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Sample records for adn hiv 2ltr

  1. Marcadores virológicos no convencionales en pacientes infectados con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana: ADN HIV-T, ADN HIV- 2LTR y ARN de HIV Non conventional virological markers in HIV-infected patients: T-HIV DNA, 2LTR-HIV DNA and HIV RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Gariglio

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available La terapia antirretroviral de alta eficacia (TAAE induce una reducción marcada y persistente de la viremia plasmática, contribuyendo a disminuir la mortalidad y morbilidad de los pacientes HIV-positivos. Así, la carga viral (CV es el método de referencia para evaluar la eficacia terapéutica. Sin embargo, aun en presencia de una TAAE eficiente no se ha logrado la erradicación viral. En este estudio analizamos la presencia del ADN total de HIV (ADN HIV-T, del ADN no integrado con 2LTR (ADN HIV-2LTR y del ARN de HIV, en un grupo de 55 pacientes HIV-positivos en distintos estadios clínicos, con y sin TAAE, mediante ensayos de PCR con revelado colorimétrico en microplaca, optimizados en nuestro laboratorio. La sensibilidad clínica del ARN del HIV fue evaluada con el bDNA, resultando del 74% y del 64%, respectivamente, con una concordancia del 85%. Este ensayo podría ser utilizado en el seguimiento de pacientes bajo TAAE. El ADN HIV-2LTR resultó positivo en el 54% aunque estuvo ausente en pacientes con elevada CV. Este marcador se consideraba un producto lábil y su presencia se asociaba a infección reciente. Sin embargo, actuales evidencias ponen en discusión su estabilidad por lo que su significado clínico debe ser reconsiderado. La ausencia del ADN HIV-2LTR en pacientes con CV detectable puede relacionarse con la heterogeneidad de la secuencia utilizada para su detección. El ADN HIV-T estuvo presente en el 100% de las muestras y resultaría relevante como marcador de remisión cuando se dispongan de terapias que efectivamente erradiquen la infección.Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART induces a persistent reduction of the plasmatic viremia, contributing to decrease mortality and morbidity of infected people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Thus, viral load (VL is the reference method to evaluate therapy effectiveness. However, even in the presence of efficient HAART viral eradication was yet not achieved. In this

  2. Accurate episomal HIV 2-LTR circles quantification using optimized DNA isolation and droplet digital PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Malatinkova; Maja Kiselinova; Pawel Bonczkowski; Wim Trypsteen; Peter Messiaen; Jolien Vermeire; Bruno Verhasselt; Karen Vervisch; Linos Vandekerckhove; Ward De Spiegelaere

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), the detection of episomal HIV 2-LTR circles is a potential marker for ongoing viral replication. Quantification of 2-LTR circles is based on quantitative PCR or more recently on digital PCR assessment, but is hampered due to its low abundance. Sample pre-PCR processing is a critical step for 2-LTR circles quantification, which has not yet been sufficiently evaluated in patient derived samples. Materials and M...

  3. Accurate episomal HIV 2-LTR circles quantification using optimized DNA isolation and droplet digital PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Malatinkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART, the detection of episomal HIV 2-LTR circles is a potential marker for ongoing viral replication. Quantification of 2-LTR circles is based on quantitative PCR or more recently on digital PCR assessment, but is hampered due to its low abundance. Sample pre-PCR processing is a critical step for 2-LTR circles quantification, which has not yet been sufficiently evaluated in patient derived samples. Materials and Methods: We compared two sample processing procedures to more accurately quantify 2-LTR circles using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR. Episomal HIV 2-LTR circles were either isolated by genomic DNA isolation or by a modified plasmid DNA isolation, to separate the small episomal circular DNA from chromosomal DNA. This was performed in a dilution series of HIV-infected cells and HIV-1 infected patient derived samples (n=59. Samples for the plasmid DNA isolation method were spiked with an internal control plasmid. Results: Genomic DNA isolation enables robust 2-LTR circles quantification. However, in the lower ranges of detection, PCR inhibition caused by high genomic DNA load substantially limits the amount of sample input and this impacts sensitivity and accuracy. Moreover, total genomic DNA isolation resulted in a lower recovery of 2-LTR templates per isolate, further reducing its sensitivity. The modified plasmid DNA isolation with a spiked reference for normalization was more accurate in these low ranges compared to genomic DNA isolation. A linear correlation of both methods was observed in the dilution series (R2=0.974 and in the patient derived samples with 2-LTR numbers above 10 copies per million peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, (R2=0.671. Furthermore, Bland–Altman analysis revealed an average agreement between the methods within the 27 samples in which 2-LTR circles were detectable with both methods (bias: 0.3875±1.2657 log10. Conclusions: 2-LTR

  4. Rapid turnover of 2-LTR HIV-1 DNA during early stage of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite prolonged treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, the infectious HIV-1 continues to replicate and resides latently in the resting memory CD4+ T lymphocytes, which blocks the eradication of HIV-1. The viral persistence of HIV-1 is mainly caused by its proviral DNA being either linear nonintegrated, circular nonintegrated, or integrated. Previous reports have largely focused on the dynamics of HIV-1 DNA from the samples collected with relatively long time intervals during the process of disease and HAART treatment, which may have missed the intricate changes during the intervals in early treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we investigated the dynamics of HIV-1 DNA in patients during the early phase of HARRT treatment. Using optimized real time PCR, we observed significant changes in 2-LTR during the first 12-week of treatment, while total and integrated HIV-1 DNA remained stable. The doubling time and half-life of 2-LTR were not correlated with the baseline and the rate of changes in plasma viral load and various CD4+ T-cell populations. Longitudinal analyses on 2-LTR sequences and plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS levels did not reveal any significant changes in the same treatment period. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study revealed the rapid changes in 2-LTR concentration in a relatively large number of patients during the early HAART treatment. The rapid changes indicate the rapid infusion and clearance of cells bearing 2-LTR in the peripheral blood. Those changes are not expected to be caused by the blocking of viral integration, as our study did not include the integrase inhibitor raltegravir. Our study helps better understand the dynamics of HIV-DNA and its potential role as a biomarker for the diseases and for the treatment efficacy of HAART.

  5. Patentando ADN

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    Carlos Augusto Conde Gutiérrez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de patentes en los países desarrollados han hecho diferentes interpretaciones o creado nuevos estándares con el fin de adoptar secuencias de ADN como una entidad patentable, independientemente del hecho de que el ADN en principio no cumplía los requisitos para obtener una patente (novedad, nivel inventivo y aplicación industrial –utilidad– y materia objeto de patentes. Este enfoque benefició I&D en la industria de la biotecnología. Sin embargo, las patentes representan también una amenaza para I&D. Este artículo analiza cómo los sistemas de patentes en Europa adoptaron las secuencias de ADN y cómo podría afectar a las patentes I&D en biotecnología.

  6. Analyzing ADN competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, P R

    1989-01-01

    El Paso Community College District, using the DACUM Process, identified 19 major competency areas with 313 specific competencies for AD Nursing. This article provides an overview of the DACUM Process, a discussion of the application to the ADN program, a summary of the results, and future activities.

  7. La prueba de ADN

    OpenAIRE

    Carro Fernández, José Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Podríamos decir sin riesgo a equivocarnos que, en España, el momento procesal penal en lo tocante a la prueba de ADN pasa por un momento de crisis. Y no en lo referente a su valor probatorio, pues éste está fuera de toda duda y así lo estableció el mismo Tribunal Supremo el 24 de febrero de 1995 al considerar que “la prueba de ADN no es técnicamente determinante, pero sí de alta probabilidad”. Ahora bien, esta validez jurídica no resuelve otros aspectos como podrían ser si la toma de la muest...

  8. Assimilation Dynamic Network (ADN) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Assimilation Dynamic Network (ADN) is a dynamic inter-processor communication network that spans heterogeneous processor architectures, unifying components,...

  9. Comparison of evidenced and expected ADN competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, S; Joyce-Nagata, B; Reeb, R

    1991-01-01

    These study findings indicate that nursing service administrators in the State of Mississippi expect strong technical level skills from the ADN. Congruency between nursing education and nursing service was validated. The predominance of role competencies outlined by nurse educators were validated as both expected and evidenced for the ADN in the State of Mississippi. Competencies need to be continually evaluated to reflect changes in the health delivery system as related to the ADN.

  10. DAO Spectroscopic classification of SN 2016adn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balam, D. D.; Graham, M. L.

    2016-02-01

    A spectrum was obtained of AT2016adn on UT Feb. 11.30 UT using the 1.82-m Plaskett telescope (National Research Council of Canada) covering the range 380-910 nm (resolution 0.51 nm). Cross-correlation with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows 2016adn to be a normal type-Ia supernova approximately 2 days post maximum light.

  11. The LPN-ADN articulation project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlich, L J; Hopkin, L A; Kalunian, K; LeGault, G; Fried, M

    1989-01-01

    Faced with a staffing situation where RN positions were needed but there were more LPN positions than were needed. Tucson Medical Center began an LPN-ADN articulation project to rectify the situation without resorting to layoffs. With the cooperation of a local junior college, LPNs are enrolled in ADN programs that provide a more flexible work/study situation. This article describes the program and the results thus far.

  12. Detonation velocity of melt-cast ADN and ADN/nano-diamond cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, R. M.; Forbes, J. W.; Lawrence, G. W.; Deiter, J. S.; Baker, R. N.; Ashwell, K. D.; Sutherland, G. T.

    2000-04-01

    Detonation velocities of confined cylinders of melt-cast ADN/ZnO (99.5/0.5 by weight), ADN/nano-diamond/ZnO (92.4/7.2/0.4), ADN/AN/ZnO (95.5/4.0/0.5) and ADN/AN/ZnO/nano-diamond (88.0/4.5/0.5/7.0) have been measured using a streak camera. Velocities ranging between 3.9 and 4.5 mm/μs were obtained for 1.3 cm diameter samples confined by steel and a 2.5 cm diameter ADN/AN/ZnO cylinder. In one of the samples the detonation was failing as it proceeded through the charge. For the other shots reported, the shock velocities appeared to be steady through the last half of the charge, though the lengths were too short for any definitive statement about the failure diameter to be made.

  13. Improving Clinical Teaching: The ADN Experience. Pathways to Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Patricia T.; And Others

    Three Florida associate degree in nursing (ADN) demonstration projects of the Nursing Curriculum Project (NCP) are described, and the history of the ADN program and current controversies are reviewed. In 1976, the NCP of the Southern Regional Education Board issued basic assumptions about the role of the ADN graduate, relating them to client…

  14. New synthetic method and properties of ammonium dinitramide (ADN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, H.; Onda, T.; Shi Ino, K.; Kiname, S.I. [Technical Center, Hosoya Kako, Osawa (Japan); Miyazaki, S.; Suzuki, S. [Research et Development Center, Nissan Motor Co, Saitama (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Ammonium dinitramide (ADN) is one of the energetic materials, its hazard, however, has never been presented yet. In this paper, new synthetic method of ADN and its properties are contained. It has been found out that ADN has little hazard and is a safe energetic compound. (authors) 4 refs.

  15. Detonation Properties of Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wätterstam, A.; Östmark, H.; Helte, A.; Karlsson, S.

    1999-06-01

    Ammonium Dinitramide, ADN, has a potential as an oxidizer for underwater high explosives. Pure ADN has a large reaction-zone length and shows a strong non-ideal behaviour. The work presented here is an extension of previous work.(Sensitivity and Performance Characterization of Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN). Presented at 11th International Detonation Symposium, Snowmass, CO, 1998.) Experiments for determining the detonation velocity as a function of inverse charge radius and density, reaction-zone length and curvature, and the detonation pressure are presented. Measurements of pressure indicates that no, or weak von-Neumann spike exists, suggesting an immediate chemical decomposition. Experimental data are compared with predicted using thermochemical codes and ZND-theory.

  16. Formulation and Characterization of ADN-Based Liquid Monopropellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingborg, N.; Eldsäter, C.; Skifs, H.

    2004-10-01

    Ternary ionic solutions are promising green propellants to replace monopropellant hydrazine. Ammonium dinitramide, ADN, is well suited as oxidizer in these propellants due to its high solubility. This paper presents the formulation of different ADN-based liquid monopropellants and the characterization of their properties such as stability, density, viscosity and sensitivity. To be able to use ADN-based monopropellants for propulsion applications, ADN must be produced in a way to minimize the effect on the environment and in sufficient quantities. This paper thus also briefly presents the industrial production of ADN in Sweden and the efforts made to optimize the process.

  17. The Properties of Ammonium Dinitramine (ADN): Part 2: Melt Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahma, A.; Edvinsson, H.; Östmark, H.

    2010-04-01

    A melt casting technique for ammonium dinitramine (ADN) and ADN/aluminum was developed. ADN proved relatively easy to cast, when 1% of magnesium oxide was used as a stabilizer and crystallization kernels. Densities of ADN/MgO 99/1 were 92 to 97% of theoretical mean density (TMD) and those of ADN/Al/MgO 64/35/1 were between 95 and 99% of TMD. Sedimentation of Al in the melt was prevented and the particle wetting was ensured by selecting a suitable particle size for Al. No gelling agents or other additives were used. The casting process and factors influencing it are discussed.

  18. Introducing ADN students to nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, R; Smutko, P W

    1998-01-01

    Every nurse, regardless of educational preparation, should be involved in and benefit from nursing research. The research process needs to become an integral part of nursing practice. In this article, the authors emphasize the importance of nursing research in the associate degree nursing curriculum, emphasizing strategies that enable the ADN graduate to appreciate research reports and use the knowledge in the clinical practice setting.

  19. LPN/ADN Bridge Course. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jan; And Others

    This curriculum guide has been constructed in order to bridge the skills gap between licensed practical nursing (LPN) programs and associate degree nursing (ADN) programs in Missouri. The curriculum was developed through a cooperative effort by persons from both sectors. The curriculum contains four major units, each consisting of several lessons,…

  20. A.D.N. Education: A Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Anne Joachim

    Events in the history of Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) are summarized and the future of nursing education is projected in this paper. The establishment of the ADN program at St. Mary's Junior College in 1964 is considered first, with respect to its roots in the diploma program of St. Mary's School of Nursing and the ideas on nursing education of…

  1. ADN to BSN: lessons from human capital theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Christina M

    2006-01-01

    Currently, approximately 16% of associate degree nursing (ADN) graduates acquire baccalaureate or higher degrees. Human capital analysis demonstrated negative to minimal average returns on investment (ROI) in BSN education. Increasing the ROI may influence ADNs to pursue baccalaureate education and can be an effective strategy for meeting the projected need for BSN-prepared nurses.

  2. Cincuenta años de ADN

    OpenAIRE

    García Olmedo, Francisco

    2003-01-01

    Hace medio siglo que a James D. Watson y Francis Crick les tocó esa lotería que es la fama científica, una notoriedad que trasciende los estrechos límites de cualquier disciplina. Decir esto no supone desdeñar el indudable mérito de estos científicos al dilucidar la estructura tridimensional del ADN por métodos heterodoxos sino que intenta subrayar el hecho de que la estructura encontrada reunía unas características tales que su descubrimiento quedó singularizado frente a otros de igual o...

  3. Adsorption of ammonium dinitramide (ADN) from aqueous solutions. 1. Adsorption on powdered activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, G; Venkatachalam, S; Ninan, K N; Sadhana, R; Alwan, S; Abarna, V; Joseph, M A

    2003-03-17

    Investigations on the adsorption of ammonium dinitramide (NH(4)N(NO(2))(2)) (ADN) from aqueous solutions on powdered activated charcoal (PAC) were carried out in order to find out an effective and easier method of separating ADN from aqueous solutions. The effectiveness of PAC in the selective adsorption of ADN from aqueous solutions of ADN (ADN-F) and ADN in presence of sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) ions (ADN-PS) was examined and compared using batch and column methods. The adsorption process follows both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms and the isotherm parameters for the models were determined. The observed data favor the formation of monolayer adsorption. The adsorption capacities were found to be 63.3, 119, 105.3 and 82 mg of ADN per g of PAC for ADN-F (batch), ADN-PS (batch), ADN-F (column) and ADN-PS (column), respectively. Break-through curves for ADN-F and ADN-PS were obtained for the optimization of separation of ADN from aqueous solutions. Elution curves were generated for the desorption of ADN from PAC using hot water as eluent.

  4. Differences in clinical experiences of ADN and BSN students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oermann, M H

    1998-05-01

    Prior research has suggested that clinical experience for nursing students is stressful. Concern about making an error and harming the patient, limited knowledge and skills for practice, and difficulties in interacting with the teacher and others in the clinical setting are some of the stressors reported by students. Few studies have compared these stresses and the clinical experiences in general between students in associate degree (ADN) and baccalaureate (BSN) nursing programs. The purposes of this research were to compare the clinical experiences of ADN and BSN students at different levels in the programs and describe these experiences from the students' perspectives. As such, both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 415 students in ADN and BSN programs in the Midwest. The ADN students reported significantly higher stress in clinical practice than BSN students (t = 2.16, p ADN and BSN students in clinical practice increased as they progressed through the programs. The semester prior to graduation was the most stressful time in terms of clinical practice for both ADN and BSN students. The instructor was the predominant stressor reported by students in ADN programs across all levels of the curriculum. Among BSN students, the most prevalent stresses were coping with demands associated with patient care and the clinical teacher. The findings highlight the important role of the clinical faculty in both types of nursing programs.

  5. Fundamentos de computación con ADN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Ortíz Triviño

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta algunas ideas básicas para resolver problemas computacionales complejos, mediante el empleo de la estructura biológica del ADN y técnicas especializadas de laboratorio. Las características del ADN que se describen hacen posible codificar estructuras matemáticas, como las máquinas de Turing o las redes neuronales; para ello, la clave está en la interpretación del ADN como un generador de lenguajes.

  6. Quimera de ADN polimerasa del fago ϕ29

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Quimera de ADN polimerasa del fago 29. La presente invención se encuadra dentro del campo de la biotecnología. Específicamente, se refiere a una quimera de ADN polimerasa que comprende una región aminoterminal (N-terminal), que codifica para una ADN polimerasa del tipo 29, y una región carboxilo-terminal (C-terminal), que comprende, al menos, un dominio HhH, que se encuentran unidas mediante una secuencia aminoacídica conectora y a su uso para la replicación, amplifi...

  7. Risk-taking propensity of nurses: ADN and BSN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, M L; Masters, R J

    1989-11-01

    Nursing literature indicates that skills in decision making are inherently important to the modern nurse. The literature also reports a controversy between the associate degree nurse (ADN) and the bachelor degree nurse (BSN). This conflict relates to educational level and experience in terms of leadership and decision-making skills. All decisions involve risk. Therefore decisions in nursing should be influenced by the risk-taking propensity of the individual nurse. The literature shows a linkage between risk-taking propensity and both training and experience. The major purpose of the study was to attempt to correlate risk-taking propensity of nurses by level of education and experience. The study investigated whether differences exist between risk-taking propensity of recently graduated ADNs and BSNs without experience. In addition, the study attempted to determine any differences in risk-taking propensity of ADNs and BSNs with practical experience. The results were analyzed in terms of decision-making competency.

  8. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    Les interactions des electrons de basse energie (EBE) representent un element important en sciences des radiations, particulierement, les sequences se produisant immediatement apres l'interaction de la radiation ionisante avec le milieu biologique. Il est bien connu que lorsque ces radiations deposent leur energie dans la cellule, elles produisent un grand nombre d'electrons secondaires (4 x 104/MeV), qui sont crees le long de la trace avec des energies cinetiques initiales bien inferieures a 20 eV. Cependant, il n'y a jamais eu de mesures directes demontrant l'interaction de ces electrons de tres basse energie avec l'ADN, du principalement aux difficultes experimentales imposees par la complexite du milieu biologique. Dans notre laboratoire, les dernieres annees ont ete consacrees a l'etude des phenomenes fondamentaux induits par impact des EBE sur differentes molecules simples (e.g., N2, CO, O2, H2O, NO, C2H 4, C6H6, C2H12) et quelques molecules complexes dans leur phase solide. D'autres travaux effectues recemment sur des bases de l'ADN et des oligonucleotides ont montre que les EBE produisent des bris moleculaires sur les biomolecules. Ces travaux nous ont permis d'elaborer des techniques pour mettre en evidence et comprendre les interactions fondamentales des EBE avec des molecules d'interet biologique, afin d'atteindre notre objectif majeur d'etudier l'effet direct de ces particules sur la molecule d'ADN. Les techniques de sciences des surfaces developpees et utilisees dans les etudes precitees peuvent etre etendues et combinees avec des methodes classiques de biologie pour etudier les dommages de l'ADN induits par l'impact des EBE. Nos experiences ont montre l'efficacite des electrons de 3--20 eV a induire des coupures simple et double brins dans l'ADN. Pour des energies inferieures a 15 eV, ces coupures sont induites par la localisation temporaire d'un electron sur une unite moleculaire de l'ADN, ce qui engendre la formation d'un ion negatif transitoire

  9. LVN to ADN: Innovative, Non-Traditional Learning Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin Community Coll., TX.

    This document contains the curriculum for the first nursing course in the Licensed Vocational Nurse Mobility Track Project. The project is designed to provide selected Licensed Vocational Nurses (LVNs) the opportunity to complete the nursing course requirements for an Associate of Applied Science Degree in Nursing (ADN) in three semesters of…

  10. The Oklahoma PN/ADN Articulation Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

    In response to a critical nursing shortage in the state of Oklahoma, the Oklahoma Practical Nursing (PN)/Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) Articulation Project Coordinating Committee was formed in spring 1990 to develop a proposal for program articulation. A curriculum matrix was designed and adopted for use by five regional subcommittees which…

  11. How ADN students can learn prenatal (healthy) care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranmer, J; Lajkowicz, C

    1989-01-01

    This article describes the problem-solving steps of how an unsupervised clinical experience can be successfully implemented at the ADN level so that large numbers of students can meet traditional clinical objectives in a nontraditional manner. Learning experiences covered are: patient teaching, interviewing, care planning - coordinated with theories of learning and program philosophy/purpose.

  12. A work-study course in an ADN program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, V M; Tyree, A

    1991-01-01

    This article describes a nursing student practicum in which students enrolled in the ADN program experience the real world of work over a five week period of time. The student's role and the RN mentor's role are described, as well as a report on the findings of this unique clinical elective in a basic nursing program.

  13. HIV-1 and HIV-2 LTR nucleotide sequences: assessment of the alignment by N-block presentation, "retroviral signatures" of overrepeated oligonucleotides, and a probable important role of scrambled stepwise duplications/deletions in molecular evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laprevotte, I; Pupin, M; Coward, E; Didier, G; Terzian, C; Devauchelle, C; Hénaut, A

    2001-07-01

    Previous analyses of retroviral nucleotide sequences, suggest a so-called "scrambled duplicative stepwise molecular evolution" (many sectors with successive duplications/deletions of short and longer motifs) that could have stemmed from one or several starter tandemly repeated short sequence(s). In the present report, we tested this hypothesis by focusing on the long terminal repeats (LTRs) (and flanking sequences) of 24 human and 3 simian immunodeficiency viruses. By using a calculation strategy applicable to short sequences, we found consensus overrepresented motifs (often containing CTG or CAG) that were congruent with the previously defined "retroviral signature." We also show many local repetition patterns that are significant when compared with simply shuffled sequences. First- and second-order Markov chain analyses demonstrate that a major portion of the overrepresented oligonucleotides can be predicted from the dinucleotide compositions of the sequences, but by no means can biological mechanisms be deduced from these results: some of the listed local repetitions remain significant against dinucleotide-conserving shuffled sequences; together with previous results, this suggests that interspersed and/or local mononucleotide and oligonucleotide repetitions could have biased the dinucleotide compositions of the sequences. We searched for suggestive evolutionary patterns by scrutinizing a reliable multiple alignment of the 27 sequences. A manually constructed alignment based on homology blocks was in good agreement with the polypeptide alignment in the coding sectors and has been exhaustively assessed by using a multiplied alphabet obtained by the promising mathematical strategy called the N-block presentation (taking into account the environment of each nucleotide in a sequence). Sector by sector, we hypothesize many successive duplication/deletion scenarios that fit our previous evolutionary hypotheses. This suggests an important duplication/deletion role for the reverse transcriptase, particularly in inducing stuttering cryptic simplicity patterns.

  14. Significance of anti-deoxyribonuclease-B (ADN-B) determination in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, S; Kawakita, S; Kosakai, N; Oda, T; Ohkuni, M; Shiokawa, Y; Watanabe, N; Yamada, T

    1982-11-01

    The determination of anti-deoxyribonuclease-B (ADN-B) is very important for the diagnosis of antecedent streptococcal infection because almost all of group A streptococci have this antigen and a strong elevation of the antibody is observed in patients with acute rheumatic fever, acute glomerulonephritis and other streptococcal infections. Moreover, ADN-B titers are elevated in cases with streptococcal skin infection, whereas anti-streptolysin O (ASO) titers are rarely elevated in these cases. So the determination of ADN-B is recommended as the second streptococcal antibody test to ASO detection (manual of WHO). In our study, the upper limits of ADN-B in normal subjects were 1:60 in preschool age, 1:480 in school age and 1:340 in adult age groups. In acute rheumatic fever, ADN-B titers were elevated in 87% of the cases and also 87% of the patients with acute glomerulonephritis had high ADN-B titers. In inactive rheumatic fever, 72% of the patients had high ADN-B titers, while, ASO titers were elevated in only 22% of the cases. In streptococcal carrier states, 39% of the children had high ADN-B titers but ADN-B was positive only 8% in non-carrier children.

  15. Prueba del ADN y derecho a la intimidad: algunos conflictos concretos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pérez González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La prueba del ADN constituye una importante herramienta en campos muy diversos, como el de la investigación criminal o la prueba de paternidad, debido a que permite la identificación de los individuos a través de sus respectivos perfiles de ADN. Sin embargo, la aplicación de las técnicas de la prueba del ADN afecta a los derechos fundamentales. El almacenamiento y uso de la información recopilada en las bases de datos de ADN o las intervenciones corporales pueden constituir, bajo determinadas circunstancias, una violación o limitación de los derechos fundamentales. Este artículo pretende estudiar determinados conflictos relativos a la prueba del ADN y el derecho a la intimidad.

  16. ADN: huellas genéticas en el proceso penal

    OpenAIRE

    Ramallo Machín, Andrea Cristina

    2016-01-01

    [Resumen] El trabajo de investigación hace referencia a la aplicación de la identificación por el ADN de presuntos delincuentes en una investigación criminal como objeto de una prueba pericial en un proceso penal. Destacando las díferencias sustanciales que existen entre la aplicación de un método científico en circunstancias controladas en un laboratorio y su utilización en escenarios muy distintos, como puede ser el lugar donde se ha cometido un delito. Reconociendo su gra...

  17. Simulador de electroforesis de ADN en un gel virtual

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Ismael; Rebordinos, Laureana

    2012-01-01

    El archivo consiste en una hoja de cálculo programada donde poder introducir los datos de diferentes muestras de ADN en pares de bases y observar y analizar cómo se verían en un gel de electroforesis e interpretar el patrón de bandas obtenido. El objetivo es poder realizar “electroforesis virtuales” en una práctica de bioinformática sin tener que realizar una práctica de laboratorio “ad hoc” cuando la electroforesis sea sólo una parte de dicha práctica.

  18. Energetic Characteristics and Comprehensive Properties of Propellants Containing ADN%含 ADN 推进剂的能量特性及综合性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 谢五喜; 樊学忠; 刘芳莉; 庞维强; 刘小刚; 姬月萍

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the energy,safety,storage and combustion performances of propellants containing ammonium dinitramide (ADN),the energy characteristic parameters were calculated based on the minmum free energy mechanism.The heat of detonation and burning rate were tested by closed bomb test and target line method, and the moisture absorption and sensitivity were studied.The results show that the standard theory specific impulses of propellants containing ADN/Al/HMX,ADN/Al/CL-20,ADN/AlH3/HMX and ADN/AlH3/CL-20 are in the range of 2 675 -2 685,2 677 -2 686,2 801 -2 810 and 2 803 -2 812 N ·s ·kg-1 ,respectively.ADN propellant with normal curing and compact structure can be prepared using the inert polyether binder system plasti-cized by nitrate ester.With increasing the content of ADN in the propellant formulation,the heat of detonation, moisture absorption,burning rate and pressure exponent of the propellant increase,the friction and impact sensitivities of the propellant increase and the density decreases slightly.%为研究含二硝酰胺铵(ADN)推进剂的能量、安全、贮存及燃烧性能,根据最小自由能原理计算了含 ADN 推进剂的能量特性参数,采用密闭爆发器及靶线法测试其爆热及燃速,并对其吸湿性及感度进行了研究。结果表明,含 ADN/Al/HMX、ADN/Al/CL-20、ADN/AlH3/HMX 和 ADN/AlH3/CL-20推进剂的标准理论比冲分别为2675~2685、2677~2686、2801~2810和2803~2812 N·s·kg-1,采用硝酸酯增塑的惰性聚醚黏合剂体系可制备出固化正常、结构致密的含 ADN 推进剂。随着推进剂配方中 ADN 含量的增加,推进剂的爆热、吸湿性、燃速和压强指数增大,摩擦感度和撞击撞击提高,密度略有降低。

  19. The leadership/management role: a differentiating factor for ADN/BSN programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schank, M J; Stollenwerk, R

    1988-06-01

    The resurgence of the ADN/BSN issue relative to educational preparation and roles and the concomitant development of positions taken by the professional associations and National Commission on Nursing pointed to the need for study of current ADN/BSN curricula and utilization of graduates. Based upon a brief historical literature review and ADN/BSN competency statements, the leadership/management role was selected for study as a possible differentiating factor between these programs. Findings from a statewide study of ADN and BSN programs and a representative sample of nurse executives indicated that an education and service dilemma exists relative to this role. The majority of ADN program directors noted that a leadership/management component should be part of ADN curricula, whereas BSN program directors did not concur. Nurse executives utilized ADN graduates in leadership/management positions and stated that length of experience was an influencing factor in selection. Numerous other findings showed a discrepancy in beliefs and practices among educators and nurse executives. This survey demonstrates the need for curriculum changes and role clarification. The leadership/management role may be a viable area for consideration.

  20. Said another way. Is the ADN graduate prepared to practice in community settings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percoco, T A

    1998-01-01

    The downsizing and closing of acute care facilities and the movement to community-based healthcare services are decreasing the need for RNs in acute care facilities. In the past, the associate-degree nurse (ADN) has filled the majority of positions in acute care. With the trend to provide health services in community setting, will the ADN be prepared for positions in community facilities? ADN educators must reevaluate how they are educating students for practice. The author reviews the 1995 recommendations from the Pew Health Professions Commission and relevant current directives from the National League for Nursing.

  1. LPN to ADN/BSN: accelerated curriculum for LPN's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Parson, W F

    1993-01-01

    This article describes a special project involving the design, implementation and evaluation of a flexible education track for licensed practical nurses (LPN) within an established nursing program containing an associate degree in nursing (ADN) track and a baccalaureate degree in nursing (BSN) track. The LPN track facilitated the achievement of the associate degree or baccalaureate degree through curricular options which decreased the length of time and/or credit load for the LPN. A mechanism also was designed and implemented whereby credit for previous nursing knowledge and skills was awarded. Years 1 through 3 of the project focused on the advanced placement of LPNs into the associate degree program, and years 4 and 5 are an expansion to include the advanced placement of LPNs into the baccalaureate degree program.

  2. Development Testing of 1-Newton ADN-Based Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anflo, K.; Gronland, T.-A.; Bergman, G.; Nedar, R.; Thormählen, P.

    2004-10-01

    With the objective to reduce operational hazards and improve specific and density impulse as compared with hydrazine, the Research and Development (R&D) of a new monopropellant for space applications based on AmmoniumDiNitramide (ADN), was first proposed in 1997. This pioneering work has been described in previous papers1,2,3,4 . From the discussion above, it is clear that cost savings as well as risk reduction are the main drivers to develop a new generation of reduced hazard propellants. However, this alone is not enough to convince a spacecraft builder to choose a new technology. Cost, risk and schedule reduction are good incentives, but a spacecraft supplier will ask for evidence that this new propulsion system meets a number of requirements within the following areas: This paper describes the ongoing effort to develop a storable liquid monopropellant blend, based on AND, and its specific rocket engines. After building and testing more than 20 experimental rocket engines, the first Engineering Model (EM-1) has now accumulated more than 1 hour of firing-time. The results from test firings have validated the design. Specific impulse, combustion stability, blow-down capability and short pulse capability are amongst the requirements that have been demonstrated. The LMP-103x propellant candidate has been stored for more than 1 year and initial material compatibility screening and testing has started. 1. Performance &life 2. Impact on spacecraft design &operation 3. Flight heritage Hereafter, the essential requirements for some of these areas are outlined. These issues are discussed in detail in a previous paper1 . The use of "Commercial Of The Shelf" (COTS) propulsion system components as much as possible is essential to minimize the overall cost, risk and schedule. This leads to the conclusion that the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 5 has been reached for the thruster and propellant. Furthermore, that the concept of ADN-based propulsion is feasible.

  3. Correlation between different forms of HIV DNA and disease progression%不同形式的HIV DNA与疾病进展的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜太一; 李红艳; 张彤; 吴昊; 焦艳梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between different forms of HIV DNA and disease progression. Methods Re-altime quantitative method was used to detect total and integrated HIV DNA and HIV 2-long terminal repeat (LTR) circular DNA in peripheral blood of 48 patients with definite infection time. With time went on, dynamic features of different forms of HIV DNA and the correlation between different forms of HIV DNA and disease progression were analyzed. Results With the progression of the disease, the levels of total and integrated HIV DNA increased. Total HIV DNA was positively correlated with viral load. Total and integrated HIV DNA was negatively correlated with CD4+T lymphocyte count. There were no correlation between HIV 2-LTR cir-cular DNA and viral load and CD4+T lymphocyte count. Conclusions Our results suggest that it is total and integrated HIV DNA, rather than HIV 2-LTR circular DNA that are closely correlated with disease progression.%目的:研究不同形式的HIV DNA与疾病进展之间的关系。方法采用实时定量PCR法来检测48例具有明确感染时间的患者总的、整合的及2个长末端重复序列(long terminal repeat, LTR)的环状HIV DNA。分析随着时间的变化,不同形式HIV DNA的动力学变化特点及其与疾病进展的关系。结果随着疾病的进展,总的及整合的HIV DNA增加。总的HIV DNA与病毒载量呈正相关。总的及整合的HIV DNA与CD4+T淋巴细胞计数呈负相关。2个LTR的环状HIV DNA与病毒载量及CD4+T淋巴细胞计数无相关性。结论总的及整合的HIV DNA与疾病进展密切相关,2个LTR的环状HIV DNA与疾病进展无相关性。

  4. Switch to raltegravir-based regimens and HIV DNA decrease in patients with suppressed HIV RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Bianco

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Raltegravir intensification is associated with an increase in 2-LTR episomal HIV DNA= circles, indicating a persistent low-level replication, in some individuals in ART with suppressed HIV RNA. We aimed at monitoring residual plasma HIV RNA and cellular HIV DNA in virologically suppressed patients switching to a raltegravir-based regimen. Materials and Methods: Forty-six HIV-infected subjects on PI or NNRTI based-regimens, with plasma HIV RNA level 200 cells/µL for ≥12 months were enrolled. Thirty-four patients switched to raltegravir-based regimen (RASTA study group and 12 continued a PI or NNRTI based-regimen (control group. Ultrasensitive HIV residual viremia and total PBMC HIV DNA were assessed at baseline (W0, 24 (W24 and 48 (W48 weeks. HIV RNA levels were determined by an ultrasensitive test derived from a commercial real time PCR (limit of detection 5 copies/ml. A real time PCR was used to quantify HIV DNA copy numbers in PBMCs. Results: At W0, HIV DNA was detected in all patients while at W48 it was detectable in 82.3% of RASTA group vs 100% of controls (p=0.01. The difference between the average values of HIV DNA log10 copies/10°6 CD4 at W0 (median 3.11, IQR 2.70–3.45 and W48 (median 2.87, IQR 2.24–3.38 was statistically significant for RASTA group (p=0.035. Male gender (mean difference −0.37 log10 copies/10°6 PBMC, p=0.023 and previous PI based-ART (mean difference +0.39 log10 copies/10°6 PBMC, p=0.036 were predictive of HIV DNA level at W0. After adjusting for previous PI based-ART, male gender was the only variable independently associated with HIV DNA size at W0 (mean difference −0.326 log10 copies/10°6 PBMC, 95% CI −0.641, −0.011 p=0.043. Ultrasensitive HIV-1 RNA was detectable at W0 in 50% of RASTA group versus 66.7% of controls and at W48 in 32.4% versus 45.5%, respectively. No differences were found between HIV RNA levels at W0 and W48 within and between the two groups. Conclusions: Switching to

  5. Differences in patient rating of care provided by BSN and ADN students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Martin, S; Skalak, C

    1992-01-01

    Nursing has discussed widely and with fervor the level of education required to provide quality nursing care for clients. No clear consensus has developed but studies tend to show that especially in the hospital setting, baccalaureate (BSN) and associate degree (ADN) nurses initially practice at a similar level. No studies identified compared patient ratings of BSN and ADN nurses. In this study ratings of care provided by BSN and ADN students were compared. Patients, students and instructors rated the student sample using Watson's Patient Satisfaction Rating Scale. Using Pearson correlations and t-tests, the overall satisfaction with care was assessed as "very positive" by patients, faculty and students alike. A significant correlation was found between faculty and patient ratings. Results support earlier findings and demonstrate similarities rather than differences in care provided by the two levels of students. Implications for nursing education and practice are discussed.

  6. Impact of chemotherapy for HIV-1 related lymphoma on residual viremia and cellular HIV-1 DNA in patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cillo, Anthony R; Krishnan, Supriya; McMahon, Deborah K; Mitsuyasu, Ronald T; Para, Michael F; Mellors, John W

    2014-01-01

    The first cure of HIV-1 infection was achieved through complex, multimodal therapy including myeloablative chemotherapy, total body irradiation, anti-thymocyte globulin, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation with a CCR5 delta32 homozygous donor. The contributions of each component of this therapy to HIV-1 eradication are unclear. To assess the impact of cytotoxic chemotherapy alone on HIV-1 persistence, we longitudinally evaluated low-level plasma viremia and HIV-1 DNA in PBMC from patients in the ACTG A5001/ALLRT cohort on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) who underwent chemotherapy for HIV-1 related lymphoma without interrupting ART. Plasma HIV-1 RNA, total HIV-1 DNA and 2-LTR circles (2-LTRs) in PBMC were measured using sensitive qPCR assays. In the 9 patients who received moderately intensive chemotherapy for HIV-1 related lymphoma with uninterrupted ART, low-level plasma HIV-1 RNA did not change significantly with chemotherapy: median HIV-1 RNA was 1 copy/mL (interquartile range: 1.0 to 20) pre-chemotherapy versus 4 copies/mL (interquartile range: 1.0 to 7.0) post-chemotherapy. HIV-1 DNA levels also did not change significantly, with median pre-chemotherapy HIV-1 DNA of 355 copies/106 CD4+ cells versus 228 copies/106 CD4+ cells post-chemotherapy. 2-LTRs were detectable in 2 of 9 patients pre-chemotherapy and in 3 of 9 patients post-chemotherapy. In summary, moderately intensive chemotherapy for HIV-1 related lymphoma in the context of continuous ART did not have a prolonged impact on HIV-1 persistence. Clinical trials registration unique identifier: NCT00001137.

  7. Impact of chemotherapy for HIV-1 related lymphoma on residual viremia and cellular HIV-1 DNA in patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R Cillo

    Full Text Available The first cure of HIV-1 infection was achieved through complex, multimodal therapy including myeloablative chemotherapy, total body irradiation, anti-thymocyte globulin, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation with a CCR5 delta32 homozygous donor. The contributions of each component of this therapy to HIV-1 eradication are unclear. To assess the impact of cytotoxic chemotherapy alone on HIV-1 persistence, we longitudinally evaluated low-level plasma viremia and HIV-1 DNA in PBMC from patients in the ACTG A5001/ALLRT cohort on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART who underwent chemotherapy for HIV-1 related lymphoma without interrupting ART. Plasma HIV-1 RNA, total HIV-1 DNA and 2-LTR circles (2-LTRs in PBMC were measured using sensitive qPCR assays. In the 9 patients who received moderately intensive chemotherapy for HIV-1 related lymphoma with uninterrupted ART, low-level plasma HIV-1 RNA did not change significantly with chemotherapy: median HIV-1 RNA was 1 copy/mL (interquartile range: 1.0 to 20 pre-chemotherapy versus 4 copies/mL (interquartile range: 1.0 to 7.0 post-chemotherapy. HIV-1 DNA levels also did not change significantly, with median pre-chemotherapy HIV-1 DNA of 355 copies/106 CD4+ cells versus 228 copies/106 CD4+ cells post-chemotherapy. 2-LTRs were detectable in 2 of 9 patients pre-chemotherapy and in 3 of 9 patients post-chemotherapy. In summary, moderately intensive chemotherapy for HIV-1 related lymphoma in the context of continuous ART did not have a prolonged impact on HIV-1 persistence. Clinical trials registration unique identifier: NCT00001137.

  8. Knockdown of MAP4 and DNAL1 produces a post-fusion and pre-nuclear translocation impairment in HIV-1 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Daniel E; Hope, Thomas J

    2012-01-05

    DNAL1 and MAP4 are both microtubule-associated proteins. These proteins were identified as HIV-1 dependency factors in a screen with wild-type HIV-1. In this study we demonstrate that knockdown using DNAL1 and MAP4 siRNAs and shRNAs inhibits HIV-1 infection regardless of envelope. Using a fusion assay, we show that DNAL1 and MAP4 do not impact fusion. By assaying for late reverse transcripts and 2-LTR circles, we show that DNAL1 and MAP4 inhibit both by approximately 50%. These results demonstrate that DNAL1 and MAP4 impact reverse transcription but not nuclear translocation. DNAL1 and MAP4 knockdown cells do not display cytoskeletal defects. Together these experiments indicate that DNAL1 and MAP4 may exert their functions in the HIV life cycle at reverse transcription, prior to nuclear translocation.

  9. Adaptive Competency Acquisition: Why LPN-to-ADN Career Mobility Education Programs Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle-Rogers, Patricia G.

    Adaptive competencies are the skills required to effectively complete a particular task and are the congruencies (balance) between personal skills and task demands. The differences between the adaptive competency acquisition of students in licensed practical nurse (LPN) programs and associate degree nurse (ADN) programs were examined in a…

  10. Feasibility of an LPN to ADN Articulation Program at LSUA. Vocational Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana State Univ., Alexandria.

    A feasibility study examined the need for and likelihood of success for a Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) to Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN) articulation program for Louisiana State University (LSU) at Alexandria. Following a literature search on the theoretical establishment and implementation of such a program, three schools with successful…

  11. Aportaci??n a la m??tica historia de Ad??n y Eva (II)

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    Es continuaci??n de: Castillo Castillo, C. "Aportaci??n a la m??tica historia de Ad??n y Eva (I)". Miscel??nea de estudios ??rabes y hebraicos. Secci??n ??rabe-Islam. Vol. 29 (1980). ISSN 0544-408X, p. 35-52. [http://hdl.handle.net/10481/33730].

  12. Mechanism and kinetics for ammonium dinitramide (ADN) sublimation: a first-principles study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, R S; Chen, Hui-Lung; Lin, M C

    2012-11-08

    The mechanism for sublimation of NH(4)N(NO(2))(2) (ADN) has been investigated quantum-mechanically with generalized gradient approximation plane-wave density functional theory calculations; the solid surface is represented by a slab model and the periodic boundary conditions are applied. The calculated lattice constants for the bulk ADN, which were found to consist of NH(4)(+)[ON(O)NNO(2)](-) units, instead of NH(4)(+)[N(NO(2))(2)](-), agree quite well with experimental values. Results show that three steps are involved in the sublimation/decomposition of ADN. The first step is the relaxation of the surface layer with 1.6 kcal/mol energy per NH(4)ON(O)NNO(2) unit; the second step is the sublimation of the surface layer to form a molecular [NH(3)]-[HON(O)NNO(2)] complex with a 29.4 kcal/mol sublimation energy, consistent with the experimental observation of Korobeinichev et al. (10) The last step is the dissociation of the [H(3)N]-[HON(O)NNO(2)] complex to give NH(3) and HON(O)NNO(2) with the dissociation energy of 13.9 kcal/mol. Direct formation of NO(2) (g) from solid ADN costs a much higher energy, 58.3 kcal/mol. Our calculated total sublimation enthalpy for ADN(s) → NH(3)(g) + HON(O)NNO(2)) (g), 44.9 kcal/mol via three steps, is in good agreement with the value, 42.1 kcal/mol predicted for the one-step sublimation process in this work and the value 44.0 kcal/mol computed by Politzer et al. (11) using experimental thermochemical data. The sublimation rate constant for the rate-controlling step 2 can be represented as k(sub) = 2.18 × 10(12) exp (-30.5 kcal/mol/RT) s(-1), which agrees well with available experimental data within the temperature range studied. The high pressure limit decomposition rate constant for the molecular complex H(3)N···HON(O)NNO(2) can be expressed by k(dec) = 3.18 × 10(13) exp (-15.09 kcal/mol/RT) s(-1). In addition, water molecules were found to increase the sublimation enthalpy of ADN, contrary to that found in the ammonium

  13. HIV感染1年内不同形式HIV DNA的动态变化情况%HIV-1 DNA dynamics during the first year of HIV-1 infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈广磊; 焦艳梅; 吴昊

    2015-01-01

    目的 探究人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)感染者感染1年内HIV-1总DNA、2-LTR环状DNA和整合型DNA的变化情况.方法 从HIV急性期队列中选取疾病进展速度不同的两组患者,“高CD4组”CD4计数在1年内大于500个/μl,“低CD4组”CD4计数在1年内小于300个/μl.比较两组患者在同一感染时间点时总HIV DNA、2-LTR环状HIV DNA及整合HIV DNA的水平,及同一组患者在不同感染时间点时的总HIV DNA、2-LTR环状HIV DNA和整合HIV DNA的水平.结果 “高CD4组”和“低CD4组”间总HIV DNA在感染第12个月时差异有统计学意义(U=2.958,P<0.05),2-LTR环状HIV DNA及整合HIV DNA在两组间差异无统计学意义.“高CD4组”总HIV DNA在感染第1个月和第12个月间差异有统计学意义(H=2.502,P<0.05),“低CD4组”各个月份间差异无统计学意义.结论 对于急性HIV感染的患者,尤其是感染1年内的患者,总HIV DNA有较好的临床应用价值,可以辅助预测患者的疾病进展情况.%Objective To study the dynamic changes of total,2-LTR circular and integrated HIV-1 DNA during the first year of HIV-1 infection.Methods Two distinct HIV-1 patient groups from the acute infection cohort with different disease progression were recruited.During the first year of HIV-1 infection,the CD4 count in "High CD4 Group" remained above 500 cells/μl,while the "Low CD4 Group" progressed below 300 cells/μl.We compared the total,2-LTR circular,and integrated HIV-1 DNA at the same infection time between the two groups,and the HIV DNA level at different infection months in the same group.Results The difference of total HIV DNA was significant different at the 12-month point between "High CD4 Group" and "Low CD4 Group" (U=2.958,P<0.05).The total HIV DNA in "High CD4 Group" also showed significant difference between 1-month and 12-month infection points (H=2.502,P<0.05).Conclusions For acute HIV-1 infection especially patients infected within one year,the total HIV

  14. AISLAMIENTO DE ADN GENÓMICO DE Myrciaria dubia (HBK “CAMU CAMU” APROPIADO PARA ANÁLISIS MOLECULARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Castro Gómez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Myrciaria dubia “camu-camu”, una especie nativa de la Amazonía que produce frutos con alto contenido de vitamina C y otras sustancias importantes. Sin embargo, los estudios moleculares de esta planta son escasos, por falta de un protocolo reproducible para purificar sus ácidos nucléicos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer un protocolo para aislar el ADN genómico a partir de hojas de M. dubia, apropiado para análisis moleculares. El ADN se purificó con un protocolo modificado, la calidad y cantidad se estimó por espectrofotometría y electroforesis en gel de agarosa. Adicionalmente, la calidad se evaluó mediante RAPD. El ratio de calidad (A260/A280 promedio del ADN fue 1.9±0.1 y el espectro de absorción UV/Vis presentó un único pico de máxima absorbancia a 260nm. Mediante electroforesis el ADN fue íntegro y sin ARN. También, la síntesis de amplicones RAPD nos sugiere ausencia de inhibidores para polimerasas. La concentración promedio del ADN fue 99±33 ng/ml y el rendimiento promedio fue 237±80 mg ADN/g hoja. En conclusión, se ha establecido un protocolo de aislamiento de ADN genómico a partir de hojas de Myrciaria dubia “camu camu”, caracterizado por permitirnos obtener ADN de alta calidad y cantidad suficiente para análisis moleculares como el RAPD.

