KS, who underwent mTESE, were analysed with respect to factors, potentially predictive of active spermatogenesis; specifically a history of cryptorchidism, age, testicular volumes, serum levels of LH, FSH, testosterone (T) and estradiol at the time of surgery. Inhibin B, AMH and INSL3 were additionally analysed in the adolescents. A younger age and a near-compensated Leydig cell function were associated with higher success of sperm retrieval via mTESE: In adolescents ≥15-19 years, spermatozoa were retrieved in 45%, compared to 31% in adults; in adolescents aged 13-14 years, spermatozoa were collected in only 10%. Adolescents with an LH ≤17.5 U/L, along with a T level ≥7.5 nmol/L had the best success rate (54%), which fell to 44% with higher LH, whereas those with low T (history of cryptorchidism was associated with lower retrieval rates. A window of opportunity for an approximate 50% chance to retrieve spermatozoa via mTESE exists for young, late pubertal KS patients between age 15 and young adulthood, when Leydig cell function is at its best. In these cases, referral to a centre of expertise should be considered.

  2. Adolescent self-control predicts joint trajectories of marijuana use and depressive mood into young adulthood among urban African Americans and Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have identified an association between depressive mood and marijuana use. We examined adolescent self-control as a predictor of membership in joint developmental trajectories of depressive mood and marijuana use from adolescence to young adulthood. Urban African Americans and Puerto Ricans (N = 838) were sampled when participants were on average 14, 19, 24, and 29 years old. Using growth mixture modeling, four joint trajectory groups of depressive mood and marijuana use were established: low marijuana use/low depressive mood, low marijuana use/intermediate depressive mood, high marijuana use/low depressive mood, and high marijuana use/high depressive mood. Weighted logistic regression analysis showed that self-control at age 14 distinguished the high marijuana use/high depressive mood group and the low marijuana use/low depressive mood group from each of the other groups. Findings show that the co-occurrence of high levels of marijuana use and depressive mood from adolescence into young adulthood is predicted by low levels of self-control in adolescence. On the other hand, high selfcontrol is associated with low marijuana use and low levels of depression over time. Thus, while deficits in self-control in adolescence constitute a significant risk for maladjustment over time, high self-control exerts a protective factor with regard to marijuana use and depressive mood into young adulthood.

  3. Neck circumference as a new anthropometric indicator for prediction of insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleliani de Cassia da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between neck circumference and insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents with different adiposity levels and pubertal stages, as well as to determine the usefulness of neck circumference to predict insulin resistance in adolescents.METHODS:Cross-sectional study with 388 adolescents of both genders from ten to 19 years old. The adolescents underwent anthropometric and body composition assessment, including neck and waist circumferences, and biochemical evaluation. The pubertal stage was obtained by self-assessment, and the blood pressure, by auscultation. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance. The correlation between two variables was evaluated by partial correlation coefficient adjusted for the percentage of body fat and pubertal stage. The performance of neck circumference to identify insulin resistance was tested by Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve.RESULTS: After the adjustment for percentage body fat and pubertal stage, neck circumference correlated with waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides and markers of insulin resistance in both genders.CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the neck circumference is a useful tool for the detection of insulin resistance and changes in the indicators of metabolic syndrome in adolescents. The easiness of application and low cost of this measure may allow its use in Public Health services.

  4. A Systems-Pharmacology Analysis of Herbal Medicines Used in Health Improvement Treatment: Predicting Potential New Drugs and Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianling Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For thousands of years, tonic herbs have been successfully used all around the world to improve health, energy, and vitality. However, their underlying mechanisms of action in molecular/systems levels are still a mystery. In this work, two sets of tonic herbs, so called Qi-enriching herbs (QEH and Blood-tonifying herbs (BTH in TCM, were selected to elucidate why they can restore proper balance and harmony inside body, organ and energy system. Firstly, a pattern recognition model based on artificial neural network and discriminant analysis for assessing the molecular difference between QEH and BTH was developed. It is indicated that QEH compounds have high lipophilicity while BTH compounds possess high chemical reactivity. Secondly, a systematic investigation integrating ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion prediction, target fishing and network analysis was performed and validated on these herbs to obtain the compound-target associations for reconstructing the biologically-meaningful networks. The results suggest QEH enhance physical strength, immune system and normal well-being, acting as adjuvant therapy for chronic disorders while BTH stimulate hematopoiesis function in body. As an emerging approach, the systems pharmacology model might facilitate to understand the mechanisms of action of the tonic herbs, which brings about new development for complementary and alternative medicine.

  5. Traditional, complementary and alternative medical systems and their contribution to personalisation, prediction and prevention in medicine—person-centred medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberti di Sarsina Paolo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional, complementary and alternative medical (TCAM systems contribute to the foundation of person-centred medicine (PCM, an epistemological orientation for medical science which places the person as a physical, psychological and spiritual entity at the centre of health care and of the therapeutic process. PCM wishes to broaden the bio-molecular reductionistic approach of medical science towards an integration that allows people, doctors, nurses, health-care professionals and patients to become the real protagonists of the health-care scene. The doctor or caregiver needs to act out of empathy to meet the unique value of each human being, which unfolds over the course of a lifetime from conception to natural death. Knowledge of the human being should not be instrumental to economic or political interests, ideology, theories or religious dogma. Research needs to be broadened with methodological tools to investigate person-centred medical interventions. Salutogenesis is a fundamental principle of PCM, promoting health and preventing illness by strengthening the individual's self-healing abilities. TCAM systems also give tools to predict the insurgence of illness and treat it before the appearance of overt organic disease. A task of PCM is to educate people to take better care of their physical, psychological and spiritual health. Health-care education needs to be broadened to give doctors and health-care workers of the future the tools to act in innovative and highly differentiated ways, always guided by deep respect for individual autonomy, personal culture, religion and beliefs.

  6. Sex Differences in Self-Report and Behavioral Measures of Disinhibition Predicting Marijuana Use Across Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Julia W.; Collado, Anahi; Shadur, Julia M.; Lejuez, Carl W.; MacPherson, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Disinhibition has been consistently linked to substance use across development. Recent research suggests, however, that these relations may be influenced by both sex and measurement approach. The current study examined the moderating effect of sex on the association between behavioral and self-report measures of disinhibition and marijuana use across adolescence. Participants were 115 boys and 89 girls initially evaluated at grade 8 using a laboratory behavioral assessment and self-report questionnaires of disinhibitory variables. Marijuana use was measured annually from grades 9 through 12. Results suggest that boys and girls did not differ on either self-reported or behaviorally assessed levels of disinhibition, and that disinhibition measured using both approaches was associated with increases in marijuana use over time. There was a significant interaction between sex and disinhibition, suggesting that boys (but not girls) who self-reported elevations in disinhibition evidenced greater increases in marijuana use. The current findings add to a growing literature supporting the importance of using multiple methods to assess disinhibition and highlight the critical role of biological sex in understanding these relations. PMID:26237324

  7. Prediction of cannabis and cocaine use in adolescence using decision trees and logistic regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso L. Palmer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Spain is one of the European countries with the highest prevalence of cannabis and cocaine use among young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors related to the consumption of cocaine and cannabis among adolescents. A questionnaire was administered to 9,284 students between 14 and 18 years of age in Palma de Mallorca (47.1% boys and 52.9% girls whose mean age was 15.59 years. Logistic regression and decision trees were carried out in order to model the consumption of cannabis and cocaine. The results show the use of legal substances and committing fraudulence or theft are the main variables that raise the odds of consuming cannabis. In boys, cannabis consumption and a family history of drug use increase the odds of consuming cocaine, whereas in girls the use of alcohol, behaviours of fraudulence or theft and difficulty in some personal skills influence their odds of consuming cocaine. Finally, ease of access to the substance greatly raises the odds of consuming cocaine and cannabis in both genders. Decision trees highlight the role of consuming other substances and committing fraudulence or theft. The results of this study gain importance when it comes to putting into practice effective prevention programmes.

  8. Network medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Tony; Linding, Rune

    2008-01-01

    for new therapeutic intervention. We argue that by targeting the architecture of aberrant signaling networks associated with cancer and other diseases new therapeutic strategies can be implemented. Transforming medicine into a network driven endeavour will require quantitative measurements of cell...... signaling processes; we will describe how this may be performed and combined with new algorithms to predict the trajectories taken by a cellular system either in time or through disease states. We term this approach, network medicine....

  9. Predictive Validity of the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale for Short-Term Suicidal Behavior: A Danish Study of Adolescents at a High Risk of Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Erlangsen, Annette; Teasdale, Thomas William;

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), we examined the predictive and incremental predictive validity of past-month suicidal behavior and ideation for 2 short-term suicidal behavior among adolescents at a high risk of suicide. Methods: The study was conducted in 2014...... behavior predicted subsequent suicidal behavior (actual attempts and suicidal behavior of any type, including preparatory acts, aborted, interrupted and actual attempts; mean follow-up of 80.8 days, SD = 52.4). Furthermore, we examined whether suicidal ideation severity and intensity incrementally...... predicted suicidal behavior at follow-up over and above suicidal behavior at baseline. Results: Actual suicide attempts at baseline strongly predicted suicide attempts at follow-up. Baseline suicidal ideation severity and intensity did not significantly predict future actual attempts over and above baseline...

  10. No Parent Left Behind: Predicting Parental Involvement in Adolescents' Education within a Sociodemographically Diverse Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sira; Holloway, Susan D.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the utility of the Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler (HDS) model for predicting parents' involvement in students' education. Yet, the model has yet to be thoroughly evaluated with respect to youth who are (a) in high school and (b) from sociodemographically diverse families. Using a nationally representative sample of…

  11. Predicting High Risk Adolescents' Substance Use over Time: The Role of Parental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Heddy Kovach; Shamblen, Stephen R.; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Hanley, Sean

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether parental monitoring at baseline predicted subsequent substance use in a high-risk youth population. Students in 14 alternative high schools in Washington State completed self-report surveys at three time points over the course of 2 years. Primary analyses included 1,423 students aged 14-20 who lived with at least one parent or…

  12. Ink and Holes: Correlates and Predictive Associations of Body Modification among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, Richard L.; Stein, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined correlates and predictive associations of tattoos and body piercings among 1,462 Colorado students in grades 9 to 12. More boys (19%) than girls (17%) reported tattoos, but more girls (42%) than boys (16%) reported piercings (earlobes not included). Older students reported more body modification. Structural equation models showed that…

  13. Prediction of adolescent and adult adiposity outcomes from early life anthropometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Lise; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Gerds, Thomas A;

    2014-01-01

    to the NFBC1986, and aimed at labelling 10% as "at risk" on the basis of anthropometric information collected until 5 years of age showed that half of those at risk in fact did become overweight. This group constituted one-third of all who became overweight. CONCLUSIONS: Our prediction model identified...

  14. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Jiunshiou Lee

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10 students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989 were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833-0.857 and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731-0.795. The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile. Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65-5.17 compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents' height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups.

  15. Tracking blood glucose and predicting prediabetes in Chinese children and adolescents: a prospective twin study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoying Wang

    Full Text Available We examined the tracking of blood glucose, the development of prediabetes, and estimated their genetic contributions in a prospective, healthy, rural Chinese twin cohort. This report includes 1,766 subjects (998 males, 768 females aged 6-21 years at baseline who completed a 6-year follow-up study. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed for all subjects at both baseline and follow-up. We found that subjects with low fasting plasma glucose (FPG or 2 h post-load glucose (PG levels at baseline tended to remain at the low level at follow-up. Subjects in the top tertile of baseline plasma glucose tended to have a higher risk of developing prediabetes at follow-up compared to the low tertile: in males, 37.6% vs. 27.6% for FPG and 37.2% vs. 25.7% for 2hPG, respectively; in females, 31.0% vs. 15.4% for FPG and 28.9% vs. 15.1% for 2 h PG, respectively. Genetic factors explained 43% and 41% of the variance of FPG, and 72% and 47% for impaired fasting glucose for males and females, respectively; environmental factors substantially contribute to 2hPG status and impaired glucose tolerance. In conclusion, in this cohort of healthy rural Chinese children and adolescents, we demonstrated that both FPG and 2hPG tracked well and was a strong predictor of prediabetes. The high proportion of children with top tertile of blood glucose progressed to prediabetes, and the incidence of prediabetes has a male predominance. Genetic factors play more important role in fasting than postload status, most of which was explained by unique environmental factors.

  16. Factors predicting persistence of early wheezing through childhood and adolescence: a systematic review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos E; Sossa-Briceño, Monica P; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A

    2017-01-01

    Background For the early identification of persistent asthma symptoms among young children with recurrent wheezing, it would be helpful to identify all available studies that have identified at least one factor for predicting the persistence of early wheezing. The objective of the present study was to perform a systematic review of all studies that have identified factors that predict the persistence of symptoms among young patients with recurring wheezing. Methods A systematic review of relevant studies was conducted through searching in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, and SCOPUS databases up to June 2016. Studies that identified predictors of persistence of wheezing illness among young children with recurrent wheezing were retrieved. Two independent reviewers screened the literature and extracted relevant data. Results The literature search returned 649 references, 619 of which were excluded due to their irrelevance. Five additional studies were identified from reference lists, and 35 studies were finally included in the review. Among all the identified predictors, the most frequently identified ones were the following: family asthma or atopy; personal history of atopic diseases; allergic sensitization early in life; and frequency, clinical pattern, or severity of wheezing/symptoms. Conclusion Parental asthma (especially maternal), parental allergy, eczema, allergic rhinitis, persistent wheezing, wheeze without colds, exercise-induced wheeze, severe wheezing episodes, allergic sensitization (especially polysensitization), eosinophils (blood or eosinophil cationic protein in nasal sample), and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide were risk factors predicting persistence of early wheezing through school age. All of them are included in conventional algorithms, for example, Asthma Predictive Index and its modifications, for predicting future asthma.

  17. Gonadal function, fertility, and reproductive medicine in childhood and adolescent cancer patients: a national survey of Japanese pediatric endocrinologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Yoko; Yorifuji, Tohru; Horikawa, Reiko; Takahashi, Ikuko; Nagasaki, Keisuke; Ishiguro, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Ito, Junko; Oba, Mari; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Fujisaki, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masashi; Shimizu, Chikako; Kato, Tomoyasu; Matsumoto, Kimikazu; Sago, Haruhiko; Takimoto, Tetsuya; Okada, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Nao; Yokoya, Susumu; Ogata, Tsutomu; Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. An increasing number of pediatric cancer patients survive, and treatment-related infertility represents one of the most important issues for these patients. While official guidelines in Japan recommend long-term follow-up of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs), their gonadal function and fertility have not been clarified. To address this issue, we organized a working panel to compile evidence from long-term survivors who received treatments for cancer during childhood or adolescence. In collaboration with members of the CCS Committee of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology (JSPE), we conducted a questionnaire survey regarding reproductive function in pediatric cancer patients. A cross-sectional survey was sent to 178 JSPE-certified councilors who were asked to self-evaluate the medical examinations they had performed. A total of 151 responses were obtained, revealing that 143 endocrinologists were involved in the care of CCSs. A quarter of the respondents reported having experienced issues during gonadal or reproductive examinations. Several survivors did not remember or fully understand the explanation regarding gonadal damage, and faced physical and psychological distress when discussing the risk of becoming infertile. Pediatric endocrinologists had anxieties regarding their patients’ infertility and the risk of miscarriage, premature birth, and delivery problems. Only a limited number of endocrinologists had experience with managing childbirth and fertility preservation. Many councilors mentioned the necessity for inter-disciplinary communication among healthcare providers. Both endocrinologists and oncologists should set and follow a uniform clinical guideline that includes management of fertility of CCSs. PMID:27212796

  18. Gonadal function, fertility, and reproductive medicine in childhood and adolescent cancer patients: a national survey of Japanese pediatric endocrinologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Yoko; Yorifuji, Tohru; Horikawa, Reiko; Takahashi, Ikuko; Nagasaki, Keisuke; Ishiguro, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Ito, Junko; Oba, Mari; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Fujisaki, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masashi; Shimizu, Chikako; Kato, Tomoyasu; Matsumoto, Kimikazu; Sago, Haruhiko; Takimoto, Tetsuya; Okada, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Nao; Yokoya, Susumu; Ogata, Tsutomu; Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-04-01

    An increasing number of pediatric cancer patients survive, and treatment-related infertility represents one of the most important issues for these patients. While official guidelines in Japan recommend long-term follow-up of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs), their gonadal function and fertility have not been clarified. To address this issue, we organized a working panel to compile evidence from long-term survivors who received treatments for cancer during childhood or adolescence. In collaboration with members of the CCS Committee of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology (JSPE), we conducted a questionnaire survey regarding reproductive function in pediatric cancer patients. A cross-sectional survey was sent to 178 JSPE-certified councilors who were asked to self-evaluate the medical examinations they had performed. A total of 151 responses were obtained, revealing that 143 endocrinologists were involved in the care of CCSs. A quarter of the respondents reported having experienced issues during gonadal or reproductive examinations. Several survivors did not remember or fully understand the explanation regarding gonadal damage, and faced physical and psychological distress when discussing the risk of becoming infertile. Pediatric endocrinologists had anxieties regarding their patients' infertility and the risk of miscarriage, premature birth, and delivery problems. Only a limited number of endocrinologists had experience with managing childbirth and fertility preservation. Many councilors mentioned the necessity for inter-disciplinary communication among healthcare providers. Both endocrinologists and oncologists should set and follow a uniform clinical guideline that includes management of fertility of CCSs.

  19. Empathy and nonattachment independently predict peer nominations of prosocial behaviour of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljinder K Sahdra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a plethora of research showing that empathy promotes prosocial behaviour among young people. We examined a relatively new construct in the mindfulness literature, nonattachment, defined as a flexible way of relating to one’s experiences without clinging to or suppressing them. We tested whether nonattachment could predict prosociality above and beyond empathy. Nonattachment implies high cognitive flexibility and sufficient mental resources to step out of excessive self-cherishing to be there for others in need. Multilevel Poisson models using a sample of 15-year olds (N=1831 showed that empathy and nonattachment independently predicted prosocial behaviours of helpfulness and kindness, as judged by same-sex and opposite-sex peers, except for when boys nominated girls. The effects of nonattachment remained substantial in more conservative models including self-esteem and peer nominations of liking.

  20. Personality Predictors of Successful Development: Toddler Temperament and Adolescent Personality Traits Predict Well-Being and Career Stability in Middle Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Blatný; Katarína Millová; Martin Jelínek; Terezie Osecká

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to predict both adaptive psychological functioning (well-being) and adaptive social functioning (career stability) in middle adulthood based on behaviors observed in toddlerhood and personality traits measured in adolescence. 83 people participated in an ongoing longitudinal study started in 1961 (58% women). Based on children’s behavior in toddlerhood, three temperamental dimensions were identified – positive affectivity, negative affectivity and disinhibition. ...

  1. Does feedback-related brain response during reinforcement learning predict socio-motivational (in-dependence in adolescence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eRaufelder

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This multi-methodological study applied functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate neural activation in a group of adolescent students (N = 88 during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task. We related patterns of emerging brain activity and individual learning rates to socio-motivational (in-dependence manifested in four different motivation types (MT: (1 peer-dependent MT, (2 teacher-dependent MT, (3 peer-and-teacher-dependent MT, (4 peer-and-teacher-independent MT. A multinomial regression analysis revealed that the individual learning rate predicts students’ membership to the independent MT, or the peer-and-teacher-dependent MT. Additionally, the striatum, a brain region associated with behavioral adaptation and flexibility, showed increased learning-related activation in students with motivational independence. Moreover, the prefrontal cortex, which is involved in behavioral control, was more active in students of the peer-and-teacher-dependent MT. Overall, this study offers new insights into the interplay of motivation and learning with (1 a focus on inter-individual differences in the role of peers and teachers as source of students’ individual motivation and (2 its potential neurobiological basis.

  2. The Dopamine D2 Receptor Polymorphism (DRD2 TaqIA) Interacts with Maternal Parenting in Predicting Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: Evidence of Differential Susceptibility and Age Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxin; Cao, Yanmiao; Wang, Meiping; Ji, Linqin; Chen, Liang; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2015-07-01

    Most gene-environment interaction research on depression has largely focused on negative environment and to a lesser extent on positive environment. Moreover, to date few studies have directly examined G × E at different periods in development, particularly during early adolescence. The present study addressed these issues by examining the concurrent and prospective longitudinal effects of maternal parenting, DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism, and their interaction on adolescent depressive symptoms in a sample of 1026 Chinese adolescents (Mage = 11.33 ± 0.47 years at T1, 50.3% girls) in a three-wave longitudinal study from age 11 to 13. Results indicated that maternal positive and negative parenting significantly concurrently predicted adolescent depressive symptoms at all three waves, whereas TaqIA polymorphism had no main effect on depressive symptoms. TaqIA polymorphism interacted with negative parenting in predicting concurrent depressive symptoms at age 11 and 12. A1 carriers were more susceptible to negative parenting compared to A2A2 homozygotes, such that adolescents carrying A1 alleles experiencing high negative parenting reported more depressive symptoms but fared better when experiencing low negative parenting. However, the interaction became nonsignificant at age 13, indicating the interaction of TaqIA polymorphism and maternal parenting may vary with development. Also, there was no G × E effect on longitudinal change in depression. The findings provided evidence in support of the differential susceptibility hypothesis and shed light on the potential for dynamic change in gene-environment interactions over development.

