Sample records for adnexa uteri

  1. Incidental findings of the kidneys, adrenal glands, adnexa uteri, gastrointestinal tract, mesentery and lymph nodes. Assessment and management recommendations; Zufallsbefunde von Niere, Nebenniere, Adnexen, Gastrointestinaltrakt, Mesenterium und Lymphknoten. Bewertung und Managementempfehlung

    Scharitzer, M.; Tamandl, D.; Ba-Ssalamah, A. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria)


    Besides the upper abdominal parenchymal organs, the increasing application of cross-sectional imaging has also led to a rising number of incidental findings in the kidneys, adrenal glands, adnexa uteri, the gastrointestinal tract, mesentery and abdominal lymph nodes. Abdominal computed tomography investigations often show unexpected findings without any correlating symptoms. The growing clinical relevance is due to the large number of incidental findings as well as an increasing awareness of ethical and socioeconomic factors. When interpreting radiological findings not only morphological criteria but also individual risk factors of the patient and the clinical context are of great importance. The aims of this article are the description and evaluation of frequent incidental findings detected by computed tomography and to provide information about management recommendations. (orig.) [German] Neben den parenchymatoesen Oberbauchorganen hat der zunehmende Einsatz von Schnittbildverfahren zu einer vermehrten Anzahl von Zufallsbefunden der Nieren, Nebennieren, Adnexe, des Gastrointestinaltrakts, Mesenteriums und der intraabdominellen Lymphknoten gefuehrt. Abdominelle CT-Untersuchungen zeigen haeufig unerwartete Befunde ohne korrelierende Symptomatik. Die steigende klinische Relevanz ist einerseits auf die Zunahme inzidenteller Pathologien und andererseits auf ein wachsendes Bewusstsein ethischer und soziooekonomischer Faktoren zurueckzufuehren. Bei der radiologischen Interpretation sind neben morphologischen Kriterien sowohl die Einbeziehung der individuellen Risikofaktoren des Patienten als auch der klinische Gesamtkontext von grosser Bedeutung. Das Ziel dieses Artikels ist eine Beschreibung und Bewertung der in der Computertomographie detektierten genannten Zufallsbefunde sowie weiterer Managementempfehlungen. (orig.)

  2. Ekstranodalt marginalzonelymfom i øjets adnexa

    Møller, Anders; Specht, Lena; Toft, Peter Bjerre;


    INTRODUCTION: Lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) is among the most common malignant lymphomas of the ocular adnexa and it furthermore shows an increasing incidence. The disease is most often localized and indolent of nature; gentle treatment is therefore of essence...... of five patients was either constant or decreased a maximum of one line on Snellen's Chart. CONCLUSION: RT is effective in treatment of MALT lymphomas of the ocular adnexa. Rituximab showed an excellent result in one patient with recurrent disease. However, latent infections such as hepatitis B virus (HBV...... to avoid complications, especially visual impairment. MALT lymphoma can be treated with radiotherapy (RT), but in case of relapse, alternatives are required. New treatment modalities such as anti-cluster of differentiation (CD)-20 monoclonal antibodies (rituximab) and local injection of interferon...

  3. [The computed tomographic semiotics of inflammatory diseases of the adnexa uteri].

    Todua, F I; Karmazanovskiĭ, G G; Podzolkova, N M


    The authors sum up the results of CT and clinical investigation of 46 women with inflammatory diseases of the uterine appendages: salpingo-oophoritis, pyosalpinx, pyoovarium, and 2 types of tuboovarian abscesses. They have shown CT potentialities in differential diagnosis of inflammations of the uterine appendages with cysts and true ovarian tumors on the basis of routine investigation and an iv contrast study of intensified images. Retrospective analysis of the most typical diagnostic errors is given.

  4. Ekstranodalt marginalzonelymfom i øjets adnexa


    to avoid complications, especially visual impairment. MALT lymphoma can be treated with radiotherapy (RT), but in case of relapse, alternatives are required. New treatment modalities such as anti-cluster of differentiation (CD)-20 monoclonal antibodies (rituximab) and local injection of interferon......-alpha have shown promising results. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During the 2001-2006 period, nine patients with MALT lymphoma of the ocular adnexa were treated with RT at the Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. The visual acuity of six of the nine patients was evaluated before and after receiving RT. RESULTS......: All nine patients achieved complete remission after a total RT dose of 26 Gy. One patient relapsed after 26 months and was then successfully treated with rituximab. Furthermore, one patient experienced a striking improvement of vision after RT: from 2/60 to 6/6 in the affected eye. The visual acuity...

  5. Akut abdomen som følge af torkveret adnexa uteri hos en tiårig pige

    Steinthorsdottir, Kristin Julia; Folmer, Lars; Bisgaard, Thue


    A ten-year-old girl presented with four days of lower abdominal pain. A diagnostic laparoscopy on the suspicion of acute appendicitis revealed left-sided adnexal torsion. The cyanotic ovary was detorsed and recovered. At three-month follow-up there were no clinical or ultrasonic signs of patholog...

  6. The auto-amputated adnexa: a review of findings in a pediatric population.

    Focseneanu, Mariel A; Omurtag, Kenan; Ratts, Valerie S; Merritt, Diane F


    To quantify our experience and that of the literature with diagnosis and management of the auto-amputated adnexa in a pediatric population. Case series and literature review. Tertiary care medical center. Case series of pediatric patients (auto-amputation collected from our medical center and the literature. None. Auto-amputated adnexa. In addition to the 3 cases discussed from our institution, 91 cases of auto-amputated adnexa were identified in the literature dating back to 1943, for a total of 94 cases. Forty-nine percent (46/94) of the cases involved girls in a pediatric population (auto-amputated adnexa. 34 out of 46 cases were analyzed in detail. The right adnexa were involved in 56% of the cases. The most common presenting complaint verbalized by the older girls was pain; however, 8 cases were identified in asymptomatic girls undergoing unrelated diagnostic testing. The auto-amputated adnexa is a rare finding in the pediatric population, but it must be considered as a possible explanation for the incidental finding of absence of the fallopian tube or ovary in the subgroup of patients who undergo surgery for any reason. Patients with an antecedent history of pelvic pain either chronic or intermittent in nature may be diagnosed with torsion or less frequently auto-amputation of the adnexa. A fetal "pelvic mass" or "ovarian cyst" may predispose the adnexa to torsion and subsequent auto-amputation either in-utero or post-delivery. Many of these antenatally diagnosed cysts and even subsequent auto-amputations are completely asymptomatic, however, and do not compromise fertility assuming the contralateral adnexa are normal. Thus expectant management is appropriate for small (less than 4 cm), asymptomatic simple cysts and even suspected auto-amputated adnexa in an asymptomatic patient. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Uterus and cervix uteri changes during pregnancy period (review)

    Grishaeva L.A.; Zabozlaev F.G.; Chekhonatskaya М.L; Yannaeva N.E.; Bakhmach V. О.


    The review considers the current understanding of mechanisms that regulate uterine contractions and the nemo-dynamic changes in the cervix uteri occurring prior to and during delivery. Disorders in hemodynamic transformation of cervix uteri are the most significant causes of delivery anomalies. The criteria for ultrasound diagnostics of the degree of maturity of cervix uteri have been analyzed. Cervix blood flow parameters have been taken into account. The further research perspectives in thi...

  8. A Comparative Study of Growth Kinetics, In Vitro Differentiation Potential and Molecular Characterization of Fetal Adnexa Derived Caprine Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Somal, Anjali; Bhat, Irfan A.; B., Indu; Pandey, Sriti; Panda, Bibhudatta S. K.; Thakur, Nipuna; Sarkar, Mihir; Chandra, Vikash; Saikumar, G.; Sharma, G. Taru


    The present study was conducted with an objective of isolation, in vitro expansion, growth kinetics, molecular characterization and in vitro differentiation of fetal adnexa derived caprine mesenchymal stem cells. Mid-gestation gravid caprine uteri (2–3 months) were collected from abattoir to derive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from fetal adnexa {amniotic fluid (cAF), amniotic sac (cAS), Wharton’s jelly (cWJ) and cord blood (cCB)} and expanded in vitro. These cultured MSCs were used at the 3rd passage (P3) to study growth kinetics, localization as well as molecular expression of specific surface antigens, pluripotency markers and mesenchymal tri-lineage differentiation. In comparison to cAF and cAS MSCs, cWJ and cCB MSCs showed significantly (P<0.05) higher clonogenic potency, faster growth rate and low population doubling (PDT) time. All the four types of MSCs were positive for alkaline phosphatase (AP) and differentiated into chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic lineages. These stem cells expressed MSC surface antigens (CD73, CD90 and CD105) and pluripotency markers (Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, KLF, cMyc, FoxD3) but did not express CD34, a hematopoietic stem cell marker (HSC) as confirmed by RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometric analysis. The relative mRNA expression of MSC surface antigens (CD73, CD90 and CD105) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in cWJ MSCs compared to the other cell lines. The mRNA expression of Oct4 was significantly (P<0.05) higher in cWJ, whereas mRNA expression of KLF and cMyc was significantly (P<0.05) higher in cWJ and cAF than that of cAS and cCB. The comparative assessment revealed that cWJ MSCs outperformed MSCs from other sources of fetal adnexa in terms of growth kinetics, relative mRNA expression of surface antigens, pluripotency markers and tri-lineage differentiation potential, hence, these MSCs could be used as a preferred source for regenerative medicine. PMID:27257959

  9. Uterus and cervix uteri changes during pregnancy period (review

    Grishaeva L.A.


    Full Text Available The review considers the current understanding of mechanisms that regulate uterine contractions and the nemo-dynamic changes in the cervix uteri occurring prior to and during delivery. Disorders in hemodynamic transformation of cervix uteri are the most significant causes of delivery anomalies. The criteria for ultrasound diagnostics of the degree of maturity of cervix uteri have been analyzed. Cervix blood flow parameters have been taken into account. The further research perspectives in this field of scientific problems have been stated

  10. Spontaneous disappearance of a normal adnexa associated with a contralateral polycystic-appearing ovary.

    Olufowobi, O; Sorinola, O; Afnan, M; Papaioannou, S; McHugo, J M; Sharif, K


    Absence of the adnexa may be congenital or acquired. However, the etiology is often uncertain. A 27-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of subfertility. Her irregular menstruation was associated with acne vulgaris, alopecia, and elevated body mass index. Transvaginal ultrasonography of the pelvis showed a normal uterus, a normal right ovary, but a polycystic-appearing left ovary. A hysterosalpingogram demonstrated a normal uterine cavity, prompt filling and spilling of contrast material from the left fallopian tube, but no filling on the right. Subsequent laparoscopy showed an unexpected absence of right adnexa and presence of a solitary rounded free-floating mass enshrouded in the omentum. She did not have a history of abdominal pain or surgery. The evidence suggests that the patient might have had an asymptomatic infarction of the right adnexa.

  11. Malignant tumors of the eye and adnexa, morbidity and mortality (population-based study

    V. M. Merabishvili


    Full Text Available For the first time in Russia there are presented data on dynamics of morbidity and mortality from malignant tumors of the eye and adnexa (С69. there were demonstrated details of prevalence by age groups of patients, provided characteristics of dynamics of the levels of morphological verification and distribution of patients by stages of tumor process.

  12. Outcome of Endometrial Cancer Stage IIIA with Adnexa or Serosal Involvement Only

    Jan J. Jobsen


    Methods. 67 patients with stage IIIA endometrial carcinoma were included, 46 with adnexal involvement and 21 with serosa. A central histopathological review was performed. Results. The 7-year locoregional failure rate was (LRFR 2.2% for adnexal involvement and 16.0% for involvement of the serosa (P=.0522. The 7-year distant metastasis-free survival was 72.7% for adnexal involvement and 58.7% for serosa (P=.3994. The 7-year disease-specific survival (DSS was 71.8% for patients with adnexal involvement and 75.4% for patients with serosa. Conclusion. Endometrial carcinoma stage IIIA with involvement of the adnexa or serosa showed to have a comparable disease-specific survival. Locoregional control was worse for serosa involvement compared to adnexa.

  13. 8-Chloro-cAMP-Related Changes on Mice Uteri

    Andrea Actis


    Full Text Available Histopathological effects of cAMP analog (8-Chloro-cAMP, tamoxifen, and medroxyprogesterone, alone or combined, upon BALB/c mice uteri are reported. 8-Chloro-cAMP diminished uterine weight, but did not modify its histopathology or estral cycle significantly. Tamoxifen diminished uterine weight showing cystic hyperplasia and an estral cycle arrested at diestrus. Medroxyprogesterone increased uterine weight, caused a swelling of the endometrium and a pseudopregnancy estrus. When combined with 8-Chloro-cAMP, tamoxifen or medroxyprogesterone always had a predominant effect. We concluded that the effects of 8-Chloro-cAMP on mice uteri did not cause significant changes on its histopathology, but diminished its weight.

  14. Sexual dysfunction after radiotherapy for cancer of the cervix uteri

    Ohkawa, R.; Takamizawa, H. (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Arai, T.; Morita, S.


    Investigations of sexual consciousness and sexual dysfunction after radiotherapy for cancer of the cervix uteri were performed on patients of middle and old ages by questionnaires and questioning by doctors, and the following results were obtained. 1. Before radiotherapy, sexual activity was most prominent in their twenties and thirties. However, patients who were in fifties when this study was performed had most active sexual lives during the ages from 35 to 50 years. 2. Frequencies of sexual intercourse decreased markedly just before radiotherapy, and many patients received radiotherapy when sexual activity fell. 3. 32% of the patients have not experienced sexual intercourse after radiotherapy. 4. Decreases in the sex urge, sexuality, vaginal discharge, and frequency of sexual intercourse after radiotherapy were recognized in 77%, 77%, 70%, and 93% respectively. 5. Patients who became unwilling to maintain sexual lives after radiotherapy because of fear about recurrence or aggravation of cancer were 38% by questionaires and 49% by questioning by doctors. 6. Pains on sexual intercourse were found in 69% by questionaires and 49% by questionning by doctors. Most pains occurred at penis insertion and was thought to be due to atrophy and inflammation of vagina and external genitalia in most cases. 7. Both vaginal damage and sexual dysfunction in patients with radiotherapy following surgery for cancer of the cervix uteri, in patients with radiotherapy alone for cancer of the cervix uteri, and in patients with radiotherapy following surgery for cancer of the ovary and corpus uteri were marked, modest and mild, respectively. 8. Vaginal damage score was higher in patients treated more than 5 years before than those less than 2 years ago, but there were no differences in sexual dysfunction score between both groups.

  15. Decreased type III collagen expression in human uterine cervix of prolapse uteri



    The precise mechanism of prolapse uteri is not fully understood. There is evidence to suggest that abnormalities of collagen, the main component of extracellular matrix, or its repair mechanism, may predispose women to prolapse. To investigate the characteristic structure of human uterine cervix of patients with prolapse uteri, various types of collagen expression in the uterine cervix tissues of the prolapse uteri were compared to those of normal uterine cervix. After informed consent, 36 specimens of uterine cervical tissues were obtained at the time of surgery from 16 postmenopausal women with prolapse uteri (stage III–IV by the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification examination) and 20 postmenopausal women without prolapse uteri (control group). Collagens were extracted from the uterine cervix tissues by salt precipitation methods. The relative levels of various collagens were evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The uterine cervix was longer in the patients with prolapse uteri than those of postmenopausal controls without prolapse uteri. The ratios of type III to type I collagen in the uterine cervical tissues were significantly decreased in the prolapse uteri, as compared to those of the postmenopausal uterine cervix without prolapse. These results suggest that decreased type III collagen expression may play an important role in determing the physiology and structure of the uterine cervix tissues of prolapse uteri. PMID:22977496

  16. Correspondence between Clinical and Histopathological Diagnosis of Tumors of the Ocular Adnexa

    Armando Rafael Milanés Armengol


    Full Text Available Background: tumors of the ocular adnexa are a common cause of patient visits to the Ophthalmology consultation. An adequate clinical-pathological relationship is important for prognosis. Objective: to describe the correspondence between clinical and histopathological diagnosis of tumors of the ocular adnexa. Methods: a case series study was conducted in patients who underwent a histopathological study due to suspicion of malignancy treated at the Oculoplastic Service of the Ophthalmology Center of the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía University General Hospital, from January 2014 to the same month of 2015. The variables analyzed were: age, skin color, type of tumor, correspondence between clinical and histopathological diagnosis and safety margin. Results: correspondence between clinical and histopathological diagnosis was 79.1 %. The 40-59 age group was the most affected, with a higher incidence in females. The most common location was the eyelid region in white patients. Benign lesions of the eyelid and conjunctiva predominated. Conjunctival carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma were the most common malignancies; the safety margin was 2.19 %. Conclusions: an adequate correspondence between presumptive and histopathological diagnosis was observed. The safety margin achieved was satisfactory.

  17. Familial myomatosis cutis et uteri, segmental type 2

    Palak Deshmukh


    Full Text Available Reed′s syndrome or familial myomatosis cutis et uteri, an autosomal dominant inherited condition with incomplete penetrance, is characterized by multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas. [1] Uterine leiomyomas usually commence earlier compared to that in the general population and cutaneous leiomyomas may precede, follow or occur concurrently. Few patients may have associated renal cell carcinoma. Herein we report a case of a 50-year-old female with multiple, painful cutaneous leiomyomas and who had undergone hysterectomy owing to large uterine fibroids. Her 18-year-old daughter also has uterine fibroids.

  18. Chlamydia psittaci in ocular adnexa MALT lymphoma: a possible role in lymphomagenesis and a different geographical distribution

    Collina Francesca


    Full Text Available Abstract Ocular adnexa MALT-lymphomas represent approximatively 5-15% of all extranodal lymphomas. Almost 75% of OAMLs are localized in orbital fat, while 25% of cases involves conjunctive. MALT-lymphomas often recognize specific environmental factors responsible of lymphoma development and progression. In particular as Helicobacter pylori in gastric MALT lymphomas, other bacterial infections have been recognized related to MALT lymphomas in specific site. Recently Chlamydia psittaci has been identified in Ocular Adnexa MALT lymphomas, with variable frequence dependently from geographic areas. Thus bacterial infection is responsible of clonal selection on induced MALT with subsequent lymphoma development. Moreover Chlamydia psittaci could promote chromosomal aberration either through genetic instability as a consequence of induced proliferation and probably through DNA oxidative damage. The most common translocation described in MALT lymphomas affects NF-kB pathway with a substantial antiapoptotic effect. Several therapeutic approaches are now available, but the use of antibiotic-therapy in specific cases, although with conflicting results, could improve the treatment of ocular adnexa MALT lymphomas. In this review we analyse the most relevant features of Ocular adnexa MALT lymphomas, underlining specific biological characteristics mainly related to the potential role of Chlamydia psittaci in lymphomagenesis.

  19. Multicentric extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma of uterine adnexa in a young female: An unusual presentation

    Surbhi Goyal


    Full Text Available Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma, mostly occurring in the proximal extremities and limb girdle. Majority of the patients are in fifth and sixth decades of life with male preponderance. We report here a case of primary extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma of the uterine adnexa involving the broad ligament and fallopian tube synchronously without any evidence of uterine/ovarian involvement in a young multiparous female of 27 years. After the histopathological diagnosis, re-excision of the tumor bed with wide local margins was recommended. Since the tumor has an aggressive course, with propensity for late recurrence and metastases to lungs, the patient must be considered for long-term follow-up.

  20. Inguinal hernia containing uterus and uterine adnexa in female infants: report of two cases.

    Ming, Yung-Ching; Luo, Chih-Cheng; Chao, Hsun-Chin; Chu, Shih-Ming


    We herein report two female cases, aged 1 and 1.5 months, of inguinal sliding hernias containing the uterus, fallopian tube, and ovary. The diagnosis of inguinal hernia with uterus and uterine adnexa was highly suspected preoperatively by ultrasonography and was confirmed during surgical correction. Freeing the attachment of fallopian tube and uterus from the sac and with reduction of the uterus, ovary, and fallopian tube back to the peritoneal cavity, high ligation of the hernia sac was performed in these cases. In conclusion, the hernia sac containing fallopian tube, ovary, and uterus in the female is very rare. We present our experience of treatment with these rare cases and suggest that sonography be performed routinely in female infants with an inguinal hernia containing a palpable movable mass.

  1. Congenital pouch colon in a girl associated with bilateral atresia of cervix uteri and uterus didelphys

    Rajiv Chadha


    Full Text Available This report describes a girl with congenital pouch colon (CPC, uterus didelphys with septate vagina, and a cloacal anomaly. The girl underwent cloacal reconstruction at the age of 15 months. Subsequently, at puberty, the child had primary amenorrhea with severe cyclic abdominal pain due to endometriosis of both the uteruses and adnexal cysts with hematometra and hematosalpinx. Laparotomy with removal of both uteri and the left fallopian tube was performed. Both uteri had atresia of the cervix uteri. This report emphasizes the need for comprehensive evaluation and a long-term management strategy for associated gynecologic anomalies in girls with CPC, especially with regard to patency of the outflow tract.

  2. [Lymphomas of the ocular adnexa in Gougerot-Sjögren syndrome. Apropos of 4 cases].

    Chazerain, P; Meyer, O; Kaplan, G; Brissaud, P; Delmer, A; Zufferey, P; Kahn, M F


    The risk of malignant B cell lymphoma is increased in Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Orbital localization seems infrequent. We report 4 cases of malignant lymphoma (ML) occurring in 4 women aged 47 to 77 years, with primary SS in 3 cases, located to the conjunctiva in 2 cases, the lacrymal gland in 1 case and the eyelid in 1 case. The interval between the diagnosis of SS and orbital ML varied from 6 months to 15 years. All 4 lymphomas were of the B cell type, low histopathologic grade, with monoclonal gammopathy in 1 case. Extraocular lymphoma was initially present in 1 case. ML remained localized in 2 cases with a follow-up of 4 and 6 years. Two patients treated by excisional biopsy alone are in complete remission 3 and 6 years later. The 2 other patients treated with orbital radiotherapy and chemotherapy died rapidly (transformation into a high grade malignancy in 1 case). We conclude that clinical, immunopathologic features, as well as prognosis and treatment of ocular adnexa ML in SS are similar to those of primary ML without SS.

  3. Chloride channels mediate sodium sulphide-induced relaxation in rat uteri.

    Mijušković, Ana; Kokić, Aleksandra Nikolić; Dušić, Zorana Oreščanin; Slavić, Marija; Spasić, Mihajlo B; Blagojević, Duško


    Hydrogen sulphide reduces uterine contractility and is of potential interest as a treatment for uterine disorders. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism of sodium sulphide (Na2 S)-induced relaxation of rat uterus, investigate the importance of redox effects and ion channel-mediated mechanisms, and any interactions between these two mechanisms. Organ bath studies were employed to assess the pharmacological effects of Na2 S in uterine strips by exposing them to Na2 S with or without Cl(-) channel blockers (DIDS, NFA, IAA-94, T16Ainh-A01, TA), raised KCl (15 and 75 mM), K(+) channel inhibitors (glibenclamide, TEA, 4-AP), L-type Ca(2+) channel activator (S-Bay K 8644), propranolol and methylene blue. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in homogenates of treated uteri. The expression of bestrophin channel 1 (BEST-1) was determined by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Na2 S caused concentration-dependent reversible relaxation of spontaneously active and calcium-treated uteri, affecting both amplitude and frequency of contractions. Uteri exposed to 75 mM KCl were less sensitive to Na2 S compared with uteri in 15 mM KCl. Na2 S-induced relaxations were abolished by DIDS, but unaffected by other modulators or by the absence of extracellular HCO3 (-) , suggesting the involvement of chloride ion channels. Na2 S in combination with different modulators provoked specific changes in the anti-oxidant profiles of uteri. The expression of BEST-1, both mRNA and protein, was demonstrated in rat uteri. The relaxant effects of Na2 S in rat uteri are mediated mainly via a DIDS-sensitive Cl(-) -pathway. Components of the relaxation are redox- and Ca(2+) -dependent. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Hernia uteri inguinalis in a case of ovotesticular disorder of sexual differentiation.

    Venkataram, Aniketh; Shivaswamy, Sadashivaiah; Babu, Rajashekara; Santhosh, Shivashankar


    An 18-year-old phenotypic male presented with an irreducible left inguinal mass, gynecomastia, and hypospadias. This mass on exploration was found to be a nonfunctional uterus with ipsilateral ovary and was excised. Further investigation confirmed the presence of a contralateral testis and a genotype of 46, XX. This confirmed the diagnosis of ovotesticular disorder of sexual differentiation (formerly true hermaphroditism) with obstructed hernia uteri inguinalis. The patient was raised as a male. Subcutaneous mastectomy for gynecomastia and neourethra construction with full thickness skin graft for hypospadias were performed. Hernia uteri inguinalis is rarely seen in this condition with only 2 cases being reported worldwide thus far, including our case.

  5. Quantification of collagen fibers in canine uteri treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate

    Paulo Salinas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Collagen plays essential roles in remodeling uterine tissue during decidualization, implantation, pregnancy and involution. To understand whether the progestational agent medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA can modify the organization and deposit of collagen in the uteri of normal bitches (Canis Tlupus familiaris, we assessed uterine tissues by histochemistry. Uteri were grouped as: nulliparous (n=11, multiparous (n=11 and treated with MPA (n=11; nulliparous with two treatments; 5mg/kg; i.m.. The amount, location and birefringence of interstitial collagen types I and III in the fold and base of the endometrial stroma and the myometrial muscular layers were studied on sections stained with Picrosirius Red by polarized light microscopy and evaluated by ANOVA. No differences were observed in the endometrium. In the myometrium, differences were observed in collagen type I between MPA-treated and nulliparous uteri vs. multiparous (p<0.05, and differences in collagen type III between nulliparous and multiparous uteri vs. MPA-treated (p=0.0001. In conclusion, two doses of MPA had no significant effect on the investigated collagens in the extracellular matrix.

  6. Tumor markers in the diagnosis of cancer of the corpus uteri (a review of literature

    D. B. Olkin


    Full Text Available Towards the end of the past century, cancer of the corpus uteri achieved the status of leading gynecologic cancer not only in developed countries, but also in Third World countries. The leading determinants of prognosis and treatment policy are tumor extent and grade at diagnosis. It is important to search for the informative and significant indicators of biological tumor activity, which are determined by pre- and postoperative mini-invasive laboratory studies, the combination of which could additionally judge the extent and grade of a tumor. At present, there are no significant tumor markers for the screening for and evaluation of progressive cancer of the corpus uteri, which would have a high specificity and sensitivity although their search is constantly underway worldwide.

  7. Early response genes in the pathogenesis of cancer of the cervix uteri: a review

    O. V. Kurmyshkina


    Full Text Available Early response genes are a group of proto-oncogenes that are the first to be activated in cell stimulation with different growth factors and to be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. Large amount of information supporting that altered expression of these genes is one of the central and earliest events of carcinogenesis has been accumulated. In this connection, it is promising to use early response genes as diagnostic and prognostic markers for the detection and combination therapy of cancer of the cervix uteri, one of the most common gynecological malignancies characterized by high mortality rates and difficulties in early diagnosis. The theoretical basis for these promises is the found mechanisms for the interaction of early response genes with human papillomavirus genome, the main cause of cervix uteri cancer.

  8. High-dose rate brachytherapy in the treatment of cancer of the cervix uteri

    D. A. Aliyev


    Full Text Available Analysis of the results of examining and treating 246 patients with Stages IIA-IIIB cancer of the cervix uteri (CCU, receiving specific chemoradiotherapy (CRT at the Department of Radiotherapy, National Oncology Center (Baku, has ascertained that CRT using two high-dose (9 Gy rate brachytherapy fractions and competitive cisplatin chemotherapy is an effective, reasonably safe, and economically sound treatment method for locally advanced CCU. The method shows acceptable toxicity and may be used in routine clinical practice.

  9. In vitro effects of L-arginine on spontaneous and homocysteine-induced contractility of pregnant canine uteri.

    Rizzo, Annalisa; Trisolini, Carmelinda; Spedicato, Massimo; Mutinati, Maddalena; Minoia, Giuseppe; Sciorsci, Raffaele Luigi


    The L-Arginine-Nitric Oxide Synthase-Nitric Oxide (L-Arg-NOS-NO) system exerts a pivotal role in the maintenance of uterine quiescence during pregnancy, whereas Homocysteine (Hcy) promotes uterine contractility. The aim of this study was to test the in vitro effects of L-Arg on spontaneous and Hcy-induced contractions of uteri excised from pregnant bitches. 104 strips cut from pregnant uteri were mounted in an organ bath. 40 out of 104 strips (16 from mid-gestation uteri and 24 from close to term uteri, respectively) were exposed to cumulative doses of L-Arg; 40 strips (16 from mid-gestation-uteri and 24 from close to term-uteri, respectively) were exposed to N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a NOS antagonist; the remaining 24 strips (from close-to-term uteri) were first exposed to a single dose of Hcy and then to increasing doses of L-Arg. L-Arg showed no effects on spontaneous contractility both in mid-gestation- and close to term-uterine strips, whereas it promoted a relaxant effect on Hcy-induced contractility. On the contrary, L-NAME increased amplitude of contraction both in mid-gestation and close to term strips. These findings suggest that the L-Arg-NO system is present in the uterus of pregnant bitches and that Hcy is able to modulate its actions. Further investigation of this system may provide the basis of future obstetrical therapies in bitches.


    O. A. Kravets


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of treatment for locally advanced cervix uteri cancer, by applying a 192Ir radioactive source for contact radiation. Three- and five-year overall and relapse-free survival rates have been obtained for stages: 82.5 and 82.5%; 78.4 and 78.4% for Stage IIb; 57 and 52.3%; 41.6 and 41.6 for IIIb; 53.3 and 47.3%; 42.4 and 37.7% for IVb, respectively.

  11. The bovine cervix explored : the cow as a model for studies on functional changes in the cervix uteri

    Breeveld-Dwarkasing, V.N.A.


    The cervix uteri is a rigid tube which connects the uterus with the vagina and during most of the time it is firmly closed. During oestrus, late pregnancy and parturition, the morphological appearance in the cervix changes markedly, resulting in a softer cervix, which during parturition can even be

  12. Adenocarcinoma of the Cervix Uteri and Endometrium Combined With the Kartagener Syndrome on FDG PET/CT.

    Zhang, Yin; Chen, Yue; Huang, Zhanwen; Zhou, Fan


    A 45-year-old woman with pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri and endometrium underwent FDG PET/CT for staging. No metastasis was found. However, the images revealed bronchiectasis, sinusitis, and situs inversus totalis, which are the triad of Kartagener syndrome.

  13. Dysplastic Ichthyosis Uteri-like changes of the entire endometrium associated with a squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    Fadare Oluwole


    Full Text Available Abstract Ichthyosis uteri is an exceedingly rare condition in which the entire surface of the endometrium is replaced by stratified squamous epithelium. Originally described as an endometrial response to iatrogenically-introduced caustic substances, similar changes have since been described in association with a variety of inflammatory conditions of the endometrium. We describe herein a heretofore undescribed example of a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix associated with extensive ichthyosis uteri-like changes of the entire adjacent endometrium. Additionally, the squamous epithelium of the latter also showed multifocal changes diagnostic of a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. The potential genesis of this composite of findings is discussed, as is the neoplastic potential of ichthyosis uteri. It is concluded that a squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix extended proximally into the endometrium, and that there was a colonization of a pre-existing ichthyosis uteri by associated human papillomavirus. The possibility of significant cervical pathology should be considered when plaques of squamous epithelium with low grade dysplastic changes are identified in an endometrial biopsy or curettage.

  14. Microarray analysis of inflammatory response-related gene expression in the uteri of dogs with pyometra.

    Bukowska, D; Kempisty, B; Zawierucha, P; Jopek, K; Piotrowska, H; Antosik, P; Ciesiółka, S; Woźna, M; Brüssow, K P; Jaśkowski, J M


    Pyometra, which is accompanied by bacterial contamination of the uterus, is defined as a complex disease associated with the activation of several systems, including the immune system. The objective of the study was to evaluate the gene expression profile in dogs with pyometra compared with those that were clinically normal. The study included uteri from 43 mongrel bitches (23 with pyometra, 20 clinically healthy). RNA used for the microarray study was pooled to four separated vials for control and pyometra. A total of 17,138 different transcripts were analyzed on the uteri of female dogs with pyometra and of healthy controls. From 264 inflammatory response-related transcripts, we found 23 transcripts that revealed a 10- to 77-fold increased expression. Thereby, the expression of interleukin 8 (IL8), interleukin-1-beta (IL1B), interleukin 18 receptor (IL18RAP), interleukin 1-alpha (IL1A), interleukin receptor antagonist (IL1RN) and interleukin 6 (IL6) increased 77-, 20-, 17-, 13-, 13- and 11-fold, respectively. Furthermore, the expression of the calcium binding proteins S100A8 was 44-fold higher, and that of S100A12 and S100A9 37-fold, respectively, in the uteri of canines with pyometra compared with that of the controls. Moreover, the expression of the transcripts of toll-like receptors (TLR8 and TLR2), integrin beta 2 (ITGB2), chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3), semaphorin 7A (SEMA7A), CD14 and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) was increased between 10- and 18-fold. Furthermore, after using RT-qPCR we found an increased expression of AOAH, IL1A, IL8, CCL3, IL1RN and SERPINE 1 mRNAs which can be served also as markers of the occurrence of pyometra in domestic bitches. In summary, it is concluded that up-regulation of interleukins may be used as a marker of the inflammatory response in dogs with pyometra. Moreover, all of the 23 up-regulated transcripts may be novel molecular markers of the pathogenesis of canine pyometra. Several proteins--–products of these

  15. Functional and molecular characterization of voltage-gated sodium channels in uteri from nonpregnant rats.

    Seda, Marian; Pinto, Francisco M; Wray, Susan; Cintado, Cristina G; Noheda, Pedro; Buschmann, Helmut; Candenas, Luz


    We investigated the function and expression of voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSC) in the uteri of nonpregnant rats using organ bath techniques, intracellular [Ca(2+)] fluorescence measurements, and RT-PCR. In longitudinally arranged whole-tissue uterine strips, veratridine, a VGSC activator, caused the rapid appearance of phasic contractions of irregular frequency and amplitude. After 50-60 min in the continuous presence of veratridine, rhythmic contractions of very regular frequency and slightly increasing amplitude occurred and were sustained for up to 12 h. Both the early and late components of the contractile response to veratridine were inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by tetrodotoxin (TTX). In small strips dissected from the uterine longitudinal smooth muscle layer and loaded with Fura-2, veratridine also caused rhythmic contractions, accompanied by transient increases in [Ca(2+)](i), which were abolished by treatment with 0.1 microM TTX. Using end-point and real-time quantitative RT-PCR, we detected the presence of the VGSC alpha subunits Scn2a1, Scn3a, Scn5a, and Scn8a in the cDNA from longitudinal muscle. The mRNAs of the auxiliary beta subunits Scbn1b, Scbn2b, Scbn4b, and traces of Scn3b were also present. These data show for the first time that Scn2a1, Scn3a, Scn5a, and Scn8a, as well as all VGSC beta subunits are expressed in the longitudinal smooth muscle layer of the rat myometrium. In addition, our data show that TTX-sensitive VGSC are able to mediate phasic contractions maintained over long periods of time in the uteri of nonpregnant rats.

  16. Establishment and characterization of a differentiated epithelial cell culture model derived from the porcine cervix uteri

    Miessen Katrin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical uterine epithelial cells maintain a physiological and pathogen-free milieu in the female mammalian reproductive tract and are involved in sperm-epithelium interaction. Easily accessible, differentiated model systems of the cervical epithelium are not yet available to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms within these highly specialized cells. Therefore, the aim of the study was to establish a cell culture of the porcine cervical epithelium representing in vivo-like properties of the tissue. Results We tested different isolation methods and culture conditions and validated purity of the cultured cells by immunohistochemistry against keratins. We could reproducibly culture pure epithelial cells from cervical tissue explants. Based on a morphology score and the WST-1 Proliferation Assay, we optimized the growth medium composition. Primary porcine cervical cells performed best in conditioned Ham's F-12, containing 10% FCS, EGF and insulin. After cultivation in an air-liquid interface for three weeks, the cells showed a discontinuously multilayered phenotype. Finally, differentiation was validated via immunohistochemistry against beta catenin. Mucopolysaccharide production could be shown via alcian blue staining. Conclusions We provide the first suitable protocol to establish a differentiated porcine epithelial model of the cervix uteri, based on easily accessible cells using slaughterhouse material.

  17. Pengaruh Senam Nifas terhadap Penurunan Tinggi Fundus Uteri pada Ibu Post Partum di RSUP DR. M. Djamil Padang

    Nurniati Tianastia Rullynil


    Full Text Available AbstrakPerdarahan merupakan penyebab utama kesakitan dan kematian ibu pada masa nifas, dimana 50%-60% karena kegagalan miometrium berkontraksi secara sempurna. Salah satu asuhan untuk memaksimalkan kontraksi uterus pada masa nifas adalah dengan melaksanakan senam nifas, guna mempercepat proses involusi uteri. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh senam nifas terhadap penurunan tinggi fundus uteri (TFU pada ibu post partum. Penelitian ini merupakan studi eksperimental dengan Post Test Only Control Group Design. Alat yang digunakan dalam penelitian berupa kaliper pelvimetri. Diberikan perlakuan senam nifas pada kelompok intervensi dan tidak senam nifas pada kelompok kontrol, kemudian dilakukan pengukuran tinggi fundus uteri hari ke-1, hari ke-3 dan hari ke-6. Data dianalisa menggunakan Uji General Linier Model (GLM. Rerata TFU hari ke-1 pada kelompok intervensi 12,37±0,72 dan 12,42±0,54 pada kelompok kontrol. Rerata TFU hari ke-3 pada kelompok intervensi 9,00±0,94 dan 9,87±0,75 pada kelompok kontrol. Sedangkan rerata TFU hari ke-6 pada kelompok intervensi 5,72±0,88 dan 7,37±0,68 pada kelompok kontrol. Terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan penurunan tinggi fundus uteri antara kedua kelompok pada hari ke-3 (p=0,00 dan hari ke 6 (p=0,00. Dari hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa senam nifas berpengaruh terhadap penurunan tinggi fundus uteri. Penurunan tinggi fundus uteri pada kelompok intervensi lebih turun dibanding kelompok kontrol.Kata kunci: senam nifas, tinggi fundus uteri, post partumAbstractHemorrhage is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in the puerperium, about 50%-60% of hemorrhage occurs due to failure of myometrium to contract completely. One care to maximaze uterine contraction during the puerperium is by implementing parturition gymnastics in order to accelarate the process of uterine involution. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of parturition gymnastics on a decreasing of

  18. Laparoscopic Versus Open Hysterectomy for Benign Disease in Uteri Weighing >1 kg: A Retrospective Analysis on 258 Patients.

    Uccella, Stefano; Morosi, Chiara; Marconi, Nicola; Arrigo, Anna; Gisone, Baldo; Casarin, Jvan; Pinelli, Ciro; Borghi, Camilla; Ghezzi, Fabio


    To present a large single-center series of hysterectomies for uteri ≥1 kg and to compare the laparoscopic and open abdominal approach in terms of perioperative outcomes and complications. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). An academic research center. Consecutive women who underwent hysterectomy for uteri ≥1 kg between January 2000 and December 2016. Patients with a preoperative diagnosis of uterine malignancy or suspected uterine malignancy were excluded. The subjects were divided according to the intended initial surgical approach (i.e., open or laparoscopic). The 2 groups were compared in terms of intraoperative data and postoperative outcomes. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify possible independent predictors of overall complications. A subanalysis including only obese women was accomplished. Total laparoscopic versus abdominal hysterectomy (±bilateral adnexectomy). Intra- and postoperative surgical outcomes. A total of 258 patients were included; 55 (21.3%) women were initially approached by open surgery and 203 (78.7%) by laparoscopy. Nine (4.4%) conversions from laparoscopic to open surgery were registered. The median operative time was longer in the laparoscopic group (120 [range, 50-360] vs 85 [range, 35-240] minutes, p = .014). The estimated blood loss (150 [range, 0-1700] vs 200 [50-3000] mL, p = .04), postoperative hemoglobin drop, and hospital stay (1 [range, 1-8] vs 3 [range, 1-8] days, p laparoscopic approach was found to be the only independent predictor of a lower incidence of overall complications (odds ratio = 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.9). The overall morbidity of minimally invasive hysterectomy was lower also in the subanalysis concerning only obese patients. In experienced hands and in dedicated centers, laparoscopic hysterectomy for uteri weighing ≥1 kg is feasible and safe. Minimally invasive surgery retains its well

  19. The incidence rate of corpus uteri cancer among females in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    Alghamdi IG


    Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK Background: The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results: A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0, followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0, and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6. The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion: There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah

  20. Expression of LIF, VEGF,CD57 and CD68 after the transfer of rat embryos to mouse uteri


    The high failure rate of interspecific pregnancy is a major obstacle to the successful interspecific cloning of mammals. To investigate the reasons for the failure of interspecfic pregnancy between rats and mice, we transferred rat blastocysts into mouse uteri on the third day of pseudopregnancy (D3). Our previous study showed that intact rat embryos could still be observed in mouse uteri on D9. In the present study, we found that expression of CD57 and CD68 increased significantly at the maternal-fetal interface following the transfer of rat embryos. Similarly, Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) expression increased, but vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expession decreased. In a co-culture system, the percentage of rat ectoplacental cones (EPCs) with adhesion and outgrowth and outgrowth area on mouse uterine decidual cells were less than that of mouse EPCs. These results indicate that an increase in the immunological rejection response and a decrease in the invasiveness of rat embryos may be important reasons for the failure of interspecific pregnancy between rat and mouse.

  1. Isolation, proliferation, cytogenetic, and molecular characterization and in vitro differentiation potency of canine stem cells from foetal adnexa: a comparative study of amniotic fluid, amnion, and umbilical cord matrix.

    Filioli Uranio, M; Valentini, L; Lange-Consiglio, A; Caira, M; Guaricci, A C; L'Abbate, A; Catacchio, C R; Ventura, M; Cremonesi, F; Dell'Aquila, M E


    The possibility to isolate canine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from foetal adnexa is interesting since several canine genetic disorders are reported to resemble similar dysfunctions in humans. In this study, we successfully isolated, cytogenetically and molecularly characterized, and followed the differentiation potency of canine MSCs from foetal adnexa, such as amniotic fluid (AF), amniotic membrane (AM), and umbilical cord matrix (UCM). In the three types of cell lines, the morphology of proliferating cells typically appeared fibroblast-like, and the population doubling time (DT) significantly increased with passage number. For AF- and AM-MSCs, cell viability did not change with passages. In UCM-MSCs, cell viability remained at approximately constant levels up to P6 and significantly decreased from P7 (P < 0.05). Amnion and UCM-MSCs expressed embryonic and MSC markers, such as Oct-4 CD44, CD184, and CD29, whereas AF-MSCs expressed Oct-4, CD44. Expression of the hematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45 was not found. Dog leucocyte antigens (DLA-DRA1 and DLA-79) were expressed only in AF-MSCs at P1. Isolated cells of the three cell lines at P3 showed multipotent capacity, and differentiated in vitro into neurocyte, adipocyte, osteocyte, and chondrocyte, as demonstrated by specific stains and expression of molecular markers. Cells at P4 showed normal chromosomal number, structure, and telomerase activity. These results demonstrate that, in dog, MSCs can be successfully isolated from foetal adnexa and grown in vitro. Their proven stemness and chromosomal stability indicated that MSCs could be used as a model to study stem cell biology and have an application in therapeutic programs.

  2. Radionuclide diagnosis of ureteric function in patients with stages I-IV cancer of the cervix uteri

    L. A. Ashrafyan


    Full Text Available The experience with serial renal scintigraphy demonstrated its high informative value and safety in evaluating the severity of intrarenal urine outflow disorders; however, failure to make an objective assessment of ureteral patency considerably limits its study. The set of studies, which is given in this paper, is devoted to precisely this, highly urgent, problem. The authors describe an original procedure for diagnosing impaired urine outflow along the ureters, which has been used during serial renal scintigraphy, define the visual and digital characteristics of normal and impaired urine outflow in the supravesical segment, and denote the criteria characterizing severe impair- ments of renal urine derivation along the ureters. Risk factors for urine outflow disorders have been identified in patients with cancer of the cervix uteri, who receive various treatment modalities.

  3. [Ultrastructural organization of the epithelial layers and surface morphological characteristics of cells in adenocarcinomas of the cervix uteri].

    Chernyĭ, A P


    The cell interrelations, and cellular attachment to the stroma in normal columnar epithelium and adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri were examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The application of rapid enzymatic digestion technique allows to visualize the topography of cell membranes, otherwise disguised in ordinary conditions. Four types of disordered epithelial sheets characterized by different apical, lateral and basal cell surface changes are described. Various alterations in morphology of the basement membrane and adjacent conjunctive tissue are associated with the tumor appearance. Marked deviations in cell-stroma contact may lead to the inversion of cell polarity revealed in cervical adenocarcinoma: cellular parts adjoining to stroma acquire characteristic features of the apical pole.

  4. Expression of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes in the uteri of immature mice neonatally exposed to diethylstilbestrol.

    Yamashita, S; Takayanagi, A; Shimizu, N


    We studied the cell-type-specific and temporal expression of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes after 17beta-estradiol (E2) stimulation in the uteri of immature 3-week-old mice neonatally exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES), DES-mice, and the ontogenic expression of these genes in the uteri of DES-mice using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. A single E2 injection induced the transient and rapid expression of c-fos mRNA and c-Fos protein in the endometrial epithelium and endothelial cells of the blood vessels in both 3-week-old vehicle-treated controls and DES-mice; a peak of mRNA expression was 2 hours after E2 injection and that of protein expression was 2 to 3 hours after the injection. The expression of c-fos mRNA and protein after E2 stimulation was lower in the DES-mice than in the control animals. There were no significant differences in the c-jun expression patterns in both experimental groups before and after the E2 injection. The E2 injection transiently down-regulated the c-jun expression in the epithelium and up-regulated it in the stroma and myometrium. The uterine epithelium of DES-mice showed much stronger c-Jun immunostaining on days 4 and 10, compared with those of controls. Neonatal DES treatment reduced c-Jun immunoreactivity in the uterine epithelium on days 4 and 10, and increased the reaction in the stroma on day 4. These results suggested that the neonatal DES treatment induces permanent changes in the c-fos expression pattern independent of the postpuberal secretion of ovarian steroids. The changes in the expression of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes, particularly during postnatal development, are likely to play important roles in the production of uterine abnormalities in the DES-mice.

  5. [Comparative estimation of results of remote and combined radiotherapy in patients with cancer of the cervix uteri of the III-IV stages of disease].

    Pereslegin, I A; Makarov, O V; Semko, V F; Frolova, E L


    The paper presents a procedure of teleradiotherapy in patients with stages III-IV cancer of the cervix uteri with significant concurrent pathology. Control patients with the similar disease stages underwent combined radiation therapy. If there are contraindications to combined radiation therapy, teleradiotherapy is possible and required as an independent treatment that prolongs and improves the patients' like quality irrespective of the extent of a tumorous process.

  6. Verhalten klinisch-chemischer und hormonanalytischer Parameter bei Kühen mit und nach einem Prolapsus uteri : Versuch einer Kausalitätsklärung

    Seitz, Klaus


    Das Ziel der vorgelegten Arbeit bestand zum einen darin, anhand der Bestimmung klinisch–chemischer und hormonanalytischer Parameter von Rindern, welche an einem Prolapsus uteri erkrankt waren sowie von gesunden Kontrolltieren im gleichen postpartalen Status, Hinweise über die Kausalität dieser Erkrankung zu erlangen. Zum anderen war zu eruieren, ob im Verlauf des Frühpuerperiums bei den betroffenen Tieren anhaltende Imbalanzen bestimmter Stoffwechselparameter bestehen. Weiterhin sollte eine M...

  7. Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from the Uteri Horn, Mouth, and Rectum of Bitches Suffering from Pyometra: Virulence Factors, Antimicrobial Susceptibilities, and Clonal Relationships among Strains

    Juliana M. A. Agostinho


    Full Text Available Pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch, and Escherichia coli is the major pathogen associated with this disease. In this study, 70 E. coli isolates from the uteri horn, mouth, and rectum of bitches suffering from the disease and 43 E. coli isolates from the rectum of clinically healthy bitches were examined for the presence of uropathogenic virulence genes and susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. DNA profiles of isolates from uteri horn and mouth in bitches with pyometra were compared by REP, ERIC, and BOX-PCR. Virulence gene frequencies detected in isolates from canine pyometra were as follows: 95.7% fim, 27.1% iss, 25.7% hly, 18.5% iuc, and 17.1% usp. Predominant resistance was determined for cephalothin, ampicillin, and nalidixic acid among the isolates from all sites examined. Multidrug resistance was found on ∼50% pyometra isolates. Using the genotypic methods some isolates from uteri, pus, and saliva of the same bitch proved to have identical DNA profiles which is a reason for concern due to the close relationship between household pets and humans.

  8. Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from the Uteri Horn, Mouth, and Rectum of Bitches Suffering from Pyometra: Virulence Factors, Antimicrobial Susceptibilities, and Clonal Relationships among Strains.

    Agostinho, Juliana M A; de Souza, Andressa; Schocken-Iturrino, Ruben P; Beraldo, Lívia G; Borges, Clarissa A; Avila, Fernando A; Marin, José M


    Pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch, and Escherichia coli is the major pathogen associated with this disease. In this study, 70 E. coli isolates from the uteri horn, mouth, and rectum of bitches suffering from the disease and 43 E. coli isolates from the rectum of clinically healthy bitches were examined for the presence of uropathogenic virulence genes and susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. DNA profiles of isolates from uteri horn and mouth in bitches with pyometra were compared by REP, ERIC, and BOX-PCR. Virulence gene frequencies detected in isolates from canine pyometra were as follows: 95.7% fim, 27.1% iss, 25.7% hly, 18.5% iuc, and 17.1% usp. Predominant resistance was determined for cephalothin, ampicillin, and nalidixic acid among the isolates from all sites examined. Multidrug resistance was found on ∼ 50% pyometra isolates. Using the genotypic methods some isolates from uteri, pus, and saliva of the same bitch proved to have identical DNA profiles which is a reason for concern due to the close relationship between household pets and humans.

  9. Presence of sensory nerve corpuscles in the human corpus and cervix uteri during pregnancy and labor as revealed by immunohistochemistry

    Forsgren Sture


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The uterus is exposed to changes such as enlargement and distension during pregnancy and labor. In these processes and in the process of cervical ripening, proprioceptive information is likely to be of great importance. Therefore, we wanted to study the possible existence of sensory nerve corpuscles in uterine corpus and cervix during pregnancy and labor. Studies on this aspect have not previously been perfomed. Methods Biopsies were taken from the upper edge of the hysterotomy during caesarean section at term (n = 8, in labor (n = 5 and from the corresponding area in the non-pregnant uterus after hysterectomy (n = 7. Cervical biopsies were obtained transvaginally from the anterior cervical lip. Serial cryostat sections were prepared for immunohistochemistry using polyclonal antibodies against nerve growth factor receptor p75, protein gene product 9.5 and S-100. Results Structures with the characteristics of sensory nerve corpuscles were observed in several specimens after staining for p75, PGP 9.5 and S-100. They were observed in specimens of the non-pregnant corpus and cervix and also in specimens of the pregnant cervix before onset of labor. However, they were absent in all specimens during labor. Conclusion Sensory corpuscles have here for the first time been detected in the human corpus and cervix uteri. Studies on the importance of the corpuscles in relation to the protective reflex actions that occur in the uterus during pregnancy should be performed in the future.

  10. Laparoscopy in the treatment of cancer of the corpus uteri in patients with metabolic syndrome. A case report

    A. I. Berishvili


    Full Text Available Today, the common term metabolic syndrome encompasses visceral (abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. In Europe, the rate of obesity mong the women ranges from 6 to 36 %. In the USA, 65 % of the adult population is overweight and 30 % is obese. High estrogen production in adipose tissue in patients with obesity has been established to increase the risk of cancer of the corpus uteri (CCU by 4 times as compared to that in normal weight female patients. Furthermore, obese patients are at increased risk for DM that is also a risk factor for CCU. A rise in the number of obese patients leads to the population redistribution of gynecological cancer. The increasing number of patients with gynecological cancer is overweight. This patient group has an increased risk from surgery and anesthesia, a higher incidence of postoperative complications, and delayed recovery. Laparotomy increases the duration of hospital stay and the rate of wound complications. The frequency of urologic injuries in obese patients varies between 2 and 4 %. In this patient category, the rate of damage to the large vessels or bowels has also statistically significant differences. The literature highlights a number of complications specific to patients with obesity: trocar damage to anterior abdominal wall vessels, particularly to the inferior epigastric artery, urinary bladder, as well as trocar site hernia. The authors describe their experience in treating CCU patients with metabolic syndrome at the Department of Surgery for Female Reproductive System Tumors, N. N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center. They demonstrate that laparoscopic extirpation of the uterus and its appendages can be performed in patients with third-degree obesity (weighing 174 kg in Stage I CCU. It should be noted that this weight was previously regarded as an absolute contraindication to surgical treatment. Today, the active

  11. The Radiotherapy Effect of 512 Cases of Carcinoma of Cervix Uteri%512例子宫颈癌放射治疗疗效报告

    LI Ailing; 李爱苓; SUN Jianheng; 孙建衡; ZHANG Wenhua; 张蓉


    Objective: To report treatment results of 512 cases of carcinoma of uteri and investigate the way to improve treatment effects. Methods: The 5-year survival rate and the factors influencing the prognosis of 512 cases of uteri were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The 5-year survival rate after radiotherapy was as follows: stage Ⅰ: 100%; stage Ⅱ: 74.5%; stage Ⅲ: 56.5%; stage Ⅳ: 28.6%. Overall 5-year survival rate was 65.4%, which was almost the same as traditional intracavitary injection (65.7%). The 5-year survival rate in cervix lesions more than 4 cm and those less than or equal to 4 cm in stage Ⅱ was 63.9% and 79.3%,respectively, with statistically significant difference (P<0.05). The 5-year survival rate of the patients with squamous carcinoma in stage Ⅱ was 77.0% and that with low differentiated squamous carcinoma was 64.0%respectively. Twenty-three (4.5%) out of 512 suffered from post-radiotherapy rectitis, 18 (3.5%) cystitis.Conclusion: the survival rate of the patients with cervix carcinoma subject to radiotherapy is stabilized to 65%. The diameter and pathological classes affect survival rate, respectively. Low radiotherapy dose decrease complications.

  12. A comparative study of glycodelin concentrations in uterine flushings in women with subseptate uteri, history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage and healthy controls.

    Salim, R; Miel, J; Savvas, M; Lee, C; Jurkovic, D


    To compare the concentration of glycodelin in uterine flushing at the implantation window obtained from women with subseptate uteri, women with a history of recurrent first trimester miscarriage and fertile controls. Glycodelin concentration was assessed using Enzyme Linked Immunohistochemistry (ELISA) at The Early Pregnancy & Gynaecology Assessment Unit, King's College Hospital, London, England. Eight women with a subseptate uterus, 20 women with a history of unexplained recurrent first trimester miscarriage and 16 fertile controls had uterine cavity flushing, for glycodelin concentration, done 7 days after the luteinising hormone surge. Glycodelin concentrations in uterine flushing obtained from women with subseptate uteri (n=8) (median 32.9 ng/ml, range 17.1-52.4 ng/ml) and recurrent miscarriage (n=20) (median 26.8 ng/ml, range 9.7-78.5 ng/ml) were significantly lower than in the control group (n=16) (median 67.7 ng/ml, range 59.0-77.6 ng/ml) (chi(2)=19.565, p<0.001). Peri-implantation levels of glycodelin are lower in women at high risk of early pregnancy failure.

  13. Lesiones traumáticas de los anexos y del segmento anterior del ojo en los boxeadores Traumatic lesions of the adnexa and of the anterior segment of the eye in fighters

    Agustín Fernández Sánchez


    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo con una muestra de 71 boxeadores a los cuales se les examinaron las estructuras de referencia mediante oftalmoscopia directa y biomicroscopia ocular, antes de las 6 horas posteriores al término de sus peleas; donde se obtuvo como resultado que los anexos afectados fueron los párpados con 5 hematomas, 4 edemas y 1 excoriación; y la conjuntiva con 4 hiperemias y 8 hemorragias. En el segmento anterior del ojo sólo se afectó la córnea con 13 lesiones en total, divididas en 10 excoriaciones superficiales y 3 profundas. Las lesiones traumáticas predominantes en los anexos del ojo son las de los párpados y las de la conjuntiva y las del segmento anterior del ojo, las de la córnea. El ojo más afectado fue el izquierdo y las lesiones más frecuentes fueron en las categorías de 13 y 14, 17 y 18 y 19 y 34 años las corneales, las conjuntivales y la de los párpados, respectivamente.A retrospective study was carried out with a sample of 71 fighters, whose reference structures were examined by direct ophthalmoscopy and ocular biomicroscopy within the 6 hours following their fights. As a result, it was observed that the affected adnexa were the eyelids with 5 hematomas, 4 edemas and 1 excoriation; and the conjunctiva with 4 hyperemias and 8 hemorrhages. In the anteriro segment, only the cornea was affected with 13 lesions in all, divided into 10 superficial and 3 deep excoriations.The traumatic lesions prevailing in the adnexa of the eye are those of the eyelids and the conjunctiva, whereas the predominating traumatic lesions of the anterior segment of the eye are those of the cornea. The left eye was the most affected and the most frequent lesions were in the categories 13 and 14, 17 and 18 and 19 and 34 years old in the cornea, the conjunctiva and the eyelids, respectively.

  14. Perbedaan Ekspresi P16INK4a dan HPVL1 pada Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 1, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 2, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 dan Squamous Cell Carcinoma Serviks Uteri

    Arlene Elizabeth Padang


    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV memegang peranan penting dalam proses karsinogenesis kanker serviksuteri; namun hanya sebagian kecil wanita yang terinfeksi tersebut akan berkembang menjadi kankerserviks yang invasif. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN merupakan spektrum dari lesi servikalyang mewakili lesi prekursor dari squamous cell carcinoma (SCC serviks uteri yang dikategorikanmenjadi CIN1, CIN2, CIN3. Interaksi protein HPV (E6 dan E7 dengan protein pengatur selular (pRbdan p53 akan menyebabkan up regulation protein P16INK4a. P16INK4a merupakan tumor supresorprotein cyclin dependen kinase inhibitor yang menghambat cyclin dependent kinase 4 dan 6 yangmerupakan produk dari gen INK4a yang terlibat dalam fosforilasi protein retinoblastoma (pRb.Human papillomavirus-late 1 (HPVL1 merupakan protein kapsid yang terekspresi pada saat awalfase produktif karsinogenesis serviks uteri. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahuiperbedaan ekspresi protein P16INK4a dan HPVL1 pada CIN1, CIN2, CIN3, dan SCC serviks uteri,dimana ekspresi P16INK4a dapat membantu untuk membedakan berbagai derajat displasia serviksuteri dan ekspresi HPVL1 dapat membantu untuk memprediksi progresivitas dari berbagai derajatdisplasia serviks uteri, sehingga penanganan pasien menjadi lebih tepat. [MEDICINA 2013;44:77-81].

  15. Influence of pregnancy and labor on the occurrence of nerve fibers expressing the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 in human corpus and cervix uteri

    Irestedt Lars


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical ripening is a prerequisite for a normal obstetrical outcome. This process, including labor, is a painful event that shares features with inflammatory reactions where peripheral nociceptive pathways are involved. The capsaicin and heat receptor TRPV1 is a key molecule in sensory nerves involved in peripheral nociception, but little is known regarding its role in the pregnant uterus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate human corpus and cervix uteri during pregnancy and labor and non-pregnant controls for the presence of TRPV1. Methods We have investigated human uterine corpus and cervix biopsies at term pregnancy and parturition. Biopsies were taken from the upper edge of the hysterotomy during caesarean section at term (n = 8, in labor (n = 8 and from the corresponding area in the non-pregnant uterus after hysterectomy (n = 8. Cervical biopsies were obtained transvaginally from the anterior cervical lip. Serial frozen sections were examined immunohistochemically using specific antibodies to TRPV1 and nerve markers (neurofilaments/peripherin. Results In cervix uteri, TRPV1-immunoreactive fibers were scattered throughout the stroma and around blood vessels, and appeared more frequent in the sub-epithelium. Counts of TRPV1-immunoreactive nerve fibers were not significantly different between the three groups. In contrast, few TRPV1-immunoreactive fibers were found in nerve fascicles in the non-pregnant corpus, and none in the pregnant corpus. Conclusion In this study, TRPV1 innervation in human uterus during pregnancy and labor is shown for the first time. During pregnancy and labor there was an almost complete disappearance of TRPV1 positive nerve fibers in the corpus. However, cervical innervation remained throughout pregnancy and labor. The difference in TRPV1 innervation between the corpus and the cervix is thus very marked. Our data suggest that TRPV1 may be involved in pain mechanisms associated with

  16. The possible role of female sex hormones in milk from pregnant cows in the development of breast, ovarian and corpus uteri cancers.

    Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Sato, Akio


    The continued increase in incidence of some hormone-related cancers worldwide is of great concern. Although estrogen-like substances in the environment were blamed for this increase, the possible role of endogenous estrogens from food has not been widely discussed. We are particularly concerned about cows' milk, which contains a considerable quantity of estrogens. When we name cows' milk as one of the important routes of human exposure to estrogens, the general response of Western people is that "man has been drinking cows' milk for around 2000 years without apparent harm." However, the milk that we are now consuming is quite different from that consumed 100 years ago. Unlike their pasture-fed counterparts of 100 years ago, modern dairy cows are usually pregnant and continue to lactate during the latter half of pregnancy, when the concentration of estrogens in blood, and hence in milk, increases. The correlation of incidence and mortality rates with environmental variables in worldwide countries provides useful clues to the etiology of cancer. In this study, we correlated incidence rates for breast, ovarian, and corpus uteri cancers (1993-97 from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents) with food intake (1961-97 from FAOSTAT) in 40 countries. Meat was most closely correlated with the breast cancer incidence (r=0.827), followed by milk (0.817) and cheese (0.751). Stepwise multiple-regression analysis (SMRA) identified meat as the factor contributing most greatly to the incidence of breast cancer ([R]=0.862). Milk was most closely correlated with the incidence of ovarian cancer (r=0.779), followed by animal fats (0.717) and cheese (0.697). SMRA revealed that milk plus cheese make the greatest contribution to the incidence of ovarian cancer ([R]=0.767). Milk was most closely correlated with corpus uteri cancer (r=0.814), followed by cheese (0.787). SMRA revealed that milk plus cheese make the most significant contribution to the incidence of corpus uteri cancer ([R]=0

  17. Male form of persistent Mullerian duct syndrome type I (hernia uteri inguinalis presenting as an obstructed inguinal hernia: a case report

    Gujar Nishikant N


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome is a rare form of male pseudo-hermaphroditism characterized by the presence of Mullerian duct structures in an otherwise phenotypically, as well as genotypically, normal man; only a few cases have been reported in the worldwide literature. We report the case of a 30-year-old man with unilateral cryptorchidism on the right side and a left-sided obstructed inguinal hernia containing a uterus and fallopian tube (that is, hernia uteri inguinalis; type I male form of persistent Mullerian duct syndrome coincidentally detected during an operation for an obstructed left inguinal hernia. Case presentation A 30-year-old South Indian man was admitted to our facility with a left-sided obstructed inguinal hernia of one day's duration. He had a 12-year history of inguinal swelling and an absence of the right testis since birth. Our patient had well developed masculine features. Local physical examination revealed a left-sided obstructed inguinal hernia with an absence of the right testis in the scrotum. Exploration of the inguinal canal revealed an indirect inguinal hernia containing omentum, the left corner of the uterus and a left fallopian tube. Extension of the incision revealed a well formed uterus, cervix and upper part of the vagina attached to the prostate by a thick fibrosed band. Total excision of the uterus, bilateral fallopian tubes and right testis was performed. A biopsy was taken from the left testis. The operation was completed by left inguinal herniorraphy. Histopathological examination of the hernial contents was consistent with that of a uterus and fallopian tubes without ovaries. Both testes were atrophied, with complete arrest of spermatogenesis. Post-operative karyotype analyses were negative for 46,XY and Barr bodies on buccal smear. A semen examination revealed azoospermia with a low serum testosterone level. Conclusions In cases of unilateral or bilateral cryptorchidism

  18. Progesterone Downregulates Oestrogen-Induced Expression of CFTR and SLC26A6 Proteins and mRNA in Rats’ Uteri

    K. Gholami


    Full Text Available Under progesterone (P dominance, fluid loss assists uterine closure which is associated with pH reduction. We hypothesize that P inhibits uterine fluid secretion and HCO3- transport. Aim. to investigate the expression of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR and Cl−/HCO3- exchanger (SLC26A6 under P effect. Method. Uteri from ovariectomized steroid replaced and intact rats at different stages of oestrous cycle were analyzed for changes in protein and mRNA expressions. Results. P inhibits CFTR and SLC26A6 proteins and mRNA expression while oestrogen (E causes vice versa. E treatment followed by P causes a reduction in these transporters’ mRNA and protein. Similar changes occur throughout the oestrous cycle; that is, CFTR mRNA expression was high at proestrus while SLC26A6 mRNA and protein expressions were increased at proestrus and estrus. At diestrus, however, the expression of these transporters’ protein and mRNA was reduced. Conclusion. Inhibition of CFTR and SLC26A6 expressions may explain the reduced fluid volume and pH under P-mediated effect.

  19. Cancer of the orbit and adnexa.

    Schwarcz, Robert M; Coupland, Sarah E; Finger, Paul T


    The diagnosis and treatment of orbital and periorbital malignancies are challenging. These tumors can result in blindness, death, and significant cosmetic deformities. Herein, we present the most common ocular malignancies and a systematic approach to diagnosis. Further, we integrate the seventh edition American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system, biomarkers, and multidisciplinary approaches to treatment.

  20. Quercetin Induces Dose-Dependent Differential Morphological and Proliferative Changes in Rat Uteri in the Presence and in the Absence of Estrogen.

    Shahzad, Huma; Giribabu, Nelli; Sekaran, Muniandy; Salleh, Naguib


    Quercetin could have profound effects on uterine morphology and proliferation, which are known to be influenced by estrogen. This study investigated the effect of quercetin on these uterine parameters in the presence and in the absence of estrogen. Ovariectomized adult female rats received peanut oil, quercetin (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day), estrogen, or estrogen+quercetin (10, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day) treatment for 7 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment, uteri were harvested for histological and molecular biological analyses. Distribution of proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein in the uterus was observed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of expression of PCNA protein and mRNA in uterine tissue homogenates were determined by Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Our findings indicated that administration of 10 mg/kg/day of quercetin either alone or with estrogen resulted in decreased uterine expression of PCNA protein and mRNA with the percentage of PCNA-positive cells in uterine luminal and glandular epithelia markedly reduced compared with estrogen-only treatment. Changes in uterine morphology were the opposite of changes observed following estrogen treatment. Treatment with 100 mg/kg/day of quercetin either alone or with estrogen resulted in elevated PCNA protein and mRNA expression. In addition, the percentages of PCNA-positive cells in the epithelia, which line the lumen and glands, were increased with morphological features mimicking changes that occur following estrogen treatment. Following 50 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment, the changes observed were in between those changes that occur following 10 and 100 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment. In conclusion, changes in uterine morphology and proliferation following 10 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment could be attributed to quercetin's antiestrogenic properties, while changes that occur following 100 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment could be attributed to

  1. Comparison of a 3-D multi-group SN particle transport code with Monte Carlo for intracavitary brachytherapy of the cervix uteri.

    Gifford, Kent A; Wareing, Todd A; Failla, Gregory; Horton, John L; Eifel, Patricia J; Mourtada, Firas


    A patient dose distribution was calculated by a 3D multi-group S N particle transport code for intracavitary brachytherapy of the cervix uteri and compared to previously published Monte Carlo results. A Cs-137 LDR intracavitary brachytherapy CT data set was chosen from our clinical database. MCNPX version 2.5.c, was used to calculate the dose distribution. A 3D multi-group S N particle transport code, Attila version 6.1.1 was used to simulate the same patient. Each patient applicator was built in SolidWorks, a mechanical design package, and then assembled with a coordinate transformation and rotation for the patient. The SolidWorks exported applicator geometry was imported into Attila for calculation. Dose matrices were overlaid on the patient CT data set. Dose volume histograms and point doses were compared. The MCNPX calculation required 14.8 hours, whereas the Attila calculation required 22.2 minutes on a 1.8 GHz AMD Opteron CPU. Agreement between Attila and MCNPX dose calculations at the ICRU 38 points was within +/- 3%. Calculated doses to the 2 cc and 5 cc volumes of highest dose differed by not more than +/- 1.1% between the two codes. Dose and DVH overlays agreed well qualitatively. Attila can calculate dose accurately and efficiently for this Cs-137 CT-based patient geometry. Our data showed that a three-group cross-section set is adequate for Cs-137 computations. Future work is aimed at implementing an optimized version of Attila for radiotherapy calculations.

  2. Incidence and mortality rates in breast, corpus uteri, and ovarian cancers in Poland (1980–2013: an analysis of population-based data in relation to socio-economic changes

    Banas T


    Full Text Available Tomasz Banas,1 Grzegorz Juszczyk,2 Kazimierz Pitynski,1 Dorota Nieweglowska,1 Artur Ludwin,1 Aleksandra Czerw2 1Department of Gynecology and Oncology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, 2Faculty of Health Science, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Objectives: This study aimed to analyze incidence and mortality trends in breast cancer (BC, corpus uteri cancer (CUC, and ovarian cancer (OC in Poland in the context of sociodemographic changes.Materials and methods: Incidence and mortality data (1980–2013 were retrieved from the Polish National Cancer Registry, while socioeconomic data (1960–2013 were obtained from the World Bank. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated by direct standardization, and join-point regression was performed to describe trends using the average annual percentage change (AAPC.Results: A significant decrease in birth and fertility rates and a large increase in gross domestic product were observed together with a decrease in the total mortality rate among women, as well as an increase in life expectancy for women. A large, significant increase in BC incidence was observed (AAPC1980–1990 2.14, AAPC1990–1996 4.71, AAPC1996–2013 2.21, with a small but significant decrease in mortality after a slight increase (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66. During the period 1980–2013, a significant increase in CUC incidence (AAPC1980–1994 3.7, AAPC1994–2013 1.93 was observed, with an initial mortality-rate reduction followed by a significant increase (AAPC1980–2006 −1.12, AAPC2006–2013 3.74. After the initial increase of both OC incidence and mortality from 1994, the incidence rate decreased significantly (AAPC1980–1994 2.98, AAPC1994–2013 −0.49, as did the mortality rate (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66.Conclusion: After 1994, a decrease in OC incidence was found, while the incidence of BC and CUC continued to increase. A reduction in

  3. Susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from uteri of postpartum dairy cows to antibiotic and environmental bacteriophages. Part II: In vitro antimicrobial activity evaluation of a bacteriophage cocktail and several antibiotics.