  15. Sulforaphane Inhibits HIV Infection of Macrophages through Nrf2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kinga Marias Furuya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Marburg virus, the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV and Dengue virus all activate, and benefit from, expression of the transcription regulator nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2. The impact of Nrf2 activation on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection has not been tested. Sulforaphane (SFN, produced in cruciferous vegetables after mechanical damage, mobilizes Nrf2 to potently reprogram cellular gene expression. Here we show for the first time that SFN blocks HIV infection in primary macrophages but not in primary T cells. Similarly SFN blocks infection in PMA-differentiated promonocytic cell lines, but not in other cell lines tested. siRNA-mediated depletion of Nrf2 boosted HIV infectivity in primary macrophages and reduced the anti-viral effects of SFN treatment. This supports a model in which anti-viral activity is mediated through Nrf2 after it is mobilized by SFN. We further found that, like the type I interferon-induced cellular anti-viral proteins SAMHD1 and MX2, SFN treatment blocks infection after entry, but before formation of 2-LTR circles. Interestingly however, neither SAMHD1 nor MX2 were upregulated. This shows for the first time that Nrf2 action can potently block HIV infection and highlights a novel way to trigger this inhibition.

  16. Protection des ions organiques contre les dommages induits a l'ADN par les electrons de basse energie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Ariane

    Il a ete demontre que les electrons de basse energie (EBE) peuvent induire des cassures simple brin (CSB) a l'ADN, via la formation d'anions transitoires qui decroissent par attachement dissociatif, ou dans d'autres etats electroniques dissociatifs menant a la fragmentation. Afin d'effectuer une etude complete des effets des electrons de basse energie sur la matiere biologique, il est necessaire de comprendre leur mecanismes d'interaction non seulement avec l'ADN, mais avec les constituants de son environnement. Les histones sont une composante importante de l'environnement moleculaire de l'ADN. Leur charge positive leur permet de s'associer aux groupements phosphate anionique de l'ADN. Le role principal de ces proteines basiques consiste a organiser l'ADN et l'empaqueter afin de former la chromatine. Les cations sont une autre composante importante de la cellule; ils jouent un role dans la stabilisation de la conformation B de l'ADN in vitro par leurs interactions avec les petits et grands sillons de l'ADN, ainsi qu'avec le groupement phosphate charge negativement. Avec les histones, ils participent egalement a la compaction de l'ADN pour former la chromatine. Cette etude a pour but de comprendre comment la presence d'ions organiques (sous forme de Tris et d'EDTA) a proximite de l'ADN modifie le rendement de cassures simple brin induit par les electrons de basse energie. Le Tris et l'EDTA ont-ete choisis comme objet d'etude, puisqu'en solution, ils forment le tampon standard pour solubiliser l'ADN dans les experiences in vitro (10mM Tris, 1mM EDTA). De plus, la molecule Tris possede un groupement amine alors que l'EDTA possede 4 groupements carboxyliques. Ensembles, ils peuvent se comporter comme un modele simple pour les acides amines. Le ratio molaire de 10 :1 de Tris par rapport a l'EDTA a pour but d'imiter le comportement des histones qui sont riches en arginine et lysine, acides amines possedant un groupement amine charge positivement additionnel. Des films d'ADN

  17. 安捷伦推出光学鼠标传感器ADNS-3060

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    安捷伦(Agilent)日前宣布推出一款基于LED的光学鼠标传感器ADNS-3060,它进一步改善了跟踪控制功能。与其他光学鼠标传感器相比,新的传感器在性能上更有所增强,可以在包括木质桌面和网纹图像等各种不同的表面上工作。ADNS-3060的表面跟踪精确度增强了20倍。

  18. Extracción del ADN de Fusarium Oxysporum f.sp. Dianthi

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Se estudia la utílización de dos métodos para la extracción del ADN del Fusarium o.xy.sporum f.sp. Dianthi. En los dos métodos la pared del hongo se rompió con nitrógeno líquido, uno de ellos empleó como solución extractora bromuro de cetiltrimetil amonio (BCTA) y el otro una solución de sacarosa con altas concentraciones de protcasa y EDTA. Para la desproteinización ambos métodos utilizaron soluciones de fcnol-clorofonno y enzimas proteolítícas. El ADN obtenido se digirió con enzimas d...

  19. Enlaces de hidrógeno cooperativos en la interacción carbohidrato-ADN

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Química Orgánica. Fecha de lectura: 22-05-2014 El título que aparece en la obra impresa es: "Enlaces de hidrógeno cooperativos en medio acuoso: glico-oligoamidas ligandos del surco menor del ADN"

  20. The level and focus of geriatric nursing content in ADN and BSN programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, J T; Lantz, J; Quayhagen, M P

    1992-11-01

    The didactic and clinical focus of geriatric curriculum content within both associate (ADN) and baccalaureate (BSN) schools of nursing in California was reviewed. Geriatric nursing content experts confirmed the detail of a geriatric nursing curriculum, then determined which of the content items were basic to both educational levels, and which might be appropriately deferred to programs of baccalaureate preparation. Nurse educators may use the results of this study to guide curriculum development in both depth and breadth of content.

  1. Extracción del ADN de Fusarium Oxysporum f.sp. Dianthi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixta T. Martínez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la utílización de dos métodos para la extracción del ADN del Fusarium o.xy.sporum f.sp. Dianthi. En los dos métodos la pared del hongo se rompió con nitrógeno líquido, uno de ellos empleó como solución extractora bromuro de cetiltrimetil amonio (BCTA y el otro una solución de sacarosa con altas concentraciones de protcasa y EDTA. Para la desproteinización ambos métodos utilizaron soluciones de fcnol-clorofonno y enzimas proteolítícas. El ADN obtenido se digirió con enzimas de restricción EcoRI y Hindlll. Se corroboró que cl ADN estaba libre de los contaminantes más frecuentes en hongos, como proteínas y carbohidratos por medio de ultracentrifugación en cloruro de cesio (CsCI. La extracción con BCTA presentó los mejores rendimientos.

  2. ADN – The new oxidizer around the corner for an environmentally friendly smokeless propellant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Y. Nagamachi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The search for a smokeless propellant has encouraged scientists and engineers to look for a chlorine-free oxidizer as a substitute for AP (ammonium perchlorate. Endeavors seemed to come to an end when ADN (ammonium dinitramide appeared in the West in the early 1990s. Although some drawbacks soon became apparent by that time, the foremost obstacle for its use in rocket-motors came from the patent originally applied for in the United States in 1990. Furthermore, environmental concerns have also increased during these two decades. Ammonium perchlorate is believed to cause thyroid cancer by contaminating soil and water. In addition, AP produces hydrogen chloride during burning which can cause acid rain and ozone layer depletion. Unlike AP, ADN stands for both smokeless and green propellant. Since then, much progress has been made in its development in synthesis, re-shaping, microencapsulation and solid propellant. The high solubility of ADN in water has also allowed its application as liquid monopropellant. Tests have revealed Isp (specific impulse superior to that normally observed with hydrazine, one of the most harmful and hazardous liquid propellants. With constraints of use, along with the patent near to expiry, scientists and engineers are rushing to complete developments and patents until then.

  3. Estructura cristalina de ADN y su utilización para la identificación de fármacos

    OpenAIRE

    Coll, Miquel; Aymamí, Joan

    2006-01-01

    Estructura cristalina de ADN y su utilización para la identificación de fármacos. La estructura cristalina que comprende un entrecruzamiento de tres cadenas de ADN está caracterizada porque: pertenece al grupo espacial P4(1)32 y tiene unas dimensiones de celda a=b=c=70,98 ± 0,7°A; todos los nucleótidos que constituyen dichas cadenas de ADN se encuentran emparejados; y dicho entrecruzamiento de tres cadenas de ADN alberga, en una cavidad hidrofóbica, una molécula. La...

  4. GAP/ADN/nano-Al膏体推进剂的能量特性与激光点火特性%Energy characteristics and laser ignition characteristics of GAP/ADN/nano-Al pasty propellants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴庆; 郝海霞; 赵凤起; 徐司雨; 姚二岗; 汪营磊

    2015-01-01

    采用最小自由能原理方法计算了GAP(聚叠氮缩水甘油醚)/ADN(二硝酰胺铵)/nano-Al推进剂的能量特性,制备了一系列ADN质量分数为8%~38%的GAP/ADN/nano-Al膏体推进剂,采用CO2激光点火的方法研究了4种配方在不同激光功率密度作用下的激光点火特性.结果表明:GAP/ADN/nano-Al膏体推进剂的标准理论比冲(Isp)、特征速度(C*)、燃烧温度(Tc)均随ADN含量增加而依次增大,爆热(Qv)则主要随铝粉含量的增加而增大;GAP/ADN/nano-Al膏体推进剂的点火延迟时间和点火能量总体上随着激光功率密度增加呈现减小的趋势;配方中ADN含量较高时,GAP/ADN/nano-Al膏体推进剂具有较好的激光点火特性.

  5. HIV Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS HIV Transmission Language: English Transmisión del VIH Recommend on ...

  6. CD4+ T Cells Expressing PD-1, TIGIT and LAG-3 Contribute to HIV Persistence during ART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromentin, Rémi; Bakeman, Wendy; Lawani, Mariam B.; Khoury, Gabriela; Hartogensis, Wendy; DaFonseca, Sandrina; Killian, Marisela; Epling, Lorrie; Hoh, Rebecca; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Hecht, Frederick M.; Bacchetti, Peter; Deeks, Steven G.; Lewin, Sharon R.; Sékaly, Rafick-Pierre; Chomont, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    HIV persists in a small pool of latently infected cells despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). Identifying cellular markers expressed at the surface of these cells may lead to novel therapeutic strategies to reduce the size of the HIV reservoir. We hypothesized that CD4+ T cells expressing immune checkpoint molecules would be enriched in HIV-infected cells in individuals receiving suppressive ART. Expression levels of 7 immune checkpoint molecules (PD-1, CTLA-4, LAG-3, TIGIT, TIM-3, CD160 and 2B4) as well as 4 markers of HIV persistence (integrated and total HIV DNA, 2-LTR circles and cell-associated unspliced HIV RNA) were measured in PBMCs from 48 virally suppressed individuals. Using negative binomial regression models, we identified PD-1, TIGIT and LAG-3 as immune checkpoint molecules positively associated with the frequency of CD4+ T cells harboring integrated HIV DNA. The frequency of CD4+ T cells co-expressing PD-1, TIGIT and LAG-3 independently predicted the frequency of cells harboring integrated HIV DNA. Quantification of HIV genomes in highly purified cell subsets from blood further revealed that expressions of PD-1, TIGIT and LAG-3 were associated with HIV-infected cells in distinct memory CD4+ T cell subsets. CD4+ T cells co-expressing the three markers were highly enriched for integrated viral genomes (median of 8.2 fold compared to total CD4+ T cells). Importantly, most cells carrying inducible HIV genomes expressed at least one of these markers (median contribution of cells expressing LAG-3, PD-1 or TIGIT to the inducible reservoir = 76%). Our data provide evidence that CD4+ T cells expressing PD-1, TIGIT and LAG-3 alone or in combination are enriched for persistent HIV during ART and suggest that immune checkpoint blockers directed against these receptors may represent valuable tools to target latently infected cells in virally suppressed individuals. PMID:27415008

  7. CD4+ T Cells Expressing PD-1, TIGIT and LAG-3 Contribute to HIV Persistence during ART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Fromentin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available HIV persists in a small pool of latently infected cells despite antiretroviral therapy (ART. Identifying cellular markers expressed at the surface of these cells may lead to novel therapeutic strategies to reduce the size of the HIV reservoir. We hypothesized that CD4+ T cells expressing immune checkpoint molecules would be enriched in HIV-infected cells in individuals receiving suppressive ART. Expression levels of 7 immune checkpoint molecules (PD-1, CTLA-4, LAG-3, TIGIT, TIM-3, CD160 and 2B4 as well as 4 markers of HIV persistence (integrated and total HIV DNA, 2-LTR circles and cell-associated unspliced HIV RNA were measured in PBMCs from 48 virally suppressed individuals. Using negative binomial regression models, we identified PD-1, TIGIT and LAG-3 as immune checkpoint molecules positively associated with the frequency of CD4+ T cells harboring integrated HIV DNA. The frequency of CD4+ T cells co-expressing PD-1, TIGIT and LAG-3 independently predicted the frequency of cells harboring integrated HIV DNA. Quantification of HIV genomes in highly purified cell subsets from blood further revealed that expressions of PD-1, TIGIT and LAG-3 were associated with HIV-infected cells in distinct memory CD4+ T cell subsets. CD4+ T cells co-expressing the three markers were highly enriched for integrated viral genomes (median of 8.2 fold compared to total CD4+ T cells. Importantly, most cells carrying inducible HIV genomes expressed at least one of these markers (median contribution of cells expressing LAG-3, PD-1 or TIGIT to the inducible reservoir = 76%. Our data provide evidence that CD4+ T cells expressing PD-1, TIGIT and LAG-3 alone or in combination are enriched for persistent HIV during ART and suggest that immune checkpoint blockers directed against these receptors may represent valuable tools to target latently infected cells in virally suppressed individuals.

  8. A novel implantable vagus nerve stimulation system (ADNS-300) for combined stimulation and recording of the vagus nerve: Pilot trial at Ghent University Hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Tahry, R.; Raedt, R.; Mollet, L.; de Herdt, V.; Wyckuys, T.; Van Dycke, A.; Meurs, A.; Dewaele, F.; van Roost, D.; Doguet, P.; Delbeke, J.; Wadman, W.; Vonck, K.; Boon, P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an established treatment for refractory epilepsy. The ADNS-300 is a new system for VNS that includes a rechargeable stimulus generator and an electrode for combined stimulation and recording. In this feasibility study, three patients were implanted with ADNS

  9. 基于光电传感器ADNS-2030无线鼠标的设计与实现%Design and implementation of wireless mouse based on ADNS-2030

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵升; 陈庆来; 解瑞杰

    2006-01-01

    研究基于光电传感器ADNS-2030的无线鼠标设计,讨论了ADNS-2030无线鼠标的软件、硬件设计和系统组成,通过实际制作表明:无线鼠标的设计方案是合理可行的,该产品具有性价比高,功耗低,高分辨率,有效距离远等优点,具有一定的应用前景和推广价值.

  10. Comparison of role conception and role deprivation in LPN-transition students and traditional ADN students in a specially designed associate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengacher, C A; Keller, R

    1992-02-01

    This study compared differences in role orientation and role deprivation between 41 LPN-transition students and 123 basic traditional associate degree nursing (ADN) students upon entry and exit to a specially designed ADN program. The Corwin Role Conception Scale was used to assess role conception and deprivation. Statistically significant differences were noted upon entry between LPN-transition students and traditional ADN students in professional and service role conceptions and in role deprivation, upon exit in professional role conception and role deprivation between LPN-transition and traditional ADN students, and in professional role conception within the LPN-transition students. No differences were found within traditional ADN students from entry to exit of the program.

  11. Avago发布USB光学鼠标传感器SOC ADNS-2700

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Avago Technologies近日宣布推出一款光学传感器片上系统(SoC),为鼠标和其他人机接口设备提供市场上最小的引脚数。这款高度集成的紧凑型ADNS-2700LED传感器无需使用外部微控制器,使用更少的无源元件,可提供简易设计并降低整体系统成本。

  12. Extracción de adn plasmidico de cepas de rhizobium leguminosarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y, Cortés L.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available S.e realizó una comparación simultánea de cuatro métodos para la extracción de ADN plasmídico. De los resultados experimentales se concluyó que únicamente con la técnica de Kronstad, en las condiciones ensayadas y con cultivos de cepas de Rhizobium leguminosarum bv Viceae en fase de crecimiento logarítmica temprana, se visualizaron 3 plásmidos para la cepa SEMIA 335 y un plásmido para la cepa B.

  13. Extracción de adn plasmidico de cepas de rhizobium leguminosarum

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    S.e realizó una comparación simultánea de cuatro métodos para la extracción de ADN plasmídico. De los resultados experimentales se concluyó que únicamente con la técnica de Kronstad, en las condiciones ensayadas y con cultivos de cepas de Rhizobium leguminosarum bv Viceae en fase de crecimiento logarítmica temprana, se visualizaron 3 plásmidos para la cepa SEMIA 335 y un plásmido para la cepa B.

  14. Adulteriode la mujer, presunción de paternidad y la prueba oportuna del ADN

    OpenAIRE

    Boada Freire, Denys Paúl

    2015-01-01

    En la actualidad, nuestro entorno y el medio en el que nos desenvolvemos conocida también como una sociedad civilizada, ha sufrido cambio debido al alto grado de disolución de hogares a causa de la infidelidad conocido jurídicamente como adulterio. El presente trabajo de investigación, trata sobre el adulterio específicamente de la mujer, la presunta prueba de paternidad mediante la utilización de la prueba del ADN, se trata de un tema muy relevante en nuestra sociedad, ya que el adulterio...

  15. DETERMINACIÓN DEL SEXO POR ADN EN CINCO ESPECIES DE GUACAMAYOS

    OpenAIRE

    Liza R., Jacqueline; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Maturrano H., Lenin; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Rosadio A., Raúl; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2012-01-01

    La determinación del sexo en aves de especies silvestres es de vital importancia para tomar medidas de conservación. En especies donde no existe dimorfismo sexual, es necesario contar con una prueba de sexaje alternativo a los métodos quirúrgicos. En este sentido, con la finalidad de estandarizar una prueba para la determinación del sexo en guacamayos, se desarrolló y evaluó una prueba molecular que consistió en el análisis de ADN mediante la Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa (PCR). Para el...

  16. LOS METALES COMO INHIBIDORES DEL SISTEMA DE REPARACIÓN DEL ADN

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Hernández-Franco; Mahara Valverde; Emilio Rojas

    2009-01-01

    Los humanos han estado en contacto con los metales desde su aparición en el planeta. De hecho no se puede pensar en la evolución humana sin pensar en el gran papel que han jugado los metales en el desarrollo humano. Algunos metales son esenciales para llevar a cabo procesos celulares, sin embargo, otros son capaces de promover una gran variedad de efectos deletéreos para la salud, incluyendo el cáncer. Las evidencias de que la inhibición de los mecanismos de reparación del ADN, es un importan...

  17. 球形二硝酰胺铵研究%Study on prilled ammonium dinitramide(ADN)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马跃; 张海林

    2002-01-01

    介绍了二硝酰胺铵(ADN)的液相凝聚成球方法,并对球形ADN的吸湿性、感度(撞击、摩擦)、粒度分布以及颗粒表面进行了测试和分析.结果表明,球形ADN吸湿性、感度优于非球形ADN.用这种方法制得的球形ADN粒径为5~800μm.

  18. Extracción de ADN y una prueba inical de primers en Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl. Para marcadores AFLP

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Se desarrollo un método de extracción de ADN simple, rápido y de alto rendimiento para Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl. del área semillera establecida en Jerahuaro, Michoacán para la producción de semilla de calidad. Se implementaron herramientas moleculares (AFLP) para identificar su relación genética inter-especie. Es muy importante contar con el protocolo de extracción y purificación de ADN estandarizado para la especie de interés, debido a que este proceso constituye una etapa clave en todos lo...

  19. Combined Antiviral Therapy Using Designed Molecular Scaffolds Targeting Two Distinct Viral Functions, HIV-1 Genome Integration and Capsid Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamaikawin, Wannisa; Saoin, Somphot; Nangola, Sawitree; Chupradit, Koollawat; Sakkhachornphop, Supachai; Hadpech, Sudarat; Onlamoon, Nattawat; Ansari, Aftab A; Byrareddy, Siddappa N; Boulanger, Pierre; Hong, Saw-See; Torbett, Bruce E; Tayapiwatana, Chatchai

    2015-08-25

    Designed molecular scaffolds have been proposed as alternative therapeutic agents against HIV-1. The ankyrin repeat protein (Ank(GAG)1D4) and the zinc finger protein (2LTRZFP) have recently been characterized as intracellular antivirals, but these molecules, used individually, do not completely block HIV-1 replication and propagation. The capsid-binder Ank(GAG)1D4, which inhibits HIV-1 assembly, does not prevent the genome integration of newly incoming viruses. 2LTRZFP, designed to target the 2-LTR-circle junction of HIV-1 cDNA and block HIV-1 integration, would have no antiviral effect on HIV-1-infected cells. However, simultaneous expression of these two molecules should combine the advantage of preventive and curative treatments. To test this hypothesis, the genes encoding the N-myristoylated Myr(+)Ank(GAG)1D4 protein and the 2LTRZFP were introduced into human T-cells, using a third-generation lentiviral vector. SupT1 cells stably expressing 2LTRZFP alone or with Myr(+)Ank(GAG)1D4 showed a complete resistance to HIV-1 in viral challenge. Administration of the Myr(+)Ank(GAG)1D4 vector to HIV-1-preinfected SupT1 cells resulted in a significant antiviral effect. Resistance to viral infection was also observed in primary human CD4+ T-cells stably expressing Myr(+)Ank(GAG)1D4, and challenged with HIV-1, SIVmac, or SHIV. Our data suggest that our two anti-HIV-1 molecular scaffold prototypes are promising antiviral agents for anti-HIV-1 gene therapy.

  20. Simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification by the marine origin bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ADN-42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ruofei; Liu, Tianqi; Liu, Guangfei; Zhou, Jiti; Huang, Jianyu; Wang, Aijie

    2015-02-01

    Recent research has highlighted the existence of some bacteria that are capable of performing heterotrophic nitrification and have a phenomenal ability to denitrify their nitrification products under aerobic conditions. A high-salinity-tolerant strain ADN-42 was isolated from Hymeniacidon perleve and found to display high heterotrophic ammonium removal capability. This strain was identified as Pseudomonas sp. via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Gene cloning and sequencing analysis indicated that the bacterial genome contains N2O reductase function (nosZ) gene. NH3-N removal rate of ADN-42 was very high. And the highest removal rate was 6.52 mg/L · h in the presence of 40 g/L NaCl. Under the condition of pure oxygen (DO >8 mg/L), NH3-N removal efficiency was 56.9 %. Moreover, 38.4 % of oxygen remained in the upper gas space during 72 h without greenhouse gas N2O production. Keeping continuous and low level of dissolved oxygen (DO <3 mg/L) was helpful for better denitrification performance. All these results indicated that the strain has heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification abilities, which guarantee future application in wastewater treatment.

  1. Descifrando los mensajes del pasado : análisis del ADN antiguo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción de la Rúa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de ADN (ADNa nos permite estudiar directamente la composición genética de las poblaciones del pasado. Sin embargo, pronto se hicieron patentes las limitaciones metodológicas derivadas del mal estado de preservación del ADNa, así como del enorme riesgo de contaminación con ADN humano momderno. Ello, condujo a la elaboración de una serie de Criterios de Autentificación que deben cumplir todos los trabajos del campo de ADNa para su publicación. Actualmente, los trabajos publicados no son numerosos, ni espectaculares, pero los resultados son reproducibles y su autenticidad esta demostrada. Nuestro equipo viene trabajando desde hace más de 10 años en este campo. Hemos analizado 5 yacimientos prehistóricos (SJaPL, Longar, Pico Ramos, Urratxa y Aizpea y uno histórico (Aldaieta del País Vasco. Los resultados obtenidos hasta el momento, nos están permitiendo indagar en los procesos evolutivos sufridos por la población vasca, constrastar las hipótesis que han sido planteadas con otras evidencias, y concretamente en el yacimiento de Aldaieta, indagar en cuestiones biosociales, como el parentesco, y en el origen de este grupo humano.

  2. Modélisation des effets de la photoabsorption K sur l'ADN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrigneaud, J. M.; Terrissol, M.

    1999-01-01

    Monte Carlo codes were used to simulate the transport of photons and their secondary electrons produced on a linear and hydrated DNA model. Between 150 and 550eV, the variation of photon cross section upon the K-ionisation threshold in C, N, O atoms of DNA is responsible for an increase of the biological effectiveness. We showed that, with the same number of absorbed photons, the distribution of breaks as a function of energy reaches a maximum around 450eV. Nous avons simulé le transport des photons et de leurs électrons secondaires mis en mouvement dans un modèle d'ADN linéaire hydraté, en utilisant la méthode de Monte Carlo. Entre 150 et 550 eV, la variation de section efficace photonique au- dessus du seuil d'ionisation K des atomes C, N, O de l'ADN est responsable d'un accroissement de l'efficacité biologique. Nous avons montré que, pour un même nombre de photons absorbés, la distribution des cassures en fonction de l'énergie passe par un maximum autour de 450 eV.

  3. Intensification of antiretroviral therapy with a CCR5 antagonist in patients with chronic HIV-1 infection: effect on T cells latently infected.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to assess the effect of MVC intensification on latently infected CD4(+ T cells in chronically HIV-1-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: We performed an open-label pilot phase II clinical trial involving chronically HIV-1-infected patients receiving stable antiretroviral therapy whose regimen was intensified with 48 weeks of maraviroc therapy. We analyzed the latent reservoir, the residual viremia and episomal 2LTR DNA to examine the relationship between these measures and the HIV-1 latent reservoir, immune activation, lymphocyte subsets (including effector and central memory T cells, and markers associated with bacterial translocation. RESULTS: Overall a non significant reduction in the size of the latent reservoir was found (p = 0.068. A mean reduction of 1.82 IUPM was observed in 4 patients with detectable latent reservoir at baseline after 48 weeks of intensification. No effect on plasma residual viremia was observed. Unexpectedly, all the patients had detectable 2LTR DNA circles at week 24, while none of them showed those circles at the end of the study. No changes were detected in CD4(+ or CD8(+ counts, although a significant decrease was found in the proportion of HLA-DR(+/CD38(+ CD4(+ and CD8(+ T-cells. LPS and sCD14 levels increased. CONCLUSIONS: Intensification with MVC was associated with a trend to a decrease in the size of the latent HIV-1 reservoir in memory T cells. No impact on residual viremia was detected. Additional studies with larger samples are needed to confirm the results. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00795444.

  4. Integrated and Total HIV-1 DNA Predict Ex Vivo Viral Outgrowth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kiselinova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of a reservoir of latently infected CD4 T cells remains one of the major obstacles to cure HIV. Numerous strategies are being explored to eliminate this reservoir. To translate these efforts into clinical trials, there is a strong need for validated biomarkers that can monitor the reservoir over time in vivo. A comprehensive study was designed to evaluate and compare potential HIV-1 reservoir biomarkers. A cohort of 25 patients, treated with suppressive antiretroviral therapy was sampled at three time points, with median of 2.5 years (IQR: 2.4-2.6 between time point 1 and 2; and median of 31 days (IQR: 28-36 between time point 2 and 3. Patients were median of 6 years (IQR: 3-12 on ART, and plasma viral load (<50 copies/ml was suppressed for median of 4 years (IQR: 2-8. Total HIV-1 DNA, unspliced (us and multiply spliced HIV-1 RNA, and 2LTR circles were quantified by digital PCR in peripheral blood, at 3 time points. At the second time point, a viral outgrowth assay (VOA was performed, and integrated HIV-1 DNA and relative mRNA expression levels of HIV-1 restriction factors were quantified. No significant change was found for long- and short-term dynamics of all HIV-1 markers tested in peripheral blood. Integrated HIV-1 DNA was associated with total HIV-1 DNA (p<0.001, R² = 0.85, us HIV-1 RNA (p = 0.029, R² = 0.40, and VOA (p = 0.041, R2 = 0.44. Replication-competent virus was detected in 80% of patients by the VOA and it correlated with total HIV-1 DNA (p = 0.039, R² = 0.54. The mean quantification difference between Alu-PCR and VOA was 2.88 log10, and 2.23 log10 between total HIV-1 DNA and VOA. The levels of usHIV-1 RNA were inversely correlated with mRNA levels of several HIV-1 restriction factors (TRIM5α, SAMHD1, MX2, SLFN11, pSIP1. Our study reveals important correlations between the viral outgrowth and total and integrated HIV-1 DNA measures, suggesting that the total pool of HIV-1 DNA may predict the size of the

  5. Ensayos cristalográficos de complejos de ADN con proteínas HMG-box y fármacos

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez Jimenez, Fabiola Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Las HMGB son proteínas nucleares que presentan el motivo “HMG-box”, con el que se unen al surco estrecho del ADN. Producen cambios estructurales en el mismo y están implicadas en diferentes enfermedades por lo que el estudio estructural de dichas proteínas unidas a ADN es de importancia en el desarrollo de estrategias terapéuticas. Por otra parte, los compuestos derivados de difenilo bisimidazolinio también se unen al surco estrecho del ADN, específicamente en zonas ricas en AT...

  6. Estudio de la fragmentación en el ADN espermático en pacientes sometidos a técnicas de reproducción asistida

    OpenAIRE

    Esbert Algam, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    La integridad del ADN del espermatozoide es de vital importancia, dado que puede comprometer la viabilidad del embrión. Para cuantificar la fragmentación en el ADN espermático se han desarrollado distintas técnicas, que han servido para relacionar dicha fragmentación con la esterilidad de origen masculino. Teniendo en cuenta que algunos de los individuos estériles van a someterse a técnicas de reproducción asistida, se ha valorado si la fragmentación en el ADN espermático i) disminuye tras pr...

  7. HIV Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... you get tested. Should I get tested for HIV? CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of ...

  8. HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... your partners. Is abstinence the only 100% effective HIV prevention option? Yes. Abstinence means not having oral, ...

  9. A unique strategy for pediatric community health nursing for ADN students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, K A

    1999-01-01

    Students were overwhelmingly positive when given the opportunity to evaluate the pilot project and the model of pediatric community health nursing. According to the students, the strong points of the model were the orientation before the community experience, the presence of faculty of the community, the ability to contact faculty when needed, and the postclinical conference. The students' comments confirmed the faculty's belief that a clinical experience in community health nursing must place more emphasis on the specialty of community health nursing to be meaningful for students. To do the of job of educating tomorrow's nurses, ADN faculty should develop new strategies for teaching the pediatric clinical component of community health nursing. Clearly, hospitals are no longer the exclusive sites where students learn about patient and family needs and nursing care delivery. Community-based and community-focused experiences will continue to be required so that nursing students are prepared to practice in a dynamic and changing healthcare environment.

  10. Outcomes of ADN-BSN partnerships to increase baccalaureate prepared nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Mary H; Robbins, Leslie K; Hoke, Mary M; Billings, Diane M

    2007-01-01

    The limited supply of BSN nurses hinders efforts to increase patient care quality and address health disparities. In largely rural and economically disadvantaged areas, associate degree prepared nurses provide the majority of nursing services. To address a statewide need, a BSN Program and 3 ADN Programs formed a partnership to take BSN education to rural and medically underserved areas. This article describes the program planning, implementation, and evaluation using an adapted assessment framework with partnership principles as its foundation. Interactive television, internet education components, local clinical experiences, and distant nursing faculty liaisons were used. The nursing course sequence was completed by 101 of 102 students. Hall's Professionalism Scale, the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and the California Critical Thinking Skills Test measured the increases found in professional socialization and critical thinking. Use of the adapted theoretical framework represented a strategic approach to developing a distance delivered nursing education program.

  11. Variantes de la concatenación en computación con ADN

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Patón Aradas, Alfonso

    1999-01-01

    Las principales aportaciones de esta Tesis Doctoral a la computación con ADN y en general, a las ciencias de la computación, se pueden clasificar en dos áreas básicas: una práctica o algorítmica y otra teórica o de modelización de operaciones sobre palabras y lenguajes. Más en detalle, las aportaciones prácticas y teóricas se pueden describir como sigue. Aportaciones prácticas. Se han diseñado bio-algoritmos evolutivos para el Problema del Camino de Hamilton dirigido y se han ideado nuevos es...

  12. The ADN project : an integrated seismic monitoring of the northern Ecuadorian subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Yepes, Hugo; Vallee, Martin; Mothes, Patricia; Regnier, Marc; Segovia, Monica; Font, Yvonne; Vaca, Sandro; Bethoux, Nicole; Ramos, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    The subduction of the Nazca plate beneath South America has caused one of the largest megathrust earthquake sequence during the XXth century with three M>7.7 earthquakes that followed the great 1906 (Mw = 8.8) event. Better understanding the processes leading to the occurrence of large subduction earthquakes requires to monitor the ground motion over a large range of frequencies. We present a new network (ADN) developed under a collaboration between the IRD-GeoAzur (Nice, France) and the IG-EPN (Quito, Ecuador). Each station of the ADN network includes a GPS recording at 5 Hz, an accelerometer and a broadband seismometer. CGPS data will quantify the secular deformation induced by elastic locking along the subduction interface, enabling a detailed modelling of the coupling distribution. CGPS will be used to monitor any transient deformation induced by Episodic Slip Event along the subduction, together with broadband seismometers that can detect any tremors or seismic signatures that may accompany them. In case of any significant earthquake, 5 Hz GPS and accelerometer will provide near field data for earthquake source detailed study. Finally, the broadband seismometers will be used for study of the microseismicity and structure of the subduction zone. The network includes 9 stations, operating since 2008 and covering the coastal area from latitude 1.5°S to the Colombian border. In this poster, we will present preliminary assessment of the data, first hypocenters location, magnitude and focal mechanism determination, as well as results about an episodic slip event detected in winter 2008.

  13. Efficient and specific internal cleavage of a retroviral palindromic DNA sequence by tetrameric HIV-1 integrase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Delelis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-1 integrase (IN catalyses the retroviral integration process, removing two nucleotides from each long terminal repeat and inserting the processed viral DNA into the target DNA. It is widely assumed that the strand transfer step has no sequence specificity. However, recently, it has been reported by several groups that integration sites display a preference for palindromic sequences, suggesting that a symmetry in the target DNA may stabilise the tetrameric organisation of IN in the synaptic complex. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed the ability of several palindrome-containing sequences to organise tetrameric IN and investigated the ability of IN to catalyse DNA cleavage at internal positions. Only one palindromic sequence was successfully cleaved by IN. Interestingly, this symmetrical sequence corresponded to the 2-LTR junction of retroviral DNA circles-a palindrome similar but not identical to the consensus sequence found at integration sites. This reaction depended strictly on the cognate retroviral sequence of IN and required a full-length wild-type IN. Furthermore, the oligomeric state of IN responsible for this cleavage differed from that involved in the 3'-processing reaction. Palindromic cleavage strictly required the tetrameric form, whereas 3'-processing was efficiently catalysed by a dimer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that the restriction-like cleavage of palindromic sequences may be a general physiological activity of retroviral INs and that IN tetramerisation is strongly favoured by DNA symmetry, either at the target site for the concerted integration or when the DNA contains the 2-LTR junction in the case of the palindromic internal cleavage.

  14. Experimental investigation of the catalytic decomposition and combustion characteristics of a non-toxic ammonium dinitramide (ADN)-based monopropellant thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Li, Guoxiu; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Meng; Yu, Yusong

    2016-12-01

    Low toxicity ammonium dinitramide (ADN)-based aerospace propulsion systems currently show promise with regard to applications such as controlling satellite attitude. In the present work, the decomposition and combustion processes of an ADN-based monopropellant thruster were systematically studied, using a thermally stable catalyst to promote the decomposition reaction. The performance of the ADN propulsion system was investigated using a ground test system under vacuum, and the physical properties of the ADN-based propellant were also examined. Using this system, the effects of the preheating temperature and feed pressure on the combustion characteristics and thruster performance during steady state operation were observed. The results indicate that the propellant and catalyst employed during this work, as well as the design and manufacture of the thruster, met performance requirements. Moreover, the 1 N ADN thruster generated a specific impulse of 223 s, demonstrating the efficacy of the new catalyst. The thruster operational parameters (specifically, the preheating temperature and feed pressure) were found to have a significant effect on the decomposition and combustion processes within the thruster, and the performance of the thruster was demonstrated to improve at higher feed pressures and elevated preheating temperatures. A lower temperature of 140 °C was determined to activate the catalytic decomposition and combustion processes more effectively compared with the results obtained using other conditions. The data obtained in this study should be beneficial to future systematic and in-depth investigations of the combustion mechanism and characteristics within an ADN thruster.

  15. Relation of Na+, K(+)-ATPase to delayed motor nerve conduction velocity: effect of aldose reductase inhibitor, ADN-138, on Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Y; Okada, K

    1990-06-01

    The role of sorbitol, myo-inositol, and Na+, K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity on motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats was studied. Reduction of MNCV and Na+, K(+)-ATPase in caudal nerves appeared after 3 weeks of diabetes, and at this time treatment with aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI), ADN-138 and 1% myo-inositol supplement was begun. One percent myo-inositol supplement for 3 weeks resulted in a significant increase in myo-inositol levels in diabetic nerves, but left MNCV and sorbitol levels unchanged. In contrast, treatment with ADN-138 for 3 weeks reduced sorbitol levels in diabetic nerves and resulted in significant increases in MNCV and Na+, K(+)-ATPase in the nerves. Since ADN-138 did not restore myo-inositol levels, the increase in Na+, K(+)-ATPase levels by ADN-138 treatment was independent of myo-inositol levels. Also, nerve Na+ levels in ADN-138-treated rats were reduced and the ratio of K+ to Na+ was raised, while 1% myo-inositol supplement did not affect them. These results suggest that treatment with ADN-138 elevates MNCV through a series of processes: ARI----reduction of sorbitol level----increase in Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity----correction of K+, Na+ imbalance----increase in MNCV.

  16. Short of transformation: American ADN students' thoughts, feelings, and experiences of studying abroad in a low-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, Cynthia L; Belknap, Ruth Ann

    2012-06-03

    ADN students are a large yet distinct subgroup of nursing students who require research and understanding. The purpose of this study was to describe the thoughts, feelings, and experiences of American associate degree nursing (ADN) students who participated in a short study abroad course in a low-income country. A qualitative, narrative method was used. Three categories emerged from the analysis. Participants revealed thoughts of "constant comparisons", feelings of an "emotional journey", and they experienced "learning". Participants did not demonstrate perspective transformation as defined by Mezirow as participants signified no intent for social action. Several potential blocks to perspective transformation were identified: egocentrism/emotional disconnect, perceived powerlessness/being overwhelmed, and a vacation mindset. The findings provide insight into the student experience of studying abroad. Transformative learning is not a guaranteed result. Nurse educators must consider strategies to foster transformation including discussing global systemic oppressors, international relations, coping, connecting, and social action.

  17. La regulación de los datos genéticos y las bases de datos de ADN

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero Moreno, Álvaro Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Hoy en día la utilización del ADN es un medio esencial para realizar investigación en el ámbito de la administración de justicia y es una prueba usada y aceptada universalmente tanto en la esfera de investigación biológica de la paternidad o maternidad (procesos civiles) y en materia penal; igualmente el uso del ADN es de gran utilidad para la investigación de cadáveres y personas desaparecidas. Se tratarán algunos de los problemas que se han generado en relación con los avances en materia ge...

  18. Revisión sobre la extracción de ADN a partir de huesos humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Jiménez-Arce

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Los huesos antiguos son una buena fuente de ADN, útil en muchos casos para el análisis forense, especialmente cuando el tejido blando está severamente descompuesto o dañado. Existen diferentes métodos para la extracción de ADN a partir de restos óseos, con diferentes eficacias, y que plantean varios problemas técnicos. Se presenta una revisión bibliográfica sobre este tema y se incluyen algunas recomendaciones prácticas.Ancient bones are a good source of DNA, useful on many forensic cases, specially when the soft tissues are putrefied to a high extent. There is many different methods to extract DNA from bones with various degrees of efficiency on the DNA amount obtained. We present a bibliographic review and some practical considerations.

  19. PROTOCOLO PARA LA EXTRACCIÓN DE ADN METAGENÓMICO BACTERIANO DEL LANGOSTINO Macrobrachium carcinus L

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ulises González-de la Cruz; H. Delfin-González; Ma. C. de la Cruz-Leyva; R. A. Rojas-Herrera; M. Zamudio-Maya

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se adecuó un protocolo para la extracción de ADN metagenómico (ADNmg) bacteriano del sistema digestivo (intestino, estómago y hepatopáncreas) del langostino Macrobrachium carcinus L., tomando como referencia la metodología de extracción de ADN bacteriano de suelos y sedimentos (Rojas-Herrera et al., 2008). Esta metodología constaba de lisis enzimática, física, mecánica y química; después de una serie de ensayos se suprimió la lisis enzimática. Sin embargo, el éxito de la extra...

  20. RN-BSN Students' Perceptions of the Differences in Practice of the ADN- and BSN-Prepared RN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, April D; Kim-Godwin, Yeoun Soo

    2016-01-01

    This study explored RN-BSN students' perceptions of practice differences between nurses prepared with an ADN and BSN. Five themes were identified in 20 students' discussion posts: "a nurse is a nurse" at the bedside, beyond the bedside, BSN wanted, digging deeper, and appraisal. Results illustrate the need for educators to assist nurses in translating the differentiated educational competencies to the practice role of the bedside RN.

  1. 艾默生推出两款ADN-C系列小巧型DIN导轨电源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    日前,艾默生网络能源公司宣布推出两款属于ADN-C系列的小巧型DIN导轨安装三相电源产品。这两款10A和5A产品的推出令该系列电源的产品阵容显得更为鼎盛。

  2. Vacunas de ADN: inducción de la respuesta inmunitaria DNA Vaccines: Induction of the immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Mota-Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La efectividad de las vacunas y la inmunización en la prevención de las enfermedades infecciosas es uno de los grandes avances de la medicina. En la actualidad, el acceso a la tecnología de punta en el área de la genómica y la proteómica ha hecho posible acelerar el desarrollo de nuevos modelos de vacunas con características mejoradas en aspectos fundamentales, como la inmunogenicidad y la seguridad. A casi dos décadas del primer informe, en el cual se demostró que un gen puede expresarse mediante la inyección directa de ADN desnudo, las vacunas de ADN han probado ser eficientes para inducir una respuesta inmunitaria protectora contra parásitos, virus y bacterias en diversos modelos animales. Esta revisión tiene por objetivo presentar un panorama general de las vacunas de ADN y los mecanismos mediante los cuales la inmunización con antígenos insertados en vectores de ADN (plásmidos inducen una respuesta inmunitaria.The effectiveness of vaccines and immunization in the prevention of infectious diseases is one of the greatest successes in medicine. In recent years, with access to cutting edge genomic and proteomic technology, it is possible to accelerate the development of new and improved vaccines with better immunogenicity and safety characteristics. Since the first report almost two decades ago, where it was demonstrated that gene expression is possible by directed injection of naked DNA, DNA vaccines have been proven to induce protective immune responses against parasites, virus and bacterium in diverse animal disease models. This review aims to present an overview about DNA vaccines and the mechanisms by which immune responses are induced after immunization with plasmid DNA-encoded antigens.

  3. Baroreflexes of the rat. V. Tetanus-induced potentiation of ADN A-fiber responses at the NTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaorui; Dworkin, Barry R

    2007-12-01

    In a long-term neuromuscular blocked (NMB) rat preparation, tetanic stimulation of the aortic depressor nerve (ADN) enhanced the A-fiber evoked responses (ERs) in the cardiovascular region, the nucleus of the solitary tract (dmNTS). The potentiation persisted for at least several hours and may be a mechanism for adaptive adjustment of the gain of the baroreflex, with functional implications for blood pressure regulation. Using a capacitance electrode, we selectively stimulated A-fibers and acquired a stable 10-h "A-fiber only" ER baseline at the dmNTS. Following baseline, an A+C-fiber activating tetanus was applied to the ADN. The tetanus consisted of 1,000 "high current" pulses (10 trains; 300 mus, 100 Hz, 1 s), with intertrain interval of 9 s. A 10-h A-fiber only posttetanic test phase repeated the stimulus pattern of the baseline. Fourteen tetanus experiments were done in 12 rats. Compared with the baseline before tetanus, the A-fiber ER magnitudes of posttetanus hours were larger [F(13, 247) = 3.407, P ADN A+C fiber-activating tetanus produced increases in the magnitude of the A-fiber ERs in the dmNTS that persisted for several hours. In an additional rat, application of an NMDA receptor antagonist, prior to the tetanus, blocked the potentiation effect. The stimulus protocols, magnitude and duration of the effect, and pharmacology resemble associative long-term potentiation (LTP).

  4. Identificación de restos óseos humanos mediante análisis de ADN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal Morera-Brenes

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años la tecnología del ADN se ha convertido en una poderosa herramienta para la identificación individual, incluso cuando sólamente se cuenta con restos óseos. Se ilustra un caso en el cual se realizó la prueba de identificación comparando el ADN de los supuestos padres contra el ADN extraído del hueso de un menor de sexo femenino, utilizando los marcadores: HLA-DQA1, LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, Gc, y D1S80. Los perfiles genéticos obtenidos permitieron concluir una identificación positiva de los restos como pertenecientes a la niña desaparecida. Esta metodología queda disponible para futuros casos forenses que así lo ameriten.The DNA technology has become a powerful tool for human identification in the last few years even in cases where the bones are the only remains. We now report the successful identification of the skeletal remains of a murder victim by comparative typing on nuclear DNA in remains, and in the presumptive parents of the victim. The genetic markers used were: HLA-DQA1, LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, Gc, and D1S80. This feasibility of bone DNA typing is available in forensic investigation in Costa Rica now.