  3. Stress-Induced Activation of the HPA Axis Predicts Connectivity between Subgenual Cingulate and Salience Network during Rest in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Moriah E.; Hamilton, J. Paul; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Responses to stress vary greatly in young adolescents, and little is known about neural correlates of the stress response in youth. The purpose of this study was to examine whether variability in cortisol responsivity following a social stress test in young adolescents is associated with altered neural functional connectivity (FC) of…

  4. The Broader Context of Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Predictions from Peer Pressure and Links to Psychosocial Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Megan M.; Szwedo, David E.; Antonishak, Jill; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at…

  5. Enrichment in Pre-Kindergarten Life Predicts Initiation of Cigarette Smoking in Asian American and Hispanic/Latino Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Weiss, Jie Wu

    2007-01-01

    The risk of tobacco use during adolescence may be traced back to early childhood, the time when a child is most vulnerable to environmental influence. We examined daily-life enrichment during pre-kindergarten period as a predictor of initiation of cigarette smoking among Asian American and Hispanic/Latino children during adolescence. Survey data…

  6. Predicting growth and curve progression in the individual patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis : design of a prospective longitudinal cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Iris; Wapstra, Frits Hein; Veldhuizen, Albert G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Scoliosis is present in 3-5% of the children in the adolescent age group, with a higher incidence in females. Treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is mainly dependent on the progression of the scoliotic curve. There is a close relationship between curve progression and rapid (spi

  7. Parental Rearing Behavior Prospectively Predicts Adolescents' Risky Decision-Making and Feedback-Related Electrical Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Anja S.; Evans, Brittany E.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Huizink, Anja C.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the role of parental rearing behavior in adolescents' risky decision-making and the brain's feedback processing mechanisms. Healthy adolescent participants ("n" = 110) completed the EMBU-C, a self-report questionnaire on perceived parental rearing behaviors between 2006 and 2008 (T1). Subsequently, after an…

  8. Predicting Early Adolescents' Academic Achievement, Social Competence, and Physical Health from Parenting, Ego Resilience, and Engagement Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; O'Brien, T. Caitlin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined ego resilience and engagement coping as mediators of the relationships between supportive and controlling parenting practices and early adolescents' academic achievement, social competence, and physical health. Participants were 240 predominantly Mexican American early adolescents, their parents, and their teachers. There were…

  9. Low Self-Esteem during Adolescence Predicts Poor Health, Criminal Behavior, and Limited Economic Prospects during Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Robins, Richard W.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2006-01-01

    Using prospective data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study birth cohort, the authors found that adolescents with low self-esteem had poorer mental and physical health, worse economic prospects, and higher levels of criminal behavior during adulthood, compared with adolescents with high self-esteem. The long-term…

  10. Interactions between parental alcohol-specific rules and risk personalities in the prediction of adolescent alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T.; Larsen, H.; Peeters, M.; Pronk, T.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Wiers, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To examine the impact of an important context variable (alcohol-specific parental rules) and an important person variable (risky personality traits) and their interaction on prospective adolescent drinking. Methods: Participants were 252 adolescents, 67.9% female, between 13 and 16 years old.

  11. Interactions between Parental Alcohol-Specific Rules and Risk Personalities in the Prediction of Adolescent Alcohol Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Tim; Larsen, Helle; Peeters, Margot; Pronk, Thomas; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Wiers, Reinout W.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To examine the impact of an important context variable (alcohol-specific parental rules) and an important person variable (risky personality traits) and their interaction on prospective adolescent drinking. Methods: Participants were 252 adolescents, 67.9% female, between 13 and 16 years old.

  12. Does Physical Abuse in Early Childhood Predict Substance Use in Adolescence and Early Adulthood?

    OpenAIRE

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; BATES, JOHN E.

    2010-01-01

    Prospective longitudinal data from 535 families were used to examine parents’ reports of child physical abuse in the first five years of life as a predictor of substance use at ages 12, 16, and 24. Path analyses revealed that physical abuse in the first five years of life predicted subsequent substance use for females but not males. We found a direct effect of early physical abuse on girls’ substance use at age 12 and indirect effects on substance use at age 16 and age 24 through substance us...

  13. Prediction of Five Factor Personality Dimensions Through Self- Esteem in Turkish Late Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Aslan, Sevda

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to determine the relationship between five factor personality dimensions and self-esteem in terms of how self-esteem predicts five factor personality dimensions. The study group consisted of a total of 122 students 98 of whom were females (80%) and 24 males (19.7 %). Personality Test Based on Adjectives (Bacanlı, İlhan ve Aslan, 2009) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965; Çuhadaroğlu, 1986) were used as data collection instruments in this study. The data gathered f...

  14. Children’s visuospatial memory predicts mathematics achievement through early adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaoran

    2017-01-01

    A previous study showed that gains in visuospatial memory from first to fifth grade predicted end-of-fifth grade mathematics but not reading achievement, controlling other factors. In this follow up study, these relations were assessed from sixth to ninth grade, inclusive (n = 145). The results showed that growth in visuospatial memory across the elementary school years was related to growth in mathematics achievement after fifth grade, controlling intelligence, the central executive and phonological memory components of working memory, in-class attentive behavior, parental education, and fifth grade mathematics achievement. As found for fifth grade, this relation was not found for reading achievement after fifth grade. In total, the results suggest that visuospatial memory has a unique influence on ease of learning some types of mathematics and that this influence becomes more important across successive grades. PMID:28192484

  15. Predicting the occurrence of headache and back pain in young adults by biopsychological characteristics assessed at childhood or adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kröner-Herwig B

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Birgit Kröner-Herwig, Anastasia Gorbunova, Jennifer Maas Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Georg-Elias-Müller-Institute of Psychology, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany Abstract: The aim of the current study was to identify predictors of recurrent headache and back pain in young adults (aged 18–27 years from data assessed in childhood or adolescence, i.e., 9 years before the final survey. Our interest was whether psychological characteristics contribute to the risk of pain prevalence in adult age when controlling for already empirically supported risk factors such as parental pain, pediatric pain and sex. The study was part of a five-wave epidemiological investigation of >5000 families with children aged between 7 and 14 years when addressed first. In a multiple hierarchical regression analysis, the abovementioned three variables (Block-I variables were entered first followed by five psychological trait variables (Block-II variables: internalizing, anxiety sensitivity, somatosensory amplification, catastrophizing and dysfunctional stress coping to find out the extent of model improvement. The multivariable hierarchical regression analysis confirmed the hypothesis that the Block-I variables significantly enhance the risk of future pain at young adult age. None of the psychological variables did so. Thus, the hypothesis of a significant surplus predictive effect was not confirmed. The amount of total explained variance differed strongly between headache and back pain. In particular, a valid prediction of back pain was not possible. When analyzed separately in simple regression analysis, psychological variables turned out to be significant predictors, however, of very low effect size. The inclusion of Block-I variables in the model clearly reduced the impact of the psychological variables. This risk profile is discussed in the context of the different trajectories of headache and back pain from childhood to

  16. PRIMEROS INTENTOS HACIA LA OBTENCIÓN DE ÍNDICES PREDICTIVOS EN LA HIPERTENSIÓN ARTERIAL DEL ADOLESCENTE / First attempts to obtain predictive indexes in adolescent hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Alberto Pérez Fernández

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives: There are many risk factors for developing hypertension. In the XXI century, smarter ways to investigate are needed, so preventing the turning of an adolescent into a hypertensive adult must be a priority. The aim of this paper is to predict the risk of hypertension onset in adulthood, from cardiovascular tension and risk stratification since adolescence. Methods: A representative sample of 125 adolescents from the project PESESCAD-HTA was studied. They were diagnosed with prehypertension in 2001, and were followed for 8 years (96 months until January 2009. Results: Two predictive indexes were obtained. The first, based on the total cardiovascular risk and the second from the multiplication of these risks with an accuracy index for each of 61.6% and 70.4%, respectively. Conclusions: The index based on the multiplication of cardiovascular risk can predict, with adequate accuracy, the turning of a prehypertensive adolescent into hypertensive once he/she reaches adulthood.

  17. Personality Predictors of Successful Development: Toddler Temperament and Adolescent Personality Traits Predict Well-Being and Career Stability in Middle Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to predict both adaptive psychological functioning (well-being) and adaptive social functioning (career stability) in middle adulthood based on behaviors observed in toddlerhood and personality traits measured in adolescence. 83 people participated in an ongoing longitudinal study started in 1961 (58% women). Based on children’s behavior in toddlerhood, three temperamental dimensions were identified – positive affectivity, negative affectivity and disinhibition. In adolescence, extraversion and neuroticism were measured at the age of 16 years. Various aspects of well-being were used as indicators of adaptive psychological functioning in adulthood: life satisfaction, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Career stability was used as an indicator of adaptive social functioning. Job careers of respondents were characterized as stable, unstable or changeable. Extraversion measured at the age of 16 proved to be the best predictor of well-being indicators; in case of self-efficacy it was also childhood disinhibition. Extraversion in adolescence, childhood disinhibition and negative affectivity predicted career stability. Findings are discussed in the context of a theoretical framework of higher order factors of the Big Five personality constructs, stability and plasticity. PMID:25919394

  18. Personality predictors of successful development: toddler temperament and adolescent personality traits predict well-being and career stability in middle adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Blatný

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to predict both adaptive psychological functioning (well-being and adaptive social functioning (career stability in middle adulthood based on behaviors observed in toddlerhood and personality traits measured in adolescence. 83 people participated in an ongoing longitudinal study started in 1961 (58% women. Based on children's behavior in toddlerhood, three temperamental dimensions were identified - positive affectivity, negative affectivity and disinhibition. In adolescence, extraversion and neuroticism were measured at the age of 16 years. Various aspects of well-being were used as indicators of adaptive psychological functioning in adulthood: life satisfaction, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Career stability was used as an indicator of adaptive social functioning. Job careers of respondents were characterized as stable, unstable or changeable. Extraversion measured at the age of 16 proved to be the best predictor of well-being indicators; in case of self-efficacy it was also childhood disinhibition. Extraversion in adolescence, childhood disinhibition and negative affectivity predicted career stability. Findings are discussed in the context of a theoretical framework of higher order factors of the Big Five personality constructs, stability and plasticity.

  19. Personality predictors of successful development: toddler temperament and adolescent personality traits predict well-being and career stability in middle adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatný, Marek; Millová, Katarína; Jelínek, Martin; Osecká, Terezie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to predict both adaptive psychological functioning (well-being) and adaptive social functioning (career stability) in middle adulthood based on behaviors observed in toddlerhood and personality traits measured in adolescence. 83 people participated in an ongoing longitudinal study started in 1961 (58% women). Based on children's behavior in toddlerhood, three temperamental dimensions were identified - positive affectivity, negative affectivity and disinhibition. In adolescence, extraversion and neuroticism were measured at the age of 16 years. Various aspects of well-being were used as indicators of adaptive psychological functioning in adulthood: life satisfaction, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Career stability was used as an indicator of adaptive social functioning. Job careers of respondents were characterized as stable, unstable or changeable. Extraversion measured at the age of 16 proved to be the best predictor of well-being indicators; in case of self-efficacy it was also childhood disinhibition. Extraversion in adolescence, childhood disinhibition and negative affectivity predicted career stability. Findings are discussed in the context of a theoretical framework of higher order factors of the Big Five personality constructs, stability and plasticity.

  20. Identifying psychosocial variables that predict safer-sex intentions in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil eBrüll

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Young people are especially vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections. The triad of deliberate and effective safer-sex behavior encompasses condom use, combined with additional information about a partner’s sexual health, and the kind of sex acts usually performed. To identify psychosocial predictors of young people’s intentions to have safer sex, as related to this triad we conducted an online study with 211 sexually active participants aged between 18 and 24 years. Predictors (i.e. perceived behavioural control, subjective norms and intention taken from Fishbein and Ajzen’s Reasoned Action Approach (RAA, were combined with more distal variables (e.g. behavioral inhibition, sensation seeking, parental monitoring, and knowledge about sexually transmitted infections. Beyond the highly predictive power of RAA variables, additional variance was explained by the number of instances of unprotected sexual intercourse during the last twelve months and reasons for using barrier protection during first sexual intercourse. In particular, past condom nonuse behavior moderated perceived behavioral control related to intended condom use. Further, various distal variables showed significant univariate associations with intentions related to the three behaviors of interest. It may, therefore, be helpful to include measures of past behavior as well as certain additional distal variables in future safer-sex programs designed to promote health sustaining sexual behavior.

  1. Risk Score Model for Predicting Sonographic Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinaz Poursafa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to develop and test the validity of a risk score to be used as a simple tool to identify those children at high risk of sonographic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted among 962 participants aged 6-18 years in Isfahan, Iran. They consisted of three groups of nearly equal number of normal-weight, overweight and obese individuals. Coefficients of the logistic regression models were used to assign a score value for each variable and the composite sonographic NAFLD risk score was calculated as the sum of those scores. Performance of model was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve procedure. Findings:Data of 931 participants was included in the analysis. The sonographic findings of 16.8% of participants were compatible with NAFLD. Age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference and serum triglycerides level were diagnosed as factors associated with NAFLD. The risk score was calculated as 50 for sonographic NAFLD. Conclusion:This study, to the best of our knowledge is the first of its kind in the pediatric age group, focuses on predicting sonographic NAFLD from easily-measured factors. It may suggest an association of hypertriglyceridemic-waist phenotype with NAFLD in the pediatric age group.

  2. Predicting Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Children and Adolescents: Look, Measure and Ask

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Santoro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify in obese children whether or not the presence of i high waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, ii family history for type 2 diabetes (T2D and iii acanthosis nigricans (AN, singularly or together, might predict the occurrence of metabolic syndrome or prediabetes. Methods. 1,080 Italian obese children (567 females were enrolled. Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and lipids were measured, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was performed. The WHtR was calculated, family history for T2D was assessed, and the presence of AN was noticed. The odds ratios for showing metabolic syndrome and/or prediabetes according to the presence of these features were calculated. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 29.2%. AN (OR1.81; p = 0.002 and WHtR higher than 0.60 (OR 2.24; p Conclusions: Three simple actions, i.e., looking at the patient, asking about T2D family history, and measuring WHtR, may represent a powerful tool in the hands of pediatricians to identify obese children with high cardiovascular and metabolic risk.

  3. Does Playing Sports Video Games Predict Increased Involvement in Real-Life Sports Over Several Years Among Older Adolescents and Emerging Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena

    2016-02-01

    Given the extreme popularity of video games among older adolescents and emerging adults, the investigation of positive outcomes of video game play during these developmental periods is crucial. An important direction for research in this area is the investigation of a link between sports video game play and involvement in real-life sports among youth. Yet, this association has not been examined in the long-term among older adolescents and emerging adults, and thus represents an exciting new area for discovery. The primary goal of the current study, therefore, was to examine the long-term association between sports video game play and involvement in real-life sports clubs among older adolescents and emerging adults. In addition, we examined whether self-esteem was an underlying mechanism of this longitudinal association. We surveyed older adolescents and emerging adults (N = 1132; 70.6 % female; M age = 19.06 years, range of 17-25 years at the first assessment) annually over 3 years about their video game play, self-esteem, and involvement in real-life sports. We found a long-term predictive effect of sports video game play on increased involvement in real-life sports over the 3 years. Furthermore, we demonstrated that self-esteem was an underlying mechanism of this long-term association. Our findings make an important contribution to an emerging body of literature on the positive outcomes of video game play, as they suggest that sports video game play may be an effective tool to promote real-life sports participation and physical activity among older adolescents and emerging adults.

  4. Trait-like brain activity during adolescence predicts anxious temperament in primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Fox

    Full Text Available Early theorists (Freud and Darwin speculated that extremely shy children, or those with anxious temperament, were likely to have anxiety problems as adults. More recent studies demonstrate that these children have heightened responses to potentially threatening situations reacting with intense defensive responses that are characterized by behavioral inhibition (BI (inhibited motor behavior and decreased vocalizations and physiological arousal. Confirming the earlier impressions, data now demonstrate that children with this disposition are at increased risk to develop anxiety, depression, and comorbid substance abuse. Additional key features of anxious temperament are that it appears at a young age, it is a stable characteristic of individuals, and even in non-threatening environments it is associated with increased psychic anxiety and somatic tension. To understand the neural underpinnings of anxious temperament, we performed imaging studies with 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG high-resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET in young rhesus monkeys. Rhesus monkeys were used because they provide a well validated model of anxious temperament for studies that cannot be performed in human children. Imaging the same animal in stressful and secure contexts, we examined the relation between regional metabolic brain activity and a trait-like measure of anxious temperament that encompasses measures of BI and pituitary-adrenal reactivity. Regardless of context, results demonstrated a trait-like pattern of brain activity (amygdala, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray that is predictive of individual phenotypic differences. Importantly, individuals with extreme anxious temperament also displayed increased activity of this circuit when assessed in the security of their home environment. These findings suggest that increased activity of this circuit early in life mediates the childhood temperamental risk to develop anxiety and

  5. MRI to predict prostate growth and development in children, adolescents and young adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Jing; Liu, Huijia; Wen, Didi; Huang, Xufang; Ren, Fang; Huan, Yi [Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, Xijing Hospital, Xi' an City (China); Wang, He [Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Urology, Tangdu Hospital, Xi' an City (China)

    2014-08-06

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of MRI in predicting prostate growth and development. A total of 1,500 healthy male volunteers who underwent MRI of the pelvis were included in this prospective study. Subjects were divided into five groups according to age (group A, 2-5 years; group B, 6-10 years; group C, 11-15 years; group D, 16-20 years; group E, 21-25 years). Total prostate volume (TPV) as well as prostate central zone (CZ) and peripheral zone (PZ) were measured and evaluated on MRI. Data of the different groups were compared using variance analysis, Scheffe's method, Kruskal-Wallis H-test, and Pearson's correlation. Statistical significance was inferred at P < 0.05. In groups A and B, the prostates were barely visible. In group C, although TPV was measured, it was hard to distinguish CZ and PZ. In group D, 136 CZ and PZ were clearly visible. In group E, 377 CZ and PZ were clearly visible on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI). The median TPVs of groups A, B, C, D, and E were 0.00 cm{sup 3}, 0.05 cm{sup 3}, 2.83 cm{sup 3}, 8.32 cm{sup 3,} and 11.56 cm{sup 3}, respectively, and the median prostate development scores were 0.08, 0.69, 1.56, 2.38, and 2.74, respectively. Both TPVs and zonal anatomy scores varied significantly among the five groups (P = 0.000). TPV and zonal anatomy score increased with increasing age. MRI provides a reliable quantitative reference for prostate growth and development. (orig.)

  6. Adolescent and Parental Contributions to Parent-Adolescent Hostility Across Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymouth, Bridget B; Buehler, Cheryl

    2016-04-01

    Early adolescence is characterized by increases in parent-adolescent hostility, yet little is known about what predicts these changes. Utilizing a fairly large sample (N = 416, 51 % girls, 91 % European American), this study examined the conjoint and unique influences of adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parental intrusiveness on changes in parent-adolescent hostility across early adolescence. Higher mother and father intrusiveness were associated with increased mother- and father-adolescent hostility. An examination of reciprocal effects revealed that mother- and father-adolescent hostility predicted increased mother and father intrusiveness. Significant associations were not substantiated for adolescent social anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that intrusive parenting has important implications for subsequent parent-adolescent interactions and that similar patterns may characterize some aspects of mother- and father-adolescent relationships.

  7. Does socioeconomic status in adolescence predict low back pain in adulthood? A repeated cross-sectional study of 4,771 Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Korsholm, Lars; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    Social and economic disadvantage is associated with general poor physical health. This relationship has been recognised for centuries, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic factors have a specific influence on low back pain (LBP). Furthermore, it is unknown how social and economic disadvantages...... in youth affect adult health. Therefore, the specific objectives of this study are to explore (1) the cross-sectional association between socioeconomic status (SES) and LBP in adolescence and (2) the longitudinal association between SES in adolescence and LBP in early adulthood. A database containing LBP...... as well as at follow-up. Finally, the influence of a variable combining the different socioeconomic parameters was established. All estimates were controlled for smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index at baseline. In the logistic regression models, only three of the 32 estimates were...

  8. What Predicts a Good Adolescent to Adult Transition in ADHD? The Role of Self-Reported Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schei, Jorun; Nøvik, Torunn Stene; Thomsen, Per Hove;

    2015-01-01

    resilience characteristics during adolescence protected against psychosocial impairment, depression, and anxiety 3 years later. Self-reported protective factors were used as baseline measures in the assessment of 190 clinically referred adolescents with ADHD. A semi-structured diagnostic interview......OBJECTIVE: ADHD is a disorder associated with impairment and comorbid psychiatric problems in young adulthood; therefore, factors that may imply a more favorable outcome among adolescents with ADHD are of interest. METHOD: This study used a longitudinal design to assess whether adolescent personal...... was performed at the follow-up. RESULTS: In a group of youth with ADHD, personal resilience characteristics were associated with better psychosocial functioning in young adulthood, and less depression and anxiety. CONCLUSION: Although further research is needed, these results indicate that personal resilience...

  9. An extended version of the theory of planned behaviour: the role of self-efficacy and past behaviour in predicting the physical activity of Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to use an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB), which incorporated additional self-efficacy and past behaviour, to predict the intention to engage in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and the MVPA level of Chinese adolescents. Questionnaires that focused on MVPA, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control (PBC), self-efficacy and past behaviour related to the MVPA engagement were administered to a sample of 488 young people. Multiple regression analyses provided moderate support for TPB. Three TPB constructs predicted 28.7% of the variance in intentions to engage in MVPA, and that PBC, but not intention, explained 3.4% of the variance in MVPA. Self-efficacy significantly affected intention and behaviour over and above the influence of TPB. Past behaviour had a small but significant improvement in the prediction of intention, but no improvement in the prediction of MVPA. Based on the results, interventions should target adolescent self-efficacy and PBC in physical activity participation.