    Santos, T M A; Gilbert, R O; Caixeta, L S; Machado, V S; Teixeira, L M; Bicalho, R C


    The use of pathogenic-specific antimicrobials, as proposed by bacteriophage therapy, is expected to reduce the incidence of resistance development. Eighty Escherichia coli isolated from uteri of Holstein dairy cows were phenotypically characterized for antimicrobial resistance to ampicillin, ceftiofur, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, spectinomycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline by broth microdilution method. The lytic activity of a bacteriophage cocktail against all isolates was performed by a similar method. Additionally, the effect of different concentrations of antimicrobials and multiplicities of infections (MOI) of the bacteriophage cocktail on E. coli growth curve was measured. Isolates exhibited resistance to ampicillin (33.7%), ceftiofur (1.2%), chloramphenicol (100%), and florfenicol (100%). All strains were resistant to at least 2 of the antimicrobial agents tested; multidrug resistance (>or=3 of 7 antimicrobials tested) was observed in 35% of E. coli isolates. The major multidrug resistance profile was found for ampicillin-chloramphenicol-florfenicol, which was observed in more than 96.4% of the multidrug-resistant isolates. The bacteriophage cocktail preparation showed strong antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant E. coli. Multiplicity of infection as low as 10(-4) affected the growth of the E. coli isolates. The ratio of 10 bacteriophage particles per bacterial cell (MOI=10(1)) was efficient in inhibiting at least 50% of all isolates. Higher MOI should be tested in future in vitro studies to establish ratios that completely inhibit bacterial growth during longer periods. All isolates resistant to florfenicol were resistant to chloramphenicol and, because florfenicol was recently introduced into veterinary clinics, this finding suggests that the selection pressure of chloramphenicol, as well as other antimicrobials, may still play a relevant role in the emergence and dissemination of florfenicol resistance in E. coli. The bacteriophage

  4. Copy number variation in glutathione-S-transferase T1 and M1 predicts incidence and 5-year survival from prostate and bladder cancer, and incidence of corpus uteri cancer in the general population

    Nørskov, M S; Frikke-Schmidt, R; Bojesen, S E;


    and GSTM1 were measured by real-time PCR in 10¿247 individuals, of whom 2090 had cancer. In men, the cumulative incidence of prostate cancer increased and the cumulative 5-year survival decreased with decreasing GSTT1 copy numbers (trends=0.02). The hazard ratios (HRs) (95% CIs) for prostate cancer...... and for death after prostate cancer diagnosis were, respectively, 1.2 (0.8-1.8) and 1.2 (0.6-2.1) for GSTT1*1/0, and 1.8 (1.1-3.0) and 2.2 (1.1-4.4) for GSTT1*0/0 versus GSTT1*1/1. In women, the cumulative incidence of corpus uteri cancer increased with decreasing GSTT1 copy numbers (trend=0.04). The HRs...... were, respectively, 1.5 (0.7-3.2) and 2.0 (0.9-4.3) for GSTM1*1/0 and GSTM1*0/0 versus GSTM1*1/1. The HR for death after bladder cancer diagnosis was 1.9 (1.0-3.7) for GSTM1*0/0 versus GSTM1*1/0. In conclusion, exact CNV in GSTT1 and GSTM1 predict incidence and 5-year survival from prostate and bladder...

  5. HT在宫颈癌术后盆腔放疗的优势探讨%Treatment and dosimetry advantage between FF-IMRT, VMAT, and HT in cervix uteri radiotherapy

    杨波; 庞廷田; 刘峡; 刘楠; 胡克; 邱杰; 张福泉


    Objective To investigate dosimetric advantage of fixed field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (FF-IMRT),volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and helical tomotherapy (HT) for cervix uteri cancer.Methods CT datasets of ten patients with cervix uteri cancer were enrolled in the study.FF-IMRT,VMAT and HT plans were designed on Eclipse and HT treatment planning system.Plans were optimized with the aim to assess OAR while enforcing highly conformal target coverage.Institutional dose-volume constraints used in cervix uteri cancer were kept the same for three techniques.The different of three plan was play by single factor analysis of variance and compared to two groups by LSD method.Results All FF-IMRT,VMAT and HT resulted in equivalent target coverage but HT had an improved homogeneity index (P =0.000) and conformity index (P =0.000),or PTV of 105% prescription dose (47.12%,45.83% and 0.05%,P=0.000) and lowest Dmax dose (54.53 Gy,53.65 Gy,52.69 Gy,P=0.000).Compared with FF-IMRT and VMAT,the bladder V40 and Dmax of HT were lowest (50.01%,46.84%,42.98%,P=0.001 and 54.49 Gy,52.96 Gy,52.78 Gy,P=0.000),with the rectum V40 lowest (54.61%,48.34%,46.78%,P =0.006),the intestine Dmax lowest (54.53 Gy,53.65 Gy,52.66 Gy,P =0.000) and marrow Dmax lowest (54.51 Gy,54.44 Gy,52.13 Gy,P=0.000).But the delivery MU per fraction were highest (1429.20 MU,617.80 MU,7002.04 MU,P =0.000).Conclusions HT technology is feasible for clinical applications in cervical uteri cancer and can be used as a new method to promote.%目的 比较宫颈癌术后患者应用HT、固定野IMRT、VMAT的剂量学差异.方法 选择10例宫颈癌术后放疗患者的CT图像进行靶区及OAR勾画,并对同一CT图像设计固定野IMRT、VMAT、HT计划.评估靶区及OAR的剂量分布.采用单因素方差分析3个计划参数差异,用LSD法进行两两比较.结果 IMRT、VMAT、HT计划的靶区覆盖度均满足临床处方剂量要求,但HT计划靶区覆盖度最优(P=0.000),

  6. Unusual Presentation of Retained Foreign Body in Ocular Adnexa of ...


    probably represent the ideal educators for children and their parents. ... use of glasses or eye surgery. Examination showed ... or sports activities, primarily atributable to falls and to free projectiles hiting the ... Schools have been identified as places for a pediatric eye .... safety pin was the part introduced into the eye. It seems.

  7. 高危型人乳头瘤病毒感染与宫颈癌前病变及宫颈癌的相关性分析%Correlation analysis between high-risk human papillomavirus infection and precancerous lesions of cervix uteri and cervical cancer

    李曼红; 曾庆纯


    Objective To investigate the correlation between high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, precancerous lesions of cervix uteri and cervical cancer. Methods Among 120 patients with cervical cancer or precancerous lesions, there were 60 cases with precancerous lesions of cervix uteri (precancerous lesions group) and 60 cases with cervical cancer (cervical cancer group). They were chosen as the observation group, and another 60 patients without cytological changes of cervix uteri in colpitis were taken as the control group. Cervix uteri thinprep cytology test, cervical scraping smear, and immunohistochemcial method were applied for screening and analysis, and Ann PCR-reverse dot blot method was used for detection. Examination results were compared between the groups. Results The total positive rate of high-risk HPV was 56.67%, and the positive rates of high-risk HPV in precancerous lesions group, cervical cancer group and control group were respectively 65%, 95%, and 10%. The difference of positive rate between the three groups had statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion High-risk HPV has close relationship with precancerous lesions of cervix uteri and cervical cancer, and the infection of high-risk HPV was mainly in HPV16.%目的:探讨高危型人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)感染与宫颈癌前病变以及宫颈癌的相关性。方法120例宫颈癌或是癌前病变患者,其中60例为宫颈癌前病变患者(癌前病变组),60例为宫颈癌患者(宫颈癌组),将其归为观察组,同时期60例阴道炎宫颈无细胞学改变的患者设为对照组。采用宫颈液基细胞学检查法与宫颈刮片、免疫组化予以筛查分析,同时还采用达安PCR-反向点杂交法检测,对比分析各组检测结果。结果高危型HPV总阳性率为56.67%,癌前病变组、宫颈癌组以及对照组患者的高危型HPV阳性率分别为65%、95%、10%,三组患者的阳性率对比差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论高

  8. [Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the cervix uteri].

    Rosas Arceo, J; Toca Porraz, L; Díaz Esponda, C; Nava Flores, J


    We studied 93 gynecological samples of uterine cervix of patients at Hospital de Gineco Obstetricia No. 3, Centro Médico La Raza, IMSS, Health Promotion and Family Medicine Unit No. 5 with monoclonal antibodies. We found Chlamydia trachomatis in 28.4% in women where the infection was suspected. We should think in infection by Chlamydia trachomatis in women with acute cervicitis, acute salpingitis, cervical abnormalities, and to run the specific tests for its detection.

  9. Urothelial cells in smears from cervix uteri

    Luis Alberto Palaoro


    Conclusions: The umbrella cells may be mistaken for dysplastic cells originating in low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions lesions (LSILs due to their nuclear and cytoplasm sizes. Therefore, it is important to know the possibility of their appearance in the cervical smears, especially in post menopausal patients in order to avoid a false diagnosis of an intraepithelial lesion. It is unlikely that deeper cells of urothelium would be confused with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL cells. However, their presence might be a reason of mistake in the diagnosis. TCM is an under-recognized metaplastic phenomenon of the cervix and vagina, which is a mimicker of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. The differential characteristic between umbrella cells, cells from TCM and the deeper urothelial cells, and LSIL and HSIL are detailed in the present paper.

  10. Human Papillomavirus Infection of Cervix Uteri in HIV-positive Women from Hengyang★%衡阳地区HIV阳性妇女宫颈HPV感染情况研究★

    谢小平; 唐双阳; 刘安元; 李乐


      Objective To study the infection of Human papilloma virus (HPV) among HIV-positive women from Hengyang, and to provide a scientific basis for the HPV epidemiological research on HIV-positive groups. Methods A total of 4576 women were tested for sero-antibody of HIV by ELISA and immuno-colloidal golden method. The positive speci-mens detected by both methods were further sent out to confirm. Meanwhile 4576 cervical tissue specimens were examined for HPV by PCR and membrane hybridization method. Results The rate of HIV infection was 0.83% in 4 576 women, and that of HPV was 21.02%. The HPV-positive rate of 60.53% in HIV-positive group had statistical difference from that of 20.69% in HIV-negative group (χ2=36.02, P<0.005). Among 962 HPV-positive women, the rate of mixed HPV infection in HIV-positive group was 56.52%, but that in HIV-negative group was 20.98%; there were statistical difference between the two groups (χ2=16.62, P<0.005). Conclusion The rate of HPV infection of cervix Uteri in HIV-positive women was high, and high risk HPV and multiple HPV infection happened commonly, both of which indicated that HPV infection had close relation with HIV-positive patients.%  目的了解本地区人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)阳性女性宫颈人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)感染状况,为HIV阳性人群中HPV感染的防治提供依据。方法采用ELISA法和胶体金法检测4576例女性患者血清或血浆中的HIV抗体,两种方法均为阳性标本再送检确认。PCR+膜杂交法检测病人宫颈脱落细胞及宫颈粘液标本进行HPV病毒基因分型。结果4576例病例中,HIV感染率为0.83%;HPV感染率为21.02%。HIV阳性组中HPV感染率为60.53%,HIV阴性组中HPV感染率20.69%,差异有统计学意义(χ2=36.02,P<0.005)。在962例HPV阳性病例中,HIV阳性组的混合HPV感染率为56.52%;HIV阴性组的混合HPV感染率为20.98%;差异有统计学意义(χ2=16.62,P<0.005)。结论HIV阳性妇

  11. Effects of bovine colostrum on the structure of uteri and the expression of estrogen receptor in rat's adult female offsprings%牛初乳对子代雌鼠子宫结构及雌激素受体表达的影响

    徐丽; 张兰威; 张玉梅; 刘钊燕; 吕艳丽


    Objective To study the effects of gestational and lactational exposure to bovine colostrum on the structure of uterus and the expression of estrogen receptor (ERα, ERβ) of the female offspring of Spraque-Dawley rats. Methods SD rats were randomly divided into bovine colostrum and control group and fed before mating and during gestation and lactation with bovine colostrum diet and normal diet. Female offsprings were sacrificed after maturity and uteri and ovaries . were removed for weighing. The hormone levels in serum were determined and the uteri were used for pathological examination. Expressions of estrogen receptor α ( ERα) and estrogen β ( ERβ) in uterus were examined using immunohistochemical method. Results There was no significant difference in the female offsprings' body weight and ratio of uterus and ovary weight to body weight between bovine colostrum diet and control diet (P > 0. 05). Bovine colostrum diet significantly increased the level of prolactin (PRL) in serum (P 0. 05 ) . Conclusion The gestational and lactational exposure to bovine colostrum did not cause significant influence on the development of uterus and expressions of ERa and ERβ.%目的 研究妊娠期和哺乳期通过SD母鼠暴露于牛初乳及断乳后继续食用牛初乳对成年子代雌鼠子宫发育及雌激素受体(ERα和ERβ3)表达的影响.方法 将母鼠随机分成2组,牛初乳组和空白对照组.牛初乳组母鼠在交配前期、妊娠期和哺乳期食用含有牛初乳的饲料,仔鼠3周断乳后食用对应于母鼠的饲料至成年.空白组母鼠和仔鼠食用普通饲料.仔鼠成年后处死,取其血液,剥离子宫和卵巢称重,检测血清激素,子宫病理学检查;利用免疫组化法检测子鼠子宫内雌激素受体(ERα和ERβ)的表达.结果 牛初乳组子代雌鼠体重、卵巢和子宫脏体比与空白组相比差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),血清中催乳素(PRL)含量显著高于对照

  12. Dietary carotenoids in normal and pathological tissues of corpus uteri.

    Sławomir Wołczyński


    Full Text Available Carotenoids and retinyl esters are the source of vitamin A in the human body and its natural derivatives takes part in the regulation of cell replication and differentiation in the human endometrium, may induce the leiomyoma growth and has a role in differentiation of endometrial adenocarcinoma. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the presence of carotenoids in tissues from the normal uterus and from various tumors of the uterine corpus, as well as to compare the total content, major carotenoids and % of carotenoids belonging to the provitamin A group between the tissues examined. Using three independent methods of chromatography (CC, TLC, HPLC we analysed 140 human samples. We identified 13 carotenoids belonging to the eg. provitamin A group and epoxy carotenoids. In all the samples beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, neoxanthin, violaxanthin and mutatoxanthin were isolated. In normal tissues, the mean carotenoid content was the highest in the follicular phase endometrium (9.9 microg/g, while the highest percentage of carotenoids belonging to provitamin A group was found in the luteal phase (18.2%. In the pathological group, the highest mean values were demonstrated for epithelial lesions (8.0 microg/g, and within this group - in endometrioid adenocarcinoma (10.8 microg/g. In both groups, violaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein epoxide and mutatoxanthin were the predominant carotenoids. We have demonstrated that all uterine tissues show a concentration of beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin, being the source of vitamin A. The highest total values of carotenoids obtained in the group of endometrioid adenocarcinoma seem to confirm certain enzymatic defects in carotenoid metabolism in the course of the neoplastic process or some metabolic modifications. The finding of astaxanthin - the major antioxidant among carotenoids - in 63% of tissues examined is also significant.

  13. Ureterlaesion ved radikal hysterektomi for cancer colli uteri

    Rolff, M; Bang, T; Bostofte, E


    Eight ureter lesions of the ureter occurred among 100 consecutive patients undergoing radical hysterectomy for cancer of the uterine cervix. The management of this problem is discussed, and treatment guidelines for the most commonly seen lesions are proposed. It is concluded that a more liberal u...

  14. [DNA in koilocytotic dysplasia of the cervix uteri, cytophotometric studies].

    Christov, K; Karageosov, I; Makaveeva, V; Kristeva, K


    In koilocytotic dysplasia of the uterine cervix the DNA content in squamous cells was quantitated by cytophotometry in histological preparations stained according to Feulgen. Three patterns of DNA distribution in the squamous cells were found. In type one (21.4%) the cells had DNA content in the diploid and paradiploid zone of the histogram. In type two (35.7%) cells with triploid and tetraploid DNA values were found, but with a conspicuous modal class of cells. In type three no modal class cells were found (42.9%). The quantitative DNA changes in squamous cells show that some of the HPV induced alterations may be regarded as precancerous.

  15. The phylogenetic distribution, anatomy and histology of the post-cloacal bones and adnexa of geckos.

    Russell, Anthony P; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Bauer, Aaron M


    Post-cloacal bones of gekkotans may be present as a single (medial) pair, two pairs (medial and lateral), or may be lacking. We, herein, demonstrate that the presence of a single medial pair is the ancestral condition for the Gekkota, that the lateral pair is of sporadic occurrence within and between families, except for the Eublepharidae where it is universal, and that absence is also of sporadic occurrence except for the Sphaerodactylidae where it is the ancestral condition. Adult male Tokay geckos (Gekko gecko) possess only the medial pair of bones, and these exhibit a regionally-specific expression of woven, fibrolamellar, and lamellar bone, and an enclosed medullary cavity. Females and small juvenile males lack bony elements but exhibit a conspicuous band of dense connective tissue located about the anterior and lateral margins of the cloacal sacs. As males grow and attain sexual maturity, the medial post-cloacal bones condense in this band of dense connective tissue, and are thus shown to be dermal ossifications, similar to osteoderms but with muscular associations (although this is also known for crocodylians). Based upon ontogenetic data we set forth a scenario to explain the loss of the medial post-cloacal bones in various lineages. Differential staining of the cloacal sacs failed to reveal any specialized glandular structures. Investigation of the post-cloacal spurs shows them to be associated with cellular connective tissue of a type similar to that found in the vicinity of the medial post-cloacal bones. This suggests that the lateral post-cloacal bones may also be dermal bones, but histological evidence is needed to corroborate this.

  16. Rituximab as Single Agent in Primary MALT Lymphoma of the Ocular Adnexa

    Ombretta Annibali


    Full Text Available Ocular Adnexal Lymphomas are the first cause of primary ocular malignancies, and among them the most common are MALT Ocular Adnexal Lymphomas. Recently systemic immunotherapy with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody has been investigated as first-line treatment; however, the optimal management for MALT Ocular Adnexal Lymphomas is still unknown. The present study evaluated retrospectively the outcome of seven consecutive patients with primary MALT Ocular Adnexal Lymphomas, of whom six were treated with single agent Rituximab. All patients received 6 cycles of Rituximab 375 mg/mq every 3 weeks intravenously. The overall response rate was 100%; four patients (67% achieved a Complete Remission, and two (33% achieved a partial response. In four patients an additional Rituximab maintenance every 2-3 months was given for two years. After a median follow-up of 29 months (range 8–34, no recurrences were observed, without of therapy- or disease-related severe adverse events. None of the patients needed additional radiotherapy or other treatments. Rituximab as a single agent is highly effective and tolerable in first-line treatment of primary MALT Ocular adnexal Lymphomas. Furthermore, durable responses are achievable with the same-agent maintenance. Rituximab can be considered the agent of choice in the management of an indolent disease in whom the “quality of life” matter is of primary importance.

  17. Rituximab as Single Agent in Primary MALT Lymphoma of the Ocular Adnexa.

    Annibali, Ombretta; Chiodi, Francesca; Sarlo, Chiara; Cortes, Magdalena; Quaranta-Leoni, Francesco M; Quattrocchi, Carlo; Bianchi, Antonella; Bonini, Stefano; Avvisati, Giuseppe


    Ocular Adnexal Lymphomas are the first cause of primary ocular malignancies, and among them the most common are MALT Ocular Adnexal Lymphomas. Recently systemic immunotherapy with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody has been investigated as first-line treatment; however, the optimal management for MALT Ocular Adnexal Lymphomas is still unknown. The present study evaluated retrospectively the outcome of seven consecutive patients with primary MALT Ocular Adnexal Lymphomas, of whom six were treated with single agent Rituximab. All patients received 6 cycles of Rituximab 375 mg/mq every 3 weeks intravenously. The overall response rate was 100%; four patients (67%) achieved a Complete Remission, and two (33%) achieved a partial response. In four patients an additional Rituximab maintenance every 2-3 months was given for two years. After a median follow-up of 29 months (range 8-34), no recurrences were observed, without of therapy- or disease-related severe adverse events. None of the patients needed additional radiotherapy or other treatments. Rituximab as a single agent is highly effective and tolerable in first-line treatment of primary MALT Ocular adnexal Lymphomas. Furthermore, durable responses are achievable with the same-agent maintenance. Rituximab can be considered the agent of choice in the management of an indolent disease in whom the "quality of life" matter is of primary importance.

  18. Impact of Eye Cosmetics on the Eye, Adnexa, and Ocular Surface.

    Ng, Alison; Evans, Katharine; North, Rachel V; Jones, Lyndon; Purslow, Christine


    Despite the fact that cosmetic products undergo rigorous testing to ensure they are safe for human use, some users report mild discomfort following their application. The cutaneous changes, such as allergic dermatitis, are well reported, but the ocular changes associated with eye cosmetic use are less so. Some pigmented cosmetic products may accumulate within the lacrimal system and conjunctivae over many years of use, but immediate reports of eye discomfort after application are most common. Changes to the tear film and its stability may occur shortly after application, and contact lens wearers can also be affected by lens spoliation from cosmetic products. Additionally, creams used in the prevention of skin aging are often applied around the eyes, and retinoids present in these formulations can have negative effects on meibomian gland function and may be a contributing factor to dry eye disease. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge regarding the impact of cosmetic products on the eye, ocular surface, and tear film.

  19. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors for Treatment of Metastatic Melanoma of the Orbit and Ocular Adnexa.

    Ford, Joshua; Thuro, Bradley A; Thakar, Sudip; Hwu, Wen-Jen; Richani, Karina; Esmaeli, Bita

    Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitors are members of a new class of drugs known as immune checkpoint inhibitors and have proven efficacy in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Herein, the authors report the use of nivolumab and pembrolizumab, 2 recently Food and Drug Administration-approved PD-1 inhibitors, in 3 patients: 1 with metastatic conjunctival melanoma and 2 with metastatic cutaneous melanoma and orbital involvement. The patients' metastatic disease responded well to drug treatment. As of this writing, 2 patients have completed therapy and remain disease free at least 1 year after treatment completion; the other patient is still receiving treatment, and his orbital disease is responding. The authors herein describe the use of PD-1 inhibitors as a new alternative in the treatment of metastatic melanoma to the orbit or metastatic ocular adnexal melanomas in these clinical settings.

  20. A comunicação na abordagem preventiva do câncer do colo do útero: importância das influências histórico-culturais e da sexualidade feminina na adesão às campanhas Communication in the prevention of cervix uteri cancer: the importance of historical cultural influences and of feminine sexuality in the adhesion to campaigns

    Luciana Maria Britto da Cruz


    Full Text Available Considerando que o câncer cérvico-uterino ainda se apresenta como problema de saúde pública no Brasil e que os programas governamentais de prevenção existentes para esse câncer não alcançaram a meta estimada, visto que a cobertura e o número de atendimentos nas campanhas não atingiram um quarto do estimado na primeira campanha; e, na segunda, o alcance foi inferior à primeira, este artigo se propôs a levantar questões referentes a não adesão de muitas mulheres às campanhas. Para isso, foram ressaltadas a relevância epidemiológica para a abordagem do tema; a importância do corpo para a mulher; e as influências histórico-culturais no comportamento preventivo das mulheres. Dessa forma, foi realizado um estudo teórico descritivo, usando como fonte principal de informações dados do Ministério da Saúde e do Instituto Nacional do Câncer (INCA e como fonte de apoio livros, artigos científicos, periódicos e dissertações que abordam a temática proposta. A fim de discutir possibilidades estratégicas que possam ser eficazes para uma maior adesão feminina às campanhas preventivas, foi considerada a importância da forma de abordagem dos profissionais de saúde, salientando para que atuem correspondendo aos valores culturais apresentados pelas mulheres. Além disso, ressaltou-se a linguagem utilizada nas campanhas de prevenção do câncer do colo do útero, atentando para o fato de que conceitos transmitidos podem endossar valores culturais de abordagem do feminino que dificultam a identificação e a adesão de muitas mulheres.Cervix uteri cancer is still a public health problem in Brazil, but the governmental prevention programs that exist for this type of cancer have not reached the estimated index of covering. The number of people assisted in the campaigns has not reached one quarter of what was estimated in the first campaign and in the second one the number was even inferior. In light of this situation, this article

  1. 雌二醇对子宫腺肌病患者子宫内膜-肌层交界区平滑肌细胞游离Ca2+调节模式的初步研究%Preliminary study of estrogen effects on calcium free smooth muscle cells at the endometrialmyometrial interface in uteri with adenomyosis

    王丽平; 汪沙; 张颖; 王永军; 张恒辉; 常亚楠; 李国力; 段华


    论 雌二醇对子宫腺肌病患者EMI平滑肌细胞内游离Ca2+浓度的调节符合膜受体介导的非基因转录作用模式.%Objective To investigate the effect and mechanism of estrodial (E2) on intracellular free calcium in the endometrial-myometrial interface (EMI) smooth muscle cells from uteri with adenomyosis.Methods From March 2011 to October 2011,16 uterus specimens were collected from patients with adenomyosis undergoing hysterectomy in Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital,which included 9 proliferative endometrium and 7 secretory endometrium.EMI smooth muscle cells from the uterus were cultured and loaded with calcium ion ( Ca2 + ) fluorescent probe fluo-4/AM.The labeled cells were stimulated with the various concentration of E2 ( 1 × 102,1 × 103,1 × 104,1 × 105 pmol/L,respectively),then the changes of intracellular Ca2+ fluorescence intensity were measured by laser scanning microscopy.The most suitable concentration of E2 was selected,and the reaction difference between the EMI smooth muscle cells of two menstrual phases were also investigated; The changes of intracellular Ca2 + fluorescence intensity were detected proliferative and secretory smooth muscle cells in E2 conjugated to bovine serum albumin (17β-E2-BSA) group,cycloheximide (CHX) group,fulvestrant (ICI182780) group and pertussis toxin (PTX) group.Results ( 1 ) The cell viability of primary cultured EMI smooth muscle cells was well at 24 hours culture.(2) 1 × 102 - 1 × 105 pmol/L E2 can rapidly increase the intracellular Ca2+ fluorescence intensity within 1 min ( P < 0.01 ) ;The increased amplitudes caused by 1 × 104 pmol/L and 1 × 105 pmoL/L E2 were the most significant,but there was no significant difference between them (P >0.05).1 × 104 pmol/L was the most suitable concentration.( 3 ) With the 1 × 104 pmol/L E2,the Ca2+ fluorescence intensity changes showed no significant difference between the EMI smooth muscle cells from the proliferative phase and secretory

  2. Juvenile Xanthogranuloma Involving the Eye and Ocular Adnexa: Tumor Control, Visual Outcomes, and Globe Salvage in 30 Patients.

    Samara, Wasim A; Khoo, Chloe T L; Say, Emil Anthony T; Saktanasate, Jarin; Eagle, Ralph C; Shields, Jerry A; Shields, Carol L


    To report clinical features and treatment outcomes of ocular juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG). Retrospective case series. There were 32 tumors in 31 eyes of 30 patients with ocular JXG. Review of medical records. Tumor control, intraocular pressure (IOP), and visual acuity. The mean patient age at presentation was 51 months (median, 15 months; range, 1-443 months). Eye redness (12/30, 40%) and hyphema (4/30, 13%) were the most common presenting symptoms. Cutaneous JXG was concurrently present in 3 patients (3/30, 10%), and spinal JXG was present in 1 patient (1/30, 3%). The ocular tissue affected by JXG included the iris (21/31, 68%), conjunctiva (6/31, 19%), eyelid (2/31, 6%), choroid (2/31, 6%), and orbit (1/31, 3%). Those with iris JXG presented at a median age of 13 months compared with 30 months for those with conjunctival JXG. In the iris JXG group, mean IOP was 19 mmHg (median, 18 mmHg; range, 11-30 mmHg) and hyphema was noted in 8 eyes (8/21, 38%). The iris tumor was nodular (16/21, 76%) or diffuse (5/21, 24%). Fine-needle aspiration biopsy was used in 10 cases and confirmed JXG cytologically in all cases. The iris lesion was treated with topical (18/21, 86%) and/or periocular (4/21, 19%) corticosteroids. The eyelid, conjunctiva, and orbital JXG were treated with excisional biopsy in 5 patients (5/9, 56%), topical corticosteroids in 2 patients (2/9, 22%), and observation in 2 patients (2/9, 22%). Of 28 patients with a mean follow-up of 15 months (median, 6 months; range, 1-68 months), tumor regression was achieved in all cases, without recurrence. Two patients were lost to follow-up. Upon follow-up of the iris JXG group, visual acuity was stable or improved (18/19 patients, 95%) and IOP was controlled long-term without medication (14/21 patients, 74%). No eyes were managed with enucleation. Ocular JXG preferentially affects the iris and is often isolated without cutaneous involvement. Iris JXG responds to topical or periocular corticosteroids, often with stabilization or improvement of vision and IOP. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Importance of Laparoscopic Assessment of the Uterine Adnexa in a Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser Syndrome Type II Case.

    Dragusin, Roxana; Tudorache, Ștefania; Surlin, V; Lichiardopol, Corina; Iliescu, D G


    In the case reported, diagnosed with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome, the presence of normal ovaries proved to be challenging to confirm due to unusual high positioned (ectopic) ovaries. MRKH syndrome is a rare pathological condition characterized by a spectrum of the Mullerian duct abnormalities resulting in congenital aplasia of the uterus and of the upper part (2/3) of the vagina, developed during embryogenesis. At the same time, the mullerian development is interdependent with the Wolffian (mesonephric) duct and this explains the associated renal abnormalities (MRKH type II). Laparoscopic assessment was of great importance in defining the exact anatomic characteristics of MRKH syndrome.

  4. A systematic overview of radiation therapy effects in cervical cancer (cervix uteri).

    Einhorn, Nina; Tropé, Claes; Ridderheim, Mona; Boman, Karin; Sorbe, Bengt; Cavallin-Ståhl, Eva


    A systematic review of radiation therapy trials in several tumour types was performed by The Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). The procedures for evaluation of the scientific literature are described separately (Acta Oncol 2003; 42: 357-365). This synthesis of the literature on radiation therapy for cervical cancer is based on data from 1 meta-analysis and 34 randomized trials. In total, 35 scientific articles are included, involving 7 952 patients. The results were compared with those of a similar overview from 1996 including 34 024 patients. The conclusions reached can be summarized in these points: There are limited scientific data supporting that postoperative pelvic radiotherapy improves disease-free survival in early cervical cancer. No firm conclusion can be drawn. There is moderate scientific evidence that external beam radiotherapy combined with brachytherapy gives a similar disease-free and overall survival rate as radical hysterectomy in early cervical cancer. There is strong scientific evidence that concomitant radiochemotherapy improves disease-free and overall survival compared to radiotherapy alone in early cervical cancer. The NCI has recently published an announcement stating that cisplatin-based chemotherapy should be used concomitantly with radiotherapy in cervical cancer. No solid documentation for this statement can be found concerning locally advanced stages ( >IIB). There is a strong scientific evidence that cisplatin-based chemotherapy given concomitantly with radiotherapy is superior to concomitant chemotherapy with hydroxyurea. There is no scientific evidence to show that neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy improves disease-free or overall survival compared to radiotherapy alone in patients with localized cervical cancer. There is moderate scientific evidence that high-dose-rate brachytherapy gives the same local control rate as low-dose-rate brachytherapy but with fewer rectal complications.

  5. [Concomitant radiochemotherapy in cancer of the cervix uteri: modifications of the standards].

    Haie-Meder, C; Lhommé, C; de Crevoisier, R; Morice, P; Resbeut, M


    For a long time, combined external irradiation and brachytherapy has been considered as the standard treatment in patients with advanced cervical cancers. Recently, five clinical randomized trials assessing the role of cis-platin-based chemotherapy delivered concomitantly to radiotherapy have been conducted in the United States. Another clinical randomized trial assessing the role of epirubicin was conducted by the Queen Mary Hospital in Hong Kong. With more than 2,000 enrolled patients, these studies showed converging results with an overall and disease-free survival improvement in the arms combining cis-platin and epirubicin-based chemotherapy and irradiation. These combinations led to a significant decrease in loco-regional evolution or recurrence rates, or even in pulmonary metastases rates. The relative risk of recurrences was decreased by 50%. The relative risk of death was decreased by 40%. The differences, however, were less significant in patients with advanced stages III or IVA. Hematological and digestive acute toxicity was significantly higher in the radiochemotherapy groups, but long-term complications were comparable. The results of these randomized trials have led to a modification in the standard of treatment in these poor prognosis cervix cancers. Five of the randomized trials evidenced the superiority of cis-platin-based chemotherapy, but the optimal chemotherapeutic regimens remain to be defined.

  6. [Carcinoma of the cervix uteri--the morphological changes after preoperative radiotherapy].

    Veselinova, T; Ivanova, R; Gorchev, G; Tsvetkov, Ch


    A retrospective morphological research is made on 11 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix for a three-years period of time (1995-1997). Preoperative radiotherapy (intracavitary radiotherapy with Cs and/or external radiation) is carried out. A control group of 10 patients with cancer of uterine cervix without preoperative radiotherapy is also studied. All of the women undergo a wider hysterectomy by the method of Piver class IV. The radiation alterations in the tumor and the surrounding normal uterine tissues are also researched. A full regression of the tumor Ts size. There are demonstrative changes in the tumor and surrounding normal tissues, which are the prove the answer to the ionizing irradiation.

  7. A study evaluating the effect of mifepristone (RU-486 for the treatment of leiomyomata uteri

    Sucheta Mukherjee


    Full Text Available Background: To estimate the efficacy of daily administration of 25 mg mifepristone for the treatment of uterine leiomyoma. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 women were to receive 25 mg mifepristone daily for a period of 6 months. Abdominal ultrasonography was performed before treatment, at 3 months and after 6 months, to evaluate the leiomyoma size and uterine volume. Endometrial biopsy was done after the treatment. Efficacy was estimated by the reduction in leiomyoma size, uterine volume, and improvement in quality of life. Results: After 180 days of treatment, there was a 47% decrease in the leiomyoma volume and a 53% decrease in the uterine volume. Symptomatic improvement was noted. Twenty-three of 30 women (75.7% became amenorrheic after the treatment. Endometrial biopsy after treatment revealed simple hyperplasia in two of 30 women. Conclusion: 25 mg mifepristone produces reduction in leiomyoma size and uterine volume and produces symptomatic improvement in women with fibroids.


    Nicoleta Simion


    Full Text Available Our research focused on the evaluation of the correlation degree between the cytological and histopathologicalexam, with the aim to identify the advantages and limitations in the application of the two methods. The study groupconsisted of 28 patients diagnosed by conventional Papanicolaou cytology and routine histopathology exam. The resultsshowed a correspondence between diagnoses with the association of benign cervical, uterine, and ovarian pathologies,sometimes with an upgrade of the intraepithelial lesions in histopathological exam. Conventional and liquid basedcytology represent two accessible and well tolerated methods of diagnosis as well as of post-therapy monitorization. Thehistopathological examination is absolutely mandatory for confirmation of the diagnosis, for upgrade of intraepithelialhigh grade lesions to carcinoma, and for initiation of any therapeutic scheme.

  9. Conization of the cervix uteri. Complications in connection with plain catgut or silk suturing

    Holmskov, A; Qvist, N; Møller, A


    of the wound (0.1 less than p less than 0.2). The reduction was most pronounced and significant in cases where bleeding had occurred during the first 4 days after surgery, the usual period for hospital stay under normal conditions. After discharge the bleeding rates were more comparable, 12.6% in the catgut......During a retrospective study on postoperative complications in 213 patients who had undergone conization, a (non-significant) reduction in the bleeding rate from 27.9% to 18.6% was found when using silk sutures (102 patients) instead of plain catgut (111 patients) for adaption of the edges...

  10. Histomorphometrics and quantitative unbiased stereology in canine uteri treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate.

    Salinas, P; Miglino, M A; Del Sol, M


    This article describes the effects of MPA use on the canine uterus using stereological methods. Entire reproductive tracts were removed from normal healthy canine bitches (Canis lupus familiaris) and grouped as: nulliparous (n = 11), multiparous (n = 11) and MPA-treated (n = 11; nulliparous; two treatments; 5 mg/kg). 1 cm samples were cut from the corpus, horn and uterine tube and fixed in 10% formaldehyde. Sections of each were mounted on slides and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. We assessed the fraction area for components of endometrium and myometrium and VV (volume density) and SV (surface density) of the gland and stroma using the M36 test system provided by the STEPanizer Stereological Tool. No gross histological differences were observed between study groups in the uterine tube, uterine corpus and horn. The wall of the uterine corpus and horn in MPA-treated bitches was characterized as being thicker than in the other groups. A cross-section of the uterine corpus revealed no differences between components of uterine wall in the corpus and horn; however, differences were observed in the volume density [VV; %] in variables such as: VV[str.vasc/uterus] (nulliparous vs. multiparous; p = 0.0019) and VV[str.supravasc/uterus] (multiparous vs. nulliparous and MPA; p = 0.0035). In the endometrial gland, differences were detected in SV[gland/endom] (multiparous vs. MPA, p = 0.0442). In the uterine horn, differences were only observed in the variable VV[lumen.gland/endom] (multiparous vs. MPA; p = 0.0019). This study shows quantitative changes in the architecture of the endometrium and myometrium in all the uterine segments, mainly morphological endometrial gland changes of the uterine corpus, increasing the surface area per unit of volume; however, these changes usually do not differ quantitatively from those observed in the uterus of multiparous bitches. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. A Rare Case of Primary Insitu Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Endometrium with Extensive Icthyosis Uteri

    Pailoor K


    Full Text Available Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the endometrium is exceedingly rare. We report a case of 52 years old postmenopausal woman who presented with pelvic pain of four months duration. Gynecologic examination revealed a normal cervix. A possibility of pyometra was considered through pelvic ultrasound. Total abdominal hysterectomy was performed and histopathologically, it was diagnosed as a case of primary in situ squamous cell carcinoma of the endometrium.

  12. Diagnostic insonation of extra uteri human placentas: no effect of lymphocytic sister chromatid exchange

    Brulfert, A.; Ciaravino, V.; Miller, M.W.; Maulik, D.; Carstensen, E.L.


    Freshly delivered human placentas were exposed to ultrasound for 30 min using a diagnostic linear array unit. Blood was then drawn and cultured in the presence of bromodeoxyuridine, and the frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in the lymphocytes determined. There was no statistically significant difference in SCE frequencies between control and exposed cells; the frequencies of SCEs per cell ranged from 4.50 to 6.02 for control and from 4.66 to 6.10 for exposed cells in five separate experiments. Positive control mitomycin C treated cells were significantly affected, with more than 50 SCEs per cell. 20 references, 1 table.

  13. [Incrustation of marker threads of intrauterine devices in the uterine cavity and cervix uteri].

    Patai, K; Berényi, M; Gimes, G


    If the indicating thread of intrauterine contraceptive devices is situated inside the uterine cavity, it is incrustated in the same way with calcium carbonate like the device itself. In 20 per cent the intracervical part of the thread is incrustated, too. The danger of an ascending inflammatory disease is increasing with the precipitation of substances, probably, denaturated fibrine or mucine according to the infrared spectral analysis.

  14. Perbandingan Kerapatan Kolagen Ligamentum Sakrouterina pada Pasien dengan dan tanpa Prolaps Uteri

    Intan Renata Silitonga


    Full Text Available Collagen density is one important factor in uterine prolapse. Several studies has shown that uterine prolapse patients have lower uterosacral ligament collagen density. The purpose of this study was to reveal the uterosacral ligament collagen density differences in patients with and without uterine prolapse. This case control study was an analitic comparative research of 16 uterine prolapse patients and 16 patients without uterine prolapse who underwent hysterectomy in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung and its networking hospitals during November–December 2008. Uterosacral ligament was sampled and then stained using HE and Masson’s trichrome staining. The significance of the result was analyzed using Mann-Whitney. The study found a significant correlation between collagen density and uterine prolapse, with the collagen density of uterine prolapse patients was lower (15.3% than patients without uterine prolapse (48.75%. The uterosacral ligament collagen density cut-off point in predicting women having uterine prolapse was ≤30%; with 93.8% sensitivity, 87.5% specificity, and 90.6% accuracy. The conclusion of this study is that uterosacral ligament collagen density in patients with uterine prolapse is lower (15.3% than patients without uterine prolapse (48.75%. The uterosacral ligament collagen density cut-off point in predicting a women having uterine prolapse is ≤30%.

  15. Real-time Elastografie: Erste Messungen von gewebeelastischen Eigenschaften der Zervix uteri

    Burger, Katharina Adriana


    Introduction: in this study were investigated aged and duration of pregnancy dependend tissue elastic properties and changes of the normal cervix and in pregnant women. The normal findings were compared with the results in a group of patients with focal pathology of the cervix and with cervical insufficiency. Materials and Methods: a total of 165 patients, among them 52 pregnant women, underwent transvaginal ultrasound using a 9 MHz high-end US device with a vaginal probe. The examiner pla...


    I. E. Bakhlaev


    Full Text Available Cervical cancer (CC morbidity is analyzed on the basis of the data of the Karelian cancer register over the period 1998-2007. During this period, 816 cases of CC were registered and 126 were found at an antenatal clinic (AC. Its early detection rate was ascertained to be 96% during screening at the AC. A comprehensive examination was made in 1742 women with various cervical diseases, of them 37.5% were infected with human papillomavirus (HPV. High-grade dysplasia and carcinoma in situ were diagnosed in 6.6% of the HPV-infected patients. Large-scale screening for HPV infection and pretumor disorders with their further treatment will aid in reduc- ing CC morbidity and mortality rates.

  17. [Maturation of the cervix uteri using prostaglandin F2 alpha before induction of labor in pathologic pregnancies].

    Maria, B; Fayette, E; Stampf, F; Gandon, C; Gantrel, J; Barrat, J


    It is possible to induce labour in pathological pregnancies after artificial ripening of the cervix. The present study concerns 70 patients (45 primipara, 25 multipara). The main pathologies are hypertension of pregnancy and pregnancies past dates. Prostaglandin F2 alpha has been used with a Tylose gel containing 5 mg of PGF2 alpha introduced by the extra-amniotic route. The cervical change was noted using Bishop's score. The mean increase of the cervical score was 0.8 with the first PGF2 alpha gel. The total mean increase was 1.2. Two cases of hyperstimulation of the uterus were observed and they led to Caesarean section. Prostaglandin gel induced labour in 56% of the patients. The mean time between the introduction of the gel and the delivery was 14 h for primipara and 10 h for multipara. Other patients were induced with oxytocin on the following day. Epidural analgesia was widely used in this study (in 64% of cases). The mean duration of labour was 6 h 10 for primipara and 4 h 30 for multipara. 30% of the patients needed Caesarean section but there was a marked difference between primipara (36%) and multipara (4%). After a review of the literature the authors conclude that it is useful to ripen the cervix prostaglandin but, as foreign authors do, they think that PGE2 should be more efficient.

  18. Perbandingan Keberhasilan Vaginal Birth After a Cesarean (VBAC pada Inersia Uteri Hipotonik dengan dan tanpa Pemberian Oksitosin Drip

    Dani Setiawan


    Full Text Available Trial of labor after cesarean section can be a choice on maternity with cesarean history. The successful trial of labor is then called vaginal birth after a cesarean (VBAC. The failure on VBAC is often caused by hypotonic uterine inertia. Oxytocin infusion augmentation is not a contraindication; it is a solution for increasing success on VBAC with requisite continuing observation. The aim of this research was to determine the successful differences of VBAC on hypotonic uterine inertia with and without oxytocin augmentation. This research was an experimental study on randomized clinical trial, using 40 patients with history of cesarean section at Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital and two satellite hospitals (Sumedang and Astana Anyar during March–May 2009 which fulfilled inclusion criteria divided into two groups; the group using oxytocin infusion and the group without oxytocin infusion. The patients’ characteristic, the success on VBAC and the maternal complication also neonatal condition were noted as encode. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. There was no statistical significant difference of success between the group used oxytocin infusion (80% and the group without using oxytocin infusion (60% with p>0.05 (p=0.168, but using confidence interval 95% showed the successful on VBAC with oxytocin infusion was greater 1.71 (0.72–4.06. The maternity and neonatal complication on two groups did not indicate a significant difference. In conclusion, using oxytocin infusion on hypotonic uterine inertia can increase the success on VBAC

  19. Presence of superantigen genes and antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus isolates obtained from the uteri of dairy cows with clinical endometritis.

    Zhao, J-L; Ding, Y-X; Zhao, H-X; He, X-L; Li, P-F; Li, Z-F; Guan, H; Guo, X


    Clinical endometritis is an important disease of dairy cattle and results in decreased reproductive performance. This disease is caused by contamination of the uterus with a broad spectrum of microorganisms after calving. In this study, staphylococcal isolates from the uterus of dairy cows with clinical endometritis were tested for their distribution of superantigen (SAg) genes and antimicrobial resistance. Between the 127 staphylococcal isolates collected in this study, 10 species were identified. The predominant strain identified was Staphylococcus aureus (n=53), followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n=38) and Staphylococcus chromogenes (n=22). PCR analysis demonstrated that most isolates (63.0 per cent) harboured at least one SAg gene. The most commonly observed SAg gene and genotype was selj (38.6 per cent) and sec-selj-seln (24.0 per cent), respectively. Most isolates were resistant to penicillin (79.5 per cent), ampicillin (71.7 per cent), erythromycin (56.7 per cent), and tetracycline (52.0 per cent). PCR analysis demonstrated that the antimicrobial resistance determinants ermA, ermB, ermC, tetK, tetM and blaZ were detected in 0 per cent, 44.4 per cent, 51.4 per cent, 68.2 per cent, 13.6 per cent and 86.1 per cent of the erythromycin, tetracycline and β-lactam resistant isolates, respectively. There were 22 (17.3 per cent of all isolates) coagulase-negative staphylococci shown to be methicillin resistant. In the methicillin-resistant isolates, significant resistances to ampicillin, erythromycin and penicillin were observed (P<0.01). The results of this study demonstrate that staphylococci recovered from dairy cows with clinical endometritis contain an extensive and complex prevalence of SAg genes. Significant resistances to antibiotics were also seen, highlighting the need for the rational appliance of antibiotics in veterinary medicine.

  20. Evaluation of whether the ultrasonographic onion skin sign is specific for the diagnosis of an appendiceal mucocele.

    Kameda, Toru; Kawai, Fukiko; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Omoto, Kiyoka; Kobori, Yasuyuki; Arakawa, Kazukiyo


    To evaluate whether the onion skin sign on ultrasonography (US) of the lower abdomen is specific for the diagnosis of an appendiceal mucocele. Our study included 231 lesions from 229 patients in whom transabdominal US detected lesions in the lower abdomen and who had definitive pathological diagnoses in the small bowel, ileocecal valve, cecum, appendix, mesentery, adnexa uteri or pelvic cavity outside the major organs. Patients with metastatic tumors were excluded. We reviewed the reports and images from transabdominal US and checked for the presence of the onion skin sign. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the sign for the diagnosis of an appendiceal mucocele were calculated. Five (2.2 %) of the 231 lesions showed the onion skin sign on US and all were diagnosed with an appendiceal mucocele. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the sign for the diagnosis of an appendiceal mucocele were 63, 100, and 99 %, respectively. The onion skin sign in the lower abdomen appears to be specific for the diagnosis of an appendiceal mucocele. In cases where the onion skin sign is obviously present in the lower abdomen on US, an appendiceal mucocele should be considered as the leading diagnosis.


    A. D. Kaprin


    Full Text Available Study investigates the prevalence, diagnosis and treatment in patients with retention disorders upper urinary tract cervical cancer stage IIB III after more than 3 months after combined radiotherapy. In the apartment complex to the diagnosis of renal ultrasound and radioisotope study of renal excretory function added to the study ureteral emissions by color Doppler sonography. Information on ureteral emissions revealed a violation of the early passage of urine in 23.1 % of patients with renal ultrasound revealed no pathology. On the basis of violations ureteral emissions increase in the number of patients, respectively, are assigned to nonoperative treatment (anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic therapy. As a result, decreased by 14.2 % (p = 0.034, female patients, which showed drainage of the upper urinary tract.


    A. D. Kaprin


    Full Text Available Study investigates the prevalence, diagnosis and treatment in patients with retention disorders upper urinary tract cervical cancer stage IIB III after more than 3 months after combined radiotherapy. In the apartment complex to the diagnosis of renal ultrasound and radioisotope study of renal excretory function added to the study ureteral emissions by color Doppler sonography. Information on ureteral emissions revealed a violation of the early passage of urine in 23.1 % of patients with renal ultrasound revealed no pathology. On the basis of violations ureteral emissions increase in the number of patients, respectively, are assigned to nonoperative treatment (anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic therapy. As a result, decreased by 14.2 % (p = 0.034, female patients, which showed drainage of the upper urinary tract.

  3. DNA aneuploidy and integration of human papillomavirus type 16 e6/e7 oncogenes in intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix uteri.

    Melsheimer, Peter; Vinokurova, Svetlana; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Bastert, Gunther; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus


    Increasingly deregulated expression of the E6-E7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) has been identified as the major transforming factor in the pathogenesis of cervical dysplasia and derived cancers. The expression of these genes in epithelial stem cells first results in chromosomal instability and induces chromosomal aneuploidy. It is speculated that this subsequently favors integration of HR-HPV genomes into cellular chromosomes. This in turn leads to expression of viral cellular fusion transcripts and further enhanced expression of the E6-E7 oncoproteins. Chromosomal instability and aneuploidization thus seems to precede and favor integration of HR-HPV genomes. To prove this sequential concept, we analyzed here the sequence of events of DNA aneuploidization and integration in a series of HPV-16-positive cervical dysplastic lesions and carcinomas. Eighty-five punch biopsies of HPV-16-positive cervical lesions (20 CIN1/2, 50 CIN3, and 15 CxCa) were analyzed for DNA ploidy by DNA flow cytometry and for integration of HPV E6/E7 oncogenes using the amplification of papillomavirus oncogene transcripts assay, a reverse transcription-PCR method to detect integrate-derived human papillomavirus oncogene transcripts. DNA aneuploidy and viral genome integration were both associated with increasing dysplasia (P oncogene expression appears to result first in chromosomal instability and aneuploidization and is subsequently followed by integration of HR-HPV genomes in the affected cell clones.

  4. Prognostic relevance of human papillomavirus L1 capsid protein detection within mild and moderate dysplastic lesions of the cervix uteri in combination with p16 biomarker

    Hilfrich, Ralf; Hariri, Jalil


    OBJECTIVE: To proof the prognostic relevance of HPV L1 capsid protein detection on colposcopically-guided punch biopsies in combination with p16. STUDY DESIGN: Sections of colposcopically-guided punch biopsies from 191 consecutive cases with at least 5 years of follow-up were stained with HPV L1...... capsid protein antibodies (Cytoactiv screening antibody) and a monoclonal anti-p16 antibody. Fifty sections were derived from a benign group, 91 from low-grade (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN 1]) lesions and 50 from high-grade (CIN 2 and 3) lesions. RESULTS: Overall only 16.1% of the 87 L1......-negative, p16-positive CIN lesions showed remission of the lesion compared to 72.4% of the double positive cases. None of the L1/p16 double negative CIN lesions progressed. CONCLUSION: HPV L1 capsid protein detection with Cytoactiv screening antibody seems to be a promising new tool to predict the behavior...

  5. [Human papilloma virus and cervical cancer. An historical review on the development of research on cancer of the cervix uteri in Venezuela].

    García-Tamayo, Jorge; Molina, Julia; Blasco-Olaetxea, Eduardo


    The history on the relationship of VPH infection and cervical cancer was examined. Findings were initially reported in Maracaibo(1971), later in Mexico(1973) and thereafter several studies on the ultrastructure and immunohistochemistry of VPH infection and its role on cervical cancer were described. The ultrastructural findings of viral particles of HPV and their proteins, as well as their role in the incorporation of the viral genome to the human cervical cells were also described. Glycoproteins on the surface of cervical cells were reviewed and their importance on HPV infection was related to p16, blood group antigens and early genetic changes in the cell cycle with loss of heterozigocity, all of which, stimulated by the high risk HPV infection lead to cervical cancer.

  6. Frequent Promoter Methylation of CDH1, DAPK, RARB, and HIC1 Genes in Carcinoma of Cervix Uteri: Its Relationship to Clinical Outcome

    Schneider Achim


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer (CC, a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide, has been causally linked to genital human papillomavirus (HPV infection. Although a host of genetic alterations have been identified, molecular basis of CC development is still poorly understood. Results We examined the role of promoter hypermethylation, an epigenetic alteration that is associated with the silencing tumor suppressor genes in human cancer, by studying 16 gene promoters in 90 CC cases. We found a high frequency of promoter methylation in CDH1, DAPK, RARB, and HIC1 genes. Correlation of promoter methylation with clinical characteristics and other genetic changes revealed the following: a overall promoter methylation was higher in more advanced stage of the disease, b promoter methylation of RARB and BRCA1 predicted worse prognosis, and c the HIC1 promoter methylation was frequently seen in association with microsatellite instability. Promoter methylation was associated with gene silencing in CC cell lines. Treatment with methylation or histone deacetylation-inhibiting agents resulted in profound reactivation of gene expression. Conclusions These results may have implications in understanding the underlying epigenetic mechanisms in CC development, provide prognostic indicators, and identify important gene targets for treatment.

  7. One Case with Squamous Carcinoma of Cervix and Adenocarcinoma of Corpus Uteri%宫颈鳞癌复合宫体腺癌1例



    @@ 1 病例报告 患者 50岁,孕4产4,不规则阴道流血3月.当地医院做分段诊刮术,病理检查:宫颈鳞状细胞癌Ⅱ~Ⅲ级,乳头状腺癌,宫内膜鳞状细胞癌Ⅱ~Ⅲ级.妇科检查:外阴、阴道无异常.宫颈菜花状肿块,Φ5cm,质脆,触之易出血.宫体增大如孕2月大小,质硬.双侧宫旁呈片状增厚达盆壁,弹性尚可.双附件区未扪及肿块.会诊病理检查:(宫颈、宫腔)中度分化腺鳞癌.CT检查:子宫明显增大,考虑宫颈癌并宫体受侵;宫腔少量积液.入院诊断:宫颈腺鳞癌Ⅰ~Ⅱ期并宫体受侵.行60Co腔内放疗4次,A点累积量24Gy,并予增敏化疗2次,顺铂总计60mg.术中见:宫体前位,增大如50d妊娠大小,质硬,双侧主韧带呈薄片状达盆壁,腹膜后淋巴结无肿大.行子宫广泛切除+盆腔淋巴结清扫术.剖视标本:肿瘤来源于颈管11°处,宫体受侵,病灶约3~3.5cm,实质性,浸及浅肌层.病理检查:(宫颈)中分化鳞状细胞癌;(宫腔)中分化腺癌,侵犯肌壁约0.5cm(肌壁厚约2cm);盆腔各组淋巴结、阴道残端、双附件、宫旁组织未见癌转移. 2 讨论 本病例为宫颈鳞癌、其肿瘤细胞形态迥异,缺乏同源性,故均为原发癌,象这种不同器官在同一时期均发生原发癌者称为同期原发癌.据文献报道宫颈癌发生重复癌的机率为0.8%[1]及3.94%[2].而临床上宫颈鳞癌与宫体腺癌同期发生更为罕见,Eisner等[3]的一组1 556例宫颈癌中有4例为原发宫颈癌与原发宫内膜腺癌并存,其发生率占宫颈癌的0.25%. 治疗方面,因宫颈鳞癌与宫体腺癌治疗原则基本一致,以手术为主,以放射治疗、化疗为辅,宫体腺癌另辅助孕激素治疗,故两者均可兼顾.该病例术前已行半定量腔内治疗,并行子宫广泛切除+盆腔淋巴结清扫术.术后病理诊断为:宫颈鳞癌Ⅰb期;宫体腺癌ⅠbG2期.可酌情行全盆照射,剂量40~50Gy/4~6W,并辅以孕激素治疗.

  8. [Cervix uteri lesions and human papiloma virus infection (HPV): detection and characterization of DNA/HPV using PCR (polymerase chain reaction].

    Serra, H; Pista, A; Figueiredo, P; Urbano, A; Avilez, F; De Oliveira, C F


    The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes was estimated by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in archival paraffin was embedded tissues. The case group consisted of 84 women aged 21-67 years (mean, 40 years) who were referred to the Department of Gynaecology (Oncology Centre, Coimbra) with citopathologically abnormal smears. This group was selected from a population of women who had undergone a screening programme (1990/94) in Central Region of Portugal. All these patients (n = 84) had a colposcopic directed cervical biopsy. HPV detection and typing was performed by the PCR method in the Department of Virology (National Health Care Institute, Lisbon). The prevalence of DNA/HPV found, concerning all epithelial cervical lesions studied and classified as squamous intra-epithelial lesions (SIL) and cervical cancer was 97.8%. On the basis of the data presented in this study, it was estimated that there was a statistically significant prevalence of low risk HPV types (HPV 6/11) in low grade SIL, 83.3%, and a statistically significant prevalence of high risk HPV types (HPV 16,18,31,33,51) in high grade SIL, 58.4%, as well as cervical cancer lesions in 100%. We conclude that there was a statistically significant difference between women with low and high grade SIL for HPV infection, with low and high risk HPV types, respectively. The risk factors for cervical cancer investigated (age at first sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners, parity, use of oral contraceptives) were not associated to statistically significant differences concerning low grade SIL and high grade SIL. The clinical and therapeutic procedures were evaluated for the same five years (1990/94). It may be concluded that there would be no significant difference in clinical procedure for high grade lesions and cervical cancer, in which the treatment had been frequently radical (cone biopsies, simple or radical hysterectomy) and in which the HPV infection persisted frequently and was associated to high risk types (HPV 16 in 50% of these cases). On the other hand, it may be concluded that HPV detection in cervical biopsies, especially for low grade SIL lesions, which were evaluated in this study with a more conservative procedure (clinical evaluation only, punch biopsies, loop diathermy, CO2 laser vaporisation, cone biopsies), could identify women with high risk HPV types who might be at risk of developing dysplasia and cervical cancer.

  9. 中青年宫颈癌患者拒绝放射治疗原因的调查分析%Investigation and Analysis of Reasons that Patients with Carcinoma of Cervix Uteri Refused Radiotherapy

    王玉龙; 刘智; 刘立新; 贺培娃; 刘彩芳; 冯炎


    目的:通过对宫颈癌患者拒绝放射治疗原因的调查分析,采取一系列应对策略,提高治疗效果.方法:对 26 例宫颈癌患者拒绝放射治疗的原因调查,进行多因素相关统计分析,针对原因采取应对策略缓解心理应激.应对策略包括:转变放疗医生的观念、制定科普宣教方案、加强疏导、介绍有关放疗的知识、努力为患者营造一个充满亲情的社会环境,进行因人而异的心理干预.结果:26 例拒绝放疗的患者中,23 例患者接受了放射治疗,有效率达 88.45%.结论:大部分最初拒绝放射治疗的中青年宫颈癌患者,在放疗医生的耐心讲解和科普宣教下能够消除心理障碍,积极配合放射治疗.

  10. Refined mapping of loss of heterozygosity in Chinese sporadic ...



    Aug 30, 2010 ... clinical markers in Chinese sporadic gastric cancer. Key words: Gastric .... Examples of microsatellites figures determined by Genemapper 3.2 program. (A) Informative cases .... ocular adnexa and salivary glands.J Pathol ...

  11. Epidemiological Study and Treatment Outcome of Primary Ocular ...

    Purpose: Malignancies of the eye and adnexa are rare, and account for only ... Reconstruction of the orbital and periorbital region was also done wherever possible. ... and proper surgery along with other adjuvant measures are undertaken.

  12. Curative radio therapy in elderly patients with endometrial cancer. Patterns of relapse, toxicity and quality of life

    Huguenin, P.; Baumert, B.; Luetolf, U.M.; Glanzmann, C. [Univ. Hospital Zuerich (Switzerland). Radiation Oncology; Wight, E. [Univ. Hospital Zuerich (Switzerland). Gynecologic Oncology


    Purpose: To assess survival, disease-specific survival, acute and late toxicity and quality of life in patients with curable endometrial carcinoma treated with adjuvant or primary radiotherapy at the age {>=}75 years. Patients and methods: In a prospective study, outcome was regularly assessed in 49 patients treated between 1991 and 1995 at a median age of 78.4 years. Radiotherapy was applied using the same concept as in younger patients. Thirty-eight patients received postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy (vaginal insertions only: n=18; external and vaginal insertions: n=17; external radiotherapy only: n=3), 8 patients were treated for a vaginal recurrence. Three patients received primary radiotherapy. Median pelvic dose was 39.6 Gy (ICRU) with 1.8 Gy per fraction (4 fields). Vaginal HDR radiotherapy consisted of 5 times 5 Gy at 0.5 cm depth in cases with no external radiotherapy, and of 3 times 5 Gy in addition to pelvic radiotherapy, respectively. Median follow-up was 3.2 years. The EORTC QLQ-C30 was used for self-assessment of quality of life. Results: Survival and disease-specific survival at 5 years was 64% and 84%, respectively. There was no pelvic or vaginal recurrence in patients with Stage IA to IIB. Patients with positive adnexa and those treated for vaginal recurrence relapsed in 50%. Two patients (4%) did not complete radiotherapy because of severe diarrhea. Grade 4 late complications were observed in 1/38 patients following adjuvant radiotherapy and in 2/8 patients treated for a recurrence. The actuarial rate of Grade 3 to 4 complications was 7% at 3 years. Quality of life was good in most cases and remained constant over time. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Analyse des Gesamtueberlebens, des tumorspezifischen Ueberlebens, der pelvinen Tumorkontrolle, der Akut- und Spaettoxizitaet sowie der Lebensqualitaet bei Patientinnen, die mit 75 oder mehr Jahren wegen eines Karzinoms des Corpus uteri mit kurativem Ziel bestrahlt wurden. Patienten und Methode: Zwischen

  13. 超声检查在原发性闭经诊治中的应用价值%Role of ultrasonography in diagnosis and treatment of primary amenorrhea

    顾燕; 茹彤; 戴晨燕; 杨燕; 徐燕


    Objective To investigate the clinical value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis and treatment of primary amenorrhea .Methods A total of 616 women with primary amenorrhea was examined by ultrasonography for the measurements of size of the uterus ,endometrial thickness ,size of two ovaries ,proportion of uterine body and uterine neck ,the number of ovarian follicle ,fluid in uterine cavity and vagina or pelvic cavity ,tumor in adnexa uteri and abnormalities in urinary system .Results The uterus dysplasia was diagnosed in 477 cases ,which included congenital absence of uterus in 72 cases ,primordial uterus in 110 cases and infantile uterus in 295 cases .The ovarian dysgenesis was diagnosed in 113 cases ,which included absence of two ovaries in 4 cases ,small size of two ovaries in 105 cases and single ovary in 4 cases .The vaginal dysplasia was diagnosed in 20 cases ,which included atresia of vagina in 15 cases ,transverse septum of vagina in 2 cases and oblique vaginal septum syndrome in 3 cases .The congenital imperforate hymen was diagnosed in 6 cases .The ectopic kidney was found in 9 cases .Conclusion Primary amenorrhea is associated with congenital defects of female genital organs .Ultrasound examination has a certain value in the diagnosis and treatment of primary amenorrhea .%目的:探讨超声检查在原发性闭经诊治中的应用价值。方法原发性闭经妇女616例,超声测量子宫大小、子宫内膜厚度、双侧卵巢大小,同时观察宫体与宫颈长度比例、卵巢内窦卵泡数目、有无宫腔积液、阴道积液、盆腔积液、附件包块和有无泌尿系统发育异常。结果616例中,子宫发育不良477例(先天性无子宫72例,始基子宫110例,幼稚子宫295例),卵巢发育不良113例(双侧卵巢未见4例,双侧卵巢偏小105例,仅见单侧卵巢4例),阴道发育异常20例(阴道闭锁15例,阴道横隔2例,阴道斜隔综合征3例),处女膜闭锁6

  14. Acuidade da citologia oncótica para o diagnóstico da infecção pelo HPV no colo uterino de mulheres portadoras do HIV Accuracy of oncotic cytology for HPV infection diagnosis on the cervix uteri of HIV-infected women

    Iwens Moreira de Faria


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a acuidade do exame citológico do colo uterino para o diagnóstico do HPV, comparado à reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR, em amostras de mulheres portadoras do HIV. MÉTODOS: foram incluídas 158 pacientes, sendo realizada uma primeira coleta de material da cérvice uterina com a espátula de Ayre para a PCR. A seguir, foi realizada outra coleta com espátula de Ayre e escova para a citologia oncótica. Foram revisadas 109 lâminas, tendo em vista que 49 foram destruídas, por terem ultrapassado dois anos de arquivo. RESULTADOS: a prevalência de HPV foi de 11% no estudo citológico e 69,7% na PCR. A idade do grupo variou de 20 a 61 anos, com mediana de 35 anos. A forma de contágio pelo HIV foi a heterossexual em 91,8% dos casos e 79,1% dos pacientes tiveram um a cinco parceiros sexuais em toda a vida. A queixa mais freqüente foi massa pélvica (5,1% e 75,3% procuraram o serviço para consulta de rotina. A comparação de variáveis categóricas foi realizada através de tabelas de contingência sendo utilizado o teste do χ2 com correção de Yates para comparação de proporções. Quando uma das freqüências esperadas foi menor que cinco, foi utilizado o teste de Fisher. Na comparação de testes diagnósticos foram calculados: a sensibilidade, a especificidade e razões de verossimilhança. Das 76 pacientes com HPV detectado pela PCR, somente 12 foram confirmadas pela citologia (sensibilidade=15,8% que, por outro lado, não apresentou resultados falsos-positivos (especificidade=100%. Comparando-se os dois resultados, encontraram-se valor preditivo positivo de 100% e negativo de 33,3% para a citologia, na predição da presença do HPV. Entre as 12 pacientes com citologia positiva para HPV, quatro (33,3% apresentaram neoplasias intra-epiteliais cervicais (OR=5,6; razão de verossimilhança positiva=infinidade positiva; razão de verossimilhança negativa=0,83. CONCLUSÕES: como a especificidade da citologia é bem alta, pode-se confiar no resultado positivo, ou seja, quando a citologia for positiva para o HPV, ele certamente estará presente. A baixa sensibilidade da citologia não a qualifica como exame de rastreamento para a detecção do HPV, nesse grupo de mulheres.PURPOSE: to verify the accuracy of uterine cervix cytology for HPV diagnosis, as compared to polymerase chain reaction (PCR in samples of women with HIV. METHODS: 158 patients who had undergone a first collection of material from the uterine cervix with Ayre's spatula for PCR were included in the study. Then, another collection with Ayre's spatula and brush for oncotic cytology was performed. Only 109 slides were reviewed, as 49 of them had already been destructed for have being filed for over two years. RESULTS: the prevalence of HPV was 11% in the cytological exam and 69.7% in the PCR. Age varied from 20 to 61 years old, median 35 years. The HIV contagious route was heterosexual in 91.8% of the cases, and 79.1% of the patients had had from one to five sexual partners along their lives. The most frequent complaint was pelvic mass (5.1%, and 75.3% of the women had looked for the service for a routine medical appointment. The categorical variable comparison was done through contingency tables, using the χ2 test with Yates's correction to compare the ratios. The Fisher's test was used when one of the expected rates was lower than five. In the comparison of diagnostic tests, sensitivity, specificity and similarity ratios have been calculated. Among the 76 patients with HPV, detected by PCR, only 12 had the diagnosis confirmed by cytology (sensitivity=15.8%, which on the other hand did not present any false-positive results (specificity=100%. Concerning the HPV presence, the cytological prediction for positive results was 100% and 33.3% for negative, when both results were compared. Among the 12 patients with HPV positive cytology, four (33.3% presented cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (OR=56; positive similarity ratio=positive infinity; negative similarity ratio=0.83. CONCLUSIONS: As the cytology specificity is quite high, it is possible to rely on the positive result, which means that a positive result will surely indicate the presence of HPV. The low sensitivity of cytology does not qualify it as a survey exam for HPV detection in this female group.

  15. Improving internal environment of mouse uteri with adenomyosis by administration of anti-NGF%抗神经生长因子抗体用于改善子宫腺肌病小鼠宫腔内环境的研究

    李雁; 叶瑶; 徐步芳; 张爱军



  16. 传统涂片与液基薄层细胞制片在宫颈脱落细胞学中的应用比较%The Comparison of Traditional pap Smear and Liqud-based Cytology in Cervix Uteri Cytology



      目的对传统涂片和液基薄层细胞制片在宫颈脱落细胞学中的应用情况进行比较,以寻求筛查宫颈癌和癌前病变的最好方法。方法对2007年3月至2011年10月在我院行传统涂片的4513例和3777例行液基薄层细胞制片的体检人群的结果进行比较。细胞学诊断采用 TBS(the Bethesda system)分类诊断系统。结果液基层细胞学在良性改变和正常、诊断意义不明的不典型的鳞状上皮细胞(ASCUS,atypical squamous cels of undetermined significance)、低度鳞状上皮内病变(LSIL,low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion)及以上病变的诊断方面优于传统涂片,对微生物的总体检出率不如传统涂片,但对滴虫、人类乳头瘤病毒(HPV, human papilo ma virus)和疱疹病毒(HSV, Herpesvirus hominis)的检测方面优于传统涂片。结论液基薄层细胞学在筛查宫颈癌和癌前病变上优于传统涂片。%Objective To find the better method to detect cervical cancer and precancerous lesions through the comparison of traditional pap smear and liqud-based cytology. Methods 4513 cases using traditional pap smear and 3777 cases using liqud-based cytology were analysed in normal people. The Bethesda system was used to diagnose. Results The diagnosis of ASCUS,LSIL and higher grade lesions in liqud-based cytology is better than traditional pap smear. The total detection rate of microorganism is lower, but the detection rate of trichomoniasis, HPV and HSV is higher. Conclusions In detecting cervical cancer and precancerous lesions, liqud-based cytology is better than traditional pap smear.

  17. Is vaginal hysterectomy is equally safe for the enlarged and normally sized non-prolapse uterus? A cohort study assessing outcomes.

    Newbold, Peter; Vithayathil, Mathew; Fatania, Kavi; Yoong, Wai


    Gynecologists are reluctant to perform vaginal hysterectomy if the uterine size exceeds 12 weeks in the belief that complications could be higher in this group. The aim of this cohort control study was to compare demographics, surgical outcomes and safety of vaginal hysterectomy in women with non-prolapsed uteri weighing >280 g (>12 weeks size) to those with uteri weighing prolapse indications with uterine enlargement >280 g (12 weeks), while the control group consisted of 66 women with uteri 0.05). The mean operative time was significantly longer in the index group (123.3±43.2 vs 85±32.1 min; p=1.47×10(-6)). Women with enlarged uteri had greater mean estimated blood loss (402.8±402.2 vs 160.8±123.2 ml; p0.05). Two uteri weighing >1000 g were removed vaginally. Intra- and post-operative complications such as bladder injury, blood transfusion and pelvic sepsis were similar in both groups. Vaginal hysterectomy in larger non-prolapsed uteri takes longer (mean 38 min longer) and is associated with more blood loss (mean increase 242 ml) compared to normal-sized uteri but is not associated with a significant increase in complication rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Experiment list: SRX129065 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTER...I (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of

  19. Experiment list: SRX314628 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the ...neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus

  20. Experiment list: SRX508008 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available te of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX... UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal e

  1. Experiment list: SRX129063 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available te of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX... UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal e

  2. Experiment list: SRX508009 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available te of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX... UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal e

  3. Experiment list: SRX314629 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available te of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX... UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal e

  4. Experiment list: SRX314630 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available te of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX... UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal e

  5. Experiment list: SRX336292 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTER...I (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of

  6. Experiment list: SRX129064 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available te of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX... UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal e

  7. Experiment list: SRX314627 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the ...neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus

  8. Experiment list: SRX336290 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the n...eck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus,

  9. Experiment list: SRX114726 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTER...I (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of

  10. Experiment list: SRX114724 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available MPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus,

  11. Experiment list: SRX114725 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available MPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus,

  12. Experiment list: SRX129061 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the n...eck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus,

  13. Experiment list: SRX508007 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the n...eck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus,

  14. Experiment list: SRX129062 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the n...eck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus,

  15. Experiment list: SRX508006 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the n...eck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus,

  16. Experiment list: SRX114723 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available MPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus,

  17. Experiment list: SRX183894 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the ...neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus

  18. Download this PDF file


    Feb 2, 2001 ... Prevention of complications ... ruptured uteri in the last decade due to the promotion of antenatal care ... labour and early recourse to Caesarean section, the clinical .... nursing is imperative as it is not only high risk patients.

  19. Hemorrhagic ovarian cyst without peritoneal bleeding in a patient with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: case report

    Hiroko Kurioka; Kentaro Takahashi; Nobuyuki Kita; Yoichi Noda


    @@ Gynecologic and obstetric disorders presenting with abdominal pain are ectopic pregnancy, rupture of endometrial cysts, mature cystic teratoma and torsion of the adnexae. Hemorrhagic ovarian cysts, which included among the functional cysts, are often involved in acute abdomen leading to laparotomy intervention.