  5. Comparación de dos protocolos de extracción de ADN de Trypanosoma cruzi cultivados en medio axénico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela López

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Comparar dos protocolos de extracción de ADN de Trypanosoma cruzi para su uso en la amplificación de ADN de minicírculos de kinetoplasto (ADNk mediante la técnica de Reacción en Cadena de Polimerasa (PCR. Materiales y métodos. Se cultivaron epimastigotas de T. cruzi en condiciones exénicas obteniéndose masas entre 1,5 hasta 100 x 10(6 parásitos. A partir de estas se procedió a la extracción de ADN mediante dos protocolos: extracción con solventes orgánicos (fenol/cloroformo, y empleo de resina (Chelex®100, a partir de los diferentes sedimentos parasitarios. La concentración y pureza del ADN se determinó por espectrofotometría y la integridad se evaluó mediante electroforesis en geles de agarosa. Se realizó el análisis de varianza y comparaciones de medias mediante la prueba de Tukey, utilizando el software Statistix 8.0. Resultados. Se realizaron diez extracciones de ADN de cada una de las diferentes cantidades de parásitos sedimentados. En la extracción de ADN con la resina Chelex®100 se obtuvo mayor rendimiento, pero menor pureza e integridad respecto a la extracción con solventes orgánicos. Sin embargo, permitió la amplificación del producto de 330 pb de ADNk de T. cruzi. Conclusiones. Aun cuando la técnica de Chelex®100 proporcionó menor pureza e integridad del ADN, permitió la amplificación con éxito de ADNk por PCR, evitando el uso de técnicas laboriosas y solventes orgánicos tóxicos

  6. Comparación de dos protocolos de extracción de ADN de Trypanosoma cruzi cultivados en medio axénico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela López

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Comparar dos protocolos de extracción de ADN de Trypanosoma cruzi para su uso en la amplificación de ADN de minicírculos de kinetoplasto (ADNk mediante la técnica de Reacción en Cadena de Polimerasa (PCR. Materiales y métodos. Se cultivaron epimastigotas de T. cruzi en condiciones exénicas obteniéndose masas entre 1,5 hasta 100 x 10(6 parásitos. A partir de estas se procedió a la extracción de ADN mediante dos protocolos: extracción con solventes orgánicos (fenol/cloroformo, y empleo de resina (Chelex®100, a partir de los diferentes sedimentos parasitarios. La concentración y pureza del ADN se determinó por espectrofotometría y la integridad se evaluó mediante electroforesis en geles de agarosa. Se realizó el análisis de varianza y comparaciones de medias mediante la prueba de Tukey, utilizando el software Statistix 8.0. Resultados. Se realizaron diez extracciones de ADN de cada una de las diferentes cantidades de parásitos sedimentados. En la extracción de ADN con la resina Chelex®100 se obtuvo mayor rendimiento, pero menor pureza e integridad respecto a la extracción con solventes orgánicos. Sin embargo, permitió la amplificación del producto de 330 pb de ADNk de T. cruzi. Conclusiones. Aun cuando la técnica de Chelex®100 proporcionó menor pureza e integridad del ADN, permitió la amplificación con éxito de ADNk por PCR, evitando el uso de técnicas laboriosas y solventes orgánicos tóxicos

  7. Integrase and integration: biochemical activities of HIV-1 integrase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deprez Eric

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Integration of retroviral DNA is an obligatory step of retrovirus replication because proviral DNA is the template for productive infection. Integrase, a retroviral enzyme, catalyses integration. The process of integration can be divided into two sequential reactions. The first one, named 3'-processing, corresponds to a specific endonucleolytic reaction which prepares the viral DNA extremities to be competent for the subsequent covalent insertion, named strand transfer, into the host cell genome by a trans-esterification reaction. Recently, a novel specific activity of the full length integrase was reported, in vitro, by our group for two retroviral integrases (HIV-1 and PFV-1. This activity of internal cleavage occurs at a specific palindromic sequence mimicking the LTR-LTR junction described into the 2-LTR circles which are peculiar viral DNA forms found during viral infection. Moreover, recent studies demonstrated the existence of a weak palindromic consensus found at the integration sites. Taken together, these data underline the propensity of retroviral integrases for binding symmetrical sequences and give perspectives for targeting specific sequences used for gene therapy.

  8. Treatment for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Public Home » Treatment » Treatment Decisions and HIV HIV/AIDS Menu Menu HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Home ... here Enter ZIP code here Treatment Decisions and HIV for Veterans and the Public Treatment for HIV: ...

  9. Women and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women and HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... HIV? What should pregnant women know about HIV? HIV Quick Facts What is HIV? HIV is the ...

  10. Baroreflexes of the rat. IV. ADN-evoked responses at the NTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaorui; Dworkin, Barry R

    2007-12-01

    In a long-term (7-21 days) neuromuscular blocked (NMB) rat preparation, using precise single-pulse aortic depressor nerve (ADN) stimulation and stable chronic evoked response (ER) recordings from the dorsal-medial solitary nucleus (dmNTS), two different response patterns were observed: continuous and discrete. For the continuous pattern, activity began approximately 3 ms after the stimulus and persisted for 45 ms; for the discrete pattern, two complexes were separated by a gap from approximately 17 to 25 ms. The early complex was probably transmitted via A-fibers: it had a low stimulus current threshold and an average conduction velocity (CV) of 0.58-5.5 m/s; the high threshold late (HTL) complex had a CV = 0.26-0.58 m/s. The average stimulus amplitude-ER magnitude transduction curves for the A and HTL complexes were sigmoidal. For individual rats, in the linear range, mean r2 = 0.96 +/- 0.03 for both complexes. The average stimulus amplitude vs. the systolic blood pressure change (delta sBP) transduction curve was also approximately linear; however, for individual rats, the relationship was not consistently reliable: mean r2 = 0.48 +/- 0.19. Approximately 90% of recording sites had respiratory, and 50% had cardiac synchronism. The NMB preparation is useful for studying central baroreflex mechanisms that operate on time scales of days or weeks, such as adaptation and other kinds of neural plasticity.

  11. 球形ADN的吸湿机理%Hygroscopic Mechanism of Spherical ADN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婧娜; 胡岚; 张皋; 王克勇; 严蕊; 张婷

    2014-01-01

    用动态吸湿性分析法和扫描电镜研究了球形二硝酰胺铵(ADN)的吸湿过程和吸湿过程中ADN形貌的变化,探讨了ADN的吸湿机理.结果表明,ADN吸湿过程可分为平缓吸湿(Ⅰ),急剧增强吸湿(Ⅱ)和潮解(Ⅲ)三个阶段,Ⅰ、Ⅱ阶段是水蒸汽与ADN固体表面的作用,Ⅲ阶段是水蒸汽与ADN液化膜表面的作用.Ⅰ阶段吸湿过程为多分子层吸附,符合BET理论模型;该阶段水与ADN之间的作用力对ADN吸湿性能起主导作用;Ⅱ阶段吸湿机理可用毛细孔凝聚理论解释,影响该阶段ADN吸湿性能的主要因素是ADN表面的光滑程度.

  12. NC/NG与ADN的相互作用%Interaction of NG/NC with ADN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张腊莹; 衡淑云; 刘子如; 张皋; 赵凤起; 谭惠民

    2009-01-01

    用高压差示扫描量热法(PDSC),热重-微商热重法(TG-DTG),研究了双基粘合剂(NC/NG体系)与二硝酰胺铵(ADN)之间的相互作用.结果表明,(NC/NG)/ADN体系中NG的分解峰由NC/NG中的207.0 ℃提前至159.8 ℃,在高压下该分解峰温提前至153.6 ℃.NC/ADN的分解峰温比NG/ADN提前了4.8 ℃,而且大部分的ADN没有被NG加速而提前分解,表明NC对ADN的作用比NG更强烈.此外,还用真空安定性试验(VST)评价了NC/NG与ADN的相容性,混合体系的净增放气量大于11 mL,属于严重不相容,证明在90 ℃下NC/NG与ADN之间也存在强烈的相互作用.

  13. Centros Históricos: El auténtico ADN de las Ciudades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sahady Villanueva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La ciudad no dejará de mutar mientras exista: se expande, se concentra, se densifica, se vacía. Pero es en el centro fundacional donde se pueden advertir los genes de su verdadera identidad. Aun cuando todos los centros históricos occidentales coinciden en ciertos rasgos arquitectónicos y urbanos, independiente de sus coordenadas geográficas, cada uno de ellos carga con un conjunto de huellas esenciales que los hace únicos e irreproducibles. Cierto es que todas las trazas primitivas de las ciudades latinoamericanas arrancan del patrón común que imponen los colonizadores, pero paulatinamente van derivando hacia modelos particulares que terminan por hacerlas perfectamente identificables unas de otras. Así, Quito es claramente diferente a La Habana y Bahía guarda una gran distancia con Lima. Santiago, por su parte, todavía preserva algunos de los atributos que, en su esplendor -a finales del siglo XIX-, otorgaron a su centro histórico algún grado de unidad. Hoy día las amenazas son múltiples, en tiempos en que la globalización procura sentar una marca anónima y universal. La misión de los profesionales responsables de modificar la ciudad –y de incidir en el centro histórico, por lo tanto- es defender sus vestigios originales, que son los que constituyen en definitiva, su verdadero ADN.

  14. 稳定剂对ADN和NC初期相互作用的影响%Influences of Stabilizers on the Nascent Interaction between ADN and NC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李吉祯; 王祎; 刘芳莉; 付小龙; 樊学忠; 张腊莹; 王琼

    2011-01-01

    在研究二硝酰胺铵(ADN)的热行为特性及其与硝化纤维素(NC)相互作用的基础上,利用差示扫描量热法(DSC)研究了稳定剂N-甲基对硝基苯胺(MNA)、二号中定剂(C2)、2-硝基二苯胺(2-NDPA)、六次甲基四胺(HMT)及其复配体系(MNA/C2、MNA/2-NDPA、MNA/HMT)对ADN与NC之间初期相互作用的影响.结果表明,稳定剂MNA和C2可使ADN与NC之间的相互作用得到一定程度的减弱,MNA与C2、2-NDPA和HMT的复配协同作用对ADN与NC之间的初期相互作用产生了较为明显的抑制作用,与NC/ADN二元混合体系相比,NC/(ADN/稳定剂)体系的DSC峰温提前量可由19.2℃缩减至11.9℃.%On the basis of the study of thermal behavior of ammonium dinitramide (ADN) and the interaction between ADN and NC, the influences of stabilizers, such as N-methyl-p-nitroaniline(MNA), 1,3-dimethyl-1,3-diphenylurea(C2 ) ,2-nitrodianiline(2-NDPA) ,hexamethylenetetramine(HMT) and its complex MNA/C2, MNA/2-NDPA and MNA/HMT, on the nascent interactions between ADN and NC were investigated by using the method of DSC.The results show that the interaction between ADN and NC can be decreased to a certain extent by mixing MNA and C2, and the nascent interaction between ADN and NC can be inhibited obviously by mixing the complex of MNA/C2, MNA/2-NDPA and MNA/HMT. Comparing the binary system of ADN/NC, the value of △Tp,which is the DSC exothermic peak temperature different between ADN/stabilizer and NC, can be decreased from 19. 2℃ to 11.9 ℃ by using the mixtures of stabilizers.

  15. Preparation and Performaces of ADN/Fe2O3 Nanocomposite Oxidant%ADN/Fe2O3纳米复合氧化剂的制备及性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋肯彭; 宋小兰; 张树海

    2011-01-01

    By using 1,2-epoxypropane as the agent for speeding up the hydrolyzation of Fe(Ⅲ) ions, AND/Fe2O3 composite wet gel was prepared by sol-gel method under a mild and nontoxic condition. Consequently, the AND/ Fe2O3 aerogel was obtained by means of supercritical CO2 fluid extraction. TEM,SEM,EDS,IR,DSC and sensitivity test were employed to characterize the appearance, structure, thermal behaviour and mechanical sensitivity of the samples. The results indicate that the as-prepared AND/Fe2O3 nanoparticles are about 50- 100 nm in diameter. As the decrease of the mass of AND,the nanocomposites become much insensitive to mechanical stimuli. Moreover,the AND/Fe2 O3 nanoparticles decomposes at lower temperature with the disappearance of melting endothermic peak.%采用溶胶-凝胶法,以1,2-环氧丙烷作为Fe(Ⅲ)离子的水解促进剂,在温和无毒的条件下制备了ADN/Fe2O3复合湿凝胶,再将复合湿凝胶进行超临界CO2萃取后,成功获得ADN/Fe2O3气凝胶.用TEM、SEM、EDS、IR DSC和感度试验对上述样品的形貌、结构、热行为和机械感度进行了表征.结果表明,制得的ADN/Fe2O3纳米复合氧化剂的粒径为50~10 nm,撞击感度和摩擦感度均随着其中ADN含量的减小而降低,分解放热峰较原料ADN有所提前,熔化吸热峰消失.

  16. Optimización de un protocolo de extracción de ADN genómico para Pinus tecunumanii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Cerda-Granados

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se optimizó un protocolo para la extracción de ADN genómico de Pinus tecunumanii basado en el método de extracción de Doyle y Doyle (1990. Se probaron los megagametofitos de las semillas de árboles deP. tecunumanii muestreados en cinco poblaciones naturales de Nicaragua. El método consta de maceración del tejido en tubos Eppendorf, una extracción con bromuro trimetil amonio de cetilo (CTABempleando altas concentraciones de sales, proteinasa K, extracciones sucesivas con cloroformo-alcohol isoamílico y un tratamiento con ARNasa A. El rendimiento fue aproximadamente 13μg de ADN por 58.7 mg de tejido inicial fresco. El ADNgenómico obtenido por este método fue apropiado para ser usado en reaccionesRAPD (ADN polimórfico amplificado al azar

  17. Comparación de métodos de extracción de ADN en tejidos parafinados y utilidad para amplificación por PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Alonso Baena Del Valle; Alvaro José Ramos Moreno; Claudio Jaime Gómez Alegria; Doris Esther Gómez-Camargo

    2013-01-01

    ResumenLos tejidos fijados en formol e incluidos en parafina son una fuente de material para hallazgos moleculares en el ámbito clínico y científico, demostrándose que el ADN extraído de éstos,  es adecuado para amplificación a través de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RCP). En este estudio, se ensayaron tres métodos de extracción de ADN en tejidos incluidos en parafina, con el objetivo de comparar la eficiencia de estos para obtener ADN adecuado, además se analizó su utilidad en ampl...

  18. 汽车设计网络(ADN):标致-雪铁龙的新标志

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋东镭

    2005-01-01

    标致-雪铁龙集团设计中心又被称为汽车设计网络(以下简称为ADN),集团认为这个名字在观念上符合了设计中心的本质——个完全致力于创新和汽车革新的场所。缩写的ADN在法语中拼为DNA,则表达了该集团要恢复标致和雪铁龙这两个品牌的传统特性的用意。

  19. La aplicación de los análisis de ADN en el proceso penal

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Hernández, Edmundo

    2007-01-01

    Resulta difícil para una persona experta resumir en unas breves líneas lo que ha supuesto el extraordinario descubrimiento científico que gira en torno al ADN. De su actualidad nos sobrada cuenta las constantes referencias en los medios de comunicación, con frecuencia acompañada de predicciones futuras próximas a la ciencia ficción. Su repercusión desde plano de ética resulte igualmente innegable pues, al igual que la gran mayoría de los descubrimientos científicos más relevantes, las posibil...

  20. Determinación de la efectividad de cinco protocolos de extracción de ADN a partir de material parafinado para estudios moleculares

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Arce, Gerardo; Villalobos Quesada, María José; Jiménez Montero, Ernesto; Palma Platero, Walter

    2007-01-01

    El estudio evaluó cuatro distintos protocolos de uso común en laboratorio y uno comercial, para la extracción de ADN a partir de material fijado en formalina y parafinado, correspondiente a cervix uterinos producto de conizaciones y LEEPs (loop electrocautery excision procedure), provenientes de los Servicios de Patología de nueve Hospitales de la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS). Se encontró que el protocolo más efectivo para obtener ADN viable para la PCR, es el basado en extracci...

  1. Cuantificación de ADN libre en plasma sanguíneo de voluntarios sanos en una población bogotana

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán David Salazar-Jordan et al.

    2009-01-01

    El ADN libre en sangre incrementa con algunas condiciones patológicas y ciertos estados fisiológicos. Varios reportes en la literatura han resaltado que el ADN libre en plasma o suero tiene potencial clínico como una posible herramienta para el pronóstico de cáncer en humanos. Sin embargo, hasta el momento no se tienen valores de referencia de individuos sanos con un tamaño de muestra representativo y tampoco se han descrito valores para poblaciones específicas como la bogotana. Es por ello q...

  2. Método para la replicación, amplificación o secuenciación de un ADN molde

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Método para la replicación, amplificación o secuenciación de un ADN molde. La presente invención se encuadra dentro del campo de la biotecnología. Específicamente, se refiere a un método para llevar a cabo la replicación, la amplificación o la secuenciación de un ácido desoxirribonucleico con una ADN polimerasa del tipo 29 y a un kit para llevar a cabo dicho método.

  3. Estrategias para mejorar la comprensión del proceso de replicación del ADN en alumnos de la Escuela Secundaria

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Teniendo como hipótesis que la representación gráfica de la replicación del ADN utilizada habitualmente genera una comprensión inadecuada del proceso, y que la utilización de una representación alternativa que sitúa las horquillas en el interior de una o varias burbujas de replicación mejora la comprensión del proceso, se presenta una secuencia de estrategias de enseñanza con el objetivo de contribuir a la mejor comprensión del proceso de replicación del ADN Bearing the hypothesis that the...

  4. Caracterización múltiple de la fragmentación del adn espermático en pacientes infértiles

    OpenAIRE

    García Peiró, Agustín

    2013-01-01

    La infertilidad es un problema que afecta al 15 % de las parejas en edad reproductiva. Así pues, el análisis de los factores que impiden obtener un embarazo es un tema de interés creciente Se considera que la infertilidad se debe a un factor masculino en el 30-50% de los casos. Recientemente, varios estudios han demostrado que la integridad del ADN espermático es un factor importante para la correcta transmisión de la información genética paterna. Daños en el ADN podrían afectar tanto a la fe...

  5. Comparación de tres métodos de extracción de ADN a partir de restos óseos

    OpenAIRE

    Del Valle, Christian; Rodríguez, Anayanci; Espinoza, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Diferentes investigaciones han demostrado que la posibilidad de llevar a cabo estudios de marcadores genéticos está muchas veces limitada por la capacidad de obtener ácidos desoxirribonucleicos (ADN) a partir de muestras degradadas como los restos óseos. Asu vez, la información que de allí se derive resulta de suma importancia en diferentes situaciones médico-legales. El presente estudio se diseñó para comparar la eficiencia de tres métodos orgánicos de extracción de ADN amplificable por la t...

  6. OPTIMIZACIÓN DE LOS PROTOCOLOS DE EXTRACCIÓN DE ADN Y DEL MARCADOR MOLECULAR TIPO RAPD EN ANONÁCEAS

    OpenAIRE

    Yanet Alfonso Alonso; Caridad Noriega Carrera; Miriam Isidrón Pérez; Lucy Andraca Collazo; Dubiel Alfonso González; Daymara Rodríguez Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Las técnicas moleculares requieren de protocolos que permitan determinar los niveles de variación genética, dentro de las poblaciones en diferentes condiciones ambientales. Tanto la optimización del aislamiento del ADN, como el de las condiciones de trabajo de las amplificaciones, son fundamentales para alcanzar el éxito de los análisis moleculares, por lo que la presente investigación tiene como objetivo: optimizar los protocolos de extracción de ADN y del marcador molecular tipo RAPD (Rando...

  7. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 2/24/2017; last reviewed 2/24/2017) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  8. Differences in stress and challenge in clinical practice among ADN and BSN students in varying clinical courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oermann, M H; Standfest, K M

    1997-05-01

    There is limited research on student perceptions of their clinical experiences particularly in different clinical courses and settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree of stress, challenge, and threat associated with clinical practice experiences among ADN and BSN nursing students enrolled in various clinical courses and settings. The Pagana Clinical Stress Questionnaire was used to assess the clinical experiences of 416 undergraduate nursing students from 10 randomly selected associate degree (ADN) and baccalaureate (BSN) programs in the midwest. Significant differences were found across clinical courses (F[5,399] = 9.58, p < .0001) and settings (F[2,386] = 4.63, p = .01) in terms of students' stress. Stress was highest for students enrolled in pediatric nursing courses. ANOVA indicated significant differences across clinical courses in the degree of challenge and threat experienced by students. There were no differences in any of the variables studied when students had faculty from the nursing program or preceptors from the clinical setting as their teachers.

  9. Interaction of ADN with nitrate oxidizer%ADN与硝胺氧化剂的相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张腊莹; 刘子如; 衡淑云; 韩芳; 岳璞

    2007-01-01

    用高压差示扫描量热法(PDSC)和热重-微商热重法(TG-DTG),研究了高能氧化剂ADN(二硝酰胺铵)的热分解及其与HMX和RDX的相互作用.结果表明,ADN与HMX和RDX之间存在着强烈的相互作用.因部分HMX溶于熔融的ADN中,而参与了ADN组分的分解,ADN的放热分解峰温因压力升高而提高,而HMX产生了双分解峰.大量的RDX因ADN的熔融而提前液化与ADN一起分解,因ADN气相产物的抑制作用,使混合体系中RDX组分常压下的分解峰温后移,而RDX自身分解气相产物的催化作用,使其高压下的分解峰温前移.

  10. - Las vacunas de ADN: una promisoria medicina para el paciente veterinario (DNA vaccines: a promising medicine for the veterinary patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Díaz David

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Las vacunas de ADN constituyen una promisoria herramienta en vacunología moderna. Al tratarse de una tecnología fácil de aplicar y de gran versatilidad, capaz de estimular una respuesta inmune humoral y celular, esenciales en la lucha contra infecciones virales, constituye una línea primordial de investigación y desarrollo. Esta revisión aborda las características de un vector de ADN y los mecanismos propuestos para la generación de la respuesta inmune mediante este tipo de vacunación. Igualmente, se discuten algunos regímenes de vacunación, ejemplos de respuestas inmunes protectoras obtenidas en especies de interés veterinario, y se hace referencia a las cuestiones de inocuidad inherentes a este tipo de vacuna. Abstract. DNA vaccines represent an invaluable tool in modern vaccinology. Besides being a simple versatile technology, capable of stimulating both cellular and humoral immune responses, it is also an essential weapon to fight against infections of viral etiology. This review emphasizes the characteristics of a DNA vaccine vector, as well as the proposed mechanisms responsible for the generation of a protective immune response. Furthermore, immunization regimes are discussed, examples of protective immune responses attained in target species of veterinary interest are given and reference is made to the safety concerns derived from this kind of vaccine.

  11. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  12. Comparación de métodos de extracción de ADN en tejidos parafinados y utilidad para amplificación por PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Alonso Baena Del Valle

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLos tejidos fijados en formol e incluidos en parafina son una fuente de material para hallazgos moleculares en el ámbito clínico y científico, demostrándose que el ADN extraído de éstos,  es adecuado para amplificación a través de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RCP. En este estudio, se ensayaron tres métodos de extracción de ADN en tejidos incluidos en parafina, con el objetivo de comparar la eficiencia de estos para obtener ADN adecuado, además se analizó su utilidad en amplificación por RCP. Se emplearon tres muestras, correspondientes a una biopsia de pulmón, legrado endometrial y ganglio linfático, todas fijadas en formaldehido al 10% e incluidas en parafina. Utilizándose tres métodos diferentes de extracción de ADN (extracción por salting out, método modificado de Sambrook y kit comercial El ADN obtenido se cuantificó por espectrofotometría, además se realizó electroforesis en gel de agarosa al 1%, para comprobar si el ADN era de buena calidad y se  realizó RCP para el exón 3 del gen caveolina 1. Todos los métodos dieron como resultado una buen producto de ADN genómico, observándose mayor cantidad y pureza en los métodos de salting out y kit comercial, asimismo se obtuvo amplificación del producto esperado por estos dos métodos, no hubo buenos resultados con el ADN extraído por el método modificado "Preparation of Genomic DNA from Mouse Tails y Other Small samples, según Sambrook”. El ADN obtenido a partir de tejidos FFIP puede ser amplificado por varios métodos, entre estos, la extracción por salting out es útil y con poca toxicidad,  permite obtener ADN de buena calidad para amplificación por RCP. Abstract Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues are a source of important molecular findings in clinical and scientific, demonstrating that the DNA extracted from these is suitable for amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. In this study, we tested three methods of

  13. ADN-1184, a monoaminergic ligand with 5-HT6/7 receptor antagonist action, exhibits activity in animal models of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partyka, Anna; Wasik, Anna; Jastrzębska-Więsek, Magdalena; Mierzejewski, Paweł; Bieńkowski, Przemysław; Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Wesołowska, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) include apathy, sleep problems, irritability, wandering, elation, agitation/aggression, and mood disorders such as depression and/or anxiety. Elderly patients are usually treated with second-generation antipsychotics; however, they present not enough efficacy against all symptoms observed. Hence, there still is an unmet need for novel pharmacotherapeutic agents targeted BPSD. A novel arylsulfonamide derivative ADN-1184 has been developed that possesses a preclinical profile of activity corresponding to criteria required for treatment of both psychosis and depressive symptoms of BPSD without exacerbating cognitive impairment or inducing motor disturbances. To broaden its pharmacological efficacy toward anxiety symptoms, its anxiolytic properties have been examined in common animal preclinical models in rats and mice. ADN-1184 significantly increased the number of entries into open arms measured in the elevated plus-maze test; however, it simultaneously increased parameters of exploratory activity. In the Vogel conflict drinking test, ADN-1184 dose-dependently and significantly increased the number of shocks accepted and the number of licks. Moreover, in mice, it also had specific anxiolytic-like activity in the four-plate test, and only negligible one at a specific mid-range dose measured in the spontaneous marble burying test. The obtained findings reveal that ADN-1184 displays anxiolytic-like activity in animal models of anxiety which employed punished stimuli. In its unusual combination of some anxiolytic action with already proven antipsychotic and antidepressant properties, and lack of any disruptive impact on learning and memory processes and motor coordination, ADN-1184 displays a profile that would be desired for a novel therapeutic for BPSD.

  14. Secuencia parcial de un fragmento de ADN de patos silvestres homologo al Complejo Mayor de

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Guzmán Sofía

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa variación individual de la respuesta inmune esta ligada a ladiversidad funcional y estructural del MHC (por sus siglas en inglesMajor Histocompatibility Complex, TcR (Receptores de células T,inmunoglobulinas (anticuerpos, citoquininas, TNF (por sus siglas eningles Tumor Necrosis Factor, entre otras proteínas. Estas proteínasestán codificadas por múltiples y polimórficos genes, la variabilidad de estos genes constituyen las principales bases, en las variaciones de la resistencia a determinada enfermedad o enfermedades. Estascaracterísticas se han documentado en la gallina doméstica, pero no enel pato. En el presente trabajo se amplifico por PCR un fragmento denucleótidos de ADN genómico de pato doméstico que compartió un100% de similitud con un fragmento del MHC clase II de pollo, quecorrespondió a una secuencia similar a DAB1 (Disabled 1.La secuencia DAB1 también fue amplificada en nueve especies de patos silvestres del género Anas que posterior a un análisis por el polimorfismo del largo de los fragmentos de restricción (PLFR con las enzimas RsaI, BsrI y HindIII, se observó que la especie Anas americana,Anas platyrhynchos diazi y Anas platyrhynchos domesticus fueronsutilmente diferentes a la especie Anas discors, Anas crecca, Anascyanoptera, Anas acuta, Anas streptera y Anas clypeata. Hasta dondesabemos, este es el primer reporte que indica la presencia desecuencias similares a DAB1 en patos silvestres. Este estudio podríaayudar a entender porque los patos podrían ser menos susceptibles apresentar neoplasias que en las gallinas.SummaryThe individual response of the immune system is linked to the functional and structural diversity of the MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex, TcR (T cell receptor, inmunoglobulines (antibodies, citokines, TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor, among other proteins. These proteins are coded for multiple and polymorphic genes, the variability of these genes constitutes the main bases, in the

  15. Modelado molecular de la interacción de fármacos antitumorales y nucleasas con el ADN

    OpenAIRE

    Bueren Calabuig, Juan Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Premio Extraordinario de Doctorado de la UAH en 2013 Los métodos computacionales están convirtiéndose en herramientas muy importantes en ciertas áreas de la investigación como la caracterización de sitios de unión de ligandos a proteínas, acoplamiento de pequeñas moléculas en sitios de unión al ADN y proteínas y simulaciones de dinámica molecular. Los resultados obtenidos aportan información que, a veces, está más allá de las posibilidades puramente experimentales y pueden usarse para gui...

  16. El ADN de la marca. La concepción de sus valores intangibles en un contexto dialogado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alberto Orozco Toro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aún hoy, en plena sociedad del conocimiento, se tienen límites conceptuales en relación con aspectos tan fundamentales como la identidad, la imagen y la reputación de marca. Incluso donde mayores dificultades se presentan es en las posibilidades de evaluación y medición de cada uno de estos conceptos ligados con la reputación empresarial. Así, la marca, como el elemento fundamental de las empresas del presente siglo, se ve obligada a indagar nuevas formas de interpretar sus acciones estratégicas, con el único objetivo de continuar conformando la estructura de la marca, el ADN que la diferencia y que le permite contrastar sus resultados a partir de evaluaciones y mediciones fiables, en un contexto donde la transparencia, ante el alud de comunicación, se plantea casi como una exigencia.

  17. Comparación de dos métodos de extracción de adn a partir de plantas del género solanum, subgénero leptostemonum.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Título en ingles: Comparison of two ADN extraction methods from plants belonging Solanum genus Leptostemonumsubgenus.Título corto: Extracción de ADN de SolanumResumen: Se evaluaron dos métodos para la extracción de ADN en plantas del género Solanum, con el fin de obtener ADN disponible y de buena calidad para la obtención de secuencias. El producto comercial DNeasy® Plant Mini Kit se comparó con un método que incluye el uso de una solución tampón de lisis. Para este último método también se e...

  18. HIV and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG HIV and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs HIV ... HIV and Pregnancy FAQ113, December 2012 PDF Format HIV and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is human immunodeficiency virus ( ...

  19. HIV and Rheumatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions HIV & Rheumatic Diseases HIV and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Rheumatic diseases related ... knows he or she has HIV. What are HIV-associated rheumatic diseases? Some diseases of the joints ...

  20. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...

  1. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of HIV in the United States, please visit: https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/hiv-aids- ... HIV, STD, and TB Prevention. What Is HIV? ( http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pubs/faq/faq1.htm ). ...

  3. Extracción y purificación de ADN a partir de muestras de saliva: Un avance diagnóstico en el paciente pediátrico

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Frías, Olaya

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo general de este trabajo es la puesta a punto en la práctica diaria del laboratorio de un nuevo método de obtención de ADN a partir de muestras de saliva. Para ello se pondrá de manifiesto su rendimiento, valorando sus ventajas e inconvenientes respecto al método que tradicionalmente está siendo empleado, la extracción de ADN a partir de muestras de sangre.

  4. Living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS Living With HIV Language: English Spanish Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  5. HIV among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Women Format: Select One File [155K] Recommend ...

  6. HIV among Transgender People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Transgender People Format: Select One File [82K] ...

  7. HIV Among Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Asians Format: Select One File [143K] Recommend ...

  8. Estandarización de un protocolo sencillo para la extracción de adn genómico de levaduras

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Standardising a simple protocol for extracting yeast from genomic DNA Resumen: Se estandarizó un protocolo rápido, sencillo y de bajo costo para la extracción de ADN genómico de levaduras a partir de lisis de la pared celular mediante tratamiento enzimático y precipitación por alcoholes. El empleo de la enzima Beta-glucoronidasa en reemplazo de la enzima Zimolasa, permitió obtener ADN en alta concentración (124,9±30,2 ng/μl) y de buena calidad (A260/A280 nm =1,86±0,1), ideal para su uso en e...

  9. ADN无机法合成及分离纯化研究%Inorganic Synthesis of ADN and Its Separation and Purification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘愆; 王伯周; 张海昊; 廉鹏; 王锡杰; 贾思媛

    2006-01-01

    以氨基磺酸为起始原料,经氢氧化钾中和获得氨基磺酸钾,然后用硝硫混酸低温硝化、氨气中和合成了二硝酰胺铵盐(ADN),初步探索了硝化反应温度对收率的影响.采用活性炭吸附的方法对ADN进行了有效的分离纯化,对活性炭用量、洗脱速度、洗脱终点、解吸方式等进行了研究,获得纯度为99.8%的ADN.

  10. 混酸法合成ADN的分离纯化工艺研究%Separation and Purification of ADN Synthesized by Mixed Acid Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海洲; 许华新; 李宁; 王学敏; 陈金中

    2009-01-01

    二硝酰胺铵(ADN)是一种高能高燃速和不含氯元素的新型氧化剂,混酸法合成ADN时会生成大量的无机盐副产物,采用活性炭吸附的方法可以对ADN进行有效的分离纯化.对活性炭的种类、吸附溶剂的种类、解吸溶剂的利类、吸附浓度、吸附方式进行了研究,并确定了较佳的工艺条件,制备了质最分数达99.5%以上的ADN.

  11. 聚氨酯黏合剂包覆球形ADN的性能研究%Properties of Prilled Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN)Coated by Polyurethane Binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥会祥; 廖林泉; 刘愆; 李勇宏; 冉秀伦; 赵凤起

    2008-01-01

    为降低球形二硝酰胺铵(ADN)的吸湿性,采用聚氨酯黏合剂对其进行包覆.用扫描电镜(SEM)和称重法分析了包覆后ADN的表面形貌和吸湿性,结果表明,聚氨酯黏合剂在ADN表面形成絮状的包覆膜,使包覆后ADN的吸湿率明显小于包覆前ADN,在相对湿度60%以下,包覆后ADN在空气中暴露30天时吸湿率仅0.136%,吸湿率不随时间增加.热分析和机械感度测试表明,聚氨酯黏合剂对ADN的熔点、分解峰温、分解热焓的影响较小,但使ADN的机械感度增加,包覆前后ADN的摩擦感度分别为30%和60%,撞击感度(H50)分别为30.5 cm和27.8 cm.

  12. Nuclear DNA content in Galaxias maculatus (Teleostei: Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae Contenido de ADN nuclear en Galaxias maculatus (Teleostei: Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jara-Seguel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear DNA content (2C value was determined in the commercial fish Galaxias maculatus (Galaxiidae was determined by microdensitometry of erythrocyte nuclei after Feulgen staining; rainbow trout erythrocytes with a known 2C value were used as a standard. The 2C value of G. maculatus was 2.21 ± 0.12 pg and its C value was equivalent to 1.105 pg (1,082.9 Mbp. This C value is within the range recorded for other osmeriform species (0.62-3.2 pg. The average sperm head diameter of G. maculatus is lower than the average sperm head diameter of rainbow trout (used as a standard, which coincides with the differences observed in the nuclear DNA content of both species. This information increases the genome data available for G. maculatus and might be useful in future programs dealing with its genetic manipulation.El contenido de ADN nuclear (valor 2C fue determinado en el pez comercial Galaxias maculatus (Galaxiidae usando microdensitometría de núcleos de eritrocitos sometidos a tinción de Feulgen, utilizando como estándar eritrocitos de trucha arco iris con un valor 2C conocido. El valor 2C de G. maculatus fue 2,21 ± 0,12 pg y su valor C es equivalente a 1,105 pg (1.082,9 pMb. Este valor C está dentro del rango registrado para otras especies de osmeriformes (0,62-3,2 pg. El diámetro promedio de la cabeza del espermatozoide de G. maculatus es menor al promedio descrito para la trucha arco iris utilizado como estándar, lo que coincide con las diferencias observadas en el contenido de ADN nuclear entre ambas especies. Estos datos contribuyen a ampliar los antecedentes genómicos disponibles para G. maculatus y podrían ser útiles en futuros programas tendientes a su manipulación genética.

  13. Diversidad genética de poblaciones de ajo (Allium sativum L. cultivadas en Guatemala, definida por marcadores de ADN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Uber Rosales-Longo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversidad genética de las poblaciones de ajo (Allium sativum L. cultivadas en Gua temala, definida por mar cado res de ADN. En Guatemala es escasa la in for ma ción sobre la diversidad genética de ajo. Los objetivos del estudio fueron: incidir en el mejoramiento de Allium sativum, so bre la base del conocimiento de su variabilidad genética, así mismo, establecer una colección in vi tro de la co lec ción de las poblaciones cultivadas en Guatemala. Los experimentos fueron realizados entre octubre de 2005 y marzo de 2006. La determinación de las variaciones de ADN se realizaron me dian te la téc ni ca de AFLP™. La información se analiza por medio de análisis de componentes principales, análisis de coordenadas principales y análisis de conglomerados. Mediante la inspección de los pro duc tos de AFLP™ y análi sis estadísticos, se detectó una alta variabilidad genética entre los materiales vegetales colectados. Las muestras clasificadas co mo del ti po “Chi leno”, correspondieron a los tipos “Criollo”. Nueve bien diferenciados grupos genéticos se conformaron en un dendrograma y se con fir mó que la diversidad genética descubierta es una función del lugar don de se cul ti van las po bla cio nes de ajo. Se identificó una mayor diversidad genética entre las mues tras de ajo del ti po “Crio llo” que las que se tienen en tre los ma te ria les del ti po “Chileno”, como producto de la mayor dispersión espacial de los primeros. Los materiales genéticos de ajo se encuentran actualmente preservados en un Banco de Germoplasma in vi tro en la Uni dad de Bio tec no lo gía del IC TA.

  14. Estandarización de un protocolo sencillo para la extracción de ADN genómico de levaduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Osorio-Cadavid

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Standardising a simple protocol for extracting yeast from genomic DNA Resumen: Se estandarizó un protocolo rápido, sencillo y de bajo costo para la extracción de ADN genómico de levaduras a partir de lisis de la pared celular mediante tratamiento enzimático y precipitación por alcoholes. El empleo de la enzima Beta-glucoronidasa en reemplazo de la enzima Zimolasa, permitió obtener ADN en alta concentración (124,9±30,2 ng/μl y de buena calidad (A260/A280 nm =1,86±0,1, ideal para su uso en estudios de biología molecular. Además, se adicionó un paso de incubación del ADN obtenido a 100° C para inactivar ADNasas. La calidad del ADN obtenido fue evaluada por medio de la amplificación de la región ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, presentando bandas definidas y cuantificables (entre 380 y 880 pb ideales para estudios de identificación molecular y filogenia.Palabras clave: levadura; extracción de ADN; Beta-Glucoronidasa. Abstract: A quick, simple and low-cost protocol for extracting genomic DNA from yeast by cell wall lysis involving enzymatic treatment and alcoholic precipitation was standardised. Higher DNA yields (124.9±30.2 ng/μl were obtained by using beta-glucuronidase instead of zymolyase; these had very high quality (A260/A280 nm = 1.86±0.1 and would be suitable for use in molecular biology assays. Moreover, a DNAse inactivation step was also introduced by incubation at 100 °C to further ensure DNA stability. DNA quality was assayed by PCR amplification of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, revealing defined, quantifiable 380 to 880 bp bands. These results show that the protocol is ideal for molecular identification and phylogenetic studies.Key words: Yeast; DNA extraction; beta-glucoronidase.

  15. HIV Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Overview The HIV Life Cycle (Last updated 9/13/2016; last reviewed 9/8/2016) Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune ... life cycle. What is the connection between the HIV life cycle and HIV medicines? Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ...

  16. HIV Latency

    OpenAIRE

    Robert F. Siliciano; Greene, Warner C.

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 can establish a state of latent infection at the level of individual T cells. Latently infected cells are rare in vivo and appear to arise when activated CD4+ T cells, the major targets cells for HIV-1, become infected and survive long enough to revert back to a resting memory state, which is nonpermissive for viral gene expression. Because latent virus resides in memory T cells, it persists indefinitely even in patients on potent antiretroviral therapy. This latent reservoir is recogni...

  17. Hygroscopicity of ADN with Dynamic Method%动态法研究ADN的吸湿性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婧娜; 张皋; 严蕊; 胡岚; 张婷

    2012-01-01

    针对二硝酰胺铵(ADN)的强吸湿性及吸湿性研究的迫切性,建立了动态分析的新方法.采用快速分析方法研究了ADN的吸湿性能,得出了ADN的吸湿过程曲线、临界相对湿度、吸湿速率曲线.比较动态分析方法与干燥器平衡法(标准方法GJB7708 -2005 -404.1)结果,认为两种方法准确度等效.动态分析方法的相对标准偏差为1.45%.%Aim at the strong hygroscopicity of ammonium dinitramid( AND)and the necessity of the hygroscopicity investigation,a new dynamic analytical method was estabilished. The hygroscopicity of AND was studied by a rapid analytical method. The curves describing the hygroscopic process, hygroscopic speed and critical relative humidity were obtained. Compared to airer equity method, the dynamic method showed an equivalent result to the standardization method GJB770B -2005 -404. 1 in accuracy. The relative standard deviation of the dynamic analytical method was 1.45%.

  18. El entramado filiatorio y el ADN: Análisis de las competencias profesionales del psicólogo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Salomé Lima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se propone evaluar el grado de conocimiento que tienen los profesionales psicólogos en el ámbito de dos situaciones filiatorias controvertidas: casos de restitución de identidad vs casos de niños concebidos por tecnologías de reproducción humana asistida (TRHA, estableciendo como eje vertebrador al ADN y sus múltiples significaciones. ¿Ofrece la formación de grado los contenidos apropiados para desarrollar el quehacer profesional a la luz de las nuevas demandas sociales y tecno-científicas? Se presenta el análisis de los datos cuali-cuantitativos obtenidos a partir de una muestra conformada por 76 entrevistas realizadas a profesionales psicólogos, de ambos sexos, cuya edad oscila entre los 23 y los 70 años, de los cuales el 86 % han sido formados con el mismo plan de estudios de la Facultad de Psicología de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. En las conclusiones se destaca la falta de ajuste existente entre las nuevas necesidades sociales y la capacitación que los graduados reciben en el caso particular de la República Argentina.

  19. Screening and diagnosis for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV testing; HIV screening; HIV screening test; HIV confirmatory test ... Task Force. Final Update Summary: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Screening. July 2015. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/UpdateSummaryFinal/ ...

  20. EVALUACIÓN DE DOS MÉTODOS DE EXTRACCIÓN DE ADN A PARTIR DE BIOPSIAS FIJADAS EN FORMALINA Y EMBEBIDAS EN PARAFINA EN CONDICIONES NO ÓPTIMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER ANDRÉS BUSTAMANTE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los tejidos de archivo son material de incalculable valor para estudios retrospectivos que requieran la aplicación de análisis moleculares. Existen múltiples métodos de extracción de ADN a partir de este tipo de muestras. No obstante, la mayoría de mé- todos toman mucho tiempo y los reactivos empleados contribuyen a la fragmentación del ADN. Con el objetivo de optimizar dos métodos de extracción de ADN a partir de tejidos embebidos en parafina en condiciones no óptimas, se seleccionaron 47 bloques en parafina que contenían biopsias de pleura, pulmón y pericardio correspondientes a 24 pacientes (66,6% hombres mayores de 18 años, con inflamación granulomatosa crónica, remitidos al Departamento de Patología, Hospital Universitario del Valle entre 2002 y 2007. Se realizaron 10 cortes a cada muestra y se sometieron a dos métodos de extracción de ADN: 1. convencional y 2. QIAamp-DNA mini kit ® . La eficiencia del ADN fue valorada por espectrofotometría y amplificación del gen GAPDH. La concentración de ADN de las muestras extraídas por el método convencional fue de 65,52 ng/μL ±11,47 (promedio ± EE y la relación 260/280 varió entre 0,52 y 2,30. De las muestras extraídas por el método comercial, la concentración media de ADN fue 60,89 ng/μL ± 6,02, con una absorbancia que osciló entre 0 y 2,64. El ADN obtenido fue sometido a PCR, de 47 muestras extraídas por ambos métodos, 25 y 23 respectivamente amplificaron exitosamente el gen GAPDH. Los métodos usados para la obtención de ADN presentaron un desempeño similar, revelando así su potencial utilidad en estudios retrospectivos a partir de biopsias embebidas en parafina en condiciones inadecuadas.

  1. Evaluación de dos métodos de extracción de ADN a partir de biopsias fijadas en formalina y embebidas en parafina en condiciones no optimas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo Luis Eduardo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Los tejidos de archivo son un material de incalculable valor para estudios retrospectivos que requieran la aplicación de análisis moleculares. Existen múltiples métodos de extracción de ADN a partir de este tipo de muestras. No obstante, la mayoría de m��todos toman mucho tiempo y los reactivos empleados contribuyen a la fragmentación del ADN. Con el objetivo de optimizar dos métodos de extracción de ADN a partir de tejidos embebidos en parafina en condiciones no optimas. Se seleccionaron 47 bloques en parafina que contenían biopsias de pleura, pulmón y pericardio correspondientes a 24 pacientes (66,66%hombres mayores de 18 años, con inflamación granulomatosa crónica, remitidos al Departamento de Patología del Hospital Universitario del Valle entre 2002-2007. A cada muestra se le realizaron 10 cortes y se sometieron a dos métodos de extracción de ADN: 1.Convencional y 2.QIAamp-DNA mini kit®. La eficiencia del ADN fue valorada por espectrofotometría y amplificación del gen GAPDH. La concentración de ADN de las muestras extraídas por el método convencional fue de 65.52ng/µl ±11.47 (promedio±EE y la relación 260/280 vario entre 0.52 y 2.30. De las muestras extraídas por el método comercial, la concentración media de ADN fue 60.89ng/µl±6.02, con una absorbancia que oscilo entre 0 y 2.64. El ADN obtenido fue sometido a PCR, de 47 muestras extraídas por ambos métodos, 25 y 23 respectivamente amplificarón exitosamente el gen GAPDH. Los métodos usados para la obtención de ADN presentaron un desempeño similar, revelando así su potencial utilidad en estudios retrospectivos a partir de biopsias embebidas en parafina en condiciones inadecuadas.

  2. Interaction and compatibility of ADN with compositions of propellant by thermal analysis method%热分析法研究ADN与推进剂组分的相互作用及相容性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 邵重斌; 刘芳莉; 樊学忠; 谢五喜; 庞维强; 闫宁; 刘小刚; 刘春; 姬月萍

    2014-01-01

    用高压差示扫描量热法( PDSC),研究了ADN(二硝酰胺铵)与推进剂的粘合剂、固化剂、增塑剂和高能填料的相互作用及相容性。结果表明,ADN与PEG、TDI和HDI二元混合物的分解温度比ADN的分解峰温低16.3~26.9℃,混合体系相互作用危险,相容性差;ADN与NG-BTTN、TEGDN、Bu-NENA和HMX二元混合物的分解温度略高于ADN的分解峰温0.5~7.5℃,对应混合物的分解温度比NG-BTTN、TEGDN、Bu-NENA和HMX的分解温度低5.9~14.4℃,混合体系的相互作用较为敏感;ADN与GAP、PBT、PET、IPDI、N-100、NG、TMETN、BDNPA-F和Al二元混合物的分解温度与各单组分分解温度差小于2℃,上述组分相容。%The interaction and compatibility of ADN with various main compositions of propellant, including binders, curing a-gents, plasticizers and energetic fillers, were investigated by means of PDSC.Results show that Tp(decomposition temperature) of ADN-PEG,-TDI and -HDI dual mixing system is 16.3~26.9℃ lower than Tp of ADN.The interactions between them are dangerous and ADN is incompatible with PEG, TDI and HDI;Tp of ADN-NG/BTTN,-TEGDN,-Bu-NENA and-HMX dual mixing system is 0.5~7.5 ℃ higher than Tp of ADN and 5.9~14.4℃ lower than those of corresponding compositions(NG/BTTN, TEGDN, Bu-NE-NA and HMX), thus the interactions between them are sensitive;ΔTp(difference of decomposition temperature) of ADN-GAP, -PBT,-PET,-IPDI,-N-100,-NG,-TMETN,-BDNPA-F and -Al dual mixing system with the corresponding compositions is less than 2 ℃, and ADN is found to be compatible with compositions mentioned above.