  10. 4Ps medicine of the fatty liver: the research model of predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory medicine-recommendations for facing obesity, fatty liver and fibrosis epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Francesca Maria; Catalano, Daniela; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Trovato, Guglielmo M

    2014-01-01

    Relationship between adipose tissue and fatty liver, and its possible evolution in fibrosis, is supported by clinical and research experience. Given the multifactorial pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), treatments for various contributory risk factors have been proposed; however, there is no single validated therapy or drug association recommended for all cases which can stand alone. Mechanisms, diagnostics, prevention and treatment of obesity, fatty liver and insulin resistance are displayed along with recommendations and position points. Evidences and practice can get sustainable and cost-benefit valuable outcomes by participatory interventions. These recommendations can be enhanced by comprehensive research projects, addressed to societal issues and innovation, market appeal and industry development, cultural acceptance and sustainability. The basis of participatory medicine is a greater widespread awareness of a condition which is both a disease and an easy documented and inclusive clue for associated diseases and unhealthy lifestyle. This model is suitable for addressing prevention and useful for monitoring improvement, worsening and adherence with non-invasive imaging tools which allow targeted approaches. The latter include health psychology and nutritional and physical exercise prescription expertise disseminated by continuous medical education but, more important, by concrete curricula for training undergraduate and postgraduate students. It is possible and recommended to do it by early formal teaching of ultrasound imaging procedures and of practical lifestyle intervention strategies, including approaches aimed to healthier fashion suggestions. Guidelines and requirements of research project funding calls should be addressed also to NAFLD and allied conditions and should encompass the goal of training by research and the inclusion of participatory medicine topics. A deeper awareness of ethics of competences in health professionals

  11. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Amplifies the Incentive Value of Reward-Predictive Cues Through Potentiation of Phasic Dopamine Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoelder, Marcia; Tsutsui, Kimberly T; Lesscher, Heidi M B; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Clark, Jeremy J

    2015-12-01

    Adolescent alcohol use remains a major public health concern due in part to well-established findings implicating the age of onset in alcohol use in the development of alcohol use disorders and persistent decision-making deficits in adults. We have previously demonstrated that moderate adolescent alcohol consumption in rats promotes suboptimal decision making and an associated perturbation in mesolimbic dopamine transmission in adulthood. Dopamine-dependent incentive learning processes are an integral component of value-based decision making and a fundamental element to many theoretical accounts of addiction. Thus we tested the hypothesis that adolescent alcohol use selectively alters incentive learning processes through perturbation of mesolimbic dopamine systems. To assess incentive learning, behavioral and neurochemical measurements were made during the acquisition, maintenance, extinction, and reacquisition of a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure in adult rats with a history of adolescent alcohol consumption. We show that moderate adolescent alcohol consumption potentiates stimulus-evoked phasic dopamine transmission, measured in vivo by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, in adulthood and biases individuals toward a dopamine-dependent incentive learning strategy. Moreover, we demonstrate that animals exposed to alcohol in adolescence are more sensitive to an unexpected variation in reward outcomes. This pattern of phasic dopamine signaling and the associated bias in learning may provide a mechanism for the well-documented vulnerability of individuals with early-life alcohol use for alcohol use disorders in adulthood.

  12. International note: Prediction of mathematics work ethic and performance from behavioral, normative, and control beliefs among Qatari adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Abdelfattah, Faisal; Mahasneh, Randa Ali; Khine, Myint Swe; Welch, Anita G; Melkonian, Michael; Al Nuaimi, Samira Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Over half-a-million adolescents take part in each cycle of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Yet often, researchers and policy makers across the globe tend to focus their attention primarily on the academic trajectories of adolescents hailing from highly successful education systems. Hence, a vast majority of the adolescent population who regionally and globally constitute the 'long tail of underachievement' often remain unnoticed and underrepresented in the growing literature on adolescents' academic trajectories. The present study, therefore, explored the relations of dispositions toward mathematics, subjective norms in mathematics, and perceived control of success in mathematics to mathematics work ethic as well as mathematics performance; and the mediational role of mathematics work ethic in the association between dispositional, normative, and control beliefs and mathematics performance among adolescents in one of the lowest performing education systems, Qatar. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses revealed that Qatari adolescents' dispositional, normative, and control beliefs about mathematics were significantly associated with their mathematics work ethic and mathematics performance, and mathematics work ethic significantly mediated the relationship between dispositional, normative, and control beliefs about mathematics and mathematics performance. However, multi-group SEM analyses indicated that these relationships were not invariant across the gender and the SES groups.

  13. Prediction of Areal Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content in Children and Adolescents Living With HIV Based on Anthropometric Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de; Krug, Rodrigo de Rosso; Silva, Rosane Carla Rosendo da; Carvalho, Aroldo Prohmann de; González-Chica, David Alejandro; Back, Isabela de Carlos; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2016-10-01

    Children and adolescents living with HIV have low bone mass for age. There are reliable and accurate methods for evaluation of bone mass, however, alternative methods are necessary, especially, for application in limited-resource scenarios. Anthropometry is a noninvasive and low cost method that can predict bone mass in healthy youths. The aim of the study was to develop predictive equations for bone mineral content and bone mineral density in children and adolescents living with HIV based on anthropometric variables. Forty-eight children and adolescents of both sexes (24 females) from 7 to 17 years, living in greater Florianopolis area, Santa Catarina, Brazil, who were under clinical follow-up at "Hospital Infantil Joana de Gusmão", participated in the study. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to evaluate whole-body bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD). Height, body weight, bone diameters, arm circumference, and triceps skinfold were measured and the body mass index and arm muscle area were calculated. Multiple regression models were fitted to predict BMC and aBMD, using backward selection (p ≥ 0.05). Two predictive models with high R(2) values (84%-94%) were developed. Model 1 to estimate aBMD [Y = -0.1450124 + (height × 0.0033807) + (age × 0.0146381) + (body mass index × 0.0158838) + (skin color × 0.0421068)], and model 2 to estimate BMC [Y = 1095.1 + (body weight × 45.66973) + (age × 31.36516) + (arm circumference × -53.27204) + (femoral diameter × -9.594018)].The predictive models using anthropometry provided reliable estimates and can be useful to monitor aBMD and BMC in children and adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus where limited resources are available.

  14. Lower Psychological Well-Being and Excessive Sexual Interest Predict Symptoms of Compulsive Use of Sexually Explicit Internet Material Among Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Baams, Laura; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2016-01-01

    Although a growing body of literature addresses the effects of young people's use of sexually explicit Internet material, research on the compulsive use of this type of online content among adolescents and its associated factors is largely lacking. This study investigated whether factors from three distinct psychosocial domains (i.e., psychological well-being, sexual interests/behaviors, and impulsive-psychopathic personality) predicted symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material among adolescent boys. Links between psychosocial factors and boys' compulsive use symptoms were analyzed both cross-sectionally and longitudinally with compulsive use symptoms measured 6 months later (T2). Data were used from 331 Dutch boys (M age = 15.16 years, range 11-17) who indicated that they used sexually explicit Internet material. The results from negative binomial regression analyses indicated that lower levels of global self-esteem and higher levels of excessive sexual interest concurrently predicted boys' symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material. Longitudinally, higher levels of depressive feelings and, again, excessive sexual interest predicted relative increases in compulsive use symptoms 6 months later. Impulsive and psychopathic personality traits were not uniquely related to boys' symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material. Our findings, while preliminary, suggest that both psychological well-being factors and sexual interests/behaviors are involved in the development of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material among adolescent boys. Such knowledge is important for prevention and intervention efforts that target the needs of specific problematic users of sexually explicit Internet material.

  15. Predicting Internet risks: a longitudinal panel study of gratifications-sought, Internet addiction symptoms, and social media use among children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Louis

    2014-01-01

    This study used longitudinal panel survey data collected from 417 adolescents at 2 points in time 1 year apart. It examined relationships between Internet risks changes in Time 2 and social media gratifications-sought, Internet addiction symptoms, and social media use all measured at Time 1. By controlling for age, gender, education, and criterion variable scores in Internet addiction at Time 1, entertainment and instant messaging use at Time 1 significantly predicted increased Internet addiction measured at Time 2. The study also controlled for demographics and scores of criterion variables in Internet risks: targeted for harassment, privacy exposed, and pornographic or violent content consumed in Time 1. Gratifications-sought (including status-gaining, expressing opinions, and identity experimentation), Internet addiction symptoms (including withdrawal and negative life consequences), and social media use (in particular, blogs, and Facebook) significantly predicted Internet risk changes in Time 2. These findings suggest that, with their predictive power, these predictors at Time 1 could be used to identify those adolescents who are likely to develop Internet addiction symptoms and the likelihood of experiencing Internet risks based on their previous gratifications-sought, previous addiction symptoms, and their habits of social media use at Time 1.

  16. Callous-Unemotional Traits Trajectories Interact with Earlier Conduct Problems and Executive Control to Predict Violence and Substance Use Among High Risk Male Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Waller, Rebecca; Fish, Ari M; Hyde, Luke W

    2015-11-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, conduct problems (CP), and deficits in executive control are all linked to the development of more severe antisocial behavior, including violence and substance use. Though previous research has examined the impact of these factors on antisocial outcomes, little work has examined trajectories of CU traits across adolescence and how these trajectories predict greater antisocial behavior in adulthood. Moreover, no study has assessed how severity of early CP and executive control may exacerbate these pathways and increase risk for later violence and substance use. The current study (a) identified trajectories of CU traits among a large, high-risk sample of adolescent males, (b) examined the relationship between CU traits trajectories and future violence and substance use, and (c) examined whether early CP and executive control moderated the effects of a high CU traits trajectory membership and high CP on violence and substance use. Results indicated that: (a) CU traits could be grouped into three stable trajectories across adolescence, (b) the 'high' CU traits trajectory, particularly in the presence of 'elevated' CP, was related to higher violence and substance use, over and above a variety of environmental risk factors, and (c) the effects the 'high' CU traits trajectory on both violence and substance and in the presence of 'elevated' CP was stronger among youth with high executive control. These findings highlight the utility of identifying subgroups of youth who differ on trajectories of CU traits for understanding the development and maintenance of severe antisocial behavior.

  17. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in Medicine and Their Ability to Prediction as Therapy Planning Systems by CADIAG-2 Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Madadpour Inallou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Expert Systems in Medicine is a collection, storage, retrieval, communication and processing of medical data for the purposes of interpretation, inference, decision-support, research and so other purposes in medicine. Expert System is an interactive computer-based decision tool that uses both facts and heuristics to solve difficult decision problems based on knowledge acquired from an expert. Expert systems provide expert advice and guidance in a wide variety of activities, from computer diagnosis to delicate medical surgery and so more other. CADIAG-2 is a well known rule-based medical expert system aimed at providing support in medical diagnose in the field of internal medicine. This paper employs CADIAG-2 fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic to formalize medical entities and relationships and uses a large collection of IF-THEN rules to represent uncertain relationships between distinct medical entities. This paper is organized as follows: At first, the introduction and fundamental of CADIAG-2, in second step notation and preliminary definitions is regarded, and in third part the Algorithm will be consider, and the final step is discussed about satisfiablity and Unsatisfiable of CADIAG-2 sets.

  18. Insecure Attachment, Dysfunctional Attitudes, and Low Self-Esteem Predicting Prospective Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Adabel; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2009-01-01

    This study extends the existing adult literature on insecure attachment as a predictor of depression and anxiety by examining these pathways in a sample of adolescents. In addition, dysfunctional attitudes and low self-esteem were tested as mediators of the association between insecure attachment and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Youth (N =…

  19. Interpersonal Sensitivity, Romantic Stress, and the Prediction of Depression: A Study of Inner-City, Minority Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Christie J.; Daley, Shannon E.; Gunderson, Brent H.

    2006-01-01

    The role of interpersonal sensitivity in the relation between romantic stress and depression was examined in 55 adolescent girls from an inner-city high school. Depression, interpersonal sensitivity, and chronic and episodic romantic stress were measured at two time points, 6 months apart. Interpersonal sensitivity was found to moderate the…

  20. Ethnic Identity Trajectories among Mexican-Origin Girls during Early and Middle Adolescence: Predicting Future Psychosocial Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A.; Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Allen, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    We examined trajectories of ethnic identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation and their associations with depressive symptoms and self-esteem 3.5 years later among early and middle adolescent Mexican-origin girls (N = 338). Findings indicated that exploration, resolution, and affirmation increased over time for both cohorts. Among early…

  1. Major depression in mothers predict reduced ventral striatum activation in adolescent female offspring with and without depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior research has identified reduced reward-related brain activation as a promising endophenotype for the early identification of adolescents with major depressive disorder. However, it is unclear whether reduced reward-related brain activation constitutes a true vulnerability for major depressive ...

  2. Predicting acceptance and popularity in early adolescence as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, N.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations of communicative skills, social behavior, and personality with acceptance and popularity as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting. Participants were 87 deaf and 672 hearing early adolescents of 52 6th grade classrooms in mainstream and special

  3. Predicting Transitions in Low and High Levels of Risk Behavior from Early to Middle Adolescence : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monshouwer, K.; Harakeh, Z.; Lugtig, P.; Huizink, A.; Creemers, H. E.; Reijneveld, S. A.; De Winter, A. F.; Van Oort, F.; Ormel, J.; Vollebergh, W. A. M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the joint development of substance use and externalizing problems in early and middle adolescence. First, it was tested whether the relevant groups found in previous studies i.e., those with an early onset, a late onset, and no onset or low levels of risk behavior could be

  4. Sorting Test, Tower Test, and BRIEF-SR do not predict school performance of healthy adolescents in preuniversity education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aben, Aukje; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) such as self-monitoring, planning, and organizing are known to develop through childhood and adolescence. They are of potential importance for learning and school performance. Earlier research into the relation between EF and school performance did not provide clear results

  5. Decrease in Television Viewing Predicts Lower Body Mass Index at 1-Year Follow-Up in Adolescents, but Not Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A.; Mitchell, Nathan R.; Hannan, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between television viewing, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, eating out, physical activity, and body weight change over 1 year. Design: Secondary data analysis from randomized intervention trial. Setting: Households in the community. Participants: Adults (n = 153) and adolescents (n = 72) from the same…

  6. Psychosocial Stress Predicts Future Symptom Severities in Children and Adolescents with Tourette Syndrome and/or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haiqun; Katsovich, Liliya; Ghebremichael, Musie; Findley, Diane B.; Grantz, Heidi; Lombroso, Paul J.; King, Robert A.; Zhang, Heping; Leckman, James F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The goals of this prospective longitudinal study were to monitor levels of psychosocial stress in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to healthy control subjects and to examine the relationship between measures of psychosocial stress and fluctuations in tic,…

  7. Understanding Mother-Adolescent Conflict Discussions: Concurrent and Across-Time Prediction from Youths' Dispositions and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Hofer, Claire; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Valiente, Carlos; Losoya, Sandra; Zhou, Qing; Cumberland, Amanda; Liew, Jeffrey; Reiser, Mark; Maxon, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence is often thought of as a period during which the quality of parent-child interactions can be relatively stressed and conflictual. There are individual differences in this regard, however, with only a modest percent of youths experiencing extremely conflictual relationships with their parents. Nonetheless, there is relatively little…

  8. Longitudinal Associations of Alcohol Involvement with Subjective Well-Being in Adolescence and Prediction to Alcohol Problems in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W. Alex; Spoth, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol involvement is associated with numerous negative outcomes, but also appears to have positive correlates, including subjective well-being. Additional research is needed to understand these paradoxical findings. The current study examines alcohol use, adverse alcohol-related (and other substance-related) consequences, and…

  9. Quantitative ultrasound for predicting curve progression in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a prospective cohort study of 294 cases followed-up beyond skeletal maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tsz Ping; Hung, Vivian Wing Yin; Yeung, Hiu Yan; Chu, Winnie Chiu Wing; Ng, Bobby Kin Wah; Lee, Kwong Man; Qin, Ling; Cheng, Jack Chun Yiu

    2013-03-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is prevalent among adolescents and can carry significant morbidities. We evaluated the use of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) for predicting curve progression in patients with AIS. We recruited 294 girls with AIS at a mean age of 13.4 years, and they were prospectively followed beyond skeletal maturity for curve progression. We recorded 3 calcaneal QUS measurements at baseline, namely broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), velocity of sound (VOS), and stiffness index (SI). Logistic regression analysis indicated that SI, age, menarchal status, and Cobb angle were significant prognostic factors to be included in the final prediction model. The adjusted odds ratio of curve progression for Z-score of SI≦0 was 2.00 (95% CI: 1.08-3.71). The area under the ROC curve was 0.831 (95% CI: 0.785-0.877). The results of this study indicate that SI was an independent and significant prognostic factor for AIS and could be considered in addition to other prognostic factors when estimating the risk for curve progression and planning treatment for patients with AIS.

  10. Medicine use among adolescents: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study Utilização de medicamentos por adolescentes: a visita de 11 anos da coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa D. Bertoldi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate medicine use and associated factors among adolescents. This was a prospective cohort study including 4,452 adolescents born in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 1993. Information on medicine use in the 15 days prior to the interviews was collected from the mothers. Overall prevalence of medicine use was 30.9%, and 64.7% of the medicines had been prescribed by a physician. The most frequently used pharmacological groups were medicines for the nervous (35.9% and respiratory systems (25.7%. Medicine use was directly associated with socioeconomic status, maternal schooling, complications during pregnancy or delivery, and neonatal problems resulting in the need for intensive care. Underweight and obese adolescents were more likely to use medicines as compared to those with normal body mass index. A direct association was observed between maternal use of hypnotic drugs and sedatives and adolescent medicine use. It is essential to implement educational policies aimed at promoting rational use of medicines by adolescents.O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o uso de medicamentos e fatores associados em adolescentes. Trata-se de estudo de coorte prospectivo, incluindo 4.452 adolescentes nascidos em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, em 1993. As informações sobre o uso de medicamentos pelo adolescente nos 15 dias anteriores à entrevista foram fornecidas pelas mães. A prevalência global de uso de medicamentos foi de 30,9%, sendo que destes, 64,7% foram indicados por médicos. Os grupos farmacológicos mais utilizados foram os medicamentos que atuam nos sistemas nervoso (35,9% e respiratório (25,7%. O uso de medicamentos esteve diretamente associado ao nível econômico, escolaridade da mãe, intercorrência na gravidez ou parto que gerou doença até a adolescência, problema de saúde no momento do nascimento que levou o recém-nascido à UTI, magreza e obesidade. Foi observada uma rela

  11. How well can adolescents really judge risk? Simple, self reported risk factors out-predict teens' self estimates of personal risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Persoskie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations of adolescents' beliefs about risk have led to surprisingly optimistic conclusions: Teens' self estimates of their likelihood of experiencing various life events not only correlate sensibly with relevant risk factors (Fischhoff et al., 2000, but they also significantly predict later experiencing the events (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007. Using the same dataset examined in previous investigations, the present study extended these analyses by comparing the predictive value of self estimates of risk to that of traditional risk factors for each outcome. The analyses focused on the prediction of pregnancy, criminal arrest, and school enrollment. Three findings emerged. First, traditional risk factor information tended to out-predict self assessments of risk, even when the risk factors included crude, potentially unreliable measures (e.g., a simple tally of self-reported criminal history and when the risk factors were aggregated in a nonoptimal way (i.e., unit weighting. Second, despite the previously reported correlations between self estimates and outcomes, perceived invulnerability was a problem among the youth: Over half of the teens who became pregnant, half of those who were not enrolled in school, and nearly a third of those who were arrested had, one year earlier, indicated a 0% chance of experiencing these outcomes. Finally, adding self estimates of risk to the other risk factor information produced only small gains in predictive accuracy. These analyses point to the need for greater education about the situations and behaviors that lead to negative outcomes.

  12. Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic (MBMD) Predicts Health-Related Quality of Life (HrQoL) over time among men treated for localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruess, Dean G; Benedict, Catherine; Lattie, Emily G; Molton, Ivan; Kinsinger, Dave; Kava, Bruce; Manoharan, Murugesan; Soloway, Mark; Penedo, Frank J

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer treatment presents multiple challenges that can negatively affect health-related quality of life (HrQoL), and that can be further compromised by maladaptive personality styles and psychological adjustment difficulties. This study examined the utility of a comprehensive psychosocial screening tool to identify psychosocial traits that prospectively predict HrQoL status among men treated for localized prostate cancer. The Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic (MBMD) was administered to 66 men (M age = 68 years, 59% White) treated by either radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy along with standard measures of general and prostate-cancer-specific quality of life assessed at a 12-month follow-up. Higher scores on both summary MBMD Management Guides (Adjustment Difficulties and Psych Referral) and higher scores on personality styles characterized by avoidance, dependency, depression, passive aggressiveness, and self-denigration predicted lower HrQoL (β range = -.21 to -.50). Additionally, higher scores on the MBMD Depression, Tension-Anxiety, and Future Pessimism scales predicted lower HrQoL. Finally, higher scores on the MBMD Intervention Fragility and Utilization Excess scale also consistently predicted poorer mental and physical health functioning over time. These results point to the utility of the MBMD to help screen for potential impairments in mental and physical health functioning in men undergoing treatment for prostate cancer.

  13. Adolescent development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  14. Predicting nicotine dependence profiles among adolescent smokers: the roles of personal and social-environmental factors in a longitudinal framework

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although several studies have reported that symptoms of nicotine dependence can occur after limited exposure to smoking, the majority of research on nicotine dependence has focused on adult smokers. Insufficient knowledge exists regarding the epidemiology and aetiology of nicotine dependence among adolescent smokers. The objective of the present study is to identify the effects of theoretically driven social and individual predictors of nicotine dependence symptom profiles...

  15. Predicting nicotine dependence profiles among adolescent smokers: The roles of personal and social-environmental factors in a longitudinal framework

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background Although several studies have reported that symptoms of nicotine dependence can occur after limited exposure to smoking, the majority of research on nicotine dependence has focused on adult smokers. Insufficient knowledge exists regarding the epidemiology and aetiology of nicotine dependence among adolescent smokers. The objective of the present study is to identify the effects of theoretically driven social and individual predictors of nicotine dependence symptom profiles in a pop...

  16. Gene-Gene-Environment Interactions of Serotonin Transporter, Monoamine Oxidase A and Childhood Maltreatment Predict Aggressive Behavior in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Ming, Qing-sen; Yi, Jin-yao; Wang, Xiang; Chai, Qiao-lian; Yao, Shu-qiao

    2017-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions that moderate aggressive behavior have been identified independently in the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene and monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA). The aim of the present study was to investigate epistasis interactions between MAOA-variable number tandem repeat (VNTR), 5-HTTlinked polymorphism (LPR) and child abuse and the effects of these on aggressive tendencies in a group of otherwise healthy adolescents. A group of 546 Chinese male adolescents completed the Child Trauma Questionnaire and Youth self-report of the Child Behavior Checklist. Buccal cells were collected for DNA analysis. The effects of childhood abuse, MAOA-VNTR, 5-HTTLPR genotypes and their interactive gene-gene-environmental effects on aggressive behavior were analyzed using a linear regression model. The effect of child maltreatment was significant, and a three-way interaction among MAOA-VNTR, 5-HTTLPR and sexual abuse (SA) relating to aggressive behaviors was identified. Chinese male adolescents with high expression of the MAOA-VNTR allele and 5-HTTLPR “SS” genotype exhibited the highest aggression tendencies with an increase in SA during childhood. The findings reported support aggression being a complex behavior involving the synergistic effects of gene-gene-environment interactions. PMID:28203149

  17. Application of Hansen Solubility Parameters to predict drug-nail interactions, which can assist the design of nail medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossin, B; Rizi, K; Murdan, S

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesised that Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSPs) can be used to predict drug-nail affinities. Our aims were to: (i) determine the HSPs (δD, δP, δH) of the nail plate, the hoof membrane (a model for the nail plate), and of the drugs terbinafine HCl, amorolfine HCl, ciclopirox olamine and efinaconazole, by measuring their swelling/solubility in organic liquids, (ii) predict nail-drug interactions by comparing drug and nail HSPs, and (iii) evaluate the accuracy of these predictions using literature reports of experimentally-determined affinities of these drugs for keratin, the main constituent of the nail plate and hoof. Many solvents caused no change in the mass of nail plates, a few solvents deswelled the nail, while others swelled the nail to varying extents. Fingernail and toenail HSPs were almost the same, while hoof HSPs were similar, except for a slightly lower δP. High nail-terbinafine HCl, nail-amorolfine HCl and nail-ciclopirox olamine affinities, and low nail-efinaconazole affinities were then predicted, and found to accurately match experimental reports of these drugs' affinities to keratin. We therefore propose that drug and nail Hansen Solubility Parameters may be used to predict drug-nail interactions, and that these results can assist in the design of drugs for the treatment of nail diseases, such as onychomycosis and psoriasis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the application of HSPs in ungual research.