  20. Role of prostaglandin E2 in alterations of the beta-adrenergic system from rat eclamptic uterus.

    Sales, M E; Borda, E S; Sterin-Borda, L; Arregger, A; Andrada, E C


    The inotropic effect of isoproterenol, as well as the beta-adrenoceptor population, was measured in pregnant uterine tissue from female spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) (control group: C) and female SHR that were grafted with skin from Holtzman male rats (eclamptic group: E). The Kd value of the concentration-response curve of isoproterenol was higher for uteri from E rats than C rats. This phenomenon was not accompanied by a modification in the expression of beta-adrenoceptors. Inhibition of the synthesis of prostaglandins prevented the hyporeactivity to isoproterenol during eclampsia. Moreover, uteri from E rats generated and released greater amounts of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) than uteri from C rats, even in the presence or absence of isoproterenol. In addition, whereas isoproterenol administered alone increased basal cyclic AMP (cAMP) production from C uteri, PGE2 administered alone enhanced cAMP production in E uterine tissue. These results suggest that the decrease in beta-adrenergic response to the agonist in E rats is ascribed to PGE2 production. The abnormal reactivity to the beta-agonist could be associated with a heterologous desensitization of uterine beta-adrenoceptors exerted by PGE2 overload in uteri from E rats. These results bear directly on the regulation of uterine motility during pregnancy, since an impaired response to beta-adrenergic innervation could lead to increased uterine motility, impairing the maintenance of pregnancy.

  1. Ophthalmomyiasis externa by Musca domestica in a case of orbital metastasis.

    Tomy, Rose Mary; Prabhu, Padma B


    Infestation of the living tissues of the eye, ocular adnexae or orbit by larvae of flies of the order Diptera is known as ophthalmomyiasis. Ophthalmomyiasis externa is a limited superficial infestation of external ocular structures such as conjunctiva and adnexae. A case of follicular carcinoma thyroid with orbital metastasis presenting as ophthalmomyiasis externa is reported. The patient presented with foul smelling ulcers of the medial and lateral orbital walls of the right eye extending into the lids and nose, teeming with maggots. Computerized Tomography (CT) showed widespread bone destruction with extension into surrounding sinuses. Over 200 maggots were manually removed after immobilisation with turpentine oil instillation. Entomological examination showed it to be a case of accidental myiasis caused by the common housefly Musca domestica. The patient was managed conservatively and the ulcer cavities filled up with healthy granulation tissue. This case is presented on account of its rarity.

  2. Ophthalmomyiasis externa by Musca domestica in a case of orbital metastasis

    Rose Mary Tomy


    Full Text Available Infestation of the living tissues of the eye, ocular adnexae or orbit by larvae of flies of the order Diptera is known as ophthalmomyiasis. Ophthalmomyiasis externa is a limited superficial infestation of external ocular structures such as conjunctiva and adnexae. A case of follicular carcinoma thyroid with orbital metastasis presenting as ophthalmomyiasis externa is reported. The patient presented with foul smelling ulcers of the medial and lateral orbital walls of the right eye extending into the lids and nose, teeming with maggots. Computerized Tomography (CT showed widespread bone destruction with extension into surrounding sinuses. Over 200 maggots were manually removed after immobilisation with turpentine oil instillation. Entomological examination showed it to be a case of accidental myiasis caused by the common housefly Musca domestica. The patient was managed conservatively and the ulcer cavities filled up with healthy granulation tissue. This case is presented on account of its rarity.

  3. Choristoma involving the floor of the mouth and the anterior tongue: a case of teratoid cyst with gastric and respiratory epithelia.

    Pentenero, Monica; Marino, Roberto; Familiari, Ubaldo; Gandolfo, Sergio


    Oral dysontogenic cysts result from defective embryonic development. Among them teratoid cysts are the most unusual presentation and may be lined by gastric, intestinal, respiratory, squamous, ciliated epithelium or even pancreatic structures. Teratoid cysts containing respiratory and gastrointestinal epithelium have typically been called choristomas. This article describes a 15-year-old boy presenting a choristoma involving both the floor of the mouth and the anterior tongue and characterized by the presence of squamous epithelium with skin adnexa, gastric and respiratory epithelium.

  4. Horner’s Syndrome Incidental to Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Excision: Case Report and Brief Literature Review


    Horner’s syndrome is characterized by a combination of ipsilateral miosis, blepharoptosis, enophthalmos, facial anhidrosis, and iris heterochromia in existence of congenital lesions. The syndrome results from a disruption of the ipsilateral sympathetic innervation of the eye and ocular adnexa at different levels. Though rare, thyroid and neck surgery could be considered as possible causes of this clinical entity. We present a case of Horner’s syndrome in a patient after total thyroidectomy an...

  5. Laparoscopic dissection of the pararectal space

    Sami M Walid


    Full Text Available Pelvic adhesions affecting the uterine adnexa or cul-de-sacs are a common finding in gynaecological surgery. We present a referred patient with a history of laparoscopic hysterectomy and right salpingo-oophorectomy and an unresected left ovarian mass causing ovarian retention syndrome. The left ovarian complex was hidden in the left pararectal space. The laparoscopic technique for dealing with such a rare case is explained.

  6. Dynamic MR Imaging of the Pelvic Floor:Technical Considerations and Image Analysis


    @@ The pelvic floor is a complex anatomic and functional unit of multiple muscle layers, fascia and ligaments.In clinical routine, a simple anatomic concept of the female pelvic floor has gained acceptance.Especially for treatment planning,the female pelvic floor may be separated into three functional compartments:.the anterior compartment (bladder and urethra), the middle compartment (vagina,cervix,uterus,and adnexa), and the posterior compartment (anus and rectum).

  7. Carbon dioxide-laser microsurgical median glossotomy for resection of lingual dermoid cysts.

    Kristien Corvers


    Full Text Available Dermoid cysts are epithelial-lined cavities with skin adnexae in the capsule. Only 7% present in the head and neck. Between 2004 and 2013, 4 patients with a lingual dermoid cyst underwent a microsurgical carbon dioxide (CO² laser resection via a median sagittal glossotomy approach. This approach is an elegant technique combining superior visualization, hemostasis, and little postoperative edema with good wound healing, allowing for perfect function preservation of the tongue.

  8. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the cecum: a case report and review of literatures

    QU Gui-mei; HU Jin-chen; CAI Li; LANG Zhi-qiang


    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) are a group of rare mesenchymal neoplasms which composed of histologically and immunohistochemically distinctive perivascular epithelioid cells (PECs). In recent years, PEComas have been manily reported in liver, kidney, lung, uterus and adnexa,1 but rare in small or large intestine.2-6 Here, we describe a case of PEComa restricted in the cecal mucosa, which displayed histological characteristics of epithelioid clear cells.

  9. Simultaneous Bilateral Tubal Pregnancy After In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer

    Sunduz Ozlem Altinkaya


    Conclusion: The diagnosis of ectopic or heterotopic pregnancy should always be considered in patients undergoing IVF-ET because of its increased incidence with this technique compared with natural conception. Although the incidence of bilateral tubal pregnancy is not high, sonographers and surgeons should examine both adnexa when diagnosing an ectopic pregnancy, especially in IVF-ET patients. Early diagnosis is essential for the prevention of significant maternal morbidity and mortality.

  10. [Complications of operative hysteroscopy].

    Agostini, A; Bretelle, F; Cravello, L; Ronda, I; Roger, V; Blanc, B


    Assess the prevalence and severity of the various complications of operative hysteroscopy, the context in which they occur and the treatments proposed. A single-center observational study from 1/1/90 to 1/1/99 including 2,116 surgical hysteroscopies (resection of a fibroma (782) or polyp (422), section of a septate uterus (199), synechia uteri (90) and endometrectomy (623)). There were 74 complications (3.5%). The most frequent was uterine perforation (34 cases (1.61%)). There were 13 cases of haemorrhage (0.61%), 16 cases of post-surgical fever (0.76%) and 11 metabolic complications (0.47%). Synechia uteri was the surgical intervention with the greatest risk of complications. The complications of surgical hysteroscopy are rare and relatively benign. Uterine perforation appears to predominate. In our study, the risk of complication was enhanced in the case of synechia uteri.

  11. A retrospective review of the adnexal outcome after detorsion in premenarchal girls

    Abdullah Yildiz


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to report our results on premenarchal girls with adnexal torsion who were treated with different approaches. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six adnexal torsions in children were analysed retrospectively. Group 1 included cases of oophorectomy for the twisted adnexa. Group 2 contained the patients with adnexal torsion who untwisted either with a laparoscopic or open approach. Postoperative restoration of ovarian function was evaluated by Doppler ultrasound at the 6 th month. All oophorectomy and biopsy specimens were also evaluated. Results: Group 1 consisted of eleven cases that underwent oophorectomy due to gangrenous change and haemorrhagic infarction. Histology was of a mature teratoma in two cases and haemorrhagic necrosis due to torsion in seven. Group 2 consisted of 15 patients. In 10 out of 15 patients, preoperative biopsy is performed in which their histology revealed haemorrhagic necrosis in eight cases, and simple cyst with a benign nature in two cases. In all of the 10 untwisted adnexas, postoperative radiological imaging showed complete recovery with normal follicular development. No malignancy or increased tumour markers were noted in both groups. Conclusion: Adnexas can be left in place regardless of the preoperative degree of necrosis. Biopsy can be added to the procedure to rule out malignancy.

  12. Tuboovarian abscess mimicking intraligamentar uterine myoma and a intrauterine device: a case report.

    Habek, D; Has, B; Habek, J Cerkez


    A case study is presented of tubo-ovarian abscess (pathohystological-verified actinomycosis) in a 41-year-old woman with an intrauterine device (IUD), which on US was found to be imposed upon an intraligamentary degenerated myoma (pyomyoma). The patient was afebrile, with normal vital functions (diuresis, blood pressure and pulse). Exposure of the abdominal cavity by lower transverse laparotomy performed under general endotracheal anaesthesia revealed slight uterus enlargement with normal left adnexa, whereas right adnexa were not exposed due to the soft tumour in the region of the right ligamentum latum, which displaced the urinary bladder and uterus leftward. The peritoneum fold was incised and deprepared, revealing a tumorous formation imposed onto the myoma or onto the 'cold' tubo-ovarian abscess. Total hysterectomy was then performed. Left adnexa showed a normal finding. Hemalaun-eosin staining of the preparation of the tumour capsule and tumour content showed colonies of threads extending radially to the surrounding tissues (drusen), surrounded by pus corpuscles, polymorphonuclears and macrophages containing lipids (sulfur granules). The patient was free from disease relapse at 2 years after the procedure. Thus, total abdominal hysterectomy and salpingoophorectomy, along with antibiotic therapy, were the definite mode of treatment for pelvic actinomycosis.

  13. Isomers of broparoestrol and antiestrogen action: comparison with tamoxifen.

    Edery, M; Barnova, A; Drosdowsky, M; Guggiari, M; Vives, C; Rudali, G


    This study compares the relative biological potencies of a known antiestrogen tamoxifen to two triarylethylene compounds which have been shown previously to be potent inhibitors of rodent mammary tumorigenesis. Based on a) uterotrophic and anti-uterotrophic tests, b) indexes of cellularity, and c) protein content, these studies indicate that the trans, as well as the cis, isomers of bromotriphenylethylene are partial estrogen antagonists with no estrogenic effects in rat uteri and partial agonists in mouse uteri, whereas tamoxifen shows partial antiestrogenic/estrogenic effects in rats and is fully estrogenic in mice.

  14. Placenta previa: outcomes in scarred and unscarred uterus

    Rajshree Dayanand Katke


    Conclusions: In conclusion, primary prevention in the form of reduction in the rate of primi cesearean section must be done in order to prevent likelihood of placenta previa in scarred uteri. Early diagnosis by Ultrasound and planned delivery should be the goal. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2728-2732

  15. Insights into the microbiota of the bovine uterus

    Rødtness Vesterby Knudsen, Lif; Christensen Karstrup, Cecilia; Gervi Pedersen, Hanne

    antimicrobial agent, which may lead to unnecessary antibiotic resistance development. Slaughterhouse samples were analysed in order to obtain information on the uterine microbiota from both cows with endometritis and seemingly healthy cows from a variety of herds. We sampled uteri from cows (n=50) from...

  16. Systematic review of the limited evidence for different surgical techniques at benign hysterectomy

    Sloth, Sigurd Beier; Schroll, Jeppe Bennekou; Settnes, Annette


    laparoscopic hysterectomy for non-prolapsed uteri when feasible (⊕ΟΟΟ). ↓ Robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy should only be preferred over conventional laparoscopic hysterectomy after careful consideration because the beneficial effect is uncertain and because of the longer operating time (⊕⊕ΟΟ...

  17. Past Medical and Dental Experiences as a Predictpr of Behaviour of ...


    significantly impact oral health, and oral diseases qualify as major public health problems owing to their .... 50. Cervix uteri. Breast. Liver. Prostate. Stomach. NHL. Colorectal. Oesophagus. Oral cavity .... reduce risks through sensitive policies ... operation. * Development of methods and tools to analyse the processes and.

  18. Uterus Didelphys: Report of a Puerperal Torsion and a Review of the Literature

    Lucio M. A. Cipullo


    Full Text Available A 29-year-old Para 2 was admitted to the emergency department with increasing lower abdominal pain. The patient had undergone an uncomplicated elective repeat caesarean section 7 days before being admitted to the emergency department. An emergency laparotomy revealed a uterus didelphys with a torsion of one of the uteri.

  19. Androgen receptor expression in human ovarian and uterine tissue of long term androgen-treated transsexual women

    D. Chadha; T.D. Pache; F.J. Huikeshoven (Frans); A.O. Brinkmann (Albert); Th.H. van der Kwast (Theo)


    textabstractAndrogen receptor (AR) modulation in human uteri and ovaries of long term androgen-treated transsexual female patients was investigated. Androgen receptor expression was evaluated immunohistochemically in the ovaries of 11 and the endometria and myometria of six androgen-treated transsex

  20. Comparative study of vaginal hysterectomy and abdominal hysterectomy for enlarged uterus

    Chandrika S.


    Conclusions: Bulk reducing techniques were used to remove the moderately enlarged uterus through vaginal route. Vaginal hysterectomy is invasive route, safe and feasible in cases with enlarged uteri up to 14 weeks due to benign causes. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(9.000: 3116-3120

  1. Drug: D05599 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D05599 Drug Prazarelix acetate (USAN) C80H102ClN23O12. (C2H4O2)x Treatment of uteri... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor [HSA:2798] [KO:K04280] Prazarelix D05599 Prazarelix acetate (USAN) CAS: 134485-10-2 PubChem: 47207262 ...

  2. Malformations in a cohort of 284 women with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKH

    Oppelt Patricia G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this retrospective study was to describe the spectrum of genital and associated malformations in women with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome using evaluated diagnostic procedures and the Vagina Cervix Uterus Adnex – associated Malformation classification system (VCUAM. Methods 290 women with MRKH syndrome were clinically evaluated with using clinical examinations, abdominal and perineal/rectal ultrasound, MRI, and laparoscopy. Results Classification of female genital malformation according to the Vagina Cervix Uterus Adnex – associated Malformation classification system was possible in 284 women (97.9%. Complete atresia of Vagina (V5b and bilateral atresia of Cervix (C2b were found in 284 patients (100%. Uterus: bilateral rudimentary or a plastic uterine horns were found in 239 women (84.2%. Adnexa: normal Adnexa were found in 248 women (87.3%. Malformations: associated malformations were found in 126 of 282 evaluable women (44.7%, 84 women (29.6% had malformations of the renal system. Of 284 women with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome 212 women (74.7% could be classified as V5bC2bU4bA0. The most frequent classification was V5bC2bU4bA0M0 (46.8% diagnosed in 133 of 284 women. Conclusions Complete atresia of vagina and cervix were found in all patients, variable malformations were found with uterus and adnexa. A variety of associated malformations were present, predominantly of the renal system. It is therefore recommended that all patients with genital malformations should be evaluated for renal abnormalities.

  3. Corpus Luteum Cyst Rupture - US Findings and Clinical Features

    Shin, Shang Hun; Lee, Jong Hwa; Kang, Byeong Seong; Yang, Myeon Jun; Jeong, Yoong Ki [Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Hwan [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Hung [Dong Kang General Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    To describe the US findings of corpus luteum cyst rupture in order to elucidate the associated clinical features. Twenty patients with proven corpus luteum cyst rupture were included in this study. The US findings of these patients were retrospectively analyzed in terms of the presence of designable cyst, size of the cyst, thickness and blood flow of the cyst wall, extension and echogenicity of peritoneal fluid, and involved site (right or left ovary). We also surveyed the clinical features such as the onset period according to the menstrual cycle, and the presence of suspectable cause. Fourteen of the 20 patients revealed designable cysts (mean diameter of 2.6 cm) with thick walled cysts (mean thickness, 4.6 mm, 2.4-6.8 mm) and increased blood flow. Six patients didn't reveal any cyst but only hematoma in adnexa. All patients had hemoperitoneum in the pelvic cavity, and the hemoperitoneum was extended to Morrison's pouch in 8 patients and to the subphrenic space in 6. The cysts occurred in the right adnexa in 15 patients and in the left in 5. Mean interval from the last menstrual period (LMP) was 26 days (13-44 days) and 6 of the 8 patients for whom it had been possible to obtain detailed history taking had had coitus just before the occurrence of symptom. When women who are hospitalized for acute abdomen and who are in luteal phase reveal US findings of hematoma or thick-walled cyst in adnexa and hemoperitoneum, a corpus luteum cyst rupture is highly suspected. In our case study the corpus luteum cyst rupture predominantly occurred in the right side, and the most suspectable cause was trauma such as coitus in the luteal phase

  4. The management of congenital malpositions of eyelids, eyes and orbits.

    Morax, S; Hurbli, T


    Congenital malformations of the eye and its adnexa which are multiple and varied can affect the whole eyeball or any part of it, as well as the orbit, eyelids, lacrimal ducts, extra-ocular muscles and conjunctiva. A classification of these malformations is presented together with the general principles of treatment, age of operating and surgical tactics. The authors give some examples of the anatomo-clinical forms, eyelid malformations such as entropion, ectropion, ptosis, levator eyelid retraction, medial canthus malposition, congenital eyelid colobomas, and congenital orbital abnormalities (Craniofacial stenosis, orbital plagiocephalies, hypertelorism, anophthalmos, microphthalmos and cryptophthalmos).

  5. Laparoscopic management of tumor in supernumerary ovary

    Prakash, Ved; Kant, Anita; Parashar, Abha; Rani, Uma


    Laparoscopic management of most of the adnexal masses has become feasible in the present era of advancing endoscopic techniques. A postmenopausal lady presented with lump in the abdomen, appeared to be a solid ovarian mass on ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. On laparoscopy, both the ovaries were normal and the mass was not connected to uterus or adnexa. The mass was removed and histopathology confirmed it to be ovarian tissue thus confirming it to be a tumor in a supernumerary ovary. Examples of supernumerary ovary are among the rarest of gynecological abnormalities. PMID:27134478

  6. New Fossils of Eoptychopteridae (Diptera)from the Middle Jurassic of Northeastern China

    HAO Jianying; REN Dong; SHIH Chungkun


    Three new species of the extinct genus of Eoptychopterina from the Eoptychopteridae family, Eoptychopterina antica sp. nov., Eoptychopterina adnexa sp. nov., and Eoptychopterina mediata sp. nov., are described and illustrated. These three new species are established based on fossil specimens with bodies and complete wings. All were collected from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou in eastern Inner Mongolia, China. Based on the new materials, the name of two species in Eoptychopterina from China--Eoptychopterina elenae Ren and Krzeminski and Eoptychopterina gigantea Zhang--is sysnonymum junius.

  7. Laparoscopic management of tumor in supernumerary ovary

    Ved Prakash


    Full Text Available Laparoscopic management of most of the adnexal masses has become feasible in the present era of advancing endoscopic techniques. A postmenopausal lady presented with lump in the abdomen, appeared to be a solid ovarian mass on ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. On laparoscopy, both the ovaries were normal and the mass was not connected to uterus or adnexa. The mass was removed and histopathology confirmed it to be ovarian tissue thus confirming it to be a tumor in a supernumerary ovary. Examples of supernumerary ovary are among the rarest of gynecological abnormalities.

  8. Pseudomyxoma peritonei and mucocele of vermiform appendix simulating right adnexal mass

    Miłosz Wilczyński


    Full Text Available We present a case of a 51-year-old woman who suffered from persistent right lower abdominal pain. Ultrasoundexamination revealed two lesions in the area of right adnexa. A suspicion of right adnexal cyst was made. Laparoscopyshowed that patient was affected by an early stage of pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP resulting from a rupturedmucocele of the vermiform appendix. This condition is very rare, however, due to its localization and not specificclinical manifestation it should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of adnexal masses.

  9. Horner's Syndrome Incidental to Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Excision: Case Report and Brief Literature Review.

    Mastronikolis, Nicholas S; Spiliopoulou, Sofia P; Zolota, Vassiliki; Papadas, Theodoros A


    Horner's syndrome is characterized by a combination of ipsilateral miosis, blepharoptosis, enophthalmos, facial anhidrosis, and iris heterochromia in existence of congenital lesions. The syndrome results from a disruption of the ipsilateral sympathetic innervation of the eye and ocular adnexa at different levels. Though rare, thyroid and neck surgery could be considered as possible causes of this clinical entity. We present a case of Horner's syndrome in a patient after total thyroidectomy and neck dissection for medullary thyroid cancer with neck nodal disease and attempt a brief review of the relevant literature.

  10. Orbital Compartment Syndrome Leading to Visual Loss following Orbital Floor Reconstruction.

    Susarla, Srinivas M; Nam, Arthur J; Dorafshar, Amir H


    Reconstruction of posttraumatic orbital defects carries the attendant risk of injury to the ocular adnexa, globe, and associated neurovascular structures. Blindness following repair of orbital fractures is an infrequent but well-documented phenomenon. Visual acuity loss can be related to direct intraoperative injury to the optic nerve, retinal arterial occlusion, or delayed presentation of acute optic nerve injury. In this report, we document a unique case of acute optic nerve infarction occurring 14 hours following orbital floor exploration and repair in a 56-year-old man.

  11. Nodular Fasciitis of the Orbit.

    Compton, Christopher J; Clark, Jeremy D; Thompson, Matthew P; Lee, Hui Bae H; Nunery, William R

    A 13-month-old boy was presented with new onset proptosis of the right eye. CT scan and MRI showed an enhancing mass in the right superior orbit with local bone remodeling and erosion. A craniotomy was performed for biopsy and sub-total resection. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed the lesion to be nodular fasciitis. Nodular fasciitis lesions are classically found in the anterior ocular adnexa, especially in pediatric patients. This is the first reported case of nodular fasciitis arising in the posterior orbit of a child younger than 16.

  12. Variação espacial e temporal de larvas de Odonata associadas com macrófitas aquáticas em duas lagoas da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, Brasil Spatial and temporal variation of Odonata larvae associated with macrophytes in two floodplain lakes from the upper Paraná River, Brazil

    Gilza Maria de Souza Franco


    Full Text Available Amostras de macrófitas aquáticas foram coletadas de março de 1992 a fevereiro de 1993, nas lagoas do Guaraná (Eichhornia azurea e dos Patos (E. crassipes e E. azurea. Na lagoa do Guaraná, a maior densidade e a maior diversidade foram registradas nas águas altas, com dominância de Telebasis e Acanthagrion, enquanto na lagoa dos Patos a maior densidade e a maior diversidade foram verificadas na fase de águas baixas. Os táxons dominantes na lagoa dos Patos foram Telebasis, Acanthagrion, Neoneura (?,Coryphaeschna adnexa, Miathyria, Diastatops intensa e Erythemis. A lagoa dos Patos diferenciou-se da lagoa do Guaraná principalmente pela alta densidade de C. adnexa, Miathyria, D. intensa e Erythemis, sugerindo que a morfologia de E. crassipes abrigue maior número de invertebrados. A variação do nível hidrométrico dos rios influenciou na concentração de oxigênio dissolvido e pH. Essa variação foi um dos fatores determinantes na flutuação mensal da densidade das larvas. A diferença entre as lagoas, mostrada na análise DCA, deveu-se, principalmente, à variação da densidade de Odonata.Samples of aquatic macrophytes were collected on Guaraná (Eichhornia azurea and Patos (E. crassipes and E. azurea Lakes from March 1992 to February 1993. On Guaraná Lake the highest density and diversity were registered during the high water phase with dominance of Telebasis and Acanthagrion, while on Patos Lake, highest density and diversity were observed during the low water phase. The dominant taxa on Patos Lake were Telebasis, Acanthagrion, Neoneura (?,Coryphaeschna adnexa, Miathyria, Diastatops intensa and Erythemis. DCA and ANOVA differentiated Patos Lake mainly, because of the high abundance of C. adnexa, Miathyria, D. intensa and Erythemis which may be due to morphology of E. crassipes that shelters larger number of invertebrates. Water level variation of rivers influenced concentration of dissolved oxygen and pH. This variation was

  13. [Local involvement of the optic nerve by acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    Bernardczyk-Meller, Jadwiga; Stefańska, Katarzyna


    The leucemias quite commonly involve the eyes and adnexa. In some cases it causes visual complants. Both, the anterior chamber of the eye and the posterior portion of the globe may sites of acute or chronic leukemia and leucemic relapse. We report an unique case of a 14 years old leucemic patient who suffered visual loss and papilloedema, due to a unilateral local involvement within optic nerve, during second relapse of acute lymphocytic leuemia. In spite of typical treatment of main disease, the boy had died. The authors present typical ophthalmic features of the leucemia, too.

  14. Progression of conjunctival primary acquired melanosis (PAM) to widely spreaded malignant melanoma.

    Jandroković, Sonja; Popović-Suić, Smiljka; Mandić, Jelena Juri; Kuzman, Tomislav; Skegro, Ivan; Kutija, Marija Barisić; Masnec, Sanja; Kalauz, Miro


    Primary acquired melanosis (PAM) is an acquired pigmentation of the conjunctival epithelium, a preinvasive pigmented lesion. When it is associated with cellular atypia it can lead to the developement of melanoma. We report a case report of malignant melanoma of the conjuntiva, which arrised from the conjuntival PAM. The disease was too extensive for ocular conservation, therefore exenteration was performed. This case highlights the need for regular follow-up of patients with melanocytic lesions of the ocular adnexa, and particular attention to the surgical technique, and careful follow-up to detect further disease activity.

  15. Ipsilateral facial and uveal arteriovenous and capillary angioma, microphthalmos, heterochromia of the iris, and hypotony: an oculocutaneous syndrome simulating Sturge-Weber syndrome.

    Gass, J D


    Sturge-Weber syndrome is a disorder characterized by ipsilateral cavernous hemangioma of the face, uvea, and brain in patients who may present with an enlarged eye, exudative retinal detachment, glaucoma, and seizures. This report presents the clinicopathologic findings of an otherwise healthy infant with ipsilateral arteriovenous and capillary hemangiomas of the face and uveal tract, microphthalmos, iris heterochromia, hypotony, and absence of central nervous system involvement. The association of an arteriovenous-capillary angioma of the ocular adnexa and ipsilateral uveal tract is a syndrome that is distinct from Sturge-Weber syndrome.

  16. Horner’s Syndrome Incidental to Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Excision: Case Report and Brief Literature Review

    Nicholas S. Mastronikolis


    Full Text Available Horner’s syndrome is characterized by a combination of ipsilateral miosis, blepharoptosis, enophthalmos, facial anhidrosis, and iris heterochromia in existence of congenital lesions. The syndrome results from a disruption of the ipsilateral sympathetic innervation of the eye and ocular adnexa at different levels. Though rare, thyroid and neck surgery could be considered as possible causes of this clinical entity. We present a case of Horner’s syndrome in a patient after total thyroidectomy and neck dissection for medullary thyroid cancer with neck nodal disease and attempt a brief review of the relevant literature.

  17. Horner's Syndrome Incidental to Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Excision: Case Report and Brief Literature Review

    Mastronikolis, Nicholas S.; Spiliopoulou, Sofia P.; Zolota, Vassiliki; Papadas, Theodoros A.


    Horner's syndrome is characterized by a combination of ipsilateral miosis, blepharoptosis, enophthalmos, facial anhidrosis, and iris heterochromia in existence of congenital lesions. The syndrome results from a disruption of the ipsilateral sympathetic innervation of the eye and ocular adnexa at different levels. Though rare, thyroid and neck surgery could be considered as possible causes of this clinical entity. We present a case of Horner's syndrome in a patient after total thyroidectomy and neck dissection for medullary thyroid cancer with neck nodal disease and attempt a brief review of the relevant literature. PMID:27200201

  18. Adnexal Torsion during Pregnancy after Oocyte In Vitro Maturation and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycle

    Simone Giulini


    Full Text Available We report a case of right adnexal torsion during pregnancy after an oocyte in vitro maturation and intracitoplasmic sperm injection cycle in patient with polycystic ovary syndrome. A 31-year-old woman with a typical clinical disorder of polycystic ovarian syndrome was included in an oocyte in vitro maturation program. Right adnexal torsion occurred two days after embryo transfer, and laparoscopy detorsion was successfully performed with preservation of adnexa. The patient had a full-term pregnancy and delivered a healthy infant at 40 weeks of gestation. To our knowledge this is the first report of adnexal torsion after an oocyte in vitro maturation and intracitoplasmic sperm injection program.

  19. [Salmon-pink colored conjunctival tumor with amyloid deposits].

    Müller, P L; Loeffler, K U; Holz, F G; Fischer, H-P; Herwig, M C


    An 82-year-old male patient presented with a salmon-pink colored conjunctival tumor of the left eye. A circumscribed, dense and whitish portion was detected by clinical examination. The histophological and immunhistochemical examination of the biopsy tissue revealed a CD20+ marginal zone lymphoma of the conjunctiva with amyloid deposits. Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma at this site is the most common lymphoma of the ocular adnexa and accounts for 5-10% of malignant diseases. An association with amyloid production is very rare and according to the current state of knowledge has no known impact on the outcome.

  20. Association Between Body Mass Index, Uterine Size, and Operative Morbidity in Women Undergoing Minimally Invasive Hysterectomy.

    Shah, Divya K; Van Voorhis, Bradley J; Vitonis, Allison F; Missmer, Stacey A

    Although the selection of an approach to minimally invasive hysterectomy is relatively straightforward in an ideal patient scenario, it is more difficult in patients who pose operative challenges such as high body mass index (BMI) and enlarged uteri. The objective of this study was to explore the association between surgical approach and operative morbidity after minimally invasive hysterectomy and examine whether the association varies based on patient BMI and uterine size. Retrospective cohort (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Data abstracted from the American College of Surgeons National Safety and Quality Improvement Project registry. Thirty-six thousand seven hundred fifty-seven women undergoing vaginal, laparoscopic-assisted vaginal, or total laparoscopic hysterectomy for benign indications between January 2005 and December 2012. Associations between surgical approach, BMI, and operative morbidity were examined, stratifying by uterine size (250 g) and adjusting for covariates. Adjusted means, rate ratios, or odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using linear, Poisson, or logistic regression. Operative times were shortest in women undergoing vaginal hysterectomy regardless of BMI or uterine size (all p hysterectomy; increasing BMI had a minimal impact on operative time with small uteri 250 g. Compared with vaginal hysterectomy, total laparoscopic hysterectomy had lower odds of blood transfusion (all p obese women with small uteri; women with uteri 40 kg/m(2) had 76% lower odds of blood transfusion (95% CI, 0.10-0.54) and 18% shorter hospitalization (95% CI, 0.75-0.90) after laparoscopic hysterectomy compared with vaginal hysterectomy. Major operative morbidity after minimally invasive hysterectomy is rare regardless of the surgical approach. A vaginal approach to hysterectomy is associated with the shortest operative times, but increasing BMI results in a rapid escalation of operative time in women with large uteri

  1. Total Robotic Hysterectomy: Thailand’s First Case Report of Gynecologic Robotic Surgery

    Korakot Sirimai


    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to report the feasibility, trouble shooting and surgical technique in the total robotic hysterectomy for the patient with adenomyoma uteri. Methods: A 51 year-old patient was diagnosed with adenomyosis. Total robotic hysterectomy was performed. Results: Total operating time was 350 min, estimated blood loss was 50 ml, and length of hospitalization was 6 days. The pathologic section revealed adenomyosis with myoma uteri. The intraoperative and post-operative complications were unremarkable. The patient was in good conditions at 6th week, 3rd, 6th, 12th and 24th month. Conclusion: Total robotic hysterectomy for benign gynecologic condition, such as adenomyosis, is safe and feasible. However, the sustained high consuming cost must be weighted with the patient’s advantages.

  2. The adverse effects of hormonal therapy.

    Bush, T L


    Estrogen therapy must be cycled with progestin therapy in women with intact uteri in order to prevent uterine cancer. However, these women cannot be expected to benefit (with regard to cardiovascular disease) from any estrogen-induced changes in the lipoprotein profile, as progestins will either negate or overwhelm any estrogen effects. However, such women will definitely benefit from estrogen's effects with regard to menopausal symptoms and bone loss. These clearly beneficial effects of estrogen-progestin therapy are not outweighed by any known risks. However, in women without uteri (approximately 30 per cent of women), unopposed estrogen therapy in the menopause may protect against cardiovascular disease, as well as have beneficial effects on bone metabolism and menopausal symptoms. In this special case, the beneficial effects of unopposed estrogen therapy clearly outweigh any known risk.

  3. Intra-cycle variation of the uterine cavity indentation assessed with three-dimensional ultrasound in natural and stimulated cycles.

    Saravelos, Sotirios H; Li, Tin-Chiu


    The recent ESHRE-ESGE classification for female genital anomalies attempts to promote objectivity in diagnosis of normal and septate uteri. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether the uterine cavity indentation - the characteristic feature of septate uteri - varies significantly throughout the cycle. Seventy consecutive women underwent three-dimensional ultrasound twice: 35 during the proliferative and luteal phase of a natural cycle, and 35 during the first and final day of a stimulated cycle. Endometrial thickness, interostial distance, cavity indentation and percentage of cavity indentation were all assessed in accordance with the ESHRE-ESGE consensus on diagnosis of female genital anomalies. Overall, throughout both cycles, there was a significant increase in endometrial thickness (from 4.6 mm to 10.2 mm; P cavity indentation (from 30.3% to 15.0%; P uterine cavity indentation has important implications for both clinical practice and research.

  4. Hysterektomi i Danmark. En analyse af postoperativ hospitalisering, morbiditet og genindlaeggelse

    Møller, Charlotte; Kehlet, Henrik; Utzon, Jan


    Register over a two-year period (1998-2000) on hysterectomies for benign indications, carcinoma in situ cervicis uteri, and cancer corporis uteri stage 1. A stratified sample of 821 discharge résumés was reviewed for detection of complications. RESULTS: Over the two-year period, 10,171 women had "standard......" hysterectomies followed by a median postoperative hospitalisation of four days. In departments performing more than 100 operations per year, the median hospital stay varied from three to 5.5 days. Eighty per cent of the hysterectomies were abdominal, 6% laparoscopically assisted, and 14% vaginal with marked...... regional variation in the choice of surgical approach. The number of vaginal hysterectomies varied from 0 to 67% in departments with a surgical activity of more than 100 per year. Eight per cent were readmitted within 30 days of the operation and the mortality rate was 0.6@1000. Extrapolation from...

  5. [The serum copper/serum iron ratio in malignant tumors of the female genitalia].

    Maas, D H; Hinckers, H J


    Copper and iron in blood of 83 women with maligne tumors of the genitalia were regulary controled before, during and till 69 weeks after therapy. The relation between the copper/iron-ratio and the expansion and histology of the tumors, the success of the therapy and the incidence of a recurrence was checked for any significancy. Our results show the improtance of the ratio in the diagnosis and differentialdiagnosis of the ovarian-cancer and the corpus-uteri-cancer, and in the success-controll during tumor-therapy. In the group of the patients with collum-uteri-cancer we found a significant difference in the copper/iron-ratio of the patients with and without a recurrence during the controllperiod after therapy, which emphasizes the importance of this copper/iron-ratio.

  6. Administering an eye anaesthetic: principles, techniques, and complications

    Ahmed Fahmi


    Full Text Available The trigeminal nerve carries the sensory innervation of the eye and adnexa in three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular. The sensory fibres of the eye and adnexa are found in the ophthalmic division – with the exception of a portion of the sensory input from the lower lid, which is carried by the maxillary division. Blocking the sensory fibres provides anaesthesia so that no pain is felt.The motor supply of the extraocular muscles and levator palpebrae superioris is carried by the oculomotor (III, trochlear (IV, and abducens (VI nerves. Paralysing these muscles by blocking their motor supply provides akinesia so that the eye does not move during surgery.The motor supply of the orbicularis oculi, which is responsible for the gentle and forcible closure of the eye, is carried by the facial nerve (VII. Blocking these fibres will provide better surgical exposure. It also reduces the risk of forcing out the ocular contents if the patient tries to close his eyelids forcibly after the surgeon opens the globe.

  7. Struma ovarii with follicular thyroid-type carcinoma and neuroendocrine component: case report

    Selvaggi Federico


    Full Text Available Abstract Struma ovarii (SO is a slow-growing ovarian neoplasm with thyroid tissue as its predominant component. It is an uncommon neoplasm, usually asymptomatic with an unknown risk of malignant transformation. Due to difficulties in assessing the rare biological nature and the discrepancies in the reported cases, a consensus on the appropriate treatment has not been definitively reached. A 50-year-old female was subjected to upper gut endoscopy which showed a 30-mm mass located in the gastric antrum, suggestive of mesenchimal tumor. Incidentally, a pelvic CT scan also documented a solid mass in the right adnexa, with morphological characteristics of ovarian neoplasm. The patient underwent gastrectomy, total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with lymph node dissection, and omentectomy. Histology documented the presence of gastric cavernous angioma, and, in the right adnexa, foci of follicular thyroid-type carcinoma arising in SO with a well-differentiated neuroendocrine component. Here we report and discuss the clinical and morphological presentation of follicular thyroid-type carcinoma arising in SO. The neoplasm was discovered incidentally and had a favorable clinical outcome at 1-year follow-up.

  8. Single-Incision Single-Instrument Adnexal Surgery in Pediatric Patients

    Tara Loux


    Full Text Available Introduction. Pediatric surgeons often practice pediatric gynecology. The single-incision single-instrument (SISI technique used for appendectomy is applicable in gynecologic surgery. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed the records of patients undergoing pelvic surgery from 2008 to 2013. SISI utilized a 12 mm transumbilical trocar and an operating endoscope. The adnexa can be detorsed intracorporeally or extracorporealized via the umbilicus for lesion removal. Results. We performed 271 ovarian or paraovarian surgeries in 258 patients. In 147 (54%, the initial approach was SISI; 75 cases (51% were completed in patients aged from 1 day to 19.9 years and weighing 4.7 to 117 kg. Conversion to standard laparoscopy was due to contralateral oophoropexy, solid mass, inability to mobilize the adnexa, large mass, bleeding, adhesions, or better visualization. When SISI surgery was converted to Pfannenstiel, the principal reason was a solid mass. SISI surgery was significantly shorter than standard laparoscopy. There were no major complications and the overall cohort had an 11% minor complication rate. Conclusion. SISI adnexal surgery is safe, quick, inexpensive, and effective in pediatric patients. SISI was successful in over half the patients in whom it was attempted and offers a scarless result. If unsuccessful, the majority of cases can be completed with standard multiport laparoscopy.

  9. Color doppler US findings of gestational trophoblastic disease

    Lee, Jae Hee; Lee, Myung Hee; Kim, Jee Young; Jung, Jae Keun; Shin, Kyung Sub [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study were to evaluate the findings of gestational trophoblastic disease(GTD) at color Doppler imaging (CDI) and to assess the role of CDI in differentiating gestational trophoblastic tumor (GTT) from hydatidiform mole (H-mole). CDI findings of 18 patients with H-mole and 52 patients with GTT were reviewed. Masswas detected in 43(82,7%) patients with GTT. Thirty seven out of 43 masses showed varying degree of intratumoral flows. mean resistive index (RI) of intratumoral flow was 0.39+0.15. H-mole manifestated as a characteristic vesicular mass in 6 patients without history of curretage, while there was no definable mass in 12 patients with history of curretage. The masses of H-mole did not show intratumoral flow. Hypervascularity of adnexae was detected in 44 (84.6%) patients with GTT, whereas only six (33.3%) patients with H-mole showed minimalhypervascularity of adnexae. Mean RI of uterine arteries was 0.69+0.13 in GTT and 0.70+0.15 in H-mole. CDI findings of mass in the uterus, hypervascularity of adnexal region and intramural vessels in patients suspected to have GTD clinically, may suggest GTT. In conclusion, CDI was helpful in the diagnosis of GTD and the differentiation between H-mole and GTT

  10. Rare Case of Leiomyoma and Adenomyosis in Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser Syndrome

    P. S. Hoo


    Full Text Available We report a case of adenomyosis which developed from a hypoplastic uterus and leiomyoma in a patient with MRKH syndrome. A 45-year-old Malay female with primary amenorrhoea and primary infertility presented with abdominal mass and abdominal pain. She is phenotypically female, has well developed secondary sexual characteristics, and has normal female external genitalia with shallow vagina dimple. Transabdominal ultrasonography showed a homogenous adnexal mass of 10 × 8 cm, uterus sized 5 × 4 cm, and normal kidneys. A complex mass of right adnexa was demonstrated by CT scan. Exploratory laparotomy showed torsion of right adnexal mass and rudimentary uterus with fibroid but no endometrial tissue and blind end with absent cervix. The normal right ovary and tube were not visualized. The left fallopian tube and ovary were normal. It is also complicated by vaginal agenesis. Removal of right adnexal mass and rudimentary uterus was done with preservation of left ovary. The histologic diagnosis was uterine adenomyosis and leiomyoma arising from the right adnexa, possibly from the broad ligament.

  11. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Mature Cystic Teratoma

    Suna Avcı


    Full Text Available Introduction. Malignant transformation in a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary is a rare complication. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common transformation. We describe a new case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma. Case Report. A premenopausal 52-year-old female patient is diagnosed with vaginal bleeding. According to examination made on the women and the pelvic scanning, 7 cm mass is found on the right adnexa of the patient. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, pelvic lymph node dissection, and debulking were the treatments completed on the patient. According to histopathological diagnosis, squamous cell carcinoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma is diagnosed as a reason for the mass in the right adnexa of the patient. Conclusion. The prognosis of the malign transformation of MCT depends on surgery stage; however it is extremely poor. The patient should receive chemotherapy regardless of stage. We have decided to administer second cycle carboplatin and paclitaxel treatments on the patient.

  12. Trends in Cancer Screening Rates among Korean Men and Women: Results from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), 2004-2010

    Lee, Eun-Ha; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Choi, Kui Son; Jun, Jae Kwan; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Jin Soo


    Purpose The Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS) is a continuous nationwide survey implemented by the National Cancer Center in Korea since 2004. The purpose of the present study was to report trends in cancer screening rates for the five major cancers (stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervix uteri) in Korean men and women. Materials and Methods The study used KNCSS data collected between 2004 and 2010. The survey was conducted on Korean men aged 40-74 years and Korean women...

  13. Oestrogen regulates sympathetic neurite outgrowth by modulating brain derived neurotrophic factor synthesis and release by the rodent uterus.

    Krizsan-Agbas, D; Pedchenko, T; Hasan, W; Smith, P G


    Sympathetic innervation of the adult rodent uterus undergoes cyclic remodelling. Terminal sympathetic axons degenerate when oestrogen levels rise and regenerate when oestrogen levels decline. This study examined the role of neurotrophins in oestrogen-mediated uterine sympathetic nerve remodelling. Oestrogen injection of ovariectomized female rats did not affect uterine NT-3 levels 24 h postinjection, and increased endometrial NGF protein, indicating that reduced NGF or NT-3 is not responsible for the oestrogen-induced denervation. Oestrogen also raised BDNF protein and mRNA in myometrium and endometrium. To assess whether increased BDNF affects uterine receptivity to sympathetic outgrowth, sympathetic ganglion explants were co-cultured with myometrium. Myometrium from ovariectomized rats induced neuritogenesis in oestrogen-free conditions, and this was abolished when BDNF was added to the medium. Neuritogenesis induced by ovariectomized myometrium was suppressed by oestrogen, and restored by a BDNF function-blocking antibody. To determine if target BDNF synthesis is required for oestrogen to suppress sympathetic neurite outgrowth, uteri from wild-type mice and mice homozygous or heterozygous for recombinant mutations of the BDNF gene were cultured with rat sympathetic ganglia. Neuritogenesis induced by wild-type uteri was diminished by oestrogen. Neurite formation in the presence of homozygous BDNF mutant uteri was not affected by oestrogen, but was lower than that of wild-type mice. Uteri from mice heterozygous for the BDNF mutation, who have reduced BDNF synthesis, showed normal neuritogenic properties, but were not affected by oestrogen. These findings suggest that oestrogen alters neuritogenic properties of the rodent uterus by regulating BDNF synthesis, which inhibits sympathetic neurite outgrowth.

  14. [A rare case illustrating the persistence of the oviduct in a man with simultaneous transverse testicular dystopia and uterine hernia].

    Arlt, N; Seiter, H


    A twenty-years-old man is described who had to undergo an operation because of persisting the oviduct connected with 'dystopia testis transversa et hernia uteri'. All the examinations led to the results of a male sex. The rudimentary uterus situated in the left scrotal cavity was extirpated and the both testicles were placed into the corresponding scrotal cavities. The patient declared that he is able to having a normal sexual life.

  15. Identification of Two Candidate Tumor Suppressor Genes on Chromosome l7p13.3: Assessment of their Roles in Breast and Ovarian Carcinogenesis


    also been reported in primitive neuroectodermal tumors , carcinoma of the cervix uteri, medulloblastoma, osteosarcoma, astrocytoma (22), and acute...AD______ GRANT NUMBER: DAMD17-96-1-6088 TITLE: Identification of Two Candidate Tumor Suppressor Genes on Chromosome 17p13.3: Assessment of their...Identification of Two Candidate Tumor Suppressor Genes on Chromosome 17 p13 .3 : Assessment of their Roles in Breast... DAMD17-96-1-6088 6. AUTHOR(S

  16. Tamoxifen-DNA adduct formation in monkey and human reproductive organs.

    Hernandez-Ramon, Elena E; Sandoval, Nicole A; John, Kaarthik; Cline, J Mark; Wood, Charles E; Woodward, Ruth A; Poirier, Miriam C


    The estrogen analog tamoxifen (TAM), used for adjuvant therapy of breast cancer, induces endometrial and uterine tumors in breast cancer patients. Proliferation stimulus of the uterine endometrium is likely involved in tumor induction, but genotoxicity may also play a role. Formation of TAM-DNA adducts in human tissues has been reported but remains controversial. To address this issue, we examined TAM-DNA adducts in uteri from two species of monkeys, Erythrocebus patas (patas) and Macaca fascicularis (macaque), and in human endometrium and myometrium. Monkeys were given 3-4 months of chronic TAM dosing scaled to be equivalent to the daily human dose. In the uteri, livers and brains from the patas (n = 3), and endometrium from the macaques (n = 4), TAM-DNA adducts were measurable by TAM-DNA chemiluminescence immunoassay. Average TAM-DNA adduct values for the patas uteri (23 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) were similar to those found in endometrium of the macaques (19 adducts/10(8) nucleotides). Endometrium of macaques exposed to both TAM and low-dose estradiol (n = 5) averaged 34 adducts/10(8) nucleotides. To examine TAM-DNA persistence in the patas, females (n = 3) were exposed to TAM for 3 months and to no drug for an additional month, resulting in low or non-detectable TAM-DNA in livers and uteri. Human endometrial and myometrial samples from women receiving (n = 8) and not receiving (n = 8) TAM therapy were also evaluated. Women receiving TAM therapy averaged 10.3 TAM-DNA adducts/10(8) nucleotides, whereas unexposed women showed no detectable TAM-DNA. The data indicate that genotoxicity, in addition to estrogen agonist effects, may contribute to TAM-induced human endometrial cancer.

  17. Expression of S100A10 gene and its regulation by sex hormones in mouse uterus

    CHEN Zhiqiang; LIU Jing; LI Feixue; SUN Xiaoyang; ZHANG Huaiyun; WANG Yanling


    S100A10 belongs to the S100 calcium binding protein superfamily, and functions as one of the mediators of calcium-dependent signaling pathway. Recently, S100A10 gene was proved to be significantly up-regulated at the implantation site. In the present study, semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization are used to investigate the tissue-specificity of S100A10 expression and the expression pattern of S100A10 in the uteri during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Meanwhile, the regulation of S100A10 expression by sex steroid hormones is studied in ovariectomized mice. The results show that S100A10 could be detected in various kinds of tissues, with relatively high expression in reproductive tracts including ovary, uterus, testis and epididymis.During pregnancy, the expression of S100A10 in the uteri is significantly up-regulated on the 4th day. The transcript is strongly detected in endometrial stromal cells and weakly in luminal epithelium cells at the implantation site, but almost not at the inter-implantation site.From gestational day 5 till labor, S100A10 mRNA maintains a certain level in both uteri and placentae. During the estrous cycle, expression of S100A10 is up-regulated in the uteri at proestrus and estrus. Estradiol significantly induces the expression of S100A10, while progesterone can abolish the effect of estradiol. The data suggests that S100A10 may be involved in preventing luminal epithelial cells from over-apoptosis, inducing proliferation and decidualization of stromal cells during implantation, and responding to reproductive stress triggered by copulation.

  18. Molecular profiling for predicting tumor prognosis, treatment outcome and progression of squamous cell carcinoma


    Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common histological tumor type in the cervix uteri and oral tongue. Although both cancers are diagnosed at an early stage in the majority of cases, cervical cancer has a better prognosis despite similarities in treatment. The aim of this thesis is to increase our knowledge of tumor progression in squamous cell carcinoma at the molecular level, and to use this knowledge to explore the clinical implications of this knowledge in the develop...

  19. Uterine-Specific Knockout of Tsc-2: A Mouse Model for Lymphangioleiomyomatosis


    wild-type) were used as controls. In the mouse uterus, low-level PR pro- moter activity occurs in luminal and glandular epithe- lium (reflecting less...and irregular luminal epithelium in uteri of uterine-specific Tsc2 knockout mice (Figure 2C). In addition, histological analysis and measurement of...absence of Tsc2 expression. Finally, treatment of OVX wild-type mice with estradiol plus progesterone decreased proliferation of epithelial and glandular

  20. Bisphenol A exposure alters developmental gene expression in the fetal rhesus macaque uterus.

    Kathryn C Calhoun

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA exposure results in numerous developmental and functional abnormalities in reproductive organs in rodent models, but limited data are available regarding BPA effects in the primate uterus. To determine if maternal oral BPA exposure affects fetal uterine development in a non-human primate model, pregnant rhesus macaques carrying female fetuses were exposed orally to 400 µg/kg BPA or vehicle control daily from gestation day (GD 50-100 or GD100-165. Fetal uteri were collected at the completion of treatment (GD100 or GD165; tissue histology, cell proliferation, and expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα and progesterone receptor (PR were compared to that of controls. Gene expression analysis was conducted using rhesus macaque microarrays. There were no significant differences in histology or in the percentage of cells expressing the proliferation marker Ki-67, ERα, or PR in BPA-exposed uteri compared to controls at GD100 or GD165. Minimal differences in gene expression were observed between BPA-exposed and control GD100 uteri. However, at GD165, BPA-exposed uteri had significant differences in gene expression compared to controls. Several of the altered genes, including HOXA13, WNT4, and WNT5A, are critical for reproductive organ development and/or adult function. We conclude that second or third trimester BPA exposure does not significantly affect fetal uterus development based on morphological, proliferation, and steroid hormone receptor assessments. However, differences in expression of key developmental genes after third trimester exposure suggest that BPA could alter transcriptional signals influencing uterine function later in life.

  1. The endometrial bacterial flora following insertion of intrauterine contraceptive device.

    Kamar, R; Wajntraub, G; Godfried, L; Czazkes, E; Aloni, T A


    Bacteriological cultures of material were collected from the endometrium and cervix of 150 women using the IUD, 75 control women and transfundally from 20 uteri of women who had undergone abdominal hysterectomy. The results show that the IUD does not alter the endometrial flora unless it is left in situ for a period exceeding two years. The transfundal cultures yielded the lowest positive cultures. The relationship of positive culture to the cycle and the period of insertion of IUD is discussed.

  2. Localization of interleukin-6 receptor mRNA in the pregnant and non-pregnant mouse uterus.

    Hondo, Eiichi; Kokubu, Keiji; Kato, Kahori; Kiso, Yasuo


    To understand roles of interleukin 6 (IL-6) family cytokines for pregnancy in mice, localization of IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) mRNA was investigated in non- and early pregnant uteri by in situ hybridization. IL-6R mRNA was expressed in all non-pregnant uteri and in pregnant uteri from the third day (Day 3) to the sixth day of pregnancy (Day 6; the day of plug = Day 1). IL-6R mRNA signals were detected in non-pregnant mice in the luminal and glandular epithelium. Signal strength varied according to the sexual cycle. There was no correlation between the signal strength of the IL-6R mRNA and the serum concentrations of progesterone and 17beta-estradiol, which show a monophasic rise in the non-pregnant sexual cycle. In pregnant mice, slight signals were detectable in the luminal and glandular epithelium on Day 3. IL-6R mRNA messages increased with progression towards Day 4, however, localization changed drastically on Day 5. Stromal cells abruptly expressed their mRNA on Day 5, and these cells strongly expressed it on Day 6. The function of IL-6R in the luminal and glandular epithelium might be different from that in the stroma during the implantation period. In addition, few signals were identified in the stromal cells adjacent to the luminal epithelium on Day 6. This suggests that there are two types of stromal cells on Day 6 in mice.

  3. A Study of Changes in Uterine Leucocytes During Early Pregnancy in the Mouse-vole Interspesific Pregnancies

    Diah Tri Widayati; Tatsuya Tada; Naoko Inoue


    Mouse and vole embryos were allogeneically and xenogeneically transferred into pseudopregnant CD.1 and immunodeficient (seid)female mice,and we investigated the distribution of uterine leucocytes cells in the implantation sites on days 5,6,and 7 of pregnancy. Maerophages were evenly distributed in the endometrium on days 5-7.Neutrophils were rarely seen on days 5-7,but lymphocytes were found throughout the endometrium,often in groups associated with glands or the luminal epithelium.The number of uNK cells increased markedly at the mesometrial uriangle and the outer decidual area in the CD-1 uteri containing vole embryos;by contrast,seid uteri having vole embryos showed almost the same number as those having mouse embryos.Mast cells were present in large numbers at the myometrium,but rarely in the decidua in all types of pregnant uteri.Cells at the myometrium were more numerous in xenogeneic than in allogeneic transfer.Maay mast cells appeared in the inner decidua where xenogeneically transferred vole embryos were dead and aborted.These results suggest the possibility that uterine leucocytes mediate various immunological events in the mouse-vole interspesific pregnancies.

  4. Role of capsaicin-sensitive nerve fibers in uterine contractility in the rat.

    Klukovits, Anna; Gaspar, Robert; Santha, Peter; Jancso, Gabor; Falkay, George


    The possible participation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves in the modulation of neurogenic contractions was studied in nonpregnant and term pregnant rat uteri. Neurogenic contractions were elicited by electric field stimulation (40 V, 1-70 Hz, 0.6 msec) in intact uteri and uteri that were previously exposed to capsaicin in vitro. In capsaicin pretreated preparations obtained both from nonpregnant and term pregnant rats, a dose-dependent increase in the amplitude of uterine contractions was detected. Prior systemic treatment of the rats with capsaicin (130 mg/kg, s.c.) abolished the effect of in vitro capsaicin administration on the amplitude of neurogenic contractions. Use of a specific antagonist of calcitonin gene-related peptide revealed that depletion of this peptide, which normally elicits uterine smooth muscle relaxation, may be responsible for the increased responsiveness of the uterus to low-frequency stimulation. Experiments on the localization of calcitonin gene-related peptide in uterine tissue specimens exposed to capsaicin revealed dose-dependent depletion of calcitonin-gene related peptide-immunoreactive nerves innervating blood vessels and the myometrium. The findings indicate that capsaicin-sensitive afferent nerves, by the release of sensory neuropeptides, significantly contribute to the modulation of uterine contractility both in nonpregnant and term pregnant rats. It is suggested that uterine sensory nerve activation may be part of a trigger mechanism leading to preterm contractions evoked by, for example, inflammation.

  5. Rak trzonu macicy u kobiet po 70. roku życia. Ocena wczesnego ostrego odczynu popromiennego

    Karolina Helis


    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of the study was to evaluate the tolerance of radical radiotherapy in patients withcancer of the corpus uteri, aged 70 years and older. Materials and methods: The analysis is based on 94 patients with cancer of the corpus uteri. There were94 women aged 70-85 years (median 74 years treated using radical radiotherapy in the Department of Radiotherapy,Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Centre and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch in Polandduring 2008 to October 2010. Acute treatment toxicity was assessed using the EORTC/RTOG scale. The skinreaction, the digestive system reaction and urinary tract reaction were analysed. Results: The most frequent early acute post-radiation reaction was bowel reaction (74.5% in comparisonwith skin (24.5% and urinary bladder (15.96% reactions. A severe bowel reaction, adynamic ileus, was observedin 4 patients. There were no severe reactions of the urinary bladder. Benign reactions of the bladder were observedin 15 patients (15.96%. Severe skin reactions in 1 (1.06% patient and benign reaction in 22 (23.4% wereobserved. In the majority of patients there were no skin reaction (75.5%. Conclusion: Radical radiotherapy in senile patients with cancer of the corpus uteri is combined with higherfrequency of early acute toxicity, but still remains a safe and well-tolerated method of treatment.

  6. Gynaecological malignancies from palliative care perspective

    Kamlesh Mishra


    Full Text Available Of the approximately 80,000 new cases of all cancers detected every year in India, 10-15% are gynecological malignancies. As per population-based registries under the National Cancer Registry Program, the leading sites of cancer among women are the cervix uteri, breast, and oral cavity. About 50-60% of all cancers among women in India are mainly of the following four organs: cervix uteri, breast, corpus uteri, and ovaries. Over 70% of these women report for diagnostic and treatment services at an advanced stage of disease, resulting in poor survival and high mortality rates. Among all gynecological cancers, ovarian cancer is the deadliest one and, in 2/3 rd of the cases, is detected in an advanced stage. But, in India and in other developing countries, due to inadequate screening facilities for the preventable cancer cervix, this kills more women than any other cancer in females. Gynecology Oncologist as a sub-specialist has an immensely important role in curtailing the menace of gynecological malignancies by providing comprehensive preventive, curative, palliative and follow-up services, with the aim of assuring a good quality of life to women as a cornerstone of cancer management.




    Full Text Available A postmenopausal 50yrs old para3 presented with abdominal pain and distension; decreased appetite and breathlessness. She was provisionally diagnosed as malignant ovarian tumor with secondaries. On USG 16x14 cm size well defined heterogeneous mass lesion was seen in left adnexa with internal vascularity; mild ascitis; right sided pleural effusion. MRI abdomen and pelvis showed large 19.1 x 12.7 cm mass with multiple septations and peripheral nodules. USG guided FNAC showed scanty inflammatory cells with proteinaceous fluid background, malignant cells were not seen. Pleural and ascitic fluid tap showed inflammatory and mesothelial cell but no malignant cell. Clinical and investigation profile suggest the Meigs’s syndrome. Left side salpingo-ovariectomy done and the desired section were sent for histomorphological evaluation. Histology reported ovarian fibroma and thus confirm the diagnosis.

  8. The Slotnick-Goldfarb′s syndrome in infertility- (a case report

    Purandare V


    Full Text Available A case of the unilateral streaked ovary syndrome is presented with documentation by cytologic, chromosomal, laparoscopic and hormonal studies. This, the Slotnick-Goldfarb′s syndrome, is characterized by oligomenorrhoea progressing into secondary amenorrhoea in a normal phenotypic female with a streaked ovary in one adnexa and an hypoplastic ovary in the other. This case presented with secondary amenorrhoea and primary sterility. She was tall with an increased carrying angle and had hypo plastic breasts and underdeveloped external and internal genitalia. Inves-tigations revealed a normal female karyotype, a mid-zonal matura-tion index, low normal urinary ketosteroids and elevated urinary gonadotrophins. Laparoscopy clinched the diagnosis. The aetiology, prognosis and treatment are briefly discussed. Stress is laid on the fact that whilst investigating a case of sterility and amenorrhoea, this new syndrome must be kept in mind.

  9. Leprosy. An update: definition, pathogenesis, classification, diagnosis, and treatment.

    Eichelmann, K; González González, S E; Salas-Alanis, J C; Ocampo-Candiani, J


    Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae. It primarily affects the skin and peripheral nerves and is still endemic in various regions of the world. Clinical presentation depends on the patient's immune status at the time of infection and during the course of the disease. Leprosy is associated with disability and marginalization. Diagnosis is clinical and is made when the patient has at least 1 of the following cardinal signs specified by the World Health Organization: hypopigmented or erythematous macules with sensory loss; thickened peripheral nerves; or positive acid-fast skin smear or skin biopsy with loss of adnexa at affected sites. Leprosy is treated with a multidrug combination of rifampicin, clofazimine, and dapsone. Two main regimens are used depending on whether the patient has paucibacillary or multibacillary disease.

  10. External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by a Rare Infesting Larva, Sarcophaga argyrostoma

    Shmuel Graffi


    Full Text Available Purpose. External ophthalmomyiasis (EO is caused by infesting larvae belonging to various species of flies. Most documented cases result from sheep (Oestrus ovis and Russian (Rhinoestrus purpureus botfly larvae, but we recently discovered a rare case of EO caused by flesh fly (Sarcophaga argyrostoma larvae. Here, we report the case of a patient with EO who had been hospitalized and sedated for 1 week because of unrelated pneumonia. Methods. Case report. Results. A total of 32 larvae were removed from the adnexae of both eyes. Larvae identification was confirmed through DNA analysis. Treatment with topical tobramycin resulted in complete resolution of EO. Conclusion. EO can be caused by S. argyrostoma, and the elderly and debilitated may require extra ocular protection against flies during sedation.

  11. External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by a Rare Infesting Larva, Sarcophaga argyrostoma

    Graffi, Shmuel; Peretz, Avi; Wilamowski, Amos; Schnur, Heather; Akad, Fouad; Naftali, Modi


    Purpose. External ophthalmomyiasis (EO) is caused by infesting larvae belonging to various species of flies. Most documented cases result from sheep (Oestrus ovis) and Russian (Rhinoestrus purpureus) botfly larvae, but we recently discovered a rare case of EO caused by flesh fly (Sarcophaga argyrostoma) larvae. Here, we report the case of a patient with EO who had been hospitalized and sedated for 1 week because of unrelated pneumonia. Methods. Case report. Results. A total of 32 larvae were removed from the adnexae of both eyes. Larvae identification was confirmed through DNA analysis. Treatment with topical tobramycin resulted in complete resolution of EO. Conclusion. EO can be caused by S. argyrostoma, and the elderly and debilitated may require extra ocular protection against flies during sedation. PMID:24455366


    Parikshit Sanyal


    Full Text Available A post menopausal lady presented with lump lower abdomen and bleeding per vaginum. USG revealed diffuse enlargement of the uterus. On hysterectomy, a grossly enlarged uterus with cystic left ovary were found. Hysterectomy was done and uterus with bilateral adnexa submitted for histopathological examination. Microscopic examination of the body of uterus revealed sheets of small lymphoid cells were found to replace the endo- and myo-metrium. These cells have small nuclei with clumped chromatin, and no prominence of nucleoli. They are not forming lymphoid follicles or germinal centers. Similar lymphoid cells were also found in the left ovary admixed with ovarian stroma. On IHC these cells were found to be CD45, CD20, CD23 positive, and negative for CD3 , CK and SMA. The case is diagnosed as a primary small lymphocytic lymphoma of uterus with left ovarian spread.

  13. Bilateral Gonadal Cysts and Late Diagnosis of Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Treated by Laparoscopic Gonadectomy

    D. Tourlakis


    Full Text Available Background. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome is a rare syndrome in which the uterus is absent and testes rather than ovaries are present. Patients usually visit a gynecologist due to primary amenorrhea. Case. A forty-eight-year-old woman with lower abdominal pain and anamnesis of uterus agenesis was operated on due to bilateral cystic masses. A 5 × 3 × 1.2 cm left adnexal cyst revealed the presence of a serous cyst with a hypoplastic ductus deferens. A smaller cyst of the right adnexa revealed immature testis tissue with Leydig-cell hyperplasia. After karyotype and hormonal examinations, laparoscopic gonadectomy was performed. Conclusion. Attention should be paid in all cyst-removing operations in cases of uterus agenesis, due to the high incidence of malignancy. Not of less importance is the issue of informing the patient in the most appropriate way.

  14. Heterotopic pregnancy with molar changes

    Meena N. Satia


    Full Text Available Trophoblastic disease of pregnancy is also called as gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD, a rare group of tumors that involves abnormal proliferation of the trophoblastic cells. GTD is generally benign but sometimes can be malignant due to its marked penetration into and destruction of myometrium as well as its ability to metastasize hence the groups of tumors are referred to as gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN. These are among the rare tumors that can be cured even in the presence of widespread dissemination. Present study is a case of intrauterine partial mole with ectopic pregnancy in the right adnexa with vesicular changes, a rare entity in obstetrics. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(10.000: 3630-3633

  15. Ocular manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Silpa-archa, Sukhum; Lee, Joan J; Foster, C Stephen


    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can involve many parts of the eye, including the eyelid, ocular adnexa, sclera, cornea, uvea, retina and optic nerve. Ocular manifestations of SLE are common and may lead to permanent blindness from the underlying disease or therapeutic side effects. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is the most common manifestation. However, vision loss may result from involvement of the retina, choroid and optic nerve. Ocular symptoms are correlated to systemic disease activity and can present as an initial manifestation of SLE. The established treatment includes prompt systemic corticosteroids, steroid-sparing immunosuppressive drugs and biological agents. Local ocular therapies are options with promising efficacy. The early recognition of disease and treatment provides reduction of visual morbidity and mortality.

  16. A case of endometrioid adenocarcinoma originating from the serous surface of the small intestine

    Natsuko Makihara


    Full Text Available Malignant transformation of endometriosis has been extensively described in the literature. However, extragonadal endometrioid adenocarcinoma, either de novo or arising from malignant transformation of endometriosis, is rare. The present case report describes a patient with endometrioid adenocarcinoma on the serous surface of the small intestine. A 25- year-old female with no history of endometriosis was referred to our hospital with an intrapelvic tumor. An internal examination, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a round mass approximately 80 mm in diameter; however, identification of the affected organ was difficult. Because we could not rule out malignancy based on the non-specific radiologic findings, laparotomy was performed. A mass with ileal adhesions was detected intraoperatively. In addition, the uterus and bilateral adnexa appeared normal. The tumor was resected with part of the ileum. Histopathology confirmed a diagnosis of endometrioid adenocarcinoma originating from the serous surface of the small intestine.

  17. Ruptured Heterotopic Tubal Pregnancy for a Patient with a History of Segmental Salpingectomy from Ectopic Pregnancy: A Case Report

    Nam, Kyung Bum; Namkung, Sook; Hong, Myung Sun; Kim, Heung Cheol; Cho, Young; Choi, Young Hee [Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Chyncheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Heterotopic pregnancy refers to the simultaneous development of an intrauterine pregnancy and an extrauterine pregnancy. We experienced a case of a ruptured heterotopic pregnancy for a patient with a history of a right segmental salpingectomy from an ectopic pregnancy. The 30-year-old patient with amenorrhea for six weeks complained of lower abdominal pain with hypovolemic shock. Transabdominal ultrasonography showed diffuse hemoperitoneum with a structure similar to an ectatic tube or a deformed cyst with no echogenic double ring or peripheral hypervascularity in the right adnexa and an intrauterine gestational sac. We considered a ruptured corpus luteum cyst as an ultrasonographic finding and found a ruptured tubal mass in the right salpinx and hemoperitoneum through an emergency laparotomy. We performed a right salpingectomy, and the histopathologic report confirmed ectopic pregnancy.

  18. Human ocular Thelaziasis in Karnataka

    Prabhakar S Krishnachary


    Full Text Available Thelaziasis is an Arthropod-born disease of the eye and adnexa caused by Thelazia callipaeda, a nematode parasite transmitted by drosophilid flies to carnivores and humans. Because of its distribution mainly confined to South Asian countries and Russia, it is commonly known as Oriental Eye worm. It is often under-reported and not been given its due clinical importance. We report first case of human Thelaziasis from Hassan District, Karnataka. Five creamy-white, translucent worms were removed from the conjunctival sac of a 74-year-old male patient. Based on morphological characters, the worms were identified as nematodes belonging to the genus Thelazia and speciation was confirmed by CDC, Atlanta as callipaeda. Rarity of the disease and its ability to cause both extra and intraocular manifestations leading to ocular morbidity is the reason for presenting this case. From the available data, this is the first case report from Karnataka, India.

  19. The unicornuate uterus with an occult adenomyotic rudimentary horn.

    Frontino, Giada; Bianchi, Stefano; Ciappina, Nevio; Restelli, Elisa; Borruto, Franco; Fedele, Luigi


    We report 2 case of an atypical variant of unicornuate uterus in 2 adolescent patients with severe dysmenorrhea. Pelvic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging identified a normal uterine contour. On the right side within the uterine fundus, a nodule was detected with a small hypoechogenic content. At laparoscopy the uterus and adnexae appeared to be normal. No endometriotic lesions were identified. Hysteroscopy identified a single regular cervical canal and a uterine cavity resembling that of a left unicornuate uterus, with a single regular left tubal ostium. Complete resection of the right uterine nodule along with an ipsilateral salpingectomy was performed. The nodule contained a small endometrial cavity and hematometra. Histologic study showed a cavitated adenomyotic uterine rudiment. The patients were discharged on the second postoperative day. No intraoperative or postoperative complications or recurrence of pelvic pain occurred.

  20. IgG4-related intraocular inflammation masquerading as ciliary body melanoma in a young girl

    Dipankar Das


    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4-related diseases affects various tissues and organs of the human body. Orbital, adnexal, and scleral inflammations were already reported in the medical literature. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of intraocular IgG4-associated inflammatory mass in the ciliary body mimicking as a melanoma in a 23-year-old female from Northeast India. Characteristic histopathology, immunohistochemistry in the tissue, protein chemistry, and raised serum IgG4 were supportive for the diagnosis. As this newly diagnosed disease has multi-organ affection and little is known about its pathogenesis particularly in eye and adnexa, the present case will open many challenges in clinico-pathological diagnosis and research in the future.

  1. Morphological evaluation of the placenta and fetal membranes during canine pregnancy from early implantation to term.

    Aralla, Marina; Groppetti, Debora; Caldarini, Laura; Cremonesi, Fausto; Arrighi, Silvana


    To describe the histological changes of fetal adnexa throughout the physiological pregnancy, canine samples were obtained during natural delivery and caesarean section, as well as during ovariohysterectomy performed at any stage of undesired pregnancies (N=12). The first period of pregnancy (multiple samples collected at 10, 12, 14 days) was consistent with pre- and peri-implantation events, i.e. apposition and initial invasion steps into the endometrium. The second period (multiple samples collected at 18, 38, 40, 45 days) was related to the development of extra-embryonic structures, placenta establishment and labyrinth formation. At the end of this period the maximum morphological complexity of the endotheliochorial placenta was achieved, characterized by complete erosion of the endometrial epithelium and underlying interstitium with exposure of maternal capillaries to the chorial cells. The third period of gestation (multiple samples collected at 50, 53, 57, 60, 63 days) was characterized by enhancement either of placental and extra-embryonic tissues.

  2. Study of morphological changes in the skin of the neck in suicidal cases by hanging.

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Orduña, Oliva; Carranza, Veronica


    the morphologic changes in specimens from people who have committed suicide by hanging have mainly centered on macroscopic findings. Pour purpose is to inestigate the microscopis changes in the ligature marks. we report the histopathologic features of the ligature mark on the neck of three people who committed suicide by hanging themselves. the main Finding was coagulative necrosis of all cutaneous layers and the subjacent striated muscle. In the areas close to the ligature, blood vessels appeared congestive with a mild inflammatory perivasculary infiltrate. In some other areas, we found preserved sebaceous and eccrine glands, underneath the epidermis with marked necrotic changes. These findings suggest that neither pressure nor hypoxia is enough to induce necrosis in cutaneous adnexa.