  3. A role for microRNA-155 modulation in the anti-HIV-1 effects of Toll-like receptor 3 stimulation in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokul Swaminathan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 infection of macrophages plays a key role in viral pathogenesis and progression to AIDS. Polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C; a synthetic analog of dsRNA and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, the ligands for Toll-like receptors (TLR TLR3 and TLR4, respectively, are known to decrease HIV-1 infection in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs, but the mechanism(s are incompletely understood. We found that poly(I:C- and LPS-stimulation of MDMs abrogated infection by CCR5-using, macrophage-tropic HIV-1, and by vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein-pseudotyped HIV-1 virions, while TLR2, TLR7 or TLR9 agonists only partially reduced infection to varying extent. Suppression of infection, or lack thereof, did not correlate with differential effects on CD4 or CCR5 expression, type I interferon induction, or production of pro-inflammatory cytokines or β-chemokines. Integrated pro-viruses were readily detected in unstimulated, TLR7- and TLR9-stimulated cells, but not in TLR3- or TLR4-stimulated MDMs, suggesting the alteration of post-entry, pre-integration event(s. Using microarray analysis and quantitative reverse transcription (RT-PCR, we found increased microRNA (miR-155 levels in MDMs upon TLR3/4- but not TLR7-stimulation, and a miR-155 specific inhibitor (but not a scrambled control partially restored infectivity in poly(I:C-stimulated MDMs. Ectopic miR-155 expression remarkably diminished HIV-1 infection in primary MDMs and cell lines. Furthermore, poly(I:C-stimulation and ectopic miR-155 expression did not alter detection of early viral RT products, but both resulted in an accumulation of late RT products and in undetectable or extremely low levels of integrated pro-viruses and 2-LTR circles. Reduced mRNA and protein levels of several HIV-1 dependency factors involved in trafficking and/or nuclear import of pre-integration complexes (ADAM10, TNPO3, Nup153, LEDGF/p75 were found in poly(I:C-stimulated and miR-155-transfected MDMs, and a

  4. A role for microRNA-155 modulation in the anti-HIV-1 effects of Toll-like receptor 3 stimulation in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Gokul; Rossi, Fiorella; Sierra, Luz-Jeannette; Gupta, Archana; Navas-Martín, Sonia; Martín-García, Julio

    2012-09-01

    HIV-1 infection of macrophages plays a key role in viral pathogenesis and progression to AIDS. Polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C); a synthetic analog of dsRNA) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the ligands for Toll-like receptors (TLR) TLR3 and TLR4, respectively, are known to decrease HIV-1 infection in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), but the mechanism(s) are incompletely understood. We found that poly(I:C)- and LPS-stimulation of MDMs abrogated infection by CCR5-using, macrophage-tropic HIV-1, and by vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein-pseudotyped HIV-1 virions, while TLR2, TLR7 or TLR9 agonists only partially reduced infection to varying extent. Suppression of infection, or lack thereof, did not correlate with differential effects on CD4 or CCR5 expression, type I interferon induction, or production of pro-inflammatory cytokines or β-chemokines. Integrated pro-viruses were readily detected in unstimulated, TLR7- and TLR9-stimulated cells, but not in TLR3- or TLR4-stimulated MDMs, suggesting the alteration of post-entry, pre-integration event(s). Using microarray analysis and quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, we found increased microRNA (miR)-155 levels in MDMs upon TLR3/4- but not TLR7-stimulation, and a miR-155 specific inhibitor (but not a scrambled control) partially restored infectivity in poly(I:C)-stimulated MDMs. Ectopic miR-155 expression remarkably diminished HIV-1 infection in primary MDMs and cell lines. Furthermore, poly(I:C)-stimulation and ectopic miR-155 expression did not alter detection of early viral RT products, but both resulted in an accumulation of late RT products and in undetectable or extremely low levels of integrated pro-viruses and 2-LTR circles. Reduced mRNA and protein levels of several HIV-1 dependency factors involved in trafficking and/or nuclear import of pre-integration complexes (ADAM10, TNPO3, Nup153, LEDGF/p75) were found in poly(I:C)-stimulated and miR-155-transfected MDMs, and a reporter

  5. HIV/AIDS Coinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laotian Mongolian Spanish Turkish Vietnamese Hindi Subscribe HIV/AIDS Coinfection Approximately 10% of the HIV-infected population ... Control and Prevention website to learn about HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis guidelines and resources. Home About ...

  6. HIV and Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment HIV and Immunizations (Last updated 2/24/2017; last reviewed 2/24/2017) Key Points Vaccines protect people from ... a disease outbreak. Is there a vaccine against HIV? Testing is underway on experimental vaccines to prevent ...

  7. Children and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Children Children and HIV Most HIV-positive children under the age of ... Frequently Asked Questions How long do children with HIV typically live? Because effective treatments are relatively new ...

  8. Effect of a new aldose reductase inhibitor, 8'-chloro-2',3'-dihydrospiro [pyrrolidine-3,6'(5'H)-pyrrolo[1,2,3-de] [1,4]benzoxazine]-2,5,5'- trione (ADN-138), on delayed motor nerve conduction velocity in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Y; Fujimori, S; Okada, K

    1988-02-01

    The effects of a chemically new type of aldose reductase inhibitor, ADN-138, on delayed motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) and sciatic nerve sorbitol, fructose and myo-inositol levels were studied in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. MNCV in rats was significantly delayed after 3 weeks of diabetes and ADN-138 treatment was started at this point. Treatment of diabetics with ADN-138 at 5 and 20 but not 1 mg/kg/d for 3 weeks resulted in a significant increase in MNCV and reduced sorbitol levels to or below those of nondiabetic controls. However, fructose, though decreased in a dose-dependent manner, was not normalized. The reference drug, Sorbinil, showed similar effects on them. After the 3 weeks of ADN-138(20 mg/kg/d) treatment, diabetics were left on ADN-138 or continued further to be treated with it for 3 weeks. The withdrawal of ADN-138 prevented a further increase in MNCV and restored sorbitol and fructose to nontreated diabetic levels, and myo-inositol levels declined. In contrast, the ADN-138-continued group kept improving its MNCV and normalized sorbitol and myo-inositol. These results suggest that polyol accumulation is responsible for delayed MNCV and that the action of ADN-138 on MNCV reflected reversibility of metabolic function in diabetics.

  9. Diseño y síntesis de metalopéptidos y su aplicación como agentes de unión al ADN

    OpenAIRE

    Rama Martínez, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Uno de los campos más activos en Química Biológica y en Química Médica es el desarrollo de moléculas con utilidad terapéutica, incluyendo las que tienen el ADN como diana. El descubrimiento del origen genético de múltiples enfermedades, así como la influencia del genotipo en la respuesta a medicamentos, hace que la detección de secuencias específicas del ADN tenga un enorme potencial diagnóstico y clínico. Entre los agentes clásicos de reconocimiento específico del ADN desta...

  10. DOMMAGES CAUSÉS À LA MOLECULE D’ADN PAR LES EFFETS CONJUGUÉS DE DEUX DISTRIBUTIONS D’ESPÈCES RADIOLYTIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E.K ABDELMOUMENE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available L’ADN, support de l’information génétique de la cellule, est la cible la plus importante lors d’une exposition à un rayonnement ionisant (radiothérapie, scintigraphie…. Sa dégradation est à l’origine de désordres cellulaires dramatiques comme la cancérisation. Pour quantifier ces effets, nous avons considéré deux électrons d’énergie incidente 1 KeV qui traversent un milieu aqueux fournissant chacun une distribution de  radicaux libres (e-aq, H,OH, H+aq, H2, H2O2, OH-, O2, O-2, OH2, OH2- que nous avons fait évoluer selon un ensemble de codes informatiques élaborés sur un modèle déterministe jusqu’à leur collision et estimer ainsi la concentration et le rendement de chaque espèce. Dans cette étude, nous n’avons considéré queles espèces les plus agressives vis à vis des molécules biologiques e-aq, H et plus particulièrement l’hydroxyle OH. Nous avons ainsi estimé le nombre moyensde diverses lésions portées à l’ADN. L’intérêt essentiel de cette étude est lamise au point d’un modèle simple d’adaptation facile du point de vue applications qui peut renseignersur les dommages causés à une molécule aussi importante que l’ADN.

  11. Structure par RMN d'un complexe AlcR(1-60)-ADN: Reconnaissance du petit sillon par la partie N-terminale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahuzac, B.; Félenbok, B.; Guittet, E.

    1999-10-01

    Aspergillus nidulans is a filamentous fungus able to use ethanol as sole energy source. The activation of the ethanol regulon genes expression is mediated by the AlcR protein. Its DNA-binding domain is located in the N-terminus (residues 1 to 60), and its NMR solution structure shows a global zinc binuclear cluster fold, with two helices in addition to the basic binuclear motif. A small number of crystallographic structures of DNA complexes of binuclear cluster proteins is yet known, and points out the major groove and the first helix as the principal sites of interaction on the DNA and the protein respectively. In this article we show evidences that the N-terminus of the protein is involved in binding to the minor groove. Aspergillus nidulans est un champignon filamenteux capable d'utiliser l'éthanol comme source unique d'énergie. La protéine AlcR est responsable de l'activation de l'expression des gènes du régulon éthanol. Le domaine de liaison à l'ADN est situé dans la partie N-terminale de la protéine (a.a. 1 à 60), et sa structure déterminée par RMN en solution montre un repliement global en bouquet binucléaire à zinc, avec deux hélices supplémentaires par rapport au motif de base. Alors que les structures déjà connues de complexes ADN - bouquets binucléaires permettent de situer dans le grand sillon la quasi-totalité des interactions, nous montrons dans la présente étude l'implication du début de la séquence dans la reconnaissance du petit sillon de l'ADN (a.a. 5 et 6).

  12. Combustion Properties of PGN/ADN Propellants%PGN/ADN推进剂的燃烧性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚冬琴; 黄洪勇

    2010-01-01

    采用靶线法在3.0~15.0 MPa压强范围内,研究了固含量、铝粉含量、二硝酰胺铵(ADN)的粒径及含量、燃速调节剂及热稳定剂对PGN/ADN推进剂燃烧性能的影响.结果表明,ADN的粒径(<450 μm,450~900 μm)和含量(0%~30%)增加时,PGN/ADN推进剂的燃速和压强指数均适当增加; 改变Al粉含量,PGN/ADN推进剂的燃速和压强指数均无明显变化; 添加适量(0.5%)燃速调节剂Fe2O3可增加推进剂的燃速并降低压强指数,添加适量(0.5%)燃速调节剂草酰胺可有效降低压强指数. 添加适量稳定剂(1%)2-硝基二苯胺(2-DNPA)和N-甲基-4-硝基苯胺(MNA)可以使推进剂的压强指数分别由0.49降低到0.34和0.40.

  13. Papel de los polimorfismos genéticos para enzimas de reparación en el daño en el ADN inducido por el estireno y estireno-7,8-óxido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Laffon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta individual al daño en el ADN inducido por agentes xenobióticos está condicionada por la eficacia de los sistemas de reparación. Algunos de los polimorfismos genéticos descritos en las enzimas de reparación del ADN pueden afectar a su función, determinando una variación en la susceptibilidad ante la exposición a agentes ambientales. El objetivo de este estudio ha consistido en investigar si las variantes alélicas más frecuentes de las enzimas de reparación XRCC1 (Arg194Trp y Arg399Gln, XRCC3 (Thr241Met o APE1 (Asp148Glu pueden condicionar el daño en el ADN inducido por el estireno y su principal metabolito, el estireno-7,8-óxido (EO. Leucocitos periféricos de 30 voluntarios sanos se trataron con estireno o EO, y el daño en el ADN inducido se evaluó mediante el ensayo del cometa. Tras el tratamiento con estireno, los individuos portadores de los alelos XRCC1 399Gln y XRCC3 241Met mostraron mayor nivel de roturas en el ADN, sugiriendo menor eficacia de los sistemas de reparación. Por el contrario, los portadores del alelo APE1 148Glu mostraron daño en el ADN significativamente menor que los individuos 148 Asp/Asp. Sin embargo, no se obtuvo ningún efecto significativo en las células expuestas a EO, debido probablemente a que el daño inducido es inicialmente mayor, y no permite que se pongan de manifiesto pequeñas diferencias en la eficacia de reparación de los genotipos analizados

  14. Valoración de la prueba de ADN en el proceso penal: cuestiones científicas, legales y de probabilidad

    OpenAIRE

    González Ortega, Adela María

    2016-01-01

    El principal objetivo de este trabajo es tratar de explicar todas las etapas que conciernen a la prueba de ADN aplicada a casos de criminología, así como todos los problemas que se plantean por la utilización de esta prueba en los juicios penales. Algunos de los puntos clave que se pretenden abordar en este trabajo son: analizar la información que se obtiene de esta prueba en el laboratorio de Biología Forense y el valor que se le da en la actualidad en la resolución de un juicio penal. D...

  15. Impacto de la fragmentación del ADN espermático en la población infértil

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez de la Fuente, Myrian

    2013-01-01

    La fragmentación del ADN espermático está empezando a considerarse como un nuevo parámetro de calidad seminal. Actualmente, existe mucha controversia en torno a la importancia de su estudio así como la influencia que puede tener en las tasas de fecundación, implantación, embarazo, aborto y calidad embrionaria. El objetivo del trabajo es evaluar si existe una relación entre alguno de los parámetros de un seminograma básico y el grado de fragmentación que presentan nuestra población en est...

  16. 二硝酰胺铵(ADN)的燃烧特性研究进展%Combustion characteristics and mechanisms of ammonium dinitramide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨荣杰

    2003-01-01

    综述了国外二硝酰胺铵(ADN)燃烧特性和燃烧机理研究的进展,包括ADN及其复合推进剂的燃烧特点,燃速-压力依赖关系,燃烧波温度分布特征,初始分解机理,低压下燃烧暗区形成的机理和存在燃速不稳定压力区的原因分析.此外,对暗区形成的机理进行了讨论.

  17. Optimización de un protocolo de extracción de ADN genómico para Pinus tecunumanii

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Se optimizó un protocolo para la extracción de ADN genómico de Pinus tecunumanii basado en el método de extracción de Doyle y Doyle (1990). Se probaron los megagametofitos de las semillas de árboles deP. tecunumanii muestreados en cinco poblaciones naturales de Nicaragua. El método consta de maceración del tejido en tubos Eppendorf, una extracción con bromuro trimetil amonio de cetilo (CTAB)empleando altas concentraciones de sales, proteinasa K, extracciones sucesivas con cloroformo-alcohol i...

  18. Evaluación de cuatro métodos de extracción del ADN de Histoplasmacapsulatum y su uso en reacciones de PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Xavier Monroy-Vaca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmacapsulatum es un hongo endémico de Cuba y el agente causal de la histoplasmosis. Esta micosis se presenta en forma de brotes epidémicos, afecta a las personas, independiente de su estado inmunológico. Su diagnóstico se realiza mediante técnicas microbiológicas, serológicas e histológicas que tienen una sensibilidad moderada y son demoradas. Por lo que se hace necesario la estandarización de métodos moleculares rápidos y eficientes para el diagnóstico de esta micosis. Se evaluaron cuatro métodos de extracción del ADN (enzimático, mecánico y dos químicos: tiocianato de guanidinio y Tritón X-100 a partir de una cepa de H. capsulatum en fase filamentosa. Se determinó la concentración, la pureza, el rendimiento y la integridad del ADN mediante espectrofotometría y electroforesis en gel de agarosa. Se evaluaron dos técnicas de PCR con el ADN obtenido, con cebadores específicos de especie y otro con un cebador arbitrario. Los mejores resultados de concentración, pureza, rendimiento e integridad se obtuvieron con el método de extracción enzimático. Se logró la estandarización de las PCR con cebadores específicos, confirmándose así las 16 cepas estudiadas como H. capsulatum. Con el cebador arbitrario se amplificaron secuencias diferentes en las cepas ensayadas. Se demostró que el método de extracción enzimática brindó un ADN de buena calidad para su utilización en PCR. Este trabajo facilita el diagnóstico rápido y confiable de H. capsulatum en Cuba y brinda la posibilidad de identificar cepas con estructuras relacionadas genéticamente con los marcadores de patogenicidad y la virulencia, útiles para conformar un inmunógenovacunal.

  19. Evaluación de métodos de extracción de ADN para detección de Listeria monocytogenes en productos cárnicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina López DA.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar dos procedimientos para la extracción de ADN de Listeria monocytogenes a partir de muestras de alimentos contaminados artificialmente. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluaron diferentes métodos de extracción en cultivos puros de L. monocytogenes. Los métodos con mejores resultados fueron evaluados en muestras de alimentos cárnicos (jamón, salchicha y chorizo contaminados artificialmente. Para evaluar la calidad del ADN extraído se determinó la concentración de ADN, la relación A260/A280 y se amplificó el gen hlyA de L. monocytogenes por PCR. Resultados. Los métodos con solventes orgánicos y con PBS + Tween 20 permitieron obtener mayor cantidad de ADN (40 y 50 μg, respectivamente. En muestras de alimentos, se obtuvo ADN de mayor pureza con el método con solventes orgánicos (p <0,005, pero con el método con PBS + Tween 20 se obtuvo una mayor concentración. Con ambos métodos de extracción de ADN se logró la amplificación del gen hlyA en muestras contaminadas desde 1 hasta 105 UFC/ml. La composición del alimento no afectó la reacción de PCR en las muestras de ADN obtenidas con los dos métodos de extracción. Conclusiones. Independientemente del método de extracción utilizado, se logró la detección del gen hlyA de L. monocytogenes en muestras de alimentos contaminados desde 1 hasta 105 UFC /ml. Sin embargo, para su uso como método rutinario de diagnóstico, el método con PBS + Tween 20 es la mejor opción para la extracción de ADN, por ser un método de fácil aplicación, bajo costo y buen desempeño.

  20. Análisis de la fragmentación del ADN de espermatozoides humanos mediante el test de dispersión de la cromatina espermática : origen, causas e impacto en reproducción asistida

    OpenAIRE

    Santiso Brandariz, Rebeca

    2013-01-01

    [Resumen] Los hombres infértiles presentan una mayor proporción de espermatozoides con ADN fragmentado que los hombres fértiles, aunque un cierto porcentaje de estas células siempre está presente en todas las muestras seminales. Esta tesis se centra en el estudio de ciertas cuestiones básicas y clínicas acerca de la fragmentación del ADN espermático. Desde el punto de vista de la investigación básica, nuestros resultados indican que el estrés oxidativo se relaciona con la fragmentación del AD...

  1. HIV Structural Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 102 HIV Structural Database (Web, free access)   The HIV Protease Structural Database is an archive of experimentally determined 3-D structures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1), Human Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV-2) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Proteases and their complexes with inhibitors or products of substrate cleavage.

  2. [HIV and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweifel, Vineeta Bansal; Berger, Christoph; Nadal, David; Grawe, Claudia

    2014-08-01

    The use and success of antiretroviral treatment in HIV-positive people has led to a reduction of vertical transmission of HIV. Pregnancy in HIV-positive women became more common. The success of prophylactic measures has led to a dramatic change in care of HIV-positive women. Today, a HIV-positive mother giving birth to a HIV-negative child is standard of care in industrialized countries. We describe the impact of an HIV-infection in pregnancy and outline the most important diagnostic and therapeutic aspects.

  3. Comparación de dos métodos de extracción de ADN a partir de plantas del género Solanum, subgénero Leptostemonum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Cadavid Sánchez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Comparison of two ADN extraction methods from plants belonging Solanum genus Leptostemonumsubgenus.Título corto: Extracción de ADN de SolanumResumen: Se evaluaron dos métodos para la extracción de ADN en plantas del género Solanum, con el fin de obtener ADN disponible y de buena calidad para la obtención de secuencias. El producto comercial DNeasy® Plant Mini Kit se comparó con un método que incluye el uso de una solución tampón de lisis. Para este último método también se evaluó si el rendimiento mejoraba cuando las muestras se maceraron previamente con  nitrógeno líquido. Los resultados en términos de calidad (A260/A280 no mostraron diferencias significativas entre los métodos de extracción (índice < 1,5. Sin embargo, se encontraron diferencias en la concentración de ADN obtenida (prueba de Dunnet, p<0,05 y en los porcentajes de amplificación mediante PCR (X2, p<0,05. Los mejores resultados, en cuanto al éxito en la PCR (89%, se obtuvieron con el producto comercial, sin embargo la dilución 1:100 de las muestras obtenidas con el método de solución de lisis, permitió obtener resultados de PCR comparables. La maceración de las muestras con nitrógeno líquido, también mejoró el rendimiento (éxito de PCR del método con solución de lisis. Se propone este método  como una alternativa costo-efectiva para la extracción de ADN a partir de plantas del género evaluado, con base en los resultados obtenidos.Palabras clave: extracción, ADN, planta, solución tampón, PCR.Abstract: Two methods were evaluated for ADN extraction in plants belonging to the Solanum genus. The objective was to isolate adequate ADN amount and of enough quality for obtaining sequences. The commercial product DNeasy® Plant Mini Kit was compared with a method that includes a lysis buffer. For the last method it was also evaluated the improvement   when samples were previously macerated with liquid nitrogen. The quality

  4. National HIV Testing Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-06-09

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses National HIV Testing Day, an annual observance which raises awareness of the importance of knowing one's HIV status and encourages at-risk individuals to get an HIV test.  Created: 6/9/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/9/2011.

  5. Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-26

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students.  Created: 11/26/2012 by Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 11/26/2012.

  6. Dermatomyositis and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamata Chand

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV has been linked to several autoimmune disorders since its emergence in the 1980s. By affecting different cells and pathways in the immune system, HIV induces the development of certain autoimmune diseases while prohibiting the emergence of others. Dermatomyositis has been rarely described in patients with HIV. We present a case of dermatomyositis in a patient with HIV and explore the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders in HIV focusing on dermatomyositis.

  7. ADN及其混合物燃烧性能的理论计算%THEORETIC CALCULATION OF THE BURNING RATE CHARACTERISTICS OF ADN AND ITS MIXTRUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨栋; 宋洪昌; 赵凤起; 李上文

    1998-01-01

    分析了新型含能材料二硝酰胺铵(ADN)的热分解特性和燃烧特性,提出ADN燃烧初期热分解反应的假说,建立了由化学结构特征计算ADN及其混合物燃速公式,并计算了ADN和配比不同的ADN混合物的燃速特征.计算结果与实测值十分一致.从化学结构和化学反应的层次分析了ADN单质燃烧出现平台燃烧现象的原因,认为ADN热分解过程中,中间产物NH4NO3的形成和消失在平台(麦撒)燃烧中起着关键作用.预测了ADN提高固体推进剂燃速和降低燃速压力指数的趋势.

  8. Protocolo de extracción de ADN en lotes de 10 mosquitos para la identificación de Plasmodium spp. mediante qPCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pérez Rico

    Full Text Available Las tropas que despliegan en zonas de operaciones endémicas de malaria, necesitan de una información precisa del riesgo sanitario para la toma de decisiones acerca de las medidas de prevención más adecuadas. El estado de portador de un mosquito se determina clásicamente por la presencia o ausencia de esporozoitos de Plasmodium spp. en las glándulas salivales. Los protocolos basados en la amplificación del ADN en tiempo real (qPCR son muy sensibles, sin embargo existen dificultades en la qPCR debido a inhibidores presentes en los tejidos del mosquito, lo que obliga a trabajar de uno en uno. En este trabajo se diseña una qPCR para amplificar una región conservada entre mosquitos de diferentes especies y otros dípteros, con el objetivo de comparar varios protocolos de extracción de ADN y determinar el más eficiente a la hora de procesar lotes de 10 mosquitos.

  9. Revisión sobre la genética del origen del ganado vacuno y las aportaciones del ADN antiguo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lira, J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente el ganado vacuno es la especie doméstica económicamente más importante de todas las que explota el hombre. Por este motivo este trabajo hace un repaso de los estudios que se han llevado a cabo sobre la aparación del ganado doméstico, teniendo en cuenta las evidencias aruqeológicas y genéticas. Durante las dos últimas décadas el análisis del ADN mitocondrial se ha mostrado como una herramienta muy útil para profundizar en los focos de origen, migración y posibles eventos independientes de domesticación, tanto del ganado taurino como del ganado cebú. Se ofrece una revisión de los estudios que se han centrado en el desarrollo de los linajes maternos del ganado doméstico, analizando ADN mitocondrial de individuos modernos y de restos antiguos de diferentes cronologías. Además, exponemos los resultados complementarios obtenidos a partir del análisis del cromosoma Y extraído de muestras antiguas.

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with ... Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the ...

  11. What Is HIV/AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS? Subscribe Translate Text Size Print What Is HIV/AIDS? Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. If left ... need medical treatment to prevent death. Where DId HIV Come From? Scientists identified a type of chimpanzee ...

  12. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... high-risk category, emphasizes Dr. Cargill. Photo: iStock HIV and Pregnancy Are there ways to help HIV- ...

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Projects » Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 – ... and to help us Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human ...

  14. Divergencia intraespecífica y código de barras de ADN en Systrophia helicycloides (Gastropoda, Scolodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Romero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El DNA barcoding es un análisis que se basa en la comparación de distancias genéticas para identificar especies utilizando principalmente un segmento del gen Citocromo C Oxidasa I (COI. Los retos para la identificación surgen al estudiar grupos que presentan gran diversidad genética como los moluscos. Por ello, los objetivos de nuestra investigación fueron estimar la divergencia intraespecífica en el molusco terrestre amazónico Systrophia helicycloides (Gastropoda, Scolodontidae y evaluar la utilización de los códigos de barras de ADN en la identificación molecular de esta especie. Las secuencias de nucleótidos fueron comparadas con las bases de datos Genbank y BOLD (Barcode of Life Data Systems. Se realizó un análisis de distancia genética mediante Neighbour Joining. Systrophia helicycloides presentó dos grupos de haplotipos con distancias genéticas intraespecíficas mayores a 4%. También se observó una superposición entre las distancias intraespecíficas y las interespecíficas. La gran divergencia intraespecífica puede estar relacionada a la rápida variación del genoma mitocondrial, la distribución poblacional de los moluscos la cual permite el aislamiento y diferenciación genética, y la presencia de polimorfismos ancestrales. Los perfiles COI enviados a la base de datos BOLD son los primeros registros para esta especie y permitieron diferenciar a Systrophia helicycloides de otras especies. Estos perfiles corroboran la gran variación que ocurre en el genoma mitocondrial de moluscos terrestres por lo que la asignación de especies en este grupo precisa de la combinación entre los valores de divergencia genética, la evaluación de sitios informativos y los estudios de taxonomía convencional.

  15. Tissue specificity of enhancer and promoter activities of a HERV-K(HML-2) LTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, V M; Akopov, S B; Trubetskoy, D O; Manuylov, N L; Vetchinova, A S; Zavalova, L L; Nikolaev, L G; Sverdlov, E D

    2004-08-01

    Transient expression of a luciferase reporter gene was used to evaluate tissue-specific promoter and enhancer activities of a solitary extraviral long terminal repeat (LTR) of the human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) in several human and CHO cell lines. The promoter activity of the LTR varied from virtually not detectable (GS and Jurkat cells) to as high as that of the SV40 early promoter (Tera-1 human testicular embryonal carcinoma cells). The negative regulatory element (NRE) of the LTR retained its activity in all cell lines where the LTR could act as a promoter, and was also capable of binding host cell nuclear proteins. The enhancer activity of the LTR towards the SV40 early promoter was detected only in Tera-1 cells and was not observed in a closely related human testicular embryonal carcinoma cell line of different origin, NT2/D1. A comparison of proteins bound to central part of the LTR in nuclear extracts from Tera-1 and NT2/D1 by electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed striking differences that could be determined by different LTR enhancer activities in these cells. Tissue specificity of the SV40 early promoter activity was also revealed.

  16. EFECTO IN VITRO DE LA UNCARIA TOMENTOSA, DEL MTA Y DEL HIDROXIDO DE CALCIO EN LA VIABILIDAD CELULAR, MORFOLOGIA NUCLEAR Y INTEGRIDAD DEL ADN EN PULPA DENTAL DE PIEZAS DENTARIAS EXTRAIDAS, CLINICA ODONTOLOGICA PARTICULAR. AREQUIPA, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    LÓPEZ HUAMÁN, GIOVANNI

    2013-01-01

    UNCARIA TOMENTOSA ANTECEDENTES HISTÓRICOS CLASIFICACIÓN BOTÁNICA COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA PROPIEDADES FARMACOLÓGICAS TOXICIDAD Y CONTRAINDICACIONES EFECTOS MTA HIDRÓXIDO DE CALCIO COMPLEJO DENTINO PULPAR RECUBRIMIENTO PULPAR DIRECTO VIABILIDAD CELULAR MORFOLOGÍA NUCLEAR ESTRUCTURA DEL ADN

  17. Detección del estado de metilación de los genes dapk, cdh13, cdh1 y rassf1 en ADN de plasma de pacientes con cáncer de cuello uterino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristizábal Fabio

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de las características epigenéticas en ADN proveniente de plasma de pacientes con cáncer de cuello uterino (CCU tiene un futuro promisorio;  se han encontrado previamente genes supresores de tumor (GST metilados, correlacionados con estadios avanzados del CCU, siendo
    posibles indicadores de peor pronóstico y marcadores moleculares de respuesta a tratamiento. Sin embargo, no existe ningún estudio para Colombia, en el que se haya buscado detectar estados de metilación para ADN de plasma en ningún tipo de cáncer. En este trabajo se reporta el estudio
    de 23 pacientes colombianas con estadios avanzados (III y IV de CCU (Banco de Muestras del Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, a los cuales les fue detectado el estado de mutilación (conversión por bisulfito de sodio posterior MSP de los GST dapk, cdh13, cdh1 y rassf1, en ADN de plasma,
    y se comparó contra el estado de metilación en ADN de plasma, arrojando los siguientes porcentajes de pacientes que presentaron el mismo estado de metilación (presente/ausente rassf1, 44%; cdh13, 33%; cdh1, 44%; dapk, 78%; para un total de los cuatro genes en conjunto de 47%. Adicionalmente, se detectó la presencia en el 100% de las muestras de tumor de HPV tipo 16. Se demostró igualdad entre las poblaciones de tumor y plasma para el panel de los cuatro genes (p=0,635, Test de McNemar a=0,05, en particular para el estadio III (p=0,85. El gen dapk presentó un estado de metilación positivo para plasma del 68,4% y para tumor del 94% en estadios avanzados. De esta manera, se consiguió la detección de los estados de metilación en ADN de plasma y se encontró correlación estadística con los encontrados en ADN tumoral, en particular para el estadio III. Este trabajo constituye un aporte importante para el uso de características epigenéticas de ADN de plasma, como marcadores moleculares de progresión, respuesta a tratamiento, y suprevivencia, en pacientes colombianas con CCU.

  18. Complexation des acides aminés basiques arginine, histidine et lysine avec l'ADN plasmidique en solution aqueuse : participation à la capture de radicaux sous irradiation X à 1,5 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq Khalil, Talat; Taillefumier, Baptiste; Boulanouar, Omar; Mavon, Christophe; Fromm, Michel

    2016-09-01

    L'environnement chimique de l'ADN en situation biologique est complexe notam-ment en raison de la présence d'histones, protéines nucléaires, associées en quantité approximativement égales à l'ADN pour former la chromatine. Les histones possèdent de nombreux radicaux basiques arginine et lysine chargés positivement et dont la majorité se trouve sur les chaînes émergentes, l'ADN présente quant à lui des charges négatives sur ses groupements phosphates localisés tout au long de la double hélice. Dans cette étude, la complexité de la structure de la chromatine nucléaire est dans un premier temps mimée en solution aqueuse par la formation de complexes entre un ADN plasmidique sonde et les trois acides aminés basiques, Arg, His, Lys, qui, mis à part His, sont protonés au pH physiologique. Ces acides aminés libres en solution sont réputés être des capteurs efficaces de radicaux libres, notamment pour le radical hydroxyle, conférant ainsi un pouvoir protecteur vis-à-vis des effets indirects sur l'ADN en situation d'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants. A concentration fixée, les capacités de capture des acides aminés libres, σ, pour le radical hydroxyle sont typiquement les suivantes σHis ≈σArg > σLys (σLys ≈ 0,1 × σArg). Nous avons mesuré les taux de cassures simple brin par plasmide et par Gray (χ) lors d'expositions de solutions aqueuses de complexes [acide aminé - ADN plasmidique] aux rayons X ultra-mous (1,5 keV). A concentrations égales, les trois acides aminés complexés et présents en large excès ne manifestent pas une capacité de protection de l'ADN proportionnelle à leur capacité de capture libre et en solution ; on trouve en effet des taux de cassures dans l'ordre suivant χHis > χArg > χLys (χLys ≈ 0,01 χArg). Après avoir détaillé le mode opératoire de ces mesures, nous analyserons sur des bases bibliographiques, les modes spécifiques d'interaction des acides aminés basiques avec l'ADN. La sp

  19. Therapeutic HIV Peptide Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccines aim to control chronic HIV infection and eliminate the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therapeutic HIV vaccine is being pursued as part of a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. We have outlined a basic protocol for inducing new T cell immunity during chronic HIV-1...... infection directed to subdominant conserved HIV-1 epitopes restricted to frequent HLA supertypes. The rationale for selecting HIV peptides and adjuvants are provided. Peptide subunit vaccines are regarded as safe due to the simplicity, quality, purity, and low toxicity. The caveat is reduced immunogenicity...

  20. Daño inducido en el ADN plasmidial por la radiación mixta de neutrones térmicos + rayos gamma en presencia y ausencia de capturador de radicales libres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Rodríguez-Gual

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se cuantifica por primera vez el daño en ADN plasmidial inducido por la radiación mixta de neutrones térmicos + rayos gamma. Para el estudio fue utilizado el plasmidio pBs KS+ de 2 961 pb en disolución acuosa a 88 ng/¿L a concentraciones de 0, 2 y 20 mmol/L de glicerina que actúa como un capturador de radicales libres. Este plasmidio cambia su forma superenrollada para circular cuando es producida una rotura simple en su cadena y adquiere una forma linear cuando se produce una rotura doble en su cadena. Cuantificando las fracciones que se producen de cada una de estas formas es posible estimar el efecto de la radiación en el ADN. Las irradiaciones fueron realizadas en el canal radial # 3 del reactor de investigaciones IEA-R1 del Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas y Nucleares de São Paulo, Brasil. Las formas del ADN fueron separadas mediante la electroforesis en gel de agarosa. En la cuantificación se utilizó el programa GelAnalis. Las fracciones de ADN en sus diferentes formas fueron graficadas en función de la dosis y ajustadas a funciones exponenciales y lineares para obtener las probabilidades de roturas simples y dobles en la cadena de ADN normalizadas por dosis y por masa molecular. Los resultados evidenciaron la acción protectora del capturador de radicales libres contra el daño inducido por la radiación, lo cual corrobora resultados anteriores obtenidos con otras radiaciones ionizantes. Los rendimientos de SSB y DSB serán de interés para la validación de diferentes modelos que intentan reproducir los resultados experimentales.

  1. Detección “in vivo” mediante RAPD de alteraciones en el ADN producidas por benzo(apireno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Becerril

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La técnica de RAPD (Amplificación al Azar de ADN Polimórfico permite detectar alteraciones inespecíficas en el ADN procedente de células que poseen una dotación genética idéntica, como son las líneas celulares establecidas, mediante la comparación del patrón de bandas de las células expuestas y no expuestas a la acción de genotóxicos. En los últimos años hemos desarrollado una metodología sensible y reproducible utilizando la línea celular RTG-2, derivada de trucha arco iris (Oncorhynchus mykiss. Sin embargo, es preciso comprobar la capacidad predictiva de este ensayo mediante estudios in vivo. La línea celular RTG-2, como se ha evidenciado en trabajos anteriores, presenta una gran similitud genética con la especie de la que procede. Por ello, en este trabajo, se ha llevado a cabo una exposición subletal a benzo(apireno mediante inyección intraperitoneal de 69 μg/g de p.c. en alevines de trucha arco iris, valorando la aparición de mutaciones mediante la comparación del patrón de bandas obtenido a partir del ADN de células de sangre periférica, a diferentes tiempos (1 - 3 meses. Debido a que la presencia de bandas polimórficas dificulta el análisis entre los grupos de individuos tratados y no tratados, las comparaciones se realizaron en un mismo individuo antes y después del tratamiento. Los análisis cualitativos y cuantitativos mostraron tanto la aparición de nuevas bandas, como alteraciones en su intensidad confirmando, de esta manera, los resultados que previamente habíamos obtenido in vitro tras exposiciones a este mismo genotóxico

  2. HIV/AIDS Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Partner Spotlight Awareness Days Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  3. HIV Medication Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment HIV Medication Adherence (Last updated 3/2/2017; last reviewed 3/2/2017) Key Points Medication adherence means sticking firmly to ... Before and After Starting HIV Medicines . What is medication adherence? Adherence means “to stick firmly.” So for ...

  4. Study on Interaction of ADN and (NC+NG) by Gasometric Method%量气法研究ADN与(NC+NG)的相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何少蓉; 张林军; 衡淑云; 刘子如

    2008-01-01

    用 NBK型"拉瓦"量气测试系统研究了较高温度下二硝酰胺铵(ADN)与双基吸收药(NC+NG)体系的相互作用,从动力学角度阐述了二者的相互作用.结果表明: ADN与(NC+NG)混合物加热分解的最终放气量在标准状态下为626.8 mL·g-1,与ADN和(NC+NG)最大放气量之和相比并没有增加,但分解速度显著提高,活化能显著降低至82.58 kJ·mol-1,ADN与(NC+NG)之间存在强烈的相互作用.

  5. Dinámica de la molécula más importante de la vida: el ADN. I. Modelos lineales y no lineales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Ramírez Reyes

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se revisan los modelos más simples para la molécula más importante dela vida: el ADN. Se estudian las excitaciones colectivas y paulatinamente van incorporándose en elanálisis cualidades complejas de la molécula. Esto conlleva al estudio de la dinámica de talesexcitaciones mediante ecuaciones diferenciales no lineales. Las soluciones especiales de estasecuaciones corresponden a un tipo de ondas no lineales que mantienen forma y velocidadconstantes con la mínima pérdida de energía e información, conocidas como solitones ocompactones.

  6. Uso del ADN forense en la Policía Nacional para identificación de alias “Édgar Tovar”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Liliana Acevedo Neira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El análisis genético de fragmentos óseos tomados de un cuerpo en descomposición permitió confirmar la muerte de alias “Édgar Tovar”, comandante y responsable del narcotráfico del frente 48 de las Farc. El perfilgenético obtenido de los restos humanos fue comparado con la información del ADN nuclear y de cromosoma Y, del padre de Ángel Gabriel Lozada García,obteniendo una probabilidad estadística de paternidad de 99.991% y una coincidencia total en la información contenida en los marcadores de cromosomaY analizados, lo que sumado a labores investigativas de la Policía Nacional se consideró suficiente para determinar la identificación del cuerpo.

  7. IMPLEMENTACIÓN DE LA METODOLOGÍA DE ANÁLISIS DE ADN MITOCONDRIAL EN Rhinoclemmys nasuta (TESTUDINES:GEOEMYDIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YHERSON FRANCHESCO MOLINA HENAO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoclemmys nasuta (Testudines: Geoemydidae es considerada una especie casi endémica de Colombia y la más primitiva del género, sin embargo, se encuentra clasificada por la IUCN como deficiente de datos, ya que la información disponible no es suficiente para hacer una evaluación directa o indirecta de su riesgo de extinción. En este trabajo se describe la implementación del método para realizar la secuenciación de la región control del ADN mitocondrial de R. nasuta, con el propósito de generar herramientas técnicas para futuros estudios de evolutivos y de conservación. Se utilizó el método de desalamiento (Salting-out para extraer ADN a muestras sanguíneas procedentes de Isla Palma y Playa Chucheros (Bahía Málaga–Pacífico Colombiano y se utilizó una pareja de cebadores degenerados (reportada para Chrysemys picta Testudines: Emydidae para realizar la amplificación. Se obtuvieron fragmentos de 800pb siendo exitosa la reacción de secuenciación de los amplificados, y se estableció un porcentaje de homología mayor al 92 % entre las secuencias obtenidas y las secuencias de ADNmt de Sacalia quadriocellata (Testudines:Geoemydidae y Cuora aurocapitata (Testudines:Geoemydidae, depositadas en el GeneBank. Este resultado demuestra que el método descrito puede ser una herramienta útil para el estudio de las poblaciones de R. nasuta del Pacífico colombiano, lográndose una efectiva secuenciación de la región control del ADNmt de esta especie.

  8. Streamlining HIV Testing for HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigler, Teri; Kallas, Esper; Schechter, Mauro; Sharma, Usha; Glidden, David; Grant, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-testing algorithms for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) should be optimized to minimize the risk of drug resistance, the time off PrEP required to evaluate false-positive screening results, and costs and to expedite the start of therapy for those confirmed to be infected. HIV rapid tests (RTs) for anti-HIV antibodies provide results in less than 1 h and can be conducted by nonlicensed staff at the point of care. In many regions, Western blot (WB) testing is required to confirm reactive RT results. WB testing, however, causes delays in diagnosis and adds expense. The iPrEx study evaluated the safety and efficacy of daily oral emtricitabine-tenofovir disoproxil fumarate among HIV-seronegative men and transgender women who have sex with men: HIV infection was assessed with two RTs plus WB confirmation, followed by HIV-1 plasma viral load testing. During the iPrEx study, there were 51,260 HIV status evaluations among 2,499 volunteers using RTs: 142 (0.28%) had concordant positive results (100% were eventually confirmed) and 19 (0.04%) had discordant results among 14 participants; 11 were eventually determined to be HIV infected. A streamlined approach using only one RT to screen and a second RT to confirm (without WB) would have had nearly the same accuracy. Discrepant RT results are best evaluated with nucleic acid testing, which would also increase sensitivity. PMID:25378570

  9. HIV and maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Eva; Jamieson, Denise J; Danel, Isabella

    2014-11-01

    The majority of the 17 million women globally that are estimated to be infected with HIV live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Worldwide, HIV-related causes contributed to 19 000-56 000 maternal deaths in 2011 (6%-20% of maternal deaths). HIV-infected pregnant women have two to 10 times the risk of dying during pregnancy and the postpartum period compared with uninfected pregnant women. Many of these deaths can be prevented with the implementation of high-quality obstetric care, prevention and treatment of common co-infections, and treatment of HIV with ART. The paper summarizes what is known about HIV disease progression in pregnancy, specific causes of HIV-related maternal deaths, and the potential impact of treatment with antiretroviral therapy on maternal mortality. Recommendations are proposed for improving maternal health and decreasing maternal mortality among HIV-infected women based on existing evidence.

  10. Primaer HIV-infektion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Pedersen, B K

    1996-01-01

    , oesophageal candidiasis, meningoencephalitis, rhabdomyolysis and epiglottitis have been reported. The diagnosis of the acute HIV infection syndrome can be established by demonstrating antibodies to HIV or by demonstration of HIV antigen positivity. Detection of virus through culture or PCR may prove......Up to 70% of individuals with primary HIV infection will develop symptoms of an acute illness. The most common symptoms reported are fever, generalized lymphadenopathy, arthralgia and myalgia, headache, pharyngitis, enanthema, skin rash, diarrhoea, and mucocutaneous ulcerations. More rarely...... to be more sensitive, but are not yet used as routine methods. The course of the primary infection has prognostic importance for the subsequent course of HIV infection. This probably reflects the importance of both the viral phenotype and of the initial immune response to HIV. Primary HIV infection should...

  11. Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Statistics Center . How many people are diagnosed with HIV each year in the United States? In 2015, ...

  12. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects (Last updated 1/17/2017; last reviewed 1/17/2017) Key Points HIV medicines help people with ... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ...

  13. Diet and Nutrition and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with HIV/AIDS: Diet and Nutrition--Entire Lesson HIV/AIDS Menu Menu HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Home ... code here Enter ZIP code here Living with HIV/AIDS: Diet and Nutrition--Entire Lesson for Veterans ...

  14. Historias en código genético: Los aportes de los estudios de ADN antiguo en antropología y sus implicancias éticas Historias em código genético: As contribuições dos estudos de ADN antigo em antropologia e suas implicâncias éticas Stories in Genetic Code: The contribution of ancient DNA studies to anthropology and their ethical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian M. Crespo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde hace varias décadas, la antropología biológica comenzó a utilizar marcadores moleculares en estudios poblacionales. A partir de la década de 1990 se desarrollaron diferentes técnicas en biología molecular que permitieron extraer y tipificar ADN conservado en diferentes restos provenientes de museos y sitios arqueológicos. Los estudios de ADN antiguo relacionados con problemáticas arqueológicas conforman hoy un campo de estudio denominado Arqueogenética. Se presentan en este trabajo algunas de las aplicaciones del ADN antiguo. Se discuten las ventajas y limitaciones de estos estudios y su relación con temas éticos y legales.Faz já varias décadas que à antropologia biológica tem começado a usar marcadores moleculares em estudos de população. Ao começo da década de 1990, se desenvolveram técnicas diferentes em biologia molecular que permitiram obter e tipificar o ADN conservado em restos diferentes vindos de museus e sítios arqueológicos. Os estudos de ADN antigo relacionados a problemáticas arqueológicas são hoje um campo de estudo chamado de Arqueogenética. Se apresentam neste trabalho algumas das aplicações do ADN antigo. Também se discutem as vantagens e limitações desses estudos e a sua relação com assuntos éticos e legais.For several decades, biological anthropology has employed different molecular markers in population research. Since 1990 different techniques in molecular biology have been developed allowing preserved DNA extraction and its typification in different samples from museums and archaeological sites. Ancient DNA studies related to archaeological issues are now included in the field of Archaeogenetics. In this work we present some of ancient DNA applications in archaeology. We also discuss advantages and limitations for this kind of research and its relationship with ethic and legal norms.

  15. Streamlining HIV Testing for HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Guanira, Juan V.; Leigler, Teri; Kallas, Esper; Schechter, Mauro; Sharma, Usha; Glidden, David; Grant, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-testing algorithms for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) should be optimized to minimize the risk of drug resistance, the time off PrEP required to evaluate false-positive screening results, and costs and to expedite the start of therapy for those confirmed to be infected. HIV rapid tests (RTs) for anti-HIV antibodies provide results in less than 1 h and can be conducted by nonlicensed staff at the point of care. In many regions, Western blot (WB) testing is required to confirm reactive RT r...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors ... GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved June 2012 How are Drug Abuse and HIV Related? Drug abuse and addiction ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the latest, federally approved HIV/AIDS medical practice guidelines, HIV treatment and prevention clinical trials, and other research information for health care providers, researchers, people affected by HIV/AIDS, ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... access to the latest, federally approved HIV/AIDS medical practice guidelines, HIV treatment and prevention clinical trials, and other research information for health care providers, researchers, people affected by HIV/AIDS, and the ...

  19. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  20. HIV/AIDS and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... against the disease. Is There a Vaccine for HIV? No. There is currently no vaccine that will ... in this video! /* // ** // */ Why Do We Need an HIV Vaccine? Today, more people living with HIV than ...