  18. Adolescent Personality in Social Contexts: Pals, Partners, and Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current dissertation was to show how adolescent personality was linked to youths’ developmental outcomes. Our findings suggest that adolescent personality has concurrent and predictive relations to a variety of important developmental outcomes. Specifically, adolescent personality was

  19. The Promise of Personalized Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues From The Director The Promise of Personalized Medicine Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... medicine that I call the four Ps: predictive, personalized, preemptive and participatory. This requires patient involvement well ...

  20. Predictive molecular profiling in blood of healthy vasospastic individuals: clue to targeted prevention as personalised medicine to effective costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeghiazaryan, Kristina; Flammer, Josef; Golubnitschaja, Olga

    2010-06-01

    Paradigm change from late interventional approach to predictive diagnostics followed by targeted prevention before manifest pathology, presents innovative concept for advanced healthcare. Preselection of healthy but pathology-predisposed individuals is the primary task in the overall action. Vasospasm is a frequent syndrome defined as an inappropriate constriction or insufficient dilatation in microcirculation. Vasospastic individuals are considered as healthy subpopulation predisposed to several pathologies including neurodegeneration. Clinical observations, subcellular imaging and "gene hunting"-investigations provide evidence for vasospasm as predisposition to glaucoma; development of further related pathologies cannot be excluded. Predictive molecular-profiling in blood can specify individual predisposition for effective prevention.

  1. A 7 year follow-up of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: an analysis of predictive factors in a clinical prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Becker Nissen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD is a frequent psychiatric disorder. Despite its significant influence on personal development, little is known about its long-term course in children and adolescents. The aim was to follow children and adolescents with OCD for 7 years and to compare patients gaining remission with patients experiencing symptoms. Methods: The study was a prospective follow-up study in which the patients were interviewed 7 years after their initial contact with the healthcare system. The patients had been described at baseline. Results: Among the 95 participants, 53 participants described symptoms at follow-up and 44 participants described remission. More patients with persistent symptoms described an anxious personality trait. The schizoid/compulsive personality traits were represented at a higher rate in the group with persistent symptoms than in the group with remission symptoms. Important predictive factors included predisposition to OCD, the occurrence of comorbid disorders and older referral age. The occurrence of magic obsessions and repetitive compulsions increased the risk of OC symptoms at follow-up. The group “late responders” differed from the non-responder group by predisposition to depression. Conclusions: The present clinical study is one of the longest follow-up studies conducted in children and adolescents with OCD. In addition to confirming several previous findings, the study added new knowledge about the importance of phenotypic presentation, personality traits and quality of life. Furthermore, the late responder group has been described in relation to the remission group and to the group with persistent symptoms.

  2. The dopamine receptor D4 gene and familial loading interact with perceived parenting in predicting externalizing behavior problems in early adolescence: the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, R.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ormel, J.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    Although externalizing behavior problems show in general a high stability over time, the course of externalizing behavior problems may vary from individual to individual. Our main goal was to investigate the predictive role of parenting on externalizing behavior problems. In addition, we investigate

  3. The dopamine receptor D4 gene and familial loading interact with perceived parenting in predicting externalizing behavior problems in early adolescence : The TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, Rianne; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2013-01-01

    Although externalizing behavior problems show in general a high stability over time, the course of externalizing behavior problems may vary from individual to individual. Our main goal was to investigate the predictive role of parenting on externalizing behavior problems. In addition, we investigate

  4. Prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: Updated Guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of Health, and HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masur, Henry; Brooks, John T; Benson, Constance A; Holmes, King K; Pau, Alice K; Kaplan, Jonathan E

    2014-05-01

    In May 2013, a revised and updated version of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institutes of Health/HIV Medicine Association Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents was released online. These guidelines, since their inception in 1989, have been widely accessed in the United States and abroad. These guidelines have focused on the management of HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic infections that occur in the United States. In other parts of the world, the spectrum of complications may be different and the resources available for diagnosis and management may not be identical to those in the United States. The sections that have been most extensively updated are those on immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, tuberculosis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human papillomavirus, and immunizations. The guidelines will not be published in hard copy form. This document will be revised as needed throughout each year as new data become available.

  5. Does poor health predict moving, move quality, and desire to move?: A study examining neighborhood selection in US adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Erin C; Winning, Ashley; Zaika, Natalya; Subramanian, S V

    2014-11-01

    To date, research has rarely considered the role of health in shaping characteristics of the neighborhood, including mobility patterns. We explored whether individual health status shapes and constrains where individuals live. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, we examined whether 16 health indicators predicted moving, move quality, and desire to move. 3.8% of adolescents (n=490) reported a move in the past year. In the unadjusted models, 10 health indicators were associated with moving; the magnitude of association for these health indicators was similar to socio-demographic characteristics. 7 of these health-moving associations persisted after adjusting for covariates. Health was also associated with moving quality, with a greater number of past year health problems in the child being associated with moving to a lower income neighborhood and parent disability or poor health being associated with moving to a higher income neighborhood. Almost every poor health status indicator was associated with a greater desire to move. Findings suggest that health status influences moving, and a reciprocal framework is more appropriate for examining health-neighborhood linkages.

  6. The future of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Russ

    2012-03-01

    The recent innovation of prediction markets is examined, and their significant applications to the science of medicine are demonstrated. According to one comprehensive study, these markets make "uncannily accurate" predictions of every type of event. In the medical field, being able to predict cures, epidemics, medical discoveries, and myriad other medical variables can greatly further the advances of medical science and its clinical applications.

  7. Parents' School Satisfaction and Academic Socialization Predict Adolescents' Autonomous Motivation: A Mixed-Method Study of Low-Income Ethnic Minority Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Jackson, Karen Moran; Pahlke, Erin; McClain, Shannon; Marroquin, Yesenia; Blondeau, Lauren A.; Hong, KyongJoo

    2016-01-01

    In this mixed-methods study, we used an explanatory sequential design to investigate the processes through which parental involvement influences adolescents' achievement motivation. One hundred twenty low-income urban parents and their sixth-grade adolescents completed questionnaires, and a subsample of 11 mothers and 11 adolescents were…

  8. Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, Didier

    2010-01-01

    This chapter first presents a rather personal view of some different aspects of predictability, going in crescendo from simple linear systems to high-dimensional nonlinear systems with stochastic forcing, which exhibit emergent properties such as phase transitions and regime shifts. Then, a detailed correspondence between the phenomenology of earthquakes, financial crashes and epileptic seizures is offered. The presented statistical evidence provides the substance of a general phase diagram for understanding the many facets of the spatio-temporal organization of these systems. A key insight is to organize the evidence and mechanisms in terms of two summarizing measures: (i) amplitude of disorder or heterogeneity in the system and (ii) level of coupling or interaction strength among the system's components. On the basis of the recently identified remarkable correspondence between earthquakes and seizures, we present detailed information on a class of stochastic point processes that has been found to be particu...

  9. Microstructural asymmetry of the corticospinal tracts predicts right-left differences in circle drawing skill in right-handed adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstmann, Steffen; Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Skimminge, Arnold; Jernigan, Terry L; Baaré, William F C; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-12-01

    Most humans show a strong preference to use their right hand, but strong preference for the right hand does not necessarily imply a strong right-left asymmetry in manual proficiency (i.e., dexterity). Here we tested the hypothesis that intra-individual asymmetry of manual proficiency would be reflected in microstructural differences between the right and left corticospinal tract (CST) in a cohort of 52 right-handed typically-developing adolescents (11-16 years). Participants were asked to fluently draw superimposed circles with their right dominant and left non-dominant hand. Temporal regularity of circle drawing movements was assessed for each hand using a digitizing tablet. Although all participants were right-handed, there was substantial inter-individual variation regarding the relative right-hand advantage for fluent circle drawing. All subjects underwent whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging at 3 Tesla. The right and left CST were defined as regions-of-interest and mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and diffusivity values were calculated for right and left CST. On average, mean FA values were higher in the left CST relative to right CST. The degree of right-left FA asymmetry showed a linear relationship with right-left asymmetry in fluent circle drawing after correction for age and gender. The higher the mean FA values were in the left dominant CST relative to the right non-dominant CST, the stronger was the relative right-hand advantage for regular circle drawing. These findings show that right-left differences in manual proficiency are highly variable in right-handed adolescents and that this variation is associated with a right-left microstructural asymmetry of the CST.

  10. Exposure to media predicts use of dietary supplements and anabolic-androgenic steroids among Flemish adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frison, Eline; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2013-10-01

    This study examined whether different types of media affect the use of dietary proteins and amino acid supplements, and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. A random sample of 618 boys aged 11-18 years from eight schools in the Flemish part of Belgium completed standardized questionnaires as part of the Media and Adolescent Health Study. The survey measured exposure to sports media, appearance-focused media, fitness media, use of dietary supplements, and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. Data were analyzed using logistic regressions and are presented as adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI); 8.6 % indicated to have used dietary proteins, 3.9 % indicated to have used amino acid supplements, and 11.8 % would consider using anabolic-androgenic steroids. After adjusting for fitness activity, exposure to fitness media was associated with the use of dietary proteins (OR = 7.24, CI = 2.25-23.28) and amino acid supplements (5.16, 1.21-21.92; 44.30, 8.25-238). Intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids was associated with exposure to fitness media (2.38, 1.08-5.26; 8.07, 2.55-25.53) and appearance-focused media (6.02, 1.40-25.82; 8.94, 1.78-44.98). Sports media did not correlate with the use of dietary supplements and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. Specific types of media are strong predictors of the use of supplements in adolescent boys. This provides an opportunity for intervention and prevention through the selection of fitness media as a communication channel. Health practitioners should also be aware that the contemporary body culture exerts pressure not only on girls but also on boys.

  11. Family medicine, ‘La Herencia’ and breast cancer; understanding the (dis)continuities of predictive genetics in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Sahra

    2011-01-01

    Building on social science research examining the relationship between genetic knowledge, identity and the family this paper takes the cultural context of Cuba as a site for critical ethnographic engagement. The paper makes use of research working with a range of Cuban publics and genetic professionals as part of a collaborative research project exploring the social and cultural context of health beliefs about breast cancer. It illuminates the contrasting ways in which genomic knowledge linked to an increased risk of breast cancer is perceived, communicated, and acted upon. It is argued that the particular meaning and significance of genetic risk linked to breast cancer in this context must be examined in relation to long standing institutional practices relating to public health care provision. The focus on ‘the family’ in the provision of Cuban health provides a particularly viable foundation for the expansion of what is described as ‘community genetics’, including the collation of family history details for common complex diseases such as breast cancer. Nevertheless specific public perceptions of risk related to breast cancer and the difficulties of discussing a diagnosis of cancer openly in the family point to the very specific challenges for the translation and application of predictive interventions in Cuba. In summary the dynamic interrelationship between public health, perceptions of risk or health beliefs about the causes of the disease and attitudes towards cancer diagnosis within the family point to both continuities and discontinuities in the way that genomic interventions linked to breast cancer are unfolding as part of a dynamic yet still ostensibly socialist project of health care in Cuba. PMID:21239101

  12. Family medicine, 'La Herencia' and breast cancer; understanding the (dis)continuities of predictive genetics in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Sahra

    2011-06-01

    Building on social science research examining the relationship between genetic knowledge, identity and the family this paper takes the cultural context of Cuba as a site for critical ethnographic engagement. The paper makes use of research working with a range of Cuban public and genetic professionals as part of a collaborative research project exploring the social and cultural context of health beliefs about breast cancer. It illuminates the contrasting ways in which genomic knowledge linked to an increased risk of breast cancer is perceived, communicated, and acted upon. It is argued that the particular meaning and significance of genetic risk linked to breast cancer in this context must be examined in relation to long standing institutional practices relating to public health care provision. The focus on 'the family' in the provision of Cuban health provides a particularly viable foundation for the expansion of what is described as 'community genetics', including the collation of family history details for common complex diseases such as breast cancer. Nevertheless specific public perceptions of risk related to breast cancer and the difficulties of discussing a diagnosis of cancer openly in the family point to the very specific challenges for the translation and application of predictive interventions in Cuba. In summary the dynamic interrelationship between public health, perceptions of risk or health beliefs about the causes of the disease and attitudes towards cancer diagnosis within the family point to both continuities and discontinuities in the way that genomic interventions linked to breast cancer are unfolding as part of a dynamic yet still ostensibly socialist project of health care in Cuba.

  13. Aerospace Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  14. Update on key topics in adolescent gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Martin; Lara-Torre, Eduardo

    2013-02-01

    AM:STARs, the Adolescent Medicine State of the Art Reviews series published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, devoted its April 2012 issue to the topic of Adolescent Gynecology. Developed in conjunction with the North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (NASPAG), the issue consists of twelve articles, written mostly by members of NASPAG. As editors of the issue, we present in this review for the Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (JPAG) a synopsis of the most salient concepts presented in those 12 articles. This review of reviews is intended to be an update on the "state of the art" in adolescent gynecology.

  15. A meta-analytic review of depression prevention programs for children and adolescents: factors that predict magnitude of intervention effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Bohon, Cara; Marti, C Nathan; Rohde, Paul

    2009-06-01

    In this meta-analytic review, the authors summarized the effects of depression prevention programs for youth as well as investigated participant, intervention, provider, and research design features associated with larger effects. They identified 47 trials that evaluated 32 prevention programs, producing 60 intervention effect sizes. The average effect for depressive symptoms from pre-to-posttreatment (r = .15) and pretreatment to-follow-up (r = .11) were small, but 13 (41%) prevention programs produced significant reductions in depressive symptoms and 4 (13%) produced significant reductions in risk for future depressive disorder onset relative to control groups. Larger effects emerged for programs targeting high-risk individuals, samples with more females, samples with older adolescents, programs with a shorter duration and with homework assignments, and programs delivered by professional interventionists. Intervention content (e.g., a focus on problem-solving training or reducing negative cognitions) and design features (e.g., use of random assignment and structured interviews) were unrelated to effect sizes. Results suggest that depression prevention efforts produce a higher yield if they incorporate factors associated with larger intervention effects (e.g., selective programs with a shorter duration that include homework).

  16. The Freedom to Pursue Happiness: Belief in Free Will Predicts Life Satisfaction and Positive Affect among Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunkai; Wang, Song; Zhao, Yajun; Kong, Feng; Li, Jingguang

    2016-01-01

    A small amount of research has examined the association between the belief in free will and subjective well-being (SWB) among Western laypersons from individualist cultures. However, no study has examined this association among participants from collectivist cultures (e.g., Eastern Asian cultures). Therefore, in this study, we explored this association among two large, independent cohorts of Chinese adolescents (N1 = 1,660; N2 = 639; high school students). The belief in free will was measured by a self-reported questionnaire (Cohorts 1 and 2) and a two-alternative forced choice question regarding the existence of free will (Cohort 2). SWB included cognitive well-being (life satisfaction) and affective well-being (positive and negative affect) in both cohorts. Data analyses indicated that a stronger belief in free will was consistently associated with higher life satisfaction and positive affect in both cohorts. Our investigation provides evidence supporting the cultural generality of the positive effects of believing in free will on SWB.

  17. Utility and applicability of the "Childhood Obesity Risk Evaluation" (CORE)-index in predicting obesity in childhood and adolescence in Greece from early life: the "National Action Plan for Public Health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Vlachopapadopoulou, Elpis; Moschonis, George; Karachaliou, Feneli; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Koutsouki, Dimitra; Bogdanis, Gregory; Carayanni, Vilelmine; Hatzakis, Angelos; Michalacos, Stefanos

    2016-12-01

    Early identification of infants being at high risk to become obese at their later childhood or adolescence can be of vital importance in any obesity prevention initiative. The aim of the present study was to examine the utility and applicability of the "Childhood Obesity Risk Evaluation (CORE)" index as a screening tool for the early prediction of obesity in childhood and adolescence. Anthropometric, socio-demographic data were collected cross-sectionally and retrospectively from a representative sample of 5946 children, and adolescents and were combined for calculating the CORE-index score. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of the CORE-index score with obesity by gender and age group, and cut-off point analysis was also applied to identify the optimal value of the CORE-index score that differentiates obese from non-obese children. Mean CORE-index score in the total sample was 3.06 (sd 1.92) units (range 0-11 units). Each unit increase in the CORE-index score was found to be associated with a 30 % (95 % C.I. 1.24-1.36) increased likelihood for obesity in childhood or adolescence, while the optimal cut-off value of the CORE-index score that predicted obesity with the highest possible sensitivity and specificity was found to be 3.5.

  18. Objectively measured physical activity predicts hip and spine bone mineral content in children and adolescents ages 5 - 15 years: Iowa Bone Development Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen F Janz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between physical activity (PA and bone mineral content (BMC; g from middle childhood to middle adolescence and compared the impact of vigorous-intensity PA (VPA over moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA. Participants from the Iowa Bone Development Study were examined at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, and 15 yr (n=369, 449, 452, 410, 307, respectively. MVPA and VPA (min/day were measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Anthropometry was used to measure body size and somatic maturity. Spine BMC and hip BMC were measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Sex-specific multi-level linear models were fit for spine BMC and hip BMC, adjusted for weight (kg, height (cm, linear age (yr, non-linear age (yr2, and maturity (pre peak height velocity vs. at/post peak height velocity. The interaction effects of PA×maturity and PA×age were tested. We also examined differences in spine BMC and hip BMC between the least (10th percentile and most (90th percentile active participants at each examination period. Results indicated that PA added to prediction of BMC throughout the 10-year follow-up, except MVPA did not predict spine BMC in females. Maturity and age did not modify the PA effect for males nor females. At age 5, the males at the 90th percentile for VPA had 8.5% more hip BMC than males in the 10th percentile for VPA. At age 15, this difference was 2.0%. Females at age 5 in the 90th percentile for VPA had 6.1% more hip BMC than those in the 10th percentile for VPA. The age 15 difference was 1.8%. VPA was associated with BMC at weight-bearing skeletal sites from childhood to adolescence, and the effect was not modified by maturity or age. Our findings indicate the importance of early and sustained interventions that focus on VPA. Approaches focused on MVPA may be inadequate for optimal bone health, particularly for females.

  19. Relationship among Translational Medicine, Evidence-Based Medicine and Precision Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    HUANG Xin-en

    2016-01-01

    Translational medicine is a new concept in international medical field. It integrates experimental research results and clinical guidance into the optimal implementation criteria for promoting the prediction, prevention and treatment of diseases. Based on people’s higher demand for medicine and health, appearance of translational medicine changes the mode of medical research.Evidence-based medicine (EBM) refers to cautious and accurate application of the current best research evidence and com...

  20. Predicting performance using background characteristics of international medical graduates in an inner-city university-affiliated Internal Medicine residency training program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhuetie Jane

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IMGs constitute about a third of the United States (US internal medicine graduates. US residency training programs face challenges in selection of IMGs with varied background features. However data on this topic is limited. We analyzed whether any pre-selection characteristics of IMG residents in our internal medicine program are associated with selected outcomes, namely competency based evaluation, examination performance and success in acquiring fellowship positions after graduation. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 51 IMGs at our ACGME accredited teaching institution between 2004 and 2007. Background resident features namely age, gender, self-reported ethnicity, time between medical school graduation to residency (pre-hire time, USMLE step I & II clinical skills scores, pre-GME clinical experience, US externship and interest in pursuing fellowship after graduation expressed in their personal statements were noted. Data on competency-based evaluations, in-service exam scores, research presentation and publications, fellowship pursuance were collected. There were no fellowships offered in our hospital in this study period. Background features were compared between resident groups according to following outcomes: (a annual aggregate graduate PGY-level specific competency-based evaluation (CBE score above versus below the median score within our program (scoring scale of 1 – 10, (b US graduate PGY-level specific resident in-training exam (ITE score higher versus lower than the median score, and (c those who succeeded to secure a fellowship within the study period. Using appropriate statistical tests & adjusted regression analysis, odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results 94% of the study sample were IMGs; median age was 35 years (Inter-Quartile range 25th – 75th percentile (IQR: 33–37 years; 43% women and 59% were Asian physicians. The median pre-hire time was 5 years (IQR: 4–7

  1. Factors predictive of adolescents' intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, D M; Wade, K E; Allison, K R; Irving, H M; Williams, J I; Hlibka, C M

    2000-01-01

    Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1988) as a conceptual framework, 705 secondary school students were surveyed to identify their intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that the theory explained between 23.5% and 45.8% of the variance in intentions. Variables external to the model such as past use, age, and ethnicity exhibited some independent effects. Attitudes were consistently predictive of intentions to use condoms, pills, and condoms in combination with pills for both male and female students. However, there were differences by gender in the degree to which subjective norms and perceived behavioural control predicted intentions. The findings suggest that programs should focus on: creation of positive attitudes regarding birth control pills and condoms; targeting important social influences, particularly regarding males' use of condoms; and developing strategies to increase students' control over the use of condoms.

  2. Do executive function and impulsivity predict adolescent health behaviour after accounting for intelligence?:Findings from the ALSPAC cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Stautz, Kaidy; Pechey, Rachel; Couturier, Dominique-Laurent; Deary, Ian J.; Theresa M Marteau

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Executive function, impulsivity, and intelligence are correlated markers of cognitive resource that predict health-related behaviours. It is unknown whether executive function and impulsivity are unique predictors of these behaviours after accounting for intelligence.METHODS: Data from 6069 participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were analysed to investigate whether components of executive function (selective attention, attentional control, working mem...