  3. Successful expectant management of tubal heterotopic pregnancy

    Asha Baxi


    Full Text Available Expectant management for tubal heterotopic pregnancy could be considered as a successful option in a symptom-free patient where the ectopic embryo has a limited craniocaudal length with no cardiac activity. We report the obstetric outcome after expectant management for a right tubal heterotopic pregnancy. Heterotopic pregnancy was first recognized at 6 weeks gestation in a 32-year-old salpingectomized woman with an 8-year history of subfertility who conceived after in utero transfer of three embryos obtained by in vitro fertilization. Expectant management and close ultrasonographic and clinical monitoring were done. The intrauterine pregnancy proceeded unremarkably. A cesarean section was performed for breech presentation, and it allowed the delivery of a healthy 2260-g male infant. The examination of the adnexa showed a pre-rupture of the right fallopian tube.

  4. Nodular Fasciitis of the Orbit: A Case Report Confirmed by Molecular Cytogenetic Analysis.

    Anzeljc, Andrew J; Oliveira, Andre M; Grossniklaus, Hans E; Kim, Hee Joon; Hayek, Brent


    Nodular fasciitis is a benign fibroblastic proliferation typically found in the subcutaneous tissue or superficial fascia of the extremities that is often confused for malignancy. These lesions rarely occur on the eyelids and ocular adnexa and are seldom analyzed by ophthalmic pathologists. USP6 gene rearrangement has been recently demonstrated in nodular fasciitis and this rearrangement may lead to the formation of a fusion gene MYH9-USP6 in some cases. Herein, the authors describe a 38-year-old woman with a 6-month history of a progressively enlarging mass beneath her right medial upper eyelid. Histopathologic analysis of the excisional biopsy confirmed classic features of nodular fasciitis. Molecular cytogenetic analysis revealed a rearrangement of the USP6 locus, confirming the diagnosis of benign nodular fasciitis.

  5. A Clinical Study of Blunt Ocular Trauma in a Tertiary Care Centre

    Shobha G Pai


    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze blunt eye injuries with respect to mode of injury, sites involved and outcome. Method: This was a retrospective study of 32 patients with blunt ocular trauma from 2010 to 2012 in a tertiary care centre. Patient data, mode and extent of injury, management and outcome was noted and analyzed. Result: The commonest age of presentation was 10-20 years (28.125% and the commonest mode of injury was road traffic accident (28.125%. The most commonly involved structure was conjunctiva (84.375%, followed by lid and adnexa (62.5%. Anterior segment involvement included corneal epithelial defect (7 cases, hyphaema (4 cases, iritis (3 cases and anterior dislocation of lens (1 case. Posterior segment involvement included vitreous haemorrhage (1 case and commotio retinae (2 cases. Conclusion: This study reinforces that blunt trauma can cause any extent of damage to ocular structures and the final visual outcome is dependent on the structures injured.

  6. Bilateral ovarian primary Burkitt′s lymphoma in a child: A clinico-radio-pathological evaluation

    Gujarathi Aditi


    Full Text Available Ovarian neoplasms are rare in children. Though ovarian involvement by malignant lymphoma is known to occur in late stages of disseminated nodal disease, primary ovarian lymphoma is a rare entity. We came across a case of a 9-year-old female who came with complaints of dull aching abdominal pain, mainly in the suprapubic region, low grade fever and abdominal distension since 20 days. Ultrasonography revealed two well-defined, mixed echogenic masses in both adnexae. Multiple well-defined mixed echogenic lesions were also seen on the surface of liver with omental thickening and nodularity. Computerized tomography as well as magnetic resonance imaging was done for further evaluation. Ultrasound guided biopsy was performed. The diagnosis of Burkitt′s lymphoma involving bilateral ovaries was established after histological, immunohistochemistry, and tumor markers correlation.

  7. Primary malignant mixed müllerian tumor of the peritoneum a case report with review of the literature

    Kurshumliu, Fisnik; Rung-Hansen, Helle; Skovlund, Vibeke Ravn;


    Malignant mixed Müllerian tumor is a rare malignancy of the genital tract and extremely uncommon in extragenital sites. This report describes a case of malignant mixed Müllerian tumor arising in the lower peritoneum of a 72-year-old female patient. The patient presented with ascites, lower...... abdominal mass and pleural effusion. The serum level of CA125 was elevated. At operation a diffuse carcinosis associated with tumor mass measuring 20 × 15 × 10 cm in the vesicouterine and Duglas' pouch were found. The uterus and the adnexa were unremarkable. Histopathology revealed a typical malignant mixed...... Müllerian tumor, heterologous type. The epithelial component was positive for cytokeratin 7 and vimentin whereas the mesenchymal component was positive for Vimentin, S100 and focally for CK7. The histogenesis of this tumor arising from the peritoneum is still speculative. Based on the previous reports...

  8. Soft tissue lipoleiomyoma.

    Scurry, J P; Carey, M P; Targett, C S; Dowling, J P


    A primary tumor composed of mature adipose tissue and smooth muscle occurring in the anterior abdominal wall of a 46 yr old Filipino woman is described. The tumor was not attached to the uterus, but had an appearance similar to a uterine lipoleiomyoma. It appeared as a soft, rubbery, encapsulated 11 cm ovoid mass with a uniform, white cut surface. Histologically, there were long intersecting bundles of bland smooth muscle mixed with nests of mature fat cells. The presence of differentiated smooth muscle was confirmed by fuchsinophilia, desmin positivity and electron microscopy. The patient also had 6 intramural leiomyomas, an area of adenomyosis, a subcutaneous lipoma of the subscapular region and chronic schistosomiasis of the appendix and left adnexa.

  9. Myths in the diagnosis and management of orbital tumors

    Kaan Gündüz


    Full Text Available Orbital tumors constitute a group of diverse lesions with a low incidence in the population. Tumors affecting the eye and ocular adnexa may also secondarily invade the orbit. Lack of accumulation of a sufficient number of cases with a specific diagnosis at various orbital centers, the paucity of prospective randomized studies, animal model studies, tissue bank, and genetic studies led to the development of various myths regarding the diagnosis and treatment of orbital lesions in the past. These myths continue to influence the diagnosis and treatment of orbital lesions by orbital specialists. This manuscript discusses some of the more common myths through case summaries and a review of the literature. Detailed genotypic analysis and genetic classification will provide further insight into the pathogenesis of many orbital diseases in the future. This will enable targeted treatments even for diseases with the same histopathologic diagnosis. Phenotypic variability within the same disease will be addressed using targeted treatments.

  10. Pelvic Normal Tissue Contouring Guidelines for Radiation Therapy: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Panel Atlas

    Gay, Hiram A., E-mail: [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Barthold, H. Joseph [Commonwealth Hematology and Oncology, Weymouth, MA (United States); Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (Israel); O' Meara, Elizabeth [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bosch, Walter R. [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); El Naqa, Issam [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Al-Lozi, Rawan [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Rosenthal, Seth A. [Radiation Oncology Centers, Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (United States); Lawton, Colleen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Sandler, Howard [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Zietman, Anthony [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Myerson, Robert [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States); Dawson, Laura A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Willett, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Jhingran, Anuja [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Portelance, Lorraine [University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Ryu, Janice [Radiation Oncology Centers, Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (United States); and others


    Purpose: To define a male and female pelvic normal tissue contouring atlas for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials. Methods and Materials: One male pelvis computed tomography (CT) data set and one female pelvis CT data set were shared via the Image-Guided Therapy QA Center. A total of 16 radiation oncologists participated. The following organs at risk were contoured in both CT sets: anus, anorectum, rectum (gastrointestinal and genitourinary definitions), bowel NOS (not otherwise specified), small bowel, large bowel, and proximal femurs. The following were contoured in the male set only: bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles, and penile bulb. The following were contoured in the female set only: uterus, cervix, and ovaries. A computer program used the binomial distribution to generate 95% group consensus contours. These contours and definitions were then reviewed by the group and modified. Results: The panel achieved consensus definitions for pelvic normal tissue contouring in RTOG trials with these standardized names: Rectum, AnoRectum, SmallBowel, Colon, BowelBag, Bladder, UteroCervix, Adnexa{sub R}, Adnexa{sub L}, Prostate, SeminalVesc, PenileBulb, Femur{sub R}, and Femur{sub L}. Two additional normal structures whose purpose is to serve as targets in anal and rectal cancer were defined: AnoRectumSig and Mesorectum. Detailed target volume contouring guidelines and images are discussed. Conclusions: Consensus guidelines for pelvic normal tissue contouring were reached and are available as a CT image atlas on the RTOG Web site. This will allow uniformity in defining normal tissues for clinical trials delivering pelvic radiation and will facilitate future normal tissue complication research.

  11. [Case report: Rapidly growing abdominal wall giant desmoid tumour during pregnancy].

    Palacios-Zertuche, Jorge Tadeo; Cardona-Huerta, Servando; Juárez-García, María Luisa; Valdés-Flores, Everardo; Muñoz-Maldonado, Gerardo Enrique

    Desmoid tumours are one of the rarest tumours worldwide, with an estimated yearly incidence of 2-4 new cases per million people. They are soft tissue monoclonal neoplasms that originate from mesenchymal stem cells. It seems that the hormonal and immunological changes occurring during pregnancy may play a role in the severity and course of the disease. The case is presented on 28-year-old female in her fifth week of gestation, in whom an abdominal wall tumour was found attached to left adnexa and uterus while performing a prenatal ultrasound. The patient was followed up under clinical and ultrasonographic surveillance. When she presented with abnormal uterine activity at 38.2 weeks of gestation, she was admitted and obstetrics decided to perform a caesarean section. Tumour biopsy was taken during the procedure. Histopathology reported a desmoid fibromatosis. A contrast enhanced abdominal computed tomography scan was performed, showing a tumour of 26×20.5×18cm, with well-defined borders in contact with the uterus, left adnexa, bladder and abdominal wall, with no evidence of infiltration to adjacent structures. A laparotomy, with tumour resection, hysterectomy and left salpingo-oophorectomy, components separation techniques, polypropylene mesh insertion, and drainage was performed. The final histopathology report was desmoid fibromatosis. There is no evidence of recurrence after 6 months follow-up. Desmoid tumours are locally aggressive and surgical resection with clear margins is the basis for the treatment of this disease, using radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy as an adjunct in the treatment. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Male genitoplasty for 46 XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients presenting late and reared as males

    Sharma, Shilpa; Gupta, Devendra K.


    Aim: To evaluate the clinical profile and management of 46 XX Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) patients presenting with severe virilization and assigned a male gender. Materials and Methods: Of 173 children diagnosed with CAH at the Pediatric Intersex Clinic since 1980, seven children with CAH presented late with severe virilization and were reared as males. All of them were assigned the male sex with removal of the female adnexa. Six were treated with male genitoplasty. Appropriate hormonal supplementation was offered after puberty. Results: The mean age at presentation was 14.2 years (7 – 21). Six patients had presented after puberty, only one at seven years of age. Staged male genitoplasty comprising of chordee correction, male urethroplasty, and bilateral testicular prosthesis was performed. The female adnexa (uterus, ovaries, most of the upper vagina, and the fallopian tubes) were removed. The mental makeup was masculine in six and bigender in one. Bilateral mastectomy was performed at puberty in all. Hormonal treatment comprised of glucocorticoids and testosterone. Six patients were comfortable with the outcome of the masculinizing genitoplasty. One had a short-sized phallus. One had repeated attacks of urinary tract infection arising from the retained lower vaginal pouch. Social adjustments were good in all, except in one who had a bigender mental makeup. Conclusion: CAH patients with severe virilization presenting late and reared as males are extremely rare. However, the assigned gender can be retained adequately as males, meeting the socioeconomic compulsions of the society. The results are satisfactory following appropriate surgical procedures and hormonal supplementation. PMID:23226638

  13. Reproductive Tract Histology in South American Fur Seal Pups (Arctophoca australis).

    Katz, Helena; Johansson, Olle


    In the present study, a detailed histological description of the female reproductive tract of South American fur seal (Arctophoca australis) pups has been conducted. The uterine tube was covered by cuboidal to columnar epithelium; nerve fibers were present in the mesosalpinx and beneath the muscular layer. The uterus was bipartitus; the endometrial surface of the horns was lined by a simple cuboidal or columnar epithelium with deep tubular glands; caudally ("the transition area"), the epithelium changed to pseudostratified columnar, few tubular glands were present and the myometrium increased in width. A bistratified epithelium internally coated the uterine body, whereas it changed to cylindrical stratified epithelium with a highly vascularized lamina propria and a strong muscular layer in the cervix; no endometrial glands were observed in this region. From the transition area of the uterus to the vagina there were several nerve fibers and ganglia belonging to the uterovaginalis plexus. In the vestibule, hymenal folds were poorly developed; adnexa structures included the major vestibular glands and a neurovascular structure similar to the vestibular bulb. Minor vestibular glands were associated with the clitoris. The skin of the perineum was lined by a keratinized stratified epithelium, pigmented, with sebaceous glands, sweat glands and hair follicles. This is the first detailed histological description of the reproductive tract of South American fur seal pups, including the glandular adnexa and nerve structures. These results contribute to the reproductive biology in Pinniped species, and give a better understanding of the utero-placental perfusion mechanism during diving. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 300:600-613, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Male genitoplasty for 46 XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients presenting late and reared as males

    Shilpa Sharma


    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the clinical profile and management of 46 XX Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH patients presenting with severe virilization and assigned a male gender. Materials and Methods: Of 173 children diagnosed with CAH at the Pediatric Intersex Clinic since 1980, seven children with CAH presented late with severe virilization and were reared as males. All of them were assigned the male sex with removal of the female adnexa. Six were treated with male genitoplasty. Appropriate hormonal supplementation was offered after puberty. Results: The mean age at presentation was 14.2 years (7 - 21. Six patients had presented after puberty, only one at seven years of age. Staged male genitoplasty comprising of chordee correction, male urethroplasty, and bilateral testicular prosthesis was performed. The female adnexa (uterus, ovaries, most of the upper vagina, and the fallopian tubes were removed. The mental makeup was masculine in six and bigender in one. Bilateral mastectomy was performed at puberty in all. Hormonal treatment comprised of glucocorticoids and testosterone. Six patients were comfortable with the outcome of the masculinizing genitoplasty. One had a short-sized phallus. One had repeated attacks of urinary tract infection arising from the retained lower vaginal pouch. Social adjustments were good in all, except in one who had a bigender mental makeup. Conclusion: CAH patients with severe virilization presenting late and reared as males are extremely rare. However, the assigned gender can be retained adequately as males, meeting the socioeconomic compulsions of the society. The results are satisfactory following appropriate surgical procedures and hormonal supplementation.

  15. Hyperbaric oxygenation effects determination in the therapy of chronic occlusive lower extremities arteries disease by the use of perfusion scintigraphy

    Zoranović Uroš


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO is a medical treatment of a patient with 100% oxygen inspiration under the pressure higher than atmospheric in a special unit designed to let the whole patient's body rest in a chamber. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the application of HBO treatment on the patient's lower extremities with chonic inoperabile occlusive disease by measning the parameters of perfusion scintigraphy (perfusion reserve, relative perfusion. Methods. This investigation included 22 patients (19 males and 3 famales. Following clinical assessment of lower extremities condition according to the skin appearance and its adnexa, claudication distance was performed. Clinical condition was graded by the use of 5-point nominal scale. In all of the patients 99mTctetraphosmine lower extremities scintigraphy was done ten days prior to the treatment start and ten days after the treatment with HBO. Lower legs were imaged from the posterior view. Prior to imaging the patients were obligatory lying approximately half an hour. Results. In 18 (86% of the patients there was an improvement manifested as better subjective condition and better skin and its adnexa appearance. Following HBO treatment there was a statistically significant change in collecting the radiopharmac at rest. This finding indicates an increased viability of muscles as well as an increased perfusion reserve. Perfusion reserve mean values increased from 39.99 to 50.86%, and from 38.46 to 49.33% for the right and the left lower leg, respectively. This parameter clearly indicates favorable effects of HBO treatment pertaining neoangiogenesis and, consequently, increased viability of the lower leg muscles. It was also obvious in visual analysis of the obtained images. Conclusion. The obtained results confirm that muscle perfusion measured by the parameters of perfusion scintigraphy using 99mTc-tetrophosmine (perfusion reserve, relative perfusion in patients with

  16. An ethnopharmacological survey of natural remedies used by the Chinese community in Mauritius

    Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally; Luviksha Drushilla Muthoorah


    Objective: To collect, preserve and document primary ethnopharmacological information on common natural remedies (NRs) used by the Chinese community to treat and/or manage common diseases in Mauritius, a tropical multicultural island in the Indian Ocean. Methods: Face-to-face interviews were carried out with 52 key Chinese informants using a semi-structured questionnaire. Quantitative ethnobotanical indices, namely, the informant consensus factor (FIC), the use value, the fidelity level, the index of agreement on remedies and the relative importance were calculated.Results:constituted the exploited flora and fauna by the Chinese community. Based on the FIC the main categories of plants used were employed against injury and poisons due to external causes (FIC=0.97), diseases of the respiratory system (FIC=0.96), diseases of the eye and adnexa (FIC=0.95), undefined pains or illness (FIC=0.95), diseases during the postpartum period, diseases of the digestive system and diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (FIC=0.94 each). For zootherapy, diseases of the circulatory system, diseases of the eye and adnexa, diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue and endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases had total consensus Plants (61) and animal species (17), belonging to 43 and 9 families respectively, (FIC=1.00). Conclusions: It was found that the Chinese community of Mauritius still relies, to a great extent, on NRs which need to be preserved and used sustainably. Nonetheless, further research is needed to probe the possible active constituents that could be the basis of an evidence-based investigation to discover new drugs.

  17. Embryo spacing and implantation timing are differentially regulated by LPA3-mediated lysophosphatidic acid signaling in mice.

    Hama, Kotaro; Aoki, Junken; Inoue, Asuka; Endo, Tomoko; Amano, Tomokazu; Motoki, Rie; Kanai, Motomu; Ye, Xiaoqin; Chun, Jerold; Matsuki, Norio; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Shibasaki, Masakatsu; Arai, Hiroyuki


    In polytocous animals, blastocysts are evenly distributed along each uterine horn and implant. The molecular mechanisms underlying these precise events remain elusive. We recently showed that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has critical roles in the establishment of early pregnancy by affecting embryo spacing and subsequent implantation through its receptor, LPA3. Targeted deletion of Lpa3 in mice resulted in delayed implantation and embryo crowding, which is associated with a dramatic decrease in the prostaglandins and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 expression levels. Exogenous administration of prostaglandins rescued the delayed implantation but did not rescue the defects in embryo spacing, suggesting the role of prostaglandins in implantation downstream of LPA3 signaling. In the present study, to know how LPA3 signaling regulates the embryo spacing, we determined the time course distribution of blastocysts during the preimplantation period. In wild-type (WT) uteri, blastocysts were distributed evenly along the uterine horns at Embryonic Day 3.8 (E3.8), whereas in the Lpa3-deficient uteri, they were clustered in the vicinity of the cervix, suggesting that the mislocalization and resulting crowding of the embryos are the cause of the delayed implantation. However, embryos transferred singly into E2.5 pseudopregnant Lpa3-deficient uterine horns still showed delayed implantation but on-time implantation in WT uteri, indicating that embryo spacing and implantation timing are two segregated events. We also found that an LPA3-specific agonist induced rapid uterine contraction in WT mice but not in Lpa3-deficient mice. Because the uterine contraction is critical for embryo spacing, our results suggest that LPA3 signaling controls embryo spacing via uterine contraction around E3.5.

  18. Clinical Analysis of Laparoscopic Hysterectomy for Gigantic Uterus (Report of 178 cases)%178例腹腔镜巨大子宫全切术临床分析

    李玲玲; 岳青芬


    目的:探讨巨大子宫经腹腔镜切除的安全性、手术技巧和临床价值。方法分析该院178例行经腹腔镜巨大子宫切除术(子宫跃孕12周)的临床资料。结果所有手术均经腹腔镜完成,无一例手术并发症发生。手术时间院(89.4±31.6)min;出血量院(94.5±48.3)mL。平均住院时间4.8 d。结论经腹腔镜巨大子宫切除术安全可行,但应选好适应症,术者具备较高的腹腔镜操作水平。%Objective To investigate the clinical value and operating techniques of laparoscopic hysterectomy for gigantic uter. Methods 178 patients whose uteris were larger than twelve-weeks pmgnant uteri accepted aparoscopic hysterectomy and their clinical data were analyzed retrospectively. Results All operations were performed successfully under laparoseopy. No operating complication happened in any cases.The operating time was (89.4±31.6)min,blood loss in operation was (94.5±48.3)mL and the average hospitalization time was 4.8 days.Conclusion On the basis of proper indication and good operating techniques of the oper-ators, laparoscopic hysterectomy for gigantic uteri is safe and feasible.

  19. Diabetes-induced changes in the morphology and nociceptinergic innervation of the rat uterus.

    Tariq, Saeed; Nurulain, Syed M; Rashed, Hameed; Lotfy, Mohamed; Emerald, Starling Bright; Koturan, Surya; Tekes, Kornélia; Adeghate, Ernest


    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is about 6% across the globe. This prevalence has been reported to increase in the near future. This means that the number of women with DM who would like to get pregnant and have children will also increase. The present study is aimed at investigating the morphological changes observed in the uterus after the onset of DM. The study also examined the pattern of distribution of nociceptin (NC), a neuropeptide involved in the regulation of pain, a major physiological factor during parturition. The study shows a severe atrophy of uteri as early as 15 days post DM and continued until the termination of the eight-week study. This atrophy was confirmed by light microscopy. Electron microscopy study showed atrophy of the columnar cells of the endometrium, reduced myofibril number and destruction of smooth muscle cells in the myometrium of diabetic rats compared to control. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy studies clearly demonstrated the presence of NC in the endometrium, myometrium and on the myofibrils of the smooth muscles of both control and diabetic rat uteri. In addition, NC-positive neurons and varicose fibres were observed in the myometrium of both normal and diabetic rats. However, the expression of NC decreased after the onset of DM. Morphometric analysis showed that the number of NC-labeled cells was significantly (p rat uteri compared to those of control. In conclusion, DM-induced uterine atrophy is associated with a decrease in the expression of NC in cells, neurons and myofibrils of the rat uterus.

  20. Structure and steroidogenesis of the placenta in the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis).

    Sasaki, Motoki; Amano, Yoko; Hayakawa, Daisuke; Tsubota, Toshio; Ishikawa, Hajime; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Ohsumi, Seiji; Tetsuka, Masafumi; Miyamoto, Akio; Fukui, Yutaka; Budipitojo, Teguh; Kitamura, Nobuo


    There are few reports describing the structure and function of the whale placenta with the advance of pregnancy. In this study, therefore, the placenta and nonpregnant uterus of the Antarctic minke whale were observed morphologically and immunohistochemically. Placentas and nonpregnant uteri were collected from the 15th, 16th and 18th Japanese Whale Research Programme with Special Permit in the Antarctic (JARPA) and 1st JARPA II organized by the Institute of Cetacean Research in Tokyo, Japan. In the macro- and microscopic observations, the placenta of the Antarctic minke whale was a diffuse and epitheliochorial placenta. The chorion was interdigitated to the endometrium by primary, secondary and tertiary villi, which contained no specialized trophoblast cells such as binucleate cells, and the interdigitation became complicated with the progress of gestation. Furthermore, fetal and maternal blood vessels indented deeply into the trophoblast cells and endometrial epithelium respectively with fetal growth. The minke whale placenta showed a fold-like shape as opposed to a finger-like shape. In both nonpregnant and pregnant uteri, many uterine glands were distributed. The uterine glands in the superficial layer of the pregnant endometrium had a wide lumen and large epithelial cells as compared with those in the deep layer. On the other hand, in the nonpregnant endometrium, the uterine glands had a narrower lumen and smaller epithelial cells than in the pregnant endometrium. In immunohistochemical detection, immunoreactivity for P450scc was detected in most trophoblast cells, but not in nonpregnant uteri, suggesting that trophoblast epithelial cells synthesized and secreted the sex steroid hormones and/or their precursors to maintain the pregnancy in the Antarctic minke whale.

  1. Muscle segment homeobox genes direct embryonic diapause by limiting inflammation in the uterus

    Cha, Jeeyeon; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Bartos, Amanda; Li, Yingju; Baker, Erin Shammel; Tilton, Susan C.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Jegga, Anil; Murata, Shigeo; Hirota, Yasushi; Dey, Sudhansu K.


    Embryonic diapause (delayed implantation) is a reproductive strategy widespread in the animal kingdom. Under this condition, embryos at the blastocyst stage become dormant simultaneously with uterine quiescence until environmental or physiological conditions are favorable for the survival of the mother and newborn. Under favorable conditions, activation of the blastocyst and uterus ensues with implantation and progression of pregnancy. Although endocrine factors are known to participate in this process, the underlying molecular mechanism coordinating this phenomenon is not clearly understood. We recently found that uterine muscle segment homeobox (Msx) transcription factors are critical for the initiation and maintenance of delayed implantation in mice. To better understand why Msx genes are critical for delayed implantation, we compared uterine proteomics profiles between littermate floxed (Msx1/Msx2f/f) mice and mice with uterine deletion of Msx genes (Msx1/Msx2d/d) under delayed conditions. In Msx1/Msx2d/d uteri, pathways including protein translation, ubiquitin-proteasome system, inflammation, chaperone-mediated protein folding, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were enriched, and computational modeling showed intersection of these pathways on inflammatory responses. Indeed, increases in the ubiquitin-proteasome system and inflammation conformed to proteotoxic and ER stress in Msx1/Msx2d/d uteri under delayed conditions. Interestingly, treatment with a proteasome inhibitor bortezomib further exacerbated ER stress in Msx1/Msx2d/d uteri with aggravated inflammatory response, deteriorating rate of blastocyst recovery and failure to sustain delayed implantation. This study highlights a previously unrecognized role for Msx in preventing proteotoxic stress and inflammatory responses to coordinate embryo dormancy and uterine quiescence during embryonic diapause.

  2. Cancer survival in Cali, Colombia: A population-based study, 1995-2004

    Luis Eduardo Bravo


    Full Text Available Background: There is limited information on population-based cancer survival data in Latin America.Objetive: To obtain estimates of survival for some cancers recognized as a public health priority in Colombia using data from the Cancer Registry of Cali for 1995-2004.Methods: All cancer cases for residents of Cali were included for the following sites: breast (3,984, cervix uteri (2,469, prostate (3,999, stomach (3,442 and lung (2,170.  Five-year relative survival estimates were calculated using the approach described by Estève.Results: Five-year relative survival was 79% in patients with prostate cancer and 68% and 60% in women with breast or cervix uteri cancer, respectively. The cure fraction was 6% in subjects with lung cancer and 15% in those with stomach cancer. The probability of dying from breast or prostate cancer in people in the lower socio-economic strata (SES was 1.8 and  2.6  times greater,  respectively,  when compared to  upper SES, p <0.001. Excess mortality associated with cancer was independent of age in prostate or breast cancer.  After adjusting for age, sex and SES, the risk of dying from breast, cervix uteri, prostate and lung cancer during the 2000-2004 period decreased 19%, 13%, 48% and 16%, respectively, when compared with the period of 1995-1999. There was no change in the prognosis for patients with stomach cancer.Conclusions: Survival for some kinds of cancer improved through the 1995-2004 period, however health care programs for cancer patients in Cali are inequitable. People from lower SES are the most vulnerable and the least likely to survive. 

  3. Structure and Steroidogenesis of the Placenta in the Antarctic Minke Whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis)

    SASAKI, Motoki; AMANO, Yoko; HAYAKAWA, Daisuke; TSUBOTA, Toshio; ISHIKAWA, Hajime; MOGOE, Toshihiro; OHSUMI, Seiji; TETSUKA, Masafumi; MIYAMOTO, Akio; FUKUI, Yutaka; BUDIPITOJO, Teguh; KITAMURA, Nobuo


    Abstract There are few reports describing the structure and function of the whale placenta with the advance of pregnancy. In this study, therefore, the placenta and nonpregnant uterus of the Antarctic minke whale were observed morphologically and immunohistochemically. Placentas and nonpregnant uteri were collected from the 15th, 16th and 18th Japanese Whale Research Programme with Special Permit in the Antarctic (JARPA) and 1st JARPA II organized by the Institute of Cetacean Research in Tokyo, Japan. In the macro- and microscopic observations, the placenta of the Antarctic minke whale was a diffuse and epitheliochorial placenta. The chorion was interdigitated to the endometrium by primary, secondary and tertiary villi, which contained no specialized trophoblast cells such as binucleate cells, and the interdigitation became complicated with the progress of gestation. Furthermore, fetal and maternal blood vessels indented deeply into the trophoblast cells and endometrial epithelium respectively with fetal growth. The minke whale placenta showed a fold-like shape as opposed to a finger-like shape. In both nonpregnant and pregnant uteri, many uterine glands were distributed. The uterine glands in the superficial layer of the pregnant endometrium had a wide lumen and large epithelial cells as compared with those in the deep layer. On the other hand, in the nonpregnant endometrium, the uterine glands had a narrower lumen and smaller epithelial cells than in the pregnant endometrium. In immunohistochemical detection, immunoreactivity for P450scc was detected in most trophoblast cells, but not in nonpregnant uteri, suggesting that trophoblast epithelial cells synthesized and secreted the sex steroid hormones and/or their precursors to maintain the pregnancy in the Antarctic minke whale. PMID:23269486

  4. GnRH-agonist implants suppress reproductive function and affects ovarian LHR and FSHR expression in prepubertal female cats.

    Mehl, N S; Srisuwatanasagul, S; Swangchan-Uthai, T; Sirivaidyapong, S; Khalid, M


    Effect of a GnRH-agonist (deslorelin) was studied on reproductive function and ovarian luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) expression in prepubertal female cats that were either implanted with 4.7-mg deslorelin (implanted: n = 6) or not (controls: n = 18) or ovariohysterectomized at prepubertal age (prepubertal OVH: n = 6). Body weights, fecal estradiol, and sexual behavior of implanted and control cats were monitored for 48 weeks followed by collection of ovaries and uteri. Ovaries and uteri were collected from control cats at follicular, luteal, and inactive stage (n = 6/group) and from prepubertal OVH cats at prepubertal age. Ovaries and uteri were analyzed for anatomical/histological characteristics. Ovaries were also analyzed for LHR and FSHR expression. Statistical analysis showed higher (P ≤ 0.05) body weight in control than implanted cats only during 22nd to 26th weeks of the study. Estrus was observed in control cats only. Deslorelin reduced (P ≤ 0.05) ovarian weight and number of antral follicles but did not affect endometrial thickness and gland diameter. However, myometrial thickness of implanted cats was significantly lower than control cats at follicular and luteal stage. Ovarian LHR mRNA expression was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in implanted cats than control cats at follicular stage. FSHR mRNA and LHR protein expression did not differ among the three groups. FSHR protein expression was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in prepubertal OVH cats and was not affected by deslorelin. In conclusion, deslorelin suppresses reproductive function in prepubertal female cats for at least 48 weeks possibly through a change in the ovarian mRNA expression of LHR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic deletion of Cxcl14 in mice alters uterine NK cells

    Cao, Qichen [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquan Road, Shijingshan, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Hua [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang, Beijing 100101 (China); Deng, Zhili [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquan Road, Shijingshan, Beijing 100049 (China); Yue, Jingwen; Chen, Qi; Cao, Yujing; Ning, Lina; Lei, Xiaohua [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang, Beijing 100101 (China); Duan, Enkui, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang, Beijing 100101 (China)


    Highlights: •We first examined the expression of Cxcl14 in MLAp and DB of uterus. •We found the uNK cells in MLAp and decidua express Cxcl14. •In Cxcl14{sup −/−} placenta, we found significantly decreased uNK cells. •We first performed microarray to compare the gene expression in MLAp and DB. -- Abstract: The uterine natural killer cells (uNK cells) are the major immune cells in pregnant uterus and the number of uNK cells is dramatically increased during placentation and embryo development. The uNK cells are necessary for the immune tolerance, cytokine secretion and angiogenesis of placenta. Former studies indicated that the population expansion of uNK cells was accomplished through recruitment of NK cell precursors from the spleen and bone marrow, but not proliferation of NK cells. However, the necessary molecules within this process were little understood. Here in our study, we found the co-localized expression of Cxcl14 protein with uNK cells in E13.5 pregnant uterus. Moreover, we used Cxcl14 knockout mice to examine uNK cells in mesometrial lymphoid aggregate of pregnancy (MLAp) and decidua basalis (DB) of E13.5 pregnant uterus and found significantly decreased uNK cells in Cxcl14{sup −/−} pregnant uteri compared with Cxcl14{sup +/−} pregnant uteri. To further explorer the molecular change in MLAp and DB after Cxcl14 knockout, we isolated the MLAp and DB from Cxcl14{sup +/+} and Cxcl14{sup −/−} pregnant uteri and performed microarray analysis. We found many genes were up and down regulated after Cxcl14 knockout. In conclusion, our results suggested the important function of Cxcl14 in uNK cells and the proper level of Cxcl14 protein were required to recruit NK cells to pregnant uterus.

  6. [The liquid cytology in clinical practice: a lecture].

    Shabalova, I P; Kasoian, K T; Savostikova, M V


    The lecture covers one of the most perspective directions in clinical cytology. The emergence of liquid cytology is related to preparation of thin-layer specimens of organism liquids. Nowadays, the liquid cytology spreads more and more due to eephi application in different areas of cytological diagnostics, including screening of cervix uteri diseases, automatic screening, punctate tests, endoscopic and other materials. The lecture presents the basics of method, the characteristics of pre-analytic stage, the approaches to preparation of cytological specimens and cell blocks. The main possibilities, characteristics and perspectives of liquid cytology on the stage of rapid development of molecular genetic studies are discussed.

  7. Effects of low doses of hydrochloride tetracycline on bone metabolism and uterus in ovariectomized rats

    LIQing-Nan; HUBin; HUANGLian-Fang; CHENYan; WENGLin-Ling; ZhengHu; CHENHuai-Qing


    AIM:To study the effects of low doses of hydrochloride tetracycline (Tc) on bone metabolism and uterus in the ovariectomized (Ova) rats. METHODS:Forty 3-month-old rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: sham group, Ova group, Tc1 group (1.2mg·kg-1·d-1), Tc2 group (4.8mg·kg-1·d-1), and estrone group (1.48 mg·kg-1·d-1),oral fed for 3 months. The proximal tibia metaphyses were processed undecalcified for quantitative bone histomorphometry and the soft tissues were processed in paraffin for pathological observation. RESULTS: Placebo-treated (lactose) Ova rats were characterized by trabecular area (TA) decreasing and their architecture worsening compared with sham controls, and bone resorption was over formation with high bone turnover. The uteri were atrophy. (2)In estrone-treated group, TA and trabecular numbers were significantly increased and the trabecular separation decreased vs Ova group. Estrone slowed down Ova-inducing bone high turnover. But the size, weight, and the endometrium of the uteri in this group were increased vs Ova group. (3) TA was increased in both Tc1 and Tc2 groups compared with Ova rats. Tc maintained bone formation indices almost at Ova level, and only decreased mineral apposition rate (MAR) in Tc1 group, and declined bone resorption perimeter. The uteri and the cell of liver and kidney almost maintained at Ova level; Tc2 decreased labeling perimeter and increased MAR in comparison with Tc1 group. The uteri were atrophy, whose size maintained at Ova level; yellow labeling was not found in bone with these doses of Tc, while yellow labeling could be seen with the doses of 30mg·kg-1·d-1 of Tc for bone marker. CONCLUSION:The two doses of Tc have similar effects on preventing bone loss in Ova rats while the bone formation and uterus are not affected. However, Tc2 does not have more effects on increasing bone mass, Tc2 causes less mild damages to the liver and kidneys.

  8. Trends in Cancer Screening Rates among Korean Men and Women: Results from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), 2004-2011

    Park, Boyoung; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Yoon Young; Jun, Jae Kwan; Seo, Hong Gwan


    Purpose The Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS) is a nationwide survey conducted annually, since 2004. This study was conducted in order to report on trends in rates of cancer screening for five major cancers-stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervix uteri in Korea. Materials and Methods Data collected by the KNCSS between 2004 and 2011 were used in this study. The eligible study population included cancer-free men who were 40 years old and over, and women who were 30 years o...

  9. Incidence of egg drop syndrome – 1976 in Namakkal district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Suresh, P; K. Shoba; J. Johnson Rajeswar


    Aim: To know the magnitude of influence by Egg Drop Syndrome – 1976 (EDS –'76) virus infection in causing drop in egg production in and around Namakkal. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 cloacal swabs and 15 pouch shell glands (uteri) homogenates from 15 poultry farms in and around Namakkal area were used for virus isolation. Three numbers of 10 –day- old embryonated duck eggs were used for the inoculation of each suspected material for virus isolation. The isolate was iden...

  10. Investigation of bowels adjacent to the uterus using MRI. For relief of bowel complications following intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    Tateno, Atsushi; Miyashita, Tsuguhiro; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)


    Intracavitary brachytherapy occasionally causes bowel injuries other than rectum. To relieve these adverse events, we investigated the relationships between uterine bodies and surrounding bowels using MRI. A hundred and ten of serial 252 pelvic MRI of women, excluding the following, were reviewed. The excluded items were large intrapelvic extrauterine masses over 3.5 cm in greater diameter, large uterine corpus masses over 2 cm, three or more uterine corpus masses, past history of hysterectomy or rectocolonic resection, and massive ascites. We investigated the fundus-bowel distance (FBD), site of the nearest bowel to the uterine body, flexion type and deviation of uterus, uterine wall thickness, subcutaneous fat thickness and age. FBD ranged from 8 to 42 mm (20.2{+-}8.2 mm). In 66 cases (60%), FBD was 20 mm or less. The sites of the nearest bowel were 67 sigmoid colons, 27 rectums, 8 small intestines, and 7 descending colons. Eighty-three uteri (75.5%) were anteflexion and 27 uteri (24.5%) were retroflexion. Of the anteflexion group, 78.3% were adjacent to the sigmoid colon, and 92.6% of the retroflexion group were adjacent to rectum. Right-deviation uteri represented 33 cases (30%); mid-position 33, (30%); and left-deviation uteri, 44 (40%). Uterine wall thickness was 5 to 33 mm (17.8{+-}5.2). Subcutaneous fat thickness was 10 to 47 mm (20.2{+-}9.3). The age of patients ranged from 21 to 83 years (39.9{+-}14.4). FBD showed statistical good correlation to uterine wall thickness and subcutaneous fat thickness. In anteflexion group, correlation of uterine wall thickness with FBD was significant. In retroflexion group, however, it was not significant. The site of bowels, flexion type, and deviation type did not correlate with FBD. FBD, uterine wall thickness and subcutaneous fat thickness showed regression of quadric curves with age; these peaked at ages 50.4, 46.0 and 46.2, respectively. It is presumed that predictive factors of bowel complication are thin uterine

  11. The contraceptive efficacy of a Cu-IUD: size of the device and the uterine cavity.

    Larsson, B; Lindhe, B A


    This investigation deals with a small Cu-7 IUD (Cu-7-P), originally designed for women with uterine cavities less than 7 cm in sound measures. The accidental pregnancy rate was almost doubled when this small IUD was used in women with normal-sized uterine cavities (sound measures 7-8 cm), when compared to that in women with small-sized uteri. It was assumed that this difference in efficacy might be at least partly caused by the distribution of the increased fibrinolytic activity of the endometrium in the 2 groups of women.

  12. Early onset of puberty and early ovarian failure in CYP7B1 knockout mice

    Omoto, Yoko; Lathe, Richard; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke


    CYP7B1 is the enzyme responsible for hydroxylation and termination of the estrogenic actions of the androgen metabolite, 5α-androstane-3β, 17β-diol (3βAdiol). 3βAdiol is estrogenic in ERα or ERβ positive cells only if they do not express CYP7B1. In this study we show that female CYP7B1–/– mice experience early onset of growth of the uterus and mammary glands and commence estrus cycles 2 days earlier than their wild-type littermates. Adult mammary glands and uteri appear to be under continuous...

  13. Effects of Xuefu Zhuyu Oral Liquid on climacteric osteoporosis%血府逐瘀口服液对更年期骨质疏松的康复作用

    宾红; 岳楠


    @@ INTRODUCTION Osteoporosis is a complication of climacteric syndrome. Preventionand rehabilitative treatment to climacteric syndrome are advocated atpresent. Current method of treatment is hormonal replacement ther-apy or the traditional Chinese medicine therapy aiming at invigora-tion and health protection. Though effects the hormonal replacementtherapy does, it also risks of higher incidence rate of mammarycancer and carcinoma of corpus uteri with improper using[1 -3] . Sodrug treatment without side effect is desirable. Application of XuefuZhuyu Oral liquid is good to climacteric osteoporosis.

  14. Antioxidant Effect of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi Aqueous Extract in Ovariectomized Rats Is Mediated through Nox4-ROS-NF-κB Pathway

    Lili Wang


    Full Text Available Purpose: This study is designed to explore whether Fructus ligustri lucidi (FLL exhibits antioxidant effect in ovariectomized (OVX rats, and to identify the signaling pathway involved in this process.Methods: OVX rats were treated with FLL aqueous extract (3.5 g/kg for 12 weeks. Serum, uteri, and tibias were harvested from the rats and the levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC, nitric oxide (NO, malondialdehyde (MDA, 8-hydroxy-desoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, and superoxide dismutase (SOD were determined. Changes in the levels of NF-κB-p65, phosphorylation of NF-κB-p65 (NF-κB-pp65, NF-κB inhibitor alpha (IκBα, phosphorylation of IκBα (p-IκBα, and NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4 in uteri and tibias were determined by western blot, immunofluorescent and immunohistochemical analysis, respectively. In addition, the expression of cytochrome C (Cyto-C and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2 were determined in the tibias of rats. Histopathological changes in the bones were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Bone mineral density (BMD was determined in rat femurs by dual X-ray absorptiometry.Results: Treatment of OVX rats with FLL aqueous extract improved redox homeostasis by increasing the levels of TAC and NO as well as decreasing the levels of MDA and 8-OHdG in serum, tibias, and uteri. Further, FLL extract also downregulated the expression of Nox4, NF-κB-p65, NF-κB-pp65, and p-IκBα in the uteri and tibias. Furthermore, administration of FLL–OVX rats increased Bcl-2 expression and prevented cytoplasmic release of mitochondrial Cyto-C in the tibias. In addition, FLL treatment also improved bone microstructure and increased cortical bone thickness as well as increased BMD values in the femurs of OVX rats.Conclusions: FLL treatment may suppress oxidative stress response in OVX rats via regulating the Nox4/ROS/NF-κB signaling pathway. These results suggest the potential of using FLL as a natural antioxidant agent in preventing the development of

  15. The physiological expression of scavenger receptor SR-B1 in canine endometrial and placental epithelial cells and its potential involvement in pathogenesis of pyometra.

    Gabriel, C; Becher-Deichsel, A; Hlavaty, J; Mair, G; Walter, I


    Pyometra, the purulent inflammation of the uterus, is a common uterine disease of bitches that has potentially life-threatening consequences. The opportunistic bacterial infection of the uterus often progresses into the serious systemic inflammatory response syndrome. In a previous study, we characterized epithelial foam cells in the canine endometrial surface occurring in metestrus, and we regularly observed pronounced epithelial foam-cell formations in pyometra-affected uteri. Therefore, it was assumed that the mechanism behind lipid droplet accumulation in surface epithelial cells might even increase bacterial binding capacity and promote pyometra development. Lipid droplet accumulation in epithelial cells is accomplished via specialized lipid receptors called scavenger receptors (SR). Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) is an important receptor for lipid accumulation in diverse cell types, but it is also a strong binding partner for bacteria, and thereby enhances bacterial adhesion and clinical signs of systemic inflammatory response syndrome. In the present study, after the isolation of metestrous surface epithelial cells from canine uteri by laser capture microdissection, SR-B1 was identified at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and also at the protein level by means of immunohistochemistry. In pyometra-affected uteri, SR-B1 mRNA expression was higher than that in the healthy control samples, and SR-B1 protein was expressed in the surface and crypt epithelial cells. Furthermore, to understand the physiological role of SR-B1 expression in the metestrus surface epithelial cells, we investigated its expression in the epithelial cells of the glandular chambers of canine placenta in different stages of gestation because these cells are also characterized by lipid droplet accumulation. SR-B1 was present in the placental epithelial cells of the glandular chambers from 25 to 30 and 45 to 50 days of gestation

  16. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report. Volume 20, Number 4


    136) 195 (94) Corpus uteri cancer 78 (139) 21 (138) 20 (127) Diabetes mellitus Diabetes mellitus 20,539 (62) 5,470 (74) 902 (57) Endocrine disorders... Periodontal disease 644 (123) 602 (108) 32 (118) Congenital anomalies Other congenital anom 25,441 (54) 15,813 (56) 1,317 (43) Congenital heart dis...240 - 279) 653 Skin and subcutaneous tissue (680 - 709) 1,629 Diabetes mellitus 208 31.9 Other cellulitis and abscess 1,142 70.1 Disorders of fl

  17. Frequency of Y-chromatin bearing spermatozoa in intracervical and intrauterine postcoital tests.

    Broer, K H; Winkhaus, I; Sombroek, H; Kaiser, R


    By means of the intracervical Sims-Huhner-test and supplementary to this, the intrauterine postcoital test, the percentages of Y-chromatin-positive spermatozoa was determined after penetration into the cervix and the cavum uteri. A significant rise of the Y-positive sperms after penetration could be observed. There was no influence of certain parameters of the spermiogram upon the relationship of X- to Y-sperms after the PCT. Statistical calculations show the dependences of the positive and negative postcoital tests upon the individual parameters of the cervical factors and the spermiogram.

  18. The prognostic significance of virus-associated changes in grade 1 cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia

    Bagi, P; Worning, A M; Nordsten, M


    patients the treatment was unsuccessful (persistence, recurrence, or progression of the neoplasia). The frequency of treatment failure was 33% in patients with, and 10% in patients without virus-associated changes (p less than 0.025). It is recommended that patients with CIN 1 and virus-associated changes......Virus-associated changes of the cervix uteri were assessed in patients treated for grade 1 cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN). Of 106 patients evaluated, 67 (63%) had virus-associated changes. The patients were treated without regard to the presence/absence of virus-associated changes. In 26...... should, after initial treatment, be followed-up with increased attention....

  19. Uterine epithelial cell proliferation and endometrial hyperplasia: evidence from a mouse model.

    Gao, Yang; Li, Shu; Li, Qinglei


    In the uterus, epithelial cell proliferation changes during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Uncontrolled epithelial cell proliferation results in implantation failure and/or cancer development. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is a fundamental regulator of diverse biological processes and is indispensable for multiple reproductive functions. However, the in vivo role of TGF-β signaling in uterine epithelial cells remains poorly defined. We have shown that in the uterus, conditional deletion of the Type 1 receptor for TGF-β (Tgfbr1) using anti-Müllerian hormone receptor type 2 (Amhr2) Cre leads to myometrial defects. Here, we describe enhanced epithelial cell proliferation by immunostaining of Ki67 in the uteri of these mice. The aberration culminated in endometrial hyperplasia in aged females. To exclude the potential influence of ovarian steroid hormones, the proliferative status of uterine epithelial cells was assessed following ovariectomy. Increased uterine epithelial cell proliferation was also revealed in ovariectomized Tgfbr1 Amhr2-Cre conditional knockout mice. We further demonstrated that transcript levels for fibroblast growth factor 10 (Fgf10) were markedly up-regulated in Tgfbr1 Amhr2-Cre conditional knockout uteri. Consistently, treatment of primary uterine stromal cells with TGF-β1 significantly reduced Fgf10 mRNA expression. Thus, our findings suggest a potential involvement of TGFBR1-mediated signaling in the regulation of uterine epithelial cell proliferation, and provide genetic evidence supporting the role of uterine epithelial cell proliferation in the pathogenesis of endometrial hyperplasia.

  20. Changes in energetic profile of pregnant ewes in relation with the composition of the fetal fluids

    Samia Haffaf; Bouabdellah Benallou


    Objective: To evaluate the energetic profile of fetal fluids and to make comparisons of the concentrations of the constituents present with those in the maternal plasma.Methods: A study was conducted in 102 gravid sheep uteri. The four stages of gestation as Stage I(0–60 days), Stage II(61–90 days), Stage III(91–120 days) and Stage IV(121–145 days) were identified based on the crown anus length of the embryo/fetus. The amniotic and allantoic fluids collected from the gravid uteri of each group were subjected to biochemical analysis of glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride.Results: The levels of glucose and triglyceride in maternal plasma were lower(P 0.05) of plasma cholesterol levels was detected between the sampling periods.Contrariwise, cholesterol concentrations of fetal fluids were higher in Stages III and IV of pregnancy when compared with the Stages I and II.Conclusions: The influence of pregnancy on the biochemical composition of fetal fluids was statistically significant.

  1. Role of estrogen receptor binding and transcriptional activity in the stimulation of hyperestrogenism and nuclear bodies.

    Clark, J H; Hardin, J W; Padykula, H A; Cardasis, C A


    The effects of estradiol and nafoxidine on nuclear estrogen receptor binding, RNA polymerase activities, and uterine ultrastructure were studied. Animals were either injected with estradiol, implanted with estradiol/paraffin pellets, or injected with nafoxidine. Animals treated with nafoxidine or estradiol implants showed sustained long-term nuclear retention of estrogen receptor and increased nuclear RNA polymerase activities for up to 72 hr. A single injection of estradiol caused initial increases in these variables which returned to control levels by 24 hr after hormone treatment. Uterine tissue was examined by light and electron microscopy 72 hr after hormone treatments. Uteri from eith estradiol-implanted or nafoxidine-treated animals showed markedly increased hypertrophy of the luminal epithelial cells. Nuclei in sections of the uteri of these hyperestrogenized animals displayed a large number and wide array of nuclear bodies composed of a filamentous capsule and granular cores. We conclude that hyperestrogenization, a condition that eventually results in abnormal cell growth, is correlated with increased and sustained nuclear binding of the estrogen receptor, increased and sustained RNA polymerase activity, and the appearance of nuclear bodies.

  2. Cancer risks in Nairobi (2000-2014) by ethnic group.

    Korir, Anne; Yu Wang, Emma; Sasieni, Peter; Okerosi, Nathan; Ronoh, Victor; Maxwell Parkin, D


    We investigated the ethnic differences in the risk of several cancers in the population of Nairobi, Kenya, using data from the Nairobi Cancer Registry. The registry records the variable "Tribe" for each case, a categorisation that includes, as well as 22 tribal groups, categories for Kenyans of European and of Asian origin, and non-Kenyan Africans. Tribes included in the final analysis were Kikuyu, Kamba, Kisii, Kalenjin, Luo, Luhya, Somalis, Asians, non-Kenyans, Caucasians, Other tribes and unknown. The largest group was taken as the reference category for the calculation of odds ratios; this was African Kenyans (for comparisons by race), and Kikuyus (the tribe with the largest numbers of cancer registrations (38% of the total)) for comparisons between the Kenyan tribes. P-values are obtained from the Wald test. Cancers that were more common among the white population than in black Kenyans were skin cancers and cancers of the bladder, while cancers that are more common in Kenyan Asians include colorectal, lung, breast, ovary, corpus uteri and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancers that were less common among Asians and Caucasians were oesophagus, stomach and cervix cancer. Within the African population, there were marked differences in cancer risk by tribe. Among the tribes of Bantu ethnicity, the Kamba had higher risks of melanoma, Kaposi sarcoma, liver and cervix cancer, and lower risks of oesophagus, stomach, corpus uteri and nervous system cancers. Luo and Luhya had much higher odds of Kaposi sarcoma and Burkitt lymphoma. © 2016 UICC.

  3. Chelidonium majus and its effects on uterine contractility in a perfusion model.

    Kuenzel, Julian; Geisler, Klaudija; Strahl, Olga; Grundtner, Philipp; Beckmann, Matthias W; Dittrich, Ralf


    The herbal agent celandine is thought to have mainly spasmolytic effects, but in the uterus it is regarded as promoting contractions, which can offer promising and innovative options for optimizing artificial reproduction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of celandine on the uterine muscle, using a perfusion model of swine uteri. Sixteen swine uteri were perfused with Krebs-Ringer solution. Celandine (Chelidonium, Paverysat; Johannes Bürger Ysatfabrik Ltd., Bad Harzburg, Germany) was administered at increasing dosages. Intrauterine pressure (IUP) was recorded using an intrauterine double-chip microcatheter (Urobar 8 DS-F, Raumedic, Rehau AG & Co., Rehau, Germany). Differences in pressure (ΔP) and area under the curve (ΔAUC) after drug administration in the uterine body and uterine horn in the various dilution series were noted. A paired Student's t-test was used to evaluate differences between groups, with significance set at PChelidonium majus might be used to promote targeted sperm transport. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Trichomoniasis of the breast diseased by fibrocystic mastopathy: pathogenic rather than saprophytic relationship (Trichomonas in fibrocystic mastopathy process).

    Krvavac, S


    Because of the striking similarity between histopathological pictures of chronic trichomonal cervicitis uteri, the tissue reaction after subcutaneous inoculation of Trichomonas culture in experimental animals and female breast diseased by fibrocystic mastopathy, the detection of Trichomonads was undertaken in surgically removed diseased breast parts. In 12 FCM patients, subjected to segmental breast resection, the imprint smears were prepared from dissected specimens and after supravital staining immediately examined by light microscopy. The mucous content from dilated ducts was inoculated in the culture media. The dissected tissues have been further histologically analysed by standard method. In nine out of 12 examined FCM cases the direct microscopy revealed aflagellary, pseudocystic, leucocytoid form of Trichomonads. The cultures were positive in 4 cases: in 3 patients Trichomonas tenax was identified and in the last one T vaginalis. Histopathological findings in all 12 examined cases have shown the changes characteristic for FCM. On the basis of the accumulated knowledge about pathogenic capacity of Trichomonads, it can be with great certainty claimed that these protozoa, even in their pseudocystic form are able to cause the all appearances characteristic for FCM. This first report about Trichomonas infection in the middle of FCM process gives the unexpected hope in solving of its etiology and new insight into antitrichomonal host reaction which is frequently associated with epithelial dysplasia and unrarely with precancerous lesions as earlier observed in cervix uteri.

  5. Diet salinity and vasopressin as reproduction modulators in the desert-dwelling golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus).

    Shanas, Uri; Haim, Abraham


    The time for reproduction in mammals largely depends on the availability of water and food in their habitat. Therefore, in regions where rains are limited to definite seasons of the year, mammals presumably will restrict their breeding correspondingly. But while mammals living in predictable ecosystems would benefit by timing their season to an ultimate predictable cue, such as photoperiod, in unpredictable ecosystems (e.g., deserts) they will need to use a more proximate signal. We suggest a mechanism by which water shortage (low water content in plants) could act as a proximate cue for ending the reproductive season. The golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus), a diurnal rodent living in extreme deserts, may face an increased dietary salt content as the summer progresses and the vegetation becomes dry. Under laboratory conditions, increased diet salinity lead to reproductive hiatus in females, notable in imperforated vagina, and a significant decrease in the ovaries, uteri, and body masses. In females treated with vasopressin (VP), a hormone expressed during water stress, the uteri and body masses have decreased significantly, and the ovaries exhibited an increased number of atretic follicles. VP has also led to a significant decrease in relative medullary thickness (RMT) of the kidney. It is thus suggested that VP could act as a modulator linking the reproductive system with water economy in desert rodents, possibly through its act on the energetic pathways.

  6. Antepartum uterine rupture in previous caesarean sections presenting as advanced extrauterine pregnancies: lessons learnt.

    Ramphal, Surandhra R; Moodley, Jagidesa


    In present day obstetric practice, rupture of a previously scarred uterus should be uncommon. It occurs in uterine pregnancy is made. We present a series of 7 cases, all of whom had one or more previous caesarean sections, were haemodynamically stable and were being managed expectantly, to illustrate the fact that ruptured uterus should be strongly considered in the differential diagnosis, even when the clinical signs and sonography are suggestive of an advanced extra-uterine pregnancy. The lessons in these cases fall into the following categories: 1. Ruptured uteri can occur in non-labouring women with previous lower segment caesarean sections. 2. Absence of signs of peritonism is possibly due to the fact that the pregnancy is extruded through the uterine rupture with the amniotic sac being intact and there is little or no bleeding into the abdominal cavity or vaginally. 3. Imaging techniques should focus on the size of the uterus, as an enlarged uterus in the background of an advanced extra-uterine pregnancy in a previously scarred uterus is highly suggestive of uterine rupture. Clinicians must strongly consider ruptured uteri in non labouring women with previous caesarean sections even when imaging modalities suggest an advanced extrauterine pregnancy. This will lead to earlier surgical treatment and appropriate information being provided to patients.

  7. [Expulsion proof intrauterine devices].

    Kurpiel, M


    The author of this paper presents own new generation of IUDs, named "Antigrav", patented, and used for 14 years. Proper construction of these IUDs prevents expulsion by the uterus, and protects the uterus against injuries. This report comprise 7 year od study performed in two periods. Four size of the antigravs were used during the study. In the first period od study when applied only two sizes of antigravs-size 2, and 3 in parous women, very great different of Pearl index was obtained. In the case of the bigger size 3 of the antigravs-0.5, and for smaller size 2 of the antigravs-2.5. On the base of such differences results, the author of this paper came to the conclusion that efficacy of an IUD depend on paper selection od IUD to the dimension of the uterine cavity. For fulfill such condition the author performed measurements of the uteri cavities in vivo with a uterometer, and revealed great differences in their dimensions. Consequently the uteri were divided into four groups depending on inner length (depth), and four sizes of antigravs were used. Owing to such action in the second period of study was applied 4 size of antigravs selected to the dimension of the uterine cavity, what decreased Pearl index to 0.8. During 7 years of study none of the antigravs fell out of the uterus. Excluding pregnancies, 4 personal, and two clinical reasons requiring removal of antigravs, no others complications were record.

  8. [Experience with the copper intrauterine device cu-7 (authors transl)].

    Erb, H


    The effectiveness and tolerability of the Copper-7 IUD were studied in a private medical practice by performing insertions for 103 women, 20-48 years of age. Hysteronometric measurements before the study excluded women with a fundus uteri depth less than 5.5 cm, those with severely ante- or retroflected uterus, and those with myoma uteri or double uterus. For women after uteronomy, insertion was performed at least 6 months later. Follow-up rate, with regular check-ups during a total of 1280 cycles, was 100%. The total failure rate, or Pearl Index, was 1% (1 pregnancy). There were 4 (3.9%) expulsions, and 8 (7.8%) removals for medical reasons including 1 for metritis, 2 for bleeding, and 3 for pain and cramps. The continuation rate, after 1 year of use, was 87%. The ensure optimal contraceptive effect, as well as toleration of the CU-7, potential users should be carefully measured for adequate size of the uterine cavity. Consistent follow-up and personal contact with the physician are very important. This reversible contraceptive method is highly recommended for any women with a normal uterus who does not suffer from dysmenorrhea.

  9. Estrogen and progesterone receptor isoforms expression in the stomach of Mongolian gerbils

    Milena Saqui-Salces; Teresa Neri-Gómez; Armando Gamboa-Dominguez; Guillermo Ruiz-Palacios; Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo


    AIM:We studied the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms expression in gastric antrum and corpus of female gerbils and their regulation by estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4).METHODS: Ovariectomized adult female gerbils were subcutaneously treated with E2,and E2 + P4.Uteri and stomachs were removed,the latter were cut along the greater curvature,and antrum and corpus were excised.Proteins were immunoblotted using antibodies that recognize ER-alpha,ER-beta,and PR-A and PR-B receptor isoforms.Tissues from rats treated in the same way were used as controls.RESULTS: Specific bands were detected for ER-alpha (68 KDa),and PR isoforms (85 and 120 KDa for PR-A and PR-B isoforrns,respectively) in uteri,gastric antrum and corpus.We could not detect ER-beta isoform.PR isoforms were not regulated by E2 or P4 in uterus and gastric tissues of gerbils.ER-alpha isoform content was significantly down-regulated by E2 in the corpus,but not affected by hormones in uterus and gastric antrum.CONCLUSION: The presence of ER-alpha and PR isoforms in gerbils stomach suggests that E2 and P4 actions in this organ are in part mediated by their nuclear receptors.

  10. Uterine deletion of Gp130 or Stat3 shows implantation failure with increased estrogenic responses.

    Sun, Xiaofei; Bartos, Amanda; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Dey, Sudhansu K


    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a downstream target of estrogen, is essential for implantation in mice. LIF function is thought to be mediated by its binding to LIF receptor (LIFR) and recruitment of coreceptor GP130 (glycoprotein 130), and this receptor complex then activates signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1/3. However, the importance of LIFR and GP130 acting via STAT3 in implantation remains uncertain, because constitutive inactivation of Lifr, Gp130, or Stat3 shows embryonic lethality in mice. To address this issue, we generated mice with conditional deletion of uterine Gp130 or Stat3 and show that both GP130 and STAT3 are critical for uterine receptivity and implantation. Implantation failure in these deleted mice is associated with higher uterine estrogenic responses prior to the time of implantation. These heightened estrogenic responses are not due to changes in ovarian hormone levels or expression of their nuclear receptors. In the deleted mice, estrogen-responsive gene, Lactoferrin (Ltf), and Mucin 1 protein, were up-regulated in the uterus. In addition, progesterone-responsive genes, Hoxa10 and Indian hedgehog (Ihh), were markedly down-regulated in STAT3-inactivated uteri. These changes in uteri of deleted mice were reflected by the failure of differentiation of the luminal epithelium, which is essential for blastocyst attachment.

  11. A computational method for three-dimensional reconstruction of the microarchitecture of myometrial smooth muscle from histological sections

    Lutton, E. Josiah; Lammers, Wim J. E. P.; James, Sean


    Background The fibrous structure of the myometrium has previously been characterised at high resolutions in small tissue samples (technique to reconstruct the whole myometrium from serial histological slides, at a resolution of approximately 50 μm per voxel edge. Reconstructions of samples taken from human and rat uteri are presented here, along with histological verification of the reconstructions and detailed investigation of the fibrous structure of these uteri, using a range of tools specifically developed for this analysis. These reconstruction techniques enable the high-resolution rendering of global structure previously observed at lower resolution. Moreover, structures observed previously in small portions of the myometrium can be observed in the context of the whole organ. The reconstructions are in direct correspondence with the original histological slides, which allows the inspection of the anatomical context of any features identified in the three-dimensional reconstructions. Conclusions and significance The methods presented here have been used to generate a faithful representation of myometrial smooth muscle at a resolution of ∼50 μm per voxel edge. Characterisation of the smooth muscle structure of the myometrium by means of this technique revealed a detailed view of previously identified global structures in addition to a global view of the microarchitecture. A suite of visualisation tools allows researchers to interrogate the histological microarchitecture. These methods will be applicable to other smooth muscle tissues to analyse fibrous microarchitecture. PMID:28301486

  12. The role of Type 1, P and S fimbriae in binding of Escherichia coli to the canine endometrium.

    Krekeler, N; Marenda, M S; Browning, G F; Holden, K M; Charles, J A; Wright, P J


    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most commonly isolated infectious agent causing pyometra in bitches. Many E. coli strains isolated from the uteri of infected dogs carry several adhesin genes (fimH, papGIII and sfa). The objective of this study was to investigate the role of each adhesin gene product, acting alone or expressed in combination, in the bacterial binding to canine endometrium. E. coli strain P3, which was isolated from a uterus of a bitch naturally affected with pyometra, was shown by PCR to carry all three known fimbrial adhesin genes fimH, papGIII and sfa. Knockout (KO) mutants of this wildtype (P3-wt) strain were generated using insertional inactivation. Adhesion assays on anoestrous uteri of three post-pubertal bitches were undertaken. Overall, the number of bacteria adhering to canine endometrial biopsies was comparable between strains and no significant difference in the number of bound bacteria was found between the P3-wt strain and the single or double KO-strains. However, the triple knockout strain displayed less binding to the canine endometrium compared with the P3-wt strain. This study shows that a pathogenic E. coli strain (P3) isolated from the uterus of a bitch with pyometra was able to fully compensate for the loss of two of its three known adhesin genes. It was necessary to inactivate all three known adhesin genes in order to see a significant decrease in binding to canine endometrium.

  13. Sensitivity changes after morphine treatment in the mouse uterus.

    Contreras, E; Tamayo, L; Juica, S


    The addition of morphine to a bath containing the vas deferens from chronically morphinized mice induces a facilitatory effect on noradrenaline contractile responses. This facilitatory effect of morphine has been thought to be a dependence-like effect. In the present work the possibility that a pretreatment with morphine might induce a similar effect on the contractile responses of the mouse uterus to acetylcholine and serotonin was examined. The acute effect of morphine on the uteri of untreated mice consisted in an attenuation of the responses to both substances, whereas a long term pretreatment with morphine induced a supersensitivity state. Tolerance to the depressant action of morphine on the contractile responses induced by the stimulating compounds was also observed. Acute morphine in the uteri from morphinized mice did not induce a facilitatory effect on acetylcholine or serotonin responses. Naloxone did not modify the effects of morphine in the naive or chronically treated mice. The supersensitivity state and the intensity of tolerance were unaffected by changes in the concentration of calcium in the bath medium. Caffeine or theophylline decreased the tolerance observed in the uterus from chronically morphinized mice. The attenuation of tolerance suggests that methylxanthines induce effects opposed to those of chronic morphine in the calcium distribution within the cell.

  14. Effects of sodium fluoride on reproductive function in female rats.

    Zhou, Yongjiang; Zhang, Hailing; He, Junlin; Chen, Xuemei; Ding, Yubing; Wang, Yingxiong; Liu, Xueqing


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) on female reproductive function and examine the morphology of the ovaries and uteri of rats exposed to NaF. Eighty female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided randomly into four groups of 20: one control group and three NaF treated groups. The three NaF treated groups received 100, 150, and 200 ppm, respectively, of NaF for 6 months via their drinking water, while the control group (GC) received distilled water. The levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), progesterone (P) and estradiol (E2) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pathomorphological evaluation of the uteri and ovaries was conducted after staining with hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry. The rate of successful pregnancy in the NaF-treated groups declined in a dose-dependent manner. The concentration of reproductive hormones was significantly lower in the three NaF-treated groups, and the endometrium was damaged. The maturation of follicles was inhibited. In addition, the total number of follicles of all types was significantly lower in the NaF-treated groups. These results suggest that female reproductive function is inhibited by NaF and that exposure to NaF causes ovarian and uterine structural damage. NaF may thus significantly reduce the fertility of female rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Okafor C Lilian


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the gross and micro -anatomy of the placentome of Fulani zebu (Bosindicus and its relationship with some foetal parameters over the gestation period. Eighteen pregnant uteri of the Fulani zebu cow were collected from slaughtered pregnant cows. The foetal age was estimated using Richardson’s formula. Other foetal param eters such as the foetal sex, location in the uteri, foetal weight, placentome weight, total number of placentomes and placentome size were taken. The Placentome counts showed a great deal of variability from 51 to 128. The distribution of pregnancies was (66.6% in the right horn and 33.3% in the left horn. Regression analysis was used to establish the relationship between the estimated age and other foetal parameters. The regression analysis yielded a statistically significant relationship (r 2 = 0.4549; p0.01 with the number of placentome. In conclusion, this study has shown that the Fulani zebu placenta is synepitheliochorial with convex Placentomes. The placentome size increases with gestation age in response to greater nutrient/metabolic requirement of the foetus, as the pregnancy progresses


    L. N. Afanaseva


    Full Text Available Abstract. There are evidences of increasing cervix uteri malignant tumors in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia in the period of 2003–2013. In such situation new, more effective, but less expensive organizational measures for prevention and early identification of oncological diseases should be developed. The recent epidemiological studies have convincingly shown that high-oncological-risk genital papilloma viral infection was certain risk factor of developing pre-cancer changes and cervical cancer. Detection of HPV regional epidemiological characteristics is extremely important for optimization of programs on diagnostics and prevention of cervix uteri cancer. The epidemiological and molecular-biological studies in Yakutia have detected more high infection rate in the female population than in male one. It was established that 11 high-oncological-risks genotypes of the virus circulating in the region with considerable prevalence of HPV Type 16. Since 2008 the program on vaccination against papilloma viral infection for girls and young women aged 10 to 25 years has been implemented in Yakutia Over six years, the number of vaccinated girls and women in Yakutsk reached 1093 persons. It has been the first experience in the Siberian and Far Eastern Federal Regions.

  17. Exploring disparities in incidence and mortality rates of breast and gynecologic cancers according to the Human Development Index in the Pan-American region.