  1. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  2. 1.54 μm electroluminescence from ErQ doped ADN organic light-emitting diodes%有机发光二极管中ADN掺杂ErQ的1.54μm电致发光

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈海京; 陶利; 王维; 冉广照

    2014-01-01

    自行设计了基于8-羟基喹啉铒(ErQ)为发射层(EMLs)和二硝酰胺铵(ADN)为蓝光主体材料的近红外有机发光二级管.器件的基本结构为(p-Si/NPB/EML/Bphen/Bphen∶ Cs2CO3/Sm/Au),设计并比较了三套不同发射层结构(ErQ/ADN为双层结构器件,(ErQ/ADN)×3为多层结构器件,ErQ∶ ADN为掺杂结构器件)的器件.三组器件在一定的偏压下,均可发出1.54 μm的光,对应三价铒离子4I13/2→4I15/2的跃迁.其中,ADN∶ErQ(1∶1)掺杂结构的近红外电致发光强度是ADN/ErQ双层结构中的三倍.此外,不同掺杂浓度的ADN:ErQ复合膜做了以下表征:吸收谱、光致发光谱和荧光寿命谱.实验结果证实了在近红外电致发光过程中存在从ADN主体分子到ErQ发射分子的高效率的能量转移.

  3. Método de amplificación de ADN basado en los orígenes de replicación del bacteriófago Phi29 y secuencias nucleotídicas asociadas

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    La presente invención se refiere a un método de amplificación de ADN basado en los orígenes de replicación del bacteriófago φ29, así como a las construcciones génicas, vectores y oligonucleótidos que pueden emplearse en dicho método para amplificar una secuencia exógena de interés.

  4. Travelling with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulla S; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Pedersen, Gitte

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe travel patterns, extent of professional pre-travel advice and health problems encountered during travel among HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: During a six-month period a questionnaire was handed out to 2821 adult HIV-infected individuals attending any...... of the eight Danish medical HIV care centers. RESULTS: A total of 763 individuals responded. During the previous two years 49% had travelled outside Europe; 18% had travelled less and 30% were more cautious when choosing travel destination than before the HIV diagnosis. Pre-travel advice was sought by only 38......%, and travel insurance was taken out by 86%. However, 29%/74% did not inform the advisor/the insurance company about their HIV status. Nearly all patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were adherent, but 58% worried about carrying HIV-medicine and 19% tried to hide it. Only 19% experienced...

  5. 二硝酰胺铵的致突变性和致畸性研究%Study on mutagenicity and teratogenicity of ammonium dinitramide (ADN)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜文霞; 王玉玲; 孙苑菡; 谢锋; 常志强; 邢亚飞; 张延巍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the mutagenicity and teratogenicity induced by ammonium dinitramide (ADN).Methods According to technical specifications for toxicity determination of chemicals,Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames assay),in vivo mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test,sperm malformation test and teratogenesis test were used to detect the mutagenicity and teratogenicity induced by AND.Results When the exposure doses of AND were 8~5000 μg/plate,the result of Ames assay was negative.As compared with control group,the micronucleus rate of mice exposed to 113.8 mg/kg AND significantly increased (P<0.05),the sperm malformation rates of mice exposed to 54.4~272.0 mg/kg AND did not increased significantly.The survival rate of fetuses decreased,the rate of assimilated fetuses increased,the rate of fetus sternum agenesis enhanced in mice exposed to 319 mg/kg AND,as compared with controls.The rates of in the 4th-6th fetus sternum agenesis in groups exposed to 21.3,79.7 and 319 mg/kg AND were higher than that in control group.The malformation rate of fetus bowels in groups exposed to 319 mg/kg AND was higher than that in control group.The teratogenic index of ADN was 30.Conclusion AND may be a mutagen and induce the teratogenic effect.%目的 对新型含能材料二硝酰胺铵(ADN)的致突变性和致畸性进行研究,为进一步研究ADN对人体健康影响和制订职业接触限值提供依据.方法 根据《化学品毒性鉴定技术规范》,采用鼠伤寒沙门杆菌回复突变试验(Ames试验)、体内哺乳动物骨髓嗜多染红细胞微核试验、精子畸形试验和致畸试验研究ADN的致突变性和致畸性.结果 (1)ADN在8~5000 μg/皿剂量范围内未发现诱变作用;113.8mg/kg剂量染毒组与阴性对照相比,诱发小鼠的微核率明显升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);54.4~272.0 mg/kg剂量范围内小鼠精子畸形试验结果为阴性.(2)319 mg/kg剂量组活胎率低于阴性对照组,吸

  6. HIV/AIDS eradication

    OpenAIRE

    Marsden, Matthew D.; Zack, Jerome A.

    2013-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy can inhibit HIV replication in patients and prevent progression to AIDS. However, it is not curative. Here we provide an overview of what antiretroviral drugs do and how the virus persists during therapy in rare reservoirs, such as latently infected CD4+ T cells. We also outline several innovative methods that are currently under development to eradicate HIV from infected individuals. These strategies include gene therapy approaches intended to create an HIV-resistant i...

  7. Treatment for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policies and Reports Provider Education Provider Education Home HIV Meds Updates Online Courses (CME) Case Studies Journal Articles Glossary Quick References Quick References Home Guidelines Integrated ...

  8. Drugs, Alcohol and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policies and Reports Provider Education Provider Education Home HIV Meds Updates Online Courses (CME) Case Studies Journal Articles Glossary Quick References Quick References Home Guidelines Integrated ...

  9. Mental Health and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policies and Reports Provider Education Provider Education Home HIV Meds Updates Online Courses (CME) Case Studies Journal Articles Glossary Quick References Quick References Home Guidelines Integrated ...

  10. Initiation of HIV therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Charlotte Yuk-Fan; Ling, Bingo Wing-Kuen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we numerically show that the dynamics of the HIV system is sensitive to both the initial condition and the system parameters. These phenomena imply that the system is chaotic and exhibits a bifurcation behavior. To control the system, we propose to initiate an HIV therapy based on both the concentration of the HIV-1 viral load and the ratio of the CD4 lymphocyte population to the CD8 lymphocyte population. If the concentration of the HIV-1 viral load is higher than a threshold,...

  11. Unrecognised HIV related deaths.

    OpenAIRE

    McCormick, A.

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To establish whether follow up of deaths from selected HIV related causes could increase the number of cases of HIV infection reported to the Public Health Laboratory Service Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre (CDSC), and to estimate the proportion of deaths among HIV positive men that occurred in men who were not known to be HIV positive at the time of death by the person who signed the death certificate. DESIGN--Follow up of draft death entries received by the Office of Po...

  12. Semejanzas entre el ajo (Allium sativum costarricense y el ajo asiático según secuencias de ADN ribosomal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Barboza Rojas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available En Costa Rica, la producción de ajo (Allium sativum es escasa y se limita principalmente a las regiones de Llano Grande de Cartago. Sin embargo, por el precio que tiene actualmente en el mercado, el ajo costarricense se vislumbra como una hortaliza que podría constituirse en un recurso valioso para los productores nacionales. Por lo anterior, en este artículo se presenta la caracterización mediante secuencias ribosomales de materiales de ajo provenientes Costa Rica y su comparación con ajo importado de China. El ADN se extrajo a partir de hojas de vitroplantas de ajo mantenidas en un congelador a -70°C, pulverizadas en un mortero. El ADN ribosomal se amplificó, purificó y secuenció. Se realizó el análisis bioinformático de las secuencias ribosomales. El BLASTn permitió determinar que los productos de PCR amplificados corresponden a la secuencia parcial de los genes 28S y 18S (sitios de unión de los cebadores y a la secuencia completa de la región ITS-1, 5.8S e ITS-2. Se encontró que todas las secuencias alinearon en casi un 100% con la accesión EU626375.1 publicada en la base de datos del GeneBank, correspondiente al clon Allium sativum voucher BF-ALL-037. En general, las secuencias mostraron ser muy conservadas. Los puntajes obtenidos del alineamiento realizado con ClustalW reflejaron una identidad del 97 al 99% entre las secuencias.El presente estudio es el primer reporte de este tipo que se realiza sobre ajo costarricense y generó información básica e indispensable para continuar con los estudios moleculares de este cultivo.

  13. La fotografía en los diarios impresos gratuitos españoles: aplicación y uso en 20 Minutos, Qué y Adn Photography in the daily Spanish free press: Application and use in 20 Minutos, Qué and Adn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Sánchez Vigil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La prensa gratuita, de gran impacto social, cumple una función informativa de urgencia con titulares de impacto, artículos concisos y noticias breves. La distribución en puntos clave (medios de transporte, cafés, centros culturales, bibliotecas, etcétera. confiere a este medio unas características especiales poco estudiadas, entre ellas la fotografía. Se presenta en este artículo un estudio exhaustivo de la aplicación y uso de la fotografía en los tres diarios impresos gratuitos españoles de implantación nacional: 20 Minutos, Qué y Adn, considerando el número de imágenes, la procedencia y autoría, su relación con el texto y la publicidad, los formatos y su distribución por secciones.The free press exerts a significant social impact, as it and carries its urgent informative function through hard-hitting headlines, punchy articles and news briefs. Distributed at key transportation facilities, coffee shops, cultural centers and libraries, these unique media and the photography they contain have not been extensively studied to date. This paper provides an exhaustive study of the application and use of photography in three nationally distributed free daily newspapers (20 Minutos, Qué and Adn. The study assesses the number of pictures published, their origins or authors, the relationship between photo and text, the use of photos in advertising, as well as formats and photo distribution within newspaper's sections.

  14. Utilisation de l'essai comete et du biomarqueur gamma-H2AX pour detecter les dommages induits a l'ADN cellulaire par le 5-bromodeoxyuridine post-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Madeleine, Carole

    Ce memoire est presente a la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante de l'Universite de Sherbrooke en vue de l'obtention du grade de maitre es sciences (M.Sc.) en radiobiologie (2009). Un jury a revise les informations contenues dans ce memoire. Il etait compose de professeurs de la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante soit : Darel Hunting PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Leon Sanche PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Richard Wagner PhD, membre du programme (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie) et Guylain Boissonneault PhD, membre exterieur au programme (departement de biochimie). Le 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), un analogue halogene de la thymidine reconnu depuis les annees 60 comme etant un excellent radiosensibilisateur. L'hypothese la plus repandue au sujet de l'effet radio sensibilisant du BrdU est qu'il augmente le nombre de cassures simple et double brin lorsqu'il est incorpore dans l'ADN de la cellule et expose aux radiations ionisantes. Toutefois, de nouvelles recherches semblent remettre en question les observations precedentes. Ces dernieres etudes ont confirme que le BrdU est un bon radiosensibilisateur, car il augmente les dommages radio-induits dans l'ADN. Mais, c'est en etant incorpore dans une region simple brin que le BrdU radiosensibilise l'ADN. Ces recherches ont egalement revele pour la premiere fois un nouveau type de dommages produits lors de l'irradiation de l'ADN contenant du BrdU : les dimeres interbrins. Le but de ces travaux de recherche est de determiner si la presence de bromodeoxyuridine dans l'ADN augmente l'induction de bris simple et / ou double brin chez les cellules irradiees en utilisant de nouvelles techniques plus sensibles et specifiques que celles utilisees auparavant. Pour ce faire, les essais cometes et la detection des foci H2AX phosphorylee pourraient permettre d'etablir les effets engendres par

  15. 纳米金属Cu对ADN热分解的影响%Effects of Nanometer Cu Powder on ADN Thermal Decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁寒曙; 刘冠鹏

    2014-01-01

    为了研究纳米Cu粉催化剂对NH4N(NO)2(ADN)热分解的影响,采用DSC和TG研究了纳米Cu粉作用下ADN的热分解.结果表明,纳米Cu对ADN热分解起到较好的催化作用,可以将ADN热分解峰温从212.6℃提前至126.3℃,降低了86.3℃;纳米Cu粉使ADN的热分解呈现出2个明显的热分解过程,但仅对其第一步分解过程有明显催化作用,而对ADN分解的中间产物AN的吸热分解没有明显影响.同时对纳米Cu粉催化ADN热分解的机理进行了分析.

  16. High Energy Composite Propellant Containing ADN and HNF at Abroad%国外含ADN或HNF的高能复合推进剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李上文; 赵凤起; 罗阳; 高茵

    2004-01-01

    二硝酰胺铵(ADN)和硝仿肼(HNF)是两种新型氧化剂,它们与固体推进剂常用的氧化剂AP相比具有能量贡献更大(比冲大3~10s)、燃烧产物低特征信号、无污染等特点.ADN在推进剂中应用的技术关键是球形化和提高化学安定性.实验证明,以ADN为基的推进剂在工艺上可行;燃烧稳定,燃速较高,在6~55MPa压力范围内n=0.68;化学安定性和相容性满足要求,故ADN将是21世纪首选的AP替代物.荷兰人近年在HNF的合成改进和纯度的提高方面取得很大进展,很大程度上克服了HNF安定性和相容性差的缺点,可以用复合推进剂的常用工艺制造出HTPB/HNF推进剂样品,并测出基本性能,但力学和长贮性能尚有待改进.

  17. High Efficient Undoped Blue Organic Light-emitting Diodes Based on ADN%基于ADN的非掺杂高效蓝色OLED器件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张刚; 姜文龙; 汪津; 王立忠; 王广德; 丁桂英

    2009-01-01

    采用真空蒸镀的方法,制备了以ADN为发光层的高效率非掺杂蓝色有机电致发光器件.器件的结构为ITO/2T-NATA(15 nm)/NPBx(15 nm)/ADN(25+d nm)/BCP(8 nm)/ Alq_3(30 nm)/LiF(0.5 nm)/Al.通过调整ADN层的厚度,研究了器件的发光性能.测试结果表明,器件在6 V电压时电流效率达到最大,为2.77 cd/A;在16 V时亮度达到最大,为7 227 cd/m~2.当ADN的厚度为30 nm、器件的电压从5 V变化到16 V时,色坐标在(0.21,0.32)至(0.19,0.29)之间,均在蓝光区域.

  18. FDA-Approved HIV Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment FDA-Approved HIV Medicines (Last updated 2/27/2017; last reviewed 2/27/2017) Treatment with HIV medicines is ... approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of HIV infection in the ...

  19. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HAV for people who are at risk for HIV infection, including MSM; users of recreational drugs, whether injected or not; and sex partners of infected people. • • HBV: The best way to prevent HBV ... have or are at risk for HIV infection, including MSM; people who inject drugs; sex ...

  20. Let's Stop HIV Together

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-16

    This podcast features 22 individuals who encourage others in the fight against HIV.  Created: 7/16/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 7/16/2012.

  1. Ludacris Talks About HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-24

    Ludacris, award winning singer and actor, urges everyone to talk about HIV/AIDS and its prevention.  Created: 7/24/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 7/24/2012.

  2. HIV: Treatment and Comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Rokx (Casper)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractClinicians worldwide strive to improve HIV care for their patients. Antiretroviral therapy prevents HIV related mortality and is lifelong. A clinical evaluation of these treatment strategies is necessary to identify strategies that may jeopardize treatment effectiveness and patient s

  3. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one HIV test by the time they are teens. If you are having sex, have had sex in the past, or shared ... reviewed: October 2015 previous 1 • 2 • ... STDs How Do People Get AIDS? Can You Get HIV From Having Sex With Someone Who Has AIDS? Can Someone Get ...

  4. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People who are infected with HIV sometimes try dietary supplements that claim to boost the immune system or counteract side effects of anti-HIV drugs. Supplements that may be helpful Acetyl-L-carnitine. Researchers have used acetyl-L-carnitine to treat ...

  5. Psychoneuroimmunology and HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Michael H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents evidence describing benefits of behavioral interventions such as aerobic exercise training on both psychological and immunological functioning among high risk human immunodeficiency virus-Type 1 (HIV-1) seronegative and very early stage seropositive homosexual men. HIV-1 infection is cast as chronic disease for which early…

  6. HIV-Positive-to-HIV-Positive Liver Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Calmy, Alexandra; van Delden, Christian; Giostra, Emiliano; Junet, C; Rubbia Brandt, L; Yerly, S; Chave, J-P; Samer, Caroline Flora; Elkrief, Laure; Vionnet, J; Berney, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Most countries exclude human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients from organ donation because of concerns regarding donor-derived HIV transmission. The Swiss Federal Act on Transplantation has allowed organ transplantation between HIV-positive donors and recipients since 2007. We report the successful liver transplantation from an HIV-positive donor to an HIV-positive recipient. Both donor and recipient had been treated for many years with antiretroviral therapy and harbored multidr...

  7. Indikatorsygdomme for hiv-infektion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birgitte Rønde; Andersen, Åse Bengård; Koch, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The mortality of HIV-infected patients in Denmark approaches that of the background population. Still, half of the HIV-infected patients are diagnosed late, resulting in poorer response to therapy, larger cost and greater transmission rate. A pan-European initiative, "HIV in Europe" has published...... a guideline on indicator-based HIV testing in order to improve early HIV diagnosis. The Danish Society of Infectious Diseases wishes to highlight the importance of indicator-based HIV testing, in order to improve the possibility of early diagnosis and therapy of HIV-infection....

  8. HIV Vaccination, is Breakthrough Underway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Da-Yong; Wu, Hong-Ying; Lu, Ting-Ren; Xu, Bin; Ding, Jian

    2016-01-01

    After long defeats-almost no marked breakthrough in HIV vaccination campaign has been observed during the past two decades, and we still have not lost our faiths for the development of highly effective and low risk HIV vaccines. Many effective vaccines have been discovered and will certainly enter into the markets within the next 5 to 10 years. In order to promote HIV vaccine developments and clinical HIV therapeutic improvements, this perspective addresses the good and bad sides of currently available HIV vaccines, discusses many subjects of medical significance and finally provides up-to-date information in the field of HIV studies, in particular regarding vaccine developments and HIV pathogenesis.

  9. Nutrition and HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Filteau, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    The impact of the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic is most severe in sub-Saharan African countries already affected by undernutrition and food insecurity. There is a two-way relationship between HIV and undernutrition and food insecurity......, which is mainly synergistic and operating at different levels. HIV infection increases energy and nutrient requirements, yet it reduces food security. The result is nutritional deficiencies, which increase progression of HIV infection. Both undernutrition and food insecurity may also lead to increased...... risk of transmission. Nutritional intake and status may affect metabolism of antiretroviral drugs, some of which may affect body composition, and increase risk of the metabolic syndrome. In addition, HIV is transmitted through breastfeeding, causing a serious infant feeding dilemma for which...

  10. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talat, Humaira; Attarwala, Sharmeen; Saleem, Mubasshir

    2014-05-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector borne disease caused by various species of the Leishmania parasite. CL is endemic in the province of Balochistan in Pakistan. In certain instances a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-related immunocompromised is associated with atypical clinical presentation and occurrence of reactivated lesions of CL. Such presentations respond poorly to the standard treatment and frequent relapses are noted. We are reporting three cases of localized and disseminated CL due to Leishmania tropica which responded to meglumine antimoniate. Due to the fact that CL is endemic in Balochistan, we did not consider HIV infection as a causative organism. It was their presentation with history of weight loss and fever that prompted Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) tests for HIV, which turned out to be positive. CL is becoming visible as an opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS and may even be the first symptom in HIV positive patients in an endemic area.

  11. HIV treatment for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosioni Juan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract "No virus, no transmission." Studies have repeatedly shown that viral load (the quantity of virus present in blood and sexual secretions is the strongest predictor of HIV transmission during unprotected sex or transmission from infected mother to child. Effective treatment lowers viral load to undetectable levels. If one could identify and treat all HIV-infected people immediately after infection, the HIV/AIDS epidemic would eventually disappear. Such a radical solution is currently unrealistic. In reality, not all people get tested, especially when they fear stigma and discrimination. Thus, not all HIV-infected individuals are known. Of those HIV-positive individuals for whom the diagnosis is known, not all of them have access to therapy, agree to be treated, or are taking therapy effectively. Some on effective treatment will stop, and in others, the development of resistance will lead to treatment failure. Furthermore, resources are limited: should we provide drugs to asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals without indication for treatment according to guidelines in order to prevent HIV transmission at the risk of diverting funding from sick patients in urgent need? In fact, the preventive potential of anti-HIV drugs is unknown. Modellers have tried to fill the gap, but models differ depending on assumptions that are strongly debated. Further, indications for antiretroviral treatments expand; in places like Vancouver and San Francisco, the majority of HIV-positive individuals are now under treatment, and the incidence of new HIV infections has recently fallen. However, correlation does not necessarily imply causation. Finally, studies in couples where one partner is HIV-infected also appear to show that treatment reduces the risk of transmission. More definite studies, where a number of communities are randomized to either receive the "test-and-treat" approach or continue as before, are now in evaluation by funding agencies. Repeated

  12. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and effective in people. What is an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? HIV/AIDS clinical trials help researchers ... to HIV Can anyone participate in an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? It depends on the study. Some ...

  13. HIV and AIDS: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Audience For Women Free Publications HIV and AIDS--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... HIV treatment. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. HIV stands for H uman I mmunodeficiency V ...

  14. HIV Treatment: What is a Drug Interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mental Health How to Find HIV Treatment Services HIV Treatment What is a Drug Interaction? (Last updated ... Are drug interactions a problem for people with HIV? Treatment with HIV medicines (called antiretroviral therapy or ...

  15. HIV Molecular Immunology 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Korber, Bette Tina Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Barouch, Dan [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Koup, Richard [Vaccine Research Center National Institutes of Health (United States); de Boer, Rob [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Biology; Moore, John P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Weill Medical College; Brander, Christian [Institucioi Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Haynes, Barton F. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Duke Human Vaccine Institute and Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology; Walker, Bruce D. [Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Cambridge, MA (United States); Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-02-03

    HIV Molecular Immunology is a companion volume to HIV Sequence Compendium. This publication, the 2014 edition, is the PDF version of the web-based HIV Immunology Database (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/immunology/). The web interface for this relational database has many search options, as well as interactive tools to help immunologists design reagents and interpret their results. In the HIV Immunology Database, HIV-specific B-cell and T-cell responses are summarized and annotated. Immunological responses are divided into three parts, CTL, T helper, and antibody. Within these parts, defined epitopes are organized by protein and binding sites within each protein, moving from left to right through the coding regions spanning the HIV genome. We include human responses to natural HIV infections, as well as vaccine studies in a range of animal models and human trials. Responses that are not specifically defined, such as responses to whole proteins or monoclonal antibody responses to discontinuous epitopes, are summarized at the end of each protein section. Studies describing general HIV responses to the virus, but not to any specific protein, are included at the end of each part. The annotation includes information such as crossreactivity, escape mutations, antibody sequence, TCR usage, functional domains that overlap with an epitope, immune response associations with rates of progression and therapy, and how specific epitopes were experimentally defined. Basic information such as HLA specificities for T-cell epitopes, isotypes of monoclonal antibodies, and epitope sequences are included whenever possible. All studies that we can find that incorporate the use of a specific monoclonal antibody are included in the entry for that antibody. A single T-cell epitope can have multiple entries, generally one entry per study. Finally, maps of all defined linear epitopes relative to the HXB2 reference proteins are provided.

  16. Mobility and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Migrants, refugees, and internally displaced people are vulnerable to HIV because they live in poor areas with little privacy, have different sexual relationships, and lack information about sexual health and services. In response to these problems, HIV prevention and care programs were initiated. The programs include: 1) involving migrant workers as both interviewers and outreach workers to better understand the idea of the migrants per Coordination of Action Research on Mobility and AIDS; 2) improving living conditions; 3) access of migrants to information and services; 4) improving the rights of the people; 5) increasing income; and 6) access to sexual health information that concerns exposure of HIV through different sexual partners.

  17. HIV among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children Format: Select ...

  18. HIV among Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Gay and Bisexual Men Language: English Spanish ...

  19. HIV Among People Aged 50 and Over

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among People Aged 50 and Over Language: English ...

  20. HIV/AIDS among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among African Americans Format: Select One File [163K] ...

  1. What is a Preventive HIV Vaccine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children and Adolescents HIV and Women HIV and Gay and Bisexual Men HIV and Older Adults HIV ... system to recognize and effectively fight HIV in case the person is ever exposed to ... have participated in HIV vaccine studies around the world in the last 25 years, ...

  2. Comparación de cuatro métodos de restauración del adn en muestras de plasma y láminas de citología cérvico-uterina como una herramienta para mejorar la calidad de la muestra

    OpenAIRE

    Marquez, Pilar caterin

    2011-01-01

    Objetivos: comparar cuatro métodos de restauración del adn en plasma y láminas cérvico-uterinas como una herramienta para mejorar la calidad de la muestra. Métodos: a 20 muestras de plasma sanguíneo y 20 muestras de láminas citológicas, se les realizó aislamiento de adn mediante kit comercial y fenol-cloroformo. A todas las muestras se les realizó un tratamiento pre-pcr con cuatro diferentes tipos de actividad de adn polimerasa: 1. Exonucleasa y endonucleasa 5’-3’. 2. Exonucleasa 5’-3’. 3. Kl...

  3. Genética y Arqueología : Análisis molecular de ADN procedente de restos esqueléticos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Izaguirre

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La recuperación de moléculas de ADN mitocondrial (ADNmt de   muestras esqueléticas de diversa antigüedad, permite estudiar la   variabilidad genética de los grupos humanos del pasado. El análisis del ADNmt en tejido antiguo presenta una ventaja fundamental frente al nuclear, debido a su alto número de copias por célula. Los principales problemas metodológicos descritos en este tipo de   análisis, han podido resolverse en aquellos casos en que las   muestras presentaban buenas condiciones de preservación. Estos han sido fundamentalmente : 1.- inhibición de la amplificación,2.- autentificación de los resultados y 3.- detección y   eliminación de la contaminación. La variabilidad en el éxito de la amplificación entre individuos de un mismo yacimiento, indica que las condiciones individuales de cada inhumación son más importantes que la antigüedad. Por otro lado, las piezas dentarias han demostrado ser el material más adecuado para el estudio del ADNmt antiguo. La interpretación de los datos a nivel poblacional sólo es posible en aquellos yacimientos que presentan un amplio número de individuos, dado el relativamente bajo rendimiento de la metodología.

  4. Hepatitis A and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problems : Hepatitis A Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Hepatitis A What is Hepatitis? Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. This condition ... our related pages, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C . Hepatitis A and HIV Hepatitis A is preventable with ...

  5. HIV and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections and Coinfections HIV and Hepatitis B (Last updated 8/31/2016; last reviewed ... should be treated for both diseases. What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease caused ...

  6. Hepatitis B and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problems : Hepatitis B Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Hepatitis B What is Hepatitis? Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. This condition ... our related pages, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis C . Hepatitis B and HIV About 10% of people living ...

  7. HIV and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections and Coinfections HIV and Hepatitis C (Last updated 8/31/2016; last reviewed ... the medicines for any side effects. What is hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused ...

  8. Hepatitis C and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problems : Hepatitis C Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Hepatitis C What is Hepatitis? Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. This condition ... our related pages, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B . Hepatitis C and HIV About 25% of people living ...

  9. Benchmarking HIV health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podlekareva, Daria; Reekie, Joanne; Mocroft, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: State-of-the-art care involving the utilisation of multiple health care interventions is the basis for an optimal long-term clinical prognosis for HIV-patients. We evaluated health care for HIV-patients based on four key indicators. METHODS: Four indicators of health care were...... assessed: Compliance with current guidelines on initiation of 1) combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), 2) chemoprophylaxis, 3) frequency of laboratory monitoring, and 4) virological response to cART (proportion of patients with HIV-RNA 90% of time on cART). RESULTS: 7097 Euro...... to North, patients from other regions had significantly lower odds of virological response; the difference was most pronounced for East and Argentina (adjusted OR 0.16[95%CI 0.11-0.23, p HIV health care utilization...

  10. Reduce HIV Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our research has demonstrated remarkable success in reducing HIV risk-associated sexual behaviors among African American adolescents and adults." Read More "Nursing Research" Articles Nursing Research / Improve Hospital-to-Home Transitions / Reduce ...

  11. Pregnancy and HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mete Sucu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection is progressing rapidly. In developed countries, the perinatal transmission rates have decreased from 20-30% to 1-2% with the use of antiretroviral therapy and cesarean section. Interventions for the prevention of prenatal transmission has made the prenatal care of pregnant patients with HIV infection more complex. Rapid development of standard care and continuing increase in the distribution of HIV infection has required clinicians taking care of pregnants to have current information. Therefore, in our review we aimed to summarize the prenatal course, treatment and preventive methods for perinatal transmission of HIV. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 522-535

  12. SNFing HIV transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukrinsky Michael

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is an essential regulator of transcription of cellular genes. HIV-1 infection induces exit of a core component of SWI/SNF, Ini1, into the cytoplasm and its association with the viral pre-integration complex. Several recent papers published in EMBO Journal, Journal of Biological Chemistry, and Retrovirology provide new information regarding possible functions of Ini1 and SWI/SNF in HIV life cycle. It appears that Ini1 has an inhibitory effect on pre-integration steps of HIV replication, but also contributes to stimulation of Tat-mediated transcription. This stimulation involves displacement of the nucleosome positioned at the HIV promoter.

  13. HIV and Tuberculosis (TB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections and Coinfections HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) (Last updated 9/1/2016; last reviewed ... depends on a person’s individual circumstances. What is tuberculosis? Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease that can ...

  14. HIV Treatment Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viral Suppression Doctor, Clinical & Dental Visits Treatment Adherence Mental Health Substance Abuse Issues Sexual Health Nutrition & Food Safety Exercise Immunizations Aging with HIV/AIDS Women’s Health Housing ...

  15. HIV Antibody Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 has a higher prevalence in parts of Africa.) The level of p24 antigen and the amount ... getting pregnant may opt to get tested (see Pregnancy: HIV .) The ... Teens , Young Adults , Adults , and Adults 50 and Up . ...

  16. HIV Molecular Immunology 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Korber, Bette Tina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Brander, Christian [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Barouch, Dan [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Division of Vaccine Research; de Boer, Rob [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands). Faculty of Biology; Haynes, Barton F. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Duke Human Vaccine Institute and Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology; Koup, Richard [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD (United States). Vaccine Research Center; Moore, John P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Weill Medical College; Walker, Bruce D. [Ragon Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Watkins, David [Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-04-05

    The scope and purpose of the HIV molecular immunology database: HIV Molecular Immunology is a companion volume to HIV Sequence Compendium. This publication, the 2015 edition, is the PDF version of the web-based HIV Immunology Database (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/ content/immunology/). The web interface for this relational database has many search options, as well as interactive tools to help immunologists design reagents and interpret their results. In the HIV Immunology Database, HIV-specific B-cell and T-cell responses are summarized and annotated. Immunological responses are divided into three parts, CTL, T helper, and antibody. Within these parts, defined epitopes are organized by protein and binding sites within each protein, moving from left to right through the coding regions spanning the HIV genome. We include human responses to natural HIV infections, as well as vaccine studies in a range of animal models and human trials. Responses that are not specifically defined, such as responses to whole proteins or monoclonal antibody responses to discontinuous epitopes, are summarized at the end of each protein section. Studies describing general HIV responses to the virus, but not to any specific protein, are included at the end of each part. The annotation includes information such as cross-reactivity, escape mutations, antibody sequence, TCR usage, functional domains that overlap with an epitope, immune response associations with rates of progression and therapy, and how specific epitopes were experimentally defined. Basic information such as HLA specificities for T-cell epitopes, isotypes of monoclonal antibodies, and epitope sequences are included whenever possible. All studies that we can find that incorporate the use of a specific monoclonal antibody are included in the entry for that antibody. A single T-cell epitope can have multiple entries, generally one entry per study. Finally, maps of all defined linear epitopes relative to the HXB2 reference proteins

  17. Desarrollo de dos cepas atenuadas de "Salmonella enterica serovar choleraesuis" como vehículos para vacunas de ADN y expresión de un antígeno modelo

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolomé Ayarza, Almira

    2011-01-01

    En el campo de la sanidad animal la estrategia más rentable y segura en la profilaxis de las enfermedades infecciosas consiste en el empleo de vacunas. Una de las estrategias más económicas y eficaces para desarrollar estas vacunas es el uso de cepas vacunales vivas atenuadas. Estas cepas presentan como ventaja añadida la posibilidad de ser utilizadas como vehículos vacunales, tanto para liberar vacunas de ADN (que se ha denominado recientemente como bactofección) como para expresar antígenos...

  18. Experiencia clínica con una prueba de diagnóstico antenatal no invasivo con ADN fetal libre para trisomías 21, 18, y 13, en población general

    OpenAIRE

    Vera P-G.,Claudio; Carvajal C,Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la prueba antenatal no invasiva (NIPT) de ADN fetal libre de células como método de cribado para las trisomías 21, 18, y 13 en práctica clínica obstétrica. Método: Estudio observacional de mujeres embarazadas que se sometieron a pruebas de cribado antenatal para trisomía fetal desde el 30 de julio de 2012 al 1 de diciembre de 2012. NIPT se ofreció a todas las pacientes, además del cribado combinado de primer trimestre (FTS). Resultados: La cohorte incluyó a 289 mujeres con u...

  19. Algoritmos de identificación de biclústeres con evolución coherente en microarreglos de ADN [Algorithms for discover coherent evolution biclusters on DNA microarrays

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Paz, Lyda; Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma de Occidente (Cali, Valle, Colombia)

    2016-01-01

    El Biclustering es una técnica empleada para el análisis de microarreglos de ADN, con el objetivo de identificar subgrupos de genes y de condiciones que muestren patrones similares de comportamiento. Existen diferentes tipos de biclústeres, siendo los de evolución coherente uno de los más difíciles de identificar debido a que no se consideran los valores exactos de los niveles de expresión sino el sentido en que se mueven. En este trabajo se presenta inicialmente un resumen de los algoritmos ...

  20. Catálogo de las muestras de fauna de la Comunidad de Madrid conservadas en la Colección de Tejidos y ADN del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales

    OpenAIRE

    Rey Fraile, Isabel; Álvarez Dorda, Beatriz

    2006-01-01

    [ES] Este trabajo presenta el catálogo de muestras conservadas en la colección de Tejidos y ADN de las especies animales (vertebrados e invertebrados) de la Comunidad de Madrid. Se proporcionan los porcentajes frente al total de las muestras conservadas en la colección y las clases animales representadas. Esta información pone de manifiesto el esfuerzo que el Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales realiza para conservar a nivel genómico el mayor porcentaje posible de la diversidad actual de la ...

  1. HIV resistance to raltegravir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Francois

    2009-11-24

    Similar to all antiretroviral drugs, failure of raltegravir-based treatment regimens to fully supress HIV replication almost invariably results in emergence of HIV resistance to this new drug. HIV resistance to raltegravir is the consequence of mutations located close to the integrase active site, which can be divided into three main evolutionary pathways: the N155H, the Q148R/H/K and the Y143R/C pathways. Each of these primary mutations can be accompanied by a variety of secondary mutations that both increase resistance and compensate for the variable loss of viral replicative capacity that is often associated with primary resistance mutations. One unique property of HIV resistance to raltegravir is that each of these different resistance pathways are mutually exclusive and appear to evolve separately on distinct viral genomes. Resistance is frequently initiated by viruses carrying mutations of the N155H pathway, followed by emergence and further dominance of viral genomes carrying mutations of the Q148R/H/K or of the Y143R/C pathways, which express higher levels of resistance. Even if some natural integrase polymorphisms can be part of this evolution process, these polymorphisms do not affect HIV susceptibility in the absence of primary mutations. Therefore, all HIV-1 subtypes and groups, together with HIV-2, are naturally susceptible to raltegravir. Finally, because interaction of integrase strand transfer inhibitors with the HIV integrase active site is comparable from one compound to another, raltegravir-resistant viruses express significant cross resistance to most other compounds of this new class of antiretroviral drugs.

  2. HIV resistance to raltegravir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clavel François

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Similar to all antiretroviral drugs, failure of raltegravirbased treatment regimens to fully supress HIV replication almost invariably results in emergence of HIV resistance to this new drug. HIV resistance to raltegravir is the consequence of mutations located close to the integrase active site, which can be divided into three main evolutionary pathways: the N155H, the Q148R/H/K and the Y143R/C pathways. Each of these primary mutations can be accompanied by a variety of secondary mutations that both increase resistance and compensate for the variable loss of viral replicative capacity that is often associated with primary resistance mutations. One unique property of HIV resistance to raltegravir is that each of these different resistance pathways are mutually exclusive and appear to evolve separately on distinct viral genomes. Resistance is frequently initiated by viruses carrying mutations of the N155H pathway, followed by emergence and further dominance of viral genomes carrying mutations of the Q148R/H/K or of the Y143R/C pathways, which express higher levels of resistance. Even if some natural integrase polymorphisms can be part of this evolution process, these polymorphisms do not affect HIV susceptibility in the absence of primary mutations. Therefore, all HIV-1 subtypes and groups, together with HIV-2, are naturally susceptible to raltegravir. Finally, because interaction of integrase strand transfer inhibitors with the HIV integrase active site is comparable from one compound to another, raltegravir-resistant viruses express significant cross resistance to most other compounds of this new class of antiretroviral drugs.

  3. Optimizing HIV drug therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Calmy, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    The spectrum of drugs used in HIV-infected patients has dramatically changed since triple antiretroviral combinations were introduced, albeit at the expense of some severe adverse events, in 1996. Long term complications of antiretroviral drug exposure, such as HIV lipodystrophy, as well as organ-specific disease of heart and bone are, therefore, a critical issue when designing antiretroviral regimens. Because it is difficult to predict the occurrence of lipodystrophy, and because there is no...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depict the devastating consequences of compromised judgment and critical thinking that can result from drug use. Young ... HIV epidemic. As we learn more about the critical connection between drug abuse and HIV/AIDS and ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or decrease symptoms of illness. To learn about current statistics of HIV in the United States, please ... programs also serve an important role in providing current information on HIV/AIDS and related diseases, counseling ...

  6. HIV/AIDS in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, kills or damages cells of the body's immune system. The most advanced stage of infection with HIV is AIDS, which stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. ...

  7. Sex and Sexuality and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DO protect against HIV: abstinence (not having sex) male condom female condom Birth control options that DO NOT protect against HIV: oral contraceptive ("the pill") Depo-Provera (shot) emergency contraception ("morning- ...

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV destroys a certain kind of white blood cell that is crucial to the normal function of the human immune system. Loss of these CD4+ cells in people with HIV is a key predictor ...

  9. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Apps APIs Widgets Order Publications Skip Nav HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Home > Clinical Trials Español small ... Renal (Kidney) Complications/Damage Skin Diseases FDA-Approved HIV Drugs Abacavir Atazanavir Atripla Cobicistat Combivir Complera Darunavir ...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV patients who do not abuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the ... on HIV/AIDS and related diseases, counseling and testing services, and referrals for medical and social services. ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abuse by any route (not just injection) can put a person at risk for getting HIV. Drug ... and can lead to unsafe sexual practices, which put people at risk for getting HIV or transmitting ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & ... In addition, infected pregnant women can pass HIV to their babies during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding. HIV destroys a certain kind ...

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV patients who do not abuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the ... clinical trials, and other research information for health care providers, researchers, people affected by HIV/AIDS, and ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the link between drug abuse and HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and teachers, ... present time. The virus (HIV) and the disease it causes (AIDS) are often linked and referred to ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing ... please visit: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/age/youth/index.html​ . Resources Publications Drug Facts: HIV/ ...

  16. Living with HIV: Patients Perspective

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-04

    This podcast showcases three people who are living with HIV. The patients share their experiences of being diagnosed with HIV, of the treatments they are undergoing, and on taking responsibility for their health.  Created: 6/4/2009 by Division of HIV and AIDS Prevention (DHAP), National Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and Tuberculosis Prevention ( NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/4/2009.

  17. HIV Associated Lupus Like Nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive patients are at a high risk for the development of a variety of acute and chronic renal diseases. Most patients with HIVAN are of African descent, presenting late in the course of their HIV-1 infection. The only reliable test to establish or rule out the presence of HIVAN (HIV associated nephropathy) is renal biopsy. The most common lesion associated with HIV is a focal segmental glomeruloscelerosis, but several times, other ...

  18. When One Partner Is HIV+

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Translate Text Size Print When One Partner Is HIV+ What is a “mixed-status” Relationship? A " ... but you can minimize it. Tips for the HIV-negative Partner If you are the HIV-negative ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV/AIDS, and the general public. U.S. National Library of Medicine HIV/AIDS Information : Specialized Information Services. ... link between drug abuse and HIV. Post on Facebook or Twitter ; add photos to your Flickr , Pinterest , ...

  20. Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Medina, Candida;

    Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?......Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?...

  1. HIV Sequence Compendium 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Brian Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leitner, Thomas Kenneth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Apetrei, Cristian [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hahn, Beatrice [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mizrachi, Ilene [National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mullins, James [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rambaut, Andrew [Univ. of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Wolinsky, Steven [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Korber, Bette Tina Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-05

    This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. We try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Each of the alignments attempts to display the genetic variability within the different species, groups and subtypes of the virus. This compendium contains sequences published before January 1, 2015. Hence, though it is published in 2015 and called the 2015 Compendium, its contents correspond to the 2014 curated alignments on our website. The number of sequences in the HIV database is still increasing. In total, at the end of 2014, there were 624,121 sequences in the HIV Sequence Database, an increase of 7% since the previous year. This is the first year that the number of new sequences added to the database has decreased compared to the previous year. The number of near complete genomes (>7000 nucleotides) increased to 5834 by end of 2014. However, as in previous years, the compendium alignments contain only a fraction of these. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/ content/sequence/NEWALIGN/align.html As always, we are open to complaints and suggestions for improvement. Inquiries and comments regarding the compendium should be addressed to seq-info@lanl.gov.

  2. El diseño ciberperiodístico español: análisis de los casos de Vilaweb y ADN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Parra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl proceso diacrónico del diseño ciberperiodístico español atraviesa tres etapas: la mera réplica online de las publicaciones en papel, característico de la segunda mitad de los años noventa; la apuesta por ejes directrices como multimedialidad e interactividad, propia de los ciberperiódicos de la primera mitad de la primera década del siglo XXI; y la situación actual, en la que se profundiza en los rasgos anteriores y se incide en nuevos formatos como la telefoníamóvil. Para verificar la realidad de dichas tendencias hemos procedido al análisis de dos medios paradigmáticos del ciberperiodismo español: Vilaweb (el primero en apostar por una realidad como Internet y ADN (pionero en la adaptación de su diseño a realidades emergentes como Web 2.0 y Periodismo 3.0. La realización de dicho análisis se ha basado en el estudio de los elementos anteriormente indicados y su aplicación a las páginas web de estos cibermedios.Además el examen de estos dos casos permitirá comprender mejor este conjunto de tendencias a corto, medio y largo plazo.AbstractThe diachronic process of Spanish cyberjournalism design crosses over three steps: a mere online copy of newspapers, typical of the second half of the nineties; the strengthening of strategic axis like multimedia and interactivity, on the first half of the first decade of 21st century; and nowadays, making deeper all of these features and searching new formats like mobile telephony. In order to verify the truth of these tendencies, two of the paradigmatic Spanish cybermedia have been studied: Vilaweb (the first one to incorporate to Internet and AND (a pioneer in the adaptation of its design to items like Web 2.0 or Cyberjournalism 3.0. This analysis is based in these elements and their application to the web sites of the two cybermedia. The study of these two case stories will also allow us to understand in a better way this group of short, middle and long term tendencies.

  3. Evaluación del ADN espermático de llamas utilizando azul de toluidina Evaluation of llama sperm dna using toluidine blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I Carretero

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El colorante azul de toluidina (AT se une al ADN permitiendo diferenciar espermatozoides de acuerdo al grado de condensación de la cromatina. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: poner a punto una técnica que evalúe la condensación de la cromatina espermática de llama, determinar los patrones de condensación para la especie mediante la tinción con AT y determinar si es posible utilizar ditíotreitol (DTT como control positivo de la tinción. Se ensayaron 2 tiempos de fijación de las muestras con etanol 96 º (2 y 30 minutos y 3 tiempos de incubación con DTT al 1% (30 seg, 1,5 min y 3 min. Los patrones de coloración observados fueron: coloración celeste (negativos, sin alteración en la condensación normal de la cromatina, violeta claro (intermedios, algún grado de descondensación, violeta oscuro (positivos, alto grado de descondensación. No se observaron diferencias significativas entre los tiempos de fijación tanto en las muestras con y sin DTT. En conclusión, se logró simplificar la técnica de AT y determinar los diferentes patrones en espermatozoides de llama. Se comprobó que la incubación con DTT se puede utilizar como control positivo de la técnica y para evaluar la susceptibilidad de cada individuo a la descondensación in vitro.Toluidine blue stain (TB binds to DNA, allowing differentiation of spermatozoa according to the degree of chromatin condensation. The objectives of this study were to adapt a technique for evaluating sperm chromatin in llamas, determine chromatin condensation patterns in llamas using TB and determine if it is possible to use dithiothreitol (DTT as a positive control for the stain. Two fixation times with ethanol 96° (2 and 30 minutes and 3 incubation times with 1% DTT (30 s, 1.5 min and 3 min were studied. Staining patterns observed were: light blue (negative, without alteration in the normal chromatin condensation, light violet (intermediate, some degree of decondensation, dark violet

  4. HIV-Associated Neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Kuljeet Singh; Wadhwa, Ankur; Garg, Jyoti; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Few cases of HIV and neurocysticercosis co-infection have been reported till date. The symptomatic manifestation of cysticercosis may be further reduced by interactions between the 2 disease processes. In patients with HIV, the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is challenging and management must be individualized depending on the stage and the coexistent opportunistic conditions. We present 2 such cases. First was a 35-year-old driver seropositive for HIV-1 presented with complex partial seizures and a CD4 count of 530 cells/mm(3). The second case was a 40-year-old businessman with a CD4 count of 350 cells/mm(3). Both of them had multiple parenchymal lesions, with 1 being a large cystic lesion. Relatively high CD4 count and a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay increased the likelihood for diagnosis and treatment. Both of our patients received cysticidal therapy, and none of them deteriorated with treatment.

  5. HIV infection in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Nguyen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Nancy Nguyen1, Mark Holodniy21University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Stockton, CA, USA; 2VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: In the US, an estimated 1 million people are infected with HIV, although one-third of this population are unaware of their diagnosis. While HIV infection is commonly thought to affect younger adults, there are an increasing number of patients over 50 years of age living with the condition. UNAIDS and WHO estimate that of the 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world, approximately 2.8 million are 50 years and older. With the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in the mid-1990s, survival following HIV diagnosis has risen dramatically and HIV infection has evolved from an acute disease process to being managed as a chronic medical condition. As treated HIV-infected patients live longer and the number of new HIV diagnoses in older patients rise, clinicians need to be aware of these trends and become familiar with the management of HIV infection in the older patient. This article is intended for the general clinician, including geriatricians, and will review epidemiologic data and HIV treatment as well as provide a discussion on medical management issues affecting the older HIV-infected patient.Keywords: HIV, epidemiology, treatment, aging, review

  6. HIV in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulcahy F

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Globally over 50% of HIV-infected individuals are women. With the widespread use of HAART, we can expect women to have mortality rates approaching normal. Indeed, studies have shown that women may expect a slower disease progression than men following seroconversion; furthermore, it appears that female who injects drugs can live longer than their male counterparts. However, other studies from cohort analysis have reported worse outcomes in women. In essence, many studies are consistently underpowered to adequately address these questions. The proportion of women in clinical trials remains at 20 to 30%, with pregnancy potential being a major exclusion factor. Hence, many questions remain unanswered. Recent data suggest women are more likely to present late with a new AIDS diagnosis. Why this should be the case is not well understood. In addition, HIV-positive women should have the same access to reproduction health as their negative counterparts, but unfortunately many inequalities remain. Advise on contraception and fertility services are very variable across both the developed and developing world. Data are limited on the most appropriate use of contraceptives in the presence of HAART, the possible drug interactions and possible increased risk of HIV transmission. There remain significant differences in guidelines regarding prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT across Europe, and implications of stopping and starting HAART for MTCT have not been adequately addressed. The mode of timing of delivery, and the effect of length of time of ruptured membranes on this decision is also contentious. Further issues relate to the desire for HIV-positive women to breastfeed in the setting of HIV viral suppression, where some guidelines now support women in this situation and others categorically would inform child protection authorities. Finally as women age it is more difficult to separate the effect of the menopause and its symptoms from the

  7. Advancing Biosocial Pedagogy for HIV Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark David McGregor

    2011-01-01

    This article develops the concept of biosocial pedagogy in HIV education for this era of expanding biomedical forms of HIV control. With reference to critical pedagogy and teaching and learning materials addressing HIV treatment and prevention, I explain how HIV education can problematize its own role in HIV control. I also discuss how educational…

  8. What is an Investigational HIV Drug?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children and Adolescents HIV and Women HIV and Gay and Bisexual Men HIV and Older Adults HIV ... vaccines to treat or prevent HIV. In most cases, an investigational drug ... Medical research studies—also called clinical trials—are done to evaluate ...