  3. Do Executive Function and Impulsivity Predict Adolescent Health Behaviour after Accounting for Intelligence? Findings from the ALSPAC Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Stautz, Kaidy; Pechey, Rachel; Couturier, Dominique-Laurent; Deary, Ian J.; Theresa M Marteau

    2016-01-01

    This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from PLOS via http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0160512 Objective Executive function, impulsivity, and intelligence are correlated markers of cognitive resource that predict health-related behaviours. It is unknown whether executive function and impulsivity are unique predictors of these behaviours after accounting for intelligence. Methods Data from 6069 participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents an...

  4. Predicting borderline personality disorder symptoms in adolescents from childhood physical and relational aggression, depression, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Boylan, Khrista; Duku, Eric; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-08-01

    Developmental cascade models linking childhood physical and relational aggression with symptoms of depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; assessed at ages 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14) to borderline personality disorder (BPD) features (assessed at age 14) were examined in a community sample of 484 youth. Results indicated that, when controlling for within-time covariance and across-time stability in the examination of cross-lagged relations among study variables, BPD features at age 14 were predicted by childhood relational aggression and symptoms of depression for boys, and physical and relational aggression, symptoms of depression, and symptoms of ADHD for girls. Moreover, for boys BPD features were predicted from age 10 ADHD through age 12 depression, whereas for girls the pathway to elevated BPD features at age 14 was from depression at age 10 through physical aggression symptoms at age 12. Controlling for earlier associations among variables, we found that for girls the strongest predictor of BPD features at age 14 was physical aggression, whereas for boys all the risk indicators shared a similar predictive impact. This study adds to the growing literature showing that physical and relational aggression ought to be considered when examining early precursors of BPD features.

  5. Prediction of Traditional Chinese Medicine Sales Based on Combined Model of Genetic BP Neural Network%基于遗传BP神经网络组合模型的中药销售预测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马健; 盛魁

    2013-01-01

    对某医院2010-2012年中药的销售及变化情况进行了对比分析。为了更好地保证医院中药的库存数量,提出了一种基于遗传算法优化BP神经网络组合模型,用改进的遗传BP神经网络进行中药销售量预测,并将预测结果和单纯使用BP网络的预测结果进行比较,实验证明遗传 BP神经网络模型具有更高的预测准确度,为医院中药销售及科学管理中药库存量提供科学依据。%Sales and its changes of traditional Chinese medicine in 2010-2012 in a hospital were com-pared and analyzed.To better ensure inventory quantity of traditional Chinese medicine in the hospital, we proposed a optimized BP neural network model based on genetic algorithm.Predicted sales of tradition-al Chinese medicine using optimized BP neural network was compared with the predicted result using a sim-ple BP network.Experiments show that genetic BP neural network model has higher prediction accuracy, providing scientifical reference for sales of traditional Chinese medicine and scientifically managing invento-ry quantity of traditional Chinese medicine in hospitals.

  6. Thriving in School: The Role of Sixth-Grade Adolescent-Parent-School Relationships in Predicting Eighth-Grade Academic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Daniel F.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Mincemoyer, Claudia; Chilenski, Sarah Meyer; Olson, Jonathan R.; Berrena, Elaine; Greenberg, Mark; Spoth, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The present study uses an ecological systems perspective to examine how parental involvement in school-related activities in sixth grade influences early adolescents' school bonding and academic achievement in eighth grade. Results of multilevel models of multiple data sources (i.e., adolescents, parents, and principals) suggested that parents'…

  7. Parents' Role in Adolescents' Educational Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimkute, Laura; Hirvonen, Riikka; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which mothers' and fathers' expectations for their offspring's future education, their level of education, and adolescents' academic achievement predict adolescents' educational expectations. To investigate this, 230 adolescents were examined twice while they were in comprehensive school (in the 7th and 9th…

  8. A longitudinal examination of the Adaptation to Poverty-Related Stress Model: predicting child and adolescent adjustment over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Martha E; Rindlaub, Laura; Hurwich-Reiss, Eliana; Rienks, Shauna; Bianco, Hannah; Markman, Howard J

    2013-01-01

    This study tests key tenets of the Adaptation to Poverty-related Stress Model. This model (Wadsworth, Raviv, Santiago, & Etter, 2011 ) builds on Conger and Elder's family stress model by proposing that primary control coping and secondary control coping can help reduce the negative effects of economic strain on parental behaviors central to the family stress model, namely, parental depressive symptoms and parent-child interactions, which together can decrease child internalizing and externalizing problems. Two hundred seventy-five co-parenting couples with children between the ages of 1 and 18 participated in an evaluation of a brief family strengthening intervention, aimed at preventing economic strain's negative cascade of influence on parents, and ultimately their children. The longitudinal path model, analyzed at the couple dyad level with mothers and fathers nested within couple, showed very good fit, and was not moderated by child gender or ethnicity. Analyses revealed direct positive effects of primary control coping and secondary control coping on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms. Decreased economic strain predicted more positive father-child interactions, whereas increased secondary control coping predicted less negative mother-child interactions. Positive parent-child interactions, along with decreased parent depression and economic strain, predicted child internalizing and externalizing over the course of 18 months. Multiple-group models analyzed separately by parent gender revealed, however, that child age moderated father effects. Findings provide support for the adaptation to poverty-related stress model and suggest that prevention and clinical interventions for families affected by poverty-related stress may be strengthened by including modules that address economic strain and efficacious strategies for coping with strain.

  9. Self constructing in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranješević Jelena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore “theories” adolescents have about themselves, i.e. about the changes in the ways they construe themselves in the period of middle adolescence: how they construe changes and estimate them according to some dimensions relevant for change (appreciation of change, its importance, expectancy, timing, comprehensiveness, intensity and visibility in social surroundings. The study was explorative and it was performed on the sample of 96 adolescents aged 15-17 (middle adolescence. Instruments used for the study were: interview and Role Construct Repertory Grid, adjusted to the need of study. The results show that the adolescents’ construct system is highly monolithic and tight in regard to constructs (black and white construing, but at the same time vague and predictively unclear in regard to elements, i. e. the stated changes, meaning that adolescents are not able to construe those changes according to certain constructs. It seems that this study included the beginning of the loosening phase (creativity cycle in which the system is still tight and, therefore, protects from threat and anxiety, while the elements are not predictively (this is what Erikson calls moratorium, i.e. the process of active experimenting. Changes which are fully predictively are those which refer to adults' roles, such as: self confident, experienced, independent and has responsibilities, worries. On the hand, changes which are predictably the most clear to adolescents (and not appreciated are depression and nervousness. Adolescents face an implicative dilemma: positive implications of maturity are not enough, while negative implications, such as nervousness, depression and not trusting people are clear, predictable and negative. This dilemma can be the cause of their ambivalence towards growing-up and accepting the roles of adults.

  10. Investigation of Aggravating Psychosocial Factors on Health and Predictability of Smoking and Alcohol Use in Post Adolescent Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmpagianni, Effrosyni; Travlos, Antonios; Kalokairinou, Athina; Sachlas, Athanasios; Zyga, Sofia

    2013-04-18

    Purpose of this study is to explore those factors which affect the health of students in postadolescent age, focusing on smoking and alcohol use, especially in regard to ways of predicting adoption of this behavior and its frequency to detect future users of tobacco and alcohol use but also high-risk groups, i.e. those people who are led to abuses. On the basis of the research part is the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the axes of which are to be investigated. Specifically, the factors evaluated, except for population parameters, behavioral attitudes, i.e. attitudes towards the behavior of tobacco use and alcohol regulations subjective perceptions and perceptions of control, perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Intention is explored to continue or start using tobacco and alcohol in the future and evaluate the behavior. The sample consisted of 138 students of postadolescent age, 18-25 years of both sexes, all of the University of Peloponnese and the Technological Educational Institute of Kalamata, Department of Sparta, Greece. The results of a series of statistical analysis, via SPSS 21.0 statistical program revealed the predictive power of perceived behavioral control and subjective norms to the intention of interpreting 64% of the variance of the latter, of the attitudes toward alcohol in relation to intention that interpret 69% of the variance, of the normative beliefs toward smoking with 69% range of interpretation to the dependent variable, of the perceived behavioral control of smoking with 72% and of the attitudes toward smoking with 77% of interpretation. The results demonstrate the significance and application in universities and technological educational institutes appropriate primary preventive interventions for students nonusers of tobacco and alcohol and appropriate programs of secondary and tertiary prevention in heavy users of tobacco and alcohol use and high-risk individual.

  11. Biomechanical evaluation of predictive parameters of progression in adolescent isthmic spondylolisthesis: a computer modeling and simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevrain Amandine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelvic incidence, sacral slope and slip percentage have been shown to be important predicting factors for assessing the risk of progression of low- and high-grade spondylolisthesis. Biomechanical factors, which affect the stress distribution and the mechanisms involved in the vertebral slippage, may also influence the risk of progression, but they are still not well known. The objective was to biomechanically evaluate how geometric sacral parameters influence shear and normal stress at the lumbosacral junction in spondylolisthesis. Methods A finite element model of a low-grade L5-S1 spondylolisthesis was constructed, including the morphology of the spine, pelvis and rib cage based on measurements from biplanar radiographs of a patient. Variations provided on this model aimed to study the effects on low grade spondylolisthesis as well as reproduce high grade spondylolisthesis. Normal and shear stresses at the lumbosacral junction were analyzed under various pelvic incidences, sacral slopes and slip percentages. Their influence on progression risk was statistically analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance. Results Stresses were mainly concentrated on the growth plate of S1, on the intervertebral disc of L5-S1, and ahead the sacral dome for low grade spondylolisthesis. For high grade spondylolisthesis, more important compression and shear stresses were seen in the anterior part of the growth plate and disc as compared to the lateral and posterior areas. Stress magnitudes over this area increased with slip percentage, sacral slope and pelvic incidence. Strong correlations were found between pelvic incidence and the resulting compression and shear stresses in the growth plate and intervertebral disc at the L5-S1 junction. Conclusions Progression of the slippage is mostly affected by a movement and an increase of stresses at the lumbosacral junction in accordance with spino-pelvic parameters. The statistical results provide

  12. ENDOMETRIOSIS IN ADOLESCENTS-ANALYSIS OF 6 CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨佳欣; 沈铿; 冷金花; 郎景和

    2003-01-01

    Objective.To study the characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis in adolescent patients. Method.Six cases of adolescent endometriosis in our hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Result. Endometriosis is the most common cause of chronic pelvic pain in adolescents. There may be a natural progression of endometriosis from atypical lesions in adolescents to classic lesions in adults. Congenital abnormalities of the reproductive tract are the main reasons for the adolescent endometriosis. Conclusion. Endometriosis should be strongly suspected in adolescent girls with chronic pelvic pain,especially unresponsive to oral contraceptives and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The treatment involves the operations and medicines.

  13. Herbal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  14. Folk Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lead Poisoning Prevention Training Center (HHLPPTC) Training Tracks Folk Medicine Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Jump ... products Lead has been found in some traditional (folk) medicines used by East Indian, Indian, Middle Eastern, ...

  15. GENOMIC MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Briceño Balcázar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Until the twilight of the 20th century, genetics was a branch of medicine applied to diseases of rare occurrence. The advent of the human genome sequence and the possibility of studying it at affordable costs for patients and healthcare institutions, has permitted its application in high-priority diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s, among others.There is great potential in predictive and preventive medicine, through studying polymorphic genetic variants associated to risks for different diseases. Currently, clinical laboratories offer studies of over 30,000 variants associated with susceptibilities, to which individuals can access without much difficulty because a medical prescription is not required. These exams permit conducting a specific plan of preventive medicine. For example, upon the possibility of finding a deleterious mutation in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, the patient can prevent the breast cancer by mastectomy or chemoprophylaxis and in the presence of polymorphisms associated to cardiovascular risk preventive action may be undertaken through changes in life style (diet, exercise, etc..Legal aspects are also present in this new conception of medicine. For example, currently there is legislation for medications to indicate on their labels the different responses such medication can offer regarding the genetic variants of the patients, given that similar doses may provoke adverse reactions in an individual, while for another such dosage may be insufficient. This scenario would allow verifying the polymorphisms of drug response prior to administering medications like anticoagulants, hyperlipidemia treatments, or chemotherapy, among others.We must specially mention recessive diseases, produced by the presence of two alleles of a mutated gene, which are inherited from the mother, as well as the father. By studying the mutations, we may learn if a couple is at risk of bearing children with the disease

  16. Genomic Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Briceño Balcázar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Until the twilight of the 20th century, genetics was a branch of medicine applied to diseases of rare occurrence.  The advent of the human genome sequence and the possibility of studying it at affordable costs for patients and healthcare institutions, has permitted its application in high-priority diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s, among others. There is great potential in predictive and preventive medicine, through studying polymorphic genetic variants associated to risks for different diseases. Currently, clinical laboratories offer studies of over 30,000 variants associated with susceptibilities, to which individuals can access without much difficulty because a medical prescription is not required. These exams permit conducting a specific plan of preventive medicine.  For example, upon the possibility of finding a deleterious mutation in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, the patient can prevent the breast cancer by mastectomy or chemoprophylaxis and in the presence of polymorphisms associated to cardiovascular risk preventive action may be undertaken through changes in life style (diet, exercise, etc.. Legal aspects are also present in this new conception of medicine.  For example, currently there is legislation for medications to indicate on their labels the different responses such medication can offer regarding the genetic variants of the patients, given that similar doses may provoke adverse reactions in an individual, while for another such dosage may be insufficient. This scenario would allow verifying the polymorphisms of drug response prior to administering medications like anticoagulants, hyperlipidemia treatments, or chemotherapy, among others. We must specially mention recessive diseases, produced by the presence of two alleles of a mutated gene, which are inherited from the mother, as well as the father. By studying the mutations, we may learn if a couple is at risk of bearing children with the

  17. Developing quality measures for adolescent care: validity of adolescents' self-reported receipt of preventive services.

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, J D; Graff, C A; Santelli, J S; Hedberg, V A; Allan, M. J.; Elster, A. B.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility of directly surveying adolescents about the content of preventive health services they have received and to assess the validity of adolescent self-reported recall. DATA SOURCES/SETTING: Audiotaped encounters, telephone interviews, and chart reviews with 14-21 year olds being seen for preventive care visits at 15 pediatric and family medicine private practices, teaching hospital clinics, and health centers. DESIGN: 537 adolescents presenting for well v...

  18. [SPORT MEDICINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantini, Naama; Mann, Gideon

    2016-06-01

    Sports Medicine is a relatively new subject in medicine and includes a variety of medical and paramedical fields. Although sports medicine is mistakenly thought to be mainly for sports professionals/athletes, it actually encompasses the entire population, including the active and non-active healthy populations, as well as the sick. Sports medicine also engages amateur sportsmen and strives to promote physical activity and quality of life in the general population. Hence, the field involves all ages from childhood to old age, aiming to preserve and support every person at every age. Sports medicine, which started developing in the 19th century, is today a specialty, primary or secondary, in many countries, while in others it is a fellowship or under the jurisdiction of local or sports authorities. In Israel, the field exists since the 1950's and is advanced. The Sports Medicine Society founded a 3-year course of continued education in sport medicine as part of the Tel-Aviv University Faculty of Medicine. Later on, a fellowship in general Sports Medicine and in Orthopedic Sports Medicine were developed within the Israel Medical Association. A year ago, Israel formally became a member of the global "Exercise is Medicine" foundation, and under this title promotes education for health care providers on exercise prescription. The understanding of the importance of physical activity and fitness as part of a healthy lifestyle is increasing in Israel, as well as the number of amateur athletes, and the profession of sports medicine takes a big part in this process.

  19. Perceived neighborhood safety during adolescence predicts subsequent deterioration of subjective health two decades later; gender differences in a racially-diverse sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that perception of unsafe neighborhoods during adolescence has negative consequences years later for the health of females. Further research is needed to replicate the findings using objective measures of health.

  20. 中医论治青春期肥胖型多囊卵巢综合征的疗效观察%Observation on therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medicine on poly-cystic ovary syndrome in adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛彩琴; 张蜀; 雷枭; 张团笑

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察中医治疗青春期肥胖型多囊卵巢综合征的临床疗效。方法:选取经西医治疗后仍月经稀发或闭经患者共19例,给予口服苍附导痰汤配合针灸治疗,比较治疗前后的相关指标。结果:治疗3个月后,显效者10例(53%);有效者6例(32%);无效者3例(15%);总有效率为85%。结论:采用苍附导痰汤配合针灸治疗,可以重建正常的月经周期,有效降低雄激素水平,改善患者卵巢功能、胰岛素抵抗及临床症状,疗效较好,值得临床推广。%Objective:Observation on therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medicine on polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS)in Adolescents.Methods:19 cases of oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea after treatment of the western medicine,treated with Cang Fu Dao Tan decoction combined with acupuncture,then comparing the relevant data before and after treatment.Results:3 mouths after treatment,10 cases (53%)were markedly effective,6 cases (32%)were effective,and 3 cases (15%)were ineffective.The total effective rate was 85%.Conclusion:Treatment by acupuncture and moxibustion combined with Cang Fu Dao Tan decoction on the PCOS patients can re-build normal menstrual cycle,effectively reduce androgen levels,improve insulin resistance,ovarian function and clinical symptoms,and achieve good clinical results,so it is worthy of clinical applicaton.

  1. Male and Female Delinquency Trajectories from Pre through Middle Adolescence and Their Continuation in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsheer, Johannes A.; van Dijkum, C.

    2005-01-01

    This study of male and female adolescent delinquency trajectories focuses on the prediction of late adolescence delinquency, based on earlier delinquency and social support. In this 3-wave longitudinal survey, 270 Dutch adolescents (113 males and 157 females) ages 12 to 14, were followed for a period of 6 years. For males, the level of delinquent…

  2. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments and Pediatric Psychopharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Joseph M.; Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa

    2008-01-01

    Children and adolescents often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments outside their indications, particularly to lose weight. Some of the herbal remedies and dietary supplements that may of relevance for psychopharmacological practice are discussed with respect to CAM treatments.

  3. Relationship of osteopathic medical licensure examinations with undergraduate admission measures and predictive value of identifying future performance in osteopathic principles and practice/osteopathic manipulative medicine courses and rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meoli, Frederick G; Wallace, Warren S; Kaiser-Smith, Joanne; Shen, Linjun

    2002-11-01

    Two hundred sixty-five students from four classes at one school of osteopathic medicine were studied to determine the correlation between several frequently used premedical admission criteria to predict performance on the early and current versions of the osteopathic medical licensure examinations. Further analysis evaluated the predictive value of the examination of the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners (NBOME) and its successor, the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA (COMLEX-USA) in determining subsequent performance in the ascending levels of the examination sequence, as well as to predict performance in the courses and rotations of osteopathic principles and practice (OPP) and osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM). This study also investigated the relationship between the early and later parts of the osteopathic medical licensure examinations. Analysis showed that of all premedical parameters, only the Medical College Aptitude Test score was positively correlated with performance on COMLEX-USA. In addition, a positive correlation was demonstrated between the performance in either Level 1 of COMLEX-USA or in the earlier form of the NBOME examination Part I and subsequent performance on the current Level 2 of COMLEX-USA or the old NBOME Part II. Finally, analysis indicated that COMLEX-USA predicted performance in OPP knowledge and skills.

  4. Acculturation influences on AAPI adolescent-mother interactions and adolescents' sexual initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Guthrie, Barbara; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this secondary analysis of data is to examine relationships among Asian American Pacific Islanders (AAPI) adolescents' level of acculturation, maternal influences, and age of sexual initiation. Selected predictive variables are based on the theoretical frameworks and literature review. The results indicate that for these adolescents speaking English at home was positively associated with maternal sexual discussion, mothers' perceptions of connectedness with their adolescents, adolescents' perceived maternal sexual expectations, and later sexual initiation at Wave 1. Adolescents' years of U.S. residency are positively associated with adolescents' level of perceived connectedness with their mothers and later sexual initiation at Wave 2. Adolescents' level of acculturation influence how they interacted with their mothers, perceived their mothers' sexual expectations, and when they decided to initiate sexual intercourse. Interventions to delay AAPI adolescents' sexual debut should consider factors related to AAPI adolescents' and their mothers' levels of acculturation.

  5. Mothers' and fathers' knowledge of adolescents' daily activities: its sources and its links with adolescent adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waizenhofer, Robyn N; Buchanan, Christy M; Jackson-Newsom, Julia

    2004-06-01

    To elucidate the benefits ascribed to parental monitoring, the authors examined links between parental knowledge and methods of obtaining knowledge about adolescents' activities, and links between these constructs and adolescent adjustment. The roles of parent gender, adolescent gender, and family earner status in these associations were also studied. Participants were 95 adolescents (ages 10 to 17 years, 60% male and 40% female) and their parents. Mothers knew more about adolescents' activities than did fathers and were more likely than fathers to gain information by active supervision or voluntary disclosure from the adolescent. Fathers, more than mothers, received information via spouses. Active methods of supervision predicted more knowledge among fathers and mothers from dual-earner families but not among mothers from single-earner families. More maternal knowledge predicted lower adolescent deviance. No method of gaining knowledge predicted adjustment directly.