    Martínez-Mesa, J; Werutsky, G; Michiels, S; Pereira Filho, C A S; Dueñas-González, A; Zarba, J J; Mano, M; Villarreal-Garza, C; Gómez, H; Barrios, C H


    To evaluate whether a country's Human Development Index (HDI) can help explain the differences in the country's breast cancer and gynecological cancer incidence and mortality rates in the Pan-American region. Ecological analysis. Pan-American region countries with publicly available data both in GLOBOCAN 2012 and the United Nations Development Report 2012 were included (n = 28). Incidence and mortality rates age-standardized per 100,000 were natural log-transformed for breast cancer, ovarian cancer, corpus uteri cancer, and cervical cancer. The mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) was calculated for each site. Pearson's correlation test and a simple linear regression were performed. The HDI showed a positive correlation with breast cancer and ovarian cancer incidence and mortality rates, respectively, and a negative correlation with cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates. The HDI and corpus uteri cancer showed no association. MIR and the HDI showed a negative correlation for all tumor types except ovarian cancer. An increment in 1 HDI unit leads to changes in cancer rates: in breast cancer incidence β = 4.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.61; 5.45) P < 0.001, breast cancer mortality β = 1.76 (95% CI 0.32; 3.21) P = 0.019, and breast cancer-MIR β = -0.705 (95% CI 0.704; 0.706) P < 0.001; in cervical cancer incidence β = -3.28 (95% CI -4.78; -1.78) P < 0.001, cervical cancer mortality β = -4.63 (95% CI -6.10; -3.17) P < 0.001, and cervical cancer-MIR β = -1.35 (95% CI -1.83; -0.87) P < 0.001; in ovarian cancer incidence β = 3.26 (95% CI 1.78; 4.75) P < 0.001, ovarian cancer mortality β = 1.82 (95% CI 0.44; 3.20) P = 0.012, and ovarian cancer-MIR β = 5.10 (95% CI 3.22; 6.97) P < 0.001; in corpus uteri cancer incidence β = 2.37 (95% CI -0.33; 5.06) P = 0.83, corpus uteri cancer mortality β = 0.68 (95% CI -2.68; 2.82) P = 0.96, and corpus uteri cancer-MIR β = -2.30 (95% CI -3.19; -1.40) P < 0.001. A

  18. Misdiagnosis Analysis of Female Pelvic Tuberculosis(A Report of 60 Cases)%盆腔结核60例误诊原因分析

    颜为红; 陈葵喜; 马超


    目的 探讨盆腔结核的诊治要点及误诊原因.方法 对我院收治并误诊的60例盆腔结核的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果本组临床表现均不典型,查血常规示重度贫血10例,白蛋白下降24例;60例均行肿瘤标志物检测,血清癌抗原125(CA125)均升高,CA19-9升高11例,甲胎蛋白(AFP)正常.人绒毛膜促性腺激素(β-HCG)检查均正常.均行胸部X线检查,提示陈旧性结核病灶2例.B超检查示附件区或盆、腹腔囊实性、实性或囊性肿块56例,余考虑为附件区或盆腔占位性病变.57例行腹部CT检查示:中至大量腹腔积液24例,附件区或盆腔不规则实性或囊实性占位性病变56例,大网膜、腹膜或肠系膜呈结节状不规则增厚14例,腹膜后淋巴结增大8例,22例疑诊为附件恶性肿瘤伴盆腹腔内广泛转移.术后病理检查明确诊断为盆腔结核.结论 盆腔结核多病程缓慢,缺乏典型临床症状.借助B超引导下穿刺、腹腔镜检查可减少盆腔结核的误诊误治.%Objective To analyze the diagnosis, treatment, and misdiagnosis causes of female pelvic tuberculosis.Methods The clinical data of 60 pelvic tuberculosis patients misdiagnosed in our hospital was retrospectively analyzed. Results The clinical manifestation in all the patients was atypical. Blood routine examination showed severe anemia in 10 patients and decreased leucocyte in 24 patients. 60 patients underwent tumor marker detection, which showed increased CA 125 and normal levels of AFP and β-HCG in all the patients, and increased CA199 in 11 patients. X-ray examination on the chest showed obsolete tuberculose focus in 2 patients. Type-B ultrasonography confirmed that 56 patient were spina bifida cystica and solid lump, and solid or spina bifida cystica lump in adnexa region or abdominopelvic cavity, other patients were confirmed as occupying lesion in adnexa region or cavitas pelvis. 57 patients underwent abdominal CT examination, which showed

  19. GnRH激动剂主动免疫对GnRHR在腺垂体与子宫表达及分布的作用研究%GnRH agonist active immunization differentially influences the expression and distribution of GnRHR in pituitary and uterus of ewes

    魏锁成; 巩转娣; 董江陵; 韦敏; 谢坤; 张杰; 王江川


    To study the expression of GnRH receptor (GnRHR) mRNA in the pituitary and GnRHR proteins in the uteri, as well as the GnRHR distribution in the uteri of ewes which were actively immunized with alarelin antigen, and also to explore the mechanisms of GnRH agonists regulating reproductive function in ewes. Twenty-eight ewes were randomly divided into four groups (n=l). The eves in the experimental group Ⅰ (EG- Ⅰ ), experimental group Ⅱ (EG- Ⅱ) and experimental group Ⅲ (EG-Ⅲ) were injected subcutaneously with 200 μg, 300 μg and 400 μg GnRH agonist (Alarelin) antigen twice (on day 0 and 14), respectively. Animals in the control group (CG) were injected 2.0 ml solvent subcutaneously twice (on day 0 and 14). The pituitary and uterine horns in each ewe were collected aseptically on day 70. The fluorescent quantitative PCR (FQ-PCR) was implemented to detect the expression of GnRHR mRNA in the pituitary. The Western blotting was also performed to measure the GnRHR proteins in the uteri. Immuno-histoehemistry SP (Streptomyces avidin-peroxidase) method and image analysis were used to locate and analyze the GnRHR distribution in the uteri. The results showed that the expression values of GnRHR mRNA in the EG- Ⅰ , EG- Ⅱ and EG- Ⅲ groups decreased, and were lower than that in CG, with the minimum in EG- Ⅲ (P<0.01). Compared to CG, the values of GnRHR proteins in EG- Ⅰ , EG-Ⅱ and EG-Ⅲ reduced by 3.46%, 4.90% and 24.78% (P < 0.05), respectively. GnRHR distributed mainly in cytoplasms and nucleus of the uterine endometrial cells and glandular epithelial cells. The gray scales of EG-Ⅲ were lower lhan that of CG (P<0.05). In conclusion, alarelin antigen immunization could suppress the expression of GnRHR mRNA in the pituitary of the ewes, and inhibit the expression GnRHR proteins in uteri. GnRHR localize mainly in the nucleus and cytoplasm of the endometrial epithelial cells and glandular epithelial cells of the uteri. GnRH agonist immunity could

  20. Some Uterine and Ovarian Biometric Changes in Pregnant Maradi Female Goats (Capra aegagrus hircus L.

    Chidozie Nwabuisi OKOYE


    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the changes in the biometry of the ovaries, of the uteri and its contents in the Maradi doe-goat during the three terms of pregnancy. Pregnant uteri from 28 female goats and their corresponding ovaries were used to study the biometric changes in the ovaries, gravid uteri, amniotic and allantoic fluids volumes, fetuses and plancentomes during the three terms of pregnancy. The results revealed that there was no significant variation in the ovarian weight during the three terms of pregnancy. However, there were significant variations in the ovarian length (left ovary 2.15 ± 0.16 cm; right ovary 2.10 ± 0.10 cm and width (left ovary 1.77 ± 0.19 cm; right ovary 1.60 ± 0.10 cm in the third term of pregnancy compared to the ovarian length and width in the first term of pregnancy. The uterine weight showed significant variation in the first term, second term   and in the third term of pregnancy. The uterine length of both horns also showed significant variations in the first term (left side 31.40 ± 1.79 cm; right side 28.22 ± 0.98 cm, second term (left side 51.58 ± 4.14 cm; right side 50.51 ± 3.62 cm and in the third term (left side 70.67 ± 1.76 cm; right side 80.38 ± 2.75 cm of pregnancy but only in the third term of pregnancy was a significant difference in the lengths of the left side uterine horn (70.67 ± 1.76 cm compared to the right side (80.38 ± 2.75 cm. The number of plancentomes was constant in both uterine horns throughout gestation; however the mean caruncular diameter increased progressively from the first term of gestation through the third term of pregnancy. The smallest and largest caruncles were observed on the ventral surfaces of the uterine horns, and the plancentomes were observed to be aligned in a linear manner along the longitudinal axis of the uterine horns. This study shows that there are differences in the biometrics of the ovary and uterus in Maradi goats compared to some other breed.

  1. Cytochrome P450 26A1 modulates natural killer cells in mouse early pregnancy.

    Meng, Chao-Yang; Li, Zhong-Yin; Fang, Wen-Ning; Song, Zhi-Hui; Yang, Dan-Dan; Li, Dan-Dan; Yang, Ying; Peng, Jing-Pian


    Cytochrome P450 26A1 (CYP26A1) has a spatiotemporal expression pattern in the uterus, with a significant increase in mRNA and protein levels during peri-implantation. Inhibiting the function or expression of CYP26A1 can cause pregnancy failure, suggesting an important regulatory role of CYP26A1 in the maintenance of pregnancy. However, little is known about the exact mechanism involved. In this study, using a pCR3.1-cyp26a1 plasmid immunization mouse model and a Cyp26a1-MO (Cyp26a1-specific antisense oligos) knockdown mouse model, we report that the number of Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) lectin-positive uterine natural killer (uNK) cells was reduced in pCR3.1-cyp26a1 plasmid immunized and Cyp26a1-MO-treated mice. In contrast, the percentage of CD3(-) CD49b(+) NK cells in the uteri from the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control group in both models. Similarly, significantly up-regulated expression of CD49b (a pan-NK cell marker), interferon gamma, CCL2, CCR2 (CCL2 receptor) and CCL3 were detected in the uteri of pCR3.1-cyp26a1- and Cyp26a1-MO-treated mice. Transcriptome analysis suggested that CYP26A1 might regulate NK cells through chemokines. In conclusion, the present data suggest that silencing CYP26A1 expression/function can decrease the number of uNK cells and significantly increase the percentage of CD3(-) CD49b(+) NK cells in the uteri of pregnant mice. These findings provide a new line of evidence correlating the deleterious effects of blocking CYP26A1 in pregnancy with the aberrant regulation of NK cells in the uterus. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  2. Distribution patterns of mast cells in the uterus of pregnant Meishan pigs.

    Liu, Y X; Yu, M; Wang, C; Peng, K M; Liu, H Z


    The present study was performed to investigate the numerical distribution of mast cells (MCs) in the uteri of pregnant Meishan pigs to explore the functions of MCs in pig pregnancy. The uterine samples from pregnant (on days 15, 26 and 50 of gestation) pigs were obtained respectively and stained with toluidine blue. The results were as follows: MCs were constitutively located in the uterus of the Meishan pig, with the distribution varying with gestational stages. On days 15 and 26 of gestation, MCs were mainly distributed around the blood vessels and uterine glands within the endometrium. On day 50 of gestation, MCs were mostly distributed in the myometrium. These results indicated that uterine MCs possibly have versatile functions in pig pregnancy.

  3. Results of pelvic exenteration in a woman for cancers and radiotherapy complications

    V. R. Latypov


    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted in women with small pelvic involvements. Thirty-five case reports were analyzed; treatment results were known in 33 (94.3 % patients. The patients» age was 55.9 (34-82 years. According to the source of the pathological process, there were 3 patient groups: gynecological, urological, and colorectal. The basic surgical procedure was anterior or total pelvic exenteration. The specific features of all cases were locally advanced tumors, recurrences, and complications due to performed treatment (radiotherapy for cancer of the cervix uteri. Surgical treatment was feasible in all cases; in this case bleeding was arrested, pain syndrome was relieved, and urination and defecation control was restored. 

  4. The role of human papilloma virus in urological malignancies.

    Heidegger, Isabel; Borena, Wegene; Pichler, Renate


    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with cancer of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx. However, the role of HPV infection in urological tumors is not yet clarified. HPV appears not to play a major causative role in renal and testicular carcinogenesis. However, HPV infection should be kept in mind regarding cases of prostate cancer, as well as in a sub-group of patients with bladder cancer with squamous differentiation. Concerning the role of HPV in penile cancer incidence, it is a recognized risk factor proven in a large number of studies. This short review provides an update regarding recent literature on HPV in urological malignancies, thereby, also discussing possible limitations on HPV detection in urological cancer.

  5. Morcellator's Port-site Metastasis of a Uterine Smooth Muscle Tumor of Uncertain Malignant Potential After Minimally Invasive Myomectomy.

    Bogani, Giorgio; Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Signorelli, Mauro; Chiappa, Valentina; Lorusso, Domenica; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Carcangiu, Maria L; Fiore, Marco; Gronchi, Alessandro; Raspagliesi, Francesco


    Since the safety warning from the US Food and Drug Administration on the use of power morcellators, minimally invasive procedures involving the removal of uterine myomas and large uteri are under scrutiny. Growing evidence suggests that morcellation of undiagnosed uterine malignancies is associated with worse survival outcomes of patients affected by uterine sarcoma. However, to date, only limited data regarding morcellation of low-grade uterine neoplasms are available. In the present article, we reported a case of a (morcellator) port-site implantation of a smooth muscle tumor that occurred 6 years after laparoscopic morcellation of a uterine smooth muscle tumor of uncertain potential. This case highlights the effects of intra-abdominal morcellation, even in low-grade uterine neoplasms. Caution should be used when determining techniques for tissue extraction; the potential adverse consequences of morcellation should be more fully explored.

  6. Brentwood Manor, Letterkenny Road, Convoy, Donegal.

    Dowling, Daniel


    The incidence of obesity, increased weight gain and the popularity of high-fat \\/ high-sugar diets are seriously impacting upon the global population. Billions of individuals are affected, and although diet and lifestyle are of paramount importance to the development of adult obesity, compelling evidence is emerging which suggests that maternal obesity and related disorders may be passed on to the next generation by non-genetic means. The processes acting within the uteri of obese mothers may permanently predispose offspring to a diverse plethora of diseases ranging from obesity and diabetes to psychiatric disorders. This review aims to summarise some of the molecular mechanisms and active processes currently known about maternal obesity and its effect on foetal and neonatal physiology and metabolism. Complex and multifactorial networks of molecules are intertwined and culminate in a pathologically synergistic manner to cause disruption and disorganisation of foetal physiology. This altered phenotype may potentiate the cycle of intergenerational transmission of obesity and related disorders.

  7. Active immunization to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone to inhibit the induction of mammary tumors in the rat

    Ravdin, P.M.; Jordan, V.C.


    Immunization of female rats with a bovine serum albumin-luteinizing hormone releasing hormone conjugate results in suppression of dimethylbenzanthracene mammary tumor incidence. Tumor incidence was 1.3, and 1.29 tumors per rat in bovine serum albumin alone (n = 10) and unimmunized (n = 18) control groups, but no tumors were found in the bovine serum albumin-luteinizing hormone releasing hormone conjugate immunized animals (n = 10). In a second experiment immunization with bovine serum albumin-luteinizing hormone releasing hormone conjugates reduced tumor incidence to 0.3 tumors per rat (n = 10) from the 1.2 tumors per animal seen in the control animals (n = 10) immunized with bovine serum albumin alone. Bovine serum albumin-luteinizing hormone immunization caused the production of anti-LHRH antibodies, an interruption of estrous cycles, lowered serum estradiol and progesterone levels, and atrophy of the ovaries and uteri. Immunization BSA-hormone conjugates is a novel anti-tumor strategy.

  8. Short Interpregnancy Interval as a Risk Factor of Spontaneous Preterm Labor due to Low Cervical Collagen

    Sundtoft, Iben Blaabjerg; Uldbjerg, Niels; Sommer, Steffen

      OBJECTIVE: The incidence of preterm labor is increasing and continues to be a significant cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Various risk factors of preterm labor are known, among those a short interval between labor and a subsequent conception. The risk of spontaneous preterm labor inc...... cervix has not normalized until 12 months after labor. The lower collagen concentrations may explain the association between short interpregnancy interval and preterm labor.......  OBJECTIVE: The incidence of preterm labor is increasing and continues to be a significant cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Various risk factors of preterm labor are known, among those a short interval between labor and a subsequent conception. The risk of spontaneous preterm labor...... increases with interpregnancy intervals shorter than 12 months, the strongest association with intervals shorter than 6 months. Cervix uteri consist predominantly of fibrous connective tissue and it is from this tissue cervix derives its "strength". A prerequisite for vaginal delivery is a decrease...

  9. Progamotaenia capricorniensis sp. nov. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae from wallabies (Marsupialia: Macropodidae from Queensland, Australia

    Beveridge I.


    Full Text Available Progamotaenia capricorniensis sp. nov. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae is described from the wallabies Macropus dorsalis (Gray, 1837] and Petrogale assimilis Ramsay, 1877 from Queensland, Australia. The new species is characterised by a fimbriated velum composed of 26-32 digitiform to triangular projections on each side of the proglottis, paired uteri and 140-190 testes distributed in a single band across the medulla. Minor variation occurs in the distribution of the testes. The above characters distinguish the new species from its most closely related congeners P. lagorchestis (Lewis, 1914, P. proterogyna (Fuhrmann, 1932, P. spearei Beveridge, 1980 and P. villosa (Lewis, 1914. P. capricorniensis appears to exhibit a highly disjunct distribution within its usual host, M. dorsalis.

  10. The molecular mechanisms of offspring effects from obese pregnancy.

    Dowling, Daniel


    The incidence of obesity, increased weight gain and the popularity of high-fat \\/ high-sugar diets are seriously impacting upon the global population. Billions of individuals are affected, and although diet and lifestyle are of paramount importance to the development of adult obesity, compelling evidence is emerging which suggests that maternal obesity and related disorders may be passed on to the next generation by non-genetic means. The processes acting within the uteri of obese mothers may permanently predispose offspring to a diverse plethora of diseases ranging from obesity and diabetes to psychiatric disorders. This review aims to summarise some of the molecular mechanisms and active processes currently known about maternal obesity and its effect on foetal and neonatal physiology and metabolism. Complex and multifactorial networks of molecules are intertwined and culminate in a pathologically synergistic manner to cause disruption and disorganisation of foetal physiology. This altered phenotype may potentiate the cycle of intergenerational transmission of obesity and related disorders.


    R. V. Pavlov


    Full Text Available Abstract. The article presents the results of intraperitoneal administration of recombinant rat interferon-α to twenty Wistar rats with experimentally induced endometriosis. The following criteria of treatment efficiency were applied: presence of ectopic endometrium in transplanted segments of cornu uteri, proliferative activity of endometrioid cells, features of vascularization and leucocyte infiltration within endometrial foci. It was shown that local application of interferon-α caused regression of endometrioid epithelial heterotopias in 50 per cent of the cases. If endometrioid epithelium was retained, its proliferative activity did significantly drop under interferon-α application. In all transplants derived from rats treated with interferon-α, the degree of vascularization is reduced, accompanied by increased leucocytic infiltration (due to lymphocytes, along with decreased contents of macrophages within leucocytic infiltrates.

  12. Human papillomavirus and gastrointestinal cancer: A review

    Bucchi, Dania; Stracci, Fabrizio; Buonora, Nicola; Masanotti, Giuseppe


    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Exposure to HPV is very common, and an estimated 65%-100% of sexually active adults are exposed to HPV in their lifetime. The majority of HPV infections are asymptomatic, but there is a 10% chance that individuals will develop a persistent infection and have an increased risk of developing a carcinoma. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has found that the following cancer sites have a strong causal relationship with HPV: cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx, including the base of the tongue and the tonsils. However, studies of the aetiological role of HPV in colorectal and esophageal malignancies have conflicting results. The aim of this review was to organize recent evidence and issues about the association between HPV infection and gastrointestinal tumours with a focus on esophageal, colorectal and anal cancers. The ultimate goal was to highlight possible implications for prognosis and prevention. PMID:27672265

  13. Pharmacological actions and acute toxicity of methyl- and phenyl-3-methoxy-4-hydroxy styryl ketones.

    Singh, G B; Leach, G D; Atal, C K


    Some pharmacological actions and acute toxicity effects of methyl- and phenyl-3-methoxy-4-hydroxy styryl ketones have been described in experimental animals. The compounds antagonised the contractions evoked by a variety of agonists on several smooth muscle preparations in vitro. They produced inhibitory effects on spontaneously contracting uteri from pregnant rats and relaxant effects on pendular movements of rabbit duodenum and on dog intestinal movements in vivo. The compounds inhibited the castor oil induced diarrhoea in rat and propulsion of charcoal test meal in mice. Phenylbutazone showed similar effect on castor oil diarrhoea. The compounds failed to modify gestation period or parturition in pregnant rats. They antagonised bradykinin-induced bronchospasm in guinea pig. The compounds showed no significant effect on cardiovascular and respiratory systems: CNS and general behaviour were not affected even at high doses. Oral LD50 for both the compounds was greater than 2 g/kg.

  14. A meta-analysis on uterine transplantation: Redefining the limits of reproductive surgery

    Ana Flávia Garcia Silva

    Full Text Available SUMMARY In September 2014, the first baby grown in a transplanted uterus was born, which represented an astonishing scientific progress that will mark the history of human reproduction. The recipient was a 32-year-old woman with Rokytanski syndrome who became pregnant after a successful embryo transfer and had an uneventful pregnancy, giving birth to a healthy newborn and marking the beginning of a new era. Patients who do not have a uterus or have a dysfunctional uterus now have the chance of dreaming with pregnancy and motherhood. Combining principles of solid organ transplantation and techniques of human reproduction, uterus transplantation is the first ephemeral transplant performed in order to promote reproductive potential of women and may be removed after successful pregnancy. Worldwide, 11 uterine transplantations were performed in patients. Of these, seven maintained their reproductive potential, with viable transplanted uteri and regular menstrual cycles.

  15. Cellular mechanisms by which oxytocin stimulates uterine PGF2 alpha synthesis in bovine endometrium: roles of phospholipases C and A2.

    Burns, P D; Graf, G A; Hayes, S H; Silvia, W J


    The objective of these experiments was to identify the cellular mechanisms by which oxytocin stimulates prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha synthesis in bovine endometrial tissue. Uteri were collected on the day after spontaneous luteal regression. Caruncular endometrial explants were dissected and incubated in vitro to assess PGF2 alpha release or phospholipase (PL) C activity. Oxytocin (10(-6) M) stimulated PGF2 alpha release and PLC activity within 30 min of incubation (P 0.10). By comparing the time course of stimulation and dose-response relationships between PGF2 alpha and PLC activity, it appears that oxytocin may stimulate PGF2 alpha secretion by activating PLC. The effects of melittin and aristolochic acid indicate that PLA2 may play a role in mediating the stimulatory effect of oxytocin on PGF2 alpha secretion, as well.

  16. Immunostaining for p16(INK4a) used as a conjunctive tool improves interobserver agreement of the histologic diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Horn, L.C.; Reichert, A.; Oster, A.


    is affected by substantial rates of discordance among pathologists. Overexpression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16(INK4a), a cell cycle regulating protein, has been shown to be strongly correlated with dysplastic lesions of the cervix uteri. In this study.. we assessed whether p16(INK4a......) immunohistochemistry may increase the performance of pathologists in diagnosing squamous lesions in cervical punch and cone biopsies. When using a consecutive p 16(INK4a)-stained slide in conjunction to the H&E-stained slide, interobserver agreement between 6 pathologists improved significantly for both cervical punch...... conjunctively with p16(INK4a)-stained slides. In comparison to a common consensus diagnosis established by 3 independent experts, 4 pathologists reached an improvement with the conjunctive p16(INK4a) test, 2 of them showing significantly better agreement (P INK4a...

  17. A quasi-experimental design based on regional variations: discussion of a method for evaluating outcomes of medical practice

    Loft, A; Andersen, T F; Madsen, Mette


    experiment involving alternative treatments could be regarded as 'pseudo randomised', but empirical investigations are needed to verify this prerequisite. This paper discusses the role of quasi-experimental designs in assessment of medical care with evaluation of outcomes after hysterectomy in Denmark...... as an example. The design is developed and the comparability of selected groups of patients is elucidated from administrative data, while the outcome results are not presented in this context. One indication for hysterectomy is carcinoma in situ of the cervix uteri which may be treated with either hysterectomy......, or conisation. A study group of patients was selected from departments where hysterectomy was the treatment of choice for this indication while the reference group was drawn from departments in which conisation was generally preferred. The comparability of the populations, effects and information for the two...


    Kiki Sanjaya Dharma


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: One of the most complications in pregnancy it was a bleeding , that could happen to any the gestational age .Young in pregnancy , often connected with abortus , miscarriage , and loss of early pregnancy .Abortus is defined as the threat or spending the products of conception before a fetus can live outside the utery. Constitutes gestational age is less than 20 weeks or fetus weight less than 500 grams .Abortus imminens is pervaginam bleeding in pregnancy before 20 weeks without accompanied the release of the products of conception and dilatation of the uterus. Cases: Female patient , 31 years , the balinese ethnic coming to the emergency room the hospital with complaints pervaginam bleeding. Said to be initially were bleeding spots that its color red .Then there are black coloured bloodlump, there is no tissue. Kata Kunci :Abortus imminens, pregnancy, bleeding.

  19. [Reaction of the uterine wall on IUD of abnormal positioning and size].

    Nesit, V


    The reliability of an IUD was examined in 9 women 1-7 days prior to hysterectomy or supracervical amputation of the uterus. An extra large Dana, Dana super, or Dana cor was inserted. All the women complained of hypogastric pains; in 2 cases, the IUD was removed after only a few hours. After the surgery, the uterus was prepared for histological verification of the effects of the IUD. Significant deformation of the uterine wall was found, especially in the region of the cervix and corpus uteri. This was particularly marked with the Dana super, which also caused a rotary deformation. There were changes seen in the IUD itself as well. The results show that an excessively large or incorrectly positioned IUD will cause pronounced deformation of the corpus, uterine cavity and of the cervix with subsequent pains, staining, and expulsion.

  20. Dominant lethal study in CD-1 mice following inhalation exposure to 1,3-butadiene: Final technical report

    Hackett, P.L.; Mast, T.J.; Brown, M.G.; Clark, M.L.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rowe, S.E.; McClanahan, B.J.; Buschbom, R.L.; Decker, J.R.; Rommereim, R.L.; Westerberg, R.B.


    The effects of whole-body inhalation exposures to 1,3-butadiene on the reproductive system was evaluated. The results of dominant lethality in CD-1 male mice that were exposed to 1,3-butadiene are described. Subsequent to exposure, males were mated with two unexposed females. Mating was continued for 8 weeks with replacement of two females each week. Gravid uteri were removed, and the total number, position and status of implantations were determined. The mice were weighed prior to exposure and at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 weeks after exposure and at sacrifice. The animals were observed for mortality, morbidity and signs of toxicity throughout the study. 19 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Hormone replacement therapy and the risk of endometrial cancer

    Sjögren, Lea; Mørch, Lina S; Løkkegaard, Ellen


    progestin therapy according to the risk of endometrial cancer, while considering both regimen and type of progestin. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched, resulting in the identification of 527 published articles on menopausal women with intact uteri treated with estrogen only......BACKGROUND: In 1975, estrogen only was found to be associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. In November 2015, NICE guidelines on hormone therapy were published that did not take this risk into account. AIM: This systematic literature review assesses the safety of estrogen plus......, estrogen plus progestin or tibolone for a minimum of one year. Risk of endometrial cancer was compared to placebo or never users and measured as relative risk, hazard or odds ratio. RESULTS: 28 studies were included. The observational literature found an increased risk among users of estrogen alone...

  2. Immunolocalization of nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptors (TrkA and p75LNGFR) in the reproductive organs of Shiba goats.

    Ren, LongQuan; Medan, Mohamed S; Weng, Qiang; Jin, Wanzhu; Li, ChunMei; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi


    The objective of this study was to determine the immunolocalization of NGF and its receptors (TrkA and p75LNGFR) in the reproductive tract of the Japanese Shiba goats. Five adult goats were used in this study and sections of ovaries, uteri and oviducts were immunostained by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method (ABC). The results showed that NGF and its receptors (TrkA and p75LNGFR) were expressed in granulosa cells, theca cells, interstitial cells and lutein cells in ovaries. Immunoreactions for NGF, TrkA and p75LNGFR were also detectable in epithelial cells and muscle cells of the ampulla and isthmus of the oviduct, and in epithelial cells and uterine glands of the uterus. These results strongly suggest autocrine and paracrine regulation of reproductive function by NGF in the reproductive tract of female Shiba goats.

  3. Paralongidorus bullatus n. sp. from Groundnut Soils in Niger and Comments on Xiphinema parasetariae Luc.

    Sharma, S B; Siddiqi, M R


    Paralongidorus bullatus n. sp. from groundnut soils in Sador'é Niger is described and illustrated. It is distinguishable from most species of the genus by its body and odontostyle lengths, knob-like head, and digitate ending of the protoplasmic region of the tail. Length of the female body is 4.4-5.5 mm, of the odontostyle 132-156 mum, and of the tail 32-44 mum. Tail terminus is conoid to broadly rounded. Uteri are well developed, without sperms. Males are not found. Xiphinema parasetariae Luc 1958, a species inquirenda, is validated and, based on measurements and tail structures, X. attorodorum Luc 1961 is proposed as a synonym of X. parasetariae. Additional measurements are given for its females and juveniles.

  4. Uterine horn aplasia with complications in two mixed-breed bitches : case report

    M.L. Schulman


    Full Text Available Unilateral segmental uterine horn aplasia was found in 2 mixed-breed bitches. The 1st bitch was presented with clinical signs of acute abdominal pain, and pyometra was suspected. Pyometra was confirmed surgically with rupture of a blind-ending cranial portion of the anomalous right uterine horn, which had resulted in peritonitis. The 2nd bitch was presented for routine ovariohysterectomy. The right uterine horn was affected by segmental aplasia, with mucometra of the cranial portion of the affected horn. Histopathology demonstrated both uteri to have diffuse cystic endometrial hyperplasia. It is postulated that cystic endometrial hyperplasia, together with the congenital anomaly, resulted in pyometra in one case and in mucometra in the other case. This is believed to be the 1st report of uterine horn aplasia in the bitch in association with clinical signs and lesions other than infertility.

  5. Prenatal exposure to paracetamol/acetaminophen and precursor aniline impairs masculinisation of male brain and behaviour

    Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Finkielman, Olivia T. Ejlstrup; Jensen, Benjamin A. H.


    Paracetamol/acetaminophen (N-Acetyl-p-Aminophenol; APAP) is the preferred analgesic for pain relief and fever during pregnancy. It has therefore caused concern that several studies have reported that prenatal exposure to APAP results in developmental alterations in both the reproductive tract and...... neurobehavioral programming. These findings add to the growing body of evidence suggesting the need to limit the widespread exposure and use of APAP by pregnant women....... and precursor of APAP, aniline, resulted in a similar reduction. Decrease in neuronal number in the SDN-POA is associated with reductions in male sexual behaviour. Consistent with the changes, male mice exposed in uteri to APAP exhibited changes in urinary marking behaviour as adults and had a less aggressive...

  6. Safe laparoscopic removal of a 3200 gram fibroid uterus.

    Demir, Richard H; Marchand, Gregory J


    Hysterectomy using minimally invasive techniques yields fewer complications, less blood loss, and quicker recovery time compared with traditional abdominal hysterectomy. Despite these advantages, 65% of all hysterectomies in the United States are still performed using traditional laparotomy, and many clinicians still exclude patients with a history of prior abdominal surgery, significant obesity, or a large fibroid uterus from these procedures. Among physicians skilled in minimally invasive surgery, the prior largest uteri removed included a 2421g uterus removed vaginally, and a 2418g uterus removed via hand-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy. We performed a laparoscopic-assisted hysterectomy on a significantly obese 50-year-old woman with a 3200g uterus. The patient required a 2-day hospital stay and recovered unremarkably. The patient was able to return to work within one week and quickly returned to activities of daily life. In the hands of experienced minimally invasive surgeons, laparotomy can be avoided in almost all instances of hysterectomy for benign disease.

  7. [Laparoscopic hysterectomy--brief history, frequency, indications and contraindications].

    Tomov, S; Gorchev, G; Tzvetkov, Ch; Tanchev, L; Iliev, S


    Hysterectomy is the most common gynecological operation after Caesarean section and the laparoscopic access to uterus removal is one of the contemporary methods showing slow but steady growth in time. In reference to indications and contraindications for laparoscopic hysterectomy, the following directions emerge as controversial: malignant gynecological tumors, uterus size, and high body mass index. Laparoscopic hysterectomy can be taken into consideration at the first stage of endometrial, cervical and ovarian cancer. If there is doubt about an uterus sarcoma and a laparoscopic access is accomplished, a conversion to abdominal hysterectomy must be done. Obesity and big uteri are not a contrarindication for that minimally-invasive access. Today, laparoscopic hysterectomy is a reasonable alternative to total abdominal and vaginal hysterectomy.

  8. Stomach contents and notes on the reproduction of the Onefin Skate Gurgesiella dorsalifera (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae off Southern Brazil

    Getulio Rincon

    Full Text Available The Brazilian endemic deep-water onefin skate (Gurgesiella dorsalifera is a rare small species recently described in the 80's. No biological information is available on this species and its extremely restricted geographic distribution has been used to classify it as a vulnerable species under IUCN red list criteria. Twenty four specimens (115 to 207 mm disc width were captured off southern Brazilian coast at the region of Cape Santa Marta Grande (State of Santa Catarina by deep-water otter trawl (430-524 m. The analysis of stomach contents revealed an apparent opportunistic predation on juveniles of Urophycis brasiliensis (IRI = 6944, with an average total length of 21 mm, followed by mysidaceans (IRI = 2938, unidentified teleosts (IRI = 1969, the copepod Bradyidius plinioi (IRI = 393, and decapod crustaceans (IRI = 297. One mature female with 207 mm DW had two egg cases in its uteri.

  9. Redescription of Trichuris pampeana (Nematoda: Trichuridae) from the South American subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum Thomas, 1898 (Rodentia: Octodontidae).

    Rossin, M Alejandra; Malizia, Ana I


    Trichuris pampeana Suriano and Navone, 1994 (Nematoda: Trichuridae) is redescribed from voucher specimens from the type host Ctenomys azarae Thomas, 1903 (Rodentia: Octodontidae) and from parasites collected from 2 populations of the subterranean rodent C. talarum Thomas, 1898 from Mar de Cobo and Necochea, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. After a revision of these nematodes, it was confirmed that the following characters were not considered in the original description: bacillary band, cells from the esophagointestinal junction, ejaculatory duct, vas deferens, adanal papillae, vagina, oviduct, and rectum. Additional information about the spicular sheath, vulva, uteri, and ovary is provided. The morphological features given in this redescription allow to confirm the identity of T. pampeana as a valid species and also to distinguish it more clearly from other species of the genus.

  10. An Teaghlach Uilinn, Kilrainey, Moycullen, Galway.

    Dowling, Daniel


    The incidence of obesity, increased weight gain and the popularity of high-fat \\/ high-sugar diets are seriously impacting upon the global population. Billions of individuals are affected, and although diet and lifestyle are of paramount importance to the development of adult obesity, compelling evidence is emerging which suggests that maternal obesity and related disorders may be passed on to the next generation by non-genetic means. The processes acting within the uteri of obese mothers may permanently predispose offspring to a diverse plethora of diseases ranging from obesity and diabetes to psychiatric disorders. This review aims to summarise some of the molecular mechanisms and active processes currently known about maternal obesity and its effect on foetal and neonatal physiology and metabolism. Complex and multifactorial networks of molecules are intertwined and culminate in a pathologically synergistic manner to cause disruption and disorganisation of foetal physiology. This altered phenotype may potentiate the cycle of intergenerational transmission of obesity and related disorders.

  11. A new species of the genus Bothrioplana (Platyhelminthes: Bothrioplanida: Bothrioplanidae) and a new species of the genus Pentacoelum (Tricladida: Bdellouridae) from southern China.

    He, Yi; Zhao, Jia-Qi; Ning, Wan-Ru; Zhuang, Jie-Yi; Zhang, Yu; Wang, An-Tai


    Two new species of turbellarians, Bothrioplana sinensis n. sp., and Pentacoelum sinensis n. sp., were described based on their reproductive behavior, ontogenic development, morphology in whole-mounted and sectioned specimens, and 18S rDNA phylogenetic classification. Bothrioplana sinensis n. sp. represents a newly recorded order in China and the second identified species in the genus Bothrioplana. It is characterized by a pair of spherical-shaped well-developed testes located dorsally behind the pharynx, and the common vas deference located ventrally to the gonopore. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this new species is closely related to parasitic flatworms. Pentacoelum sinensis n. sp. is characterized by two uteri instead of lateral bursae located laterally near the tail end and a lack of connection between the posterior intestinal branches. Each uterus has a ventral receptaculum seminalis (also functioning as bursa copulatrix) which has a muscular vagina externa opening obliquely to the ventral side at the tail end.

  12. Multiple malignant tumors – a clinical case

    Daciana N. Chirilă


    Full Text Available Objective: We present a clinical case of an old woman who suffered at different ages surgical excisions for three different primarymalignant tumors. The patient is now 86 years old. She was diagnosed at the age of 35 with a malignant tumor of the corpus uteri, and thenwhen she was 78 with a basocellular carcinoma of the nose skin and at 81 she was diagnosed with an ascendant large bowel adenocarcinoma.Despite the occurrence of three different tumors she is alive five years later and cancer-free, but suffering because of other medical diseasesincluding diabetes, hypertension, myocardial ischemia and migraines. Conclusion: a patient diagnosed with a cancer and who survive from itmust be submitted to periodically medical controls because of the possibility to develop several other cancers. With an increasing survival inpatients after malignant tumors therapy, there is an increased risk to develop other cancers as the patients are getting older.

  13. The molecular detection of relaxin and its receptor RXFP1 in reproductive tissue of Felis catus and Lynx pardinus during pregnancy.

    Braun, Beate C; Vargas, Astrid; Jewgenow, Katarina


    Relaxin acts as a pregnancy-specific signal in feline species, but specific information about protein structure and binding is essential for the improvement of pregnancy diagnosis in endangered feline species, like the Iberian lynx. To generate a felid-specific relaxin antibody, the DNA and protein sequences of lynx and cat were determined and peptides were chosen for antibody generation. In addition, relaxin and relaxin receptor (RXFP1) mRNA expressions were measured in uteri and ovaries of pregnant domestic cats and lynx placentae. Using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, it was established that feline placenta is the main source of relaxin during pregnancy. In other tested tissues, relaxin mRNA expression was weak. The RXFP1 mRNA expression was found mainly in cat uterine tissue and feline placentae. It was assumed that these tissues were main targets for relaxin. In the ovary, relaxin immunostaining was associated with blood vessels, signifying its role in vascularization.

  14. The effects of wild-type and mutant SOD1 on smooth muscle contraction

    Nikolić-Kokić Aleksandra


    Full Text Available In this work we compared the mutated liver copper zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (SOD1 protein G93A of the transgenic rat model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS, to wild-type (WT rat SOD1. We examined their enzymatic activities and effects on isometric contractions of uteri of healthy virgin rats. G93A SOD1 showed a slightly higher activity than WT SOD1 and, in contrast to WT SOD1, G93A SOD1 did not induce smooth muscle relaxation. This result indicates that effects on smooth muscles are not related to SOD1 enzyme activity and suggest that heterodimers of G93A SOD1 form an ion-conducting pore that diminishes the relaxatory effects of SOD1. We propose that this type of pathogenic feedback affects neurons in FALS. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173014 i br. 175083

  15. Elastin distribution in the normal uterus, uterine leiomyomas, adenomyosis and adenomyomas: a comparison.

    Zheng, Wei-Qiang; Ma, Rong; Zheng, Jian-Ming; Gong, Zhi-Jing


    To describe the histologic distribution of elastin in the nonpregnant human uterus, uterine leiomyomas, adenomyosis and adenomyomas. Uteri were obtained from women undergoing hysterectomy for benign conditions, including 26 cases of uterine leiomyomas, 24 cases of adenomyosis, 18 adenomyomas and 6 cases of autopsy specimens. Specific histochemical staining techniques were employed in order to demonstrate the distribution of elastin. The distribution of elastin components in the uterus was markedly uneven and showed a decreasing gradient from outer to inner myometrium. No elastin was present within leiomyomas, adenomyomas or adenomyosis. The distribution of elastin may help explain the normal function of the myometrium in labor. It implies that the uneven distribution of elastin components and absence of elastin within leiomyomas, adenomyomas and adenomyosis could be of some clinical significance. The altered elastin distribution in disease states may help explain such symptoms as dysmenorrhea in uterine endometriosis.

  16. Lower values of VEGF in endometrial secretion are a possible cause of subfertility in non-atopic asthmatic patients

    Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend;


    Abstract Objective: Using endometrial secretion analysis, we assessed whether altered inflammatory cytokine levels can be detected in the uterine environment in asthma patients, thereby providing a possible cause of reduced fertility in asthmatics. Methods: Forty-four unexplained infertile women ...... endometrial secretions, which might affect the receptiveness of the endometrium and thereby increase time to pregnancy. The effect appears to be associated with non-atopic asthma with general increased systemic inflammation.......Abstract Objective: Using endometrial secretion analysis, we assessed whether altered inflammatory cytokine levels can be detected in the uterine environment in asthma patients, thereby providing a possible cause of reduced fertility in asthmatics. Methods: Forty-four unexplained infertile women...... (aged 28-44) underwent asthma and allergy testing, questionnaires, endometrial secretion and blood samples in the mid-secretory phase of the menstrual cycle (day 19-23) during assisted reproduction. Differences in cytokines and growth factors were analyzed. Results: Mean log-VEGF in uteri was lower...

  17. Efficacy of fosfomycin on Escherichia coli isolated from bitches with pyometra.

    Inoue, Ikuo; Shibata, Sanae; Fukata, Tsuneo


    The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from the uteri of bitches with pyometra, and 38 E. coli isolates were used. The antimicrobials used were ampicillin (ABPC), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, gentamicin, minocycline, cefazolin, levofloxacin (LVFX), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (ST) and fosfomycin (FOM). Resistance to ABPC occurred most frequently, followed by LVFX and ST. Multi-drug resistance, defined as resistance against 3 or more classes of antimicrobials, was found in 23.7% of all isolates. Nine out of 13 resistant strains were multi-drug resistant, but no strain was found to be resistant to FOM. This suggests that FOM should be administered for E. coli from pyometra.

  18. γδ T lymphocytes are recruited into the inflamed uterus of bitches suffering from pyometra.

    Bartoskova, A; Turanek-Knotigova, P; Matiasovic, J; Oreskovic, Z; Vicenova, M; Stepanova, H; Ondrackova, P; Vitasek, R; Leva, L; Moore, P F; Faldyna, M


    Very little is known about the occurrence of immune system cells in the canine uterus. The aim of this study was to generate information about lymphocyte subsets that are present in the healthy canine uterus and that are recruited under inflammatory conditions caused by pyometra. Using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, a significant influx of γδ T lymphocytes was found in pyometra samples mainly due to recruitment of γδ(+)/CD8(-) T lymphocytes. The relative expression of genes encoding selected cytokines/chemokines was evaluated in samples from healthy and pyometra-affected uteri. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (including IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-17 and IFN-γ) and chemokines (including CXCL10, CCL4 and CCL5) was upregulated in pyometra samples confirming the presence of inflammation. In contrast, the expression of the homeostatic chemokine CCL25 and of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was downregulated and unchanged, respectively.

  19. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Brothers of Charity Services Ireland, Clare

    Dowling, Daniel


    The incidence of obesity, increased weight gain and the popularity of high-fat \\/ high-sugar diets are seriously impacting upon the global population. Billions of individuals are affected, and although diet and lifestyle are of paramount importance to the development of adult obesity, compelling evidence is emerging which suggests that maternal obesity and related disorders may be passed on to the next generation by non-genetic means. The processes acting within the uteri of obese mothers may permanently predispose offspring to a diverse plethora of diseases ranging from obesity and diabetes to psychiatric disorders. This review aims to summarise some of the molecular mechanisms and active processes currently known about maternal obesity and its effect on foetal and neonatal physiology and metabolism. Complex and multifactorial networks of molecules are intertwined and culminate in a pathologically synergistic manner to cause disruption and disorganisation of foetal physiology. This altered phenotype may potentiate the cycle of intergenerational transmission of obesity and related disorders.

  20. Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract; Multimodale Bildgebung neuroendokriner Tumoren des Gastrointestinaltrakts

    Holzapfel, Konstantin; Eiber, Matthias; Rummeny, Ernst J. [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Gaertner, Florian C. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin


    Neuroendocrine tumors (neuroendokrine Tumoren) are rare entities. They can be found in all organs and show substantial biologic heterogeneity depending on involved organ, clinical symptoms and histopathologic morphology. Involvement of organs like larynx, cervix uteri, ovary, gallbladder, liver or kidney is extensively rare. The majority of neuroendokrine Tumoren are found in gastrointestinal tract and lung and are classified as neuroendokrine Tumoren of foregut (stomach, duodenum, pancreas, lung), midgut (jejunum, ileum, appendix, right side of the colon) and hindgut (left side of the colon, rectum). The role of imaging is to localize and delineate the primary tumor and to detect metastases. In the diagnosis of neuroendokrine Tumoren radiologic techniques like computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are applied. In certain cases nuclear medicine techniques like somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) and positron emission tomography (PET) using radioactively labelled somatostatin analogues are used. The present article reviews characteristic imaging findings of neuroendokrine Tumoren of the gastrointestinal tract. (orig.)

  1. Abnormal cervical smears in the unchanged uterine cervix: difficulties in the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias and microinvasive cancer

    L. I. Korolenkova


    Full Text Available The author analyzes an algorithm for identifying and treating w omen with cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN and microinv asive cancer of the cervix uteri in cases of the hidden area of transformation and in the absence of visible cervical changes. There are excep- tional difficulties of making the diagnosis of epithelial damages due to the incomplete reproducibility of cytological abnormal ities and the low informative value of a histological study of scrapes from the cervical canal. To avoid hypodiagnosis, it is justifiable to prefer human papillomavirus testing (Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2 to repeat smears for the choice of a management tactic. Conization is recommend ed as a diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedure when the viral load is high in over 35-year-old patients with abnormal smears anda hidden transformation area.


    Ionescu, Lidia; Dănilă, R; Ciobanu, Delia; Ciortescu, Irina; Livadariu, Roxana; Timofte, D


    Association of adenocarcinoma and tuberculosis (TB) of the sigmoid colon is a rare clinical condition even in an endemic country as Romania, with challenging diagnosis and treatment. Case report. We present the case of a 57-year-old female patient who was admitted on emergency basis for a diagnosis of obstructive sigmoid adenocarcinoma. The patient was operated on and it an obstructive sigmoid tumor with serosal invasion, adherent (invading) to the body of uterus and left adnexa and urinary bladder serosa, no liver or peritoneal metastases. A sigmoidectomy was performed "en bloc" with subtotal hysterectomy, left adnexectomy and extramucosal cistectomy. The histopathological exam showed a moderately differentiated, ulcerated adenocarcinoma, widely infiltrating the colon wall invading the myometrium. Ziehl Neelsen (ZN) stain identified the presence of metachromatic bacillary structures in the colonic wall, lymph nodes and adnexal areas. Postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged 10 days postoperatively in good clinical condition. After one year when the patient completed the full course of anti-tubercular drugs, a thorough work-up was performed. Colonoscopy, CT of the thorax, abdomen, pelvis showed no signs of recurrence while tumoral marker CEA (1.62 ng/ml - ntuberculosis is included in differential diagnosis for those patients presenting abdominal pain or obstructive digestive symptoms in endemic regions, in this case the absence of TB infection criteria and positive endoscopic biopsy for colonic adenocarcinoma did not allow a complete pre- or perioperative diagnosis.

  3. Ovarian steroid cell tumor in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a case report

    Yarandi F


    Full Text Available Background: Steroid cell tumor is one of the rare ovarian tumors and forms 0.1% of all ovarian tumors, divided to three subgroups. Steroid cell tumor that are not otherwise specified (NOS are the most common type and represent 60% of steroid cell tumors. One of the most known signs of this tumor is hormonal function, especially androgenic effects of it. Primary treatment consists of eradication of tumor via surgery.Case presentation: The patient is a 29 years old female with history of poly cystic ovarian syndrome since 10 years ago, who attended to the clinic of General Women Hospital of Tehran in January 2011. In pelvic ultrasonography, there was a 6449mm mass in the right adnexa consisting of homogeneous component. She underwent laparotomy and unilateral salpingoophorectomy was done. Pathological report was steroid cell tumor of ovary.Conclusion: The aim of this study is reporting one of the rare tumors of ovary and assessment of the correct way of diagnosis and treatment of it.

  4. First report of MRI findings in a case of an autoamputated wandering calcified ovary

    Mahajan PS


    Full Text Available Parag Suresh Mahajan, Nazeer Ahamad, Sheik Akbar Hussain Department of Radiology, Al-Khor Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Abstract: An autoamputated wandering calcified ovary (AWCO is an extremely rare cause of abdominal calcification in the pediatric population. We present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI features of AWCO in a child. To our knowledge, the MRI features of AWCO have not been previously described in the published literature. Our case report indicates that the MRI findings are characteristic in the diagnosis of an AWCO and can completely obviate the need for invasive procedures in this mostly benign disease. An AWCO should be considered in all cases of mobile calcific opacities on radiographs in female patients. We advise that MRI be conducted in all suspected cases of AWCO for accurate and noninvasive diagnosis, and regular follow-up should be performed with ultrasound. The findings in our case report have the potential to change the course of investigations and management in suspected cases. Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging, ovary, adnexa, autoamputation, wandering calcification

  5. Papillary Carcinoma Arising in Struma Ovarii

    Yavuz Yalçın


    Full Text Available Struma ovarii, which is classified as benign or malignant, is a mature ovarian teratoma consisting mainly of the thyroid tissue. Here, we present the case of malign struma ovarii in a patient with right adnexal mass. In a 53-year-old female, who was referred to our hospital with pelvic pain, abdominopelvic imaging revealed a cystic lesion measuring 15x14 cm in diameter in the right adnexa. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. Microscopic evaluation revealed a 1.5x1x0.5 cm papillary carcinoma focus in frozen sections of the mural nodule which was observed inside the cyst. Following the surgical procedure, the patient’s TSH levels were kept low by thyroxine treatment, and it was decided to follow the patient by annual measurement of thyroglobulin levels and pelvic imaging. There is not a common consensus on optimal treatment of malignant struma ovarii. Treatment options depend on cases or case series. Turk Jem 2015; 19: 112-114

  6. Review of Handbook of Autopsy Practice, Brenda L. Waters (Ed.). 4th edition, Humana Press (2009). ISBN: 978-1-58829-841-6

    Leth, Peter Mygind


    This 4th edition of Handbook of Autopsy Practice is a thoroughly updated version. Autopsy practice has undergone significant changes in recent time due to technological advancements such as molecular diagnostics, immunohistochemisty and the introduction of post-mortem imaging techniques. In the s......This 4th edition of Handbook of Autopsy Practice is a thoroughly updated version. Autopsy practice has undergone significant changes in recent time due to technological advancements such as molecular diagnostics, immunohistochemisty and the introduction of post-mortem imaging techniques...... techniques used for post-mortem investigation of the cardio-vascular system, the nervous system and eye and adnexa. Autopsy microbiology, chemistry and chromosome analysis and autopsies of bodies containing radioactive material are also among the topics that are addressed in this handbook, as well as post...... of tables providing organ weights and body measurements for foetuses, children and adults. The Handbook of Autopsy Practice fulfils its purpose, and is a very worthwhile purchase for any autopsy facility....

  7. Placental site trophoblastic tumor presenting as an intramural mass with negative markers: an opportunity for novel diagnosis and treatment with robotic hysterectomy.

    Namaky, Devin; Basil, Jack; Pavelka, James


    A patient presented with persistent levels of quantitative human chorionic gonadotropin despite therapy with methotrexate. A dilation and curettage procedure did not provide a pathologic diagnosis. Gestational trophoblastic disease was suspected, but serum biomarkers were unable to provide a pre-operative diagnosis. A mass was found in the uterus by ultrasound and subsequent computed tomography scans. There was no evidence of extrauterine disease, but the uterine mass was continuous with the endometrial cavity, evoking the suspicion of an invasive endometrial mass. The patient underwent robotic hysterectomy for both therapy and diagnosis of suspected gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). The final pathologic diagnosis was placental site trophoblastic tumor. The robotic approach allows for a minimally invasive surgical procedure with thorough examination of the pelvic cavity and adnexae and does not require a uterine manipulator which may be contra-indicated in the setting of uterine GTD. For patients with suspected persistent uterine GTD who are otherwise candidates for minimally invasive surgery, a robotic procedure offers advantages when compared to traditional laparoscopy or vaginal hysterectomy.

  8. Evaluation of inpatient clinical documentation readiness for ICD-10-CM.

    DeAlmeida, Dilhari R; Watzlaf, Valerie J; Anania-Firouzan, Patti; Salguero, Otto; Rubinstein, Elaine; Abdelhak, Mervat; Parmanto, Bambang


    This research study examined the gaps in documentation that occur when coding in ICD-10-CM. More than 4,000 diagnoses from all chapters were coded from 656 electronic documents obtained from a large integrated healthcare facility at the time the study was conducted (2012). After the documents were coded, areas for documentation improvement were identified for chapters that resulted in deficiencies in documentation, and a quick reference guide was developed. The overall absent documentation percentage was 15.4 percent. The 10 chapters with the highest percentage of absent documentation were chapter 7 (Diseases of Eye and Adnexa), with 67.65 percent (p Diseases of Ear and Mastoid Process), with 63.64 percent (p Diseases of the Musculoskeletal System and Connective Tissue), with 46.05 percent (p Diseases of the Genitourinary System), with 40.29 percent (p Diseases of Respiratory System), with 35.52 percent (p Parasitic Diseases), with 32.88 percent (p Diseases of the Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue), with 32.35 percent (p Diseases), with 14.58 percent (p < .001); and chapter 17 (Congenital Malformations, Deformations, and Chromosomal Abnormalities), with 12.50 percent. We addressed the deficient areas in the quick reference guide developed for clinicians and technology vendors. Having complete and accurate documentation would benefit both the clinician and the patient in providing the highest quality of care.

  9. Successful pregnancy following medical management of heterotopic pregnancy

    R Lavanya


    Full Text Available We present a case of sonographic demonstration of quadruplet heterotopic pregnancy consisting of twin intrauterine (IU pregnancy and a twin adnexal pregnancy after ovulation induction (OI with clomiphene citrate (CC and timed intercourse (TI. Both heterotopic pregnancy and spontaneous twinning are frequent after OI, this combination although extremely rare must be kept in mind. The role of early transvaginal sonography and serum beta human chorionic gonadotrophin after missed periods helps in early diagnosis. It gives us an opportunity for medical management, saving the patient the agony of surgery along with loss of pregnancy. The management of heterotopic pregnancy is controversial. This patient did not have a viable IU pregnancy and both the sacs in the adnexa were small. Thus, we treated her successfully by medical management with systemic methotrexate, with regular follow-up. This patient successfully conceived after 6 months with OI and TI, with ovulation occurring from the same side of the previous ectopic. She had a viable IU gestation corresponding to 12 weeks.

  10. Torsion of a normal ovary in the third trimester of pregnancy: a case report

    Silja Arumugam


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Adnexal torsion in advanced pregnancy is an uncommon emergency. Torsion usually occurs in ovaries with functional cysts or tumors. It is uncommon for a normal-sized ovary to undergo torsion in advanced gestation. We report torsion of a normal-sized ovary in the third trimester of pregnancy, most probably the first case report of its kind in the English-language literature. Case presentation A 32-year-old Omani woman at 32-weeks gestation (gravida 2 para 1 was admitted with right iliac fossa pain, nausea and vomiting of 2 days duration, as well as a history of a similar episode one month earlier. On examination, a provisional diagnosis of appendicitis was made. Laparotomy revealed, however, that the right ovary was gangrenous and had undergone torsion. Conclusion Adnexal torsion, though rare, should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of lower abdominal pain in advanced gestation. Although in our patient, the affected ovary could not be saved, an early diagnosis using imaging like Doppler of the adnexae will enable early intervention to save the ovaries of the patient, especially in young women.

  11. Gynecologic-tract sparing extra peritoneal retrograde radical cystectomy with neobladder

    Jagdeesh N. Kulkarni


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We report on a series of female patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder who underwent extraperitoneal retrograde radical cystectomy sparing the female reproductive organs with neobladder creation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 14 female patients between the ages of 45 and 72 years who underwent gynecologic-tract sparing cystectomy (GTSC with neobladder between 1997 and 2002 were retrospectively reviewed. Our surgical technique is also described. Radical cystectomy is accomplished by a retrograde method sparing the uterus, adnexa, vagina and distal urethra. An orthotopic neobladder was constructed using small bowel or sigmoid colon, brought extraperitoneally, and anastomosed to the distal urethra. RESULTS: Operating time ranged from 4.5 to six hours with a mean of 5.3 hours. Ten patients were able to void satisfactorily while four required self-catheterization for complete emptying of the bladder. Seven patients were continent day and night and another 7 reported varying degrees of daytime and nighttime incontinence. One patient died of metastases and another of pelvic recurrence. There were no urethral recurrences. Patient satisfaction with the procedure was high. CONCLUSIONS: Gynecologic-tract sparing cystectomy with orthotopic neobladder is a viable alternative in female patients with muscle invasive traditional cell carcinoma of the bladder, providing oncological safety with improved quality of life. Our extraperitoneal technique, which is an extension of our successful experience with retrograde extraperitoneal radical cystectomy in men, minimizes intraoperative complications and simplifies the management of post-operative morbidity with the neobladder.

  12. Pleomorphic adenoma of the eyelid with apocrine gland origin; an atypical location

    Renata T Rothwell


    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe the clinical presentation and treatment of a patient with a cutaneous pleomorphic adenoma of the eyelid. Case Report: A 73-year-old male patient presented with a nodular mass on the lateral third of his right upper eyelid, which had slowly enlarged over 10 years. Radiologic features were of an extra-conical mass, with no invasion of adjacent structures. An excisional biopsy of the lesion was performed. The histopathological examination revealed a biphasic tumor, composed of tubules with a double layer of epithelial cells arranged in a chondromyxoid stroma. The inner epithelial cells were positive for pancytokeratins AE1/AE3 and carcinoembryonic antigen. The outer epithelial cells and stromal component expressed vimentin and S100 protein. These pathologic findings were consistent with a palpebral pleomorphic adenoma, with an apocrine gland origin. Conclusion: Pleomorphic adenomas of the skin are rare tumors, and even less frequent as tumors of the ocular adnexa. These lesions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of palpebral nodular masses, and complete excision should be attempted due to the possibility of malignant transformation.

  13. Molecular Pathogenesis of MALT Lymphoma

    Katharina Troppan


    Full Text Available Approximately 8% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas are extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT, also known as MALT lymphoma, which was first described in 1983 by Isaacson and Wright. MALT lymphomas arise at a wide range of different extranodal sites, with the highest frequency in the stomach, followed by lung, ocular adnexa, and thyroid, and with a low percentage in the small intestine. Interestingly, at least 3 different, apparently site-specific, chromosomal translocations and missense and frameshift mutations, all pathway-related genes affecting the NF-κB signal, have been implicated in the development and progression of MALT lymphoma. However, these genetic abnormalities alone are not sufficient for malignant transformation. There is now increasing evidence suggesting that the oncogenic product of translocation cooperates with immunological stimulation in oncogenesis, that is, the association with chronic bacterial infection or autoaggressive process. This review mainly discusses MALT lymphomas in terms of their genetic aberration and association with chronic infections and summarizes recent advances in their molecular pathogenesis.

  14. Repercusión oftalmológica de los traumatismos maxilofaciales Ophthalmological repercussion of maxillofacial traumatisms

    José Manuel Díaz Fernández


    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio prospectivo de 40 pacientes afectados por traumatismos maxilofaciales con lesiones oftalmológicas asociadas, asistidos en el Hospital Clinico quirúrgico Docente "Saturnino Lora" de Santiago de Cuba, durante el año 1995. La lesión oftalmológica más frecuente fue el hematoma palpebral, asociado con un porcentaje significativo de lesiones graves, las cuales estaban en relación con el área afectada durante el traumatismo. Se comportó con incidencia elevada la agudeza visual dentro de los límites normales. La secuela que más se presentó fue la cicatriz deformante de anejos. Se reportan casos de secuelas graves como la pérdida del globo ocular. Los estudios electrofisiológicos demostraron su importancia para la evaluación funcional de las lesiones oftalmológicas.prospective study of 40 patients suffering from maxillofacial traumatisms with associated ophthalmological injuries that recieved attention at "Saturnino Lora" Clinical and Surgical Teaching Hospital, in Santiago de Cuba, in 1995, was presented. The most frequent ophthalmological injury was the palpebral hematoma associated with a significant percentage of severe injuries, which were related to the area affected during traumatism. Visual acuity had an elevated incidence within the normal limits. The adnexa deforming scar was the most common sequela. Cases of severe sequelae, such as the loss of the eyeball, were reported.

  15. Tumor Wide Horizontal Invasion Predicts Local Recurrence for Scrotal Extramammary Paget’s Disease

    Wang, Lujia; Feng, Chenchen; Zhou, Minwei; Zhou, Zhongwen; Ding, Guanxiong; Gao, Peng; Ding, Qiang; Wu, Zhong


    Extramammary Paget’s disease (EMPD) is a rare malignancy, and little was known about its prognostic factors and optimal treatment. In the current study, we aimed to discuss clinical and pathological features of scrotal EMPD and determine the prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival and local recurrence. A total of 206 patients with scrotal EMPD lesions surgically treated at our institute were studied. All clinical and pathological data were reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining of TP53 and Ki67 was examined as well. At the last follow-up, 175 patients (84.95%) were alive. Twelve patients (5.83%) had died of the disease due to distant metastases. Fifteen patients (7.28%) developed local recurrences of scrotal EMPD. Ki67 expression was significantly elevated in patients with wide horizontal invasion (P = 0.003). In univariate analysis, high invasion level, presence of nodule, presence of lymphovascular invasion, adnexa invasion, lymph node metastasis and high p53 expression were significant factors for poor cancer-specific survival. In multivariate analysis, high p53 expression was significantly correlated with poor cancer-specific survival. Wide horizontal invasion was independently correlated with local recurrence-free survival of scrotal EMPD. In conclusion, wide horizontal invasion is an independent risk factor for local recurrence-free survival in the patients with scrotal EMPD. PMID:28322288

  16. Tuboovarian Abscess as Primary Presentation for Imperforate Hymen

    Jeh Wen Ho


    Full Text Available Objective. Imperforate hymen represents the extreme in the spectrum of hymenal embryological variations. The archetypal presentation in the adolescent patient is that of cyclical abdominopelvic pain in the presence of amenorrhoea. We reported a rare event of imperforate hymen presenting as a cause of tuboovarian abscess (TOA. Case Study. A 14-year-old girl presented to the emergency department complaining of severe left iliac fossa pain. It was her first episode of heavy bleeding per vagina, and she had a history of cyclical pelvic pain. She was clinically unwell, and an external genital examination demonstrated a partially perforated hymen. A transabdominal ultrasound showed grossly dilated serpiginous fallopian tubes. The upper part of the vagina was filled with homogeneous echogenic substance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated complex right adnexa mass with bilateral pyo-haemato-salpinges, haematometra, and haematocolpos. In theatre, the imperforate hymen was opened via cruciate incision and blood was drained from the vagina. At laparoscopy, dense purulent material was evacuated prior to an incision and drainage of the persistent right TOA. Conclusion. Ideally identification of imperforate hymen should occur during neonatal examination to prevent symptomatic presentation. Our case highlights the risks of late recognition resulting in the development of sepsis and TOA.

  17. Pilomatricoma as a diagnostic pitfall in clinical practice: Report of two cases and review of literature

    Pant Ishita


    Full Text Available Pilomatricoma (PMC is a relatively uncommon benign skin neoplasm arising from the skin adnexa. Since the first description of PMC in 1880, there has been a gradual increase in understanding of the morphologic features and clinical presentation of this tumor. However, difficulties still persist in making clinical and cytologic diagnosis. We report the clinical and histopathological findings of two cases of pilomatricoma. In case 1, a 10-year-old girl presented with a right upper back mass. In case 2, a nine-year-old girl presented with a left ear lobe mass. The clinical findings in both the cases were suggestive of epidermoid/dermoid cyst. However, subsequent histopathologic examination confirmed these cases as pilomatricoma. This report reveals that pilomatricoma is a frequently misdiagnosed entity in clinical practice. The purpose of this article is to create awareness among clinicians on the possibility of pilomatricoma as a cause of solitary skin nodules, especially those on the head, neck or upper extremities.

  18. Eye malformations in Cameroonian children: a clinical survey

    Eballé AO


    Full Text Available André Omgbwa Eballé,1,2 Augustin Ellong,3 Godefroy Koki,3 Ngoune Chantal Nanfack,3 Viola Andin Dohvoma,3 Côme Ebana Mvogo2,31Yaoundé Gynaecology, Obstetrics and Pediatrics Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 2Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, Cameroon; 3Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, CameroonSummary: The aim of this work was to describe the clinical aspects of eye malformations observed at the ophthalmology unit of the Yaoundé Gynaecology, Obstetrics and Pediatrics Hospital.Patients and methods: We carried out a retrospective study of all malformations of the eye and its adnexae observed among children aged 0–5 years who were seen at the ophthalmology unit from January 2003 to December 2009.Results: Out of the 2254 children who were examined, 150 (6.65% presented eye malformations. The mean age was 14.40 ± 4 months. Eye malformations were diagnosed in 71.66% of cases during the first year of life. The most frequent malformations were congenital lacrimal duct obstruction (66.66%, congenital cataract (10.9%, congenital glaucoma (10.9%, microphthalmos (5.03%, and congenital ptosis (3.77%.Conclusion: Eye malformations among children can lead to visual impairment and are a cause for discomfort to children and parents. Therefore, systematic postnatal screening is recommended to enable early management.Keywords: malformations, ophthalmology, child, Cameroon

  19. Immunoglobulin gene repertoire in ocular adnexal lymphomas: hints on the nature of the antigenic stimulation.

    Dagklis, A; Ponzoni, M; Govi, S; Cangi, M G; Pasini, E; Charlotte, F; Vino, A; Doglioni, C; Davì, F; Lossos, I S; Ntountas, I; Papadaki, T; Dolcetti, R; Ferreri, A J M; Stamatopoulos, K; Ghia, P


    Evidence from certain geographical areas links lymphomas of the ocular adnexa marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (OAMZL) with Chlamydophila psittaci (Cp) infection, suggesting that lymphoma development is dependent upon chronic stimulation by persistent infections. Notwithstanding that, the actual immunopathogenetical mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. As in other B-cell lymphomas, insight into this issue, especially with regard to potential selecting ligands, could be provided by analysis of the immunoglobulin (IG) receptors of the malignant clones. To this end, we studied the molecular features of IGs in 44 patients with OAMZL (40% Cp-positive), identifying features suggestive of a pathogenic mechanism of autoreactivity. Herein, we show that lymphoma cells express a distinctive IG repertoire, with electropositive antigen (Ag)-binding sites, reminiscent of autoantibodies (auto-Abs) recognizing DNA. Additionally, five (11%) cases of OAMZL expressed IGs homologous with autoreactive Abs or IGs of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, a disease known for the expression of autoreactive IGs by neoplastic cells. In contrast, no similarity with known anti-Chlamydophila Abs was found. Taken together, these results strongly indicate that OAMZL may originate from B cells selected for their capability to bind Ags and, in particular, auto-Ags. In OAMZL associated with Cp infection, the pathogen likely acts indirectly on the malignant B cells, promoting the development of an inflammatory milieu, where auto-Ags could be exposed and presented, driving proliferation and expansion of self-reactive B cells.

  20. Necrotic skin lesion in a dog attributed to Loxosceles (brown spider bite: a case report

    LHA Machado


    Full Text Available Envenomations caused by Loxosceles (brown spider have been reported throughout the world. Clinical signs associated to bites of these spiders involve dermonecrotic lesions and intense local inflammatory response, besides systemic manifestations such as intravascular hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation and acute renal failure. The present study aimed to report and to describe dermonecrotic lesions probably caused by a Loxosceles envenomation in a four year-old poodle female dog, treated at the Dermatology Service of the Veterinary Hospital of the Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry School, São Paulo State University, Botucatu, Brazil. Initially, the animal presented two skin lesions with blackish aspect that evolved into ulcerative crusts. The owner reported the presence of a brown spider near the place where the animal spent most of the time. Histological examination of lesions revealed necrosis of the epidermis extending to adnexa and panniculi, which is compatible with Loxosceles bite reaction. The animal was treated with systemic antibiotic and local curatives. Lesions healed by second intention in two months.

  1. Definition of Sudden Infant Death and Sudden Intrauterine Unexpected Death Syndromes (SIDS and SIUDS with Regard to the Anatomo-Pathological Examination

    Giulia Ottaviani


    Full Text Available Crib death, or sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS, is the most frequent form of death in the first year of life, striking one baby in every 1,700–2,000. Yet despite advances in maternal-infant care, sudden intrauterine unexplained/unexpected death syndrome (SIUDS, has a six-eightfold greater incidence than that of SIDS. Frequent congenital abnormalities, likely morphological substrates for SIDS-SIUDS, were detected, mainly represented by alterations of the cardiac conduction system, such as accessory pathways and abnormal resorptive degeneration, and hypoplasia/agenesis of the vital brainstem structures. On the basis of these considerations, the new common definition of the SIDS-SIUDS complex is The sudden death of a fetus after the 25th gestational week or infant under one year of age which is unexpected by history and remains unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including examination of the death scene, performance of a general autopsy and examination of the fetal adnexa. Therefore, given that the general autopsy does not disclose any cause of death, a more in-depth histopathological analysis of the cardiac conduction system and autonomic nervous system by specialized pathologists will become necessary.

  2. Improving standard of care through introduction of laparoscopy for the surgical management of gynecological malignancies.

    Bogani, Giorgio; Cromi, Antonella; Serati, Maurizio; Di Naro, Edoardo; Casarin, Jvan; Pinelli, Ciro; Candeloro, Ilario; Sturla, Davide; Ghezzi, Fabio


    This study aimed to evaluate the impact on perioperative and medium-term oncologic outcomes of the implementation of laparoscopy into a preexisting oncologic setting. Data from consecutive 736 patients undergoing surgery for apparent early stage gynecological malignancies (endometrial, cervical, and adnexal cancers) between 2000 and 2011 were reviewed. Complications were graded per the Accordion classification. Survival outcomes within the first 5 years were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method. Overall, 493 (67%), 162 (22%), and 81 (11%) had surgery for apparent early stage endometrial, cervical, and adnexal cancer. We assisted at an increase of the number of patients undergoing surgery via laparoscopy through the years (from 10% in the years 2000-2003 to 82% in years 2008-2011; P introduction of laparoscopic approach (P > 0.05). The introduction of laparoscopy did not adversely affect medium-term (within 5 years) survival outcomes of patients undergoing surgery for apparent early stage cancers of the endometrium, uterine cervix, and adnexa (P > 0.05 log-rank test). The introduction of laparoscopy into a preexisting oncologic service allows an improvement of standard of care due to a gain in perioperative results, without detriments of medium-term oncologic outcomes.

  3. 尖突水龟虫形态结构的观察%Morphological Observations on Hydrophilus acuminatus



    Hydrophilus acuminatus Motschulsky from Nenjiang River were dissected for morphological observations with anatomical lens, magnifying glass, and microscope. Functions of the main body parts, including head, thorax, abdomen and their adnexa, as well as the body systems, including digestive system, respiratory system, reproductive system, circulatory system, excretory system and muscular system, were discussed aiming to provide scientific materials for further studies on development and utilization of water scavenger beetles. However, it needs more experimental confirmations on the structure and functions of the nervous system.%利用解剖镜、放大镜、显微镜等对野外嫩江水域的尖突永龟虫头部及附器、胸部及附器、腹部及附器以及内部的消化系统、呼吸系统、生殖系统、循环系统、排泄系统、肌内系统的形态结构进行了观察研究,并阐述了各结构的功能.

  4. Co-operative radical pelvic surgery: a role for the gynecologist in vaginal reconstruction using a uterine myoserosal flap in urological and anorectal cancer surgery.

    Saadeh, Feras Abu; Cheema, Iwad; McCormick, Paul; Gleeson, Noreen


    This study describes a new technique for reconstructing the vagina and vestibule after radical extirpative surgery for urological and anorectal malignancy. The uterus is always excised when exenterative surgery is performed for gynecological cancer. The use of the uterus as a graft gives the gynecologic oncologist/reconstructive surgeon a role in the multidisciplinary team with urologists when the anterior vaginal wall and vestibule are excised and with the anorectal surgeons when the posterior vaginal wall and perineum are excised for nongynecological cancers. In some such cases, only the anterior or posterior wall of the vagina may be excised, leaving a healthy full-length, one-third, or half-circumference vaginal sleeve. A myoserosal flap is raised from the in situ uterus. The ectocervix is excised, and the adnexa are detached or excised. The uterus is opened to generate a hexagonal flap. The endometrium and endocervix are excised/ablated with electrocautery. The flap is advanced to the edge of the remaining anterior vestibule or reconstituted perineum. The serosal surface of the uterus forms the new wall of the vagina and undergoes metaplastic transformation to squamous epithelium within 3 months. The very satisfactory anatomical and functional outcome means that this technique merits further evaluation.

  5. [Research progress on the etiology and pathogenesis of MALT lymphoma].

    Wang, Xiao-Can; Ke, Xiao-Yan


    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma originated outside the lymph nodes is low grade malignant B cell lymphoma. It is the most frequent type of marginal zone non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, that usually occurs in the stomach, salivary gland, thyroid gland and orbital adnexa. Gastric MALT lymphoma accounts for 50% of MALT lymphoma. Gastric MALT lymphoma has been confirmed to relate with Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection, its main pathogenesis is immune reaction, but some patients with chromosome translocation have no response to HP eradication, suggesting presence of other unknown pathogenesis. The chromosome translocations in MALT lymphoma are t(11;18)(q21;q21), t(1;14)(p22;q32), t(14;18)(q32;q21), t(3;14)(p14.1;q32). Recent studies show some new chromosomal abnormalities such as 6q23.3/A20 and so on, which have some effects on clinical course and prognosis. MALT lymphoma with chromosome abnormalities usually activate common NF-κB molecular pathway, and persistent active NF-κB pathway drives tumor cell proliferative and active, resulting in lymphoma incidence. In this article, the advances in the etiology and pathogenesis of MALT lymphoma were reviewed.

  6. Epidermal and craniofacial defects in mice overexpressing Klf5 in the basal layer of the epidermis.

    Sur, Inderpreet; Rozell, Björn; Jaks, Viljar; Bergström, Asa; Toftgård, Rune


    Krüppel-like factor5 (Klf5) is a zinc-finger transcription factor normally expressed in the skin. Here, we show that overexpression of Klf5 in the basal layer of the epidermis during embryogenesis affects epidermal development and disrupts epithelial-mesenchymal interactions necessary for skin adnexae formation as well as craniofacial morphogenesis. The transgenic mice exhibited exencephaly, craniofacial defects, persistent abdominal herniation and ectodermal dysplasia. Moreover, the epidermis was hypoplastic and underwent abnormal differentiation with expression of keratin8, a marker for single-layered epithelia, in the stratified epidermis. Correspondingly, we observed a downregulation of DeltaNp63 expression in the skin. Overexpression of Klf5 in adult mice led to hyperkeratosis, follicle occlusion and epidermal erosions. Further, we observed decrease and even loss of the stem cell population of bulge keratinocytes, as characterized by the expression pattern of alpha6 integrin and CD34 markers. Our data suggest a new role of Klf5 as a modulator of p63 expression and the differentiation program of epidermal cells relevant for regenerative potential of the epidermis and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.