  9. What is a Therapeutic HIV Vaccine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children and Adolescents HIV and Women HIV and Gay and Bisexual Men HIV and Older Adults HIV ... system to recognize and effectively fight HIV in case the virus ever enters the ... database of ClinicalTrials.gov study summaries. Click on the title of any trial ...

  10. HIV-2 infection: Where are we today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayana A Ingole

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The choice of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-2 differs from that for HIV-1, underscoring the importance of differentiating between the two. Aims: The current study was planned to find out the prevalence of HIV-2 infection at our center and to find out the utility of the current diagnostic algorithm in identifying the type of HIV infection. Setting and Design: Retrospective analysis in a tertiary care teaching institute over a period of three years. Materials and Methods: All patients diagnosed as HIV infected using NACO/WHO HIV testing strategy III were included in the study. They were classified as HIV-1 infected, HIV-2 infected and HIV-1 and HIV-2 co-infected based on their test results. For discordant samples, immunoblotting result from National Reference Laboratory was considered as final. Statistical Analysis Used: Comparison between HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1+2 positive groups for age, gender, route of transmission was made using chi squared test. P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Of the total of 66,708 patients tested, 5,238 (7.9% were positive for HIV antibodies. 7.62%, 0.14%, 0.08% and 0.004% were HIV-1, HIV-2, HIV-1 and HIV-2 co-infected and HIV type indeterminate (HIV-1 Indeterminate, 2+ respectively. The current algorithm could not differentiate between the types of HIV infection (as HIV-1 or HIV-2 in 63 (1.2% cases. Conclusion: In areas like the Indian subcontinent, where epidemic of both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections are ongoing, it is important to modify the current diagnostic algorithms to diagnose and confirm HIV-2 infections.

  11. What to Start: Selecting a First HIV Regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment What to Start: Choosing an HIV Regimen (Last updated 2/24/2016; last reviewed 2/24/ ... of HIV medicines used to treat HIV infection. HIV treatment (also called antiretroviral therapy or ART) begins with ...

  12. Poverty, sex and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattrass, Nicoli

    2009-10-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the relative importance of economic factors (notably poverty) and sexual behavior in driving the AIDS epidemic. This paper draws on relevant research and cross-country regression analysis to argue that the impact of economic determinants is dwarfed by contextual factors within Africa. The regression analysis suggests that controlling for per capita income, calories per capita and the ratio of female to male participation rates (none of which were statistically significant): being a Southern African country increases expected HIV prevalence 8.3 times; being in the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa 3 times; being a predominantly Protestant country 2.5 times; and being a predominantly Muslim country reduces expected HIV prevalence to 62% of the base case. Including the share of income going to the poor did not improve the model and was itself statistically insignificant. The analysis suggests that poverty may play a role in the HIV epidemic in some countries (and may well be a factor affecting the vulnerability of some people to HIV infection in all countries) but that its overall impact is dwarfed by social and behavioral factors.

  13. HIV Excess Cancers JNCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, an estimated 7,760 new cancers were diagnosed among the nearly 900,000 Americans known to be living with HIV infection. According to the first comprehensive study in the United States, approximately half of these cancers were in excess of what wo

  14. Modeling HIV Cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelson, Alan; Conway, Jessica; Cao, Youfang

    A large effort is being made to find a means to cure HIV infection. I will present a dynamical model of post-treatment control (PTC) or ``functional cure'' of HIV-infection. Some patients treated with suppressive antiviral therapy have been taken off of therapy and then spontaneously control HIV infection such that the amount of virus in the circulation is maintained undetectable by clinical assays for years. The model explains PTC occurring in some patients by having a parameter regime in which the model exhibits bistability, with both a low and high steady state viral load being stable. The model makes a number of predictions about how to attain the low PTC steady state. Bistability in this model depends upon the immune response becoming exhausted when over stimulated. I will also present a generalization of the model in which immunotherapy can be used to reverse immune exhaustion and compare model predictions with experiments in SIV infected macaques given immunotherapy and then taken off of antiretroviral therapy. Lastly, if time permits, I will discuss one of the hurdles to true HIV eradication, latently infected cells, and present clinical trial data and a new model addressing pharmacological means of flushing out the latent reservoir. Supported by NIH Grants AI028433 and OD011095.

  15. HIV Associated Sensory Neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    G, Amruth; S, Praveen-kumar; B, Nataraju; BS, Nagaraja

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, sensory neuropathies have increased in prevalence. We have documented the frequency and profile of the two most common forms of sensory neuropathies associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and looked into clinicoelectrophysiological correlates to differentiate the two entities.

  16. Dental caries in HIV-seropositive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, J A; Mulligan, R; Nelson, E; Brunelle, J; Alves, M E A F; Navazesh, M; Greenspan, D

    2004-11-01

    Reports that compare dental caries indices in HIV-seropositive (HIV+) subjects with HIV-seronegative (HIV-) subjects are rare. The objective of this study was to determine if there was an association between HIV infection and dental caries among women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Subjects included 538 HIV+ and 141 HIV- women at baseline and 242 HIV+ and 66 HIV- women at year 5. Caries indices included DMFS and DFS (coronal caries) and DFSrc (root caries). Cross-sectional analysis of coronal caries data revealed a 1.2-fold-higher caries prevalence among HIV+ women compared with HIV- women. Longitudinally, DMFS increased with increasing age and lower average stimulated salivary volume. Root caries results were not significant except for an overall increased DFSrc associated with smoking. Anti-retroviral therapy was not identified as a risk factor for dental caries.

  17. Drug Use and Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV, Hepatitis) Drug Use and Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis) Email Facebook Twitter Revised March 2017 What's the ... HIV and of worsening its consequences. What is hepatitis? Photo by ©iStock.com/ Skarie20 Hepatitis is an ...

  18. HIV/AIDS and the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English ... people with HIV and AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with ...

  19. HIV Sequence Compendium 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiken, Carla [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Foley, Brian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leitner, Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Apetrei, Christian [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hahn, Beatrice [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Mizrachi, Ilene [National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mullins, James [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rambaut, Andrew [Univ. of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Wolinsky, Steven [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2010-12-31

    This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. In these compendia we try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Each of the alignments attempts to display the genetic variability within the different species, groups and subtypes of the virus. This compendium contains sequences published before January 1, 2010. Hence, though it is called the 2010 Compendium, its contents correspond to the 2009 curated alignments on our website. The number of sequences in the HIV database is still increasing exponentially. In total, at the time of printing, there were 339,306 sequences in the HIV Sequence Database, an increase of 45% since last year. The number of near complete genomes (>7000 nucleotides) increased to 2576 by end of 2009, reflecting a smaller increase than in previous years. However, as in previous years, the compendium alignments contain only a small fraction of these. Included in the alignments are a small number of sequences representing each of the subtypes and the more prevalent circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) such as 01 and 02, as well as a few outgroup sequences (group O and N and SIV-CPZ). Of the rarer CRFs we included one representative each. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/sequence/NEWALIGN/align.html. Reprints are available from our website in the form of both HTML and PDF files. As always, we are open to complaints and suggestions for improvement. Inquiries and comments regarding the compendium should be addressed to seq-info@lanl.gov.

  20. ADN antiguo; restos esqueletales precolombinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejean, Cristina Beatriz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio consistió en: 1 determinar haplogrupos de ADNmt en restos esqueletales precolombinos de Pampa Grande, Prov. de Salta, Argentina, y 2 comparar los resultados obtenidos respecto de los registrados en poblaciones nativas extintas y actuales de la Argentina. A partir de muestras de hueso compacto de 21 individuos se logró, en 16 de ellos (76%, extraer, amplificar y secuenciar la región hipervariable I del ADNmt. Se observaron 17 sitios polimórficos y los porcentajes de los haplogrupos fueron los siguientes: A=6%, B=50%, C=0% y D =44%. Las elevadas frecuencias de los haplogrupos B y D son concordantes con las detectadas en poblaciones aborígenes actuales de la Argentina (B=38%, D=32%. El dendrograma obtenido revela que Pampa Grande se une al conjunto de las poblaciones del Chaco (Chorote, Toba, Chulupi y a los mapuche de origen andino y se separa de los grupos extintos de Tierra del Fuego, probablemente, por la ausencia en estos de los haplogrupos A y B. Se discuten posibles causas determinantes de las relaciones y afinidades biológicas observadas.

  1. HIV-positive people, HIV-negative partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, L; Volker, M

    1995-01-01

    More relationships exist today between HIV-positive and HIV-negative partners. This article explores the underlying dynamics that might account for this phenomenon. Codependency theories may explain these relationships for some couples. For other couples, it is suggested that positive-negative homosexual relationships may be influenced by both unhealthy and healthy gay developmental experiences as well as by a sense of compassion. The article addresses both HIV-positive people choosing HIV-negative partners and vice versa. Treatment issues for the various theories are discussed and recommendations are made.

  2. HIV and homosexuality in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabali, Alefiyah; Khan, Saeed; Warraich, Haider J; Khanani, Mohammad R; Ali, Syed H

    2008-08-01

    In Pakistan, seven times more men are reported to be infected with HIV than women. Among the Pakistani population, modes of HIV transmission include infection through sexual contact, contaminated blood and blood products, injecting drug use, and mother-to-child transmission. Although most sexual transmission of HIV results from unsafe heterosexual contact, homosexual and bisexual contact also represent important modes of transmission. According to unpublished reports, the prevalence of HIV among homosexual and bisexual Pakistani men is reaching alarming proportions. We describe the Pakistani homosexual and bisexual culture, review statistics regarding HIV prevalence and risk behaviour, and identify areas of improvement in the HIV policy with specific focus on men who have sex with men.

  3. Diagnostik af HIV-1 infektionen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, C B; Dickmeiss, E; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    1991-01-01

    Different methods have been developed for the diagnosis of HIV infection, i.e. detection of antibodies, antigen and proviral DNA. ELISA methods for detecting HIV-1 antibodies are widely used as screening assays. A sample which is repeatedly positive with ELISA is re-tested with a confirmatory test....... For research purposes, detection of small amounts of proviral DNA can be made with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The method is not yet applicable in routine diagnosis of HIV infection......., e.g. western blot. Antibodies to HIV-1 are not detectable until 2-3 months after infection, but antigens may be detectable during the last weeks of this initial period, though they disappear with the appearance of the antibodies. In the later stages of HIV infection, HIV antigen is again detectable...

  4. Completeness of HIV reporting on death certificates for Floridians reported with HIV infection, 2000-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Diana M. Sheehan; Fennie, Kristopher P.; Niyonsenga, Theophile; Lieb, Spencer; Maddox, Lorene

    2015-01-01

    HIV mortality is used as a key measure to monitor the impact of HIV throughout the world. It is important that HIV be correctly recorded on death certificates so that the burden of HIV mortality can be tracked accurately. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of failure to correctly report HIV on death certificates and examine patterns of incompleteness by demographic factors. Causes of death on death certificates of people infected with HIV reported to the Florida HIV surve...

  5. Implications of prioritizing HIV cure: new momentum to overcome old challenges in HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, JD; Gilbertson, A; Lo, YR; Vitória, M

    2016-01-01

    Background Curing HIV is a new strategic priority for several major AIDS organizations. In step with this new priority, HIV cure research and related programs are advancing in low, middle, and high-income country settings. This HIV cure momentum may influence existing HIV programs and research priorities. Discussion Despite the early stage of ongoing HIV cure efforts, these changes have directly influenced HIV research funding priorities, pilot programs, and HIV messaging. The building moment...

  6. Medicina genómica: Aplicaciones del polimorfismo de un nucleótido y micromatrices de ADN Genomic Medicine: Polymorphisms and microarray applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica P. Spalvieri

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta actualización tiene por objeto difundir un nuevo enfoque de las variaciones del ADN entre individuos y comentar las nuevas tecnologías para su detección. La secuenciación total del genoma humano es el comienzo para conocer la diversidad genética. La unidad de medida reconocida de esta variabilidad es el polimorfismo de un solo nucleótido (single nucleotide polymorphism o SNP. El estudio de los SNPs está restringido a la investigación pero las numerosas publicaciones sobre el tema hacen vislumbrar su entrada en la práctica clínica. Se presentan ejemplos del uso de SNPs como marcadores moleculares en la genotipificación étnica, la expresión génica de enfermedades y como potenciales blancos farmacológicos. Se comenta la técnica de las matrices (arrays que facilita el estudio de múltiples secuencias de genes mediante chips de diseño específico. Los métodos convencionales analizan hasta un máximo de 20 genes, mientras que una sola micromatriz provee información sobre decenas de miles de genes simultáneamente con una genotipificación rápida y exacta. Los avances de la biotecnología permitirán conocer, además de la secuencia de cada gen, la frecuencia y ubicación exacta de los SNPs y su influencia en los comportamientos celulares. Si bien la validez de los resultados y la eficiencia de las micromatrices son aún controvertidos, el conocimiento y caracterización del perfil genético de un paciente impulsará seguramente un cambio radical en la prevención, diagnóstico, pronóstico y tratamiento de las enfermedades humanas.This update shows new concepts related to the significance of DNA variations among individuals, as well as to their detection by using a new technology. The sequencing of the human genome is only the beginning of what will enable us to understand genetic diversity. The unit of DNA variability is the polymorphism of a single nucleotide (SNP. At present, studies on SNPs are restricted to basic research

  7. National HIV/AIDS Strategy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about the importance of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and the work of CDC.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  8. HIV: Social and Environmental Factors

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses how social and environmental factors may put African Americans at greater risk for HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  9. Encephalitis in primary HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, M; Kirk, O

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of primary HIV encephalitis, which initially presented as acute psychosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was suggestive of vasculitis and multiple infarctions, whereas a brain biopsy after six weeks of symptoms showed HIV encephalitis with microglial nodules, but no signs...... of vasculitis. We review previous reported cases and radiological findings in HIV encephalitis and discuss the role of antiretroviral therapy and steroids in its management....

  10. REPARACIÓN DEL ADN: UNA POSIBLE RELACIÓN ENTRE LA DEFICIENCIA DE FOLATO Y LA MUERTE NEURONAL DNA Repair: A Link Between Folate Deficiency and Neuronal Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONZALO ARBOLEDA

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo explora el papel que desempeña el folato como conocido metabolito del ciclo de un carbono (OCM, del inglés onecarbon metabolism en la alteración de la integridad de las células nerviosas. Aquí se discute evidencia reciente de la literatura que muestra la reparación del ADN como un proceso relacionado con la apoptosis neuronal inducida por ausencia de folato.This essay explores the role of folate in disruption of neural cell integrity. Here, it is discussed recent evidence which shows DNA reparation as a process related to neuronal apoptosis induced by folate depletion.

  11. LE RÔLE DES PROTÉINES BRCA1 ET BRCA2 DANS LA RÉPARATION DES ALTÉRATIONS MOLÉCULAIRES DE L’ADN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Negura

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Les gènes BRCA1 et BRCA2 sont des suppresseurs tumoraux dont les phénotypes mutants prédisposent au cancer mammaire et ovarien. Ce sont des gènes nouveaux et peu d’informations concernant leurs fonctions ont été apportées par leur séquence. Cependant, de nombreuses études sur les protéines BRCA et leurs partenaires moléculaires ont montré l’implication dans une multitude de processus cellulaires fondamentaux, incluant la réponse cellulaire aux altérations de l’ADN. Nous présentons quelques unes des plus récentes connaissances dans ce domaine.

  12. HIV and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naicker, Saraladevi; Rahmanian, Sadaf; Kopp, Jeffrey B

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a frequent complication of HIV infection, occurring in 3.5 - 48.5%, and occurs as a complication of HIV infection, other co-morbid disease and infections and as a consequence of therapy of HIV infection and its complications. The classic involvement of the kidney by HIV infection is HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), occurring typically in young adults of African ancestry with advanced HIV disease in association with APOL1 high-risk variants. HIV-immune complex disease is the second most common diagnosis obtained from biopsies of patients with HIV-CKD. CKD is mediated by factors related to the virus, host genetic predisposition and environmental factors. The host response to HIV infection may influence disease phenotype through activation of cytokine pathways. With the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), there has been a decline in the incidence of HIVAN, with an increasing prevalence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Several studies have demonstrated the overall improvement in kidney function when initiating ART for HIV CKD. Progression to end stage kidney disease has been reported to be more likely when high grade proteinuria, severely reduced eGFR, hepatitis B and/C co-infection, diabetes mellitus, extensive glomerulosclerosis, and chronic interstitial fibrosis are present. Improved renal survival is associated with use of renin angiotensin system blockers and viral suppression. Many antiretroviral medications are partially or completely eliminated by the kidney and require dose adjustment in CKD. Certain drug classes, such as the protease inhibitors and the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, are metabolized by the liver and do not require dose adjustment. HIV-infected patients requiring either hemo- or peritoneal dialysis, who are stable on ART, are achieving survival rates comparable to those of dialysis patients without HIV infection. Kidney transplantation has been performed successfully in HIV

  13. Body Shape Changes with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policies and Reports Provider Education Provider Education Home HIV Meds Updates Online Courses (CME) Case Studies Journal Articles Glossary Quick References Quick References Home Guidelines Integrated ...

  14. Chemokines, lymphocytes, and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farber J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are members of a family of more than 30 human cytokines whose best-described activities are as chemotactic factors for leukocytes and that are presumed to be important in leukocyte recruitment and trafficking. While many chemokines can act on lymphocytes, the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology are poorly understood. The recent discoveries that chemokines can suppress infection by HIV-1 and that chemokine receptors serve, along with CD4, as obligate co-receptors for HIV-1 entry have lent urgency to studies on the relationships between chemokines and lymphocytes. My laboratory has characterized Mig and Crg-2/IP-10, chemokines that are induced by IFN-g and that specifically target lymphocytes, particularly activated T cells. We have demonstrated that the genes for these chemokines are widely expressed during experimental infections in mice with protozoan and viral pathogens, but that the patterns of mig and crg-2 expression differed, suggesting non-redundant roles in vivo. Our related studies to identify new chemokine receptors from activated lymphocytes resulted in the cloning of STRL22 and STRL33. We and others have shown that STRL22 is a receptor for the CC chemokine MIP-3a, and STRL22 has been re-named CCR6. Although STRL33 remains an orphan receptor, we have shown that it can function as a co-receptor for HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, and that it is active with a broader range of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins than the major co-receptors described to date. The ability of STRL33 to function with a wide variety of envelope glycoproteins may become particularly important if therapies are instituted to block other specific co-receptors. We presume that investigations into the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology will provide information important for understanding the pathogenesis of AIDS and for manipulating immune and inflammatory responses for clinical benefit

  15. HIV stigma among substance abusing people living with HIV/AIDS: implications for HIV treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi-Minzi, Maria A; Surratt, Hilary L

    2014-08-01

    HIV-related stigma has a major impact on quality of life and health among people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). This study examines demographic, mental health, behavioral, contextual, and HIV care-related correlates of HIV stigma among 503 substance abusing PLWHA. Stigma was measured with the HIV Internalized Stigma Measure which has four subscales: stereotypes about HIV, self-acceptance, disclosure concerns, and social relationships. Severe substance dependence (55.3%) and depression (54.7%) were associated with higher HIV stigma across all domains. 49.9% of the sample reported antiretroviral (ARV) medication diversion (the unlawful sale and trading of ARV medications); diverters endorsed significantly higher stigma related to disclosure. 54.1% of the sample reported ≥95% ARV adherence; these individuals reported significantly lower stigma for self-acceptance, disclosure, and social relationships. Multivariate linear regression showed that depression and social support demonstrated significant main effects across stigma domains. Findings suggest that interventions to decrease HIV related stigma may be an important component of initiatives to increase engagement in HIV care.

  16. The kidney in HIV infection: beyond HIV-associated nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Christina M

    2012-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are more common in HIV-infected persons than in the general population. AKI is associated with poor health outcomes, including increased risk of heart failure, cardiovascular events, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and mortality. The most common causes of AKI in HIV-infected persons are systemic infections and adverse drug effects. The prevalence of CKD is rising in the HIV-infected population and CKD is increasingly likely to be caused by comorbid conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension, that frequently cause CKD in the general population. Guidelines for CKD screening in HIV-infected patients are being revised. It is currently recommended that all patients be screened for creatinine-based estimates of glomerular filtration rate and for urine protein at the time of HIV diagnosis. Annual screening is recommended for high-risk patients. Hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantation are all options for treating ESRD in HIV-infected patients. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis offer similar survival in HIV-infected patients with ESRD. In selected patients with well-controlled HIV infection, kidney transplantation is associated with survival intermediate between that in the overall transplant population and that among transplant recipients older than 65 years. This article summarizes a presentation by Christina M. Wyatt, MD, at the IAS-USA continuing medical education program held in Chicago in May 2012, describing AKI and CKD using case illustrations.

  17. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Diabetes (Last updated 11/17/2016; last reviewed 11/17/2016) Key Points Diabetes is a disease in which levels of blood glucose (also called blood sugar) are too high. Glucose comes from the ...

  18. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Osteoporosis (Last updated 11/17/2016; last reviewed 11/17/2016) Key Points Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to become weak and easy to break. Osteoporosis increases the risk of fractures of ...

  19. Leishmania / HIV co-infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjeux, P

    1995-11-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is transmitted by sandflies, is always present in at least 62 countries and is spreading to areas where it had not existed in the past. VL/HIV co-infections are becoming more and more common. In southern Europe, 25-70% of adult VL cases also have HIV infection. 1.5-9% of AIDS cases have newly acquired or reactivated VL. In the Mediterranean area, VL is the most common opportunistic parasitic infection among AIDS cases (i.e., 100 CD4/mcl). AIDS patients with VL have a much shorter survival period than other AIDS patients. VL can lie dormant for years but emerge clinically if an infected person has immunosuppression. Most VL/HIV co-infections in the western hemisphere are in Brazil. East African countries reporting VL/HIV co-infections include Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, and Sudan. Only one VL/HIV co-infected case has been found in Cameroon and in Guinea Bissau. VL/HIV co-infection cases tend to not have the usual VL clinical signs and symptoms (fever, weight loss, hepatosplenomegaly, polyadenopathies), making clinical diagnosis difficult. Since VL test sensitivity in HIV positive patients is reduced 20-40%, it is also difficult to make a serological diagnosis. In the first VL episode of HIV-infected patients, clinicians should use BMA, the safest and most sensitive test. Drug options for VL treatment include pentavalent antimonials, pentamidine, amphotericin B, and amphotericin B encapsulated in liposomes. Treatment failure is rather common in VL/HIV co-infected patients. Researchers from different centers need to conduct trials of various multi-therapy schedules. 70% of VL/HIV co-infected cases in southern Europe use intravenous drugs, suggesting that sharing of needles may account for the co-infection. The World Health Organization has mobilized against VL/HIV co-infections, including setting up a minimal surveillance system.

  20. Common oral lesions associated with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Lucatorto, F

    1993-09-01

    More than 40 different lesions involving head and neck areas have been associated with HIV infection. The oral cavity may manifest the first sign of HIV infection. Early detection of these conditions can lead to early diagnosis of HIV infection and subsequent appropriate management. Signs, symptoms and management of the most common HIV-associated oral lesions are discussed.

  1. How you get HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    How you get HIV/AIDS Which body fluids contain HIV? HIV is a virus that lives in blood and other fluids in the body. Moving ... answers to any questions you have about HIV/AIDS. Your public health department and health care provider ...

  2. HIV in elderly women after travelling abroad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; David, Kim Peter;

    2016-01-01

    living in Denmark for 40 years was diagnosed with advanced HIV after having been to West Africa for family visits. We want to emphasize that women of older age also have sex that may put them at risk of HIV, that febrile returning travellers should be tested for HIV, and that presence of HIV indicator...

  3. Increasing HIV testing among male partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Balestre, Eric; Tchendjou, Patrice; Miric, Marija; Darak, Shrinivas; Butsashvili, Maia; Perez-Then, Eddy; Eboko, Fred; Plazy, Melanie; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; du Lou, Annabel Desgrees; Dabis, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Couple-oriented posttest HIV counselling (COC) provides pregnant women with tools and strategies to invite her partner to HIV counselling and testing. We conducted a randomized trial of the efficacy of COC on partner HIV testing in low/medium HIV prevalence settings (Cameroon, Dominican R

  4. Potential use of rapamycin in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, Marco; McCubrey, James A; Bendtzen, Klaus;

    2010-01-01

    indicating that the immunomodulatory drug rapamycin (RAPA) possesses anti-HIV properties both in vitro and in vivo that qualifies it as a potential new anti-HIV drug. It represents a literature review of published studies that evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of RAPA in HIV. RAPA represses HIV-1...

  5. Hyperthermia stimulates HIV-1 replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Roesch

    Full Text Available HIV-infected individuals may experience fever episodes. Fever is an elevation of the body temperature accompanied by inflammation. It is usually beneficial for the host through enhancement of immunological defenses. In cultures, transient non-physiological heat shock (42-45°C and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs modulate HIV-1 replication, through poorly defined mechanisms. The effect of physiological hyperthermia (38-40°C on HIV-1 infection has not been extensively investigated. Here, we show that culturing primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and cell lines at a fever-like temperature (39.5°C increased the efficiency of HIV-1 replication by 2 to 7 fold. Hyperthermia did not facilitate viral entry nor reverse transcription, but increased Tat transactivation of the LTR viral promoter. Hyperthermia also boosted HIV-1 reactivation in a model of latently-infected cells. By imaging HIV-1 transcription, we further show that Hsp90 co-localized with actively transcribing provirus, and this phenomenon was enhanced at 39.5°C. The Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG abrogated the increase of HIV-1 replication in hyperthermic cells. Altogether, our results indicate that fever may directly stimulate HIV-1 replication, in a process involving Hsp90 and facilitation of Tat-mediated LTR activity.

  6. HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have HIV/AIDS and find out you are pregnant or think you may be pregnant, you should let your health care provider know as soon as possible. Some HIV/AIDS medicines may harm your baby. Your health ...

  7. Jamie Foxx Talks About HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-24

    Jamie Foxx, Academy Award winning actor and singer, urges everyone to talk about HIV/AIDS and its prevention.  Created: 7/24/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 7/24/2012.

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV > Learn the Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol use can lead to poor decision making, which can result in risky sexual behaviors and HIV infection. Although the characters are fictional, ...

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Google Plus Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs ... HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug abuse ...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice ... and decision-making. To learn about HIV among youth, please visit: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/ ...

  11. HIV surveillance in complex emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, P; Dondero, T J

    2001-04-01

    Many studies have shown a positive association between both migration and temporary expatriation and HIV risk. This association is likely to be similar or even more pronounced for forced migrants. In general, HIV transmission in host-migrant or host-forced-migrant interactions depends on the maturity of the HIV epidemic in both the host and the migrant population, the relative seroprevalence of HIV in the host and the migrant population, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that may facilitate transmission, and the level of sexual interaction between the two communities. Complex emergencies are the major cause of mass population movement today. In complex emergencies, additional factors such as sexual interaction between forced-migrant populations and the military; sexual violence; increasing commercial sex work; psychological trauma; and disruption of preventive and curative health services may increase the risk for HIV transmission. Despite recent success in preventing HIV infection in stable populations in selected developing countries, internally displaced persons and refugees (or forced migrants) have not been systematically included in HIV surveillance systems, nor consequently in prevention activities. Standard surveillance systems that rely on functioning health services may not provide useful data in many complex emergency settings. Secondary sources can provide some information in these settings. Little attempt has been made, however, to develop innovative HIV surveillance systems in countries affected by complex emergencies. Consequently, data on the HIV epidemic in these countries are scarce and HIV prevention programs are either not implemented or interventions are not effectively targeted. Second generation surveillance methods such as cross-sectional, population-based surveys can provide rapid information on HIV, STIs, and sexual behavior. The risks for stigmatization and breaches of confidentiality must be recognized

  12. Creating genetic resistance to HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, John C; Zaia, John A; Rossi, John J

    2012-10-01

    HIV/AIDS remains a chronic and incurable disease, in spite of the notable successes of combination antiretroviral therapy. Gene therapy offers the prospect of creating genetic resistance to HIV that supplants the need for antiviral drugs. In sight of this goal, a variety of anti-HIV genes have reached clinical testing, including gene-editing enzymes, protein-based inhibitors, and RNA-based therapeutics. Combinations of therapeutic genes against viral and host targets are designed to improve the overall antiviral potency and reduce the likelihood of viral resistance. In cell-based therapies, therapeutic genes are expressed in gene modified T lymphocytes or in hematopoietic stem cells that generate an HIV-resistant immune system. Such strategies must promote the selective proliferation of the transplanted cells and the prolonged expression of therapeutic genes. This review focuses on the current advances and limitations in genetic therapies against HIV, including the status of several recent and ongoing clinical studies.

  13. Is an HIV vaccine possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A. Wilson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The road to the discovery of a vaccine for HIV has been arduous and will continue to be difficult over the ensuing twenty years. Most vaccines are developed by inducing neutralizing antibodies against the target pathogen or by using attenuated strains of the particular pathogen to engender a variety of protective immune responses. Unfortunately, simple methods of generating anti-HIV antibodies have already failed in a phase III clinical trial. While attenuated SIV variants work well against homologous challenges in non-human primates, the potential for reversion to a more pathogenic virus and recombination with challenge viruses will preclude the use of attenuated HIV in the field. It has been exceedingly frustrating to vaccinate for HIV-specific neutralizing antibodies given the enormous diversity of the Envelope (Env glycoprotein and its well-developed glycan shield. However, there are several antibodies that will neutralize many different strains of HIV and inducing these types of antibodies in vaccinees remains the goal of a vigorous effort to develop a vaccine for HIV based on neutralizing antibodies. Given the difficulty in generating broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies, the HIV vaccine field has turned its attention to inducing T cell responses against the virus using a variety of vectors. Unfortunately, the results from Merck's phase IIb STEP trial proved to be disappointing. Vaccinees received Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 expressing Gag, Pol, and Nef of HIV. This vaccine regimen failed to either prevent infection or reduce the level of HIV replication after challenge. These results mirrored those in non-human primate testing of Ad5 using rigorous SIV challenge models. This review will focus on recent developments in HIV vaccine development. We will deal largely with attempts to develop a T cell-based vaccine using the non-human primate SIV challenge model.

  14. Community study of the relative impact of HIV-1 and HIV-2 on intrathoracic tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seng, R; Gustafson, P; Gomes, VF;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection is associated with an increased incidence of and mortality from tuberculosis. Few community studies have examined the effect of HIV-2 on tuberculosis. METHODS: We investigated the association between HIV-1, HIV-2 and active tuberculosis in four districts (population 42...... 709) in Bissau, capital of Guinea-Bissau, with the highest known seroprevalence of HIV-2 infection in the world. From May 1996 to June 1998, tuberculosis surveillance and active case finding among contacts was conducted. Patients were HIV-tested, given specific tuberculosis treatment for 8 months...... was 18.3 times higher (95% CI 12.9-26.0) among HIV-1-positive individuals, 13.7 times higher (9.0-20.7) among dually infected (HIV-1 and HIV-2), and 3.0 times higher (2.1-4.3) among HIV-2-infected compared with HIV-negative individuals. HIV-1 and dually infected tuberculosis patients had a higher...

  15. High Feasibility of Empiric HIV Treatment for Patients With Suspected Acute HIV in an Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Kathleen R; Arora, Sanjay; Walsh, Kristin B; Lora, Meredith; Merjavy, Stephen; Livermore, Shanna; Menchine, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Earlier intervention in acute HIV infection limits HIV reservoirs and may decrease HIV transmission. We developed criteria for empiric antiretroviral therapy (ART) in an emergency department (ED) routine HIV screening program. We assessed the feasibility and willingness of patients with suspected acute HIV infection in the ED to begin ART. A suspected acute HIV infection was defined as a positive HIV antigen antibody combination immunoassay with pending HIV-antibody differentiation test results and HIV RNA viral load. During the study period, there were 16 confirmed cases of acute HIV infection: 11 met our criteria for empiric ART and agreed to treatment, 10 were prescribed ART, and 1 left the ED against medical advice without a prescription for ART. Eight patients completed at least one follow-up visit. Empiric HIV treatment in an ED is feasible, well received by patients, and offers a unique entry point into the HIV care continuum.

  16. Reducing mother-to-child HIV transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries,mother-to-child trans mission of human immune deficiency virus (HIV)is responsible for 5 to 10 percen t o f all new HIV infections.Most children born to HIV-positive mothers are not HIV positive,but one quarter to one third are.The following instert looks at the p o ssibilities for reducing mother-to-child HIV transmission,and discusses some of the questions that are still unanswered.

  17. Nutrition and HIV-Positive Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Kristen S.

    2003-01-01

    When an HIV-positive woman becomes pregnant, additional nutritional considerations are warranted. Compared to routine prenatal nutritional assessment and intervention, pregnant HIV-positive women have increased needs to promote a healthy outcome. This column contains information on HIV and pregnancy, nutrition and infection, and nutrition for HIV-positive pregnancy. This content can be integrated into childbirth education settings to improve care to women who are HIV-positive.

  18. HIV Stigma and Social Capital in Women Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, Yvette P; Asher, Alice; Okonsky, Jennifer; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Webel, Allison

    Women living with HIV (WLWH) continue to experience HIV-related stigma. Social capital is one resource that could mitigate HIV stigma. Our cross-sectional study examined associations between social capital and HIV-related stigma in 135 WLWH in the San Francisco Bay Area. The mean age of study participants was 48 years; 60% were African American; 29% had less than a high school education; and 19% were employed. Age was significantly associated with perceived HIV stigma (p = .001), but total social capital was not. Women with lower Value of Life social capital scores had significantly higher total stigma scores (p = .010) and higher Negative Self-image stigma scores (p = .001). Women who felt less valued in their social worlds may have been more likely to perceive HIV stigma, which could have negative health consequences. This work begins to elucidate the possible relationships between social capital and perceived HIV stigma.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the HIV infection and compartmentalization of HIV in the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Monteiro Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system plays an important role in HIV infection. The purpose of this review is to discuss the indications for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis in HIV infection in clinical practice. CSF analysis in HIV infection is indicated for the diagnosis of opportunistic infections and co-infections, diagnosis of meningitis caused by HIV, quantification of HIV viral load, and analysis of CNS HIV compartmentalization. Although several CSF biomarkers have been investigated, none are clinicall...

  20. Potent Intratype Neutralizing Activity Distinguishes Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) from HIV-1

    OpenAIRE

    Özkaya Şahin, Gülşen; Holmgren, Birgitta; da Silva, Zacarias; Nielsen, Jens; Nowroozalizadeh, Salma; Esbjörnsson, Joakim; Månsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Sören; Norrgren, Hans; Aaby, Peter; Jansson, Marianne; Fenyö, Eva Maria

    2012-01-01

    HIV-2 has a lower pathogenicity and transmission rate than HIV-1. Neutralizing antibodies could be contributing to these observations. Here we explored side by side the potency and breadth of intratype and intertype neutralizing activity (NAc) in plasma of 20 HIV-1-, 20 HIV-2-, and 11 dually HIV-1/2 (HIV-D)-seropositive individuals from Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Panels of primary isolates, five HIV-1 and five HIV-2 isolates, were tested in a plaque reduction assay using U87.CD4-CCR5 cells a...

  1. Maternal HIV infection influences the microbiome of HIV-uninfected infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Jeffrey M; Li, Fan; Martelly, Shoria; Byrt, Erin; Rouzier, Vanessa; Leo, Marguerite; Tobin, Nicole; Pannaraj, Pia S; Adisetiyo, Helty; Rollie, Adrienne; Santiskulvong, Chintda; Wang, Shaun; Autran, Chloe; Bode, Lars; Fitzgerald, Daniel; Kuhn, Louise; Aldrovandi, Grace M

    2016-07-27

    More than 1 million HIV-exposed, uninfected infants are born annually to HIV-positive mothers worldwide. This growing population of infants experiences twice the mortality of HIV-unexposed infants. We found that although there were very few differences seen in the microbiomes of mothers with and without HIV infection, maternal HIV infection was associated with changes in the microbiome of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. Furthermore, we observed that human breast milk oligosaccharides were associated with bacterial species in the infant microbiome. The disruption of the infant's microbiome associated with maternal HIV infection may contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants.

  2. Ergotismo y HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara C. Finn; Sabrina Vadalá; Ana Meraldi; Julio E. Bruetman; Jorge V. Martínez; Pablo Young

    2013-01-01

    El ergotismo es una complicación de la intoxicación aguda y/o el abuso crónico de los derivados del ergot. Se manifiesta por síndrome vasomotor con enfermedad vascular periférica que frecuentemente compromete extremidades. Presentamos cuatro casos de pacientes infectados con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana 1 (HIV-1), en tratamiento con antirretrovirales que incluyen inhibidores de la proteasa reforzados con ritonavir, y que habían recibido ergotamina como automedicación. Ellos desarro...

  3. Just Diagnosed: Next Steps After Testing Positive for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment Just Diagnosed: Next Steps After Testing Positive for HIV (Last updated 3/13/2017; last reviewed 3/ ... is the next step after testing positive for HIV? Testing positive for HIV often leaves a person ...

  4. HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse: Intertwined Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DrugFacts » HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse: Intertwined Epidemics HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse: Intertwined Epidemics Email Facebook ... to AIDS, greatly prolonging lives. What Exactly Is HIV/AIDS? HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. This ...

  5. HIV: Past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harindra V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has puzzled scientists ever since the illness first came to light in the early 1980s. For over 25 years it has been the subject of fierce debate and the cause of countless arguments. It is now generally accepted that HIV is a descendant of a simian immunodeficiency virus and there are many theories about how this ′zoonosis′ originated and how SIV became HIV in humans. Advances in treatment have steadily reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection. However, in the low-income, high-prevalence countries, antiretroviral medication has taken a long time to reach the people who actually need it. Access to medication must greatly improve if millions of deaths are to be avoided. HIV is a preventable disease. Unless great progress is made in prevention, the number of people living with HIV will outstrip the resources available for treatment. The search for effective vaccines and microbicides must therefore be one of the very highest priorities. HIV is a global threat. Action needs to be taken to prevent it killing many more millions than those who have already died. This action needs not only to continue, but to be speeded up considerably.

  6. Autoimmune diseases and HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virot, Emilie; Duclos, Antoine; Adelaide, Leopold; Miailhes, Patrick; Hot, Arnaud; Ferry, Tristan; Seve, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To describe the clinical manifestations, treatments, prognosis, and prevalence of autoimmune diseases (ADs) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. All HIV-infected patients managed in the Infectious Diseases Department of the Lyon University Hospitals, France, between January 2003 and December 2013 and presenting an AD were retrospectively included. Thirty-six ADs were found among 5186 HIV-infected patients which represents a prevalence of 0.69% including immune thrombocytopenic purpura (n = 15), inflammatory myositis (IM) (n = 4), sarcoidosis (n = 4), Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) (n = 4), myasthenia gravis (n = 2), Graves’ disease (n = 2), and 1 case of each following conditions: systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune hepatitis, Hashimoto thyroiditis and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. One patient presented 2 ADs. Thirty patients were known to be HIV-infected when they developed an AD. The AD preceded HIV infection in 2 patients. GBS and HIV infection were diagnosed simultaneously in 3 cases. At AD diagnosis, CD4 T lymphocytes count were higher than 350/mm3 in 63% of patients, between 200 and 350/mm3 in 19% and less than 200/mm3 in 19%. Twenty patients benefited from immunosuppressant treatments, with a good tolerance. ADs during HIV infection are uncommon in this large French cohort. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura, sarcoidosis, IM, and GBS appear to be more frequent than in the general population. Immunosuppressant treatments seem to be effective and well tolerated. PMID:28121924

  7. EFFECT OF HIV PREVENTION AND TREATMENT PROGRAM ON HIV AND HCV TRANSMISSION AND HIV MORTALITY AT AN INDONESIAN NARCOTIC PRISON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelwan, Erni J; Indrati, Agnes K; Isa, Ahmad; Triani, Nurlita; Alam, Nisaa Nur; Herlan, Maria S; Husen, Wahid; Pohan, Herdiman T; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Meheus, Andre; Van Crevel, Reinout; van der Ven, Andre Jam

    2015-09-01

    Validated data regarding HIV-transmission in prisons in developing countries is scarce. We examined sexual and injecting drug use behavior and HIV and HCV transmission in an Indonesian narcotic prison during the implementation of an HIV prevention and treatment program during 2004-2007 when the Banceuy Narcotic Prison in Indonesia conducted an HIV transmission prevention program to provide 1) HIV education, 2) voluntary HIV testing and counseling, 3) condom supply, 4) prevention of rape and sexual violence, 5) antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners and 6) methadone maintenance treatment. During a first survey that was conducted between 2007 and 2009, new prisoners entered Banceuy Narcotics Prison were voluntary tested for HIV and HCV-infection after written informed consent was obtained. Information regarding sexual and injecting risk behavior and physical status were also recorded at admission to the prison. Participants who tested negative for both HIV and HCV during the first survey were included in a second survey conducted during 2008-2011. During both surveys, data on mortality among HIV-seropositive patients were also recorded. All HIV-seropositive participants receive treatment for HIV. HIV/ AIDS-related deaths decreased: 43% in 2006, 18% in 2007, 9% in 2008 and 0% in 2009. No HIV and HCV seroconversion inside Banceuy Narcotic Prison were found after a median of 23 months imprisonment (maximum follow-up: 38 months). Total of 484.8 person-years observation was done. Participants reported HIV transmission risk-behavior in Banceuy Prison during the second survey was low. After implementation of HIV prevention and treatment program, no new HIV or HCV cases were detected and HIV-related mortality decreased.

  8. Comparing Measures of Late HIV Diagnosis in Washington State

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Saganic; Jason Carr; Rosa Solorio; Maria Courogen; Tom Jaenicke; Ann Duerr

    2011-01-01

    As more US HIV surveillance programs routinely use late HIV diagnosis to monitor and characterize HIV testing patterns, there is an increasing need to standardize how late HIV diagnosis is measured. In this study, we compared two measures of late HIV diagnosis, one based on time between HIV and AIDS, the other based on initial CD4+ results. Using data from Washington's HIV/AIDS Reporting System, we used multivariate logistic regression to identify predictors of late HIV diagnosis. We also con...

  9. Regional differences in prevalence of HIV-1 discordance in Africa and enrollment of HIV-1 discordant couples into an HIV-1 prevention trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairam R Lingappa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most HIV-1 transmission in Africa occurs among HIV-1-discordant couples (one partner HIV-1 infected and one uninfected who are unaware of their discordant HIV-1 serostatus. Given the high HIV-1 incidence among HIV-1 discordant couples and to assess efficacy of interventions for reducing HIV-1 transmission, HIV-1 discordant couples represent a critical target population for HIV-1 prevention interventions and prevention trials. Substantial regional differences exist in HIV-1 prevalence in Africa, but regional differences in HIV-1 discordance among African couples, has not previously been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Partners in Prevention HSV-2/HIV-1 Transmission Trial ("Partners HSV-2 Study", the first large HIV-1 prevention trial in Africa involving HIV-1 discordant couples, completed enrollment in May 2007. Partners HSV-2 Study recruitment data from 12 sites from East and Southern Africa were used to assess HIV-1 discordance among couples accessing couples HIV-1 counseling and testing, and to correlate with enrollment of HIV-1 discordant couples. HIV-1 discordance at Partners HSV-2 Study sites ranged from 8-31% of couples tested from the community. Across all study sites and, among all couples with one HIV-1 infected partner, almost half (49% of couples were HIV-1 discordant. Site-specific monthly enrollment of HIV-1 discordant couples into the clinical trial was not directly associated with prevalence of HIV-1 discordance, but was modestly correlated with national HIV-1 counseling and testing rates and access to palliative care/basic health care (r = 0.74, p = 0.09. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HIV-1 discordant couples are a critical target for HIV-1 prevention in Africa. In addition to community prevalence of HIV-1 discordance, national infrastructure for HIV-1 testing and healthcare delivery and effective community outreach strategies impact recruitment of HIV-1 discordant couples into HIV-1 prevention trials.

  10. Oral complications of HIV disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair C. Leao

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict its progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. A better understanding of the oral manifestations of AIDS in both adults and children has implications for all health care professionals. The knowledge of such alterations would allow for early recognition of HIV-infected patients. The present paper reviews epidemiology, relevant aspects of HIV infection related to the mouth in both adults and children, as well as current trends in antiretroviral therapy and its connection with orofacial manifestations related to AIDS.

  11. Oral Complications of HIV Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leao, Jair C.; Ribeiro, Camila M. B.; Carvalho, Alessandra A. T.; Frezzini, Cristina; Porter, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict its progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A better understanding of the oral manifestations of AIDS in both adults and children has implications for all health care professionals. The knowledge of such alterations would allow for early recognition of HIV-infected patients. The present paper reviews epidemiology, relevant aspects of HIV infection related to the mouth in both adults and children, as well as current trends in antiretroviral therapy and its connection with orofacial manifestations related to AIDS. PMID:19488613

  12. HIV microbicides: innovation and challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-yan

    2010-01-01

    @@ According to Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) report in 2009, the estimated number of people living with HIV-1 is 33.4 million, and half of the infected adults (aged 15-49 years) are women, who acquired HIV-1 mainly through heterosexual exposure. In China, HTV-1 transmission through sexual contact has also increased rapidly, and has reached over 70% in overall cases; heterosexual transmission accounted for 40% and men who had sex with man (MSM) for 32.0%.2,3

  13. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Lipodystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lipodystrophy can be upsetting and affect a person’s self-esteem. Because of lipodystrophy, a person may decide to ... Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents/Adverse Effects of Antiretroviral Agents From the Department ...