  6. Admission Factors Predicting Family Medicine Specialty Choice: A Literature Review and Exploratory Study among Students in the Rural Medical Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Daniel M., Jr.; Wheat, John R.; Leeper, James D.; McKnight, Jerry T.; Ballard, Brent G.; Chen, Jia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The Rural Medical Scholars Program (RMSP) was created to increase production of rural family physicians in Alabama. Literature review reveals reasons medical students choose careers in family medicine, and these reasons can be categorized into domains that medical schools can address through admission, curriculum, and structural…

  7. Does anti-malarial drug knowledge predict anti-malarial dispensing practice in drug outlets? A survey of medicine retailers in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusk Andria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya, where it is the fifth leading cause of death in both children and adults. Effectively managing malaria is dependent upon appropriate treatment. In Kenya, between 17 to 83 percent of febrile individuals first seek treatment for febrile illness over the counter from medicine retailers. Understanding medicine retailer knowledge and behaviour in treating suspected malaria and dispensing anti-malarials is crucial. Methods To investigate medicine retailer knowledge about anti-malarials and their dispensing practices, a survey was conducted of all retail drug outlets that sell anti-malarial medications and serve residents of the Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance Site in the Bungoma East District of western Kenya. Results Most of the medicine retailers surveyed (65% were able to identify artemether-lumefantrine (AL as the Kenyan Ministry of Health recommended first-line anti-malarial therapy for uncomplicated malaria. Retailers who correctly identified this treatment were also more likely to recommend AL to adult and paediatric customers. However, the proportion of medicine retailers who recommend the correct treatment is disappointingly low. Only 48% would recommend AL to adults, and 37% would recommend it to children. It was discovered that customer demand has an influence on retailer behaviour. Retailer training and education were found to be correlated with anti-malarial drug knowledge, which in turn is correlated with dispensing practices. Medicine retailer behaviour, including patient referral practice and dispensing practices, are also correlated with knowledge of the first-line anti-malarial medication. The Kenya Ministry of Health guidelines were found to influence retailer drug stocking and dispensing behaviours. Conclusion Most medicine retailers could identify the recommended first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, but the percentage that could

  8. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Arain, Maliha Haque, Lina Johal, Puja Mathur, Wynand Nel, Afsha Rais, Ranbir Sandhu, Sushil Sharma Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire, The Netherlands Abstract: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain's region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also

  9. The role of adolescent nutrition and physical activity in the prediction of verbal intelligence during early adulthood: a genetically informed analysis of twin pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Beaver, Kevin M

    2015-01-05

    A large body of research has revealed that nutrition and physical activity influence brain functioning at various stages of the life course. Nevertheless, very few studies have explored whether diet and exercise influence verbal intelligence as youth transition from adolescence into young adulthood. Even fewer studies have explored the link between these health behaviors and verbal intelligence while accounting for genetic and environmental factors that are shared between siblings. Employing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the current study uses a sample of same-sex twin pairs to test whether youth who engage in poorer fitness and nutritional practices are significantly more likely to exhibit reduced verbal intelligence during young adulthood. The results suggests that, independent of the effects of genetic and shared environmental factors, a number of nutritional and exercise factors during adolescence influence verbal intelligence during adulthood. Limitations are noted and suggestions for future research are outlined.

  10. The Role of Adolescent Nutrition and Physical Activity in the Prediction of Verbal Intelligence during Early Adulthood: A Genetically Informed Analysis of Twin Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan B. Jackson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A large body of research has revealed that nutrition and physical activity influence brain functioning at various stages of the life course. Nevertheless, very few studies have explored whether diet and exercise influence verbal intelligence as youth transition from adolescence into young adulthood. Even fewer studies have explored the link between these health behaviors and verbal intelligence while accounting for genetic and environmental factors that are shared between siblings. Employing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the current study uses a sample of same-sex twin pairs to test whether youth who engage in poorer fitness and nutritional practices are significantly more likely to exhibit reduced verbal intelligence during young adulthood. The results suggests that, independent of the effects of genetic and shared environmental factors, a number of nutritional and exercise factors during adolescence influence verbal intelligence during adulthood. Limitations are noted and suggestions for future research are outlined.

  11. [Expedition medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlagić, Lana

    2009-01-01

    Expedition and wildeness medicine is a term that combines rescue medicine, sport medicine as well as more specific branches as polar or high altitude medicine. It is being intensively studied both at the reaserch institutes and on expeditions. Ophtalmologists are concentrated on the reaserch of HARH (High Altitude Retinal Hemorrhage), neurologists on HACE reaserch (High Altitude Cerebral Edema), psychologists are developing tests to decsribe cognitive functions and many physicians are being trained to work in extreme enviroment. The result of all this effort are numerous new findings in pathophysiology and therapy of altitude illness, increased security on expedition and further development of expeditionism.

  12. Equações preditivas e valores de normalidade para pressões respiratórias máximas na infância e adolescência Predictive equations and normal values for maximal respiratory pressures in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Amélia de Freitas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Pesquisar equações preditivas e valores de normalidade para pressões respiratórias máximas disponíveis na literatura para a faixa etária compreendida entre a infância e a adolescência. FONTES DE DADOS: Estudos publicados em inglês e em português no período entre 1980 e 2009. As bases de dados eletrônicas Lilacs e Medline foram consultadas utilizando-se as palavras-chave "capacidade respiratória máxima", "músculos respiratórios", "valores de referência", "adolescente" e "criança". SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Foram incluídos oito artigos na revisão, totalizando 1.463 crianças e adolescentes avaliados. A faixa etária da população estudada variou de sete a 18 anos. Geralmente o indivíduo é avaliado na posição sentada e com um clipe nasal. Os esforços máximos são realizados a partir do volume residual e da capacidade pulmonar total e sustentados por um a três segundos. Valores de normalidade e equações de predição foram propostos em oito e dois estudos, respectivamente. Nestes, demonstra-se incremento nas pressões respiratórias máximas desde a infância à adolescência e a ocorrência de maiores valores de pressão expiratória máxima quando comparados à pressão inspiratória máxima em crianças e adolescentes de ambos os sexos. CONCLUSÕES: As pressões respiratórias máximas constituem um meio efetivo para avaliar a força muscular respiratória e diversos fatores contribuem para a grande variedade de equações preditivas e de valores de normalidade disponíveis. É preciso buscar um consenso para normatizar os métodos requeridos ao avaliar a força muscular respiratória em crianças e adolescentes.OBJECTIVE: To investigate predictive equations and normal values for maximal respiratory pressures available in the literature for children and adolescents. DATA SOURCES: Studies in English and Portuguese published from 1980 to 2009. Lilacs and Medline databases were consulted using the key

  13. Gasto energético em adolescentes asmáticos com excesso de peso: calorimetria indireta e equações de predição Energy expenditure in overweight, asthmatic adolescents: indirect calorimetry and prediction equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franceliane Jobim Benedetti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o gasto energético medido por calorimetria indireta com o estimado por equações de predição entre adolescentes asmáticos e não asmáticos. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo transversal com 69 adolescentes de 10 a 18 anos. Foram comparados três grupos pareados (asmáticos com excesso de peso, asmáticos eutróficos e não asmáticos com excesso de peso. Para avaliação nutricional utilizaram-se medidas antropométricas e de composição corporal. O gasto energético foi medido por calorimetria indireta e estimado por fórmulas de predição. RESULTADOS: Cada grupo foi composto por 23 adolescentes, dos quais 10 do sexo feminino, com média de idade de M=12,4, DP=2,4 anos. O gasto energético de repouso, pela calorimetria indireta nos asmáticos com excesso de peso, foi de M=1550,2, DP=547,2kcal/dia; nos asmáticos eutróficos, M=1540,8, DP=544,2kcal/dia; e nos não asmáticos com excesso de peso, M=1697,2, DP=379,8kcal/dia, com resultado semelhante entre os grupos, mesmo quando ajustado pela massa magra e massa gorda (f=0,186; p=0,831. Obtiveram-se achados semelhantes entre o gasto energético medido pela calorimetria indireta e o estimado pelas fórmulas de predição, com exceção da fórmula de Harris-Benedict, que subestimou o gasto energético nos asmáticos eutróficos e nos não asmáticos com excesso de peso. CONCLUSÃO: O gasto energético de repouso não foi estatisticamente diferente entre os grupos asmáticos e não asmáticos, mesmo quando ajustado pela massa magra e massa gorda. Para os três grupos, as equações de predição são úteis para estimar o gasto energético de repouso e o gasto energético total.OBJECTIVE: This study compared the energy expenditure measured by indirect calorimetry with that estimated by prediction equations in asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with 69 adolescents aged 10 to 18 years. Three paired groups were compared (overweight

  14. Relationship among Translational Medicine, Evidence-Based Medicine and Precision Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xin-en

    2016-01-01

    Translational medicine is a new concept in international medical ifeld. It integrates experimental research results and clinical guidance into the optimal implementation criteria for promoting the prediction, prevention and treatment of diseases. Based on people’s higher demand for medicine and health, appearance of translational medicine changes the mode of medical research. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) refers to cautious and accurate application of the current best research evidence and combination of the clinician’s professional skills and abundant clinical experience to consider the patients willing and value, consequently making the best diagnostic regimens for patients. Recently, some scholars have begun to question why the patients with the same diagnosis, course of disease and pathological condition have different efifcacies and prognosis after treatment with the same drug. So far, an accurate answer cannot be given based on the research data of EBM to implement translational medicine. The concept of precision medicine is accepted gradually with the development of disease management model. In this study, practice and enlightenment of translational medicine, effect of EBM on translational medicine, EBM limitations as well as emergence and development trend of precision medicine were all reviewed in order to investigate the relationship among translational medicine, EBM and precision medicine.

  15. Biobanking for Personalized Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Angen; Pollard, Kai

    2015-01-01

    A biobank is an entity that collects, processes, stores, and distributes biospecimens and relevant data for use in basic, translational, and clinical research. Biobanking of high-quality human biospecimens such as tissue, blood and other bodily fluids along with associated patient clinical information provides a fundamental scientific infrastructure for personalized medicine. Identification of biomarkers that are specifically associated with particular medical conditions such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurological disorders are useful for early detection, prevention, and treatment of the diseases. The ability to determine individual tumor biomarkers and to use those biomarkers for disease diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of response to therapy is having a very significant impact on personalized medicine and is rapidly changing the way clinical care is conducted. As a critical requirement for personalized medicine is the availability of a large collection of patient samples with well annotated patient clinical and pathological data, biobanks thus play an important role in personalized medicine advancement. The goal of this chapter is to explore the role of biobanks in personalized medicine and discuss specific needs regarding biobank development for translational and clinical research, especially for personalized medicine advancement.

  16. [Sport medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram

    2012-02-01

    It is only since the late 20th century that Sport and Exercise Medicine has emerged as a distinct entity in health care. In Israel, sports medicine is regulated by a State Law and a sport physician is certified after graduating a structured program. In the past, sports medicine was related to the diagnosis and treatment of injuries encountered by top athletes. In recent years, the scope of sport medicine has broadened to reflect the awareness of modern society of the dangers of physical inactivity. In this perspective the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM) recently launched a program--"Exercise is Medicine", to promote physical activity in order to improve health and well-being and prevention of diseases through physical activity prescriptions. This program is from doctors and healthcare providers, adjusted to the patient or trainee. The sport physician does not replace a medical specialist, but having a thorough understanding about the etiology of a sport-related injury enables him to better focus on treatment and prevention. Therefore, Team Physicians in Elite Sport often play a role regarding not only the medical care of athletes, but also in the physiological monitoring of the athlete and correcting aberrations, to achieve peak physical performance. The broad spectrum of issues in sport and exercise medicine cannot be completely covered in one issue of the Journal. Therefore, the few reports that are presented to enhance interest and understanding in the broad spectrum of issues in sports and exercise medicine are only the tip of the iceberg.

  17. Lower Psychological Well-Being and Excessive Sexual Interest Predict Symptoms of Compulsive Use of Sexually Explicit Internet Material Among Adolescent Boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornwaard, Suzan M.; van Den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Baams, Laura; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2016-01-01

    Although a growing body of literature addresses the effects of young people's use of sexually explicit Internet material, research on the compulsive use of this type of online content among adolescents and its associated factors is largely lacking. This study investigated whether factors from three

  18. Predicting Developmental Change in Healthy Eating and Regular Exercise among Adolescents in China and the United States: The Role of Psychosocial and Behavioral Protection and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessor, Richard; Turbin, Mark S.; Costa, Frances M.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a cross-national study of developmental change in health-enhancing behavior--healthy eating and regular exercise--among adolescents in China and the United States. The application of a conceptual framework comprising psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors--both proximal and distal and at both the individual…

  19. Predicting Treatment Success in Social Skills Training for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The UCLA Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Chih; Laugeson, Elizabeth A.; Gantman, Alexander; Ellingsen, Ruth; Frankel, Fred; Dillon, Ashley R.

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the predictors of positive social skills outcomes from the University of California, Los Angeles Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills, an evidence-based parent-assisted social skills program for high-functioning middle school and high school adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. The…

  20. Predicting Onset of Cannabis Use in Early Adolescence: The Interrelation Between High-Intensity Pleasure and Disruptive Behavior. The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, H.E.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Huizink, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: increased knowledge about the mechanisms by which some individuals are at risk for early onset of cannabis use might contribute to the improvement of prevention efforts. We focus on the roles of early-adolescent high-intensity pleasure, disruptive behavior, and their interplay in the pred

  1. Predicting onset of cannabis use in early adolescence: the interrelation between high-intensity pleasure and disruptive behavior: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, H.E.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Huizink, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Increased knowledge about the mechanisms by which some individuals are at risk for early onset of cannabis use might contribute to the improvement of prevention efforts. We focus on the roles of early-adolescent high-intensity pleasure, disruptive behavior, and their interplay in the pred

  2. Predicting onset of cannabis use in early adolescence : the interrelation between high-intensity pleasure and disruptive behavior. The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, H.E.; van Lier, P.A.; Vollebergh, W.A.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Huizink, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increased knowledge about the mechanisms by which some individuals are at risk for early onset of cannabis use might contribute to the improvement of prevention efforts. We focus on the roles of early-adolescent high-intensity pleasure, disruptive behavior, and their interplay in the pred

  3. Ethnicity and acculturation: do they predict weight status in a longitudinal study among Asain, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White early adolescent females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents has increased over the past decade. Prevalence rates are disparate among certain racial and ethnic groups. In this study, the relationship between overweight status (> 85th percentile according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevent...

  4. Predicting Reading Comprehension Academic Achievement in Late Adolescents with Velo-Cardio-Facial (22q11.2 Deletion) Syndrome (VCFS): A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antshel, K.; Hier, B.; Fremont, W.; Faraone, S. V.; Kates, W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The primary objective of the current study was to examine the childhood predictors of adolescent reading comprehension in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS). Although much research has focused on mathematics skills among individuals with VCFS, no studies have examined predictors of reading comprehension. Methods: 69 late adolescents…

  5. Foreign Wars and Domestic Prejudice: How Media Exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Predicts Ethnic Stereotyping by Jewish and Arab American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Souweidane, Violet; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    This study was based on the theory that adolescents view scenes of violent ethnic conflicts in the mass media through the lens of their own ethnicity, and that the resulting social-cognitive reactions influence their negative stereotypes about similar ethnic groups in their own country. We interviewed 89 Jewish and 180 Arab American high school…

  6. A Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Physical Activity in an Overweight/Obese Population Sample of Adolescents from Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lubans, David R.; Costigan, Sarah A.; McCargar, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for explaining physical activity (PA) intention and behavior among a large population sample of overweight and obese adolescents (Alberta, Canada), using a web-based survey. Secondary objectives were to examine the mediating effects of the TPB constructs and moderating effects…

  7. A systems medicine research approach for studying alcohol addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanagel, Rainer; Durstewitz, Daniel; Hansson, Anita; Heinz, Andreas; Kiefer, Falk; Köhr, Georg; Matthäus, Franziska; Nöthen, Markus M; Noori, Hamid R; Obermayer, Klaus; Rietschel, Marcella; Schloss, Patrick; Scholz, Henrike; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael; Sommer, Wolfgang; Vengeliene, Valentina; Walter, Henrik; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Uli S; Stringer, Sven; Smits, Yannick; Derks, Eske M

    2013-11-01

    According to the World Health Organization, about 2 billion people drink alcohol. Excessive alcohol consumption can result in alcohol addiction, which is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric diseases afflicting our society today. Prevention and intervention of alcohol binging in adolescents and treatment of alcoholism are major unmet challenges affecting our health-care system and society alike. Our newly formed German SysMedAlcoholism consortium is using a new systems medicine approach and intends (1) to define individual neurobehavioral risk profiles in adolescents that are predictive of alcohol use disorders later in life and (2) to identify new pharmacological targets and molecules for the treatment of alcoholism. To achieve these goals, we will use omics-information from epigenomics, genetics transcriptomics, neurodynamics, global neurochemical connectomes and neuroimaging (IMAGEN; Schumann et al. ) to feed mathematical prediction modules provided by two Bernstein Centers for Computational Neurosciences (Berlin and Heidelberg/Mannheim), the results of which will subsequently be functionally validated in independent clinical samples and appropriate animal models. This approach will lead to new early intervention strategies and identify innovative molecules for relapse prevention that will be tested in experimental human studies. This research program will ultimately help in consolidating addiction research clusters in Germany that can effectively conduct large clinical trials, implement early intervention strategies and impact political and healthcare decision makers.

  8. The Psychiatric Consequences of Child and Adolescent Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    YÜCE, Murat; KARABEKİROĞLU, Koray; YILDIRIM, Zeynep; ŞAHİN, Serkan; SAPMAZ, Dicle; BABADAĞI, Zehra; TURLA, Ahmet; AYDIN, Berna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychiatric consequences of sexual abuse and its associated factors in children and adolescents referred to our child and adolescent psychiatry clinic from official medico–legal units. Methods All victims of sexual abuse (n=590) aged 1–18 (mean: 13.56±3.38) referred from forensic units to Ondokuz Mayis University Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic over a period of 2 years [boys: 83 (14.1%); girls: 507 (85.9%)] were included. Child and adolescent psychiatry and forensic medicine specialists evaluated all the cases. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised Form (WISC-R) and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version-Turkish Version (K-SADS-PL-T) were applied. Results Abuse-related psychiatric diagnoses (of which 45.9% were major depressive disorder and 31.7% were post-traumatic stress disorder cases) were made in 75.2% of the cases. In 80.3% of the cases, the perpetrators were known to their victims [incest, n=91 (15.1%)], and intercourse took place in 48.8%. Although gender and age were not significantly associated with the appearance of any psychiatric disorders, severity of abuse (e.g., intercourse; p=.006), additional physical assault (pabuse severity, incest, involvement of any other victim, additional physical assault, and length of time from first abuse to first psychiatric evaluation. This combination of variables (occurrence of incest, additional physical assault, and a long duration from first abuse to first psychiatric evaluation) significantly predicted the appearance of a psychiatric disorder of any kind (χ2=55.42; df=7; n=522; pabuse to first psychiatric evaluation predict higher rates of sexual abuse-related psychiatric disorders.

  9. Parent–Teen Interactions as Predictors of Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents with Headache

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowski, Amy S.; Palermo, Tonya M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated parent–adolescent conflict, family functioning, and adolescent autonomy as predictors of depressive symptoms in adolescents with primary headache. Frequent headaches during adolescence can have a negative impact on activity levels and psychological functioning. Depression is particularly prevalent in adolescents with headache but little research has examined the role of parent–teen interactions in predicting depressive symptoms. Thirty adolescents diagnosed with migrai...

  10. Adolescent health in Asia: insights from Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jean-Yin; Rajasegaran, Kumudhini

    2016-08-01

    The introduction of adolescent medicine as a medical subspecialty in Singapore was a welcome in an evolving health care system that is unique in terms of both efficiency, in financing and the results achieved in community health outcomes. The Ministry of Health (MOH) already recognized the need to accommodate the health care concerns related to adolescent psychosocial health risk behaviors and an increased prevalence of young people living with chronic illness. The challenge for the pioneer team of physicians trained in adolescent medicine was to develop and sustain a model of care that integrated (i) core clinical services that include quality measures of care to adolescents; (ii) professional development and capacity building needing an expansive teaching agenda at every level of health education; (iii) strong inter-sectorial collaborations within hospital and community partners; and (iv) robust research and evaluation strategies that keep clinical practice relevant and evidence based.

  11. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceived Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Poor Chinese Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationships between parent-adolescent discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics (indexed by parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and parental control) and adolescent developmental outcomes (indexed by achievement motivation and psychological competence) in poor families in Hong Kong. A sample of 275 intact families having at least one child aged 11-16 experiencing economic disadvantage were invited to participate in the study. Fathers and mothers completed the Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale, and adolescents completed the Social-Oriented Achievement Motivation Scale and Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale in addition to paternal and maternal Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale. Results indicated that parents and adolescents had different perceptions of parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and paternal control, with adolescents generally perceived lower levels of parenting behaviors than did their parents. While father-adolescent discrepancy in perceived paternal responsiveness and mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceived maternal control negatively predicted adolescent achievement motivation, mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceptions of maternal responsiveness negatively predicted psychological competence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present findings provided support that parent-child discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics have negative impacts on the developmental outcomes of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present study addresses parent-child discrepancies in perceived parental behaviors as "legitimate" constructs, and explores their links with adolescent psychosocial development, which sheds light for researchers and clinical practitioners in helping the Chinese families experiencing economic disadvantage.

  12. Observation Clinical Effect on Chinese Medicine in Treatment of Liver Stagnation of Adolescent Polycystic Ovary Syndrome%中医治疗肝经郁热型青春期多囊卵巢综合征的临床效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华利霞

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析对肝经郁热型青春期多囊卵巢综合征患者实施中医治疗的效果和安全性。方法收集100例肝经郁热型青春期多囊卵巢综合征患者,随机将其分为观察组和对照组,每组50例。结果观察组在治疗后的体重控制、激素水平、月经以及卵巢体积等情况均优于对照组,差异有统计学意义,P<0.05。结论对肝经郁热型青春期多囊卵巢综合征患者实施中医方法的治疗可提升治疗效果。%Objective Analysis liver meridian stagnation of adolescent polycystic ovary syndrome in patients with the implementation of the safety and efficacy of the treatment of traditional Chinese medicine.Methods 100 cases of liver the stagnated heat type of adolescence polycystic ovarian syndrome patients, randomly divided the divided into observation group and control group, each group had 50 cases.Results The observation group patients in the treatment of weight control, hormone levels and menstrual and ovarian volume were better than the control group, was difference had statistically signiifcant,P<0.05.Conclusion Liver the stagnated heat type of adolescence polycystic ovarian comprehensive syndrome in patients with the implementation of the method of traditional Chinese medicine treatment can signiifcantly enhance the therapeutic effect.

  13. COPD Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Training Home Treatment & Programs Medications COPD Medications COPD Medications Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer ... control the symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Most people with COPD take long-acting medicine ...

  14. Medicine Man

    OpenAIRE

    Paola, Frederick Adolf

    2012-01-01

    It becomes imperative that our doctors bring to the practice of medicine a true scientific perspective; it may be just as important that those of us doing biomedical research try to learn more of what doctors know.

  15. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Science Education » Science Topics » Nuclear Medicine SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for ... administered by inhalation, by oral ingestion, or by direct injection into an organ. The mode of tracer ...