  7. Psoriasin (S100A7 expression is altered during skin tumorigenesis

    Snell Linda


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psoriasin (S100A7 expression has previously been associated with psoriasiform hyperplasia as well as with tumor progression in breast cancer. Its expression profile for different stages of skin lesions is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between psoriasin (S100A7 and tumor progression in skin. Methods Psoriasin was assessed by immunohistochemistry and levels of expression determined by semi-quantitative scoring in skin biopsies from 50 patients. The cohort included normal skin, actinic keratosis, squamous carcinoma in-situ, invasive squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. Results In normal skin, psoriasin was rarely detected in epidermis but was expressed in underlying adnexae. In abnormal epidermis psoriasin was frequently expressed in abnormal keratinocytes in actinic keratosis, in-situ and invasive squamous cell carcinoma, but was rarely observed in the basal epidermal layer or in superficial or invasive basal cell carcinoma. The highest levels of expression were seen within squamous carcinoma in-situ. Significantly reduced levels of expression were observed in both unmatched (p = 0.0001 and matched (p Conclusion These results suggest that altered psoriasin expression occurs in abnormal epidermis and that downregulation may be related to the onset of invasion in squamous cell carcinoma in skin.

  8. Immunohistochemical detection of P53 and Mdm2 in vitiligo

    Bakry, Ola A.; Hammam, Mostafa A.; Wahed, Moshira M. Abdel


    Background: Vitiligo is a common depigmented skin disorder that is caused by selective destruction of melanocytes. It is generally accepted that the main function of melanin resides in the protection of skin cells against the deleterious effect of ultraviolet rays (UVRs). Association of vitiligo and skin cancer has been a subject of controversy. Occurrence of skin cancer in long-lasting vitiligo is rare despite multiple evidences of DNA damage in vitiliginous skin. Aim: To detect the expression of P53 and Mdm2 proteins in both depigmented and normally pigmented skin of vitiligo patients and to compare it to control subjects suffering from nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Materials and Methods: Thirty-four patients with vitiligo and 30 age and sex-matched patients with nodulo-ulcerative basal cell carcinoma (BCC) as a control group were selected. Both patients and control subjects had outdoor occupations. Skin biopsies were taken from each case and control subjects. Histopathological examination of Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections was done. Expression of P53 and Mdm2 proteins were examined immunohistochemically. Results: Both P53 and Mdm2 were strongly expressed in depigmented as well as normally pigmented skin of vitiligo patients. This expression involved the epidermis, skin adnexa and blood vessels with significant differences between cases and controls. Conclusions: The overexpression of P53 and Mdm2 proteins in both normally pigmented and depigmented skin of patients with vitiligo could contribute to the decreased occurrence of actinic damage and NMSC in these patients. PMID:23189248

  9. Ectopic pregnancy after two times tubal ligation: a case report

    Farideh Keypour


    Full Text Available Background: Tubal sterilization is the permanent and effective contraception method. This can be performed at any time, but at least half are performed in conjunction with cesarean or vaginal delivery and are termed puerperal. The most complication after tubal ligation is ectopic pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancy is the leading cause of maternal death in first trimester.Case presentation: We present a 33 years old woman gravida5, para4, all normal vaginal delivery, presented with complaints of delayed menstrual period, pelvic pain and spotting. She underwent tubal ligation for two times. For the first time she had puerperal Pomeroy tubal sterilization after third child delivery. Intra uterine pregnancy occurred three years later. One day after vaginal delivery of fourth child, she underwent post partum tubal ligation with the Parkland method. Tubal pregnancy occurred nine months later. Physical examination identified acute abdomen. Pelvic ultrasound showed no gestational sac in uterine cavity. The sac with fetal pole was in right adnexa. Beta-HCG was 2840mIU/ml. She underwent laparotomy. Surgical management included salpingectomy with cornual resection in both sides. The surgery identified Ectopic pregnancy.Conclusion: Any symptoms of pregnancy in a woman after tubal ligation must be investigated; an ectopic pregnancy should be excluded. Ectopic pregnancy must be considered, in any woman with lower abdominal pain, missed period and vaginal bleed-ing. Conception after tubal sterilization can be explained by fistula formation and re-canalization of fallopian tube.

  10. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma with relapses in the lacrimal glands

    Couceiro, Rita


    Full Text Available Objective: To report an unusual case of systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL with repeated relapse in the lacrimal glands, in spite of complete remission for several years after treatment.Methods: A 78-year-old male with small lymphocytic B cell NHL, stage IV disease (lung invasion, was submitted to surgery and chemotherapy in 2001, with complete remission of the disease. In 2003 he developed a nodular lesion in the right lacrimal fossa. Pathology results revealed a local relapse of NHL. Radiation and chemotherapy were initiated and complete remission was again achieved. In 2012 the patient developed a new nodular lesion located in the left lacrimal fossa, resulting in diplopia, ptosis and proptosis of the left eye. Orbital computerized tomography (CT, ocular ultrasound and incisional biopsy were performed.Results: Orbital CT revealed a lesion infiltrating the left lacrimal gland and encircling the globe. Biopsy results confirmed a local relapse of B cell NHL. The patient was submitted to local radiation therapy with progressive resolution of ptosis, proptosis and diplopia. Response to treatment was monitored with ocular ultrasound. Conclusions: Patients with NHL diagnosis should be immediately investigated if ophthalmic or orbital symptoms develop. NHL extension to the orbit and adnexa is infrequent (5% of NHL cases but may occur at any stage of the disease, including as a relapse site. In such cases, radiation and chemotherapy achieve good results, inducing long periods of remission.

  11. Primary malignant mixed müllerian tumor of the peritoneum a case report with review of the literature

    Gashi-Luci Lumturije


    Full Text Available Abstract Malignant mixed Müllerian tumor is a rare malignancy of the genital tract and extremely uncommon in extragenital sites. This report describes a case of malignant mixed Müllerian tumor arising in the lower peritoneum of a 72-year-old female patient. The patient presented with ascites, lower abdominal mass and pleural effusion. The serum level of CA125 was elevated. At operation a diffuse carcinosis associated with tumor mass measuring 20 × 15 × 10 cm in the vesicouterine and Duglas' pouch were found. The uterus and the adnexa were unremarkable. Histopathology revealed a typical malignant mixed Müllerian tumor, heterologous type. The epithelial component was positive for cytokeratin 7 and vimentin whereas the mesenchymal component was positive for Vimentin, S100 and focally for CK7. The histogenesis of this tumor arising from the peritoneum is still speculative. Based on the previous reports and the immunohistochemical analysis of our case, we believe that this is a monoclonal tumor with carcinoma being the "precursor" element. Nevertheless, further molecular and genetic evidence is needed to support such a conclusion.

  12. Ovarian Torsion in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy Leading to Iatrogenic Preterm Delivery

    Evangelia Vlachodimitropoulou Koumoutsea


    Full Text Available Ovarian torsion in the third trimester of pregnancy leading to a midline laparotomy and caesarean section for the delivery of a preterm baby is an uncommon event. As the woman is likely to present with nonspecific symptoms of lower abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting, ovarian torsion can often be misdiagnosed as appendicitis or preterm labour. Treatment and the opportunity to preserve the tube and ovary may consequently be delayed. We report the case of a multiparous woman who had undergone two previous caesarean sections at term, presenting at 35 weeks of gestation with a presumptive diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Ultrasonography described a cystic lesion 6 × 3 cm in the right adnexa, potentially a degenerating fibroid or a torted right ovary. MRI of the pelvis was unable to provide further clarity. The patient was managed by midline laparotomy and simultaneous detorsion of the ovarian pedicle and ovarian cystectomy together with caesarean section of a preterm infant. This report describes that prompt recognition and ensuring intraoperative access can achieve a successful maternal and fetal outcome in this rare and difficult scenario. Furthermore, we would like to emphasise that the risk for a pregnant woman and her newborn could be reduced by earlier diagnosis and management of ovarian masses (Krishnan et al., 2011.

  13. Leiomyoma in the Retzius space


    Parauterine location of leiomyomas is observed to be an extremely rare clinical condition. However, when benign or malignant primary tumours are detected in that area, they are often found in the Retzius space. There have been only six cases of leiomyomas in the Retzius space reported in the literature so far. The paper presents one such leiomyoma case located in the Retzius space. This extremely rare location of the tumour justifies its presentation. The medical records of the patient treated in the outpatient’s obstetrics and gynaecology (ob-gyn) clinic, her case history, and hospital records, supplemented by information obtained from the patient’s daughter, were analysed. The patient, a 50-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes, was referred to hospital for diagnosed secondary anaemia due to heavy menstruation for four months, which was associated with intramural leiomyoma in the anterior wall of the uterine body. Clinical examination found a large leiomyoma located in the anterior wall of the uterus. Laparotomy was performed: apart from and a leiomyoma in the uterine body it found a tumour, 140 × 100 mm in size, in the Retzius space. Total resection of the tumour was performed. Since the leiomyoma was located in the uterine wall, hysterectomy with bilateral excision of adnexa was also performed. The patient was discharged home in generally good condition on the sixth day following the operation. Concomitant occurrence of leiomyoma atypically located in the Retzius space and leiomyoma in the uterine body made perioperative diagnosis very difficult.

  14. Quantitative characterization of prostaglandins in the uterus of early pregnant cattle.

    Ulbrich, S E; Schulke, K; Groebner, A E; Reichenbach, H D; Angioni, C; Geisslinger, G; Meyer, H H D


    Prostaglandins (PGs) are important regulators of reproductive processes including early embryonic development. We analyzed the most relevant PG in bovine uteri at different preimplantation pregnancy stages when compared with non-pregnant controls. Additionally, endometrium and trophoblast tissues were examined regarding specific enzymes and receptors involved in PG generation and function. Simmental heifers were artificially inseminated or received seminal plasma only. At days 12, 15, or 18, post-estrus uteri were flushed for PG determination by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Endometrium and trophoblast tissues were sampled for RNA extraction and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. At all days and points of time examined, the concentration of 6-keto PGF(1alpha) (stable metabolite of PGI(2)) was predominant followed by PGF(2alpha)>PGE(2)>PGD(2) approximately TXB(2) (stable metabolite of TXA(2)). At days 15 and 18, PG increased from overall low levels at day 12, with a much more pronounced increase during pregnancy. The PGF(2alpha)/PGE(2) ratio was not influenced by status. The highest PG concentration was measured at day 15 with 6-keto PGF(1alpha) (6.4 ng/ml) followed by PGF(2alpha) (1.1 ng/ml) and PGE(2) (0.3 ng/ml). Minor changes in endometrial PG biosynthesis enzymes occurred due to pregnancy. Trophoblasts revealed high transcript abundance of general and specific PG synthases contributing to uterine PG. As PGI(2) and PGF(2alpha) receptors were abundantly expressed by the trophoblast, abundant amounts of PGI(2) and PGF(2alpha) in the uterine lumen point towards an essential role of PG for the developing embryo. High amounts of PG other than PGE(2) in the preimplantation uterus may be essential rather than detrimental for successful reproduction.

  15. Dietary supplementation of soy germ phytoestrogens or estradiol improves spatial memory performance and increases gene expression of BDNF, TrkB receptor and synaptic factors in ovariectomized rats

    Li Zhuoneng


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen or phytoestrogens treatment has been suggested to improve cognitive function of the brain in postmenopausal women. However, there is lack of information on the mechanism of such treatment on the central nervous system. The present study aimed to determine the effects of estradiol and soy germ phytoestrogens on spatial memory performance in ovariectomized rats and to explore the underlying mechanisms affecting the central nervous system. Methods Ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a basic diet supplemented with soy germ phytoestrogens (0.4 g/kg or 1.6 g/kg or 17β-estradiol (0.15 g/kg for 12 weeks. At the end of the experiment, animals were evaluated for their spatial learning and memory performance by the Morris Water Maze task. The expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and synaptic formation proteins in the hippocampal tissue were estimated using RT-PCR and ELISA. Results It was found that rats supplemented with soy germ phytoestrogens or estradiol performed significantly better in spatial memory acquisition and retention when compared to the rats fed on the control diet. Estradiol or the high dose of phytoestrogens treatment significantly increased BDNF concentration and the mRNA levels for BDNF and its TrkB receptors as well as the synaptic formation proteins, synaptophysin, spinophilin, synapsin 1 and PSD-95, in the hippocampal tissue of the experimental animals. It was also found that phytoestrogens, in contrast to estradiol, did not show any significant effect on the vaginal and uteri. Conclusion Soy germ phytoestrogens, which may be a substitute of estradiol, improved spatial memory performance in ovariectomized rats without significant side-effects on the vaginal and uteri. The memory enhancement effect may relate to the increase in BDNF and the synaptic formation proteins expression in the hippocampus of the brain.

  16. Development of Trichosomoides nasalis (Nematoda: Trichinelloidea in the murid host: evidence for larval growth in striated muscle fibres

    Fall E.H.


    Full Text Available Trichosomoides nasalis (Trichinelloidea is a parasite of Arvicanthis niloticus (Muridae in Senegal. Female worms that harbour dwarf males in their uteri, occur in the epithelium of the nasal mucosa. Young laboratory-bred A. niloticus were either fed females containing larvated eggs or intraperitoneally injected with motile first-stage larvae recovered from female uteri. Both resulted in successful infection. Organs examined during rodent necropsy were blood and lymphatic circulatory systems (heart, large vessels, lymphnodes, lungs, liver, kidneys, thoracic and abdominal cavities, thoracic and abdominal muscular walls, diaphragm, tongue, and nasal mucosa. Development to adult nasal stages took three weeks. Recovery of newly hatched larvae from the peritoneal fluid at four-eight hours after oral infection suggests a direct passage from the stomach or intestinal wall to the musculature. However, dissemination through the blood, as observed with Trichinella spiralis, cannot be excluded even though newly hatched larvae of T. nasalis are twice as thick (15 μm. Developing larvae were found in histological sections of the striated muscle of the abdominal and thoracic walls, and larvae in fourth moult were dissected from these sites. Adult females were found in the deep nasal mucosa where mating occurred prior to worms settling in the nasal epithelium. The present study shows a remarkable similarity between T. nasalis and Trichinella species regarding muscle tropism, but the development of T. nasalis is not arrested at the late first-larval stage and does not induce transformation of infected fibres into nurse cells. T. nasalis seems a potential model to study molecular relations between trichinelloid larvae and infected muscle fibres.

  17. Development of Trichosomoides nasalis (Nematoda: Trichinelloidea) in the murid host: evidence for larval growth in striated muscle fibres.

    Fall, E H; Diagne, M; Junker, K; Duplantier, J M; Ba, K; Vallée, I; Bain, O


    Trichosomoides nasalis (Trichinelloidea) is a parasite of Arvicanthis niloticus (Muridae) in Senegal. Female worms that harbour dwarf males in their uteri, occur in the epithelium of the nasal mucosa. Young laboratory-bred A. niloticus were either fed females containing larvated eggs or intraperitoneally injected with motile first-stage larvae recovered from female uteri. Both resulted in successful infection. Organs examined during rodent necropsy were blood and lymphatic circulatory systems (heart, large vessels, lymphnodes), lungs, liver, kidneys, thoracic and abdominal cavities, thoracic and abdominal muscular walls, diaphragm, tongue, and nasal mucosa. Development to adult nasal stages took three weeks. Recovery of newly hatched larvae from the peritoneal fluid at four-eight hours after oral infection suggests a direct passage from the stomach or intestinal wall to the musculature. However, dissemination through the blood, as observed with Trichinella spiralis, cannot be excluded even though newly hatched larvae of T. nasalis are twice as thick (15 μm). Developing larvae were found in histological sections of the striated muscle of the abdominal and thoracic walls, and larvae in fourth moult were dissected from these sites. Adult females were found in the deep nasal mucosa where mating occurred prior to worms settling in the nasal epithelium. The present study shows a remarkable similarity between T. nasalis and Trichinella species regarding muscle tropism, but the development of T. nasalis is not arrested at the late first-larval stage and does not induce transformation of infected fibres into nurse cells. T. nasalis seems a potential model to study molecular relations between trichinelloid larvae and infected muscle fibres.

  18. Naloxone affects reproductive system in a rat model with polycystic features

    Manizheh Karami; Maryam Darban Fooladi


    Objective: To make interaction between morphine and naloxone in the rat model of PCOS, we evidenced the opioid receptors involvement in this efficacy. Methods:A total of 48 female animals (Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g) were kept diestrous before experimental procedure began. They were grouped in single L-arginine (50 mg/kg, i.p., once a day for 9 days), naloxone (0.4 mg/kg, i.p., once daily for 9 days), morphine (5 mg/kg, i.p., once a day for 9 days), and naloxone (0.4 mg/kg) pre-treated to L-arginine (50 mg/kg), morphine (5 mg/kg) pre-treated to L-arginine, morphine pre-treated to the collective naloxone-L-arginine. Control group solely received saline (1 mL/kg, once daily for 9 days). At the end of the treatment period all animals were surgically studied. The rats’ ovaries and uteri were examined both biometrically and pathologically. Results:The ovaries of rats treated with L-arginine showed polycystic characteristics and their uteri illustrated inflammation changes to the controls. The samples obtained from rats pre-treated with naloxone revealed a decrease in sign of inflammation compaired with L-arginine received speciments, the signs got worse in the presence of the morphine. Conclusion:Aspect of rat reproductive system may be linked with the cystic characteristic of ovary. This study involves opioid receptors in the naloxone efficacy on reproductive agents of rat with polycystic aspect.

  19. Ovarian steroids regulate tachykinin and tachykinin receptor gene expression in the mouse uterus

    Patak Eva


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the mouse uterus, pregnancy is accompanied by changes in tachykinin and tachykinin receptor gene expression and in the uterotonic effects of endogenous tachykinins. In this study we have investigated whether changes in tachykinin expression and responses are a result of changes in ovarian steroid levels. Methods We quantified the mRNAs of tachykinins and tachykinin receptors in uteri from ovariectomized mice and studied their regulation in response to estrogen and progesterone using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Early (3 h and late (24 h responses to estrogen were evaluated and the participation of the estrogen receptors (ER, ERalpha and ERbeta, was analyzed by treating mice with propylpyrazole triol, a selective ERalpha agonist, or diarylpropionitrile, a selective agonist of ERbeta. Results All genes encoding tachykinins (Tac1, Tac2 and Tac4 and tachykinin receptors (Tacr1, Tacr2 and Tacr3 were expressed in uteri from ovariectomized mice. Estrogen increased Tac1 and Tacr1 mRNA after 3 h and decreased Tac1 and Tac4 expression after 24 h. Tac2 and Tacr3 mRNA levels were decreased by estrogen at both 3 and 24 h. Most effects of estrogen were also observed in animals treated with propylpyrazole triol. Progesterone treatment increased the levels of Tac2. Conclusion These results show that the expression of tachykinins and their receptors in the mouse uterus is tightly and differentially regulated by ovarian steroids. Estrogen effects are mainly mediated by ERalpha supporting an essential role for this estrogen receptor in the regulation of the tachykinergic system in the mouse uterus.

  20. Você conhece esta síndrome? Do you know this syndrome?

    Thais Jerez Jaime


    Full Text Available Tumor benigno de tecido muscular, o piloleiomioma tem origem no músculo eretor do pelo, atingindo ambos os sexos geralmente na terceira década de vida. Apresenta-se como nódulo-pápulas assimétricas nas extremidades, de cor eritêmato-acastanhada e de consistência firme. As lesões, quando múltiplas, podem ser sensíveis ou dolorosas. Sua associação com miomas uterinos, denominada de síndrome de Reed ou leiomiomatose cutis et uteri, é apresentação rara, podendo estar associada a carcinoma de células renais. A abordagem é cirúrgica em casos isolados e medicamentosa se houver sintomas. Relatamos um caso de síndrome de Reed em que se optou por acompanhamento pela ausência de sintomatologia.Piloleiomyoma, a benign smooth-muscle tumor arising from the arrectores pilorum muscles of the skin, affects males and females in the third decade of life. It presents as asymmetrical, reddish-brown nodules or papules with a firm consistency, predominantly located on the limbs. When multiple lesions are present, they may be tender or painful. Their association with uterine fibroids, referred to as Reed syndrome or familial leiomyomatosis cutis et uteri, is rare and may be associated with renal cell carcinoma. The approach consists of surgical excision in cases presenting few lesions and pharmacological treatment if symptomatic. The present paper describes a case of Reed syndrome in which a decision was made to monitor the patient in view of the absence of symptoms.

  1. Effects of the phytoestrogen genistein on the development of the reproductive system of Sprague Dawley rats

    Siti Rosmani Md Zin


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Genistein is known to influence reproductive system development through its binding affinity for estrogen receptors. The present study aimed to further explore the effect of Genistein on the development of the reproductive system of experimental rats. METHODS: Eighteen post-weaning female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: (i a control group that received vehicle (distilled water and Tween 80; (ii a group treated with 10 mg/kg body weight (BW of Genistein (Gen 10; and (iii a group treated with a higher dose of Genistein (Gen 100. The rats were treated daily for three weeks from postnatal day 22 (P22 to P42. After the animals were sacrificed, blood samples were collected, and the uteri and ovaries were harvested and subjected to light microscopy and immunohistochemical study. RESULTS: A reduction of the mean weekly BW gain and organ weights (uteri and ovaries were observed in the Gen 10 group compared to the control group; these findings were reversed in the Gen 100 group. Follicle stimulating hormone and estrogen levels were increased in the Gen 10 group and reduced in the Gen 100 group. Luteinizing hormone was reduced in both groups of Genistein-treated animals, and there was a significant difference between the Gen 10 and control groups (p<0.05. These findings were consistent with increased atretic follicular count, a decreased number of corpus luteum and down-regulation of estrogen receptors-a in the uterine tissues of the Genistein-treated animals compared to the control animals. CONCLUSION: Post-weaning exposure to Genistein could affect the development of the reproductive system of ovarian-intact experimental rats because of its action on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by regulating hormones and estrogen receptors.

  2. Dysregulation of Uterine Signaling Pathways in Progesterone Receptor-Cre Knockout of Dicer

    Andreu-Vieyra, Claudia V.; Kim, Tae Hoon; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Hodgson, Myles C.; Chen, Ruihong; Creighton, Chad J.; Lydon, John P.; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Matzuk, Martin M.


    Epithelial-stromal interactions in the uterus are required for normal uterine functions such as pregnancy, and multiple signaling pathways are essential for this process. Although Dicer and microRNA (miRNA) have been implicated in several reproductive processes, the specific roles of Dicer and miRNA in uterine development are not known. To address the roles of miRNA in the regulation of key uterine pathways, we generated a conditional knockout of Dicer in the postnatal uterine epithelium and stroma using progesterone receptor-Cre. These Dicer conditional knockout females are sterile with small uteri, which demonstrate significant defects, including absence of glandular epithelium and enhanced stromal apoptosis, beginning at approximately postnatal d 15, with coincident expression of Cre and deletion of Dicer. Specific miRNA (miR-181c, −200b, −101, let-7d) were down-regulated and corresponding predicted proapoptotic target genes (Bcl2l11, Aldh1a3) were up-regulated, reflecting the apoptotic phenomenon. Although these mice had normal serum hormone levels, critical uterine signaling pathways, including progesterone-responsive genes, Indian hedgehog signaling, and the Wnt/β-catenin canonical pathway, were dysregulated at the mRNA level. Importantly, uterine stromal cell proliferation in response to progesterone was absent, whereas uterine epithelial cell proliferation in response to estradiol was maintained in adult uteri. These data implicate Dicer and appropriate miRNA expression as essential players in the regulation of multiple uterine signaling pathways required for uterine development and appropriate function. PMID:22798293

  3. Epidemiologic studies of cancer in minority groups in the western United States.

    Thomas, D B


    Of 13 cancers that tend to occur at lower rates in aboriginal Americans or in the native lands of Japanese, Chinese, and Spanish-speaking persons than in United States whites, rates for all but one (laryngeal) have increased in migrants to the United States. In addition to leukemia, these 13 cancers include neoplasms that have been related, at least in part, to a diet high in animal fats or proteins (colon and rectum cancer); reproductive and endocrinologic factors and a diet high in animal fats or protein (prostate, ovary, corpus uteri, breast, and testis cancer); chemical carcinogens (lung, larynx, bladder, and pancreas cancer); and a common infectious agent that, like polio viruses, causes clinically overt disease with a frequency directly related to age of patient at initial infection (Hodgkin's disease). Of 9 cancers that occur at higher rates in aboriginal Americans or in one or more of the native lands of migrants than in United States whites, the rates of 5 tend to decrease in migrants. These include cancers that may be related to food preservation (stomach cancer); products of microorganisms that may contaminate foods (esophagus and liver cancer); and infectious agents (nasopharynx, cervix uteri, and liver cancer). In addition, rates of cancer of the thyroid are high in aboriginal Americans; those of the gallbladder are high in individuals of native American ancestry and in Japanese; incidence of salivary gland tumors is high in Alaskan natives and Colombians; and rates of kidney cancer are high in Alaskan natives. Five types of epidemiologic studies are described that should be conducted in the migrants and in their countries of origin and adoption to elucidate further the etiology of various neoplasms.

  4. Effect of oxytocin on expression of cytosolic phospholipase A2 mRNA and protein in ovine endometrial tissue in vivo.

    Burns, P D; Graf, G A; Hayes, S H; Silvia, W J


    The induction of endometrial prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha synthesis by oxytocin is dependent upon activation of phospholipase (PL) A2 and mobilization of arachidonic acid. The objective of this study was to determine if oxytocin stimulates PGF2alpha synthesis by inducing synthesis of cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2). In Experiment 1, 15 ovariectomized ewes were given progesterone and estradiol to simulate an estrous cycle. Ewes were then given an injection of oxytocin on Day 14 of the simulated estrous cycle. Jugular blood samples were collected and assayed for 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2alpha (PGFM). Uteri were collected at 0, 7.5, 25, 90, or 240 min postinjection (n = 3 ewes/time point). Total RNA was isolated from caruncular endometrium and subjected to dot-blot analysis. Oxytocin induced a rapid and transient increase in serum PGFM (P 0.10). In Experiment 2, 11 ovary-intact ewes were given oxytocin (n = 5) or saline (n = 6) on Day 15 after estrus. Jugular blood samples were collected and assayed for serum concentrations of PGFM. Uteri were collected at 15 min postinjection. Homogenates were prepared from caruncular endometrium and subjected to Western blot analysis. Concentrations of PGFM were higher in oxytocin treated ewes compared to saline treated ewes at 15 min postinjection (P 0.10). In conclusion, oxytocin did not effect expression of either cPLA2 mRNA or protein in ovine endometrium. Oxytocin may stimulate PGF2alpha synthesis by activating cPLA2 protein that is already present in an inactive form.

  5. Normative data for uterine size according to age and gravidity and possible role of the classical golden ratio.

    Verguts, J; Ameye, L; Bourne, T; Timmerman, D


    To document normal measurements (length, width, anteroposterior (AP) diameter) and proportions of the non-pregnant uterus according to age and gravidity. We hypothesized that uterine proportions conform to the classical 'golden ratio' (1.618). This was a retrospective study of ultrasonographic measurements of the length, width and AP diameter of non-pregnant uteri recorded in our database between 1 January 2000 and 31 July 2012. All patients for whom abnormal findings were reported were excluded and only the first set of measurements for each patient was retained for analysis. Loess (local regression) analysis was performed using age and gravidity as explanatory variables. Measurements of 5466 non-pregnant uteri were retrieved for analysis. The mean length was found to increase to 72 mm at the age of 40 and decrease to 42 mm at the age of 80 years. Gravidity was associated with greater uterine length, width and AP diameter. Mean length/width ratio was found to be 1.857 at birth, decreasing to 1.452 at the age of 91 years. At the age of 21 years, the mean ratio was found to be 1.618, i.e. equal to the golden ratio. Increasing gravidity was associated with lower mean length/width ratio. Uterine size in non-pregnant women varies in relation to age and gravidity. Mean length/width ratio conformed to the golden ratio at the age of 21, coinciding with peak fertility. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Of spheres and squares: Can Sloterdijk help us rethink the architecture of climate science?

    Skrydstrup, Martin


    This article explores how different visions and values of science translate into different architectural shapes. I bring Peter Sloterdijk's 'spherology' to bear on my ethnographic fieldwork at the NEEM ice core base in Greenland, a significant node in the global infrastructure of climate science. I argue that the visual form of the geodesic dome of the camp materializes specific values and visions of this branch of paleoclimate science, which I elaborate vis-a-vis the pragmatic claims of the scientists/designers and the particular architectural history of Danish ice core drilling in Greenland. I argue that this aesthetic history articulates with Buckminster Fuller's ideas of a 'new nature' and 'scalar connections' encapsulated in his geodesic form. Second, I argue that the aesthetic production of space in the camp replicates the modern distinction between science and society, in so far as the lab space is rectangular and the recreational space is spherical. Third, I argue that NEEM scientists and Sloterdijk are essentially engaged in a common project: the scientists work hard to align air bubbles in the cores with atmospheric fluctuations in the hemisphere on the evidentiary terrain of ice, and Sloterdijk attempts to connect micro-uteri with macro-uteri in an attempt to fundamentally rethink space. Fuller's notion of 'Spaceship Earth', appropriated by Sloterdijk in his thinking about anthropogenic climate change, lends itself well to capturing the scalar alignments and the isolated NEEM base - on a mission to save planet Earth. In conclusion, I argue that Sloterdijk's spherology may serve as a point of departure for rethinking the aesthetic grammar of the architecture of science.

  7. Estrogen-mediated regulation of Igf1 transcription and uterine growth involves direct binding of estrogen receptor alpha to estrogen-responsive elements.

    Hewitt, Sylvia C; Li, Yin; Li, Leping; Korach, Kenneth S


    Estrogen enables uterine proliferation, which depends on synthesis of the IGF1 growth factor. This proliferation and IGF1 synthesis requires the estrogen receptor (ER), which binds directly to target DNA sequences (estrogen-responsive elements or EREs), or interacts with other transcription factors, such as AP1, to impact transcription. We observe neither uterine growth nor an increase in Igf1 transcript in a mouse with a DNA-binding mutated ER alpha (KIKO), indicating that both Igf1 regulation and uterine proliferation require the DNA binding function of the ER. We identified several potential EREs in the Igf1 gene, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed ER alpha binding to these EREs in wild type but not KIKO chromatin. STAT5 is also reported to regulate Igf1; uterine Stat5a transcript is increased by estradiol (E(2)), but not in KIKO or alpha ERKO uteri, indicating ER alpha- and ERE-dependent regulation. ER alpha binds to a potential Stat5a ERE. We hypothesize that E(2) increases Stat5a transcript through ERE binding; that ER alpha, either alone or together with STAT5, then acts to increase Igf1 transcription; and that the resulting lack of IGF1 impairs KIKO uterine growth. Treatment with exogenous IGF1, alone or in combination with E(2), induces proliferation in wild type but not KIKO uteri, indicating that IGF1 replacement does not rescue the KIKO proliferative response. Together, these observations suggest in contrast to previous in vitro studies of IGF-1 regulation involving AP1 motifs that direct ER alpha-DNA interaction is required to increase Igf1 transcription. Additionally, full ER alpha function is needed to mediate other cellular signals of the growth factor for uterine growth.

  8. A novel role of IGFBP7 in mouse uterus: regulating uterine receptivity through Th1/Th2 lymphocyte balance and decidualization.

    Zhen-Kun Liu

    Full Text Available Previously we have screened out Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 7 (IGFBP7 as a differentially expressed gene in post-implantation uterus versus pre-implantation uterus by suppressive subtractive hybridation. However its function in uterus was not clearly identified. In this research, the expression and function of IGFBP7 during post-implantation were studied. We found that IGFBP7 was mainly located in the glandular epithelium and the stroma, and was upregulated after embryo implantation. The vector pCR3.1-IGFBP7-t expressing partial IGFBP7 was constructed. Inhibition of IGFBP7 by specific DNA immunization induced significant reduction of implanted embryos and pregnancy rate. The number of implanted embryos (5.68 ± 0.46 was significantly reduced after immunization with pCR3.1-IGFBP7-t, as compared with that of the mice immunized with the control vector (12.29 ± 0.36 or saline (14.58 ± 0.40 (p<0.01. After specific inhibition of IGFBP7, the T helper type 1 (Th1 cytokine IFNγ, was significantly elevated (p<0.05 and the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10, were reduced in uteri (p<0.05. The increase of Tbet and the decrease of Gata3 were found in mice peripheral lymphocytes by flow cytometry. The expression of decidualization marker IGFBP1 and angiogenesis regulator VEGF were declined in uteri (p<0.05. The expression of apoptosis-associated proteins, caspase3 and Bcl-2, were also declined (p<0.05. These results showed that inhibition of IGFBP7 induced pregnancy failure by shifting uterine cytokines to Th1 type dominance and repressing uterine decidualization.

  9. Secondary ovarian tumors: Evaluation of 44 cases

    Sevgiye KAÇAR ÖZKARA


    Full Text Available Secondary ovarian tumors compose 3-8% of all, and 10-30% of malignant ovarian tumors. Histopathological features of SOT diagnosed in our department in 10-year period are discussed. Macroscopical, microscopical, immunohistochemical and cytopathological features of secondary ovarian tumors diagnosed between 1997- 2006 were re-evaluated. Additional histochemical and immunohistochemical studies were applied to find the primaries. Data was statistically evaluated. Totally, 44 secondary ovarian tumors had been diagnosed within this period. The mean age of the patients was 52.9 years; the mean tumor diameter was 103.7 mm.The primary was gastrointestinal system in 50% of the cases. Ten of them (22.7% were metastases of signet ring cell carcinoma of stomach (Kruckenberg tumor while 9 cases (20.5% were from colorectal and three (6.8% were from appendiceal adenocarcinomas. 27.3% of our cases were originated from genital tract. Synchronous endometrioid adenocarcinomas of corpus uteri and ovary were seen in six cases (13.6%. Ovarian involvement of serous carcinomas of corpus uteri was seen in five (11.4% cases. Ovarian metastases of breast carcinoma in four cases (9.1% were seen while the ovarian involvement of adrenal cortical and tubal carcinomas was observed in one case, each. The primary was peritoneal surface in five (11.4% of the cases. Tumors were bilateral in 65.9% of the cases, and there was statistically significant correlation between the bilaterality rate of the tumors and the primary (p=0.015.The more precise diagnosis of secondary ovarian tumors could be reached by evaluation of clinical, surgical, macroscopical, microscopical, cytopathological and immunohistochemical findings together.

  10. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats.

    Vega Rivera, Nelly M; Gallardo Tenorio, Alfredo; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Estrada Camarena, Erika


    The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE₂) and citalopram (CIT) in the forced swim test (FST). Middle-aged (15 months old) female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and after one or three weeks treated with EE₂ (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat, s.c.; -48 h) or CIT (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and tested in the FST. In a second experiment, after one or three weeks of OVX, rats received a combination of an ineffective dose of EE₂ (1.25 µg/rat, s.c., -48 h) plus CIT (2.5 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and subjected to the FST. Finally, the uteri were removed and weighted to obtain an index of the peripheral effects of EE₂ administration. EE₂ (2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat) reduced immobility after one but not three weeks of OVX. In contrast, no CIT dose reduced immobility at one or three weeks after OVX. When EE₂ (1.25 µg/rat) was combined with CIT (2.5 mg/kg) an antidepressant-like effect was observed at one but not three weeks post-OVX. The weight of the uteri augmented when EE₂ was administrated three weeks after OVX. The data suggest that the time post-OVX is a crucial factor that contributes to observe the antidepressant-like effect of EE₂ alone or in combination with CIT.

  11. Mice endometrium receptivity in early pregnancy is impaired by maternal hyperinsulinemia

    Li, Runqin; Wu, Juan; He, Junlin; Wang, Yingxiong; Liu, Xueqing; Chen, Xuemei; Tong, Chao; Ding, Yubin; Su, Yan; Chen, Wenqi; Zhang, Chen; Gao, Rufei


    Previous studies have investigated the lower embryo implantation rates in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, obesity and type 2 diabetes, and specifically the association between the abnormal oocyte and embryo and hyperinsulinemia. The importance of hyperinsulinemia on maternal endometrium receptivity remains to be elucidated. The present study used a hyperinsulinemic mouse model to determine whether hyperinsulinemia may affect endometrial receptivity. An insulin intervention mouse model was first established. The serum levels of insulin, progesterone and estradiol were subsequently detected by ELISA assay analysis. The number of implantation sites was recorded using Trypan blue dye and the morphology of mice uteri was investigated using hematoxylin and eosin staining. The expression levels of molecular markers associated with endometrial receptivity were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry analyses. Finally, the importance of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression following insulin treatment was determined. Mice treated with insulin developed insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. The number of implantation sites following insulin treatment did not differ between the control and insulin-treated groups. Additionally, no significant morphological alterations in mice uteri between control and insulin-treated groups were observed. However, the expression levels of estrogen receptor (Esr) 1, Esr2, progesterone receptor and homeobox A10 associated with endometrial receptivity, were imbalanced during endometrium receptivity when maternal hyperinsulinemia was induced. Western blot analysis revealed that expression levels of endometrial phosphorylated (p)-mTOR and p-ribosomal protein S6 kinase β-1 were significantly greater in the insulin-treated group. These results demonstrated that although an embryo may implant into endometrium, mice endometrium receptivity in early

  12. Ultrasonographic and laparoscopic evaluation of the reproductive tract in older captive female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Schulman, M L; Kirberger, R M; Tordiffe, A S W; Marker, L L; Schmidt-Küntzel, A; Hartman, M J


    The study uniquely described the clinical value of transabdominal ultrasonography for monitoring features characterizing the estrous cycle in female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The reproductive tracts of 21 female, nulliparous, and relatively aged (median: 11 and interquartile range: 9.25-14 years) captive cheetahs resident on two sites in Namibia were assessed by transabdominal ultrasound. Subsequently, the ovarian findings on ultrasound were compared with direct visualization while performing laparoscopic sterilization. A combination of these observations supported by concurrent sampling for vaginal cytology and serum progesterone concentrations defined the estrous status of individual animals. At one site, six cheetahs had been implanted with the GnRH agonist, deslorelin as a contraceptive at least once within the preceding 11 years. On ultrasound, 31 uterine horns and 35 ovaries with discernible structures on 28 (86%) were visualized in the 21 cheetahs. The uterine body was difficult to visualize because of its intrapelvic location. Eleven of 19 uteri (58%) visualized showed endometrial edema suggestive of estrogenization. The uteri of four cheetahs (19%) showed evidence of mild cystic endometrial hyperplasia. Paraovarian cysts were seen on ultrasound (n = 21) and laparoscopy (n = 26) in 16 (76.2%) and 18 (85.7%) cheetahs, respectively. Ovarian volumes obtained from ultrasonographically determined dimensions predicted cyclic activity. Laparoscopy showed that 19 ovaries had discernible follicular structures. In the study population, 10 (47.6%) cheetahs were in proestrus or estrus; none in the luteal phase; and 11 (52.4%) in anestrus. Transabdominal ultrasound, in combination with serum progesterone concentrations and vaginal cytology, was used with acceptable accuracy to assess cyclic ovarian activity in captive cheetahs. A considerable proportion of this aged population showed ovarian activity and the prevalence of paraovarian cysts was notable. A

  13. Effect of a hormone-releasing intrauterine system (Mirena® on aromatase and Cox-2 expression in patients with adenomyosis submitted or not, to endometrial resection

    Maia R


    Full Text Available Hugo Maia Jr1,2, Clarice Haddad1, Julio Casoy1, Rebeca Maia1, Nathanael Pinheiro3, Elsimar M Coutinho11Centro de Pesquisa e Assistência em Reprodução Humana (CEPARH, 2Itaigara Memorial Day Hospital, 3IMAGEPAT, Salvador, Bahia, BrazilObjective: To investigate the effect of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (Mirena® on aromatase and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2 expression in the endometrium of patients with adenomyosis who were submitted to endometrial resection at the time of insertion, compared to a group not submitted to endometrial resection and a group of controls with adenomyosis not submitted to any previous hormonal treatment.Patients and methods: Patients with adenomyosis (n = 89 were included in this study. Twenty-two patients had been using Mirena® for 5 years but had not been submitted to endometrial resection prior to insertion of the device. Twenty-four patients were submitted to endometrial resection at the time of Mirena® insertion. The remaining 43 patients with adenomyosis had undergone no previous hormonal treatment and served as a control group. Cox-2 and aromatase expression were determined in the endometrium by immunohistochemistry.Results: Use of Mirena® for 5 years reduced aromatase expression in the endometrium; however, this reduction was significantly greater in the uteri previously submitted to endometrial resection. The reduction in Cox-2 expression was significant only in the uteri submitted to endometrial resection followed by the insertion of Mirena®.Conclusion: Endometrial resection followed by the insertion of Mirena® was associated with greater rates of amenorrhea in patients with adenomyosis, which in turn were associated with a more effective inhibition of aromatase and Cox-2 expression in the endometrium.Keywords: aromatase, Mirena®, adenomyosis, Cox-2, endometrium, levonorgestrel

  14. The GnRH analogue triptorelin confers ovarian radio-protection to adult female rats

    Camats, N. [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, F. [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Parrilla, J.J. [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, 30120 El Palmar, Murcia (Spain); Calaf, J. [Servei de Ginecologia i Obstetricia, Hospital Universitari de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Martin-Mateo, M. [Departament de Pediatria, d' Obstetricia i Ginecologia i de Medicina Preventiva, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Caldes, M. Garcia, E-mail: [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)


    There is a controversy regarding the effects of the analogues of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in radiotherapy. This has led us to study the possible radio-protection of the ovarian function of a GnRH agonist analogue (GnRHa), triptorelin, in adult, female rats (Rattus norvegicus sp.). The effects of the X-irradiation on the oocytes of ovarian primordial follicles, with and without GnRHa treatment, were compared, directly in the female rats (F{sub 0}) with reproductive parameters, and in the somatic cells of the resulting foetuses (F{sub 1}) with cytogenetical parameters. In order to do this, the ovaries and uteri from 82 females were extracted for the reproductive analysis and 236 foetuses were obtained for cytogenetical analysis. The cytogenetical study was based on the data from 22,151 metaphases analysed. The cytogenetical parameters analysed to assess the existence of chromosomal instability were the number of aberrant metaphases (2234) and the number (2854) and type of structural chromosomal aberrations, including gaps and breaks. Concerning the reproductive analysis of the ovaries and the uteri, the parameters analysed were the number of corpora lutea, implantations, implantation losses and foetuses. Triptorelin confers radio-protection of the ovaries in front of chromosomal instability, which is different, with respect to the single and fractioned dose. The cytogenetical analysis shows a general decrease in most of the parameters of the triptorelin-treated groups, with respect to their controls, and some of these differences were considered to be statistically significant. The reproductive analysis indicates that there is also radio-protection by the agonist, although minor to the cytogenetical one. Only some of the analysed parameters show a statistically significant decrease in the triptorelin-treated groups.

  15. Effects of alarelin active immunity on FSHR expression and uterine development in ewes%阿拉瑞林免疫对FSHR表达与子宫发育的影响

    魏锁成; 巩转娣; 安利峰; 谢坤; 李玉孔


    为研究GnRHa主动免疫对绵羊子宫FSHR表达与分布及子宫发育的作用,探讨GnRHa调节生殖功能的机制,将42只5~6月龄母绵羊(Ovis aries)随机分为6组(n =7)。 EG-Ⅰ、EG-Ⅱ和EG-Ⅲ动物分别皮下注射阿拉瑞林( alarelin)抗原200、300和400μg,0 d和14 d各1次;EG-Ⅳ和EG-Ⅴ动物皮下注射alarelin抗原200μg和300μg,0、7、14和21 d各1次;对照组皮下注射药物溶媒,0 d和14 d各1次。于70 d在颈动脉放血处死绵羊,无菌切取两侧子宫角。免疫组织化学SP法染色并进行图像分析,光学显微镜和电子显微镜分别观察子宫显微和超微结构变化。 Western blot分析FSHR蛋白表达。结果发现各试验组FSHR蛋白表达量随着alarelin免疫剂量和次数的增多而逐渐增加。 EG-Ⅲ和EG-Ⅴ极显著高于对照组(P<0.01)。 FSHR主要分布于子宫内膜细胞和子宫腺上皮细胞的胞质和胞核;EG-Ⅰ、EG-Ⅱ和EG-Ⅲ灰度值逐渐升高,EG-Ⅲ和EG-V(P<0.01)显著高于CG,证明alarelin主动免疫能增强子宫FSHR的分布与表达,加大注射剂量和次数作用更明显。 EG-I、EG-Ⅱ和EG-Ⅲ的子宫质量、UWT和EET均变小,EG-Ⅲ和EG-Ⅴ显著小于对照组(P<0.05)。试验组出现不同程度的子宫壁和上皮变薄,细胞胞质减少,腺体数量减少,腺腔缩小,平滑肌细胞及核均变小。线粒体和线粒体嵴减少,微绒毛变短,以EG-Ⅲ最明显。结果表明,Alarelin主动免疫母羊能增强子宫FSHR的分布与蛋白表达,使子宫超微和超微结构明显改变,抑制子宫发育,尤其是子宫内膜的生长显著受阻。%The experiment was undertaken to evaluate the effects of active immunization against the gonado-tropin releasing hormone agonist( GnRHa) on the expression and immuno-localization of FSHR in uteri,as well as uterine development in the ewes. Forty two ewes ( Ovis aries) ,five-to-six months old,were randomly assigned into six groups (n=7). The animals in the experimental groups

  16. Isolation and characterization of Wharton’s jelly-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells obtained from bovine umbilical cord and maintained in a defined serum-free three-dimensional system

    Cardoso Tereza C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The possibility for isolating bovine mesenchymal multipotent cells (MSCs from fetal adnexa is an interesting prospect because of the potential for these cells to be used for biotechnological applications. Bone marrow and adipose tissue are the most common sources of MSCs derived from adult animals. However, little knowledge exists about the characteristics of these progenitors cells in the bovine species. Traditionally most cell cultures are developed in two dimensional (2D environments. In mammalian tissue, cells connect not only to each other, but also support structures called the extracellular matrix (ECM. The three-dimensional (3D cultures may play a potential role in cell biotechnology, especially in tissue therapy. In this study, bovine-derived umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly (UC-WJ cells were isolated, characterized and maintained under 3D-free serum condition as an alternative of stem cell source for future cell banking. Results Bovine-derived UC-WJ cells, collected individually from 5 different umbilical cords sources, were successfully cultured under serum-free conditions and were capable to support 60 consecutive passages using commercial Stemline® mesenchymal stem cells expansion medium. Moreover, the UC-WJ cells were differentiated into osteocytes, chondrocytes, adipocytes and neural-like cells and cultured separately. Additionally, the genes that are considered important embryonic, POU5F1 and ITSN1, and mesenchymal cell markers, CD105+, CD29+, CD73+ and CD90+ in MSCs were also expressed in five bovine-derived UC-WJ cultures. Morphology of proliferating cells typically appeared fibroblast-like spindle shape presenting the same viability and number. These characteristics were not affected during passages. There were 60 chromosomes at the metaphase, with acrocentric morphology and intense telomerase activity. Moreover, the proliferative capacity of T cells in response to a mitogen stimulus was suppressed when

  17. Systematic analysis of ocular trauma by a new proposed ocular trauma classification

    Bhartendu Shukla


    Full Text Available Purpose: The current classification of ocular trauma does not incorporate adnexal trauma, injuries that are attributable to a nonmechanical cause and destructive globe injuries. This study proposes a new classification system of ocular trauma which is broader-based to allow for the classification of a wider range of ocular injuries not covered by the current classification. Methods: A clinic-based cross-sectional study to validate the proposed classification. We analyzed 535 cases of ocular injury from January 1, 2012 to February 28, 2012 over a 4-year period in an eye hospital in central India using our proposed classification system and compared it with conventional classification. Results: The new classification system allowed for classification of all 535 cases of ocular injury. The conventional classification was only able to classify 364 of the 535 trauma cases. Injuries involving the adnexa, nonmechanical injuries and destructive globe injuries could not be classified by the conventional classification, thus missing about 33% of cases. Conclusions: Our classification system shows an improvement over existing ocular trauma classification as it allows for the classification of all type of ocular injuries and will allow for better and specific prognostication. This system has the potential to aid communication between physicians and result in better patient care. It can also provide a more authentic, wide spectrum of ocular injuries in correlation with etiology. By including adnexal injuries and nonmechanical injuries, we have been able to classify all 535 cases of trauma. Otherwise, about 30% of cases would have been excluded from the study.

  18. An Umbilical/Paraumbilical Hernia as a Sign of an Intraabdominal Malignancy in the Elderly

    Kenig Jakub


    Full Text Available The umbilical area can present with a variety of signs associated with an intra abdominal malignancy. An umbilical/paraumbilical hernia might itself be a sign of an internal malignancy. The correlation between the presence of an umbilical/paraumbilical hernia and an intra abdominal malignancy has been previously based only on case reports. The aim of the study was to evaluate the significance of an umbilical/paraumbilical hernia as a symptom of an intraabdominal malignancy. Material and methods. A retrospective analysis was performed; review of the medical records of 145 patients (113 female and 32 male; mean age 66.4±11.9 with an umbilical/paraumbilical hernia treated during the period of 2005-2013. Twenty-three patients (15.9% were diagnosed with an intra abdominal malignancy; 34% were in the age group over 75 years of age. Results. The most common malignancies were: colorectal cancer, followed by pancreatic cancer, and cancers of the adnexa and kidneys. The patients with a concomitant malignancy identified were significantly older than those without a malignancy. In 65% of patients, the diagnosis was made postoperatively. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that age, the presence of preoperative symptoms, anemia, and weight loss were independent risk factors for concomitant abdominal cancer. Conclusion. The findings of this study support intensive preoperative diagnostic evaluation of elderly patients that are qualified for surgery for an umbilical/paraumbilical hernia. This is particularly important because most of these patients had a small/medium hernia orifice, which did not allow for accurate manual abdominal exploration. Currently, the routine preoperative diagnostic evaluation is often insufficient for an accurate diagnosis

  19. A 29-Year-Old Male with Borderline Lepromatous Leprosy

    Lubna Khondker


    Full Text Available Leprosy (Hansen’s disease is a chronic granulomatous infectious disease that primarily affects the peripheral nerves, skin, upper respiratory tract mucosa, eyes and certain other tissues. It is diagnosable and curable if recognized early and treated adequately. A twenty nine-year-old male from Jessore, Bangladesh reported in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh with the complaints of multiple erythematous, large, raised and circumscribed lesions with loss of sensations on different parts of the body, especially distal portions of all four limbs for last eight months. Subsequently he developed ulcers on the anesthetic fingers due to smoking and few ulcerative lesions on both feet. Skin examination revealed multiple erythematous, large nodular lesions on both sides of the cheek and forehead, multiple erythematous, indurated, large plaques with raised margin and central clearing on the trunk, waist and all four limbs, few satellite lesions around the large plaques on the trunk, few hypopigmented patches and plaques on buttock and lower limbs, multiple painless ulcers on dorsal surface of fingers of both hands, both lateral malleoluses and right sole. On examination of peripheral nerves, left great auricular nerve, both ulnar nerves and both common peroneal nerves were moderately enlarged and tender. Slit skin smear for AFB (modified Z-N stain was done and revealed that there were large number of acid and alcohol-fast bacilli arranged in straight and curved parallel bundles with globular masses (cigar-bundle appearance, morphologically resembling Mycobacterium leprae. Skin biopsy for histopathological examination revealed extensive infiltration of macrophages in the dermis, separated from epidermis by narrow grenz zone, with destruction of skin adnexa. Few foci of poorly defined granuloma in dermis were also noted. The patient was managed with rifampicin, clofazimine, dapsone, prednisolone and omeprazole.

  20. CAMTA1 Immunostaining is not Useful in Differentiating Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma from its Potential Mimickers

    Zarifa YUSİFLİ


    Full Text Available Objective: Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare member of vascular tumors of intermediate malignancy. Recently, presence of t(1;3 translocation and WWTR1/CAMTA1 gene fusion, which enhances CAMTA1 expression, are found to be specific to this tumor. We investigated the CAMTA1 immune expression profile of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and its potential mimickers using a commercially available CAMTA1 antibody. Material and Method: Standard whole sections from the formalin fixed, paraffin embedded blocks of 12 epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas, 10 angiosarcomas, 9 epithelioid sarcomas, 8 malignant melanomas, 8 signet ring carcinomas, 7 lobular carcinomas of breast, 2 epithelioid mesotheliomas, 2 rhabdoid tumors and 12 miscellaneous hemangiomas were immunostained for anti-CAMTA1 (ab64119, 1:200; Abcam after pretreatment with citrate pH 6.0 for 20 minutes using Leica Bond detection kit with DAB chromogen. Strong nuclear CAMTA1 expression was scored for its extent as ‘negative’ (50% positive. Results: In 60 out of 70 cases (86% either 2+ or 3+ strong nuclear staining was seen. Eighty-three % of epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas, 100% of angiosarcomas, 89% of epithelioid sarcomas, 89% of malignant melanomas, 63% of signet ring carcinomas, 71% of lobular carcinomas of breast, 100% of epithelioid mesotheliomas, 50% of rhabdoid tumors and 100% of hemangiomas were stained. Besides neurons, CAMTA1 expression was also observed in squamous epithelium, skin adnexa, breast lobules, prostate glands, bile ducts, colonic mucosa and gastric pits. Conclusion: Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, its potential morphological mimickers and other benign or malignant vascular tumors showed strong and diffuse CAMTA1 expression, nullifying the potential use of CAMTA1 immunohistochemistry as an adjunct in the differential diagnosis.

  1. Histopathologic criteria to confirm white-nose syndrome in bats

    Meteyer, C.U.; Buckles, E.L.; Blehert, D.S.; Hicks, A.C.; Green, D.E.; Shearn-Bochsler, V.; Thomas, N.J.; Gargas, A.; Behr, M.J.


    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a cutaneous fungal disease of hibernating bats associated with a novel Geomyces sp. fungus. Currently, confirmation of WNS requires histopathologic examination. Invasion of living tissue distinguishes this fungal infection from those caused by conventional transmissible dermatophytes. Although fungal hyphae penetrate the connective tissue of glabrous skin and muzzle, there is typically no cellular inflammatory response in hibernating bats. Preferred tissue samples to diagnose this fungal infection are rostral muzzle with nose and wing membrane fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. To optimize detection, the muzzle is trimmed longitudinally, the wing membrane is rolled, and multiple cross-sections are embedded to increase the surface area examined. Periodic acid-Schiff stain is essential to discriminate the nonpigmented fungal hyphae and conidia. Fungal hyphae form cup-like epidermal erosions and ulcers in the wing membrane and pinna with involvement of underlying connective tissue. In addition, fungal hyphae are present in hair follicles and in sebaceous and apocrine glands of the muzzle with invasion of tissue surrounding adnexa. Fungal hyphae in tissues are branching and septate, but the diameter and shape of the hyphae may vary from parallel walls measuring 2 ??m in diameter to irregular walls measuring 3-5 ??m in diameter. When present on short aerial hyphae, curved conidia are approximately 2.5 ??m wide and 7.5 ??m in curved length. Conidia have a more deeply basophilic center, and one or both ends are usually blunt. Although WNS is a disease of hibernating bats, severe wing damage due to fungal hyphae may be seen in bats that have recently emerged from hibernation. These recently emerged bats also have a robust suppurative inflammatory response.

  2. Periocular xanthogranuloma: A forgotten entity?

    Charalampos Papagoras


    Full Text Available Charalampos Papagoras1, George Kitsos2, Paraskevi V Voulgari1, Anastasia K Zikou3, Maria I Argyropoulou3, Aikaterini Zioga4, Alexandros A Drosos11Rheumatology Clinic, Department of Internal Medicine; 2Department of Ophthalmology; 3Department of Clinical Imaging and Radiology, 4Department of Pathology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, GreeceAbstract: Periocular xanthogranulomatous diseases are a rare group of disorders which are characterized by a predilection to affect the orbit and ocular adnexa and special histopathological features, in particular infiltrates comprising non-Langerhans-derived foamy histiocytes and Touton giant cells. The differential diagnosis is difficult and occasionally definite diagnosis cannot be established even after clinical and histopathological findings are taken together. We describe a case of a middle-aged man who presented with a 10-year history of voluminous eyelid swelling with concomitant late-onset atopic manifestations, namely bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis with nasal polyps. After thorough clinical and laboratory investigation, including a biopsy of the eyelid, we classified the patient’s disease to a rare entity that has been relatively recently described: periocular xanthogranuloma associated with adult-onset asthma. In a review of the literature, no prospective trials concerning the treatment of this disease were found. The literature mainly contained case reports and case series in which corticosteroids and chemotherapy with alkylating agents have been reported to be beneficial. We treated our patient with a combination of oral corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide pulses and we observed substantial regression of the eyelid masses together with a normalization of systemic immunologic abnormalities.Keywords: periocular xanthogranuloma, adult-onset asthma, non-Langerhans histiocytoses, cyclophosphamide, methylprednisolone

  3. [Prevalence of breast and gynecological diseases in female workers in the administrative office and workshop of an automobile part factory].

    Bai, L X; Yang, L; Duan, D P; Xu, X Y; Li, Z; Liu, Y M


    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of breast and gynecological diseases in female workers in the administrative office and workshop of an automobile part factory, and to provide a basis for promoting the health of female workers. Methods: In March 2015, color ultrasound examination of the breast, uterus, and bilateral adnexa was performed for all female workers, and routine gynecological examination, routine leucorrhea examination, and thinprep liquid-based cytology test were performed for married female workers. The detection rates of breast and gynecological diseases in female workers in the administrative office and workshop were analyzed. Results: In the 314 female workers, the overall detection rate of breast and gynecological diseases was 86.31%; the detection rate of abnormal breast ultrasound results was 72.93%, mainly breast hyperplasia; the detection rate of abnormal gynecological ultrasound results was 12.14%, mainly hysteromyoma, pelvic effusion, and uterus-rectum fossa effusion. The overall detection rate of cervicitis or vaginitis in married female workers was 66.86%. The univariate analysis showed that compared with those in the administrative office, the female workers in the workshop had significantly higher detection rates of breast hyperplasia and grade 2 breast lesions on the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) and significantly lower detection rates of hysteromyoma and grade 3 breast lesions on the BI-RADS (all P factory have high prevalence rates of breast and gynecological diseases. Night shifts for female workers in the workshop should be reduced as much as possible, and female workers, especially those in the administrative office, should be guided to release pressure and take a balanced diet.

  4. Evaluation of ALA-induced PpIX as a photosensitizer for PDT in cats

    Lucroy, Michael D.; Edwards, Benjamin F.; Peavy, George M.; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Griffey, Stephen M.; Madewell, Bruce R.


    Given exogenously, ALA defeats intrinsic regulatory feedback mechanisms allowing intracellular accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a highly efficient photosensitizer. In vivo, PpIX synthesis in neoplastic mammary tissues averages 20-fold higher than in normal mammary tissues. PpIX is retained intracellularly, unlike perivascular localization of other photosensitizers, and it is then cleared quickly from the body. In vitro, ALA induced PpIX production in our laboratory in 6 cell lines tested, including an established feline kidney cell line and dermal fibroblasts from primary skin biopsy explant, resulting in photosensitization. Fluorescent microscopy confirmed PpIX production in skin adnexae following ALA administration in a normal cat. To evaluate toxicity, three cats were treated with a single i.v. dose of ALA (either 100, 200, of 400 mg/kg) and followed for 7 days. Cats receiving 100 or 200 mg/kg ALA i.v. had elevated liver enzymes and bilirubin within 24 hours. Histopathology revealed hydropic changes in the liver and renal fibrosis. The cat receiving 400 mg/kg ALA intravenously had cutaneous flush, bradycardia and apnea associated with ALA administration; within 24 hours the cat was lethargic, anorectic and icteric. ALT, AST and bilirubin concentrations had increased significantly. At necropsy the liver had a prominent lobular pattern; histopathology revealed severe periportal hepatitis and splenic necrosis. Systemically administered ALA induces PpIX production, but toxicity may preclude its clinical application in the cat. PpIX levels seem to be more time dependent than those dependent at these three ALA doses and they are well beyond the saturation point for adequate PpIX conversion. The literature is scant regarding toxicity associated with parenteral administration of ALA.

  5. Uterus transplantation model in sheep with heterotopic whole graft and aorta and cava anastomoses.

    Gonzalez-Pinto, I M; Tryphonopoulos, P; Avison, D L; Nishida, S; Tekin, A; Santiago, S; Tzakis, A G


    Uterine transplantation in the sheep model has been described as a partial or whole orthotopic graft from a living donor with vascular anastomoses. As an alternative to surrogate pregnancy or adoption uterus transplantation might be indicated for cases of infertility of uterine origin. The main complications might be rejection and thrombosis. The objective of this work was to develop a model of whole uterus transplantation that was applicable to the human setting, using grafts obtained from brain-dead donors, and suitable for immunologic and viability follow-up with a reduced risk of thrombosis. Two donors and 1 recipient were operated. The first graft was used for an anatomic study; the second was used for transplantation. The donor operation consisted of an en bloc harvest of the uterus, adnexa, and proximal vagina with the distal aorta and cava. After harvest the donor sheep was humanely killed. In the recipient ewe, heterotopic implantation was performed in the lower abdomen. An End-to-side anastomoses of aorta and cava were performed below the recipient's renal vessels. A cutaneous vaginal stoma was performed in the right lower quadrant. The recipient ewe was humanely killed for an autopsy study. The anatomy of uterine veins of the ewe differs from the human. The uterine and ovarian veins join, forming the utero-ovarian vein, which drains at the confluence of the common iliac to the cava. En bloc harvesting allows for rapid graft preparation, with vascular cuffs easily anastomosed with a low risk of thrombosis. The vaginal stoma seems appropriate to facilitate follow-up and graft biopsy. This approach can be a suitable experimental model applicable to humans using grafts from brain-dead donors.

  6. Analysis of 57 nonagenarian cancer patients treated by radical radiotherapy. A survey of eight institutions

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Ishikura, Satoshi [National Cancer Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan). Hospital East; Oguchi, Masahiko; Niibe, Hideo; Yorozu, Atsunori; Nakano, Kikuo; Fuwa, Nobukazu; Watanabe, Sadao; Teshima, Teruki


    As the human society grows more aged, it is considered important to elucidate factors essential in applying radical radiotherapy (RT) to the elderly, with ages as high as 90 years and greater. A retrospective survey was conducted for patients 90 years of age or older who received radiotherapy with radical intent in eight leading institutions in Japan from 1990 through 1995. Fifty-seven nonagenarian patients were studied. Their ages ranged up to 98 (median 91) and there was a strong female preponderance (M/F: 16/41). The distribution by site was as follows: head and neck, 16; skin and adnexae, 11; uterine cervix, 7; esophagus, 6. The prevailing histopathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma (34), followed by adenocarcinomas (8). The highest age at RT was 98 years [female, skin cancer, died of senility 2.5 years after treatment, with no evidence of disease (NED)] and the longest survivor is 102 years old (female, glottic cancer T2, age at RT 93, alive NED for 8 years, uses wheel-chair). The rate of completion of treatment was 75% (43/57), if the treatment field was limited to the gross primary tumor volume only and if the cumulative dose was above 80% of the tolerable adult dose. Familial escort was necessary for most of the patients in completing the day-to-day RT. Radiotherapy is feasible with radical intent even in the elderly, if the treatment field is limited to the gross primary tumor volume only, if the cumulative dose is above 80% of the tolerable adult dose and if familial support is adequate. (author)

  7. [Tumorous actinomycosis of the pelvis with in situ intrauterine device].

    Bilek, K; Horn, L C; Schinagl, A


    The case is described of a 53-year old woman who had given birth three times and had undergone one abortion. After she was treated as an outpatient because of back pain in the lower waist area suppuration occurred from a fistula laterally right to the sacral bone in the area of the buttocks triangle, which persisted even after several outpatient surgical interventions. In addition, she had experienced a weight loss of 24 kg. At admission she had a temperature of 39 degrees Celsius, anemia, and leukocytosis. Sonography indicated slight hepatomegaly, hydroureter, right-sided hydronephrosis, and an right ovarian cyst of 4 cm size. Computer tomography showed a blurry structure that extended from the right kidney pole along the M. iliopsoas caudally up to the small pelvis, pressing against the organs caudally-ventrally, which also broke through dorsally between the lumbar region vertebrae and pelvis in the gluteal region percutaneously. The process was categorized as a frank paranephritis prolapsus abscess. Cessation of urine was determined. Laparotomy was carried out because of the suspicion of an inflammatory adnexal disease with parametritis. The uterus, including both adnexa as well as the conglomeration tumor, were removed. In the uterine cavity a Dana Cor IUD was found that had been inserted 13 years before and forgotten by the patient. At the site of the right adnexum there was a tumor (9 x 6 x 5 cu. cm) as well as a tube changed by inflammation (7 x 1.5 sq. cm). On the right side there was unspecific, suppurative salpingitis and in the ovary an abscess formation on the grounds of actinomycosis. On the left side there was only a suppurative inflammation of the tube without actinomycosis sediment. Immediately a high-dose antibiotic therapy (Penicillin G, 10 million IU) was started, lasting for 1 year. The kidney cessation with the back complaints rapidly disappeared. The cutaneous fistulae healed with scarring, however, a fully normal right-sided kidney function

  8. The National Basketball Association eye injury study.

    Zagelbaum, B M; Starkey, C; Hersh, P S; Donnenfeld, E D; Perry, H D; Jeffers, J B


    To investigate the epidemiology of eye injuries sustained by professional basketball players in the National Basketball Association (NBA). A prospective study involving all NBA athletes who sustained eye injuries between February 1, 1992, and June 20, 1993, was conducted. Twenty-seven NBA team athletic trainers, physicians, and ophthalmologists were provided data forms to complete for any player examined for an eye injury. Practice and game exposures during the preseason, regular season, playoffs, and championships were included. Of the 1092 injuries sustained by NBA players during the 17-month period, 59 (5.4%) involved the eye and adnexa. Eighteen (30.5%) of the injuries occurred while the player was in the act of rebounding, and 16 (27.1%) while the player was on offense. The most common diagnoses included 30 abrasions or lacerations to the eyelid (50.9%), 17 contusions (edema and/or ecchymosis) to the eyelid or periorbital region (28.8%), and seven corneal abrasions (11.9%). There were three orbital fractures (5.1%). Most injuries were caused by fingers (35.6%) or elbows (28.8%). Nine players (15.3%) missed subsequent games because of their injury. Fifty-seven players (96.6%) were not wearing protective eyewear at the time of injury. The incidence of eye injuries in NBA players during the 17-month period was 1.44 per 1000 game exposures. Frequent physical contact in professional basketball players leaves them at great risk for sustaining eye injuries. To prevent these injuries, protective eyewear is recommended.

  9. Is there a role for radiation therapists within veterinary oncology?

    Surjan, Yolanda, E-mail: [Medical Radiation Science (MRS), School of Health Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Warren-Forward, Helen [Medical Radiation Science (MRS), School of Health Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Milross, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, Sydney (Australia)


    Role expansion recognises enlargement of existing scope of practice within radiation therapy (RT). Over the past decade, there has been increasing involvement and movement towards advanced practice in the form of role extension in specialised areas of practice including brachytherapy, image fusion and quality assurance. It is also recognised that radiation therapy expert practitioners exist in the areas of imaging immobilisation, treatment, education and research. The acquisition of additional skills has hastened the need for autonomy within the RT profession and with this comes the responsibility to share our knowledge and specialist abilities with the wider community. Radiation therapy is a highly specialised profession working to treat a commonly encountered ailment like cancer and we should ask ourselves what other community members could benefit from our knowledge and skills. Cancer is not limited to the human population but affects animals as readily and severely. Particular types of cancers have been identified as being comparable with that of humans; one such tumour is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Squamous cell carcinoma is the most commonly found tumour of the eye and adnexa in horses. Comparatively, SCC in humans is the most common cancer in Australia. Whilst human treatment is well established with surgery and radiation therapy offering comparable control rates, the treatment within Australia's Veterinary Oncology field is currently at a standstill. It is reported, however, that the use of interstitial brachytherapy has been shown to be highly effective and thoroughly practiced and established within the United States of America (USA). This paper reviews current literature in readiness for the potential for radiation therapy cross-over into the veterinary sphere with regard to the implementation of treatment and radiation safety protocols for the use of interstitial brachytherapy in horses.

  10. Sublingual epidermoid cyst: a case report

    Kandogan Tolga


    Full Text Available Abstract Epidermoid and dermoid cysts represent less than 0.01% of all oral cavity cysts. The cysts can be defined as epidermoid when the lining presents only epithelium, dermoid cysts when skin adnexa are found, and teratoid cysts when other tissue such as muscle, cartilage, and bone are present. In this article, we present the case of an epidermoid cyst, with an oral as well as a submental component, in an 11 year old boy who presented with complaints of a mass in the oral cavity, difficulty chewing and swallowing of solid foods for about 3 years. He was admitted to the otolaryngology department. On examination, a mass displacing the tongue superiorly and posteriorly was noticed. An MRI scan was done and showed a 40 × 35 mm well-circumscribed non-enhancing cystic mass extending from the sublingual area to the level of the thyroid notch. The content of the cyst was homogenous. On examining the neck, a firm swelling was also noticed in the submental area, extending down to the thyroid notch. Under general anesthesia and with nasotracheal intubation, the patient underwent surgical removal of the mass. Extraorally, a midline submental horizontal incision was performed through the mucosa overlying the swelling and the cyst was dissected from the surrounding tissues and removed. On histological examination, acidophilic stratum corneum and basophilic dot like staining of stratum granulosum, which is the hallmark of an epidermoid cyst, were seen. The patient did well postoperatively, and no recurrence was noticed at the 6-months follow-up.

  11. A novel solid-phase site-specific PEGylation enhances the in vitro and in vivo biostabilty of recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor 1.

    Zhifeng Huang

    Full Text Available Keratinocyte growth factor 1 (KGF-1 has proven useful in the treatment of pathologies associated with dermal adnexae, liver, lung, and the gastrointestinal tract diseases. However, poor stability and short plasma half-life of the protein have restricted its therapeutic applications. While it is possible to improve the stability and extend the circulating half-life of recombinant human KGF-1 (rhKGF-1 using solution-phase PEGylation, such preparations have heterogeneous structures and often low specific activities due to multiple and/or uncontrolled PEGylation. In the present study, a novel solid-phase PEGylation strategy was employed to produce homogenous mono-PEGylated rhKGF-1. RhKGF-1 protein was immobilized on a Heparin-Sepharose column and then a site-selective PEGylation reaction was carried out by a reductive alkylation at the N-terminal amino acid of the protein. The mono-PEGylated rhKGF-1, which accounted for over 40% of the total rhKGF-1 used in the PEGylation reaction, was purified to homogeneity by SP Sepharose ion-exchange chromatography. Our biophysical and biochemical studies demonstrated that the solid-phase PEGylation significantly enhanced the in vitro and in vivo biostability without affecting the over all structure of the protein. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic analysis showed that modified rhKGF-1 had considerably longer plasma half-life than its intact counterpart. Our cell-based analysis showed that, similar to rhKGF-1, PEGylated rhKGF-1 induced proliferation in NIH 3T3 cells through the activation of MAPK/Erk pathway. Notably, PEGylated rhKGF-1 exhibited a greater hepatoprotection against CCl(4-induced injury in rats compared to rhKGF-1.

  12. [Ocular manifestations of children living with HIV/AIDS in Kinshasa].

    Nsiangani, N L; Kaimbo Wa Kaimbo, D; Kapepela, M K


    to determine the frequency of ocular manifestations in Congolese children aged 0 to 15 years infected with HIV/AIDS and to identify the predicted clinical and/or biological elements. This was a prospective, descriptive and cross-sectional study performed from November 2010 to April 2011 in five sanitary structures who take care of children infected with HIV/AIDS. During the period of study, one hundred children infected with VIH/AIDS were examined. Seventy- six (76%) of children were under highly active anti-retrovial therapy (HAART). The age of children ranged from 0,5 month to 15 years. Children underwent a routine ophthalmic examination which included measurement of visual acuity, inspection of the adnexa and cornea, slit-lamp examination and dilated ophthalmoscopy. The CD4 lymphocyte count was determined in 88 of them. The frequency of ocular manifestations was 36%. The mean age of children was 8 years (SD: 4.01; range 0,5 month-15 years). The male female sex ratio was 0.8/1. Ocular complaints were present in 22 children (22%). Visual symptoms were most frequent in children with severe decrease of immunity. Of four children identified with a visual handicap, one (1.5%) had blindness and three (4.4%) had visual impairment. All of these four children had a CD4 lymphocyte count less than 15%. Among ocular manifestations, the adnexial manifestations were the most frequent with 18 cases (18%) followed by the posterior segment manifestations with 14 cases (14%) and the neuroophthalmic lesions with 5 cases (5%). This study documented 36% of ocular manifestations; this frequency is comparable with the other African studies. Comparatively to studies conducted in other continents the frequency in African studies is high. This study also showed that the adnexial manifestations are the most frequent ocular findings and that the children with severe decrease of immunity are most exposed to visual troubles that can lead to blindness.