  14. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the HIV infection and compartmentalization of HIV in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system plays an important role in HIV infection. The purpose of this review is to discuss the indications for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis in HIV infection in clinical practice. CSF analysis in HIV infection is indicated for the diagnosis of opportunistic infections and co-infections, diagnosis of meningitis caused by HIV, quantification of HIV viral load, and analysis of CNS HIV compartmentalization. Although several CSF biomarkers have been investigated, none are clinically applicable. The capacity of HIV to generate genetic diversity, in association with the constitutional characteristics of the CNS, facilitates the generation of HIV quasispecies in the CNS that are distinct from HIV in the systemic circulation. CSF analysis has a well-defined and valuable role in the diagnosis of CNS infections in HIV/AIDS patients. Further research is necessary to establish a clinically applicable biomarker for the diagnosis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

  15. HIV among African American Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among African American Gay and Bisexual Men Format: ...

  16. ESTANDARIZACIÓN DE LA EXTRACCIÓN DE ADN Y VALIDACIÓN DE LA PCR MÚLTIPLE PARA DETECTAR Listeria monocytogenes EN QUESO, LECHE, CARNE DE RES Y POLLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mercado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo validó la técnica de PCR para la detección de L. monocytogenes a partir de ADN de cultivos puros y en muestras de leches crudas, quesos frescos, carne de res y carne de pollo. En DNA de cultivos puros la sensibilidad, la especificidad y la reproducibilidad encontrada fue de 100%, 101UFC/ml y K=1,respectivamente. Para la extracción del ADN de los alimentos se emplearon dos métodos, el primero, basado en la precipitación alcohólica en presencia de NaI, lo que redujo en gran medida las grasas; permitiendo la detección directa de 10 1 UFC/ml en leche cruda y 105 UFC/g en queso fresco. El segundo método, basado en la extracción con lisozima, proteinasa K y fenol-cloroformo, permitió establecer límites de detección de 102 y 104 UFC/g para las carnes de res y pollo respectivamente. La PCR se basó enla especificidad de los iniciadores LI1/U1 que amplificaron una banda de 938 pb (identificación de género característica del rDNA 16S y los iniciadores LF/LR que amplificaron una banda de 750 pbcaracterística del gen hlyA (identificación de especie. Los resultados de la validación reportaron con relación al método “Gold Standard” una reproducibilidad, sensibilidad y especificidad del 100% en leches crudas. Para las muestras de queso frescos se reportó una reproducibilidad de 97%, sensibilidad 96.3% y especificidad del 100%, para la carne de pollo la reproducibilidad fue 98.43%, sensibilidad96.9%, especificidad 100%, valor predictivo positivo 100% y valor predictivo negativo 100%, para la carne de res todos los parámetros fueron 100%. El método “Gold Standard” reportó 100% para todos losparámetros. El trabajo muestra que ambas técnicas pueden ser utilizadas para detectar L. monocytogenes en este tipo de alimentos y que la PCR reduce el tiempo de ensayo considerablemente.

  17. Deteccção do DNA de Mycobacterium leprae em secreção nasal Detección del ADN de Mycobacterium leprae en secreción nasal Detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA in nasal swab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosa Botelho Pontes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Estudos têm demonstrado alta sensibilidade da técnica da reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR na identificação do DNA do Mycobacterium leprae. Este estudo objetivou avaliar a sensibilidade da PCR na detecção do DNA do M. leprae em "swab" nasal de pacientes hansenianos e comparar os resultados com a baciloscopia e formas multibacilares (MBs e paucibacilares (PBs. Foram coletadas amostras de secreção nasal de 24 pacientes hansenianos, conservadas em solução de lise um e dois. Os resultados da PCR foram altamente significativos (pLos estudios han demostrado una alta sensibilidad de la técnica de Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa (PCR para identificar el ADN de Mycobacterium leprae. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la sensibilidad de la PCR en la detección de ADN de M. leprae en hisopo nasal de los pacientes hansenianos y comparar los resultados con la baciloscopía y las formas multibacilares (MBs y paucibacilares (PBS. Se obtuvieron muestras de secreción nasal de 24 pacientes hansenianos, conservados en solución de lisis uno y dos. Los resultados de la PCR fueron muy significativas (p Studies have demonstrated high sensibility of the polimerase chain reaction (PCR technique in the identification of the Mycobacterium leprae DNA . This study aimed to evalue the PCR sensibility at the detection of the M. leprae DNA in nasal swab of leprosy patients and to compare the results with the bacilloscopy and multibacillary (MBs and paucibacilares (PBs forms. Nasal secretion samples of 24 leprosy patients were collected, and were preserved in one and two lise's solution. The PCR results were highly significant (p <0.0000 and they revealed grater sensibility than bacilloscopy, in several clinical forms. Nevertheless, still different studies are necessary, testing new markers and preservatives, with the purpose of lifting up the sensibility of this technique, in nasal secretion samples.

  18. Detection of Brucella melitensis DNA in the milk of sheep after abortion by PCR assay Detección de ADN de Brucella melitensis mediante la prueba de PCR en muestras de leche de ovejas postaborto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Ilhan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory diagnosis of brucellosis is generally performed by microbiological and serological methods. PCR assay is a specific and sensitive choice for the detection of different bacterial agents. An evaluation of this test was carried out for the detection of Brucella melitensis DNA in sheep milk. 102 milk samples from sheep after abortion were taken and studied using bacteriological culture, PCR and milk ring test (MRT. PCR found B. melitensis DNA in 24 (23.5% out of 102 milk samples, while only 8 (7.8% of the samples were positive to B. melitensis through direct culture. MRT found 28 (27.4% positive milk samples. The detection limit for PCR in sheep milk inoculated with B. melitensis strain 16 M was 1.7x10³-1.7x10(4 cfu/ml. PCR and MRT coincidence was 96%. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were determined as 100% and 81.3% respectively for PCR assay and 75% and 75% for MRT. PCR is a useful tool for a fast diagnosis of B. melitensis in sheep milk.El diagnóstico de laboratorio de brucelosis es generalmente realizado por métodos microbiológicos y serológicos. La prueba PCR es reconocida como una alternativa específica y sensible para la detección de diferentes agentes bacterianos. Se realizó una evaluación de la prueba PCR para la detección de ADN de Brucella melitensis en leche de oveja. Ciento dos muestras tomadas de ovejas postaborto fueron analizadas por métodos de cultivo bacteriológico, prueba PCR y prueba del anillo en leche (MRT. El PCR detectó ADN de B. melitensis en 24 (23,5% de 102 muestras de leche, mientras que solamente 8 (7,8% muestras de leche fueron positivas a B. melitensis por cultivo directo. El MRT detectó 28 (27,4% muestras positivas de leche. El límite de detección de B. melitensis 16 M por PCR fue de 1,7x10³-1,7x10(4 ufc/ml en leche inoculada. La concordancia entre PCR y MRT fue 96%. La sensibilidad diagnóstica y la precisión fueron determinadas como el 100% y el 81,3% respectivamente para la

  19. Relationship of vitamin D, HIV, HIV treatment, and lipid levels in the Women's Interagency HIV Study of HIV-infected and uninfected women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Janice B; Moore, Kelly L; Yin, Michael; Sharma, Anjali; Merenstein, Dan; Islam, Talat; Golub, Elizabeth T; Tien, Phyllis C; Adeyemi, Oluwatoyin M

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between vitamin D, lipids, HIV infection, and HIV treatment (±antiretroviral therapy [ART]) were investigated with Women's Interagency HIV Study data (n = 1758 middle-aged women) using multivariable regression. Sixty-three percent of women had vitamin D deficiency. Median 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH vitamin D) was highest in HIV-infected + ART-treated women (17 ng/mL; P HIV treatment. Similarly, vitamin D levels were positively related to triglycerides only in ART-treated HIV-infected women and unrelated to cholesterol.

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Health Consequences of Drug Misuse ... be transmitted between users. Other infections-such as hepatitis C-can also be spread this way. Hepatitis ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patients who do not abuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the amount ... behaviors. NIDA researchers have studied and continue to study the links between drug abuse and HIV/AIDS. ...

  2. Renal issues in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayjian, Robert C

    2011-09-01

    Kidney disease remains a prominent complication of HIV disease, despite beneficial effects of antiretroviral therapy on the natural history of HIV-associated nephropathy, and on kidney function in general populations of HIV infected patients. Persons of African descent continue to bear a disproportionate burden of severe kidney disease, as is true for the general population. Recently identified genetic variants in the apolipoprotein L1 gene may contribute to this burden. As is also true for the general population, markers of kidney disease, including microalbuminuria, are sensitive predictors of cardiovascular disease and mortality among persons living with HIV. The emerging experience with kidney transplantation also suggests this to be a viable option in selected patients.

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Military Naloxone Pain Prevention Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Funding Funding Opportunities Clinical Research ... of an uninfected person. In addition, infected pregnant women can pass HIV to their babies during pregnancy, ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nicotine Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Health ...

  5. HIV-1 subtypes in Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojevic, Maja; Papa, Anna; Papadimitriou, Evagelia; Zerjav, Sonja; Jevtovic, Djordje; Salemovic, Dubravka; Jovanovic, Tanja; Antoniadis, Antonis

    2002-05-01

    To gain insight concerning the genetic diversity of HIV-1 viruses associated with the HIV-1 epidemic in Yugoslavia, 45 specimens from HIV-1-infected individuals were classified into subtypes by sequence-based phylogenetic analysis of the polymerase (pol) region of the viral genome. Forty-one of 45 specimens (91.2%) were identified as pol subtype B, 2 of 45 as subtype C (4.4%), 1 of 45 as CRF01_AE (2.2%), and 1 as CRF02_AG recombinant (2.2%). Nucleotide divergence among subtype B sequences was 4.8%. Results of this study show that among HIV-1-infected patients in Yugoslavia subtype B predominates (91.5%), whereas non-B subtypes are present at a low percentage, mostly related to travel abroad.

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Training News & Events News Nora's Blog NIDA in the News NIDA Notes Podcasts E-Newsletters Public ... with drug abuse are among the main factors in the spread of HIV infection in the United ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in recent years, HIV is no longer a death sentence, as it was when the epidemic began. ... of multicultural public service announcements (PSAs) that use text messaging as a means of communication. The "Text Message" ...

  8. Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to text United Nations. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development ; 2015. ← Return to text UNAIDS. 2011 Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS; 2011, available at: ... 2030 ; 2014. ← Return to text Global Fund. Grants Portfolio; ...

  9. Bone disease and HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosa, Valerianna; Tebas, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    The high prevalence of bone demineralization among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in the current therapeutic era has been described in multiple studies, sounding the alarm that we may expect an epidemic of fragility fractures in the future. However, despite noting high overall prevalences of osteopenia and osteoporosis, recent longitudinal studies that we review here have generally not observed accelerated bone loss during antiretroviral therapy beyond the initial period after treatment initiation. We discuss the continued progress toward understanding the mechanisms of HIV-associated bone loss, particularly the effects of HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy, and host immune factors on bone turnover. We summarize results of clinical trials published in the past year that studied the safety and efficacy of treatment of bone loss in HIV-infected patients and provide provisional opinions about who should be considered for bone disease screening and treatment.

  10. Body Shape Changes with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS Home Alternative Therapies Diet and Nutrition Discrimination Drugs and Alcohol Exercise Mental Health Sex and ... injections of dermal fillers that can lessen the appearance of these changes. Abdominal fat gain can be ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are at risk for contracting HIV. In general, middle and late teen years are when young people ... Children, Youth and Families The American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) The United Negro College Fund, ...

  12. Maraviroc (Celsentri in HIV treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Sacchi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1996, the prognosis of people living with immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS has improved significantly, due to highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART based on a combination of 3-4 anti-HIV drugs; the use ofthese drugs can achieve a durable suppression of HIV viraemia, turning HIV infection into a chronic illness. The three first licensed classes of antiretroviral agents are nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs and protease inhibitors (PIs. Until recently, treatment options for individuals developing resistanceto these drugs have been limited, but new drugs in existing classes (second generation NNRTIs and novel PIs and novel classes of drugs (integrase inhibitors, CCR5 antagonists and fusion inhibitors have become clinically available.

  13. HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... percentage is less than 15%. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  14. Performance of 3 Rapid Tests for Discrimination Between HIV-1 and HIV-2 in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Bjarnason Obinah, Magnús Pétur; Jespersen, Sanne;

    2014-01-01

    rapid tests for discrimination between HIV-1, HIV-2, and dual infections among 219 patients from Guinea-Bissau by comparing with the gold standard (INNO-LIA). Genie III HIV-1/HIV-2 was the best performer with regard to discriminatory capacity (agreement 91.8%), followed by Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2...

  15. 纳米铝粉的固相化学还原法制备、表征及对ADN热分解性能的影响%Solid Phase Chemical Reduction Synthesis and Characterization of Aluminum Nanopowders and the Effect on the Thermal Decomposition of ADN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫; 赵凤起; 罗阳; 高红旭; 姚二岗; 姜菡雨

    2015-01-01

    以山梨糖醇酐三油酸酯(Span-85)作为过程控制剂,通过氢化铝锂还原无水氯化铝,采用高能机械球磨法制备了纳米铝粉(n-Al).利用扫描电镜(SEM)、高分辨率透射电镜(TEM)、X射线衍射(XRD)仪、傅里叶变换红外光谱(FTIR)仪及X射线光电子能谱(XPS)仪对其形貌和结构进行了表征.用差示扫描量热仪(DSC)对ADN(二硝酰胺铵)、n-Al/ADN的热分解反应特性进行了研究.结果表明:纳米铝粉属立方晶系,表面包覆有无定型Al2O3氧化物及部分表面活性剂Span-85,同时制备的纳米铝粉试样中含少量AlCl3·6H2O杂质;此方法制备的n-Al粒子对ADN液化温度几乎没有影响,但放热分解温度明显增大,且ADN分解由多重峰变为单一的尖峰.%Aluminum nanopowders (n-Al) were synthesized via reduction of aluminum chloride anhydrous by lithium aluminum hydride with a mechanical ball-milling method,using Span-85 as process control agent.The surface morphologies and structures were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM),high resolution transmission election microscope (TEM),X-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument,Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).The thermal decomposition process of ADN and composite system n-Al/ADN were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).The results show that aluminum nanopowders belong to the cubic crystal system,and their surface is coated with amorphous oxide A12O3 and surfactant Span-85.At the same time,the samples contain a small amount of impurities A1C13·6H2O.Aluminum nanopowders have little influence on the liquefaction temperature of ADN,but the decomposition temperature increases significantly,and the decomposition of ADN becomes from multiple peak into a single spike.

  16. Identifying HIV-1 dual infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelissen Marion

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is no exception to the phenomenon that a second, productive infection with another strain of the same virus is feasible. Experiments with RNA viruses have suggested that both coinfections (simultaneous infection with two strains of a virus and superinfections (second infection after a specific immune response to the first infecting strain has developed can result in increased fitness of the viral population. Concerns about dual infections with HIV are increasing. First, the frequent detection of superinfections seems to indicate that it will be difficult to develop a prophylactic vaccine. Second, HIV-1 superinfections have been associated with accelerated disease progression, although this is not true for all persons. In fact, superinfections have even been detected in persons controlling their HIV infections without antiretroviral therapy. Third, dual infections can give rise to recombinant viruses, which are increasingly found in the HIV-1 epidemic. Recombinants could have increased fitness over the parental strains, as in vitro models suggest, and could exhibit increased pathogenicity. Multiple drug resistant (MDR strains could recombine to produce a pan-resistant, transmittable virus. We will describe in this review what is presently known about super- and re-infection among ambient viral infections, as well as the first cases of HIV-1 superinfection, including HIV-1 triple infections. The clinical implications, the impact of the immune system, and the effect of anti-retroviral therapy will be covered, as will as the timing of HIV superinfection. The methods used to detect HIV-1 dual infections will be discussed in detail. To increase the likelihood of detecting a dual HIV-1 infection, pre-selection of patients can be done by serotyping, heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA, counting the degenerate base codes in the HIV-1 genotyping sequence, or surveying unexpected increases in the

  17. Mucosal Immunology of HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the immunology, pathogenesis, and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continue to reveal clues to the mechanisms involved in the progressive immunodeficiency attributed to infection but more importantly have shed light on the correlates of immunity to infection and disease progression. HIV selectively infects, eliminates, and/or dysregulates several key cells of the human immune system, thwarting multiple arms of the host immune response, and inflicti...

  18. Heterotopic pregnancy in HIV women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Savasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic pregnancy occurs when intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy are concomitant; overall rate rises from 1/30.000 to 1.5/1000 in assisted reproductive technology pregnancies. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus patients are at increased risk of heterotopic pregnancies due to the greater frequency of assisted reproductive technology and pelvic inflammatory disease. We report the first case of heterotopic pregnancy in HIV woman.

  19. Pharmacotherapy of Pediatric HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhmanina, Natella; Phelps, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    With the ongoing epidemic of human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infections in the pediatric age group, the delivery of safe and effective antiretroviral therapy to children and adolescents is crucial to save the lives of millions of children worldwide. Antiretroviral drugs have been demonstrated to significantly decrease HIV-associated morbidity and mortality, assure normal growth and development, and improve survival and quality of life in children and adolescents. The immunologic response ...

  20. HIV-associated anal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Newsom-Davis, Thomas; Bower, Mark

    2010-01-01

    HIV-associated anal carcinoma, a non-AIDS-defining cancer, is a human papillomavirus-associated malignancy with a spectrum of preinvasive changes. The standardized incidence ratio for anal cancer in patients with HIV/AIDS is 20-50. Algorithms for anal cancer screening include anal cytology followed by high-resolution anoscopy for those with abnormal findings. Outpatient topical treatments for anal intraepithelial neoplasia include infrared coagulation therapy, trichloroacetic acid, and imiqui...

  1. Controversies in HIV cure research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Rowena

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiretroviral therapy significantly reduces HIV viral burden and prolongs life, but does not cure HIV infection. The major scientific barrier to a cure is thought to be the persistence of the virus in cellular and/or anatomical reservoirs. Discussion Most efforts to date, including pharmaco, immuno or gene therapy, have failed to cure patients, with the notable exception of a stem cell transplant recipient commonly known as the Berlin patient. This case has revived interest in the potential to cure HIV infection and has highlighted the need to resolve critical questions in the basic, pre-clinical and clinical research spheres as they pertain specifically to efforts to eradicate HIV from the body of an infected person (a sterilizing cure or at least render the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy obsolete (functional cure. This paper describes ongoing debates in each of these research spheres as they were presented and discussed at a satellite session that took place at the 6th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention in Rome in July 2011. Summary The resolution of these debates may have important implications for the search for a cure, the most efficient ways to identify and test promising interventions, and ultimately the availability of such a cure to diverse groups of HIV patients around the world.

  2. Mucocutaneous manifestations of HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobhana A

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is associated with various mucocutaneous features, which may be the first pointer towards the existence of HIV infection. This study was done to note the different mucocutaneous lesions present in the HIV population in eastern India. METHODS: Four hundred and ten HIV seropositive patients attending the outpatient and inpatient departments were included in the study. RESULTS: Out of 410 HIV positives, 40% had mucocutaneous involvement at presentation. The mean age of the study population was 29 years and male to female ratio was 2.5:1. The common mucocutaneous morbidities included oral candidiasis (36%, dermatophytosis and gingivitis (13% each, herpes zoster (6%, herpes simplex and scabies (5% each. A striking feature, noted in 36% males, was straightening of hairs. Genital herpes was the commonest genital ulcer disease. Lesions associated with declining immunity included oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia and herpes zoster with median CD4 counts of 98, 62 and 198/ L respectively. CONCLUSION: Early recognition of mucocutaneous manifestations and associated STDs help in better management of HIV/AIDS.

  3. Diagnosis of Perinatal Transmission of HIV-1 Infection by HIV DNA PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Shah

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available To determine the sensitivity and specificity of HIV DNA PCR (Qualitative at various age groups todetect or rule out HIV infection in infants born to HIV infected mothers. Pediatric and perinatal HIVclinic in a tertiary pediatric hospital.Sixteen infants born to HIV positive mother enrolled in the preventionof mother to child transmission of HIV at our center were tested for HIV infection by HIV DNAPCR at 1.5 months, 3 months, 5.5 months and/or 7 months of age. Their HIV status was confirmedby an HIV ELISA test at 18 months of age by 2 different ELISA kits. Eight patients (50% had anegative HIV DNA PCR whereas 8 patients (50% had a positive DNA PCR of which 6 patients(75% had a false positive HIV DNA PCR and no false negative DNA PCR. Thus, the sensitivity ofHIV DNA PCR was 100% and specificity was 57.1% with a total efficiency of the test being62.5%. The efficiency of HIV DNA PCR at 1.5 months of age was 50%, at 3 months of age42.9%, at 5.5 months of age 60% and at 7 months of age was 100%. HIV DNA PCR has a highsensitivity but low specificity to diagnose HIV infection in infants less than 7 months of age. Hence,the results of the test have to be interpreted with caution in infants born to HIV positive mothers.

  4. Occurence of pregnancies among HIV infected Indian women : Does knowledge about HIV status make a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darak, Shrinivas; Hutter, Inge; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Kulkarni, Vinay; Janssen, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India (N = 560), were analysed. Direct

  5. 42 CFR Appendix A to Part 130 - Definition of HIV Infection or HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of HIV Infection or HIV A Appendix A to... PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM Pt. 130, App. A Appendix A to Part 130—Definition of HIV Infection or HIV ER31MY00.000 ER31MY00.001...

  6. HIV Risk Behavior and Access to Services: What Predicts HIV Testing among Heterosexually Active Homeless Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Rhoades, Harmony; Tucker, Joan S.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Zhou, Annie; Ewing, Brett

    2012-01-01

    HIV is a serious epidemic among homeless persons, where rates of infection are estimated to be three times higher than in the general population. HIV testing is an effective tool for reducing HIV transmission and for combating poor HIV/AIDS health outcomes that disproportionately affect homeless persons, however, little is known about the HIV…

  7. Following an HIV Regimen: Steps to Take Before and After Starting HIV Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment Following an HIV Regimen: Steps to Take Before and After Starting HIV Medicines (Last updated 3/2/2017; last reviewed 3/2/2017) ... maintain long-term medication adherence. Before starting an HIV regimen, talk to your health care provider about ...

  8. Occurrence of pregnancies among HIV infected Indian women: Does knowledge about HIV status make a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darak, S.; Hutter, I.; Kulkarni, S.; Kulkarni, V.; Janssen, F.

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India , were analysed. Directly standa

  9. Occurrence of Pregnancies among HIV Infected Indian Women : Does Knowledge about HIV Status Make a Difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Darak (Shrinivas); I. Hutter (Inge); S. Kulkarni (Sanjeevani); V. Kulkarni (Vinay); F. Janssen (Fanny)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India (N = 560), were anal

  10. Clinical profile of HIV infected patients attending a HIV referral clinic in Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Antwal

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Signs and symptoms associated with HIV positivity observed in this study can be used by health care providers to detect HIV infection early. Moreover, similar to HIV testing in patients with tuberculosis, strategies can be developed for considering Herpes zoster as a predictor of HIV infection.

  11. Perceived HIV-Associated Stigma among HIV-Seropositive Men: Psychometric Study of HIV Stigma Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Valle, Adrian; Treviño,Ana Cecilia; Zambrano, Farith Francisco; Urriola, Karla Elizabeth; Sánchez, Luis Antonio; Elizondo,Jesus Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the internal consistency and factor structure of the abridged Spanish version of the Berger HIV Stigma Scale (HSS-21), to provide evidence for its convergent and discriminant validity, and to describe perceived stigma in an urban population from northeast Mexico. Methods Seventy-five HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) were recruited. Participants answered the Spanish versions of three Likert-type scales: HSS-21, Robsenberg’s self-esteem scale, and the abbreviate...

  12. Perceived HIV-associated stigma among HIV-seropositive men: psychometric study of HIV stigma scale

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian eValle; Ana Cecilia Treviño; Farith Francisco Zambrano; Karla Elizabeth Urriola; Luis Antonio Sánchez; Jesus Eduardo Elizondo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the internal consistency and factor structure of the abridged Spanish version of the Berger HIV Stigma Scale (HSS-21), provide evidence for its convergent and discriminant validity, and describe perceived stigma in an urban population from northeast Mexico. Methods: Seventy five HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) were recruited. Participants answered the Spanish versions of three Likert-type scales: HSS-21, Robsenberg’s self-esteem scale, and the abbreviated ve...

  13. Catálogo de las muestras de fauna de la Comunidad de Madrid conservadas en la colección de Tejidos y ADN del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rey, I.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the catalogue of preserved samples of animal species (vertebrate and invertebrate from Comunidad de Madrid kept in the Tissues and DNA Collection of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. Percentages are shown, calculated against the total number of samples and animal class kept in the collection. This information shows the effort developed by the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales to preserve at the genomic level the greatest possible level of genomic biodiversity in Comunidad de Madrid.

    Este trabajo presenta el catálogo de muestras conservadas en la colección de Tejidos y ADN de las especies animales (vertebrados e invertebrados de la Comunidad de Madrid. Se proporcionan los porcentajes frente al total de las muestras conservadas en la colección y las clases animales representadas. Esta información pone de manifiesto el esfuerzo que el Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales realiza para conservar a nivel genómico el mayor porcentaje posible de la diversidad actual de la Comunidad de Madrid.

  14. Evaluación de la unión espermatozoide-ADN exógeno en espermatozoides porcinos eyaculados y epididimarios Evaluation of binding sperm-exogenous DNA in ejaculate and epididimary porcine spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FA García-Vázquez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La transgénesis es una potente herramienta biotecnológica para la generación de animales modificados genéticamente con aplicaciones en diversas áreas como veterinaria, biomedicina y agricultura. En 1989 se describe un nuevo método para la producción de animales transgénicos, la transgénesis mediada por espermatozoides (SMGT. Este método está basado en la habilidad intrínseca de las células espermáticas para unir ADN exógeno y permitir su transferencia al interior de los ovocitos. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la capacidad de transferencia de ADN exógeno que presenta el espermatozoide eyaculado libre de plasma seminal vs epididimario, así como la viabilidad y cinética de unión mediante la citometría de flujo. Los resultados que obtuvimos mostraron que los espermatozoides epididimarios presentan una capacidad similar a los eyaculados y centrifugados tanto en el grado de unión al ADN (12,63 ± 1,23% vs 10,94 ± 1,05%, P = 0,31 como en la viabilidad (espermatozoides no viables 14,64 ± 0,94% vs 13,42 ± 0,61%, P = 0,23 a lo largo del tiempo de incubación. La mayor parte de dicha unión tiene lugar en los espermatozoides no viables para ambos tipos de espermatozoides (10,53 ± 1,01% vs 9,89 ± 0,97%, P = 0,98. En relación a la cinética de unión, observamos que para ambos grupos experimentales el mayor porcentaje de unión con el transgén ocurre en los primeros 15 minutos de coincubación, a partir del cual la unión se mantiene más o menos constante hasta los 120 minutos. Con este estudio hemos demostrado que tanto espermatozoides epididimarios como eyaculados son capaces de interactuar con el ADN exógeno, por lo que se podría utilizar la SMGT combinada con técnicas de reproducción asistida como la ICSI para la obtención de embriones y lechones transgénicos.Transgenic biotechnology is a powerful tool for the generation of genetically modified animals with applications in various fields such as veterinary

  15. Disseminated Herpes Zoster in Association with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchabal D

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV infected individuals are susceptible to a wide variety of skin manifestations due to profound defect in cell-mediated immunity. We describe 2 patients with Disseminated Herpes Zoster, both the patients has associated HIV infection.

  16. Emergency Preparedness for People Living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Translate Text Size Print Emergency Preparedness Emergencies and HIV/AIDS Emergencies can take many forms. They include ... planning efforts. Emergency Resources for People Living with HIV The Federal Government offers several resources and programs ...

  17. Inflammation in HIV-Infected Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Anne; Petersen, Janne; Klausen, Henrik Hedegaard;

    2012-01-01

    To examine mechanisms underlying the increased inflammatory state of HIV-infected patients, by investigating the association of HIV-related factors, demography, lifestyle, and body composition with the inflammatory marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR)....

  18. HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch People living with HIV/AIDS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As ... Page Preventing fungal infections in people living with HIV/AIDS Fungi are difficult to avoid because they ...

  19. Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) . ...

  20. Characteristics of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 Dually Seropositive Adults in West Africa Presenting for Care and Antiretroviral Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekouevi, Didier K; Coffie, Patrick A; Messou, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    HIV-2 is endemic in West Africa. There is a lack of evidence-based guidelines on the diagnosis, management and antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-2 or HIV-1/HIV-2 dual infections. Because of these issues, we designed a West African collaborative cohort for HIV-2 infection within the framework...

  1. HIV RNA and proviral HIV DNA can be detected in semen after 6 months of antiretroviral therapy although HIV RNA is undetectable in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Peiwei; Liu, An; Jiao, Yanmei; Liu, Cuie; Jiang, Taiyi; Zhu, Weijun; Zhu, Yunxia; Wu, Hao; Sun, Lijun

    2016-03-01

    The risk of sexual transmission of HIV is strongly correlated with amounts of genital HIV RNA. Few studies have reported amounts of HIV RNA and HIV DNA in semen in HIV-infected Chinese patients undergoing antiviral treatment (ART). In this observational study, the amounts of HIV RNA and HIV DNA in semen were assessed after six months of ART in HIV-infected Chinese individuals, when HIV RNA was undetectable in blood . This study included 19 HIV-infected Chinese men undergoing ART for six months. Amounts of HIV in paired semen and blood samples were assessed using real-time PCR. The C2-V5 region of the HIV envelope (env) genes was cloned and sequenced and genotype and co-receptor usage predicted based on the sequence. It was found that HIV RNA was undetectable in the plasma of most patients (17/19), whereas HIV RNA could be detected in the semen of most patients (16/19). HIV DNA could be detected in both semen and blood. Genetic diversity of HIV between the seminal and blood compartments was identified. Thus, amounts of HIV RNA and HIV DNA remain high in semen of HIV-infected Chinese patients after six months of ART treatment, even when HIV RNA was undetectable in blood.

  2. Parental HIV Disclosure: From Perspectives of Children Affected by HIV in Henan China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Junfeng; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-01-01

    Culturally and developmentally appropriate parental HIV disclosure (i.e., parents disclose their HIV infection to children) has been shown to be closely related with the well-being of both HIV-infected parents and their children. However, current practices and effects of parental HIV disclosure remain poorly understood in low and middle-income countries including China. Quantitative data from 626 children affected by parental HIV (orphans and vulnerable children) in Henan, China, were collect...

  3. Determinants of HIV outpatient service utilization according to HIV parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Di Carlo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increased life expectancy of HIV patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy has had profound consequences for the healthcare systems that provide their care. It is useful to assess whether healthcare resources need to be adapted to the different stages of HIV infection or to patient characteristics [1]. To study how patient features influence utilization of out patient services, we retrospectively analyzed the electronic health record of HIV-positive patients who had followed day-care programs at the AIDS Center of the University of Palermo, Italy. Materials and Methods: 223 HIV-infected subjects were recruited and divided into two groups according to CD4 cell counts (117 with a CD4 count ≤500/mm3 and 106 with CD4 count ≥500/mm3. Data on age, gender, race, lifestyle habits (including educational level, drug abuse history, smoking status, alcohol consumption, sexual behaviour BMI, HIV-RNA, CD4+ T-cell count, antiretroviral therapy (ART, comorbidities such as HCV co-infection, osteoporosis biomarker, dyslipidemia, diabetes, renal function and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were recorded in a purposely designed database and were analyzed in relation to AIN by uni- and multivariable logistic regression. Results: Table 1 shows the characteristics of enrolled patients; the average age of the recruited patients was 45.4±9.5 years. 163 individuals were male (73%, 26 were immigrants (12% and 91 (40% were treatment-naïve. Mean day care access for laboratory tests to evaluate stage of HIV and for treatment monitoring was 6.5 days for CD4 cell count measurements and 9.6 for HIV RNA/drug-resistance testing. When patients were stratified according to CD4 count, mean day care access for laboratory tests to evaluate HIV stage and to monitor treatment was negatively correlated with CD4 cell counts. Table 1 Selected characteristics of 223 HIV-infected patients Variable HIV with a CD4 count ≤500/mm3 n = 117 HIV

  4. HIV Vaccine-Challenges and Opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The need for an efficacious HIV/AIDS vaccine remains the highest priority of the world HIV/AIDS agenda. The generation of an efficacious HIV/AIDS vaccine proves an enormous scientific challenge. This article reviews the neutralizing antibody problem, elusive immune protection, immunogen design, pre-existing anti-vector immunity and design of phase 3 vaccine trials and the challenges and opportunities in development of HIV/AIDS vaccine are discussed.

  5. Recent update in HIV vaccine development

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, So Youn

    2016-01-01

    Despite the tremendous efforts to develop a successful human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine, the quest for a safe and effective HIV vaccine seems to be remarkably long and winding. Disappointing results from previous clinical trials of VaxGen's AIDSVAXgp120 vaccine and MRKAd5 HIV-1 Gag/Pol/Nef vaccine emphasize that understanding the correlates of immune protection in HIV infection is the key to solve the puzzle. The modest vaccine efficacy from RV144 trial and the successive results ob...

  6. Determinan Perilaku Tes HIV pada Ibu Hamil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Setiyawati

    2015-04-01

    pengetahuan tentang HIV dan AIDS, persepsi kerentanan diri dan sikap ibu. Ada hubungan antara PITC, ketersediaan sumber informasi tentang HIV dan AIDS dari keluarga dan kader kesehatan dengan perilaku tes HIV pada ibu hamil. PITC merupakan variabel yang paling berpengaruh terhadap perilaku tes HIV pada ibu hamil. Determinant of HIV Testing Behavior among Pregnant Women Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS is one of highlighted issues in accomplishing Millenium Development Goals (MDGs target. Pregnant women with HIV will transmit the virus to their babies. HIV testing is such an opening gate of HIV status that is very important to be conducted on pregnant women. This study aimed to determine the determinant of HIV testing behaviour among pregnant women including education level, knowledge level, perception of selfvulnerability to be HIV-infected, attitudes, Provider-Initiated Testing and Counseling (PITC and availability of information (family and health workers. This study was cross sectional using a survey method. This study was conducted in Mantrijeron and Sleman Primary Health Care that had HIV testing facilities and executed prevention of mother to child transmission program. The subjects of this study were pregnant women visiting such primary health care on August up to October 2014, as much as 54 people. Data collecting used questionnaire. Analysed used were univariate, biviariate, and multivariate. The results showed no relation between educational level, knowledge level about HIV and AIDS, perception of self-vulnerability and attitudes of women.There was a relation between PITC, information source availability about HIV and AIDS from the family and health workers with HIV testing behaviour among pregnant women. PITC is the most influencing variable toward HIV testing behaviour among pregnant women.

  7. A Case of Seronegative HIV-1 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Spivak, Adam M; Brennan, Tim; O'Connell, Karen; Sydnor, Emily; Thomas M Williams; Robert F. Siliciano; Gallant, Joel E.; Blankson, Joel N.

    2010-01-01

    Patients infected with HIV-1 typically seroconvert within weeks of primary infection. In rare cases, patients do not develop antibodies against HIV-1 despite demonstrable infection. We describe an HLA-B*5802 positive individual who presented with AIDS despite repeatedly negative HIV-1 antibody screening tests. Phylogenetic analysis of env clones revealed little sequence diversity, and weak HIV-1 specific CD8+ T cell responses were present to Gag epitopes. The patient seroconverted after immun...

  8. Estimating the impact of plasma HIV-1 RNA reductions on heterosexual HIV-1 transmission risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairam R Lingappa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The risk of sexual transmission of HIV-1 is strongly associated with the level of HIV-1 RNA in plasma making reduction in HIV-1 plasma levels an important target for HIV-1 prevention interventions. A quantitative understanding of the relationship of plasma HIV-1 RNA and HIV-1 transmission risk could help predict the impact of candidate HIV-1 prevention interventions that operate by reducing plasma HIV-1 levels, such as antiretroviral therapy (ART, therapeutic vaccines, and other non-ART interventions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We use prospective data collected from 2004 to 2008 in East and Southern African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples to model the relationship of plasma HIV-1 RNA levels and heterosexual transmission risk with confirmation of HIV-1 transmission events by HIV-1 sequencing. The model is based on follow-up of 3381 HIV-1 serodiscordant couples over 5017 person-years encompassing 108 genetically-linked HIV-1 transmission events. HIV-1 transmission risk was 2.27 per 100 person-years with a log-linear relationship to log(10 plasma HIV-1 RNA. The model predicts that a decrease in average plasma HIV-1 RNA of 0.74 log(10 copies/mL (95% CI 0.60 to 0.97 reduces heterosexual transmission risk by 50%, regardless of the average starting plasma HIV-1 level in the population and independent of other HIV-1-related population characteristics. In a simulated population with a similar plasma HIV-1 RNA distribution the model estimates that 90% of overall HIV-1 infections averted by a 0.74 copies/mL reduction in plasma HIV-1 RNA could be achieved by targeting this reduction to the 58% of the cohort with plasma HIV-1 levels ≥4 log(10 copies/mL. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This log-linear model of plasma HIV-1 levels and risk of sexual HIV-1 transmission may help estimate the impact on HIV-1 transmission and infections averted from candidate interventions that reduce plasma HIV-1 RNA levels.

  9. Adaptation of the HIV Stigma Scale in Spaniards with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster-RuizdeApodaca, Maria José; Molero, Fernando; Holgado, Francisco Pablo; Ubillos, Silvia

    2015-09-15

    The primary goal of this study was to adapt Berger, Ferrans, & Lahley (2001) HIV Stigma Scale in Spain, using Bunn, Solomon, Miller, & Forehand (2007) version. A second goal assessed whether the four-factor structure of the adapted scale could be explained by two higher-order dimensions, perceived external stigma and internalized stigma. A first qualitative study (N = 40 people with HIV, aged 28-59) was used to adapt the items and test content validity. A second quantitative study analyzed construct and criterion validity. In this study participants were 557 people with HIV, aged 18-76. The adapted HIV Stigma Scale for use in Spain (HSSS) showed a good internal consistency (α = .88) and good construct validity. Confirmatory Factor Analyses yielded a first-order, four-factor structure and a higher-order, bidimensional structure with the two expected factors (RMSEA = .051, 90% CI [.046, .056]; RMR = .073; GFI = .96; AGFI = .96; CFI = .98). Negative relations were found between stigma and quality of life (r = -.39; p stigma (r = -.50; p HIV status disclosure (r = -.35; p Stigma dimension than those who had not suffered them, t (493) = 3.02, p = .003, d = 0.26.

  10. People living with HIV in Estonia: engagement in HIV care in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Raag, Mait; Lutsar, Irja; Uusküla, Anneli

    2016-10-27

    Estonia had the highest rate of newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases in the European Union (24.6/100,000) and an estimated adult HIV prevalence of 1.3% in 2013. HIV medical care, including antiretroviral therapy (ART), is free of charge for people living with HIV (PLHIV). To maximise the health benefits of HIV treatment, universal access should be achieved. Using data from surveillance and administrative databases and the treatment cascade model, we assessed the number of people infected with HIV, diagnosed with HIV, linked to HIV care, retained in HIV care, on ART, and with suppressed viral load (HIV-RNA: Estonia in 2013 had not been diagnosed with HIV, and another quarter, although aware of their HIV-positive serostatus, had not accessed HIV medical care. Although altogether only 12-15% of all PLHIV in Estonia had achieved viral suppression, the main gap in HIV care in Estonia were the 58% of PLHIV who had accessed HIV medical care at least once after diagnosis but were not retained in care in 2013.

  11. HIV-2 infection and chemokine receptors usage - clues to reduced virulence of HIV-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo-Pereira, José Miguel; Santos-Costa, Quirina; Moniz-Pereira, José

    2005-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2) are the causative agents of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Without therapeutic intervention, HIV-1 or HIV-2 infections in humans are characterized by a gradual and irreversible immunologic failure that ultimately leads to the onset of a severe immunodeficiency that constitutes the hallmark of AIDS. In the last two decades AIDS has evolved into a global epidemic affecting millions of persons worldwide. Although sharing several identical properties, HIV-1 and HIV-2 have shown some important differences in vivo. In fact, a significant amount of epidemiologic, clinical and virologic data suggest that HIV-2 is in general less virulent than HIV-1. This reduced virulence is revealed by the longer asymptomatic period and the smaller transmission rate that characteristically are observed in HIV-2 infection. In this context, studies using HIV-2 as a model of a naturally less pathogenic infection could bring important new insights to HIV pathogenesis opening to new strategies to vaccines or therapeutic design. The reasons underlying the reduced pathogenicity of HIV-2 are still essentially unknown and surely are the outcome of a combination of distinct factors. In this review we will discuss the importance and the possible implications in HIV-2 pathogenesis, particularly during the asymptomatic period, of a less fitted interaction between viral envelope glycoproteins and cellular receptors that have been described in the way HIV-2 and HIV-1 use these receptors.

  12. Get the Facts, Talk about HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, urges members of the black community to talk about HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  13. Black Americans and HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS: The Basics Black Americans and HIV/AIDS: The Basics Feb 07, 2017 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn ... Black Americans have been disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS since the epidemic’s beginning, and that disparity has ...

  14. Voices of Experience: Living with HIV. Pamela.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-07

    This podcast showcases Pamela, a woman living with HIV, as she tells her story.  Created: 6/7/2009 by Division of HIV and AIDS Prevention (DHAP), National Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and Tuberculosis Prevention ( NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/7/2009.

  15. HIV genetic information and clonal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on an analysis of blood cells from five HIV-infected individuals, NCI researchers have identified more than 2,400 HIV DNA insertion sites. Analysis of these sites showed that there is extensive clonal expansion (growth) of HIV infected cells.

  16. Voices of Experience: Living with HIV. Doug.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-07

    This podcast showcases Doug, a man living with HIV, as he tells his story.  Created: 6/7/2009 by Division of HIV and AIDS Prevention (DHAP), National Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and Tuberculosis Prevention ( NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/7/2009.

  17. Voices of Experience: Living with HIV. ODell.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-07

    This podcast showcases ODell, a man living with HIV, as he tells his story.  Created: 6/7/2009 by Division of HIV and AIDS Prevention (DHAP), National Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and Tuberculosis Prevention ( NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/7/2009.

  18. Voices of Experience: Living with HIV. Denise.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-07

    This podcast showcases Denise, a woman living with HIV, as she tells her story.  Created: 6/7/2009 by Division of HIV and AIDS Prevention (DHAP), National Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and Tuberculosis Prevention ( NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/7/2009.

  19. Changes in US HIV Treatment Guidelines

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-03

    Following the 2012 HIV Treatment Guidelines, which include early diagnosis and treatment with ART, can increase longevity and improve the quality of life for patients living with HIV.  Created: 10/3/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 10/3/2012.

  20. Curcumin derivatives as HIV-1 protease inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Z.; Li, J.; Craik, C.S.; Ortiz de Montellano, P.R. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Curcumin, a non-toxic natural compound from Curcuma longa, has been found to be an HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Some of its derivatives were synthesized and their inhibitory activity against the HIV-1 protease was tested. Curcumin analogues containing boron enhanced the inhibitory activity. At least of the the synthesized compounds irreversibly inhibits the HIV-1 protease.

  1. HIV and incarceration: prisons and detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Ralf; Nowak, Manfred; Day, Marcus

    2011-05-19

    The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics in the communities to which prisoners return upon their release. We reviewed the evidence regarding HIV prevalence, risk behaviours and transmission in prisons. We also reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of interventions and approaches to reduce the risk behaviours and, consequently, HIV transmission in prisons. A large number of studies report high levels of risk behaviour in prisons, and HIV transmission has been documented. There is a large body of evidence from countries around the world of what prison systems can do to prevent HIV transmission. In particular, condom distribution programmes, accompanied by measures to prevent the occurrence of rape and other forms of non-consensual sex, needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapies, have proven effective at reducing HIV risk behaviours in a wide range of prison environments without resulting in negative consequences for the health of prison staff or prisoners.The introduction of these programmes in prisons is therefore warranted as part of comprehensive programmes to address HIV in prisons, including HIV education, voluntary HIV testing and counselling, and provision of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners. In addition, however, action to reduce overcrowding and improve conditions in detention is urgently needed.

  2. HIV Infection and Children: A Medical Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Virginia

    1998-01-01

    Updates a 10-year medical overview on HIV/AIDS written for a Child Welfare League of America publication. Covers HIV transmission, diagnosis and treatment of HIV in infants, maternal treatment and testing, and advances and challenges, including new drug therapies. Concludes with recommendations on systems of care for affected families. (EV)

  3. HIV and incarceration: prisons and detention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgens Ralf

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics in the communities to which prisoners return upon their release. We reviewed the evidence regarding HIV prevalence, risk behaviours and transmission in prisons. We also reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of interventions and approaches to reduce the risk behaviours and, consequently, HIV transmission in prisons. A large number of studies report high levels of risk behaviour in prisons, and HIV transmission has been documented. There is a large body of evidence from countries around the world of what prison systems can do to prevent HIV transmission. In particular, condom distribution programmes, accompanied by measures to prevent the occurrence of rape and other forms of non-consensual sex, needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapies, have proven effective at reducing HIV risk behaviours in a wide range of prison environments without resulting in negative consequences for the health of prison staff or prisoners. The introduction of these programmes in prisons is therefore warranted as part of comprehensive programmes to address HIV in prisons, including HIV education, voluntary HIV testing and counselling, and provision of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners. In addition, however, action to reduce overcrowding and improve conditions in detention is urgently needed.

  4. Leukocyte telomere length in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected children: shorter telomeres with uncontrolled HIV viremia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène C F Côté

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs used in HIV antiretroviral therapy can inhibit human telomerase reverse transcriptase. We therefore investigated whether in utero or childhood exposure to NRTIs affects leukocyte telomere length (LTL, a marker of cellular aging. METHODS: In this cross-sectional CARMA cohort study, we investigated factors associated with LTL in HIV-1-infected (HIV(+ children (n = 94, HIV-1-exposed uninfected (HEU children who were exposed to antiretroviral therapy (ART perinatally (n = 177, and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HIV(- control children (n = 104 aged 0-19 years. Univariate followed by multivariate linear regression models were used to examine relationships of explanatory variables with LTL for: a all subjects, b HIV(+/HEU children only, and c HIV(+ children only. RESULTS: After adjusting for age and gender, there was no difference in LTL between the 3 groups, when considering children of all ages together. In multivariate models, older age and male gender were associated with shorter LTL. For the HIV(+ group alone, having a detectable HIV viral load was also strongly associated with shorter LTL (p = 0.007. CONCLUSIONS: In this large study, group rates of LTL attrition were similar for HIV(+, HEU and HIV(- children. No associations between children's LTL and their perinatal ART exposure or HIV status were seen in linear regression models. However, the association between having a detectable HIV viral load and shorter LTL suggests that uncontrolled HIV viremia rather than duration of ART exposure may be associated with acceleration of blood telomere attrition.

  5. HIV infection is associated with reduced pulmonary diffusing capacity

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prior studies comparing abnormalities in pulmonary function between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons in the current era are limited. OBJECTIVES: To determine the pattern and severity of impairment in pulmonary function in HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected individuals. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of 300 HIV-infected men and 289 HIV-uninfected men enrolled from 2009 to 2011 in 2 clinical centers of the Lung HIV Study. Participants completed pre- and postbronch...