  16. Erratum to: Six years ahead: a longitudinal analysis regarding course and predictive value of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Andreas; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sohn, Alexander; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Klasen, Fionna

    2015-06-01

    Erratum to: Eur Child Adolesc PsychiatryDOI 10.1007/s00787‑014‑0640‑x Unfortunately, the names of two authors, Ulrike Ravens- Sieberer and Fionna Klasen, were omitted in the original publication of the article. Please find the correct author list below:Andreas Becker · Aribert Rothenberger · Alexander Sohn · Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer · Fionna Klasen · The BELLA study group

  17. Medicinal Moves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine is becoming a new source of growth in China-Africa trade LIU Tao never expected that his traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) products would be so warmly welcomed at the annual Canton Fair last year.His surprise came after a large number of African businessmen expressed a keen interest in importing the products.That knowledge left a broad smile on his face.

  18. Adolescents' as Active Agents in the Socialization Process: Legitimacy of Parental Authority and Obligation to Obey as Predictors of Obedience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Nancy; Cumsille, Patricio; Loreto Martinez, M.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents' agreement with parental standards and beliefs about the legitimacy of parental authority and their own obligation to obey were used to predict adolescents' obedience, controlling for parental monitoring, rules, and rule enforcement. Hierarchical linear models were used to predict both between-adolescent and within-adolescent,…

  19. Economic hardship and Mexican-origin adolescents' adjustment: examining adolescents' perceptions of hardship and parent-adolescent relationship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Melissa Y; Killoren, Sarah E; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2013-10-01

    Studies examining economic hardship consistently have linked family economic hardship to adolescent adjustment via parent and family functioning, but limited attention has been given to adolescents' perceptions of these processes. To address this, the authors investigated the intervening effects of adolescents' perceptions of economic hardship and of parent-adolescent warmth and conflict on the associations between parental economic hardship and adolescent adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms, risky behaviors, and school performance) in a sample of 246 Mexican-origin families. Findings revealed that both mothers' and fathers' reports of economic hardship were positively related to adolescents' reports of economic hardship, which in turn, were negatively related to parent-adolescent warmth and positively related to parent-adolescent conflict with both mothers and fathers. Adolescents' perceptions of economic hardship were indirectly related to (a) depressive symptoms through warmth with mothers and conflict with mothers and fathers, (b) involvement in risky behaviors through conflict with mothers and fathers, and (c) GPA through conflict with fathers. Our findings highlight the importance of adolescents' perceptions of family economic hardship and relationships with mothers and fathers in predicting adolescent adjustment.

  20. Cytomics in regenerative medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárnok, Attila; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz

    2008-02-01

    Cytomics is the high-content analysis of cell-systems [6, 78]. The area of Cytomics and Systems Biology received great attention during the last years as it harbours the promise to substantially impact on various fields of biomedicine, drug discovery, predictive medicine [6] and may have major potential for regenerative medicine. In regenerative medicine Cytomics includes process control of cell preparation and culturing using non-invasive detection techniques, quality control and standardization for GMP and GLP conformity and even prediction of cell fate based on sophisticated data analysis. Cytomics requires quantitative and stoichiometric single cell analysis. In some areas the leading cytometric techniques represent the cutting edge today. Many different applications/variations of multicolour staining were developed for flow- or slide-based cytometry (SBC) analysis of suspensions and sections to whole animal analysis [78]. SBC has become an important analytical technology in drug discovery, diagnosis and research and is an emerging technology for systems analysis [78]. It enables high-content high-throughput measurement of cell suspensions, cell cultures and tissues. In the last years various commercial SBC instruments were launched principally enabling to perform similar tasks. Standardisation as well as comparability of different instruments is a major challenge. Hyperspectral optical imaging may be implemented in SBC analysis for label free cell detection based on cellular autofluorescence [3]. All of these developments push the systemic approach of the analysis of biological specimens to enhance the outcome of regenerative medicine.

  1. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of ... limitations of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  4. Adolescent Psychosocial Development: A Review of Longitudinal Models and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeus, Wim

    2016-01-01

    This review used 4 types of longitudinal models (descriptive models, prediction models, developmental sequence models and longitudinal mediation models) to identify regular patterns of psychosocial development in adolescence. Eight patterns of adolescent development were observed across countries: (1) adolescent maturation in multiple…

  5. Social Support Seeking and Early Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…

  6. Mother-Adolescent Conflict: Stability, Change, and Relations with Externalizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Claire; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Morris, Amanda S.; Gershoff, Elizabeth; Valiente, Carlos; Kupfer, Anne; Eggum, Natalie D.

    2013-01-01

    Stability and change in mother-adolescent conflict reactions (CRs) and the prediction of CRs from adolescents' earlier behavior problems (and vice versa) were examined with 131 mothers and their adolescents (63 boys). Dyads engaged in a 6-min conflict discussion twice, 2 years apart ["M" age was 13 at Time 1 (T1)]. Non-verbal expressive…

  7. Adolescent Loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Sheila

    Research has suggested that the incidence of loneliness peaks at adolescence and decreases with age. Changes in the determinants of loneliness during adolescence were investigated for grade 8, grade 11, and university students. Subjects (N=410) completed a written questionnaire which included ten items from the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the…

  8. Positively Adolescent!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Believes that music teachers should reassess their views toward adolescent behavior in the music classroom by learning to see their behavior in a positive light. Describes teaching strategies that build on four adolescent behaviors: (1) desire for peer acceptance; (2) abundant energy; (3) love of fun; and (4) limited time-managing skills. (CMK)

  9. Punishing adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Should an adolescent offender be punished more leniently than an adult offender? Many theorists believe the answer to be in the affirmative. According to the diminished culpability model, adolescents are less mature than adults and, therefore, less responsible for their wrongdoings and should...

  10. Adolescents' protection motivation and smoking behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thrul, J.; Stemmler, M.; Bühler, A.; Kuntsche, E.N.

    2013-01-01

    The protection motivation theory (PMT) is a well-known theory of behaviour change. This study tested the applicability of the sub-constructs of threat and coping appraisal in predicting adolescents' smoking-related behavioural intentions and smoking behaviour longitudinally. Adolescents (N = 494) ag

  11. Sexual victimization and family violence among urban African American adolescent women: do violence cluster profiles predict partner violence victimization and sex trade exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Kulkarni, Shanti J; Archer, Gretchen

    2012-11-01

    Guided by an intersectional feminist perspective, we examined sexual victimization, witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) in the family, and familial physical abuse among a sample of 180 urban African American adolescent women. We used cluster analysis to better understand the profiles of cumulative victimization, and the relationships between profiles and IPV victimization and personal exposure to the sex trade. Just under one third of the sample reported sexual victimization, with cooccurrence with both forms of family violence common. The cluster profile with high levels of severe family violence was associated with the highest rate of IPV victimization and sex trade exposure.

  12. Predicting Intra-Individual Academic Achievement Trajectories of Adolescents Nested in Class Environment: Influence of motivation, implicit theory of intelligence, self-esteem and parenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Roskam

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In a longitudinal study conducted on 1130 adolescents (557 male and 573 female in the 1st-6th grades from Belgian secondary schools, we tested the influence of individual factors (motivational constructs, implicit theory of intelligence and self-esteem and environmental determinants (parenting and class environment of academic achievement (grades in mathematics, language arts and GPA at three points in time. Using hierarchical linear models, we observed a decrease of grade over the course of the study, reciprocal relations between motivational constructs, self-esteem and academic achievement, a strong positive impact of supportive parenting and a moderate influence of class environment.

  13. [Adolescent contraception. Current trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthuber, Sabine

    2005-10-01

    Despite easy availability of contraception, Germany is confronted with the problem of increasing rates of pregnancies and abortions in minors. Prescription of contraceptives that do not rely on compliance and are acceptable to adolescents is required in addition to improved counseling. For that purpose, adherence to the guidelines for the use of contraceptives in minors written by the consortium for legislation in medicine (AG Medizinrecht) is essential. Oral contraceptives are the most commonly prescribed form of birth control, advantages include reversibility as well as a good tolerance and safety profile. New developments are low-dose compounds, novel progestins, prevention of ovulation by pure gestagen pills and the long-term use of low-dose monophasic micro pills. Long-term contraceptives like subdermally implantable depot compounds or hormone-releasing pessaries in utero have been used on a regular basis and seem a convenient alternative for birth control for longer periods, also in adolescents. The easy-to-use intravaginal ring and the birth control patch have expanded the spectrum of hormone-releasing contraceptive systems. Studies show improved compliance and a possible reduction of unintentional pregnancies due to application errors. Amelioration of the range of highly effective birth control products different modes of application will hopefully lead to drop in the rate of unplanned pregnancies, especially in adolescents.

  14. [Medicinal cannabis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Meersch, H; Verschuere, A P; Bottriaux, F

    2006-01-01

    Pharmaceutical grade cannabis is available to Dutch patients from public pharmacies in the Netherlands. The first part of this paper reviews the pharmaceutical and pharmacological properties of medicinal cannabis. Detailed information about its composition and quality, potential applications, methods of administration, adverse reactions, drug interactions and safety during pregnancy or breastfeeding are given. The second part deals with the legal aspects of dispensing medicinal cannabis through pharmacies in view of the Belgian and Dutch legislation. The last part discusses the present Belgian regulation about the possession of cannabis.

  15. Tibetan traditional medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Tibetan medicine companies in T.A.R can manufacture more than 360 Tibetan patent medicines. There are 18 Tibetan medicine factories in Tibet, and total out value exceeds 3 billion yuan. 24 kinds of Tibetan patent medicines have been incorporated into State Fundamental Medicine List, in which 14 Tibetan patent medicines are listed in national protected traditional medicine category.

  16. Stages of Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  17. Predicting discordance between self-reports of sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections with African American female adolescents: results from a 4-city study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Salazar, Laura F; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Brown, Larry K; Romer, Daniel; Valois, Robert F; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-08-01

    This study examined correlates of the discordance between sexual behavior self-reports and Incident Sexually Transmitted Infections. African American adolescent females (N = 964) from four U.S. cities were recruited for an HIV/STI prevention trial. Self-reported sexual behaviors, demographics, and hypothesized psychosocial antecedents of sexual risk behavior were collected at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up assessments. Urine specimens were collected and tested for three prevalent STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas) at each assessment. Seventeen percent of participants with a laboratory-confirmed STI reported either lifetime abstinence or recent abstinence from vaginal sex (discordant self-report). Lower STI knowledge, belief that fewer peers were engaging in sex, and belief that more peers will wait until marriage to have sex were associated with discordant reports. Discordance between self-reported abstinence and incident STIs was marked among African American female adolescents. Lack of STI knowledge and sexual behavior peer norms may result in underreporting of sexual behaviors.

  18. Do psychopathic traits assessed in mid-adolescence predict mental health, psychosocial, and antisocial, including criminal outcomes, over the subsequent 5 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphälä, Malin; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2014-01-01

    Objectif : Déterminer si les traits psychopathiques évalués à la mi-adolescence prédisent les résultats de santé mentale, psychosociaux, et antisociaux (y compris criminels) 5 ans plus tard et procurent par le fait même des avantages par rapport au diagnostic du trouble des conduites (TC). Méthode : Quatre-vingt-six femmes et 61 hommes ont été évalués à la mi-adolescence lors de leur première visite à une clinique pour abus de substances et ont été réévalués 5 ans plus tard. Les évaluations à l’adolescence comprennent la liste de psychopathie—version pour adolescents (PCL-YV), et selon leur âge, l’échelle des troubles affectifs pour enfants et de schizophrénie pour enfants d’âge scolaire, ou l’entrevue clinique structurée pour le Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, 4e édition (SCID). Les évaluations au début de l’âge adulte comprenaient la SCID, les auto-déclarations du fonctionnement psychologique, du comportement agressif, de la criminalité et d’autres casiers judiciaires officiels. Résultats : Le score à l’élément antisocial prédisait positivement le nombre de symptômes d’anxiété et la probabilité de recevoir un traitement pour troubles d’utilisation de substances (TUS). Les scores aux éléments mode de vie et antisocial prédisaient négativement les scores à l’évaluation globale de fonctionnement. Par contre, le score interpersonnel et le sexe masculin prédisaient indépendamment et positivement le nombre de mois de travail ou d’études, tout comme l’interaction du mode de vie avec le sexe indiquait chez les hommes, mais pas chez les femmes, qu’une augmentation du score à l’élément mode de vie était associée à moins de temps de travail ou d’études. Les scores interpersonnel et antisocial prédisaient positivement le décrochage scolaire. Les scores à l’élément antisocial prédisaient le nombre de symptômes du trouble de la personnalité antisociale

  19. Personalized medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    engineered anti-TNF-alpha antibody constructs now constitute one of the heaviest medicinal expenditures in many countries. All currently used TNF antagonists may dramatically lower disease activity and, in some patients, induce remission. Unfortunately, however, not all patients respond favorably, and safety...

  20. Medicinal Mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindequist, U.; Won Kim, H.; Tiralongo, E.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Since beginning of mankind nature is the most important source of medicines. Bioactive compounds produced by living organisms can be used directly as drugs or as lead compounds for drug development. Besides, the natural material can be used as crude drug for preparation of powder or extracts. Plants

  1. Sports Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2004-01-01

    Sports medicine has become one of the biggest and fastest growing medical fields in recent years. That is because sports have become a major part of most societies. As work becomes more stressful (紧张的,压力重

  2. Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  3. [School difficulties in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenberg, T L; Buffone, M R; Scardia, C; Facente, C

    2002-12-01

    Loss, failure and desertion are those words, which better describe the most frequent difficulties incurred by teenagers, and their relation to the school environment, and indicate, as well, the lack of connection between individual aspirations and school achievements obtained. Despite the likelihood of school difficulties throughout the entire educational career, from the kindergarten to the college, we are able to recognize certain specific "disturbances" which come out during the adolescence, basically relating to the school experiences. School failure, school desertion and school abandonment are, in fact, issues mainly discussed in coincidence with the beginning of the adolescent age and the attending of the high school. The aetiopathogenesis of school discomfort is mostly determined by more than only one factor: psychological, physical, cognitive and environmental aspects, all together, contribute in various ways, to the rise and persisting of the above described problems. Suggesting a univocal characterization of the adolescent with school difficulties, is indeed a hard task, since school failure is not an exclusive feature of only one kind of personality or the expression of only one type of conflict. Once identified the individuals more subject to risk, and the warning signs of actual uneasiness, it is important therefore to intervene timely and in different ways in order to avoid the worsening or the excessive extension of the school difficulties and of their frequent and serious consequences on the teenagers' individual and domestic well-being. Such type of prevention definitely belongs to the Adolescent Medicine, and must be developed on different levels, by involving not only the teenagers, but also their families, the school, and the whole social environment in which the teenagers live and with which they interact.

  4. A Study on Application of Three Prediction Models in Medicine%三种分类预测模型在医学中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何馨; 邹绮蕾; 卞禾; 何诗思

    2014-01-01

    基于一个肾衰竭患者数据,应用两种神经网络(BP 神经网络和贝叶斯正则化 BP 神经网络)与常用的二分类 Logistic 回归对肾衰竭患者是否死亡进行预测,并比较三种模型的预测效果。三个模型的判对率都达到89%以上。其中,以贝叶斯正则化 BP 神经网络的判对率和 ROC 曲线下面积(AUC)最大,即预测效果最好;BP 神经网络和 Logistic 回归预测效果差别不大。%Based on a real dataset ,we compare two kinds of neural network (BP Neural Network and Bayesian Regularized BP Neural Network) and Logistic Regression in medical statistics . By using SPSS 21.0 and Matlab , after variable screening , train the three models and compare their prediction accuracy .Besides ,draw their ROC curves and compare their areas under the curve (AUC) among the three models . All of the three models have reached the prediction accuracy over 89% . Bayesian Regularized BP Neural Network has the best results with the highest prediction accuracy and the largest AUC .Unlike the researches before , in our study ,BP Neural Network did not have a better performance than Logistic Regression .The small sample size may result in the BP Neural Network without a good training .However ,it may also highlight an advantage of Bayesian Regularized BP Neural Network ,which still gets a good output under the situation of a small sample .

  5. Suicidal Thoughts among Adolescents: An Intercultural Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquet, Marie; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Conducted two epidemiological surveys of suicidal ideation among adolescents in France and Quebec. Results suggest that, in both France and Canada, suicidal ideation was linked to drug use (especially tobacco, illicit drugs, and psychotropic medicine), nonspecific somatic complaints (especially tiredness, sleep difficulties, depression, and…

  6. The Longitudinal Interplay of Affective and Cognitive Empathy within and between Adolescents and Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lissa, Caspar J.; Hawk, Skyler T.; de Wied, Minet; Koot, Hans M.; van Lier, Pol; Meeus, Wim

    2014-01-01

    This 4-year study examined longitudinal interplays between adolescents' and mothers' self-reported empathic concern (EC) and perspective taking (PT). We investigated (a) whether adolescents' EC predicted rank-order change in their PT over time, or vice versa; (b) whether mothers' empathy predicted relative increases in adolescents' empathy; (c)…

  7. Pregnancy and Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not all medicines are safe to take when you are pregnant. Some medicines can harm your baby. That includes over-the- ... care provider before you start or stop any medicine. Not using medicine that you need may be ...

  8. Managing Your Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problems & Solutions for Being Active - FAQs About Physical Activity Managing Your Medicines - Introduction - Taking Control of Your Medicines - Medicine Assistance Programs - Medicine Checklist - Medication Tracker Communicating with Professionals - Introduction - Preparing for Medical Visits - ...

  9. Development of in Silico Models for Predicting P-Glycoprotein Inhibitors Based on a Two-Step Approach for Feature Selection and Its Application to Chinese Herbal Medicine Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Chen, Jialei; Shi, Xiufeng; Xu, Liwen; Xi, Zhijun; You, Lisha; An, Rui; Wang, Xinhong

    2015-10-01

    by developing an ensemble classification model to obtain more reliable predictions. Finally, we employed these models as a virtual screening tool for identifying potential P-gp inhibitors in Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP) database containing a total of 13 051 unique compounds from 498 herbs, resulting in 875 potential P-gp inhibitors and 15 inhibitor-rich herbs. These predictions were partly supported by a literature search and are valuable not only to develop novel P-gp inhibitors from TCM in the early stages of drug development, but also to optimize the use of herbal remedies.

  10. Remote medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-29

    The international oil industry, catalyzed by a surge in exploration and production projects in remote regions, is giving health care for its travelers and expatriates a high priority. L.R. Aalund, the Journal`s Managing Editor--Technology, reports on why and how this is happening now. He covers this in articles on: health care in Russia, air ambulance evacuations, and the deployment of remote paramedics. Aalund gathered the information during trips to Finland and Russia and interviews with oil industry personnel, physicians, and other medical professionals in North America, Europe, and Siberia. Titles of the four topics presented in this special section on remote medicine are as follows: Oil companies focus on emergency care for expats in Russia; Air ambulance plan can be critical; Remote paramedics have high level of training; and Other facets of remote medicine.

  11. Transfusion Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Sibinga CT

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cees Th. Smit Sibinga ID Consulting, Zuidhorn, The NetherlandsTransfusion Medicine is a bridging science, spanning the evidence-based practice at the bedside with the social sciences in the community.     Transfusion Medicine starts at the bedside. Surprisingly, only recently that has become rediscovered with the development of ‘patient blood management’ and ‘patient centered’ approaches to allow the growth of an optimal and rational patient care through supportive hemotherapy – safe and effective, affordable and accessible.1    Where transfusion of blood found its origin in the need of a patient, it has drifted away for a long period of time from the bedside and has been dominated for almost a century by laboratory sciences. At least the first ten editions of the famous and well reputed textbook Mollison’s Blood Transfusion in Clinical Medicine contained only a fraction on the actual bedside practice of transfusion medicine and did not focus at all on patient blood management.2    This journal will focus on all aspects of the transfusion chain that immediately relate to the bedside practice and clinical use of blood and its components, and plasma derivatives as integral elements of a human transplant tissue. That includes legal and regulatory aspects, medical, ethical and cultural aspects, pure science and pathophysiology of disease and the impact of transfusion of blood, as well as aspects of the epidemiology of blood transfusion and clinical indications, and cost-effectiveness. Education through timely and continued transfer of up to date knowledge and the application of knowledge in clinical practice to develop and maintain clinical skills and competence, with the extension of current educational approaches through e-learning and accessible ‘apps’ will be given a prominent place.

  12. Transfusion medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murawski, K.; Peetoom, F.

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings contain 24 selections, including papers presented at the conference of American Red Cross held in May 1985, on the Subject of transfusion medicine. Some of the titles are: Fluosol/sup R/-DA in Radiation Therapy; Expression of Cloned Human Factor VIII and the Molecular Basis of Gene Defects that Cause Hemophilia; DNA-Probing Assay in the Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Genome in Human Peripheral Blood Cells; and Monoclonal Antibodies: Convergence of Technology and Application.

  13. Self-reported recurrent pain and medicine use behaviours among 15-year olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobina, I; Villberg, J; Villerusa, A

    2015-01-01

    recurrent pain and medicine use for headache, stomachache, nervousness and difficulties in getting to sleep. RESULTS: More than 30% of adolescents reported recurrent headache, almost 30% recurrent backache and approximately 20% recurrent stomachache. Although pain prevalence and medicine use for aches were......BACKGROUND: There is considerable variation in adolescent pain prevalence across epidemiological studies, with limited information on pain-related behaviours among adolescents, including medicine use. The aims of this study were (1) to examine the prevalence of recurrent pain among 15-year......-old adolescents internationally; (2) to investigate the association between recurrent pain and medicine use behaviours among boys and girls; and (3) to evaluate the consistency of these associations across countries. METHODS: The World Health Organization (WHO) collaborative international Health Behaviour...

  14. Medicinal electrochemistry: integration of electrochemistry, medicinal chemistry and computational chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, M O; Maltarollo, V G; de Toledo, R A; Shim, H; Santos, M C; Honorio, K M

    2014-01-01

    Over the last centuries, there were many important discoveries in medicine that were crucial for gaining a better understanding of several physiological processes. Molecular modelling techniques are powerful tools that have been successfully used to analyse and interface medicinal chemistry studies with electrochemical experimental results. This special combination can help to comprehend medicinal chemistry problems, such as predicting biological activity and understanding drug action mechanisms. Electrochemistry has provided better comprehension of biological reactions and, as a result of many technological improvements, the combination of electrochemical techniques and biosensors has become an appealing choice for pharmaceutical and biomedical analyses. Therefore, this review will briefly outline the present scope and future advances related to the integration of electrochemical and medicinal chemistry approaches based on various applications from recent studies.