  13. Therapeutic and prophylactic uses of invertebrates in contemporary Spanish ethnoveterinary medicine.

    González, José Antonio; Amich, Francisco; Postigo-Mota, Salvador; Vallejo, José Ramón


    Zootherapeutic practices in ethnoveterinary medicine are important in many socio-cultural environments around the world, particularly in developing countries, and they have recently started to be inventoried and studied in Europe. In light of this, the purpose of this review is to describe the local knowledge and folk remedies based on the use of invertebrates and their derivative products in contemporary Spanish ethnoveterinary medicine. An overview in the fields of ethnozoology, ethnoveterinary medicine and folklore was made. Automated searches in the most important databases were performed. All related works were examined thoroughly and use-reports were obtained from 53 documentary sources. The traditional use of 18 invertebrate species and five ethnotaxa and a total of 86 empirical remedies based on the use of a single species was recorded. The two most relevant zoological groups were found to be insects and molluscs. A broad diversity of body parts or derivative products have been and are used to treat or prevent ca. 50 animal diseases or conditions, in particular diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, different infectious livestock diseases, and disorders of the eye and adnexa. Cattle, sheep and equines form the group of domestic animals in which the greatest number of remedies are mentioned. In addition, seven magical remedies and practices are documented. In comparison with other culturally related areas, this is a rich heritage. The use-reports included here will help in the search for new and low-cost drugs for treating livestock and alternative materials for pharmaceutical purposes, future research addressing the validation of the effects and the development of organic farming.

  14. Fluorescence-assisted sentinel (SND) and pelvic node dissections by single-port transvaginal laparoscopic surgery, for the management of an endometrial carcinoma (EC) in an elderly obese patient.

    Leblanc, Eric; Narducci, Fabrice; Bresson, Lucie; Hudry, Delphine


    To explore the feasibility of an oncologically acceptable management for an intermediate-risk endometrial cancer (EC) in an elderly, using the combination of transvaginal single-port laparoscopy and sentinel node policy. For this 85-years old patient, BMI 32kg/m(2), with IB grade 2 endometrioid EC, a single vaginal approach was attempted [1] to perform a total hysterectomy, bilateral salpinago-oophorectomy and pelvic node assessment guided by SND [2]. Injections of indocyanine green (ICG) were performed at 3 and 9 o'clock and 2 depths [3] into the uterine cervix A simple vaginal hysterectomy was first performed using a 5mm vessel sealer (LigaSure®-Medtronics) to limit ICG leakage. As poorly accessible, adnexas were divided close to cornuas; uterine corpus was delivered vaginally. Then, a single port device (Gelpoint®-Applied), equipped with 3 trocars for optique and instruments, was installed through vagina. After transvaginal pneumoperitoneum insufflation, bowel loops were cleared from the pelvis. Latero-pelvic peritoneum was incised between external iliac pedicles and ureters. Following the algorithm, node dissection was limited to sentinel node clearly identified on the right side under color-segmented fluorescence (Pinpoint®-Novadaq), but a full pelvic dissection completed an unsatisfactory SND on the left side. Procedure was terminated with salpingo-oophorectomies. After protected vaginal specimen delivery, the single-port device was removed and vagina was closed as usual. Patient was discharged on the 1st post-operative day. Final pathology confirmed the FIGO stageIB grade2 EC. A transvaginal laparoscopic pelvic SND after vaginal hysterectomy is feasible. This single-port "NOTES" strategy bridges the previous gaps of a pure vaginal approach and seems interesting in fragile EC patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Protective effects of honokiol on ischemia/reperfusion injury of rat ovary: an experimental study

    Yaman Tunc, Senem; Agacayak, Elif; Goruk, Neval Yaman; Icen, Mehmet Sait; Turgut, Abdulkadir; Alabalik, Ulas; Togrul, Cihan; Ekinci, Cenap; Ekinci, Aysun; Gul, Talip


    Aim The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of honokiol on experimental ischemia/reperfusion injury of rat ovary. Materials and methods A total of 40 female Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into five groups as follows: sham (Group I), torsion (Group II), torsion + detorsion (Group III), torsion + detorsion + saline (Group IV), and torsion + detorsion + honokiol (Group V). Bilateral adnexa in all the rats except for those in the sham group were exposed to torsion for 3 hours. The rats in Group IV were administered saline, whereas the rats in Group V were administered honokiol by intraperitoneal route 30 minutes before detorsion. Tissue and plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide were determined. Ovarian tissue was histologically evaluated. Data analyses were performed by means of Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U-test (Bonferroni correction) in SPSS 15.0 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results The torsion and detorsion groups had higher scores in vascular congestion, hemorrhage, and inflammatory cell infiltration compared with the sham group (P<0.005). In addition, total histopathological scores were significantly higher in the torsion and detorsion groups compared with the sham group (P<0.005). A significant reduction was observed in hemorrhage, inflammatory cell infiltration, and cellular degeneration scores, of all histopathological scores, in the honokiol group (P<0.005). Ovarian tissue concentrations of malondialdehyde were significantly higher in the torsion and detorsion groups compared with the sham and honokiol groups (P<0.005). Ovarian tissue concentrations of nitric oxide, on the other hand, were significantly higher in the torsion group compared with the sham, saline, and honokiol groups (P<0.005). Conclusion Honokiol has a beneficial effect on ovarian torsion-related ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:27022246

  16. [Analysis on 315 cases of clinical adverse drug reaction/event induced by gastrodin].

    Zheng, Yang-yang; Dong, Zhi; Lu, Xiao-qin; Xia, Yong-peng; Zhu, Shu-bing


    With patients' general situation, medication use, occurrence time of adverse drug reaction/event (ADR/ADE), clinical manifestations and prognosis as reference items, a retrospective study was made for 315 cases with ADR/ADE induced by Gastrodin in Chongqing from January 2008 to June 2014, in order to analyze the characteristics of ADR/ADE and provide reference for rational clinical medication. The results showed that among the 315 cases with ADR/ADE, 143 cases (45.4%) were males and 172 cases (54.6%) were females, most of them (74.9%) were aged above 45; 60 cases (19.0%) with ADE were caused by off-label indications and 66 cases (21.0%) with ADE were caused by over dosage; ADR/ADE cases induced by intravenous drip mainly happened within 30 min (85.5%), ADR/ADE cases induced by oral administration mainly happened within 2 h (74.4%), and all of ADR/ ADE cases induced by intramuscular injection happened within 10 min. Totally 593 ADR/ADE cases were reported, which were mainly damages in gastrointestinal system, skin and its adnexa; And 61.9% of ADR/ADE cases were newly reported. It is suggested that medical workers shall learn about the regularity and characteristics of ADR/ADE induced by gastrodin, apply it in clinic with standards, pay close attention to changes of patients' situations and attach importance to the monitoring of ADR/ADE, so as to enhance the safety of medication.

  17. Comparative analysis of lower extremities tissue perfusion by the use of perfusion scintigraphy method after hyperbaric oxygenation and lumbar sympathectomy

    Zoranović Uroš


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Lumbar syphatectomy (LS increases pheripheral blood flow primarily by the arteriolar vasodilatation within the skin vascular net. Increase in tissue nutrition takes place only in the distal blood vessels of the skin. Nevertheless, in some patients sympathectomy brings about improvement in ischemic ulcerations healing. Hyperbaric oxigenation (HBO is a medical treatment in which a patient breathes 100% oxygen under pressure higher than atmospheric implemented in special units allowing the whole body be in a chamber. The aim of the study was to determine efficacy of the applied therapies for the treatment of inoperable occlusive lower extremities (LE arteries diseases according to the obtained results. Methods. The study included 30 patients divided into two groups (15 patients each in which stenosis level of the lower extremities arteries had been determined using aortography due to further treatment with HBO and LS. All the patients were clinically examined, their objective condition evaluation based on claudication distance, pain in rest, skin and skin adnexa atrophy, and temperature and LE functionality, as well as exposed to perfusion scintigraphy prior to the treatment and within 30 days after the treatment finishing. Results. Analyzing patients' status prior to and after the treatments applied the number of patients with obvious improvement was higher in those treated by HBO than those treated by LS. Measuring claudication distance revealed significantly greater changes in patients treated by HBO (from 178.57 m to 754.76 m than in those treated by LS (from 229 m to 253 m. Other clinical symptoms, such as parasthesia, status of the skin adnexes (hair, nails, skin colour and temperature were also improved after the treatment by HBO. Conclusion. The results obatined in this study confirm the advantages of HBO over LS in therapy of inoperable occlusive LE disease, so LS could be definitely abandoned as a choice for treating such

  18. High altitude and the eye: a case controlled study in clinical ocular anthropometry of changes in the eye.

    Bali, Jatinder; Chaudhary, K P; Thakur, Renu


    Tribal natives of two spatially separate districts of Lahaul-Spiti (mean altitude = 3300 m) and Kinnaur (mean altitude = 1,700 m) in the Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh have lived for centuries as closed isolated groups, marrying within the local community up to the recent past. Studies on highland natives in the Andes have shown differences in chest diameters, lung volumes, hematocrit, and the like, in those living at high altitudes. We wanted to study whether stay at high altitude for generations confers any change in the ocular anthropometry. No study of this nature is available in the literature. We studied the ocular parameters using Snellen's charts, Standard Royal-Air-Force Rule, A-2,500 Sonomed A-Scan, Goldmann's aplanation tonometer, and S-7,000 Autorefractometer on 50 healthy volunteers at the Indira Gandhi Medical College Out Patient Department at Shimla (mean altitude = 2,100 m). Those living at higher altitudes in Lahaul-Spiti [LS] (n = 10) had significantly wider nose bridge width (p < 0.05); inter-inner canthal distance [IICD] (p < 0.05); inter-outer canthal distance [IOCD] (p < 0.05); and interpupillary distance [IPD] (p < 0.05) than the group living at Kinnaur (n = 40) at lower elevation. The LS group also had narrower palpebral fissure length in the vertical dimension (p = 0.05) and a lower IOP (p = 0.002) than the Kinnaur group. The axial length, lens thickness, and anterior chamber depth were comparable in the two groups. It appears that the eye and its adnexa respond to hypoxia, ultraviolet radiations, and persistent snow cover at high altitude by altering its anthropometry in a subtle but discernible manner. This was a hitherto unexplored area in the literature. Further studies to elucidate and substantiate the findings of the study are indicated.

  19. Mosquito saliva induced cutaneous events augment Chikungunya virus replication and disease progression.

    Agarwal, Ankita; Joshi, Gaurav; Nagar, Durga P; Sharma, Ajay K; Sukumaran, D; Pant, Satish C; Parida, Man Mohan; Dash, Paban Kumar


    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted when infected mosquito probes the host skin. While probing, mosquito saliva is expectorated into host skin along with virus which contains cocktail of molecules having anti-hemostatic and immunomodulatory properties. As mosquito saliva is a critical factor during natural arboviral infection, therefore we investigated mosquito saliva induced cutaneous events that modulate CHIKV infection. The effect of mosquito saliva on CHIKV infection was examined through inoculation of suckling mice subcutaneously with either CHIKV alone or uninfected mosquito bite followed by CHIKV. Histopathological evaluation of skin revealed infiltration of transmigrated inflammatory cells. Dermal blood vessels were hyperemic and adnexa showed degenerating lesions. Severe hemorrhage was observed in dermis and hypodermis in mosquito bite+CHIKV group compared to CHIKV group. Analysis of cytokines in skin showed significant downregulation of inflammatory genes like TLR-3, IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IFN-β in mosquito bite+CHIKV group compared to CHIKV group. In contrast, significant upregulation of anti-inflammatory genes like IL-4 and IL-10 was observed. These early events might have been responsible for increased dissemination of CHIKV to serum and peripheral organs as demonstrated through >10-fold higher viremia, antigen localization, cellular infiltration and degenerative changes. Thus mosquito saliva induced early cellular infiltration and associated cytokines augment CHIKV pathogenesis in a mouse model. This mosquito improved CHIKV mouse model simulates the realistic conditions that occur naturally during infected mosquito bite to a host. It will lead to better understanding of CHIKV pathobiology and promote the evaluation of novel medical countermeasures against emerging CHIKV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Occult and subsequent cancer incidence following risk-reducing surgery in BRCA mutation carriers.

    Zakhour, Mae; Danovitch, Yael; Lester, Jenny; Rimel, B J; Walsh, Christine S; Li, Andrew J; Karlan, Beth Y; Cass, Ilana


    To report the frequency and features of occult carcinomas and the incidence of subsequent cancers following risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) in BRCA mutation carriers. 257 consecutive women with germline BRCA mutations who underwent RRSO between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014 were identified in an Institutional Review Board approved study. All patients were asymptomatic with normal physical exams, CA 125 values, and imaging studies preoperatively, and had at least 12months of follow-up post-RRSO. All patients had comprehensive adnexal sectioning performed. Patient demographics and clinico-pathologic characteristics were extracted from medical and pathology records. The cohort included 148 BRCA1, 98 BRCA2, 6 BRCA not otherwise specified (NOS), and 5 BRCA1 and 2 mutation carriers. Occult carcinoma was seen in 14/257 (5.4%) of patients: 9 serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC), 3 tubal cancers, 1 ovarian cancer, and 1 endometrial cancer. Three patients (1.2%) with negative pathology at RRSO subsequently developed primary peritoneal serous carcinoma (PPSC), and 2 of 9 patients (22%) with STIC subsequently developed pelvic serous carcinoma. 110 women (43%) were diagnosed with breast cancer prior to RRSO, and 14 of the remaining 147 (9.5%) developed breast cancer following RRSO. Median follow-up of the cohort was 63months. In this cohort, 5.4% of asymptomatic BRCA mutation carriers had occult carcinomas at RRSO, 86% of which were tubal in origin. The risk of subsequent PPSC for women with benign adnexa at RRSO is low; however, the risk of pelvic serous carcinoma among women with STIC is significantly higher. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Laparoscopic Management of Huge Myoma Nascendi.

    Peker, Nuri; Gündoğan, Savas; Şendağ, Fatih

    To demonstrate the feasibility of laparoscopic management of a huge myoma nascendi. Step-by-step video demonstration of the surgical procedure (Canadian Task Force classification III-C). Uterine myoma is the most common benign neoplasm of the female reproductive tract, with an estimated incidence of 25% to 30% at reproductive age [1,2]. Patients generally have no symptoms; however, those with such symptoms as severe pelvic pain, heavy uterine bleeding, or infertility may be candidates for surgery. The traditional management is surgery; however, uterine artery embolization or hormonal therapy using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist or a selective estrogen receptor modulator should be preferred as the medical approach. Surgical management should be performed via laparoscopy or laparotomy; however, the use of laparoscopic myomectomy is being debated for patients with huge myomas. Difficulties in the excision, removal, and repair of myometrial defects, increased operative time, and blood loss are factors keeping physicians away from laparoscopic myomectomy [1,2]. A 35-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with complaints of chronic pelvic pain and heavy menstrual bleeding. Her medical history included multiple hospitalizations for blood transfusions, along with a recently measured hemoglobin level of 9.5 g/dL and a hematocrit value of 29%. She had never been married and had no children. Pelvic ultrasonography revealed a 12 × 10-cm uterine myoma located on the posterior side of the corpus uteri and protruding through to the cervical channel. This was a huge intramural submucous myoma in close proximity to the endometrial cavity and spreading through the myometrium. On vaginal examination, the myoma was found to extend into the vagina through the cervical channel. Laparoscopic myomectomy was planned because of the patient's desire for fertility preservation. Abdominopelvic exploration revealed a huge myoma filling the posterior side of the corpus uteri and

  2. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats

    Vega Rivera, Nelly M.; Gallardo Tenorio, Alfredo; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Estrada Camarena, Erika


    The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE2) and citalopram (CIT) in the forced swim test (FST). Middle-aged (15 months old) female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and after one or three weeks treated with EE2 (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat, s.c.; −48 h) or CIT (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and tested in the FST. In a second experiment, after one or three weeks of OVX, rats received a combination of an ineffective dose of EE2 (1.25 µg/rat, s.c., −48 h) plus CIT (2.5 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and subjected to the FST. Finally, the uteri were removed and weighted to obtain an index of the peripheral effects of EE2 administration. EE2 (2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat) reduced immobility after one but not three weeks of OVX. In contrast, no CIT dose reduced immobility at one or three weeks after OVX. When EE2 (1.25 µg/rat) was combined with CIT (2.5 mg/kg) an antidepressant-like effect was observed at one but not three weeks post-OVX. The weight of the uteri augmented when EE2 was administrated three weeks after OVX. The data suggest that the time post-OVX is a crucial factor that contributes to observe the antidepressant-like effect of EE2 alone or in combination with CIT. PMID:27153072

  3. 山东省现患恶性肿瘤残疾权重的测量%Estimation of disability weights on malignant neoplasms in Shandong province

    马吉祥; 孙建东; 付振涛; 徐爱强; 郭晓雷; 鹿子龙


    目的 测算各种恶性肿瘤的分病程残疾权重和平均残疾权重,为山东省恶性肿瘤疾病负担研究及肿瘤防治对策制定提供参考依据.方法 在山东省2007年恶性肿瘤现患调查中对所有恶性肿瘤患者的健康状况进行调查,参考全球疾病负担研究的方法 ,利用六级社会功能分级标准对患者残疾状况进行分级和赋值,分别计算20种恶性肿瘤的分病程残疾权重和平均残疾权重及其95%CI.结果 共调查恶性肿瘤患者11757例,所有恶性肿瘤治疗期、恢复期、转移期和晚期的残疾权重分别为0.310、0.218、0.450和0.653,平均残疾权重为0.317(95%CI:0.312~0.321).不同恶性肿瘤和不同病程阶段的残疾权重差别显著,性别间差异无统计学意义.肝癌、骨癌、淋巴瘤和胰腺癌平均残疾权重较高(>0.4),乳腺癌、子宫体癌、子宫颈癌、卵巢癌、喉癌和口咽部癌症相对较低(0.4) for liver cancer, bone cancer, lymphoma and pancreas cancer. Lower DWs (<0.3) were found for breast cancer, cervix uteri, corpus uteri, ovarian cancer, larynx cancer, mouth and oropharynx cancer. Conclusion Stage-specific and average DWs for various cancers were estimated based on a large sample size survey. The average DWs of 0.317 for all cancers indicated that 1/3 healthy year lost for each survived life year of them. The difference of DWs between different cancer and stage provide scientific evidence for cancer prevention strategy development.

  4. Identification of 9 uterine genes that are regulated during mouse pregnancy and exhibit abnormal levels in the cyclooxygenase-1 knockout mouse

    Soper Jessica


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is the leading cause of all infant mortality. In 2004, 12.5% of all births were preterm. In order to understand preterm labor, we must first understand normal labor. Since many of the myometrial changes that occur during pregnancy are similar in mice and humans and mouse gestation is short, we have studied the uterine genes that change in the mouse during pregnancy. Here, we used microarray analysis to identify uterine genes in the gravid mouse that are differentially regulated in the cyclooxygenase-1 knockout mouse model of delayed parturition. Methods Gestational d18.0 uteri (n = 4 were collected from pregnant wild-type and cyclooxygenase-1 knockout mice. Part of the uterus was used for frozen sections and RNA was isolated from the remainder. Microarray analysis was performed at the Indiana University School of Medicine Genomic Core and analyzed using the Microarray Data Portal. Northern analysis was performed to confirm microarray data and the genes localized in the gravid uterus by in situ hybridization. Results We identified 277 genes that are abnormally expressed in the gravid d18.0 cyclooxygenase-1 knockout mouse. Nine of these genes are also regulated in the normal murine uterus during the last half of gestation. Many of these genes are involved in the immune response, consistent with an important role of the immune system in parturition. Expression of 4 of these genes; arginase I, IgJ, Tnfrsf9 and troponin; was confirmed by Northern analysis to be mis-regulated during pregnancy in the knockout mouse. In situ hybridization of these genes demonstrated a similar location in the gravid wild-type and Cox-1 knockout mouse uteri. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first work to demonstrate the uterine location of these 4 genes in the mouse during late pregnancy. There are several putative transcription factor binding sites that are shared by many of the 9 genes identified here including; estrogen and

  5. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats

    Nelly M. Vega Rivera


    Full Text Available The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE2 and citalopram (CIT in the forced swim test (FST. Middle-aged (15 months old female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and after one or three weeks treated with EE2 (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat, s.c.; −48 h or CIT (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h and tested in the FST. In a second experiment, after one or three weeks of OVX, rats received a combination of an ineffective dose of EE2 (1.25 µg/rat, s.c., −48 h plus CIT (2.5 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h and subjected to the FST. Finally, the uteri were removed and weighted to obtain an index of the peripheral effects of EE2 administration. EE2 (2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat reduced immobility after one but not three weeks of OVX. In contrast, no CIT dose reduced immobility at one or three weeks after OVX. When EE2 (1.25 µg/rat was combined with CIT (2.5 mg/kg an antidepressant-like effect was observed at one but not three weeks post-OVX. The weight of the uteri augmented when EE2 was administrated three weeks after OVX. The data suggest that the time post-OVX is a crucial factor that contributes to observe the antidepressant-like effect of EE2 alone or in combination with CIT.

  6. Vertical transmission of Anaplasma platys and Leishmania infantum in dogs during the first half of gestation.

    Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; de Caprariis, Donato; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Capelli, Gioia; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Otranto, Domenico


    Leishmania infantum is a canine zoonotic vector-borne protozoan pathogen transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies, whereas Anaplasma platys is a bacterium most likely transmitted by ticks. While vertical transmission of L. infantum from pregnant bitches to their offspring has been documented, thus far no studies have explored the possibility of vertical transmission of A. platys in dogs. This study investigated the occurrence of vertical transmission of L. infantum and A. platys in sheltered dogs during the first half of gestation, in an area of southern Italy characterised by a high incidence of infection by both pathogens. The study population included 20 bitches (n = 10 pregnant, at 25-35 days of pregnancy; n = 10 non-pregnant), all subjected to ovariohysterectomy, which were examined for the presence of L. infantum and A. platys via cytological screening of bone marrow and whole blood samples. Infection by L. infantum and A. platys was also tested by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting both pathogens. Selected tissue samples (n = 210) collected during surgical procedures from bitches and foetuses (n = 20) were assessed for the presence of L. infantum and A. platys by qPCR targeting a fragment of the kinetoplast minicircle DNA (kDNA) and the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Leishmania infantum DNA was not amplified from either uteri or ovaries from pregnant bitches or foetal tissue samples, whereas a subset of ovarian (n = 2) and uterine (n = 4) tissue samples from non-pregnant bitches were infected, with parasite loads of up to 3.09 × 10 and 7.51 parasite/PCR reaction, respectively. Conversely, uterine (n = 10) and ovarian (n = 8) tissues from both pregnant and non-pregnant bitches, together with a subset (n = 5) of foetal tissue samples were qPCR positive for A. platys. Leishmania infantum and A. platys nucleic acids were amplified from two uteri from non-pregnant bitches

  7. Cellular mechanisms by which oxytocin mediates ovine endometrial prostaglandin F2alpha synthesis: role of G(i) proteins and mitogen-activated protein kinases.

    Burns, P D; Mendes, J O; Yemm, R S; Clay, C M; Nelson, S E; Hayes, S H; Silvia, W J


    Oxytocin stimulates a rapid increase in ovine endometrial prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha synthesis. The overall objective of these experiments was to investigate the cellular mechanisms by which oxytocin induces endometrial PGF2alpha synthesis. The objective of experiment 1 was to determine whether G(i) proteins mediate oxytocin-induced PGF2alpha synthesis. Uteri were collected from four ovary-intact ewes on Day 14 postestrus. Caruncular endometrial explants were dissected and subjected to in vitro incubation. Pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of G(i) proteins, had no effect on the ability of oxytocin to induce PGF2alpha synthesis (P > 0.10). The objective of experiment 2 was to determine whether any of the three mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK), or p38 MAPK, mediate oxytocin-induced PGF(2alpha) synthesis. Eleven ovary-intact ewes were given an injection of oxytocin (10 IU; i.v.; n = 5) or physiological saline (i.v.; n = 6) on Day 15 postestrus. Uteri were collected 15 min after injection and caruncular endometrium was dissected. Endometrial homogenates were prepared and subjected to Western blotting. Membranes were probed for both total and phosphorylated forms of all three classes of MAPK. All classes of MAPK were detected in ovine endometrium, but oxytocin treatment had no effect on the expression of these proteins (P > 0.10). ERK1/2 was the only phosphorylated MAPK detected and its concentrations were higher in oxytocin-treated ewes (P Day 14 postestrus. Caruncular endometrial explants were dissected and subjected to in vitro incubation. PD98059, a specific inhibitor of ERK1/2 activity, blocked the ability of oxytocin to stimulate PGF(2alpha synthesis in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). These results indicate that the ovine oxytocin receptor is not coupled to G(i) proteins. These results indicate that oxytocin induces phosphorylation of ERK1

  8. Three new and a known species of the genus Proleptonchus Lordello, 1955 (Nematoda: Leptonchidae) with a diagnostic compendium of the genus.

    Ahad, Sumaya; Ahmad, Wasim


    This paper deals with the description of three new and one known species of the genus Proleptonchus Lordello, 1955. Proleptonchus kazirangus n. sp. from Kaziranga National Park, India is characterized by having 1.08-1.45 mm long body; cap-like, offset, lip region; 7-8 µm long odontostyle and 10-12 µm long odontophore; short, pear-shaped pharyngeal bulb offset by a constriction, occupying about 18-21% of total neck length; female genital system mono-prodelphic; pars dilatata uteri with distinctly sclerotized central lumen containing refringent apophyses; posterior uterine sac 78-112 µm long, with sac-like structure representing a rudimentary oviduct; transverse vulva, short, rounded-conoid tail and males with 31-33 µm long spicules, lateral guiding pieces and seven, regularly spaced ventromedian supplements. P. prerectus n. sp. from Japan is characterized by having 1.18-1.43 mm long body; lip region cap-like, offset by a slight constriction; odontostyle 8 µm, odontophore 9-10 µm; short cylindroid basal bulb offset by a constriction, occupying about 16-20% of total neck length; female genital system mono-prodelphic; pars dilatata uteri with sclerotized refringent apophyses; posterior uterine sac small, 27-36 µm; transverse vulva; a prerectal chamber and short, rounded-hemispheroid tail. P. japonicus n. sp. also from Japan is characterized by having 0.91-1.04 mm long body; lip region cap-like, set off by a slight constriction; odontostyle 5 µm and odontophore 10-11 µm long; pharynx consists of a very slender, non-muscular anterior part, separated from pyriform basal bulb by a constriction, with thickened lumen in posterior region, occupying about 18-20% of total neck length; female genital system mono-prodelphic; posterior uterine sac small, 20-24 µm long; transverse vulva and short, rounded-conoid tail. P. shamimi Bajaj & Bhatti, 1980 is redescribed and its relationship with closely related species is discussed. A diagnostic compendium of all the valid

  9. Ghrelin影响小鼠胚泡着床的体外实验研究%The effect of Ghrelin on the implantation of mouse blastocysts in vitro

    凌燕; 熊员焕; 彭诗维; 田卫群


    目的:探讨Ghrelin在小鼠妊娠围植入期子宫表达的变化及其对胚胎着床的影响.方法:用免疫组化方法检测Ghrelin蛋白在小鼠妊娠围植入期子宫表达的变化;采用体外胚泡培养方法,观察重组Ghrelin蛋白对胚泡的孵化、黏附与扩展率的影响.结果:在小鼠妊娠的第1至2天,Ghrelin蛋白主要于腔上皮和腺上皮表达,随妊娠进展,其表达水平逐渐下降.体外胚泡培养48h时,与正常对照组相比[孵化率、黏附率和扩展率分别为(61.25±5.27)%、(71.45±6.56)%和(43.26±5.87)%],Ghrelin重组蛋白可明显抑制胚泡的孵化率[(20.36±4.78%),P<0.01]、黏附率[(53.23±4.98)%,P<0.01)]及扩展率[(18.34±7.12)%,P<0.05].结论:Ghrelin可抑制胚泡孵化、黏附与扩展及抑制胚泡植入.%Objective: To investigate the expression of Ghrelin in peri-implantation mouse uteri and the effect of Ghrelin on the implantation of mouse blastocysts in vitro. Method: Ghrelin distribution was detected by immunohistochemistry in peri-implantation mouse uteri. The effect of recombinant Ghrelin on blastocyst hatching,attachment and outgrowth was measured by using blastocysts in vitro culture system. Result: Ghrelin was mainly located in luminal ?epithelium and glandular epithelium of mouse uterus in D1-D2 of pregnancy. With the progress of pregnancy, its level gradually decreased. Compared with the control group, recombinant Ghrelin protein could significantly inhibit blastocyst hatching(61. 25±5. 27% ,20. 36±4. 78% ,P< 0.01), attachment (71. 45 ±6. 56% ,53. 23 ±4. 98% , P<0. 01) and outgrowth (43. 26 ± 5.87% ,18.34±7. 12% ,P<0. 05). Conclusion: Ghrelin may participate in mouse embryonic implantation by inhibiting blastocyst hatching, attachment and outgrowth.

  10. TGF-beta expression during rat pregnancy and activity on decidual cell survival

    Déry Marie-Claude


    Full Text Available Abstract Background During early rat pregnancy, trophoblast of the tiny embryo joins with the endometrium and epithelial cells undergo apoptosis. Near the end of pregnancy, regression of the decidua basalis (DB is also observed (from day 14 to 20. However, little is known about the intra-cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in apoptosis regulation in the uterus during pregnancy. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and the developmental expression of transforming growth factor-beta isoforms (TGF-beta well known differentiation factor in the rat endometrium throughout pregnancy and its action in vitro using cultured endometrial stromal cells. Methods In vivo: Rats were killed at different days of pregnancy (days 2–20 and uteri removed to collect endometrial protein extracts or the uteri were fixed, embedded and sectioned for immunohistochemistry (IHC and in situ cell death analyses using TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL. In vitro: Rats were ovariectomized and decidualization was induced using sex steroids. Endometrial stromal decidual cells were then collected and cultured. Results An increase of apoptosis in the DB on days 14, 16 and 18 was observed. Cleaved caspase-3 was clearly detected during regression of the DB by Western analysis and immunofluorescence. Western analyses using endometrial protein extracts demonstrated that TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 were highly expressed at the time of DB regression (day 14. During early pregnancy, TGF-beta1 and -beta2 expressions raised at days 5.5 to 6.5. TGF-beta3 protein was not detected during early pregnancy. IHC analyses revealed that TGF-beta1 and -2 were found surrounding both epithelium (luminal and glandular in the stroma compartment at the implantation site, and TGF-beta3 was mainly located surrounding endometrial epithelium in the stroma compartment. Smad2 phosphorylation was increased at the time of DB regression. In vitro studies using

  11. Design and preliminary analysis of a vaginal inserter for speculum-free cervical cancer screening.

    Asiedu, Mercy Nyamewaa; Agudogo, Júlia; Krieger, Marlee S; Miros, Robert; Proeschold-Bell, Rae Jean; Schmitt, John W; Ramanujam, Nimmi


    Cervical cancer screening usually requires use of a speculum to provide a clear view of the cervix. The speculum is one potential barrier to screening due to fear of pain, discomfort and embarrassment. The aim of this paper is to present and demonstrate the feasibility of a tampon-sized inserter and the POCkeT Colposcope, a miniature pen sized-colposcope, for comfortable, speculum-free and potentially self-colposcopy. We explored different designs using 3D computer-aided design (CAD) software and performed mechanical testing simulations on each. Designs were rapid prototyped and tested using a custom vaginal phantom across a range of vaginal pressures and uterine tilts to select an optimal design. Two final designs were tested with fifteen volunteers to assess cervix visualization, comfort and usability compared to the speculum and the optimal design, the curved-tip inserter, was selected for testing in volunteers. We present a vaginal inserter as an alternative to the standard speculum for use with the POCkeT Colposcope. The device has a slim tubular body with a funnel-like curved tip measuring approximately 2.5 cm in diameter. The inserter has a channel through which a 2 megapixel (MP) mini camera with LED illumination fits to enable image capture. Mechanical finite element testing simulations with an applied pressure of 15 cm H2O indicated a high factor of safety (90.9) for the inserter. Testing of the device with a custom vaginal phantom, across a range of supine vaginal pressures and uterine tilts (retroverted, anteverted and sideverted), demonstrated image capture with a visual area comparable to the speculum for a normal/axial positioned uteri and significantly better than the speculum for anteverted and sideverted uteri (pcancer screening and also enables acetic acid/Lugol's iodine application and insertion of swabs for Pap smear sample collection. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an inserter and miniature-imaging device for comfortable cervical

  12. Application of Gongshuning Glue Stick combined with Indometacin Suppository in artificial abortion%宫术宁胶棒联合吲哚美辛栓在人工流产中的应用

    贾丽丽; 李艳; 薛梦洋; 张晓艳; 王丽


    Objective: To explore the impact of Congshuning Glue Stick combined with Indometacin Suppository on the analgesic effects and cervical dilatation effects in artificial abortion. Methods: 200 patients of artificial abortion were divided into two groups, with 100 patients in the observation group and 100 patients in the control group, in the observation group, 20 min before surgery, one pill of Indome1.ha.cin Suppository was plugged in the arms, and 5 mm before surgery, the Gongshuning Glue Slick was placed to the internal ostiurn of cervix uteri. The control group received routine abortion without any analgesic measures. Results: The effect of analgesia and the expansion degree of cervix uteri of observation group were significantly superior to that of the control group, with significant differences (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion: The application of Gongshuning Glue Slick combined with Indometacin Suppository in the artificial abortion has effective analgesic effects and obvious cervix dilation effects.%目的:探讨宫术宁胶棒联合吲哚美辛栓在人工流产中对镇痛效果及宫颈扩张效果的影响.方法:将200例人工流产患者分成观察组100例和对照组100例.观察组术前20 min将吲哚美辛栓1枚塞肛,术前5 min将宫术宁胶棒经宫颈置入达宫颈内口处.对照组不采用任何镇痛措施,常规行人工流产术.结果:观察组镇痛效果、宫颈口扩张程度明显优于对照组,人工流产综合征发生率明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05、P<0.01).结论:宫术宁胶棒联合吲哚美辛栓用于人工流产中镇痛有效、宫口扩张明显.

  13. Distinct spatiotemporal expression of serine proteases Prss23 and Prss35 in periimplantation mouse uterus and dispensable function of Prss35 in fertility.

    Honglu Diao

    Full Text Available PRSS23 and PRSS35 are homologous proteases originally identified in mouse ovaries. In the periimplantation mouse uterus, Prss23 was highly expressed in the preimplantation gestation day 3.5 (D3.5 uterine luminal epithelium (LE. It disappeared from the postimplantation LE and reappeared in the stromal compartment next to the myometrium on D6.5. It was undetectable in the embryo from D4.5 to D6.5 but highly expressed in the embryo on D7.5. Prss35 became detectable in the uterine stromal compartment surrounding the embryo on D4.5 and shifted towards the mesometrial side of the stromal compartment next to the embryo from D5.5 to D7.5. In the ovariectomized uterus, Prss23 was moderately and Prss35 was dramatically downregulated by progesterone and 17β-estradiol. Based on the expression of Prss35 in granulosa cells and corpus luteum of the ovary and the early pregnant uterus, we hypothesized that PRSS35 might play a role in female reproduction, especially in oocyte development, ovulation, implantation, and decidualization. This hypothesis was tested in Prss35((-/- mice, which proved otherwise. Between wild type (WT and Prss35((-/- mice, superovulation of immature females produced comparable numbers of cumulus-oocyte complexes; there were comparable numbers of implantation sites detected on D4.5 and D7.5; there were no obvious differences in the expression of implantation and decidualization marker genes in D4.5 or D7.5 uteri. Comparable mRNA expression levels of a few known protease-related genes in the WT and Prss35((-/- D4.5 uteri indicated no compensatory upregulation. Comparable litter sizes from WT × WT and Prss35((-/-× Prss35((-/- crosses suggested that Prss35 gene was unessential for fertility and embryo development. Prss35 gene has been linked to cleft lip/palate in humans. However, no obvious such defects were observed in Prss35((-/- mice. This study demonstrates the distinct expression of Prss23 and Prss35 in the periimplantation uterus

  14. Differential expression and regulation of Tdo2 during mouse decidualization.

    Li, Dang-Dang; Gao, Ying-Jie; Tian, Xue-Chao; Yang, Zhan-Qing; Cao, Hang; Zhang, Qiao-Ling; Guo, Bin; Yue, Zhan-Peng


    Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (Tdo2) is a rate-limiting enzyme which directs the conversion of tryptophan to kynurenine. The aim of this study was to examine the expression and regulation of Tdo2 in mouse uterus during decidualization. Tdo2 mRNA was mainly expressed in the decidua on days 6-8 of pregnancy. By real-time PCR, a high level of Tdo2 expression was observed in the uteri from days 6 to 8 of pregnancy, although Tdo2 expression was observed on days 1-8. Simultaneously, Tdo2 mRNA was also detected under in vivo and in vitro artificial decidualization. Estrogen, progesterone, and 8-bromoadenosine-cAMP could induce the expression of Tdo2 in the ovariectomized mouse uterus and uterine stromal cells. Tdo2 could regulate cell proliferation and stimulate the expression of decidual marker Dtprp in the uterine stromal cells and decidual cells. Overexpression of Tdo2 could upregulate the expression of Ahr, Cox2, and Vegf genes in uterine stromal cells, while Tdo2 inhibitor 680C91 could downregulate the expression of Cox2 and Vegf genes in uterine decidual cells. These data indicate that Tdo2 may play an important role during mouse decidualization and be regulated by estrogen, progesterone, and cAMP.

  15. Histological examination of onchocercomata after therapy with ivermectin.

    Albiez, E J; Walter, G; Kaiser, A; Ranque, P; Newland, H S; White, A T; Greene, B M; Taylor, H R; Büttner, D W


    During chemotherapy trials in hyperendemic onchocerciasis areas in West Africa 15 adult nodule carriers in Liberia and 24 patients in Mali received single doses of ivermectin (150 or 200 micrograms/kg). Nodules were extirpated two, six and ten months after therapy and examined histologically. No macrofilaricidal effect of ivermectin was observed. Two months after therapy, in 93% of all female worms with intrauterine stretched microfilariae nearly all microfilariae were degenerated. The percentage was lower after ten months but still significantly higher than in untreated control groups. Ivermectin did not cause degeneration of the intrauterine coiled microfilariae. But the percentage of the female worms with coiled microfilariae was significantly lower two and ten months after therapy than that in the placebo or untreated control groups. Correspondingly, the percentage of nodules with intact microfilariae in the nodule tissue was also significantly lower throughout the examination period than that of the untreated control groups. There was not observed any effect on the spermatogenesis and spermatozoa were found frequently in the uteri of female worms. Using the method of histology, the long lasting inhibitory effect of a single dose of ivermectin on the intrauterine production of microfilariae could clearly be demonstrated. This proves the value of histology for the assessment of drug effects on adult O. volvulus.

  16. A case of adenocarcinoma occurred at site of radiated double-barrel sigmoid colostomy

    Ogawa, Hideaki; Kondo, Yukifumi; Takahashi, Masatoshi [Sapporo-Kosei General Hospital (Japan)] [and others


    A 60-year-old female developed an adenocarcinoma at the site of double-barrel sigmoid colostomy. She underwent a total hysterectomy and the subsequent radiation therapy due to carcinoma uteri when she was 34 years old. She had rectal stenosis one year later and underwent sigmoid colostomy. She had been healthy thereafter, however, when she was 58 years old, she noticed an elevated lesion at the site of colostomy. Biopsy revealed well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, so surgery was recommended but she refused it. Two years later, the entire stoma became a carcinoma, which directly invaded the abdominal wall on MRI images. A bow-shaped skin incision was made and en bloc resection of the tumor, colostomy and the surrounding tissues was performed. Finally, descending colostomy in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen was reconstructed. Primary adenocarcinoma occurring at a double-barrel colostomy is very rare, and such a case may never have been reported, although there were some reports of carcinoma occurring at an end colostomy. Since the site of the present carcinoma was radiated, the radiation may contribute to this carcinogenesis, suspecting its late effect. Our surgical procedure enabled simultaneously operation of combined resection and intraabdominal manipulation, and the reconstruction site of the stoma was easily selected. (author)

  17. Increased expression of heat shock protein 105 in rat uterus of early pregnancy and its significance in embryo implantation

    Hu Zhao-Yuan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock proteins (Hsps are a set of highly conserved proteins, Hsp105, has been suggested to play a role in reproduction. Methods Spatio-temporal expression of Hsp105 in rat uterus during peri-implantation period was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, pseudopregnant uterus was used as control. Injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to Hsp105 into pregnant rat uteri was carried out to look at effect of Hsp105 on embryo implantation. Results Expression of Hsp105 was mainly in the luminal epithelium on day 1 of pregnancy, and reached a peak level on day 5, whereas in stroma cells, adjacent to the implanting embryo, the strongest expression of Hsp105 was observed on day 6. The immunostaining profile in the uterus was consistent with that obtained by Western blot in the early pregnancy. In contrast, no obvious peak level of Hsp105 was observed in the uterus of pseudopregnant rat on day 5 or day 6. Furthermore, injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to Hsp105 into the rat uterine horn on day 3 of pregnancy obviously suppressed the protein expression as expected and reduced number of the implanted embryos as compared with the control. Conclusion Temporal and spatial changes in Hsp105 expression in pregnant rat uterus may play a physiological role in regulating embryo implantation.

  18. Phospholipid scramblase expression in the pregnant mouse uterus in LPS-induced preterm delivery.

    McLean, Kelley C; Oppenheimer, Karen H; Sweet, Leigh M; Phillippe, Mark


    Phospholipid scramblases (PLSCR), stimulated by proinflammatory cytokines, are thought to mediate the loss of lipid asymmetry in cell membranes, allowing for specific reactions in the coagulation cascade. The PLSCR may therefore provide a link between inflammation, coagulation, and, because thrombin is a uterotonic, preterm birth (PTB). To explore the relationship between PLSCR expression and inflammation-related PTB, we utilized reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot studies to quantify messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression for the 4 PLSCR homologues (PLSCR 1-4). Uteri from day 15 pregnant mice were harvested at several time points after intrauterine lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection (or normal saline, for controls). Expression of mRNA in all 4 Plscr isoforms was demonstrated. Lipopolysaccharide treatment resulted in increased expression of PLSCR-1 and a decrease in Plscr4 mRNA, thereby demonstrating modulation of PLSCR-1 and PLSCR-4 in LPS-induced PTB. Additionally, protein expression was confirmed for all except PLSCR-4, with increased expression of PLSCR-1 after LPS treatment.

  19. Multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors of squamous cell cervical cancer treated by radical hysterectomy or combined radiation therapy; Carcinoma espinocelular do colo uterino submetido a cirurgia radical isolada ou em combinacao com radioterapia

    Coelho, Francisco Ricardo Gualda; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Abrao, Fauzer Simao [Fundacao Antonio Prudente, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital A.C. Camargo; Franco, Eduardo Luiz [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Oncology; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Brentani, Maria Mitzi [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina


    Six hundred and nine cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix uteri in a retrospective analysis (1953-1982) at the A.C. Camargo Hospital, Antonio Prudente Foundation, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The patients were submitted to radical surgery and radiation therapy, individually or in combination. A multivariate analysis of the different variables were performed according to the Cox`s regression method. The variables of prognosis value, in decreasing order of importance, were: the decade of patient`s admission, the modality of therapy employed, the presence of residual tumor in the surgical specimens and the clinical stage of the disease. Other variables like ethnic group, age of first menstrual flux, menopause, number of pregnancy, kind of delivery, number and kind of abortion, were found to be of no prognostic importance. The decade of admission was of independent prognostic significance. The presence of residual tumor in the surgical specimens was more important than lymph nodes spreading, but the overall survival was affected by the increase in the number of positive lymph nodes. Patient`s age was a weak prognostic factor accounting for a reduction in the survival time among cases with age upper to 45 years old. Radiation therapy sterilizes a considerable number of lymph nodes but not all of them in every patient. There are a specific group of patients where the radical surgery is necessary in order to carry a complete debulking of the disease. (author) 82 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Effects of Nickel in Swiss Albino Mice during Organogenetic Period

    Shivi Saini


    Full Text Available The present study evaluates potential hazardous of nickel (Ni+2 as NiCl2·6H2O to Swiss albino mice fetus. Ni was administered orally on body weight base from days 6 to 13 of gestation period. Based on LD50, Ni doses (46.125, 92.25, and 184.5 mg Ni/kg b.wt. were used. On day 18 of gestation, uteri of the sacrificed dams were examined. A dose-dependent decrease ( in the body weight of the pregnant females and fetuses during the gestation period was observed. Number of implant sites and placental weight at all the three dose levels was lower compared with their respective control groups. Average number of live fetuses/dams reduced significantly ( at 184.5 mg Ni/kg b.wt. with concomitant increase in the percentage of postimplantation death and percentage of resorbed, macerated, and dead fetuses, respectively. Exposure increased the fetal malformations, namely, hydrocephaly, open eyelids, microphthalmia, exophthalmia, club foot, umbilical hernia, and skeletal anomalies. Reduced ossification of nasal, frontal, parietal, intraparietal, and supraoccipital bones, absence/gap between the ribs, reduced/fused sternebrae, vertebral centra, and caudal vertebrae, reduced pelvic elements, absence of carpals, metacarpals, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges were distinct. This indicates vulnerability of the mice fetus to nickel during prenatal exposure.

  1. Effects of Etonogestrel Treatment in the Reproductive Organs and Uterine Arteries of Nonoophorectomized Guinea Pigs

    Krikun, Graciela; Booth, C. J.; Buchwalder, L.; Schatz, F.; Osol, G.; Mandala, Maurizio; Lockwood, C. J.


    The endometria of women treated with long-term progestin-only contraceptives (LTPOCs) display abnormally enlarged, fragile blood vessels, decreased endometrial blood flow, oxidative stress, and unpredictable focal abnormal endometrial bleeding. Because human studies on the effects of LTPOC treatment are constrained for ethical and practical reasons, we assessed the suitability of nonoophorectomized guinea pigs (GPs) to best mimic the hormonal milieu of women. The present study demonstrates that treatment of GPs parallels the morphological changes following LTPOC treatment of the human endometrium and ovaries. Specifically, treatment resulted in larger hyperemic, uteri compared with controls. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated fewer endometrial glands, decreased luminal mucus, increased numbers of blood vessels, and focal hemorrhage. While increased staining for the cell mitosis marker, Ki67, was present in the zona functionalis, no such increase occurred in the basalis. Lastly, effects on vasomotor features of uterine arteries suggest changes that favor increased resistance and reduced blood flow promoting decreased ability to withstand elevations in transmural pressure. PMID:22267537

  2. World Trade Center Health Program; amendments to list of WTC-related health conditions; cancer; revision. Interim final rule.


    On September 12, 2012, the Administrator of the WTC Health Program (Administrator) published a final rule in the Federal Register adding certain types of cancer to the List of World Trade Center (WTC)-Related Health Conditions (List) in the WTC Health Program regulations; an additional final rule was published on September 19, 2013 adding prostate cancer to the List. Through the process of implementing the addition of cancers to the List and integrating cancer coverage into the WTC Health Program, the Administrator has identified the need to amend the rule to remove the ICD codes and specific cancer sub-sites, clarify the definition of ``childhood cancers,'' revise the definition of ``rare cancers,'' and notify stakeholders that the Administrator is revising WTC Health Program policy related to coverage of cancers of the brain and the pancreas. No types of cancer covered by the WTC Health Program will be removed by this action; four types of cancer--malignant neoplasms of the brain, the cervix uteri, the pancreas, and the testis--are newly eligible for certification as WTC-related health conditions as a result of this action.

  3. Intravenous leiomyomatosis of uterus: A case report

    Esin ATİK


    Full Text Available Intravenous leiomyomatosis is an uncommon variant of uterine leiomyomas. These tumors originate from smooth muscle cells of veins or lymphatics. Generally, they can't be diagnosed before surgery. Both gross and histopathological findings are important for diagnosis. Growing into the right ventricle through inferior vena cava may be seen in some of the cases. Benign cystic lung metastases have been also reported. In this article, a 42 year-old woman who had 3 children applied to our outpatient clinic of gynecology with pelvic pain and abnormal menstrual bleeding which had started 7 years ago, is presented. In physical examination uterus was palpated as hard, painful, and abnormally large. Total abdominal hysterectomy and unilateral salphingo-oophorectomy was performed with myomatosis uteri prediagnosis. During operation, frozen section specimen was diagnosed as intravenous leiomyomatosis. By presenting this case, we aim both to emphasize the importance of post-diagnosis follow-up of patients, and also evaluate intravenous leiomyomatosis in the light of literature.

  4. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality in Barcelona: 1992–2003

    Pasarín M Isabel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to assess trends in cancer mortality by educational level in Barcelona from 1992 to 2003. Methods The study population comprised Barcelona inhabitants aged 20 years or older. Data on cancer deaths were supplied by the system of information on mortality. Educational level was obtained from the municipal census. Age-standardized rates by educational level were calculated. We also fitted Poisson regression models to estimate the relative index of inequality (RII and the Slope Index of Inequalities (SII. All were calculated for each sex and period (1992–1994, 1995–1997, 1998–2000, and 2001–2003. Results Cancer mortality was higher in men and women with lower educational level throughout the study period. Less-schooled men had higher mortality by stomach, mouth and pharynx, oesophagus, larynx and lung cancer. In women, there were educational inequalities for cervix uteri, liver and colon cancer. Inequalities of overall and specific types of cancer mortality remained stable in Barcelona; although a slight reduction was observed for some cancers. Conclusion This study has identified those cancer types presenting the greatest inequalities between men and women in recent years and shown that in Barcelona there is a stable trend in inequalities in the burden of cancer.

  5. The glycocalyx of the mouse uterine luminal epithelium during estrus, early pregnancy, the peri-implantation period, and delayed implantation. I. Acquisition of Ricinus communis I binding sites during pregnancy.

    Chávez, D J; Anderson, T L


    Mouse uteri were examined during estrus, early pregnancy, the peri-implantation period, and delayed implantation to determine whether changes in the surface coat of the luminal epithelium could be associated with receptivity of the uterus to the presence of blastocyst-stage embryos or blastocyst adhesion. By using alkaline bismuth subnitrate to label periodate-oxidized glycols within the glycocalyx we were able to measure the thickness and examine the morphology of the glycocalyx by electron microscopy. Ferritin-conjugated Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA-I) demonstrated the presence of D-galactose at terminal, nonreducing positions within the glycocalyx. A relatively thick (0.06-0.1-micron) surface coat was present during estrus, but contained almost no RCA-I binding sites. During Day 3 of pregnancy the surface coat remained up to 0.1 micron thick and RCA-I binding sites were present. At Day 4 and during delay the glycocalyx had a fibrillar appearance, contained RCA-I binding sites, and was reduced to 0.06-0.08 micron in thickness. During Day 5 of pregnancy the thickness of the surface coat was greatly reduced, but there remained uniform lectin binding adjacent to the plasma membrane both at sites of blastocyst attachment and between implantation sites. The results indicate that the luminal epithelium of the mouse uterus acquired RCA-I binding sites during pregnancy and that the thickness of the surface coat was greatly reduced at the time of implantation.

  6. Effects of genistein in combination with conjugated estrogens on endometrial hyperplasia and metabolic dysfunction in ovariectomized mice.

    Kim, Jun Ho; Kim, Young Jun


    Tissue-selective estrogen complex (TSEC), which combines a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) with one or more estrogens, is a novel approach to menopausal therapy. It has been demonstrated that the phytoestrogen genistein (GEN) exhibits mixed estrogen receptor agonist and antagonist activity, suggesting that GEN may have potential for use as a natural SERM. We evaluated, for the first time, the effects of GEN, conjugated estrogens (CE), and their pairing effects as a TSEC treatment on estrogen-induced endometrial hyperplasia and metabolic dysfunction in ovariectomized (OVX) mice fed a high-fat diet. CE replacement prevented fat accumulation in the adipose tissue and liver, improved glucose homeostasis, and induced endometrial hyperplasia in OVX mice. GEN at 100 mg/kg showed CE mimetic effects in preventing ovariectomy-induced metabolic dysfunctions without endometrial stimulation. Combination treatments with CE and GEN prevented metabolic dysfunctions more strongly than CE alone, but at both low and high doses, GEN did not reverse CE-induced endometrial hyperplasia. In addition, we found that in a TSEC regimen, a typical SERM raloxifene maintains the metabolic benefits of CE while simultaneously protecting the endometrium in OVX mice. These findings indicate that GEN acts as an estrogen agonist in metabolic regulation, but has no SERM function in the uteri of OVX mice.

  7. Metabolic and reproductive parameters in prepubertal gilts after omega-3 supplementation in the diet.

    Moreira, F; Cheuiche, Z M G; Rizzoto, G; Santos, M Q; Schuch, M S; Flach, M J; Gasperin, B G; Bianchi, I; Lucia, T


    Polyunsaturated fatty acids may benefit reproductive performance of female swine. This study evaluated metabolic and reproductive parameters of prepubertal finishing gilts fed with fish oil as a natural source of omega-3 fatty acids (6.88g/d) (n=12) over a period of 45 d. Gilts in the control group were fed soybean oil (n=13). Body weight and backfat were determined at 15-d intervals. Serum levels of leptin, IGF-1, insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides were measured at the beginning (D0) and at the end of the period (D45). Immunolabeling intensity for leptin and its receptor (ObRb) was assessed in oocytes of preantral follicles. Gilts fed omega-3 presented slightly heavier uteri (P=0.09) than control gilts, but there was no effect on body weight and backfat (P>0.05). Cholesterol serum levels tended to be lower at D45 for omega-3 supplemented gilts than for controls (P=0.06). Triglycerides and IGF-1 serum levels were lower at D45 than at D0 for control gilts (P0.05), but were greater at D45 than at D0 in both treatments (POmega-3 supplementation was associated with reduced serum cholesterol level and more intense staining for leptin in oocytes of prepubertal gilts, which suggests some involvement on triggering puberty.

  8. Influence of different prostaglandin applications on cervical rheology.

    Spätling, L; Neuman, M R; Huch, R; Huch, A


    The softening effect of prostaglandin (PG) on cervical tissue prior to elective pregnancy termination is quantified by a new technique for the measurement of the elastance and relaxation of the cervix. The method is based on the pressure-volume relation of a compliant balloon placed in the cervical canal. These properties have been measured before and after different applications of prostaglandins in 58 patients electively terminating pregnancy. Application techniques used included high pressure jet application of PGE2 into the tissue of the portio uteri and the internal cervical os (120 micrograms), PGE2 and PGF2 alpha in Tylose gel (100 micrograms/0.5 ml); PGE2 as an intracervical tablet (150 micrograms) and PGE2 oral tablets placed into the posterior fornix of the vagina. Significant changes in cervical elastance were seen with the intracervically applied PGE2 in Tylose gel and the vaginally applied PGE2 tablets. The intracervically applied PGE2 gel also gave significant changes in cervical relaxation. No side effects other than mild cramping (2 patients) were seen with any of the applications in this study.

  9. In vitro fabrication of autologous living tissue-engineered vascular grafts based on prenatally harvested ovine amniotic fluid-derived stem cells.

    Weber, Benedikt; Kehl, Debora; Bleul, Ulrich; Behr, Luc; Sammut, Sébastien; Frese, Laura; Ksiazek, Agnieszka; Achermann, Josef; Stranzinger, Gerald; Robert, Jérôme; Sanders, Bart; Sidler, Michele; Brokopp, Chad E; Proulx, Steven T; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Schoenauer, Roman; Emmert, Maximilian Y; Falk, Volkmar; Hoerstrup, Simon P


    Amniotic fluid cells (AFCs) have been proposed as a valuable source for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, before clinical implementation, rigorous evaluation of this cell source in clinically relevant animal models accepted by regulatory authorities is indispensable. Today, the ovine model represents one of the most accepted preclinical animal models, in particular for cardiovascular applications. Here, we investigate the isolation and use of autologous ovine AFCs as cell source for cardiovascular tissue engineering applications. Fetal fluids were aspirated in vivo from pregnant ewes (n = 9) and from explanted uteri post mortem at different gestational ages (n = 91). Amniotic non-allantoic fluid nature was evaluated biochemically and in vivo samples were compared with post mortem reference samples. Isolated cells revealed an immunohistochemical phenotype similar to ovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and showed expression of stem cell factors described for embryonic stem cells, such as NANOG and STAT-3. Isolated ovine amniotic fluid-derived MSCs were screened for numeric chromosomal aberrations and successfully differentiated into several mesodermal phenotypes. Myofibroblastic ovine AFC lineages were then successfully used for the in vitro fabrication of small- and large-diameter tissue-engineered vascular grafts (n = 10) and cardiovascular patches (n = 34), laying the foundation for the use of this relevant pre-clinical in vivo assessment model for future amniotic fluid cell-based therapeutic applications.

  10. A giant uterine myometrium cyst mimicking an ovarian cyst in pregnancy: An uncommon presentation of hydropic degeneration of uterine fibroid

    Elsayed Elbadawy Awad


    Full Text Available Myometrial cysts of the uterus are extremely rare. Uterine leiomyomas commonly undergo degenerative changes, which can lead to variable imaging features. Diffuse hydropic change is an unusual form that presents a considerable diagnostic challenge to both radiologists and pathologists. A 27-year old nulliparous patient admitted to our hospital for antenatal care and left sided pelvic pain. Transvaginal ultrasonographic examination revealed a 20 cm intramural cystic lesion in the left region of the corpus uteri suspicious of degenerated myoma. Repeated aspiration was done. Spontaneous abortion occurred in the first trimester. Rapid distension of the abdomen despite repeated aspirations occurred. MRI revealed degenerated myoma. Ultrasound performed one day before surgery revealed a turbid content instead of the clear fluid. Laparotomy was performed revealing a huge interstitial myoma with bloody collection inside so, myomectomy was performed. Histopathology showed hydropic degenerated myoma. Although fibroids usually have a characteristic sonographic appearance, degenerating myomas have variable patterns and can pose a diagnostic dilemma. Extensive cystic degeneration can mimic an ovarian tumour.

  11. Uterine pathologies to be considered before uterus-preserving surgery in cases of uterine prolapse

    Fatma Eskicioğu


    Full Text Available Objective: Investigation of unpredictable risks due to abnormal uterine pathology after the choice of uterus-preserving reconstructive surgical procedure for women who have uterine prolapse and no other complaints was aimed. Methods: The data of 121 women (105 postmenopausal and 16 premenopausal who underwent vaginal hysterectomy due to pelvic organ prolapse was examined and the post-hysterectomy histopathology results were evaluated. Results: Senile cystic atrophy was the most common endometrial pathology result among postmenopausal women (63.5%. However, proliferative and secretory endometrium was the most common endometrial pathology finding among premenopausal women (81.3%. There were statistically significant differences between postmenopausal and perimenopausal women in terms of these pathology results (p0.05, myoma uteri was significantly more common in patients with perimenopause (p=0.01. Conclusion: The uterus must be evaluated in terms of endometrial pathologies in asymptomatic women with pelvic organ prolapse before uterus-preserving reconstructive surgical procedure, especially in postmenopausal period. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (4: 443-446

  12. Evaluation of the knowledge regarding prevention of cervical cancer among women from a Health Unit

    Ernandes Gonçalves Dias


    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Cervical cancer is a disease with high degree of morbidity and mortality, but has early detection by performing screening test which allows healing. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge regarding prevention of Cervical Cancer among women in a Basic Health Unit in Minas Gerais. Methods: This is a study descriptive with approach qualitative with 44 women. Was used as the data collection instrument of a semistructured script consisting of subjective questions. Data were collected between March April 2014. Results: The women had age of 40-57 years old, 33 (75% were married, 43(97,73% had children, 20 (45,45% had incomplete primary education, 36 (81,82% were responsible for all financial income of the family and lived with up to the minimum wage. As for the Pap smear, considered important, however showed little clarity as to the meaning of prevention. Performed the test as means of prevention and early diagnosis of Cervical Cancer. Among women who did not perform the preventive the cause was discouragement. Conclusion: We conclude that although the Pap smear be offered for free, there is still women who do not have adequate knowledge about the same and not makes periodically, fitting to health services intensify health education programs to seeking to raise awareness about the importance of regular practice of the Pap smear. Keywords: Cervix Uteri. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms. Health centers.

  13. Cancer screening in Korea, 2012: results from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey.

    Suh, Mina; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Yoon Young; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan


    We investigated the cancer screening rates for five types of cancer (stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervix uteri) using data from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), which is a nationwide, annual cross-sectional survey. The eligible study population included cancer-free men 40 years of age and older and women 30 years of age and older. The lifetime screening rate and screening rate with recommendation were calculated. The lifetime screening rates for gastric, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers were 77.9%, 69.9%, 65.8%, 82.9%, and 77.1%, respectively. The screening rates with recommendation were 70.9%, 21.5%, 44.7%, 70.9%, and 67.9%, respectively. The most common reason for all types of cancer was "no symptoms, " followed by "lack of time" and "fear of the examination procedure. " Efforts to facilitate participation in liver and colorectal cancer screening among Korean men and women are needed.

  14. Anatomy and histology of apical support: a literature review concerning cardinal and uterosacral ligaments.

    Ramanah, Rajeev; Berger, Mitchell B; Parratte, Bernard M; DeLancey, John O L


    The objective of this work was to collect and summarize relevant literature on the anatomy, histology, and imaging of apical support of the upper vagina and the uterus provided by the cardinal (CL) and uterosacral (USL) ligaments. A literature search in English, French, and German languages was carried out with the keywords apical support, cardinal ligament, transverse cervical ligament, Mackenrodt ligament, parametrium, paracervix, retinaculum uteri, web, uterosacral ligament, and sacrouterine ligament in the PubMed database. Other relevant journal and textbook articles were sought by retrieving references cited in previous PubMed articles. Fifty references were examined in peer-reviewed journals and textbooks. The USL extends from the S2 to the S4 vertebra region to the dorsal margin of the uterine cervix and/or to the upper third of the posterior vaginal wall. It has a superficial and deep component. Autonomous nerve fibers are a major constituent of the deep USL. CL is defined as a perivascular sheath with a proximal insertion around the origin of the internal iliac artery and a distal insertion on the cervix and/or vagina. It is divided into a cranial (vascular) and a caudal (neural) portions. Histologically, it contains mainly vessels, with no distinct band of connective tissue. Both the deep USL and the caudal CL are closely related to the inferior hypogastric plexus. USL and CL are visceral ligaments, with mesentery-like structures containing vessels, nerves, connective tissue, and adipose tissue.

  15. Cancer screening in a middle-aged general population: factors associated with practices and attitudes

    Perneger Thomas V


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with cancer screening practices and with general attitudes toward cancer screening in a general population. Methods Mailed survey of 30–60 year old residents of Geneva, Switzerland, that included questions about screening for five cancers (breast, cervix uteri, prostate, colon, skin in the past 3 years, attitudes toward screening, health care use, preventive behaviours and socio-demographic characteristics. Cancer screening practice was dichotomised as having done at least one screening test in the past 3 years versus none. Results The survey response rate was 49.3% (2301/4670. More women than men had had at least one cancer screening test in the past 3 years (83.2% vs 34.5%, p Conclusion Attitudes play an important role in cancer screening practices among middle-aged adults in the general population, independent of demographic variables (age and sex that determine in part screening recommendations. Negative attitudes were the most frequent among men and the most socio-economically disadvantaged. The moderate participation rate raises the possibility of selection bias.

  16. Cancer screening in a middle-aged general population: factors associated with practices and attitudes

    Cullati, Stéphane; Charvet-Bérard, Agathe I; Perneger, Thomas V


    Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with cancer screening practices and with general attitudes toward cancer screening in a general population. Methods Mailed survey of 30–60 year old residents of Geneva, Switzerland, that included questions about screening for five cancers (breast, cervix uteri, prostate, colon, skin) in the past 3 years, attitudes toward screening, health care use, preventive behaviours and socio-demographic characteristics. Cancer screening practice was dichotomised as having done at least one screening test in the past 3 years versus none. Results The survey response rate was 49.3% (2301/4670). More women than men had had at least one cancer screening test in the past 3 years (83.2% vs 34.5%, p cancer screening practices among middle-aged adults in the general population, independent of demographic variables (age and sex) that determine in part screening recommendations. Negative attitudes were the most frequent among men and the most socio-economically disadvantaged. The moderate participation rate raises the possibility of selection bias. PMID:19402895

  17. Effect of low-energy laser (He-Ne) irradiation on embryo implantation rate in the rat

    Stein, Anat; Kraicer, P. F.; Oron, Uri


    Attempts to date to increase the rate of embryo implantation, for example by assisting embryo hatching from the zona pellucida, have failed. Recently, several studies have suggested the biostimulating effect of low power laser irradiation. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the potential of low power laser irradiation of the uterus to enhance embryo implantation rate in the rat. Rat potential of low power laser irradiation of the uterus to enhance embryo implantation rate in the rat. Rat blastocysts were flushed from the uterus on day 5 of gestation. They were transferred to the uteri of pseudopregnant recipients on day 4 or 5 of pseudopregnancy. One cornu of the recipient uterus was irradiated; the other was used as control. On day 5 of pregnancy, irradiation did not change implantation rate after 10 or 30 sec of irradiation while 120 sec. of irradiation significantly decreased embryonic implantation. On the other hand, on day 4 of pregnancy, 120 sec. of radiation allowed embryonic implantation to a level similar to that seen after synchronized transfer. Conclusion: He-Ne laser irradiation of the exposed rat uterus can attenuate embryo implantation rate.

  18. Effets oestrogéniques du macéré aqueux des feuilles de Holarrhena floribunda (G. Don Dur & Schinz chez la rate ovariectomisée

    Sawadogo l;


    Full Text Available Oestrogenic effects of macerated aqueous extracts of the leaves of Holarrhena fl oribunda (G. Don Dur & Schinz on ovariectomized rat. Estrogenic effects of aqueous extracts of leaves of Holarrhena fl oribunda have been evaluated by uterotrophic assay. Ovariectomized mice were used and treated subcutaneously during seven days with 50, 100, 200 doses of Holarrhena fl oribunda and with 100, 200 doses of Holarrhena fl oribunda plus 25 of oestradiol 17-β. Estrogenic activity was analysed by uterine dry and wet weight, surrenal gland wet weight, vaginal opening, protein and cholesterol level in uteri horn. Administration of extracts to the doses of 100 and 200 exhibits increase of uterine dry and wet weight, surrenal gland wet weight, vaginal opening, protein levels and decrease of level of cholesterol in uterine horn. The results suggest that, aqueous extracts of Holarrhena fl oribunda possesses estrogenic type effect. But when 100 and 200 of Holarrhena fl oribunda were given alone with 25 of estradiol 17-β, the estrogenic effect was slight. These results supposed that H. fl oribunda is a weak phytoestrogen and the aqueous extracts of the leaves behad as partial agonistic

  19. Extra and intracellular calcium signaling pathway(s) differentially regulate histamine-induced myometrial contractions during early and mid-pregnancy stages in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Sharma, Abhishek; Nakade, Udayraj P; Choudhury, Soumen; Yadav, Rajkumar Singh; Garg, Satish Kumar


    This study examines the differential role of calcium signaling pathway(s) in histamine-induced uterotonic action during early and mid-pregnancy stages in buffaloes. Compared to mid pregnancy, tonic contraction, amplitude and mean-integral tension were significantly increased by histamine to produce myometrial contraction during early pregnancy with small effects on phasic contraction and frequency. Although uterotonic action of histamine during both stages of pregnancy is sensitive to nifedipine (a L-type Ca(2+) channels blocker) and NNC55-0396 (T-type Ca(2+) channels blocker), the role of extracellular calcium seems to be more significant during mid-pregnancy as in this stage histamine produced only 9.38±0.96% contraction in Ca(2+) free-RLS compared to 21.60±1.45% in uteri of early pregnancy stage. Intracellular calcium plays major role in histamine-induced myometrial contraction during early pregnancy as compared to mid pregnancy, as in the presence of cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) Ca(2+)-free RLS, histamine produced significantly higher contraction in myometrial strips of early-pregancy in comparison to mid-pregnancy (10.59±1.58% and 3.13±0.46%, respectively). In the presence of U-73122, the DRC of histamine was significantly shifted towards right with decrease in maximal effect (Emax) only in early pregnancy suggesting the predominant role of phospholipase-C (PL-C) in this stage of pregnancy.

  20. Isolation of Clostridium limosum from an outbreak of metritis in farmed mink.

    Biström, Mia; Moisander-Jylhä, Anna-Maria; Heinikainen, Sirpa; Pelkola, Kirsti; Raunio-Saarnisto, Mirja


    An outbreak of sudden death of pregnant farmed mink in Finland occurred during the busiest whelping period in the spring of 2013. The affected farms were all located in western Finland in a rather narrow geographic area, Ostrobothnia. Dead mink from 22 farms were submitted for laboratory diagnostics to the Finnish Food Safety Authority (Evira). The carcasses were necropsied and tissue specimens were prepared for histology. Samples of internal organs and peritoneal fluid were cultured bacteriologically. Major pathological findings included hemorrhagic vaginal discharge, severely inflamed uteri with luminal hemorrhagic exudate and dead fetuses. Dead fetuses were present in the peritoneal cavity and associated severe peritonitis occurring as sequela of uterine rupture were found in most minks. Histological findings included hemorrhages, neutrophil infiltrations, degenerative inflammatory cells, edema, fibrin and rod-shaped bacteria on all layers of the uterine wall. In most samples abundant and pure anaerobic bacterial growth of Clostridium limosum was found. This is the first report of C. limosum associated metritis in farmed mink. Disease was only observed in pregnant females and the uterus was the primary site of infection. The source of infection and the route of transmission remained unclear, but feed borne transmission was suspected.

  1. Incidence of egg drop syndrome – 1976 in Namakkal district, Tamil Nadu, India

    P. Suresh


    Full Text Available Aim: To know the magnitude of influence by Egg Drop Syndrome – 1976 (EDS –'76 virus infection in causing drop in egg production in and around Namakkal. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 cloacal swabs and 15 pouch shell glands (uteri homogenates from 15 poultry farms in and around Namakkal area were used for virus isolation. Three numbers of 10 –day- old embryonated duck eggs were used for the inoculation of each suspected material for virus isolation. The isolate was identified by HA property, by specific inhibition of HA and by AGPT using hyperimmune serum raised against reference EDS –'76 virus strain 127. Results: Out of samples from 15 farms only one isolate (6.6% was obtained from poultry farm No.5. Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed that the EDS –'76 virus influence in causing drop in egg production in this area to be minimal. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 350-353

  2. Beta-ecdysone has bone protective but no estrogenic effects in ovariectomized rats.

    Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Christel, David; Kapur, Priya; Nguyen, Ba Tiep; Jarry, Hubertus; Wuttke, Wolfgang


    Estrogens exert beneficial effects in the bone. Their chronic use however bares several risks. Therefore intensive search for non-estrogenic, bone protective compounds is going on. We observed that an extract of Tinospora cordifolia has antiosteoporotic effects and identified 20-OH-Ecdysone (beta-Ecdysone=Ecd) as a possible candidate for this action. Ovariectomized (ovx) rats were treated orally over 3 months with no Ecd (control) or 18, 57 or 121 mg Ecd/day/animal. Estradiol-17beta benzoate (E2) 159 microg/day/animal) fed animals served as positive controls. Bone mineral density (BMD) of tibia was measured by quantitative computer tomography, serum Osteocalcin and CrossLaps were measured in a ligand binding assay. Utilizing an estrogen receptor (ER) containing cytosolic extract of porcine uteri the capability of Ecd to bind to ER was tested. Ecd did not bind to ER. BMD was reduced by more than 50% in the control. In the Ecd animals BMD was dose dependently higher. Serum CrossLaps was lower in the Ecd and E2 group while serum Osteocalcin levels were decreased in the E2 but increased in the Ecd fed animals. Ecd has an antiosteoporotic effect which does not involve activation of ER.

  3. Diplogasteroides asiaticus n. sp. is Associated with Monochamus alternatus in Japan

    Woodruff, Gavin C.; Akiba, Mitsuteru; Maehara, Noritoshi


    Diplogasteroides asiaticus n. sp. is described and illustrated, and its molecular profile and phylogenetic status within the family Diplogastridae are inferred. Morphologically, the new species is characterized by its stomatal structure, a tube-like stoma with three small, rod-like dorsal teeth and two subventral ridges; a spicule clearly ventrally bent at 1/3 from the anterior end; a gubernaculum with a rounded anterior end and sharply pointed distal end in lateral view; nine pairs of genital papillae with an arrangement of ; a short tail spike in males; and a well-developed receptaculum seminis, i.e., the antiparallel blind sacs of the uteri beyond the vulva region and elongated conical tail in females. This new species is morphologically similar to D. haslacheri, but it can be distinguished by the morphology of the somewhat shorter tail in females. D. asiaticus n. sp. shares high sequence conservation with D. andrassyi as there is only one base pair difference in the nearly full-length 18S rDNA and seven base pair differences in the D2-D3 expansion segments of the 28S rDNA. Despite this sequence conservation, the species status of D. asiaticus n. sp. was confirmed using the biological species concept, as D. asiaticus n. sp. and D. andrassyi failed to generate viable F2 progeny in hybridization tests. PMID:26170472

  4. Cancer incidence in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Taiwan: a population-based study.

    Wang, Shiow-Ing; Yaung, Chih-Liang; Lee, Long-Teng; Chiou, Shang-Jyh


    Numerous antinuclear demonstrations reveal that the public is anxious about the potential health effects caused by nuclear power plants. The purpose of this study is to address the question "Is there a higher cancer incidence rate in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Taiwan?" The Taiwan Cancer Registry database from 1979 to 2003 was used to compare the standardized incidence rate of the top four cancers with strong evidence for radiation risks between the "plant-vicinity" with those "non-plant-vicinity" groups. All cancer sites, five-leading cancers in Taiwan, and gender-specific cancers were also studied. We also adopted different observation time to compare the incidence rate of cancers between two groups to explore the impact of the observation period. The incidences of leukemia, thyroid, lung, and breast cancer were not significantly different between two groups, but cervix uteri cancer showed higher incidence rates in the plant-vicinity group. The incidence of cervical cancer was not consistently associated with the duration of plant operation, according to a multiyear period comparison. Although there was higher incidence in cervix cancer in the plant-vicinity group, our findings did not provide the crucial evidence that nuclear power plants were the causal factor for some cancers with strong evidence for radiation risks.


    Seema Khanna


    Full Text Available An unusual cause of vaginal beeding after total abdominal hysterectomy is being reported. Histopathology revealed adenomyosis uteri and bilateral ovarian cyst. On examination there was a single lump in the hypogastrium and left iliac fossa. Auscultation revealed a faint continuous hum. On digital rectal examination, a bulge was felt, while per vaginum examination revealed mucosal congestion and bulging of mucosa. Ultrasound revealed a mass posterior to the urinary bladder. Duplex study demonstrated the yin-yang sign suggestive of a pseudo-aneurysm .CT Angiography was confirmatory and demonstrated a pseudoaneurysm arising from the left internal iliac artery. Patient underwent surgery.Postoperative period was uneventful . The commonest cause of IIA aneurysm is atherosclerosis. Other causes are arteritis ,collagen vascular disease, infection, trauma. An important subgroup is young females, who have undergone difficult delivery, forceps delivery or caesarian section or abdominal hysterectomy IIA aneurysms are usually discovered incidentally on pelvic imaging for any other indication. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment but endovascular procedures are gaining ground . [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(2.000: 181-182

  6. Role of prostaglandins in intrauterine migration of the equine conceptus.

    Stout, T A; Allen, W R


    Between at least day 9 and day 16 after ovulation the spherical equine conceptus migrates continuously throughout the uterine lumen, propelled by peristaltic myometrial contractions. This unusually long period of intrauterine movement ensures that the conceptus delivers its anti-luteolytic signal to the entire endometrium to achieve luteostasis. The present experiment tested the hypothesis that prostaglandins stimulate the myometrial contractions that result in the migration of the conceptus. Serial ultrasonographic examinations of the uteri of eight mares performed during 2 h periods between day 10 and day 18 of gestation recorded the pattern of conceptus migration before and after treatment with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor flunixin meglumine. Conceptus mobility was high between day 10 and day 14 after ovulation (4.3 +/- 0.8, 4.7 +/- 0.8 and 4.3 +/- 0.9 changes of location per h on day 10, day 12 and day 14, respectively), but was reduced immediately and markedly by an i.v. injection of flunixin meglumine (3.8 +/- 1.5, 1.8 +/- 0.8 and 0.7 +/- 0.2 location changes per h), thereby implicating prostaglandins as the primary stimulus for the myometrial contractions that drive migration of the conceptus.

  7. Maternal undernutrition from early- to mid-gestation leads to growth retardation, cardiac ventricular hypertrophy, and increased liver weight in the fetal sheep.

    Vonnahme, Kimberly A; Hess, Bret W; Hansen, Thomas R; McCormick, Richard J; Rule, Daniel C; Moss, Gary E; Murdoch, William J; Nijland, Mark J; Skinner, Donal C; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P


    Early gestation is critical for placentomal growth, differentiation, and vascularization, as well as fetal organogenesis. The fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis proposes that alterations in fetal nutrition and endocrine status result in developmental adaptations that permanently change structure, physiology, and metabolism, thereby predisposing individuals to cardiovascular, metabolic, and endocrine disease in adult life. Multiparous ewes were fed to 50% (nutrient restricted) or 100% (control fed) of total digestible nutrients from Days 28 to 78 of gestation. All ewes were weighed weekly and diets adjusted for individual weight loss or gain. Ewes were killed on Day 78 of gestation and gravid uteri recovered. Fetal body and organ weights were determined, and numbers, morphologies, diameters, and weights of all placentomes were obtained. From Day 28 to Day 78, restricted ewes lost 7.4% of body weight, while control ewes gained 7.5%. Maternal and fetal blood glucose concentrations were reduced in restricted versus control pregnancies. Fetuses were markedly smaller in the restricted group than in the control group. Further, restricted fetuses exhibited greater right- and left-ventricular and liver weights per unit fetal weight than control fetuses. No treatment differences were observed in any gross placentomal measurement. However, caruncular vascularity was enhanced in conceptuses from nutrient-restricted ewes but only in twin pregnancies. While these alterations in fetal/placental development may be beneficial to early fetal survival in the face of a nutrient restriction, their effects later in gestation as well as in postnatal life need further investigation.

  8. The Molecular Mechanisms of Offspring Effects from Obese Pregnancy

    Daniel Dowling


    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity, increased weight gain and the popularity of high-fat / high-sugar diets are seriously impacting upon the global population. Billions of individuals are affected, and although diet and lifestyle are of paramount importance to the development of adult obesity, compelling evidence is emerging which suggests that maternal obesity and related disorders may be passed on to the next generation by non-genetic means. The processes acting within the uteri of obese mothers may permanently predispose offspring to a diverse plethora of diseases ranging from obesity and diabetes to psychiatric disorders. This review aims to summarise some of the molecular mechanisms and active processes currently known about maternal obesity and its effect on foetal and neonatal physiology and metabolism. Complex and multifactorial networks of molecules are intertwined and culminate in a pathologically synergistic manner to cause disruption and disorganisation of foetal physiology. This altered phenotype may potentiate the cycle of intergenerational transmission of obesity and related disorders.

  9. [Effects of hypothalamic microinjections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) on estral cycle and morphology of the genital tract in the female rat (author's transl)].

    Sala, M A; Oteui, J T; Benedetti, W I


    To determine whether central catecholaminergic pathways are involved in the neural contral of gonadotrophin secretion, they were interrupted at the hypothalamic level by microinjections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). The effects on ovulation, estral cycle and ovarian and uterine histology were studied. Microinjections of 50 mug of 6-OHDA hydrobromyde were made bilaterally into the anterolateral hypothalamus in a group of rats. Another group was injected with 25 mug of 6-OHDA, while a control group recieved an equivalent volume (5 mul) of saline with ascorbic acid. Animals injected with 50 mug of 6-OHDA showed blockade of ovulation, vaginal cytology characteristics of persistent estrous, polyfollicular ovaries and enlarged uteri with hypertrophic endometrial glands. In the group injected with 25 mug, similiar effects were demonstrated, but the number of affected animals was smaller than that in the 50 mug group. Control animals dit not show modifications, either in estral cycle or in ovarian and uterine histology. These results suggest that 6-OHDA injected into the anterolateral hypothalmus interferes with catecholaminergic pathways that participate in the neural control of ovulation.

  10. Impaired receptivity and decidualization in DHEA-induced PCOS mice

    Li, Shu-Yun; Song, Zhuo; Song, Min-Jie; Qin, Jia-Wen; Zhao, Meng-Long; Yang, Zeng-Ming


    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a complex endocrine disorder, is a leading cause of female infertility. An obvious reason for infertility in PCOS women is anovulation. However, success rate with high quality embryos selected by assisted reproduction techniques in PCOS patients still remain low with a high rate of early clinical pregnancy loss, suggesting a problem in uterine receptivity. Using a dehydroepiandrosterone-induced mouse model of PCOS, some potential causes of decreased fertility in PCOS patients were explored. In our study, ovulation problem also causes sterility in PCOS mice. After blastocysts from normal mice are transferred into uterine lumen of pseudopregnant PCOS mice, the rate of embryo implantation was reduced. In PCOS mouse uteri, the implantation-related genes are also dysregulated. Additionally, artificial decidualization is severely impaired in PCOS mice. The serum estrogen level is significantly higher in PCOS mice than vehicle control. The high level of estrogen and potentially impaired LIF-STAT3 pathway may lead to embryo implantation failure in PCOS mice. Although there are many studies about effects of PCOS on endometrium, both embryo transfer and artificial decidualization are applied to exclude the effects from ovulation and embryos in our study. PMID:27924832

  11. Helmintos parasitos das espécies Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier e Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill do litoral cearense: Contracaecum fortalezae sp. n. (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea

    Vera Lucia M. Klein


    Full Text Available De nematódeos encontrados parasitando estômago, intestinos delgado e grosso de Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuv. e Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitch. o autor propões para o gênero Contracaecum Railliet et Henry, 1912 uma nova espécie, C. fortalezae sp. n., que mais se aproxima de C. clavatum (Rud., 1809 Baylis, 1920 dela se diferenciando por possuir espículos desiguais, um curto ovejetor, útero opistodelfo, ovos menores e por apresentar em todos exemplares estudados ceco intestinal curto e ceco esofagiano longo.In this paper the author proposes a new species of the genus Contracaecum Railliet et Henry, 1912. Of the species under Contracaecum, Contracaecum clavatum (Rudolphi, 1809 Baylis, 1920 is the nearest to Contracaecum fortalezae sp. n. differing from the latter by the following aspects: The males have unequal spicules. The females have a short ovijector and parallel uteri directed backward and the eggs are smaller. In both sexes the intestinal cecum is always short and the ventricular posterior appendix is always long, while Contracaecum clavatum presents these structures in an inverse way, considering the lenght of them. Besides, the thorn-like formations at the posterior end of the body are different.


    Matheus Castro Franco


    Full Text Available The ovine cervix is irregularly shaped, making it a challenge to pass through it during artificial insemination. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the morphological characteristics of the cervix of Santa Ines breed, comparing the phases of the estrous cycle. A total of 112 uteri were collected from non-pregnant ewes and silicone was injected into the lumen of the cervix in order to obtain a cast of the cervical canal. Mean length of the cervix was 41.33 ± 16.38 mm and the most frequent cervical ostium type found was the duck-beak (46%. Two rings were the minimum and seven were the maximum found in the cervix, with means of 4.70 ± 1.05 rings. Morphometric data from each cervical ring indicates that the inner circumference tapers in the middle portion and then becomes to enlarge again. No significant difference (p> 0.05 was found when comparing the luteal and follicular phases, or the types of cervix regarding to the values of the diameter of the folds, height, inside circumference, midpoint between the folds and distance from the opening to the folds. Under the studied conditions, we concluded that the development of semen applicator should take into account the morphometric limits found, although the morphology and morphometry of the ovine cervix is quite varied, with no standard patterns for the species, even when comparing the luteal and follicular phases.

  13. Radiosensitizing effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on endometrial cancer cells in vitro

    Huber, H.; Husslein, P.; Michalica, W.; Wagenbichler, P.


    From clinical experience it is known that medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) can increase the radiosensitivity of adenocarcinomas of the corpus uteri. This study investigates this phenomenon in vitro. Primary explants of highly differentiated adenocarcinomas were irradiated with or without pretreatment with MPA and compared with an untreated control group and to a group treated with MPA only. Cell culture itself was performed on an agarose medium in order to prevent overgrowth by fibroblasts. Untreated samples formed 43 +/- 5 clones, explants treated with MPA only produced 39 +/- 5 clones, a difference which was not statistically different; samples irradiated without pretreatment produced 16 +/- 8 and samples after combined treatment 9 +/- 3 clones (all values means +/- SD). This numeric reduction of cell growth through preirradiation treatment with MPA was statistically significant. The effect of MPA as a radiosensitizer may be due to its potential to prolong the radiosensitive G2 phase of the cell cycle. This effect of MPA may be useful also in other hormone-dependent tumors.

  14. Cure of cancer for seven cancer sites in the Flemish Region.

    Silversmit, Geert; Jegou, David; Vaes, Evelien; Van Hoof, Elke; Goetghebeur, Els; Van Eycken, Liesbet


    Cumulative relative survival curves for many cancers reach a plateau several years after diagnosis, indicating that the cancer survivor group has reached "statistical" cure. Parametric mixture cure model analysis on grouped relative survival curves provide an interesting way to determine the proportion of statistically cured cases and the mean survival time of the fatal cases in particular for population-based cancer registries. Based on the relative survival data from the Belgian Cancer Registry, parametric cure models were applied to seven cancer sites (cervix, colon, corpus uteri, skin melanoma, pancreas, stomach and oesophagus), at the Flemish Regional level for the incidence period 1999-2011. Statistical cure was observed for the examined cancer sites except for oesophageal cancer. The estimated cured proportion ranged from 5.9% [5.7, 6.1] for pancreatic cancer to 80.8% [80.5, 81.2] for skin melanoma. Cure results were further stratified by gender or age group. Stratified cured proportions were higher for females compared to males in colon cancer, stomach cancer, pancreas cancer and skin melanoma, which can mainly be attributed to differences in stage and age distribution between both sexes. This study demonstrates the applicability of cure rate models for the selected cancer sites after 14 years of follow-up and presents the first population-based results on the cure of cancer in Belgium. © 2016 UICC.

  15. [Changes in the innervation of the uterus during pregnancy and following parturition. Histochemical and electron microscopic observations in rat and humans].

    Yamada, M


    A histochemical, electronmicroscopic study was made of time changes in uterine nerves during and after pregnancy in rats. Uterine observations in pregnant humans were also conducted with the following results. 1. Except at the oviductal end, the catecholamine (CA) fluorescence of adrenergic nerves distributed in the uterine horn myometrium begins to decrease around the implantation sites, and this spreads peripherally until most of the fluorescence in the uterine horns, including the mesometrium, disappears directly after parturition. 2. In lactating rats, fluorescence is almost completely restored by 1 month after parturition. But in non-lactating rats, recovery of fluorescence after parturition is delayed about 3 months. 3. The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in rat uterine cholinergic nerves clearly decreased during pregnancy. 4. In the early, middle and late periods of pregnancy, axonal swelling, agglutination of axonal cytoplasm and mitochondrial breakdown were observed, but no marked degeneration appeared in virgin rat uteri. 5. In humans, there was a sporadic distribution of adrenergic nerves in the uterine body myometrium, but fluorescent fibers were present in the terminal period of pregnancy. These results suggest that rat uterine nerves, especially most adrenergic nerves, degenerate and regenerate throughout pregnancy, parturition and puerperium. Apparently a localized humoral factor from the placenta and systemic endocrine environment affected by lactation or non-lactation is involved in the process.

  16. Progestogen-related gross and microscopic changes in female Beagles.

    Nelson, L W; Kelly, W A


    Long-term studies of megestrol acetate and chlormadinone acetate in 100 female dogs are in progress. Doses of zero, one, 10 and 25 times the expected human dose of megestrol acetate and 25 times the expected human dose of chlormadinone acetate (on a milligram per kilogram body weight basis) are being given daily. During the first 4 years, eight dogs from each of the five groups were killed. The principal gross findings included enlarged uteri with mucoid material in the lumina, mammary development in dogs given middle and high doses of megestrol acetate and chlormadinone acetate, and thickened gallbladder walls in dogs given high doses of each. Histologic evaluation showed inhibition of ovulation for progestogen-treated dogs and suppression of ovarian follicular development with the high doses. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia was slight in the low-dose dogs and moderate to severe in most of the high-dose dogs; a few also had ulcerative endometritis and pyometra. The mammary glands of dogs given the middle and high doses produced lobules, acini, and secretion exceeding natural metestrus. Slight to marked cystic mucinous hyperplasia occurred in the gallbladders of most dogs given the high doses. Tow high-dose megestrol dogs had clinical signs and microscopic pancreatic, renal, and ocular changes indicative of diabetes mellitus.

  17. 分析探讨阴式超声弹性成像技术对宫颈癌的诊断价值%Diagnostic value of transvaginal ultrasonic elastography technology for cervical cancer

    李岩松; 李艳梅; 李倩倩


    Objective To analyze diagnostic value of transvaginal ultrasonic elastography technology for cervical cancer.Methods There were 184 gynecologic patients as study subjects, and they all received transvaginal ultrasonic elastography technology for diagnosis. Their diagnostic results were summarized for comparison between pathological examination results.Results The ultrasonic elastography scores of normal cervix uteri, cervical intraepithelial neoplasias, and cervical benign lesions were all less than 3 points, and the score of cervical cancer was more than 4 points. The accordance rate of transvaginal ultrasonic elastography technology was 84.4% in diagnosis of cervical cancer, and that of two-dimensional ultrasonography was 59.4%. The difference had statistical significance (P0.05), while the difference with cervical cancer had statistical significance (P0.05),但与宫颈癌比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论阴式超声弹性成像技术能够比较准确的诊断宫颈癌,具有非常高的诊断价值,可作为宫颈癌的筛查手段,值得在临床上推广。

  18. The pattern of attendance at general practice in the years before the diagnosis of cervical cancer. A case control study.

    Olesen, F


    The study concerned a nation-wide Danish investigation of 519 women who received the diagnosis of cancer of the cervix uteri in 1983. Data on doctor-contact patterns during the single year, and for the 3 years pre-diagnosis were obtained on 428 of the women (82%), and a comparison was made with an age- and practice-matched control group. Significantly more patients than controls had had no doctor contact, and their odds rate for cancer development was higher than that of the patients who had had at least one contact with their general practitioner during the previous one or three years. Those patients with more advanced stages of cancer, those who had never had a cytological examination, and those living in counties without organized screening programmes were in general the ones with fewest doctor-contacts, and the odds rates for cancer development among the no-contact patients were highest in these groups. No doctor-contact was more common among patients living in counties without organized screening programmes, and these women represented a relatively higher risk group than those living in counties with organized screening. More women are thus caught in the organized screening net, compared with unsystematized screening. The findings support systematic rather than opportunistic unsystematic screening for cancer of the cervix.

  19. Cervical poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with dominant choriocarcinomatous pattern: A case report

    Nikolić Branka


    Full Text Available Introduction. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN, choriocarcinoma in coexistence with primary cervical adenocarcinoma, is a rare event not easy to diagnose. Choriocarcinoma is a malignant form of GTN but curable if metastases do not appear early and spread fast. Case report. We presented choriocarcinoma in coexistence with primary cervical adenocarcinoma in a 48-year-old patient who had radical hysterectomy because of confirmed cervical carcinoma (Dg: Carcinoma porto vaginalis uteri FIGO st I B1. Histological findings confirmed cervical choriocarcinoma with extensive vascular invasion and apoptosis but GTN choriocarcinoma was finally confirmed after immunohystochemical examinations. Preoperative serum human gonadotropine (beta hCG level stayed unknown. This patient did not have any pregnancy-like symptoms before the operation. The first beta hCG monitoring was done two months after the operation and found negative. According to the final diagnosis the decision of Consilium for Malignant Diseases was that this patient needed serum hCG monitoring as well as treatment with chemotherapy for high-risk GTN and consequent irradiation for adenocarcinoma. Conclusion. The early and proper diagnosis of nonmetastatic choriocarcinoma of nongestational origine in coexistence with cervical carcinoma is curable and can have good prognosis.

  20. Partial regeneration and reconstruction of the rat uterus through recellularization of a decellularized uterine matrix.

    Miyazaki, Kaoru; Maruyama, Tetsuo


    Despite dramatic progress in infertility treatments and assisted reproduction, no effective therapies exist for complete loss of uterine structure and/or function. For such patients, genetic motherhood is possible only through gestational surrogacy or uterine transplantation. However, many ethical, social, technical and safety challenges accompany such approaches. A theoretical alternative is to generate a bioartificial uterus, which requires engineering of uterine architecture and appropriate cellular constituents. Here, rat uteri decellularization by aortic perfusion with detergents produced an underlying extracellular matrix together with an acellular, perfusable vascular architecture. Uterine-like tissues were then regenerated and maintained in vitro for up to 10 d through decellularized uterine matrix (DUM) reseeding with adult and neonatal rat uterine cells and rat mesenchymal stem cells followed by aortic perfusion in a bioreactor. Furthermore, DUM placement onto a partially excised uterus yielded recellularization and regeneration of uterine tissues and achievement of pregnancy nearly comparable to the intact uterus. These results suggest that DUM could be used for uterine regeneration, and provides insights into treatments for uterine factor infertility.

  1. Embryonation and infectivity of Ascaris suum eggs isolated from worms expelled by pigs treated with albendazole , pyrantel pamoate, ivermectin or piperazine dihydrochloride.

    Boes, J; Eriksen, L; Nansen, P


    The effect of anthelmintic treatment of pigs on the embryonation and infectivity of Ascaris suum eggs isolated from expelled worms was investigated. Four groups of two naturally infected pigs were dosed with albendazole, pyrantel pamoate, ivermectin or piperazine dihydrochloride, respectively. Following worm expulsion, the eggs were removed from the uteri of female worms and embryonated in sulphuric acid. The infectivity of the embryonated eggs was tested through mouse inoculation. Egg development appeared normal in cultures from worms of the piperazine. pyrantel and ivermectin treated groups. In the albendazole cultures, egg development was largely arrested at the one-cell stage (81%). Where development occurred, irregular cell division was observed and only 7% of the eggs in the culture developed into fullgrown larvae. Following mouse inoculation with 2500 embryonated eggs, significantly lower lung larval counts on day 8 post inoculation (p.i.) were observed for mice in the piperazine and pyrantel treated groups (P eggs from ivermectin and albendazole treated groups appeared fully infective for mice. It was concluded that ovicidal activity of albendazole in vivo inhibits subsequent A. suum egg development in vitro; albendazole is, therefore, not suitable to obtain worms for egg embryonation to produce experimental inoculums. The anthelmintic treatment of pigs with ivermectin had only a limited effect on both embryonation and infectivity of A. suum eggs isolated from expelled worms.

  2. Influence of hyaluronan on endometrial receptivity and embryo attachment in sheep.

    Marei, Waleed F A; Wathes, D Claire; Raheem, Kabir A; Mohey-Elsaeed, Omnia; Ghafari, Fataneh; Fouladi-Nashta, Ali A


    An increasing number of reports suggests a role of hyaluronan (HA) in female reproduction and interest in its application in assisted reproduction is rising. However, there are contrasting data about the effectiveness of adding HA to the embryo-transfer medium on improving pregnancy rates. Using sheep as an experimental model, the studies reported here analysed the impact of HA infusion into the uterus on embryo attachment to uterine luminal epithelium (LE) and expression of selected markers of uterine receptivity. On Day 14 after natural mating (pre-attachment), uterine horns were infused with either (n=4 each): PBS (control), HA (1mg mL-1), HA+hyaluronidase 2 (Hyal2; 300IU mL-1) or 4-methyl-umbelliferone (HA-synthesis inhibitor; 4MU, 1mM). HA immunostaining on uterine sections collected on Day 17 was negative in the 4MU group and weak in the HA+Hyal2 group. In contrast to 4MU, which resulted in 100% attachment, HA infusion blocked embryo attachment in all treated animals. This was accompanied by the disappearance of mucin 1 and increased expression of osteopontin and CD44v6 in the LE of uteri with attached embryos. In conclusion, the presence of HA at the embryo-maternal interface during embryo implantation resulted in reduced endometrial receptivity and inhibited the interaction of trophoblasts with the LE, whereas clearance of HA favoured embryo attachment.

  3. Using vaginal cytology to assess the estrogenic activity of phytoestrogen-rich herb.

    Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Chansri, Kullakanya; Kijkuokul, Pisamai; Urasopon, Nontakorn; Cherdshewasart, Wichai


    To assess the estrogenic activities of synthetic estrogen, synthetic phytoestrogen, Pueraria lobata and three distinct cultivars of Pueraria mirifica, a phytoestrogen-rich herb, a vaginal cytology assay in ovariectomized rats were used. Rats were ovariectomized and treated with DW, estradiol valerate (1 mg/kg BW), genistein (0.25-2.5 mg/kg BW), Pueraria lobata and Pueraria mirifica (10-1,000 mg/kg BW) for 14 days. The vaginal cytology was checked daily and the uteri were dissected and weighed at the end of treatment or post-treatment periods. The treatments of DW, genistein and Pueraria lobata did not influence the vaginal epithelium, but the injection of estradiol valerate induced a vaginal cornification from day-3 of treatment to day-14 of post-treatment period. The occurrence of vaginal cornification after treatment and the recovery after the cessation was dependent on dosages and cultivars of Pueraria mirifica. The increments of uterus weight in all rats agreed with the cornification of vaginal epithelium. Although both uterotropic and vaginal cytology assays can be used to assess the estrogenic activity of phytoestrogen-rich herb, however, using vaginal cytology assay has two advantages: (1) we do not need to kill the animals and (2) we can follow up the recovery after the cessation of treatment.

  4. The co-effect of Cordyceps sinensis and strontium on osteoporosis in ovariectomized osteopenic rats.

    Qi, Wei; Yan, Ya-Bo; Wang, Pu-Jie; Lei, Wei


    The co-effect of Cordyceps sinensi (CS; caterpillar fungus) and strontium on ovariectomized osteopenic rats was studied in this paper. After the rats were treated orally with CS, strontium (SR), and CS rich in strontium (CSS), respectively, the urine calcium, plasma calcium, plasma phosphorus, bone mineral content, mechanical testing, and the mass of uterus, thymus, and body were examined. Both CSS and SR have a positive effect on mechanical strength and mineral content of ovariectomized osteopenic rats. However, femoral neck strength in the CSS-treated group was higher than those in the SR-treated groups. CSS and SR significantly decreased urinary calcium excretion and plasma total calcium and inorganic phosphate concentrations. On the contrary, CS and CSS significantly increased weights of atrophic uteri and weights of body and also decreased the thymus mass in animals, whereas SR did not exhibit any such effects. Our experiments have demonstrated that CSS possess a preferable effect against the decrease of bone strength and bone mineral mass caused by osteoporosis. It was caused by the co-effect of CS and strontium. The mechanism of it includes decreases bone resorption, increases bone formation, increases in body weight, and enhances 17β-estradiol-producing as well as enhancing the immune functions in animals. The data provide an important proof of concept that CSS might be a new potential therapy for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis in humans.

  5. Novel, low cost, highly effective, handmade steroid pellets for experimental studies.

    Ana Sahores

    Full Text Available The basic component of Silastic® glue (Dow Corning used to prepare Silastic® pellets is polydimethylsiloxane. This compound is also present in other commercial adhesives such as FASTIX® (Akapol SA that are available in any store for that category. In the present study we developed low cost, easy to prepare handmade steroid pellets (HMSP by mixing 17β-estradiol, progesterone or other synthetic steroids with FASTIX® adhesive. We assessed serum levels of 17β-estradiol, progesterone, prolactin and luteinizing hormone in ovariectomized mice treated for 24 and 48 h or 7, 14 and 28 days with 20 µg or 5 mg of 17β-estradiol or 5 mg progesterone HMSP. We found a time dependent and significant increase in the levels of both natural hormones, and a downregulation of serum luteinizing hormone levels, while both 17β-estradiol doses increased serum prolactin. Uterine weights at sacrifice and histological examination of the uteri and the mammary glands correlated with estrogen or progestin action. Finally, we evaluated the biological effects of HMSP compared to commercial pellets or daily injections in the stimulation or inhibition of hormone dependent mammary tumor growth, and found that HMSP were as effective as the other methods of hormone administration. These data show that HMSP represent a useful, low cost, easily accessible method for administering steroids to mice.

  6. on uterus didelphys: a case report

    Abel Cordoba


    Full Text Available In November 2013, a woman with Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW syndrome was diagnosed with a locally advanced left cervical adenocarcinoma. The patient’s malformation consisted of two uteri with two cervixes, a obstructed vagina, and a left renal agenesis. Classification FIGO: stage IIIa because of infiltration of the inferior third of the vagina wall. Locoregional management comprised an infrarenal lateral aortic lymphadenectomy followed by concomitant radio-chemotherapy to the pelvic (inguinal, pelvic, and infrarenal para aortic nodes volumes. A total of 50.4 Gy were delivered (1.8 Gy/fraction/day to the node (inguinal, pelvic, and aortic infrarenal and pelvic volume; a concomitant boost to the primary cervical tumor and macroscopic nodes to 59.92 Gy (2.14 Gy/fraction/day was performed. 20 Gy were delivered with intracavitary brachytherapy boost with mold technique and a pulsed-dose-rate technique due to the rarity of this uterine malformation. After 30 months of follow-up, there was no evidence of locoregional or distant recurrence.




    Full Text Available A 29 year old unmarried woman with primary amenorrhea consulted her doctor. On further questioning the patient complained of monthly cyclical severe pain abdomen for 2-3 days which was relieved only after administration of injectable pain killers like tramadol. She also gave history of vaginoplasty done 8 years back. On examination the patient was of thin built and her secondary sexual characters were well developed. Her per abdominal examination was normal. On per vaginal examination cervix and uterus was not felt and vaginal length was 3 cm. On per rectal examination also uterus was not felt. She was sent for ultrasound examination that showed two separate uteri with fundus and body but no cervix, both ovaries were present. After routine work up and investigations patient was put up for laparotomy, right sided hysterectomy with salpingo-oophorectomy and left sided hysterectomy with removal of fallopian tube done while left ovary was preserved. Thus, a rarest anomaly of mullerian system was reveled and managed leading to freedom of patient of her monthly cyclical severe abdominal pain.

  8. Intrauterine administration of CDB-2914 (Ulipristal) suppresses the endometrium of rhesus macaques

    Brenner, Robert M.; Slayden, Ov D.; Nath, Anita; Tsong, YY; Sitruk-Ware, Regine


    Background Ulipristal (CDB-2914; UPA) is a progesterone receptor modulator with contraceptive potential. To test its effects when delivered by an intrauterine system (IUS), we prepared control and UPA-filled IUS and evaluated their effects in rhesus macaques. Study Design Short lengths of Silastic tubing either empty (n=3), or containing UPA (n=5), were inserted into the uteri of 8 ovariectomized macaques. Animals were cycled by sequential treatment with estradiol and progesterone. After 3.5 cycles, the uterus was removed. Results During treatment, animals with an empty IUS menstruated for a mean total of 11.66 ± 0.88 days while UPA-IUS treated animals bled for only 1 ± 0.45 days. Indices of endometrial proliferation were significantly reduced by UPA-IUS treatment. The UPA exposed endometria were atrophied with some glandular cysts while the blank controls displayed a proliferative morphology without cysts. Androgen receptors were more intensely stained in the glands of the UPA-IUS treated endometria than in the blank-IUS treated controls. Conclusions In rhesus macaques, a UPA-IUS induced endometrial atrophy and amenorrhea. The work provides proof of principle that an IUS can deliver effective intrauterine concentrations of Ulipristal. PMID:20227552

  9. [Ultrasonic observation on early pregnancy in patients using IUD].

    Han, Z M


    The paper is a report of ultrasonic examinations of IUD positions in women who became pregnant with IUD in situ. 61 pregnant women aged 23 to 41 wearing stainless steel single ring IUD were examined between 1983 and 1985. The duration between the IUD insertion and pregnancy of these women ranged from one month to 5 years with 67.2% under 1 year. This indicated that the first year after IUD insertion is a critical period for method failure. Extra care should be taken in the follow-up of insertion. Among the cases studied, the IUD position of 42 women was below the embryo in the uterine cavity, including some around the cervix. The position change of IUD apparently lost its contraceptive effect. The declined position of IUD in the uterus could be associated with the skill of inserter, and the compatibility of the shape and the size of IUD with the uterine cavity. It was suggested that both the length and width of uterine cavity should be measured before the insertion, and IUD's of all sizes should be made available in the clinics where the insertions are conducted. IUD different shapes should also be kept too fit those women with irregularly shaped uteri.

  10. Conservative correction of uterine anomalies in cases of congenital and posttraumatic infertility.

    Danezis, J; Soumplis, A; Papathanassiou, Z


    Uterine anomalies are due either to primary congenital malformations, or to secondary traumatic lesions of the intrauterine cavity as well as to pathology of the endometrium. The latter two etiologic factors create difficulties in the correct diagnosis of a congenital malformation and despite the convincing hysterosalpingographic findings a false diagnosis of a congenital malformation and despite the convincing hysterosalpingographic findings a false diagnosis is frequent. On the other hand the various degrees of uterine anomalies cannot always convince the gynecologist to undertake a plastic operation where the results for future fertility are doubtful. In our experience the extensive beneficial use of a variety of selected IUDs for the correction of intrauterine lesions also resulted in the correction of the size and shape of the uteri, previously diagnosed as malformed. The preliminary results of treatment in 110 cases of uterine anomalies after the application of a selected IUD combined with the administration of high doses of gestagens, showed an overall satisfactory improvement or complete reconstruction to a normal uterus in 86 (78%) of the cases. Higher fertility rate, better pregnancy outcome, correct diagnosis of the existing malformation, and safer decisions for further correction have also been attributed to the beneficial effects of the above treatment.

  11. Developmental toxicity following oral administration of a high-boiling coal liquid to pregnant rats

    Hackett, P.L.; Rommereim, D.N.; Sikov, M.R.


    Heavy distillate (HD), the highest-boiling coal liquid from the solvent-refined coal-II process (SRC-II), was administered by intragastric (IG) intubation to pregnant rats. Five dose levels of HD (0.09, 0.14, 0.18, 0.36 and 0.74 g kg/sup -1/), were given daily from 12 to 16 days of gestation and the rats were killed at 20 days of gestation. Maternal body weights and weights of the liver, kidneys, spleen, adrenals, thymus, ovaries and the gravid uterus were obtained. Gravid uteri were evaluated for prenatal mortality. Live fetuses were examined for malformations and weighed; fetal lungs were excised and weighed. Maternal (extragestational) weight gains and thymic weights diminished in all groups that received the SRC material. Adrenal weights were increased in all treated animals, except for those in the lowest-dose group (0.9 g kg/sup -1/). There was significant maternal mortality at 0.74 g kg/sup -1/ and increased intrauterine mortality at doses of 0.37 and 0.74 g kg/sup -1/. Placental weight was depressed, and the incidence of fetal anomalies was increased at 0.14 g kg/sup -1/ and all higher dose levels. 19 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  12. A new species of Serpentirhabdias Tkach, Kuzmin & Snyder, 2014 (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) parasitic in the brown ground snake Atractus major Boulenger (Reptilia: Serpentes: Dipsadidae) in Brazil.

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento


    Serpentirhabdias atracti n. sp. is described based on specimens discovered in the lung of Atractus major Boulenger from Caxiuanã National Forest, Pará, Brazil. The new species is assigned to Serpentirhabdias Tkach, Kuzmin & Snyder, 2014 based on morphological characters (comparatively thin body cuticle without prominent inflations, arrangement of circumoral papillae in two lateral groups, pre-equatorial position of vulva, eggs in uteri at early cleavage stages), as well as because of its parasitism in snakes. The new species is most similar to S. vellardi (Pereira, 1928) due to the absence of lips and buccal capsule, similar body dimensions, and the specificity to dipsadid snakes in Brazil. The two species differ in the shape of the tail (bulbous dilatation in the posterior part followed by a thread-like tail tip present in S. atracti n. sp.), the width of the oesophagus, and the size of the excretory glands. Serpentirhabdias atracti n. sp. is the sixth species of this genus found in the Neotropical Region.

  13. The behavioural and genetic mating system of the sand tiger shark, Carcharias taurus, an intrauterine cannibal.

    Chapman, Demian D; Wintner, Sabine P; Abercrombie, Debra L; Ashe, Jimiane; Bernard, Andrea M; Shivji, Mahmood S; Feldheim, Kevin A


    Sand tiger sharks (Carcharias taurus) have an unusual mode of reproduction, whereby the first embryos in each of the paired uteri to reach a certain size ('hatchlings') consume all of their smaller siblings during gestation ('embryonic cannibalism' or EC). If females commonly mate with multiple males ('behavioural polyandry') then litters could initially have multiple sires. It is possible, however, that EC could exclude of all but one of these sires from producing offspring thus influencing the species genetic mating system ('genetic monogamy'). Here, we use microsatellite DNA profiling of mothers and their litters (n = 15, from two to nine embryos per litter) to quantify the frequency of behavioural and genetic polyandry in this system. We conservatively estimate that nine of the females we examined (60%) were behaviourally polyandrous. The genetic mating system was characterized by assessing sibling relationships between hatchlings and revealed only 40 per cent genetic polyandry (i.e. hatchlings were full siblings in 60% of litters). The discrepancy stemmed from three females that were initially fertilized by multiple males but only produced hatchlings with one of them. This reveals that males can be excluded even after fertilizing ova and that some instances of genetic monogamy in this population arise from the reduction in litter size by EC. More research is needed on how cryptic post-copulatory and post-zygotic processes contribute to determining paternity and bridging the behavioural and genetic mating systems of viviparous species.

  14. Tissue-specific expression, hormonal regulation and 5'-flanking gene region of the rat Clara cell 10 kDa protein: comparison to rabbit uteroglobin.

    Hagen, G; Wolf, M; Katyal, S L; Singh, G; Beato, M; Suske, G


    The amino acid sequence of rat Clara Cell 10 kDa secretory protein (CC10) shows 55% identity to rabbit uteroglobin. In order to define the relationship between rat CC10 and rabbit uteroglobin in detail, the tissue-specific expression and hormonal regulation of rat CC10 mRNA was analyzed. We report that like rabbit uteroglobin, rat CC10 mRNA is expressed in lung and esophagus, as well as in uteri of estrogen- and progesterone-treated females. Expression of CC10 mRNA in lung is regulated by glucocorticoids. The similarity in expression pattern of rat CC10 mRNA and rabbit uteroglobin mRNA is reflected by a striking similarity in the 5'-flanking regions of the two genes. Despite this overall similarity, two regions of 0.3 kb and 2.1 kb are absent in the rat CC10 upstream gene region. The larger region includes a cluster of hormone receptor binding sites, believed to be responsible for differential regulation of rabbit uteroglobin by glucocorticoids and progesterone. Thus, while the sequence identities in the coding and 5'-flanking regions point towards a common ancestor for the uteroglobin and CC10 gene, later events (deletions/insertions) might have caused species-specific differences in their regulation. Images PMID:2349092

  15. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix

    Li B


    Full Text Available Bo Li,1 Ling Ouyang,1 Xue Han,1 Yang Zhou,1 Xin Tong,1 Shulang Zhang,1 Qingfu Zhang21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, 2Department of Pathology, the First Affiliated Hospital and College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs are rare and high-grade malignant tumors that mostly occur in children and young adults. The most common sites are the trunk, limbs, and retroperitoneum. Herein, we present a case of a PNET involving the cervix uteri in a 27-year-old woman. The lesion showed characteristic histologic features of a PNET and was positive for the immunohistochemical markers cluster of differentiation (CD 99, vimentin, neuron-specific enolase, neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (CD56, and CD117 (c-kit, further defining the tumor while helping to confirm PNET. The clinical Stage IIIB tumor was treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy.Keywords: primitive neuroectodermal tumor, PNET, cervical neoplasm, immunohistochemistry

  16. Composite uterine neoplasm with embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor components: rhabdomyosarcoma with divergent differentiation, variant of primitive neuroectodermal tumor, or unique entity?

    Cate, Frances; Bridge, Julia A; Crispens, Marta A; Keedy, Vicki L; Troutman, Ashley; Coffin, Cheryl M; Fadare, Oluwole


    Three cases of composite uterine neoplasms comprised of primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) and rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) have previously been described, including only one wherein the rhabdomyosarcomatous component was of the embryonal subtype. Whether such composite neoplasms are a variant of RMS, a variant of PNET, or a unique entity is unknown. We report the clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular cytogenetic findings in a case of uterine embryonal RMS with coexisting PNET that was diagnosed in a 25-year-old female. The tumor broadly involved the cervix and corpus uteri and resulted in uterine inversion. The 2 distinct components each showed classic morphologic features, including cartilage in the RMS component. The unique combination of histologic, immunohistochemical and molecular findings in composite neoplasms of this type raises a question of whether they should be classified and treated as RMS, PNET, or a unique high-grade sarcoma. A variety of clinicopathologic arguments are presented that support the notion that the current neoplasm is an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma with divergent neuroectodermal and cartilaginous differentiation.

  17. Determinants of rupture of the unscarred uterus and the related feto-maternal outcome: current scenario in a low-income country.

    Batra, Kanika; Gaikwad, Harsha S; Gutgutia, Isha; Prateek, Shashi; Bajaj, Bindu


    Rupture of the gravid uterus is one of the most grievous obstetric events accounting for considerable maternal morbidity and mortality. An audit over a period of 2 years from October 2010 to September 2012 was performed on pregnant women irrespective of gestational age who had a uterine rupture of a uterus, presumed to be unscarred. There were 141 ruptures among 43,886 deliveries (0.3%). Of those, 18 (12.8% of the ruptures and 0.04% of the deliveries) occurred in presumed unscarred uteri. The aetiologies were: obstruction 50%, uterine anomaly 22.2%, oxytocic administration 16.6 %, instrumental deliveries 5.5% and miscellaneous 11.1 %. Hysterectomy was performed in 55.6% of cases. Fetal mortality was 83.3% and maternal mortality was 16.6%. Training of traditional birth attendants for early referrals, screening for uterine anomalies by ultrasound in early pregnancy and counselling the women, especially multiparas and grand-multiparas are mandatory. Oxytocin should only be used for those if the doctor who prescribed its use stays with the patient continuously and stops oxytocics as soon as there are reasonable contractions. In emergency, the decision to delivery time should be less than 30 min. These are some ways through which a tragic event like uterine rupture and its consequences can be averted. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Free-living nematode species (Nematoda) dwelling in hydrothermal sites of the North Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Tchesunov, Alexei V.


    Morphological descriptions of seven free-living nematode species from hydrothermal sites of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are presented. Four of them are new for science: Paracanthonchus olgae sp. n. (Chromadorida, Cyatholaimidae), Prochromadora helenae sp. n. (Chromadorida, Chromadoridae), Prochaetosoma ventriverruca sp. n. (Desmodorida, Draconematidae) and Leptolaimus hydrothermalis sp. n. (Plectida, Leptolaimidae). Two species have been previously recorded in hydrothermal habitats, and one species is recorded for the first time in such an environment. Oncholaimus scanicus (Enoplida, Oncholaimidae) was formerly known from only the type locality in non-hydrothermal shallow milieu of the Norway Sea. O. scanicus is a very abundant species in Menez Gwen, Lucky Strike and Lost City hydrothermal sites, and population of the last locality differs from other two in some morphometric characteristics. Desmodora marci (Desmodorida, Desmodoridae) was previously known from other remote deep-sea hydrothermal localities in south-western and north-eastern Pacific. Halomonhystera vandoverae (Monhysterida, Monhysteridae) was described and repeatedly found in mass in Snake Pit hydrothermal site. The whole hydrothermal nematode assemblages are featured by low diversity in comparison with either shelf or deep-sea non-hydrothermal communities. The nematode species list of the Atlantic hydrothermal vents consists of representatives of common shallow-water genera; the new species are also related to some shelf species. On the average, the hydrothermal species differ from those of slope and abyssal plains of comparable depths by larger sizes, diversity of buccal structures, presence of food content in the gut and ripe eggs in uteri.

  19. Embryo implantation: A time for recalling and forwarding

    CHEN Qi; PENG HongYing; ZHANG Ying; LEI Li; CAO YuJing; Duan EnKui


    The success of embryo implantation is a critical step towards further embryo development and pregnancy outcome.The observations and investigations on embryo implantation have been over a century.A huge body of knowledge has been accumulated in anatomy,histology,ultrastructure and hormonal regulation; as well as recently in depth information about molecular signaling pathways got from studies of genomic wide gene screening and specific gene deletion.The knowledge from basic research has also substantially helped to initiate and improve the Artificial Reproductive Technology (ART) in clinical applications.Now we've known that the normal embryo implantation involves the embryo's development into an implantation-competent blastocyst and the synchronized transformation of uteri into a receptive stage.The interdependent relationship between the blastocyst and uterus involves complicated hormonal regulation and local paracrine,juxtacrine interactions.In this paper,we review some important historical findings regarding uterine receptivity and blastocyst activation,as well as some less discussed topics such as embryo spacing,embryo orientation.Further understandings on detailed mechanisms during the process of embryo implantation will help cure women infertility as well as develop new generation of non-steroids contraceptives.

  20. Effects of Shiga Toxin Type 2 on Maternal and Fetal Status in Rats in the Early Stage of Pregnancy

    Sacerdoti, Flavia; Amaral, María M.; Zotta, Elsa; Franchi, Ana M.; Ibarra, Cristina


    Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2), a toxin secreted by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), could be one of the causes of maternal and fetal morbimortality not yet investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of Stx2 in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with sublethal doses of Stx2, 0.25 and 0.5 ng Stx2/g of body weight (bwt), at day 8 of gestation (early postimplantation period of gestation). Maternal weight loss and food and water intake were analyzed after Stx2 injection. Another group of rats were euthanized and uteri were collected at different times to evaluate fetal status. Immunolocalization of Stx2 in uterus and maternal kidneys was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The presence of Stx2 receptor (globotriaosylceramide, Gb3) in the uteroplacental unit was observed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Sublethal doses of Stx2 in rats caused maternal weight loss and pregnancy loss. Stx2 and Gb3 receptor were localized in decidual tissues. Stx2 was also immunolocalized in renal tissues. Our results demonstrate that Stx2 leads to pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. This study highlights the possibility of human pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity mediated by Stx2. PMID:25157355

  1. Effects of Shiga Toxin Type 2 on Maternal and Fetal Status in Rats in the Early Stage of Pregnancy

    Flavia Sacerdoti


    Full Text Available Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2, a toxin secreted by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC, could be one of the causes of maternal and fetal morbimortality not yet investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of Stx2 in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats were intraperitoneally (i.p. injected with sublethal doses of Stx2, 0.25 and 0.5 ng Stx2/g of body weight (bwt, at day 8 of gestation (early postimplantation period of gestation. Maternal weight loss and food and water intake were analyzed after Stx2 injection. Another group of rats were euthanized and uteri were collected at different times to evaluate fetal status. Immunolocalization of Stx2 in uterus and maternal kidneys was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The presence of Stx2 receptor (globotriaosylceramide, Gb3 in the uteroplacental unit was observed by thin layer chromatography (TLC. Sublethal doses of Stx2 in rats caused maternal weight loss and pregnancy loss. Stx2 and Gb3 receptor were localized in decidual tissues. Stx2 was also immunolocalized in renal tissues. Our results demonstrate that Stx2 leads to pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. This study highlights the possibility of human pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity mediated by Stx2.

  2. 小鼠胚胎干细胞与四倍体胚胎的嵌合%Chimera of mouse ES cells and tetraploid embryos

    李相运; 窦忠英; 李松


    The oviducts of superovulated Kunming white females were flushed 44-46 hours after treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin to collect 1074 late two-cell-stage embryos.The embryos were placed twenty at a time between two platinum electrodes laid 1 mm apart in 0.3M mannitol in the electrode chamber.The blastomeres were fused by a short electric pulse(80V for 50μsec) applied by a pulse generator.Fusion of blastomeres was usually completed in 20-60minutes.After 25 hours of culture,most of the tetraploid embryos developed to the four-cell stage.Zonae pellucidae of 387 four-cell-stage tetraploid embryos were removed by treatment with acid Tyrode's buffer.The embryos were plated on an ES cell layer,After 40 hours of coculture,248 embryos aggregated with ES cells were collected and transferred into the uteri of twenty four 2.5-day pseudopregnant recipinets.Ten recipients were pregnant.but no live fetuses were born.Three pregnant recipients were routinely subject to a Caesarean section on day 18 of pregnancy and seven abnormal fetuses were obtained.The results demonstrate that ES cells derived from C57BL/6 mice are pluripotential to a certain extent.

  3. Study on the developmental toxicity of combined artesunate and mefloquine antimalarial drugs on rats.

    Boareto, Ana Cláudia; Müller, Juliane Centeno; de Araujo, Samanta Luiza; Lourenço, Ana Carolina; Lourenço, Emerson Luiz Botelho; Gomes, Caroline; Minatovicz, Bruna; Lombardi, Natália; Paumgartten, Francisco Roma; Dalsenter, Paulo Roberto


    Antimalarial drug combinations containing artemisinins (ACTs) have become first choice therapies for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Data on safety of ACTs in pregnancy are limited and no previous study has been conducted on the developmental toxicity of artesunate-mefloquine combinations on the first trimester of gestation. To evaluate the developmental toxicity of an artesunate/mefloquine combination, pregnant rats were treated orally with artesunate (15 and 40 mg/kg bwt/day), mefloquine (30 and 80 mg/kg bwt/day) and artesunate/mefloquine (15/30 and 40/80 mg/kg bwt/day) on gestation days 9-11. Dams were C-sectioned on day 20, and their uteri and fetuses removed and examined for soft tissue and skeleton abnormalities. Artesunate increased embryolethality and the incidence of limb long bone malformations on the absence of overt maternal toxicity. Mefloquine (80 mg/kg bwt/day) was maternally toxic and enhanced fetal variations. Combination of artesunate and mefloquine did not enhance their toxicity compared to the toxicity observed after its separate administration. Embryotoxicity of artesunate was apparently attenuated when it is co-administered with mefloquine.

  4. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on early stage embryos in the rat

    Tachi, Norihide; Aoyama, Mitsuko (Nagoya City Univ. Medical School (Japan))


    It is well recognized that cigarette smoking in pregnant women exerts many deleterious effects on their progenies; intrauterine growth retardation, and increases in perinatal mortality and premature births. The fetal growth retardation also has been reported in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. The authors previously demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure in pregnant rats retarded the growth of fetuses from mid to late stages of pregnancy. In addition, the weight of uteri containing embryos in animals inhaling the smoke was smaller, although not significant, than that in the control on day 7 of pregnancy. Based on these findings, it was suggested that the growth of embryos in early stage seemed to be harmfully affected as well as during mid and late stages of pregnancy. However, since the uterine weight in early pregnancy was measured in the previous study instead of the direct observation of early stage embryos, it remained unclear whether the early development of embryos was really influenced by cigarette smoke exposure or not. The present study was designed to observe the effects of cigarette smoke inhalation by pregnant rats on early development of embryos from fertilization to implantation.

  5. Fullerenol C60(OH)24 nanoparticles decrease relaxing effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on rat uterus spontaneous contraction

    Slavic, Marija; Djordjevic, Aleksandar; Radojicic, Ratko; Milovanovic, Slobodan; Orescanin-Dusic, Zorana; Rakocevic, Zlatko; Spasic, Mihajlo B.; Blagojevic, Dusko


    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a widely used solvent and cryoprotectant that can cause impaired blood flow, reduction in intracranial pressure, tissue edema, inflammatory reactions, inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, processes which can lead to atherosclerosis of the coronary, peripheral and cerebral circulation. Although the adverse effects are rare when DMSO is administered in clinically established concentrations, there is no safe antagonist for an overdose. In this work, we treated isolated spontaneous and calcium-induced contractile active rat uteri (Wistar, virgo intacta), with DMSO and fullerenol C60(OH)24 nanoparticle (FNP) in DMSO. FNP is a water-soluble derivative of fullerene C60. Its size is a 1.1 nm in diameter and is a very promising candidate for a drug carrier in nanomedicine. FNP also displays free radical scavenging activity. DMSO decreased both spontaneous and calcium-induced contractions. In contrast, FNP only decreased spontaneous contraction. FNP decreased copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activity and prevented the DMSO-induced increase in glutathione reductase activity. Atomic force microscopy detected that FNP aggregated with calcium ions. Our results indicate that FNP has properties that make it a good candidate to be a modulator of DMSO activity which could minimize side effects of the latter.

  6. Overexpression of progesterone receptor A isoform in mice leads to endometrial hyperproliferation, hyperplasia and atypia.

    Fleisch, M C; Chou, Y C; Cardiff, Robert D; Asaithambi, A; Shyamala, G


    A delicate balance in estrogen and progesterone signaling through their cognate receptors is characteristic for the physiologic state of the endometrium, and a shift in receptor isotype expression can be frequently found in human endometrial pathology. In this study, using a transgenic mouse model, we examined the mechanisms whereby alterations in progesterone receptor (PR) isotype expression leads to endometrial pathology. For an experimental model, we used transgenic mice (PR-A transgenics) carrying an imbalance in the native ratio of the two PR isoforms A and B (PR-A and PR-B) through the expression of additional A form and examined their uterine phenotype under different hormonal regimens, using various criteria. Uterine epithelial cell proliferation was augmented in PR-A transgenics and was abolished by PR antagonists. In particular, proliferative response to progesterone, independent of signaling through estrogen, was enhanced. Upon continuous exposure to estradiol and progesterone, the uteri in PR-A transgenics displayed gross enlargement, endometrial hyperplasia including atypical lesions, endometritis and pelvic inflammatory disease. Imbalanced expression of the two isoforms of PR in a transgenic model reveals multiple derangements in the regulation of uterine physiology, resulting in various pathologies including hyperplasias.

  7. [The pathogenesis of the "endometritis-pyometra complex" in the female dog].

    Schoon, H A; Schoon, D; Nolte, I


    Based on investigations in 51 bitches (uteri and ovaries after ovariohysterectomy), suffering from "endometritis-pyometra-complex" (without, n = 38; with, n = 13, hormonal pretreatment), morphologic-functional endometrial characteristics (light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, enzyme histochemistry, immunohistochemical estrogen receptor analysis) are correlated with ovarian findings, plasma estradiol and progesterone levels as well as microbiological results. The estrous phase of all cycling patients was determined as "diestrus". Plasma estradiol and progesterone concentrations fluctuate within physiological variations. In all cases, not including those, pretreated with progestagen, histological signs of irregular hyperproliferation of uterine glands are obvious, closely related with enzyme histochemical aberrations and atypical endometrial estrogen receptor state. This is interpreted as indicative for prolonged periestrous estrogen induced effects, undergoing different stages of secretory transformation due to the species specific long lasting corpus luteum period. A comparable pathogenesis is supposed deriving from estrogen applications (e. a. after mismating) due to intensified hormonal stimulation and sensibilization of the endometrium, predisposing to ascendant infections by facultative pathogenic bacteria (e. a. E. coli, Streptococcus sp.). Patients without ovarian cyclicity, resulting from progestagen application, exhibit findings, that indicate hormonal imbalances: secretory hypertrophy, irregular regeneration, fibrous atrophy and rigid secretion, resembling those possibly occurring in women after long administration of oral contraceptives.

  8. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits with cervical neoplasia

    Calleja-Macias, Itzel; Osann, Kathryn; Remedios-Chan, Mariana; Barrera-Saldana, Hugo A.; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Chikova, Anna K.; Grando, Sergei A.; Bernard, Hans-Ulrich


    Aims Cholinergic signaling, particularly in response to non-physiological ligands like nicotine, stimulates carcinogenesis of a variety of tissue types including epithelia of the cervix uteri. Cholinergic signaling is mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are pentamers formed by subsets of 16 nAChR subunits. Recent literature suggests that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of some of these subunits, notably alpha5, are risk factors for developing lung cancer in smokers as well as in non-smokers. Main methods We have studied the prevalence of four SNPs in the alpha5, alpha9, and beta1 subunits, which are expressed in cervical cells, in 456 patients with cervical cancers, precursor lesions, and healthy controls from two cohorts in Mexico. Key findings A SNP in the alpha9 subunit, the G allele of rs10009228 (alpha9, A>G) shows a significant trend in the combined cohort, indicating that this allele constitutes a risk factor for neoplastic progression. The A allele of the SNP rs16969968 (alpha5, G>A), which correlates with the development of lung cancer, shows a non-significant trend to be associated with cervical lesions. Two other SNPs, rs55633891 (alpha9, C>T) and rs17856697 (beta1, A>G), did not exhibit a significant trend. Significance Our study points to a potential risk factor of cervical carcinogenesis with importance for DNA diagnosis and as a target for intervention. PMID:22406075

  9. Embryotoxic effect of gamma radiation in mice and their modulation by vitamins

    Goyal, P.K.; Singh, N.; Gajawat, S.; Pareek, T.K.; Dev, P.K. [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India). Dept. of Zoology


    Ionizing radiations severely interfere with normal embryonic or fetal development, although period of late fetal development in mammals is considered to be the somewhat radioresistant. Here, an attempt is made to check the radiation induced developmental anomalies by vitamins during fetal development period. For this purpose, pregnant Swiss albino mice were exposed to 0.50 Gy gamma radiation during fetal growth period (day 14.25 post-coitus) in the presence (experimental) or absence (control) of vitamin B complex (20 mg/kg b.w.) till term. All dams were sacrificed on day 18 post-coitus and their uteri were examined to study reproductive status and anatomical abnormalities of each conceptus. About 48% pregnant females of the control group showed a complete embryonic resorption while in the experimental group the number of females showing resorption was only 33%. Resorption of embryos, fetal mortality and reduction in placental weight were significantly increased in mice irradiated in the absence of vitamin B complex. Various gross malformations including skeletal anomalies were significantly reduced in 18 days old fetuses given vitamin B complex therapy. Further, such fetuses had better ossification of skull and vertebrae. Sex-ratio of the fetuses, however, remained unaltered in both groups as compared to normal. (orig.)


    B. A Salmasizadeh


    Full Text Available Studies undertaken during the last 5 years in the Babol Research Station of the Institute of Public Health Research, Teheran University, with the collaboration of the International Agency for Research on Cancer in the Caspian Littoral and Ardabil area in the north of Iran has indicated the presence of cancer in 48 different sites. The five more prevalent types of cancer found in that area in order of their incidence are esophageal, stomach, skin, lung and liver cancers. Except for cancer of esophagus which occurs with a very high variation in incidence in the area, the incidence of other 4 does not significantly differ in various parts of the region. The incidence of esophageal cancer is maximum in the east and southeast of the area and it gradually decreases towards the reaching its minimum level in Gilan and increasing again to the west in Ardabil area. The incidence is higher among males in the low incidence, almost equal in the high incidence area except in Gombad area where is much higher among females than in males. The total number of cancer of soesophagus registered during the 5 years period is 1420 which constitute 1/10 of all cases reported. Of other types of cancer registered, cancers of skin, cervix uteri and lymphoma, mostly lymphosarcoma are more prevalent. Of the cancers of digestive tube, oesophageal is more prevalent in the east and stomach cancer in the west of the area.

  11. Effect of age on sperm fertility potential: oocyte donation as a model.

    Gallardo, E; Simón, C; Levy, M; Guanes, P P; Remohí, J; Pellicer, A


    To determine the effect of age on sperm fecundability using oocyte donation as an in vivo model. Oocyte donation and IVF programs at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. Retrospective study in which four groups of oocyte donation cycles were established according to age of the male providing the semen sample: group 1 (n = 31) 51 years, the oldest being 64 years. All donated oocytes were obtained from patients < 35 years old. Male age, sperm characteristics (volume, concentration, motility, morphology), fertilization, embryo quality, pregnancy, implantation, and abortion rates among recipients. Similar sperm characteristics in fresh as well as after preparation for IVF were observed among males of different ages. Fertilization, embryo quality, pregnancy, and implantation were similar among the established groups. The mean age of the females included in each group significantly increased from group 1 to group 4. Age (up to 64 years) does not affect sperm characteristics or its ability to fertilize human eggs. Similarly, embryo development in vitro as well as implantation in recipient uteri are not affected by age of the male providing the semen sample.

  12. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist prevents embryonic implantation by a direct effect on the endometrial epithelium.

    Simón, C; Valbuena, D; Krüssel, J; Bernal, A; Murphy, C R; Shaw, T; Pellicer, A; Polan, M L


    To investigate the embryonic and/or endometrial molecular mechanisms underlying the antiimplantation effect of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra). Controlled experiment. Animal facilities at Stanford University and laboratories of the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad and the University of Sydney. Twelve-week-old B6C3F-1 female mice. Intraperitoneal injections of recombinant human IL-1ra during the periimplantation period. Implantation sites, embryonic morphology, and viability. Polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry for integrins and extracellular matrices and transmission electron microscopy of endometrium in IL-1ra-treated versus control animals. Pregnancy rates in control and IL-1ra-injected animals were 60% and 13%, respectively. At day 8 of pregnancy, flushing of uteri obtained from the treated group resulted in 32 blastocysts. Six pseudopregnant animals received IL-1ra-treated blastocysts (left horn) and control blastocysts (right horn), resulting in one pregnancy, with two embryos and one embryo in the left and right horns, respectively. At day 4 of pregnancy, IL- 1ra down-regulated alpha4 mRNA with use of the polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry showed a decrease of alpha4, alpha v, and beta3, and transmission electron microscopy revealed inhibition of transformation of the plasma membrane. Impairment of embryonic adhesion with IL-1ra is mediated through a direct effect on transformation of the epithelial plasma membrane at the time of implantation as a result of down-regulation of alpha4, alpha v, and beta3.

  13. Effects of a diet containing fusarium toxins on the fertility of gilts and on bulbourethral gland weight in barrows.

    Gutzwiller, Andreas; Gafner, Jean-Louis; Stoll, Peter


    Nine gilts weighing 80 kg at the beginning of the trial were fed a mycotoxin contaminated diet containing 2 mg deoxynivalenol (DON) and 0.4 mg zearalenone (ZON) per kg (Diet M). Their daily weight gain until 103 kg BW was reduced in comparison to the nine control animals fed an uncontaminated diet (Diet C) (763 vs. 912 g; p = 0.02). There was no treatment effect on the age at first observed oestrus. Seven and eight gilts receiving Diet M and C, respectively, became pregnant after being mated once or being again mated three weeks later. The examination of the uteri of gilts slaughtered 35-61 days after mating showed that the exposure to DON and ZON had no effect on the number of foetuses per gilt (p = 0.54), but increased their growth rate (p = 0.003). Thus, low dietary DON and ZON levels had no negative effects on the reproductive parameters examined. The hypothesis that the bulbourethral gland weight of barrows can be used for the bioassay of low dietary ZON levels was rejected since feeding Diet M from 80-103 kg BW did not increase the weight of that accessory sex gland (p = 0.51).

  14. Expression of oxytocin, progesterone, and estrogen receptors in the reproductive tract of bitches with pyometra.

    Prapaiwan, N; Manee-In, S; Olanratmanee, E; Srisuwatanasagul, S


    Canine pyometra is considered a serious and life-threatening condition. Due to the relationship among sex steroid hormones, oxytocin receptor (OTR) expression, and canine pyometra pathogenesis, this study aimed to investigate the expression of oxytocin, progesterone, and estrogen receptors in the reproductive tissues of canines with pyometra by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. A total of 27 pyometra bitches were classified into open- and closed-cervix pyometra groups based on the presence of vaginal discharge. Moreover, 15 normal bitches in the luteal phase served as a control group. The results showed that OTR gene expression in the ovary of pyometra bitches was higher than that of normal bitches, whereas the level of OTR gene expression in the cervix of pyometra bitches was less than that of normal bitches (P pyometra bitches compared with normal bitches, whereas a higher percentage of OTR-positive immunostaining in uteri and cervices were found in pyometra bitches compared with normal bitches (P pyometra bitches were less than that of normal bitches (P pyometra bitches was not different. Our findings suggest that pyometra pathogenesis is associated with a change in expression of OTR and sex steroid receptors in the canine reproductive tract. However, cervical dilation in bitches with pyometra was not influenced by the expression of OTR and sex steroid receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Total laparoscopic hysterectomy: our 5-year experience (1998-2002).

    Bonilla, David J; Mains, Lindsay; Rice, Janet; Crawford, Benjamin


    To review our experience performing total laparoscopic hysterectomy since we first introduced this procedure in 1998. A retrospective cohort study was performed for patients undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy at Ochsner Clinic Foundation from February 1998 through December 2002. Rates of complications, successful completion, length of hospital stay, readmission, and reoperation were determined for this period. Among 511 patients who underwent attempted total laparoscopic hysterectomy, 487 procedures (95.3%) were completed by laparoscopy. The major intraoperative complication rate was 3.9%, and the major postoperative complication rate was 4.7%. No significant differences were seen in the intraoperative and postoperative complication rates of patients who were morbidly obese (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)), patients with enlarged uteri (≥300 g), or patients who underwent concomitant procedures (unilateral or bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and lysis of adhesions). The readmission rate was 4.1%, and the reoperation rate was 2%. None of the variables studied, including age, medical problems, morbid obesity, concomitant procedures, or enlarged uterus, were found to have an association with readmission or reoperation rates. Total laparoscopic hysterectomy can be performed successfully in most patients with benign indications. Morbidity is comparable to that of other types of hysterectomies, and this technique may be a more reasonable approach under some circumstances.

  16. Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy: Our 5-Year Experience (1998–2002)

    Bonilla, David J.; Mains, Lindsay; Rice, Janet; Crawford, Benjamin


    Purpose: To review our experience performing total laparoscopic hysterectomy since we first introduced this procedure in 1998. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed for patients undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy at Ochsner Clinic Foundation from February 1998 through December 2002. Rates of complications, successful completion, length of hospital stay, readmission, and reoperation were determined for this period. Results: Among 511 patients who underwent attempted total laparoscopic hysterectomy, 487 procedures (95.3%) were completed by laparoscopy. The major intraoperative complication rate was 3.9%, and the major postoperative complication rate was 4.7%. No significant differences were seen in the intraoperative and postoperative complication rates of patients who were morbidly obese (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2), patients with enlarged uteri (≥300 g), or patients who underwent concomitant procedures (unilateral or bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and lysis of adhesions). The readmission rate was 4.1%, and the reoperation rate was 2%. None of the variables studied, including age, medical problems, morbid obesity, concomitant procedures, or enlarged uterus, were found to have an association with readmission or reoperation rates. Conclusions: Total laparoscopic hysterectomy can be performed successfully in most patients with benign indications. Morbidity is comparable to that of other types of hysterectomies, and this technique may be a more reasonable approach under some circumstances. PMID:21603347

  17. The estrogenicity of methylparaben and ethylparaben at doses close to the acceptable daily intake in immature Sprague-Dawley rats

    Sun, Libei; Yu, Tong; Guo, Jilong; Zhang, Zhaobin; Hu, Ying; Xiao, Xuan; Sun, Yingli; Xiao, Han; Li, Junyu; Zhu, Desheng; Sai, Linlin; Li, Jun


    The estrogenicity of parabens at human exposure levels has become a focus of concern due to the debate over whether the estrogenicity of parabens is strong enough to play a role in the increased incidence of breast cancer. In this study, the uterotrophic activities of methylparaben (MP) and ethylparaben (EP) at doses close to the acceptable daily intake as allocated by JECFA were demonstrated in immature Sprague-Dawley rats by intragastric administration, and up-regulations of estrogen-responsive biomarker genes were found in uteri of the rats by quantitative real-time RT–PCR (Q-RT-PCR). At the same time, the urinary concentrations of MP and EP, as measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in rats that received the same doses of MP and EP, were found to be near the high urinary levels reported in human populations in recent years. These results show the in vivo estrogenicity of MP and EP at human exposure levels, and indicate that populations exposed to large amounts of MP and EP may have a high burden of estrogenicity-related diseases. In addition, a molecular docking simulation showed interaction between the parabens and the agonist-binding pocket of human estrogen receptor α (hERα). PMID:27121550

  18. Effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Spondias mombin on the pituitary-gonadal axis of female Wistar rats

    Asuquo OR; Oko OOK; Brownson ES; Umoetuk GB; Utin IS


    Objective: To determine the effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Spondias mombin (S. mombin) on the histology of the anterior pituitary, ovary and uterus; and on the serum sex hormones of adult female Wistar rats. Methods: Twenty-four female Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups of six rats per group. The animals in the treatment groups were administered orally ethanolic extract of S. mombin leaves at the doses of 250, 350 and 500 mg/kg body weight daily for fourteen days. Rats in the control group received distilled water. The body weights of the rats were determined at the beginning and end of the experiment. Histological analysis of pituitary, ovary and uterus was carried out. Hormonal assay for estrogen, progesterone, FSH and LH were done using Enzyme-Linked Immunoabsorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: There was significant (P<0.05) decrease in relative organ weights of extract-treated rats compared to the control. Pituitary showed accumulation and aggregation of cells in experimental animals. Uteri of treated groups showed thickening of endometrial lining and presence of cysts, ovarian tissues were damaged. Furthermore, the extract caused reduction in serum concentration of sex hormones of the treated animals relative to the control. Conclusion: This study suggests that ethanolic extract of S. mombin leaf may have antifertility property, confirming its use as a local contraceptive.

  19. The Prevalence and pattern of HPV-16 immunostaining in uterine cervical carcinomas in Ethiopian women: a pilot study

    Mona M Rashed


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cancer of the cervix uteri is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. The association of human papillomavirus (HPV infection with cervical carcinogenesis is well documented. This is a pilot study aiming to studying the prevalence and the pattern of Human Papilloma Virus Type 16 (HPV16 by immunostaining in the tissues of cervical carcinomas of Ethiopian women. METHODS: 20 specimens of uterine cervical carcinomas were studied histopathologically and immunohistochemically for HPV16. RESULTS: Histologically the specimens were classified as: Ten cases were Non Keratinized Squamous cell carcinoma (NKSCC, six cases were Keratinized Squamous Cell Carcinoma (KSCC and four cases were Adenocarcinoma (ADC. Immunohistochemistry study showed positivity in eleven cases (55%; seven cases (35% were non-keratinized squamous cell carcinoma; three cases (15% were keratinized squamous cell carcinoma and one case (5% belonged to the adenocarcinomas. CONCLUSION: This study reveals a significant detection of HPV in Ethiopian women by the use of advanced techniques such as Immunohistochemistry (IHC. The data of this study suggested that the marked expression of the HPV 16 was in the less differentiated uterine cervix carcinomas

  20. Dynamics of proinflammatory cytokine levels and their role in the development of local and systemic effects during progressing cervical cancer.

    Gening, T P; Antoneeva, I I; Abakumova, T V; Peskov, A B; Sidorenko, E G; Gening, S O; Dolgova, D R


    In order to evaluate the role of cytokines in the development of polymodal local and distant effects in patients with stages I-IV cervical cancer, the following parameters were measured: serum concentrations of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10; levels of malondialdehyde, activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-S-reductase in the plasma, erythrocyte, and cervix uteri homogenate. The expression of p53, Bcl-2, VEGF, and Ki-67 in tumor tissue was evaluated. High levels of malondialdehyde in tumor tissue and erythrocyte were paralleled by low levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase and high activities of glutathiones. Medium correlations between Ki-67, Bcl-2, and p53 and the levels of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α at stages Ib-IIa were detected. The results indicated that the progress of cervical cancer was associated with the neoplasm integration in the host homeostasis by using the regional and systemic cytokine functions. These effects, amplifying the biological potential of the tumor, were the most significant at stages Ib-IIa.