  15. [Travel medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, S; Grimm, M

    2009-07-01

    Travel medicine deals with travellers' diseases. The target group is therefore distinct from tropical medicine. It has gained in significance due to the increase in tourism and professional work abroad in the last 50 years. Dangerous and widespread diseases in tropical countries, in particular tropical malaria, have come into focus in industrialized countries because of their appearance in travellers. Travel medicine deals not only with infectious or transmittable diseases, but also with the ability of patients with chronic diseases to travel, the medical aspects of flying, as well as the health hazards of professional work or high-risk sports abroad. The risk of disease as a result of travelling can be minimized by advice and prophylactic measures, such as vaccinations and drug prophylaxis against malaria, if indicated. On return, medical symptoms should be investigated promptly to ensure early detection of life-threatening disease courses, particularly tropical malaria, as well as to prevent the occurrence of small-scale epidemics. A small number of diseases can also emerge after several years, such as benign types of malaria, amoebic liver abscess and visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). Aids also belongs to these diseases. Therefore, in this era of HIV pandemic travellers concerned should be made aware of the risks.

  16. Longitudinal relations between adolescent and parental behaviors, parental knowledge, and internalizing behaviors among urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthe, Rachel C; Sullivan, Terri; Kliewer, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    High prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among adolescents underscore the importance of identifying parental and adolescent behaviors that may lessen the risk for these outcomes. Previous research has shown that parental acceptance, parental knowledge, and child disclosure are negatively associated with internalizing behaviors. It is also important to explore the impact of internalizing behaviors on these parental and child constructs. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between parental acceptance, parental knowledge, child disclosure, and internalizing symptoms across a one-year time period. Participants were 358 adolescents (54 % female) and their primary caregivers, who were primarily African American (92 %). Parents and adolescents provided data through face-to-face interviews. Results showed that parental knowledge and parental acceptance predicted child disclosure, and child disclosure predicted parental knowledge one year later. Higher levels of parental acceptance predicted lower levels of adolescent-reported depressive symptoms, while higher levels of parental report of adolescents' internalizing symptoms predicted lower levels of parental knowledge. No differences in the strength of these relationships were found across grade or gender. These findings highlight the role of the adolescent's perceived acceptance by parents in promoting children's disclosure, and the benefits of parental acceptance in decreasing depressive symptoms over time. Overall, these results show the impact that both adolescent and parental behaviors and internalizing behaviors have on each other across time.

  17. Interpersonal influences on late adolescent girls' and boys' disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Furman, Wyndol

    2009-04-01

    Perceived socio-cultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Most prospective studies included only girls, and less is known about the influence on boys. This study investigated interpersonal influences on changes in late adolescent boys' and girls' symptoms of disordered eating over one year. Participants were a community sample of late adolescents 16-19 years of age (N=199; 49.75% girls), their mothers, and friends. Structural equation modeling revealed that interpersonal pressure to be thin and criticism about appearance predicted increases in disordered eating over time. Late adolescents', mothers' and friends' reports of pressure were associated with disordered eating at Time 1 and Time 2. Further, adolescents' perceptions and friends' reports of pressure to be thin predicted changes in disordered eating over time. Findings underscore the significance of interpersonal relationships for disordered eating during late adolescence in both girls and boys.

  18. An analysis of adolescent suicide attempts: the expendable child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woznica, J G; Shapiro, J R

    1990-12-01

    Assessed the concept of the "expendable child" syndrome proposed by Sabbath (1969) as a contributing factor in adolescent suicide attempts. It was hypothesized that suicidal adolescents would be rated higher on a measure of "expendability" than would a psychiatric control group of adolescents with no known history of suicide attempts or ideation. Forty adolescents, ages 13-24, who had been seen in psychotherapy at a teen-age health clinic, were rated by their psychotherapists on suicidality and a 12-item scale of expendability (a sense of being unwanted and/or a burden on the family). As predicted, suicidal adolescents received significantly higher ratings on the expendability measure than nonsuicidal adolescents. Results support the concept that feeling expendable is a characteristic of suicidal adolescents. Implications for prevention and treatment of adolescent suicidality are discussed.

  19. Longitudinal assessment of autonomy and relatedness in adolescent-family interactions as predictors of adolescent ego development and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J P; Hauser, S T; Bell, K L; O'Connor, T G

    1994-02-01

    This study examined links between processes of establishing autonomy and relatedness in adolescent-family interactions and adolescents' psychosocial development. Adolescents in 2-parent families and their parents were observed in a revealed-differences interaction task when adolescents were 14, and adolescents' ego development and self-esteem were assessed at both 14 and 16. Developmental indices were strongly related to autonomy and relatedness displayed by both parents and adolescents. Significant variance was explained even after accounting for the number and quality of speeches of each family member as rated by a different, well-validated family coding system. Increases in adolescents' ego development and self-esteem over time were predicted by fathers' behaviors challenging adolescents' autonomy and relatedness, but only when these occurred in the context of fathers' overall display of autonomous-relatedness with the adolescent. The importance of the mutually negotiated process of adolescents' exploration from the secure base of parental relationships is discussed.

  20. Nuclear medicine applications for the diabetic foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.

    1987-04-01

    Although not frequently described in the podiatric literature, nuclear medicine imaging may be of great assistance to the clinical podiatrist. This report reviews in detail the use of modern nuclear medicine approaches to the diagnosis and management of the diabetic foot. Nuclear medicine techniques are helpful in evaluating possible osteomyelitis, in determining appropriate amputation levels, and in predicting response to conservative ulcer management. Specific indications for bone, gallium, and perfusion imaging are described.

  1. Adolescents' Academic Expectations and Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Christopher E.; Field, Tiffany M.; Diego, Miguel A.

    2001-01-01

    Hypothesis that mother relationships are more influential than father relationships on adolescents' academic expectations and achievement was tested with 80 high school seniors. The mother child relationship was found to be predictive of academic expectations. It suggests that the amount of time they spend together may be the contributing factor.…

  2. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  3. Treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis by high-qualitive traction and Chinese medicine fumigation combined with chiropractic manipulation%优值牵引、中药熏蒸联合整脊手法治疗青少年特发性腰椎侧凸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦雨; 鲍铁周; 宋永伟; 李洋

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical effect of high-qualitive traction and Chinese medicine fumigation combined with chiropractic manipulation in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Method: 48 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis between February 2013 and March 2015 from were treated with high-qualitive traction and Chinese medicine fumigation combined with chiropractic manipulation. The VAS score, ODI score and Cobb change were compared before and after treatment. Result: After the treatment, the VAS score, ODI score and Cobb angle were decreased, and the difference between the three indicators were statistically significant(P<0.01). Conclusion: The treatment of AIS with high-qualitive traction and Chinese medicine fumigation combined with chiropractic manipulation can effectively improve the functional activity of patients, reduce the pain of patients with the advantages of simple operation, less injury and high safety.%目的:观察优值牵引、中药熏蒸联合整脊手法治疗青少年特发性腰椎侧凸的临床疗效。方法:2013年2月—2015年3月采用优值牵引、中药熏蒸联合整脊手法治疗青少年特发性脊柱侧弯患者48例,对比治疗前后患者VAS疼痛评分、ODI评分及Cobb角的变化。结果:疗程结束后患者的VAS疼痛评分、ODI评分及Cobb角均减小,且三项指标治疗前后差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论:优值牵引、中药熏蒸联合整脊手法治疗 AIS,可有效地改善患者功能活动,减轻患者疼痛,具有操作简便、无创安全等特点。

  4. Adolescent loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E G

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the phenomenon of loneliness in delinquent adolescents with regard to types of delinquency offenses committed, demographic characteristics, and personality characteristics in the areas of interpersonal needs for inclusion, control, and affection. The types of delinquency offenses were categorized as burglary, runaway, drugs, assault, and incorrigible. The demographic variables examined were age, sex, race, family rank or birth order, family structure in terms of parental presence, family income level, religion, and geographic locale. A sample of 98 adolescents was obtained from juvenile detention facilities in three metropolitan areas in the United States. Subjects ranged in age from 12 to 18. Subjects were asked to complete the Loneliness Questionnaire as a self-reported measure of loneliness. Subjects also provided information about themselves relative to demographic characteristics and completed the FIRO-B Questionnaire, which measured interpersonal needs for inclusion, control, and affection. The results revealed no significant differences with regard to any of the demographic variables when the effect of each was considered alone. However, there was a significant effect on loneliness by income when considered jointly with other demographic variables. Adolescents from the middle income group expressed more loneliness than those from the upper and lower income groups. No significant differences were observed with regard to personality characteristics related to interpersonal needs for inclusion and affection, but delinquent adolescents with medium to high needs for control indicated significantly more feelings of loneliness than delinquent adolescents with low needs for control.

  5. Pharmacogenetics: transforming clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, W G

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics, the study of genetic variation relevant to drug metabolism, is a rapidly evolving area of medicine. This brief review will consider some of the recent advances where inherited genetic variants have been associated with either drug efficacy or toxicity. Examples of where pharmacogenetic testing has been adopted into clinical practice will be provided as well as a look at its likely development over the next decade. Finally, the large increase in genetic testing of tumour tissue samples to predict response to molecularly targeted treatments in cancer will be considered.

  6. Plasma medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive text is suitable for researchers and graduate students of a 'hot' new topic in medical physics. Written by the world's leading experts,  this book aims to present recent developments in plasma medicine, both technological and scientific, reviewed in a fashion accessible to the highly interdisciplinary audience consisting of doctors, physicists, biologists, chemists and other scientists, university students and professors, engineers and medical practitioners. The book focuses on major topics and covers the physics required to develop novel plasma discharges relevant for medic

  7. [Psychiatric medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez Dominguez, J

    1984-06-01

    The author, after a short historical introduction which shows the Medicine, especially the Neurology, as the predecessor of the Psychiatry, intents to relate in a theorico-practical way the anxiety and the depression within a bio-chemical and endocrinological frame. He presents the hipo and hipercalcemia signals and symptoms demonstrating with a casuistic from his clinical practice the similitude between anxiety and depression respectively. Finally he realizes a theorical analysis about the investigations published over the AMP-ciclic and infers about the hormonal interference and the clinical data linked with the manic-depressive disease.

  8. Migrant differences in adolescents’ medicine use for common health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantarero Arevalo, Lourdes; Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Despite the substantial proportion of adolescents use medicine for common health problems, prevalence of medicine use among adolescents with migrant background have rarely been documented, and the causal pathway continue to be poorly understood. The aim was to examine whether there are migrant...... differences in adolescents’ medicine use for common health problems, and if feeling safe at school, as a non-exposure to discrimination, explained these differences. Methods: Data derived from the 2006 Danish contribution to the World Health Organization collaborative study Health Behaviour in School......-aged Children (HBSC). Medicine use for headache, stomach-ache, difficulties getting to sleep and nervousness and feeling safe at school were self-reported. The population included boys and girls from ages 11 to 15 who were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. Included were 8480 ethnic Danes, 508 descendants...

  9. Evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swynghedauw, B

    2004-04-01

    Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. Evolutionary, or darwinian, medicine takes the view that contemporary diseases result from incompatibility between the conditions under which the evolutionary pressure had modified our genetic endowment and the lifestyle and dietary habits in which we are currently living, including the enhanced lifespan, the changes in dietary habits and the lack of physical activity. An evolutionary trait express a genetic polymorphism which finally improve fitness, it needs million years to become functional. A limited genetic diversity is a necessary prerequisite for evolutionary medicine. Nevertheless, search for a genetic endowment would become nearly impossible if the human races were genetically different. From a genetic point of view, homo sapiens, is homogeneous, and the so-called human races have only a socio-economic definition. Historically, Heart Failure, HF, had an infectious origin and resulted from mechanical overload which triggered mechanoconversion by using phylogenically ancient pleiotropic pathways. Adaptation was mainly caused by negative inotropism. Recently, HF was caused by a complex remodelling caused by the trophic effects of mechanics, ischemia, senescence, diabetes and, neurohormones. The generally admitted hypothesis is that cancers were largely caused by a combination of modern reproductive and dietary lifestyles mismatched with genotypic traits, plus the longer time available for a confrontation. Such a concept is illustrated for skin and breast cancers, and also for the link between cancer risk and dietary habits.

  10. Stable prediction of mood and anxiety disorders based on behavioral and emotional problems in childhood: a 14-year follow-up during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Roza (Sabine); M.B. Hofstra (Marijke); J. van der Ende (Jan); F.C. Verhulst (Frank)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to predict the onset of mood and anxiety disorders from parent-reported emotional and behavioral problems in childhood across a 14-year period from childhood into young adulthood. METHOD: In 1983, parent reports of behavioral and em

  11. Regulating sadness and fear from outside and within: mothers' emotion socialization and adolescents' parasympathetic regulation predict the development of internalizing difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Paul D; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Kendziora, Kimberly T; Brand, Ann; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2014-11-01

    Multilevel models of developmental psychopathology implicate both characteristics of the individual and their rearing environment in the etiology of internalizing problems and disorders. Maladaptive regulation of fear and sadness, the core of anxiety and depression, arises from the conjoint influences of ineffective parasympathetic regulation of emotion and ineffective emotion socialization experiences. In 171 youths (84 female, M = 13.69 years, SD = 1.84), we measured changes of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in response to sadness- and fear-inducing film clips and maternal supportive and punitive responses to youths' internalizing emotions. Youths and mothers reported on youths' internalizing problems and anxiety and depression symptoms concurrently and 2 years later at Time 2. Maternal supportive emotion socialization predicted fewer, and punitive socialization predicted more, mother-reported internalizing problems at Time 2 only for youths who showed RSA suppression to fear-inducing films. More RSA suppression to sadness-inducing films predicted more youth-reported internalizing problems at Time 2 in girls only. In addition, less supportive emotion socialization predicted more youth-reported depression symptoms at Time 2 only for girls who showed more RSA suppression to sadness. RSA suppression to sadness versus fear might reflect different patterns of atypical parasympathetic regulation of emotional arousal, both of which increase the risk for internalizing difficulties in youths, and especially girls, who lack maternal support for regulating emotions.

  12. Development of hypertension in overweight adolescents: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly RK

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca K Kelly,1 Costan G Magnussen,1,2 Matthew A Sabin,3 Michael Cheung,3 Markus Juonala3–5 1Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia; 2Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; 3Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital and University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia; 4Department of Medicine, University of Turku, 5Division of Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland Abstract: The upward trend in adolescent hypertension is widely attributed to the adolescent obesity epidemic. Secular trends in adolescent prehypertension and hypertension have risen in congruence with increasing trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. The correlation between body mass index and blood pressure in adolescence is moderate to strong in most studies and strongest in those classified as overweight or obese. The mechanisms relating to the development of hypertension in overweight adolescents are unclear; however, a number of nonmodifiable and modifiable factors have been implicated. Importantly, certain clinical and biochemical markers in overweight adolescents are indicative of high risk for hypertension, including family history of hypertension and hyperinsulinemia. These characteristics may prove useful in stratifying overweight adolescents as high or low risk of comorbid hypertension. The treatment of overweight and obesity related hypertension in this population focuses on two key modalities: lifestyle change and pharmacotherapy. These approaches focus almost exclusively on weight reduction; however, a number of emerging strategies target hypertension more specifically. Among adolescents with overt hypertension there are also several factors that indicate higher risk of concurrent subclinical disease, persistent adult hypertension, and adult cardiovascular disease. This group may benefit substantially from more

  13. Adolescent school failure: failure to thrive in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, M I

    1998-06-01

    The role of the primary clinician in dealing with school failure can be critical by linking the epidemiological with the clinical and encompassing the pediatric/adolescent life span. It includes components of social and public health advocacy, preventive medicine, evaluation, education, treatment, and referral. The most effective interventions are early and multifaceted. The primary care role includes: community advocacy; counseling about prenatal drug and alcohol abuse; early detection and treatment for attentional disorders, underachievement, and learning disabilities; interviews addressing multiple risk factors, grades, school attitudes, behavior, and friends; anticipatory guidance; education about individual learning style and good "learning hygiene"; early referral and intervention for preadolescent conduct problems and parent-child conflict; early referrals for family distress; and prevention of substance abuse and adolescent pregnancy.

  14. Catatonia in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Ken; Takata, Tomoji

    2003-04-01

    Child and adolescent catatonia has been poorly investigated. A literature review was undertaken to clarify phenomenology, diagnosis, etiology, and treatment as well as ethical problems of catatonia in childhood and adolescence. Although there are no accepted standardized criteria for catatonia in childhood and adolescence, catatonic features described by child psychiatrists are similar to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn; DSM-IV) criteria for catatonia. With respect to etiology, the motor and behavioral symptoms that are part of catatonia bear some similarities with those seen in autism. Several case reports suggest an association between catatonia and general medical conditions. Certain drugs abused by youngsters as well as prescribed medicine can induce catatonia. Regarding catatonic cases originally diagnosed as schizophrenia, it is unclear whether all of these cases should be identified as schizophrenia or whether some of them are pervasive developmental disorders that develop psychic features in adolescence. Environmental changes preceding the onset of catatonia in patients with mood disorder play a possibly important role. Examples that suggest stress-induced catatonia, although rare, also exist. A few patients exhibit features of malignant catatonia, some without taking neuroleptics and others having taken them. Benzodiazepines and electroconvulsive therapy are considered to be effective treatments for catatonic youngsters.

  15. Metabolomics in transfusion medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemkov, Travis; Hansen, Kirk C; Dumont, Larry J; D'Alessandro, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    Biochemical investigations on the regulatory mechanisms of red blood cell (RBC) and platelet (PLT) metabolism have fostered a century of advances in the field of transfusion medicine. Owing to these advances, storage of RBCs and PLT concentrates has become a lifesaving practice in clinical and military settings. There, however, remains room for improvement, especially with regard to the introduction of novel storage and/or rejuvenation solutions, alternative cell processing strategies (e.g., pathogen inactivation technologies), and quality testing (e.g., evaluation of novel containers with alternative plasticizers). Recent advancements in mass spectrometry-based metabolomics and systems biology, the bioinformatics integration of omics data, promise to speed up the design and testing of innovative storage strategies developed to improve the quality, safety, and effectiveness of blood products. Here we review the currently available metabolomics technologies and briefly describe the routine workflow for transfusion medicine-relevant studies. The goal is to provide transfusion medicine experts with adequate tools to navigate through the otherwise overwhelming amount of metabolomics data burgeoning in the field during the past few years. Descriptive metabolomics data have represented the first step omics researchers have taken into the field of transfusion medicine. However, to up the ante, clinical and omics experts will need to merge their expertise to investigate correlative and mechanistic relationships among metabolic variables and transfusion-relevant variables, such as 24-hour in vivo recovery for transfused RBCs. Integration with systems biology models will potentially allow for in silico prediction of metabolic phenotypes, thus streamlining the design and testing of alternative storage strategies and/or solutions.

  16. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being of Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T

    1999-08-01

    Adolescents' (N = 378) perceptions of and satisfaction with parenting styles, perceived parent-adolescent conflict, perceived frequency of parent-adolescent communication and related feelings, perceived parent-adolescent relationship, and mental health were assessed with rating scales and structured interviews on 2 occasions separated by 1 year. Results showed that the questionnaire and interview measures at each time could be grouped into 2 stable factors: Paternal Parenthood Qualities (PPQ) and Maternal Parenthood Qualities (MPQ). Although both factors generally had significant concurrent and longitudinal correlations with adolescents' mental health, PPQ at Time 1-predicted changes in adolescent life satisfaction, hopelessness, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 2, whereas MPQ at Time 1 did not predict those changes. Adolescents' mental health at Time 1 was found to predict changes in MPQ but not PPQ at Time 2. Relative to maternal qualities, paternal qualities were generally found to exert a stronger impact on adolescent psychological well-being.

  17. Perceived parent-adolescent relationship, perceived parental online behaviors and pathological internet use among adolescents: gender-specific differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Deng, Lin-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescents' perceived relationships with their parents, perceived parental online behaviors, and Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among adolescents. Additional testing was carried out to determine the effect of different genders (parent and adolescent). Cross-sectional data was collected from 4,559 students aged 12 to 21 years in the cities of Beijing and Jinan, People's Republic of China. Participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire concerning their Internet use behavior, perceived parental Internet use behaviors, and perceived parent-adolescent relationship. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for adolescents' age were conducted. Results showed different effects of parent and adolescent gender on perceived parent-adolescent relationship and parent Internet use behavior, as well as some other gender-specific associations. Perceived father-adolescent relationship was the most protective factor against adolescent PIU with perceived maternal Internet use positively predicting PIU for both male and female adolescents. However, perceived paternal Internet use behaviors positively predicted only female adolescent PIU. Results indicated a different effect pathway for fathers and mothers on boys and girls, leading to discussion of the implications for prevention and intervention.

  18. Treating Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... tailored, based upon the child's weight. Children and adolescents are moving through a period of physical and ...

  19. Adolescent growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulani, Veenod L; Gordon, Lonna P

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is a developmental stage defined by physical and psychosocial maturation. This article reviews normal pubertal development and the evaluation and management of adolescents with suspected pubertal abnormalities and provides an overview of adolescent psychosocial development.

  20. Adolescent homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronski Huwiler, S M; Remafedi, G

    1998-01-01

    Homosexuality has existed in all civilizations, but societal disapproval and cultural taboos have negatively influenced its recognition. A significant percentage of youths identify themselves as homosexual, and even more experience sex with the same sex or are confused about sexual feelings. A unifying etiological theory attributes the expression of sexual orientation to genes that shape the central nervous system's development, organization, and structure via prenatal sex steroids. Environmental factors may influence the expression of genetic potential. Several models of psychosocial development describe initial stages of awareness and confusion about same-sex attractions, followed by acknowledgement of homosexuality, disclosure to others, and eventual integration of sexual identity into a comprehensive sense of self. Stressors related to isolation, stigma, and violence may predispose homosexual adolescents to impaired social, emotional, and physical health, resulting in depression and suicide, school problems, substance abuse, running away eating disorders, risky sexual behavior, and illegal conduct. As with all adolescents, the overall goals in the care of homosexual youth are to promote normal adolescent development, social and emotional well-being, and physical health. A comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach is required to address medical, mental health, and psychosocial issues within the context of the adolescents' community and culture.