  6. HIV-1 assembly in macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benaroch Philippe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The molecular mechanisms involved in the assembly of newly synthesized Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV particles are poorly understood. Most of the work on HIV-1 assembly has been performed in T cells in which viral particle budding and assembly take place at the plasma membrane. In contrast, few studies have been performed on macrophages, the other major target of HIV-1. Infected macrophages represent a viral reservoir and probably play a key role in HIV-1 physiopathology. Indeed macrophages retain infectious particles for long periods of time, keeping them protected from anti-viral immune response or drug treatments. Here, we present an overview of what is known about HIV-1 assembly in macrophages as compared to T lymphocytes or cell lines. Early electron microscopy studies suggested that viral assembly takes place at the limiting membrane of an intracellular compartment in macrophages and not at the plasma membrane as in T cells. This was first considered as a late endosomal compartment in which viral budding seems to be similar to the process of vesicle release into multi-vesicular bodies. This view was notably supported by a large body of evidence involving the ESCRT (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport machinery in HIV-1 budding, the observation of viral budding profiles in such compartments by immuno-electron microscopy, and the presence of late endosomal markers associated with macrophage-derived virions. However, this model needs to be revisited as recent data indicate that the viral compartment has a neutral pH and can be connected to the plasma membrane via very thin micro-channels. To date, the exact nature and biogenesis of the HIV assembly compartment in macrophages remains elusive. Many cellular proteins potentially involved in the late phases of HIV-1 cycle have been identified; and, recently, the list has grown rapidly with the publication of four independent genome-wide screens. However, their respective

  7. Clinical presentation and opportunistic infections in HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Jespersen, Sanne; Katzenstein, Terese L;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Better understanding of HIV-2 infection is likely to affect the patient care in areas where HIV-2 is prevalent. In this study, we aimed to characterize the clinical presentations among HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, newly...... diagnosed HIV patients attending the HIV outpatient clinic at Hospital Nacional Simão Mendes in Guinea-Bissau were enrolled. Demographical and clinical data were collected and compared between HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients. RESULTS: A total of 169 patients (76% HIV-1, 17% HIV-2 and 6......% HIV 1/2) were included in the study between 21 March 2012 and 14 December 2012. HIV-1 seropositive patients were younger than HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 seropositive patients, but no difference in sex was observed. Patients with HIV-1 and HIV-1/2 had a lower baseline CD4 cell count than HIV-2 seropositive...

  8. Effects of HIV status notification on reducing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Yugang; Jing Jun; Zhang Yanhui; Li Huasheng; Feng Liangui; Ning Zhen; Tan Hongzhuan

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of HIV sexual transmission is much higher among people unaware of their HIV status than among those aware.Only a few studies have indicated that the incidence of unsafe sex can be reduced when people know their HIV status.This study was to investigate this effect in China.Methods A cohort study consisting of two surveys was conducted at two different times among a group of people living with HIV/AIDS,whose status was newly diagnosed with HIV via sexual contact,in Shanghai,Chongqing,and Kunming.The first survey was conducted among 823 people tested positive for HIV before notifying them of the HIV status.The second survey was conducted among 650 HIV-positive people at six months following the first survey (after notification of HIV status).The scope of survey covered unsafe sex practices,number of unsafe sexual partners,and frequency of unsafe sexual behaviors over the prior six months.Unsafe sex is defined as unprotected anal or vaginal sex with partners who are HIV positive or whose HIV status is unknown.Results The proportion of unsafe sex was reduced by about 85% after HIV status notification.The risk of HIV sexual transmission was 15 times higher among persons unaware of their HIV status than among those aware.Approximately 95% of new sexually transmitted HIV infections stemmed from 56% of the infected persons unaware of their HIV status in China.Conclusion Timely HIV status notification has the potential to significantly reduce unsafe sex among HIV-infected persons and reduce the risk for HIV transmission via unsafe sex.

  9. Identifying barriers to HIV testing: personal and contextual factors associated with late HIV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Sandra; Richards, T Anne; Frank, Heidi; Wenzel, Conrad; Hsu, Ling Chin; Chin, Chi-Sheng Jennie; Murphy, Jessie; Dilley, James

    2011-07-01

    Late diagnosis of HIV is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Despite the availability of HIV testing, persons continue to test late in the course of HIV infection. We used the HIV/AIDS case registry of San Francisco Department of Public Health to identify and recruit 41 persons who developed AIDS within 12 months of their HIV diagnosis to participate in a qualitative and quantitative interview regarding late diagnosis of HIV. Thirty-one of the participants were diagnosed with HIV because of symptomatic disease and 50% of the participants were diagnosed with HIV and AIDS concurrently. Half of the subjects had not been tested for HIV prior to diagnosis. Fear was the most frequently cited barrier to testing. Other barriers included being unaware of improved HIV treatment, free/low cost care, and risk for HIV. Recommendations for health care providers to increase early diagnosis of HIV include routine ascertainment of HIV risk behaviors and testing histories, stronger recommendations for patients to be tested, and incorporating testing into routine medical care. Public health messages to increase testing include publicizing that (1) effective, tolerable, and low cost/free care for HIV is readily available, (2) early diagnosis of HIV improves health outcomes, (3) HIV can be transmitted to persons who engage in unprotected oral and insertive anal sex and unprotected receptive anal intercourse without ejaculation and from HIV-infected persons whose infection is well-controlled with antiretroviral therapy, (4) persons who may be infected based upon these behaviors should be tested following exposure, (5) HIV testing information will be kept private, and (6) encouraging friends and family to get HIV tested is beneficial.

  10. HEFFICON: HIV Effectiveness Italian Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinori, Andrea; Andreoni, Massimo; Perno, Carlo Federico; Lazzarin, Adriano

    2015-04-01

    Since the first acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cases were reported in 1981, more than 1.5 million people have been diagnosed with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 in Europe, including more than 136,000 new HIV cases in 2013. Recent epidemiological data estimate an incidence of 5-10 newly diagnosed HIV infections per 100,000 population per year in Europe and an average prevalence of infection of 5.7 cases per 100,000 population. In the absence of an effective curative strategy for HIV, optimization of prevention policies and clinical management of HIV positive patients is fundamental to reduce the impact of the HIV pandemic on public health. Clinical trials represent an essential tool for translating research findings into routine clinical practice. Careful evaluation and planning of clinical trials are therefore mandatory in order to provide relevant information to clinicians. The HEFFICON Project was conceived to investigate and pinpoint methodological issues and critical points that need to be addressed in future clinical studies to increase the translation of experimental results to the real life environment.

  11. HIV and tuberculosis in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soumya Swaminathan; G Narendran

    2008-11-01

    The global impact of the converging dual epidemics of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the major public health challenges of our time. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports 9.2 million new cases of TB in 2006 of whom 7.7% were HIV-infected. Tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients as well as the leading cause of death. Further, there has been an increase in rates of drug resistant tuberculosis, including multi-drug (MDRTB) and extensively drug resistant TB (XDRTB), which are difficult to treat and contribute to increased mortality. The diagnosis of TB is based on sputum smear microscopy, a 100-year old technique and chest radiography, which has problems of specificity. Extra-pulmonary, disseminated and sputum smear negative manifestations are more common in patients with advanced immunosuppression. Newer diagnostic tests are urgently required that are not only sensitive and specific but easy to use in remote and resource-poor settings. Treatment of HIV-TB co-infection is complex and associated with high pill burden, overlapping drug toxicities, risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) and challenges related to adherence. From a programmatic point of view, screening of all HIV-infected persons for tuberculosis and vice-versa will help identify co-infected patients who require treatment for both infections. This requires good coordination and communication between the TB and AIDS control programs, in India.

  12. HIV-associated memory B cell perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiliang; Luo, Zhenwu; Wan, Zhuang; Wu, Hao; Li, Wei; Zhang, Tong; Jiang, Wei

    2015-05-21

    Memory B-cell depletion, hyperimmunoglobulinemia, and impaired vaccine responses are the hallmark of B cell perturbations inhuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Although B cells are not the targets for HIV infection, there is evidence for B cell, especially memory B cell dysfunction in HIV disease mediated by other cells or HIV itself. This review will focus on HIV-associated phenotypic and functional alterations in memory B cells. Additionally, we will discuss the mechanism underlying these perturbations and the effect of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) on these perturbations.

  13. Clinical significance of HIV-1 coreceptor usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusso Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of phenotypically distinct HIV-1 variants with different prevalence during the progression of the disease has been one of the earliest discoveries in HIV-1 biology, but its relevance to AIDS pathogenesis remains only partially understood. The physiological basis for the phenotypic variability of HIV-1 was elucidated with the discovery of distinct coreceptors employed by the virus to infect susceptible cells. The role of the viral phenotype in the variable clinical course and treatment outcome of HIV-1 infection has been extensively investigated over the past two decades. In this review, we summarize the major findings on the clinical significance of the HIV-1 coreceptor usage.

  14. Interactive Effects of Morphine on HIV Infection: Role in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Pichili Vijaya Bhaskar; Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Sudheesh; Saxena, Shailendra K; Saiyed, Zainulabedin; Nair, Madhavan P N

    2012-01-01

    HIV epidemic continues to be a severe public health problem and concern within USA and across the globe with about 33 million people infected with HIV. The frequency of drug abuse among HIV infected patients is rapidly increasing and is another major issue since injection drug users are at a greater risk of developing HIV associated neurocognitive dysfunctions compared to non-drug users infected with HIV. Brain is a major target for many of the recreational drugs and HIV. Evidences suggest that opiate drug abuse is a risk factor in HIV infection, neural dysfunction and progression to AIDS. The information available on the role of morphine as a cofactor in the neuropathogenesis of HIV is scanty. This review summarizes the results that help in understanding the role of morphine use in HIV infection and neural dysfunction. Studies show that morphine enhances HIV-1 infection by suppressing IL-8, downregulating chemokines with reciprocal upregulation of HIV coreceptors. Morphine also activates MAPK signaling and downregulates cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Better understanding on the role of morphine in HIV infection and mechanisms through which morphine mediates its effects may help in devising novel therapeutic strategies against HIV-1 infection in opiate using HIV-infected population.

  15. Interactive Effects of Morphine on HIV Infection: Role in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichili Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV epidemic continues to be a severe public health problem and concern within USA and across the globe with about 33 million people infected with HIV. The frequency of drug abuse among HIV infected patients is rapidly increasing and is another major issue since injection drug users are at a greater risk of developing HIV associated neurocognitive dysfunctions compared to non-drug users infected with HIV. Brain is a major target for many of the recreational drugs and HIV. Evidences suggest that opiate drug abuse is a risk factor in HIV infection, neural dysfunction and progression to AIDS. The information available on the role of morphine as a cofactor in the neuropathogenesis of HIV is scanty. This review summarizes the results that help in understanding the role of morphine use in HIV infection and neural dysfunction. Studies show that morphine enhances HIV-1 infection by suppressing IL-8, downregulating chemokines with reciprocal upregulation of HIV coreceptors. Morphine also activates MAPK signaling and downregulates cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB. Better understanding on the role of morphine in HIV infection and mechanisms through which morphine mediates its effects may help in devising novel therapeutic strategies against HIV-1 infection in opiate using HIV-infected population.

  16. Association of HIV transmissions and non-transmission knowledge with negative attitudes to HIV/AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Yu-feng; WANG Hua-dong; ZHAO Cun-xi; YAO Ying-shui; YE Dong-qing; JIANG Zuo-jun

    2011-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immure deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related stigma is an obstacle to the implementation of treatment, care, and support programs for people living with HIV/AIDS. This study explored the association of the HIV knowledge with the attitudes toward HIV/AIDS.Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in HIV epidemic rural areas with 5355 participants. Their knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS were assessed, and the associations of HIV transmission and non-transmission knowledge with negative attitudes towards the HIV/AIDS were analyzed.Results Negative attitudes were significantly correlated with the HIV non-transmission knowledge and the correlation was higher than that with HIV transmission knowledge among participants who were male, 20 years old and migrant workers, students and respondents of and above junior high school. However, among those who were female, age 30 and older, illiterate with primary school education, negative attitudes were significantly associated with HIV non-transmission knowledge and the association was lower than that with HIV transmission knowledge.Conclusions HIV transmission knowledge and non-transmission knowledge have different influences on negative attitudes towards HIV/AIDS among different demographic subgroups.

  17. [Microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Rafael; García, Federico; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2007-12-01

    Currently, there are around 150,000 HIV-infected patients in Spain. This number, together with the fact that this disease is now a chronic condition since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, has generated an increasing demand on the clinical microbiology laboratories in our hospitals. This increase has occurred not only in the diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic diseases, but also in tests related to the diagnosis and therapeutic management of HIV infection. To meet this demand, the Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clinica (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) has updated its standard Procedure for the microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection. The main advances related to serological diagnosis, plasma viral load, and detection of resistance to antiretroviral drugs are reviewed in this version of the Procedure.

  18. Hiv og kontaktopsporing i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodkjær, Lotte Ørneborg; Østergaard, Lars; Frydenberg, Morten

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Counselling and partner notification play significant roles in the prevention of HIV. In Denmark, there is no overall strategy or monitoring concerning partner notification and the results of partner notification are unknown. The primary purposes of the study were to describe...... the present organisation and conditions concerning partner notification in Denmark. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information about organizational factors was collected through a questionnaire and supplementary interviews. The study population was all consecutive, newly-diagnosed HIV positive persons in the period...... from 1 May 2005 to 1 June 2006. During this period 254 were diagnosed with HIV. RESULTS: The study showed significant differences in the organisation of partner notification. A total of 123 index cases were offered partner notification. The stated number of partners per index case was 2.4, and 1...

  19. HIV treatment cascade in tuberculosis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessells, Richard J.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Globally, the number of deaths associated with tuberculosis (TB) and HIV coinfection remains unacceptably high. We review the evidence around the impact of strengthening the HIV treatment cascade in TB patients and explore recent findings about how best to deliver integrated TB/HIV services. Recent findings There is clear evidence that the timely provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces mortality in TB/HIV coinfected adults. Despite this, globally in 2013, only around a third of known HIV-positive TB cases were treated with ART. Although there is some recent evidence exploring the barriers to achieve high coverage of HIV testing and ART initiation in TB patients, our understanding of which factors are most important and how best to address these within different health systems remains incomplete. There are some examples of good practice in the delivery of integrated TB/HIV services to improve the HIV treatment cascade. However, evidence of the impact of such strategies is of relatively low quality for informing integrated TB/HIV programming more broadly. In most settings, there remain barriers to higher-level organizational and functional integration. Summary There remains a need for commitment to patient-centred integrated TB/HIV care in countries affected by the dual epidemic. There is a need for better quality evidence around how best to deliver integrated services to strengthen the HIV treatment cascade in TB patients, both at primary healthcare level and within community settings. PMID:26352390

  20. Snapshot of HIV pathogenesis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nitin; K; SAKSENA; Bin; WANG; Megan; STEAIN; Rong; Ge; YANG; Lin; Qi; ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Several reviews have focused on the nature of HIV infection and its spread in various geographical regions of China.In contrast, this review provides a comprehensive update on the prevalence of multiple HIV-1 subtypes, consequent emergence of recombinant and novel forms of HIV-1 in China, and the implications this may have on HIV diversity and the development of effective vaccines. In addition it also examines the dissemination of primary drug resistance in therapy na(i)ve patients, as well as co-infections with two other important viruses-hepatitis B and C. The main purpose of this review is to provide a current snapshot of HIV-1 pathogenesis in China and possibly shed some light on the future of HIV evolution, and potential challenges for future vaccine and anti-retroviral therapeutics against HIV strains in this area.

  1. [Care for women with HIV: gender perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Nai-Ying

    2011-12-01

    When women face social and cultural inequality they inevitably bear increased HIV infection risks. The success of antiretroviral therapies in suppressing HIV's viral load and prolonging patient lives has made HIV a treatable chronic disease. Given the same follow-up treatments, research shows no significant differences between men and women in terms of either clinical, immunological or virological parameters at baseline or mortality after one year of antiretroviral therapy. Also, advances in assisted reproductive technologies now makes having HIV-free children possible for HIV couples. Gender equality and human right are essential to effective HIV prevention. Nurses must take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in HIV prevention, treatment and care programs in order to ensure equal gender access to critical healthcare services.

  2. Potential use of rapamycin in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, Marco; McCubrey, James A; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The strong need for the development of alternative anti-HIV agents is primarily due to the emergence of strain-resistant viruses, the need for sustained adherence to complex treatment regimens and the toxicity of currently used antiviral drugs. This review analyzes proof of concept studies...... indicating that the immunomodulatory drug rapamycin (RAPA) possesses anti-HIV properties both in vitro and in vivo that qualifies it as a potential new anti-HIV drug. It represents a literature review of published studies that evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of RAPA in HIV. RAPA represses HIV-1...... replication in vitro through different mechanisms including, but not limited, to down regulation of CCR5. In addition RAPA synergistically enhances the anti-HIV activity of entry inhibitors such as vicriviroc, aplaviroc and enfuvirtide in vitro. RAPA also inhibits HIV-1 infection in human peripheral blood...

  3. Update on HIV in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Phillips, Andrew N; Lundgren, Jens D

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection in Western Europe is mainly concentrated among men who have sex with men, heterosexuals who acquired HIV from sub-Saharan African countries, and in people who inject drugs. The rate of newly diagnosed cases of HIV has remained roughly stable since 2004 whereas the number of people...... living with HIV has slowly increased due to new infections and the success of antiretroviral therapy in prolonging life. An ageing population is gradually emerging that will require additional care. There are large differences across countries in HIV testing rates, proportions of people who present...... to care with low CD4+ cell counts, accessibility to treatment and care, and rates of retention once in care. Improved collection of HIV surveillance data will benefit countries and help to understand their epidemic better. However, social inequalities experienced by people with HIV still remain in some...

  4. Combination HIV prevention: significance, challenges, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Ann E; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M; Vermund, Sten H; Wasserheit, Judith N

    2011-03-01

    No single HIV prevention strategy will be sufficient to control the HIV pandemic. However, a growing number of interventions have shown promise in partially protecting against HIV transmission and acquisition, including knowledge of HIV serostatus, behavioral risk reduction, condoms, male circumcision, needle exchange, treatment of curable sexually transmitted infections, and use of systemic and topical antiretroviral medications by both HIV-infected and uninfected persons. Designing the optimal package of interventions that matches the epidemiologic profile of a target population, delivering that package at the population level, and evaluating safety, acceptability, coverage, and effectiveness, all involve methodological challenges. Nonetheless, there is an unprecedented opportunity to develop "prevention packages" that combine various arrays of evidence-based strategies, tailored to the needs of diverse subgroups and targeted to achieve high coverage for a measurable reduction in population-level HIV transmission. HIV prevention strategies that combine partially effective interventions should be scaled up and evaluated.

  5. Recovery of antigenically reactive HIV-2 cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrystie, I L; Almeida, J D

    1989-03-01

    Negative staining studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been hampered by the fragile nature of the particles. Although detergent treatment is capable of releasing cores from HIV-2 particles, these are unstable and do not retain morphological integrity. Addition of glutaraldehyde will stabilise these structures but, if used at too high a concentration, will destroy their antigenicity. This study shows that if both detergent and glutaraldehyde are used in correct proportions, antigenically reactive cores can be recovered from HIV-2 cell cultures. More specifically we show that a mixture of 0.1% Nonidet P40 and 0.1% glutaraldehyde produces preparations of HIV-2 cores that are suitable for immune electron microscopy. These cores reacted positively, that is, formed immune complexes, with both human HIV-2 antisera and a mouse monoclonal antibody that, although directed against p24 (HIV-1), reacts also with p25 (HIV-2).

  6. Peak HIV prevalence : a useful outcome variable for ecological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenyon, Chris; Colebunders, Robert; Voeten, Helene; Lurie, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A key question for ecological studies with HIV as the outcome variable is what measure of HIV prevalence to use. In this study we compared the strengths and weaknesses of a variety of measures of HIV prevalence, focusing on peak HIV prevalence and HIV prevalence measured at the same time as the expo

  7. The metabolic syndrome in HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe W; Lundgren, Jens D

    2011-01-01

    discusses why the prevalence of MS in the setting of HIV has been reported to range from 7-45% and how antiretroviral drugs might contribute to the development of MS. The MS has been reported to be a 'CVD risk enhancer', and much debate is ongoing on the independent risk of CVD associated with the MS. Based...... on a limited number of studies on MS in HIV with clinical end-points, there is no data to support that the MS is independently associated with an increased risk of CVD....

  8. Polygyny and HIV in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Tfaily

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We review the relationship between polygyny and HIV and identify a positive individual-level correlation, and a negative ecological correlation. We subsequently examine two mechanisms that contribute to the individual-level correlation. First, we find that men in polygynous marriages have more extramarital sex than men in monogamous unions (both in terms of self reports and in terms of spousal reports of the suspicion of adultery. Second, we find evidence of adverse selection of HIV positive women into polygynous unions via an investigation of the relationship between marriage order and polygyny status. We conclude with reflections about possible explanations for the distinct individual and ecological correlations.

  9. Developing a Successful HIV Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Robert C

    2015-07-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genome integration indicates that persistent sterilizing immunity will be needed for a successful vaccine candidate. This suggests a need for broad antibodies targeting the Env protein. Immunogens targeting gp120 have been developed that block infection in monkeys and mimic the modest success of the RV144 clinical trial in that protection is short-lived following a decline in antibody-depending cell-mediated cytotoxicity-like antibodies. Attempts to induce antibody persistence have been complicated by a loss of efficacy, presumably by increasing the number of HIV-target cells. The key seems to be achieving an immune balance.

  10. Optimization of random amplified polymorphic DNA techniques for use in genetic studies of Cuban triatominae Optimización de la técnica de ADN polimórfico amplificado al azar (RAPD para su utilización en la caracterización genética de triatomíneos cubanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fraga

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD technique is a simple and reliable method to detect DNA polymorphism. Several factors can affect the amplification profiles, thereby causing false bands and non-reproducibility of assay. In this study, we analyzed the effect of changing the concentration of primer, magnesium chloride, template DNA and Taq DNA polymerase with the objective of determining their optimum concentration for the standardization of RAPD technique for genetic studies of Cuban Triatominae. Reproducible amplification patterns were obtained using 5 pmoL of primer, 2.5 mM of MgCl2, 25 ng of template DNA and 2 U of Taq DNA polymerase in 25 µL of the reaction. A panel of five random primers was used to evaluate the genetic variability of T. flavida. Three of these (OPA-1, OPA-2 and OPA-4 generated reproducible and distinguishable fingerprinting patterns of Triatominae. Numerical analysis of 52 RAPD amplified bands generated for all five primers was carried out with unweighted pair group method analysis (UPGMA. Jaccard's Similarity Coefficient data were used to construct a dendrogram. Two groups could be distinguished by RAPD data and these groups coincided with geographic origin, i.e. the populations captured in areas from east and west of Guanahacabibes, Pinar del Río. T. flavida present low interpopulation variability that could result in greater susceptibility to pesticides in control programs. The RAPD protocol and the selected primers are useful for molecular characterization of Cuban Triatominae.La técnica de ADN polimórfico amplificado al azar (RAPD es un método simple para detectar el polimorfismo genético del ADN. Diferentes factores afectan los perfiles de amplificación lo que se manifiesta en la presencia de bandas falsas y en la reproducibilidad del ensayo. En nuestro trabajo analizamos los cambios de la concentración de cebador, ADN molde, cloruro de magnesio y de Taq ADN polimerasa con el objetivo de determinar su

  11. HIV-Associated Pathogenesis: The Role of HIV-1 Nef Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoning Xu; Hao Wu

    2006-01-01

    Since the discovery of HIV more than two decades ago, scientific progress has been impressive and has dramatically advanced our understanding of HIV infection, from molecular through cellular and then on to systemic pathogenesis,such as the functions of HIV-1 nef gene. However, there is still much to be learned before we fully understand how the host interacts with the virus at molecular level and how immune responses correlate with protection from disease. This review describes our current knowledge of HIV/AIDS with the reference of HIV nef functions and its role in HIV-1 mediated pathogenesis.

  12. Commentaryon using the SF-36 or MOS-HIV in studies of persons with HIV disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hays Ron D

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purposewas to compare and comment on use of the SF-36 and MOS-HIV instrumentsin studies of persons with HIV disease. Three medical informationdatabases were searched to identify examples of HIV studies thatincluded the MOS-HIV or SF-36. Thirty-nine and 14 published articleswere identified for illustration in comparing the use of the MOS-HIVand SF-36 in HIV disease, respectively. Support for the reliabilityand construct validity of the MOS-HIV and SF-36 was found. Ceilingand floor effects were reported for both the MOS-HIV and SF-36;however, ceiling effects were more common for the MOS-HIV, in partdue to fewer items in the physical, social, and role functioningdomains. The MOS-HIV measures three domains hypothesized to be associatedwith the health deterioration of HIV disease not measured by theSF-36; however, these domains may not assess aspects of HIV diseasethat typify the majority of the persons with HIV disease today.National norms for the U.S. adult population (and other nationsare available for the SF-36. In addition, the SF-36 has been usedin a wide variety of patient populations, enabling comparisons ofHIV-infected persons with persons with other health conditions.No national norms for the MOS-HIV are available. We conclude thatthere is currently insufficient evidence in the literature to recommendthe use of the MOS-HIV over the SF-36 in HIV-infected persons. Althoughthe SF-36 is not targeted at HIV, it may be preferable to use theSF-36 over the MOS-HIV due to fewer ceiling effects, availabilityof national norms, and the vast amount of data for other populationsin the U.S. and around the world. Head-to-head comparisons demonstratingthe unique value of the MOS-HIV over the SF-36 are clearly needed.More importantly, additional work needs to be directed at comparingthe MOS-HIV and other putatively HIV-targeted instruments to oneanother to help demarcate aspects of HRQOL that are truly genericversus specific to HIV disease

  13. HIV-specific cytotoxic T-cell activity in an HIV-exposed but uninfected infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland-Jones, S L; Nixon, D F; Aldhous, M C; Gotch, F; Ariyoshi, K; Hallam, N; Kroll, J S; Froebel, K; McMichael, A

    1993-04-03

    The factors necessary for protective immunity against HIV-1 are unknown. Important information about these factors should come from study of people at high risk of HIV infection who have not apparently become infected. Among these are the estimated 60-85% of children who may be exposed in utero or perinatally to HIV-1 but do not become infected. We observed the transient appearance of HIV-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity in a baby born to HIV-1-infected parents, in whom all standard markers of infection remained negative. These findings suggest that HIV-specific CTLs may be a marker for recently exposed, but uninfected, individuals.

  14. DNA aneuploidy in colorectal adenomas: Role in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence Aneuploidía del ADN en adenomas colónicos: Papel en la secuencia adenoma-carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alcántara Torres

    2005-01-01

    ímetros, recogidos de forma consecutiva de 54 pacientes. Las piezas se obtuvieron en todos los casos mediante resección endoscópica o quirúrgica. En 49 casos se trataba de adenomas con displasia de bajo grado, en dos casos de adenomas con displasia de alto grado, dos adenocarcinomas intramucosos y en otros cuatro de adenocarcinomas microinvasivos. El estudio del ADN se realizó en la pieza operatoria en fresco mediante citometría de flujo utilizado el método de Vindelov. Resultados: se detectó ADN aneuploide en cinco de los 49 adenomas con displasia de bajo grado (10%, en los cuatro adenomas con displasia de alto grado o adenocarcinomas intramucosos (100% y en tres de los cuatro adenocarcinomas microinvasivos (75%. Se observó asociación significativa entre el hallazgos de aneuploidía y displasia de alto grado, adenocarcinoma intramucoso o microinvasivo (p < 0,001. No se apreció asociación entre la existencia de aneuploidía y la edad de los pacientes, sexo, sintomatología clínica, tamaño ni localización de los adenomas. Conclusiones: en adenomas colónicos la incidencia de aneuploidía fue del 10% cuando se trataba de adenomas con displasia de bajo grado y del 87% cuando presentaban displasia de alto grado o adenocarcinoma siendo la diferencia estadísticamente significativa. Estos hallazgos sugieren que la aneuploidía juega un papel en la secuencia adenoma-carcinoma.

  15. Non invasive prenatal diagnosis: analysis of circulating fetal DNA and cells in maternal blood El diagnóstico prenatal no invasor: análisis de células y ADN fetal circulantes en la sangre materna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cecilia Jaramillo Posada

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Prenatal non invasive diagnosis by means of analyses of foetal DNA or cells circulating in maternal blood is one of the most promising areas of obstetrics. Among maternal diseases that could be diagnosed by these methods, or whose behaviour could be predicted, are preeclampsia, growth restriction and preterm labour. Some foetal conditions that could be detected are sex, chromosomal anomalies and single-gene defects. However, these are complex and expensive techniques that are not regularly performed in health care institutions. With this review we intend to provide the readers with up to date information on the main techniques available for the study of circulating foetal cells and DNA, and on their possible clinical applications. The review was based on a search for journals indexed up to 2008 in Pubmed, Scielo and Latindex. Especially relevant articles were chosen by the authors.

    El diagnóstico prenatal temprano y no invasor por medio del análisis de células o ADN fetales circulantes en la sangre materna es un área prometedora de la obstetricia moderna. Entre las enfermedades que se pueden diagnosticar o cuyo comportamiento es posible predecir por estos métodos se encuentran la preeclampsia, la restricción del crecimiento intrauterino y el parto pretérmino. Algunas condiciones fetales que podrían detectarse son el sexo, ciertas anomalías cromosómicas y los defectos de un solo gen. Sin

  16. Detección de secuencias específicas de ADN de Spongospora subterranea en suelo y tubérculos de papa Detection of DNA specific sequences of Spongospora subterranea in soil and potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Díaz Jorge Evelio

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de identificar de manera precoz el agente causal de la sarna polvosa de la papa (Spongospora subterranea fs subterranea tanto en semillas como en suelos aptos para el cultivo de este tubérculo, se ha desarrollado una prueba basada en la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR para la detección de tres secuencias ITS (espaciadores de transcripción interna específicos del ADNr de 372,390 y 391 pb presentes en el genoma de S. subterranea. Para ello se estandarizó una metodología de extracción y purificación de ADN del microorganismo a partir de tejido vegetal infectado (agallas de raíz de papa y pústulas en papa obtenido en pruebas de propagación del patógeno en invernadero. Una vez optimizada la PCR y determinada su sensibilidad, se validó la metodología molecular examinando muestras de tejido vegetal infectado y suelo infestado por el patógeno, provenientes de los departamentos de Cundinamarca y Nariño. La PCR detectó ADN del microorganismo tanto en el material vegetal infectado, como en las muestras de suelo analizadas (las 30 submuestras del área experimental fueron PCR positivas. Estos resultados muestran que dicha metodología se presenta no sólo como una técnica útil para la detección rápida del patógeno en suelo, sino también como una herramienta para determinar la presencia del microorganismo en suelos declarados libres de éste y como una alternativa eficaz para el control de calidad en la producción de semilla certificada de papa libre del patógeno. Palabras clave: sarna polvosa, quistosoros, espaciador de transcripción interna, PCR, plasmodiofóridos.A test has been developed for early identification of the casual agent for potato powdery scab (Spongospora subterranea fs subterranea. Identification was carried out in seeds and soil where this tuber is grown. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR was set up for detecting 372, 390 and 391 bp ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS in

  17. La ADN topoisomerasa tipo I de protozoos patógenos como Diana terapéutica de fármacos antitumorales Type I DNA topoisomerase from protozoan pathogens as a potential target for anti-tumoral drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M Reguera

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La utilización intensiva de fármacos antiparasitarios es la causa principal de la aparición de microorganismos parásitos multirresistentes en las regiones del planeta donde son precisamente endémicos. Los agentes etiológicos de las denominadas enfermedades tropicales -malaria, criptosporiodiosis, enfermedad del sueño, enfermedad de Chagas o los distintos tipos de leishmaniosis- son protozoos unicelulares sobre los que no se ha desarrollado en la actualidad ninguna vacuna eficaz y cuyo tratamiento se basa en medidas sanitarias preventivas y en el uso de medicamentos. La quimioterapia antiparasitaria actual es cara, no está ausente de efectos adversos y no supone beneficios a las empresas que la comercializan, por lo que la inversión en I & D es marginal comparada con la llevada a cabo para otros procesos patológicos de menor relevancia médica. La identificación de las ADN topoisomerasas como dianas farmacológicas se basa en los excelentes resultados obtenidos en los ensayos clínicos llevados a cabo con los derivados de la camptotecina en la terapia antitumoral. Las importantes diferencias estructurales entre las ADN topoisomerasas de tipo I de tripanosomas y leishmanias con respecto a sus homólogas de mamífero ha abierto un nuevo campo de investigación que combina las técnicas de biología molecular con la cristalización de proteínas para poder diseñar nuevos fármacos dirigidos específicamente a su inhibición. Revisamos aquí las características de estas nuevas dianas farmacológicas, así como los compuestos que en el momento están siendo utilizados para su inhibición en los agentes parasitarios que causan las principales enfermedades tropicales.The intensive use of antiparasitic drugs is the main cause of the emergence of multiresistant parasite strains on those regions where these parasites are endemic. The aetiological agents of the so-called tropical diseases viz. malaria, cryptosporidiosis, sleeping sickness

  18. Aplicación de una técnica de Cromatografía de Exclusión molecular para la purificación de ADN en plantas de Coffea sp. APPLICATION OF A TECHNIQUE OF MOLECULAR EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR THE PURIFICATION OF DNA FROM Coffea sp. PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María García Cepero

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los mayores inconvenientes en la extracción y purificación de biomoléculas a partir de plantas del género Coffea, es un alto contenido de polifenoles y compuestos tánicos. En el presente artículo se describe una metodología que permite obtener ADN de alta pureza. La extracción del ADN del homogeneizado de tejido foliar en siete genotipos de Coffea sp., se realizó mediante la técnica citada por Chaparro (1993 y su purificación se logró mediante cromatografía de exclusión molecular sobre una fase estacionaria de Sephacryl S-1000. Los resultados muestran que la alta eficiencia de separación de ARN degradado, proteínas, pigmentos y compuestos que absorben entre 220 y 300 nm, permiten obtener un ADN de alta pureza a juzgar por los datos espectrofotométricos y electroforéticos.One of the greatest difficulties in extracting and purifying biomolecules from plants in the genus Coffea is the high polyphenol and tannin contents. In this study a methodology is described that allows obtaining high purity DNA from leaf tissues of seven genotypes of Coffea sp. by means of the technique desribed by Chaparro (1993 and its further purification was achieved by molecular exclusion chromatography on Sephacryl S-1000 (Pharmacia. The results showed that the high separation efficiency of degraded RNA, proteins, pigments, and other compounds that absorb between 220 and 300 nm allowed obtaining high purity DNA as judged by the spectophometric and electroforetic data.

  19. Approche morphologique de la fragmentation de l'ADN radio-induite par immunomarquage anti-poly (ADP-ribose) polymérase (PARP) : étude de cultures d'oligodendrogliomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet, P.; Beuvon, F.; Cervera, P.; Averbeck, D.; Daumas-Duport, C.

    1998-04-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a nuclear enzyme encompassing two zinc finger motifs which specifically binds to radiation induced DNA strand breaks. We develop a new immuno-labelling of poly ADP-ribose which coupled together with the immunodetection of cells in cycle with MIB1, permits to detect and quantify the DNA fragmentation induced by radiations (Cesium137). This method, applied to organotypical cultures of human oligodendroglioma, submitted to radiation, a dose dependant nuclear signal. This one increased significantly in the presence of a radiosensitizer like iododeoxyuridine (IUDR 5 g/ml). This poly ADP-ribose immunodetection can be useful, to detect furtherly the individual radiosensitivity of human glioma. Les protéases “ICE-like" ou caspases, sont les homologues humaines du produit du gène ced-3 du ver Caenorhabditis elegans et sont activées lors des étapes précoces de l'apoptose. L'objectif de ce travail vise à déterminer dans quelle mesure l'inhibition de l'une d'entre elles, la caspase-3 est susceptible de modifier la sensibilité des cellules vis-à-vis de l'apoptose radioinduite. Des lymphocytes spléniques murins irradiés en présence de Ac-DVED-CHO un inhibiteur spécifique de la caspase-3 présentent un taux de particules hypodiploïdes radioinduites bien inférieur à celui des contrôles et une diminution drastique de la fragmentation internucléosomale de l'ADN. Toutefois, ni l'externalisation des phospholipides anioniques, autre marqueur spécifique de l'apoptose, ni la viabilité ne sont affectées.

  20. Identificacion de marcadores genéticos del agente causal del marchitamiento del clavel fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi mediante amplificacion arbitraria de fragmentos polimórficos de adn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbeláez G.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available La técnica de Amplificación Arbitraria de Fragmentos Polimórficos de ADN (RAPD fue utilizada para identificar marcadores genéticos útiles para el desarrollo de un método diagnóstico para Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, el agente etiológico de la enfermedad del marchitamiento del clavel. Con el fin de identificar fragmentos genéticos característicos de este patógeno, un total de 18 aislados diferentes, provenientes de diferentes lugares del mundo y 17 cepas de F. oxysporum de otras formas especiales fueron amplificadas utilizando 15 iniciadores diferentes. Aunque ninguno de los iniciadores empleados en este estudio amplificó una banda común a todas las formas especiales dianthi, el iniciador OPA 17 mostró un patrón de RAPD que permitió la identificación de cuatro grupos polimórficos dentro de este grupo taxonómico. Este mismo iniciador, permitió la discriminación entre aislados de Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi y cepas de F. oxysporum de otras formas especiales. No se observó una correlación directa entre el patrón de RAPD y las razas reportadas para F. oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, previamente determinadas mediante ensayos biológicos por otros grupos de investigadores. Los análisis de hibridación molecular con fragmentos escogidos de estos patrones de RAPD, permitieron el reconocimiento selectivo de los cuatro grupos descritos. Los fragmentos genómicos identificados, son candidatos para el desarrollo de un  sistema diagnóstico por PCR para este patógeno del clavel.

  1. Complementary role of HCV and HIV in T-cell activation and exhaustion in HIV/HCV coinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feuth, T.; Arends, J.E.; Fransen, J.H.; Nanlohy, N.M.; Erpecum, K.J. van; Siersema, P.D.; Hoepelman, A.I.; Baarle, D. van

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether T-cell activation and exhaustion is linked to HCV- and HIV disease parameters in HIV/HCV infected individuals, we studied T-cell characteristics in HIV/HCV coinfected patients and controls. METHODS: 14 HIV/HCV coinfected, 19 HCV monoinfected, 10 HIV monoinfected pa

  2. The role of HIV nursing consultants in the care of HIV-infected patients in Dutch hospital outpatient clinics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, Sigrid C. J. M.; Dijkstra, Boukje M.; Hazelzet, Esther E. B.; Grypdonck, Mieke H. F.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In the Netherlands HIV nursing consultants have participated in HIV-care since 1985: their profession has changed with developments in HIV-treatment over time. The study goal was to gather information about their role in HIV-care and to provide an useful example to other (HIV-)care settin

  3. HIV stigma: perceptions from HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in a community dental clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Steven; A York, Jill; DePinto, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Background. In the medical sense, stigma has been defined as the collection of negative attitudes and beliefs that are directed at people living with a particular condition or disease process. A cohort study was conducted to explore the HIV stigma that is perceived by HIV-positive individuals versus that perceived by the general population within a community-based dental clinic. Methods. Two separate and independent cross-sectional surveys, the Berger Stigma Scale and the Rutgers-Modified Berger Stigma Scale, were employed in order to analyze the stigma factors of an HIV-positive population versus an HIV-negative general population, respectively. The HIV stigma factors studied included personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes. Results. The total stigma scale scores for the studied HIV-positive population were significantly lower than the total stigma scale scores for the studied HIV-negative population (P HIV-positive individuals experience more stigma than the HIV-positive population in the clinic actually reported. Interventions to reduce HIV stigma should be an integral component of comprehensive care for all patients.

  4. Ergotismo y HIV

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    Bárbara C. Finn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El ergotismo es una complicación de la intoxicación aguda y/o el abuso crónico de los derivados del ergot. Se manifiesta por síndrome vasomotor con enfermedad vascular periférica que frecuentemente compromete extremidades. Presentamos cuatro casos de pacientes infectados con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana 1 (HIV-1, en tratamiento con antirretrovirales que incluyen inhibidores de la proteasa reforzados con ritonavir, y que habían recibido ergotamina como automedicación. Ellos desarrollaron síntomas de enfermedad vascular periférica y al examen físico sus pulsos estaban disminuidos o ausentes. El Doppler arterial confirmó signos de espasmo arterial difuso en dos de ellos. Se hizo diagnóstico de ergotismo secundario a la asociación de ergotamina-inhibidores de la proteasa. Los pacientes fueron tratados con la discontinuación de las drogas involucradas (inhibidores de la proteasa y ergotamina, bloqueantes cálcicos, profilaxis antitrombótica con enoxaparina, antiagregación con ácido acetil salicílico y uno ellos recibió pentoxifilina e infusión de prostaglandinas vasodilatadoras con mejoría de los síntomas. Discutimos la presentación clínica de esta interacción medicamentosa, difícil de diagnosticar correctamente sin una fuerte sospecha de su existencia.

  5. EVALUACIÓN DE DOS MÉTODOS DE EXTRACCIÓN DE ADN A PARTIR DE BIOPSIAS FIJADAS EN FORMALINA Y EMBEBIDAS EN PARAFINA EN CONDICIONES NO ÓPTIMAS Evaluation of Two Methods DNA Extraction from Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues on Non-Optimal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER ANDRÉS BUSTAMANTE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Los tejidos de archivo son material de incalculable valor para estudios retrospectivos que requieran la aplicación de análisis moleculares. Existen múltiples métodos de extracción de ADN a partir de este tipo de muestras. No obstante, la mayoría de métodos toman mucho tiempo y los reactivos empleados contribuyen a la fragmentación del ADN. Con el objetivo de optimizar dos métodos de extracción de ADN a partir de tejidos embebidos en parafina en condiciones no óptimas, se seleccionaron 47 bloques en parafina que contenían biopsias de pleura, pulmón y pericardio correspondientes a 24 pacientes (66,6% hombres mayores de 18 años, con inflamación granulomatosa crónica, remitidos al Departamento de Patología, Hospital Universitario del Valle entre 2002 y 2007. Se realizaron 10 cortes a cada muestra y se sometieron a dos métodos de extracción de ADN: 1. convencional y 2. QIAamp-DNA mini kit®. La eficiencia del ADN fue valorada por espectrofotometría y amplificación del gen GAPDH. La concentración de ADN de las muestras extraídas por el método convencional fue de 65,52 ng/µL ±11,47 (promedio ± EE y la relación 260/280 varió entre 0,52 y 2,30. De las muestras extraídas por el método comercial, la concentración media de ADN fue 60,89 ng/µL ± 6,02, con una absorbancia que osciló entre 0 y 2,64. El ADN obtenido fue sometido a PCR, de 47 muestras extraídas por ambos métodos, 25 y 23 respectivamente amplificaron exitosamente el gen GAPDH. Los métodos usados para la obtención de ADN presentaron un desempeño similar, revelando así su potencial utilidad en estudios retrospectivos a partir de biopsias embebidas en parafina en condiciones inadecuadas.Paraffin wax embedded tissues are an invaluable material for retrospective studies requiring the application of molecular analysis. Multiple methods are available to extract DNA from these kind of samples. However, the most common methods are slow and the reagents often

  6. Cost-effectiveness of conventional cytology and HPV DNA testing for cervical cancer screening in Colombia Costo-efectividad de la citología y la tamización con pruebas de ADN-VPH para cáncer de cuello uterino en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Andrés-Gamboa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess cost-effectiveness of conventional cytology and HPV DNA testing for cervical-cancer screening in Colombia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The National Cancer Institute of Colombia (NCIC in 2007 developed a Markov model on the natural history of cervical cancer; no screening, conventional cytology, and HPV DNA testing were compared. Only direct costs were used. Outcomes comprise cervical cancer mortality, years of life saved, and lifetime costs. Discounted incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated and sensitivity analyses were conducted for key parameters. RESULTS: Depending on the screening strategy a 69-81% mortality reduction might be expected. The HPV DNA testing every five years is a cost-effective strategy (Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (ICER: USD$44/YLS if the cost per test is under USD$31. The effectiveness was sensitive to coverage and primarily to follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: HPV DNA testing is a cost-effective alternative for screening in Colombia. Not only high coverage but high follow-up rates are critical for successful screening programs.OBJETIVO: evaluar el costo-efectividad de la citología convencional y la prueba de ADN-VPH para tamización de cáncer cervical en Colombia. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de Colombia construyó en 2007 un modelo de Markov de historia natural del cáncer cervical. Se comparó "no tamización", citología convencional y prueba de ADN-VPH. Se utilizaron costos directos. Los desenlaces fueron mortalidad, años de vida ganados y costos. Se calcularon razones de costo-efectividad incremental. Se realizaron análisis de sensibilidad para parámetros clave. RESULTADOS: la mortalidad se redujo 69-81% según la estrategia. La tamización con ADN-VPH cada cinco años es costo-efectiva (ICER (Razón de Costo-Efectividad incremental por sus siglas en inglés: 44 dólares por año de vida saludable si los costos por prueba son menores a 31 dólares. La

  7. Comparación de estrategias del cribado primario de lesiones de alto grado y cáncer de cuello de útero en población de Córdoba: el papel de la citología cervical y la determinación de adn del virus del papiloma humano

    OpenAIRE

    Ilic, Igor

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo principal del estudio es comparar la eficacia de las técnicas de cribado del cáncer de cuello del útero habitualmente utilizadas en nuestro medio; citología cervical triple de Wied y detección del ADN de VPH, utilizadas como pruebas únicas ó conjuntamente en pacientes de nuestra población. Objetivo secundario es determinar la contribución relativa de la infección por distintos genotipos del VPH de alto riesgo oncogénico en el desarrollo de anormalidades histológicas CIN 2, CIN 3 y...

  8. The prevalence of undiagnosed HIV serodiscordance among male couples presenting for HIV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick S; Wall, Kristin M; O'Hara, Brandon; Jones, Jeb; Barnes, Jasper; DiClemente, Ralph; Hoff, Colleen; Scales, Lamont; Salazar, Laura F; Sanchez, Travis; White, Darcy; Wingood, Gina; Allen, Susan; Stephenson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, a substantial proportion of HIV transmissions among men who have sex with men (MSM) arise from main sex partners. Couples voluntary HIV testing and counseling (CHTC) is used in many parts of the world with male-female couples, but CHTC has historically not been available in the U.S. and few data exist about the extent of HIV serodiscordance among U.S. male couples. We tested partners in 95 Atlanta male couples (190 men) for HIV. Eligible men were in a relationship for ≥3 months and were not known to be HIV-positive. We calculated the prevalence of couples that were seroconcordant HIV-negative, seroconcordant HIV-positive, or HIV serodiscordant. We evaluated differences in the prevalence of HIV serodiscordance by several dyadic characteristics (e.g., duration of relationship, sexual agreements, and history of anal intercourse in the relationship). Overall, among 190 men tested for HIV, 11 % (n = 20) were newly identified as HIV-positive. Among the 95 couples, 81 % (n = 77) were concordant HIV-negative, 17 % (n = 16) were HIV serodiscordant, and 2 % (n = 2) were concordant HIV-positive. Serodiscordance was not significantly associated with any evaluated dyadic characteristic. The prevalence of undiagnosed HIV serodiscordance among male couples in Atlanta is high. Offering testing to male couples may attract men with a high HIV seropositivity rate to utilize testing services. Based on the global evidence base for CHTC with heterosexual couples and the current evidence of substantial undiagnosed HIV serodiscordance among U.S. MSM, we recommend scale-up of CHTC services for MSM, with ongoing evaluation of acceptability and couples' serostatus outcomes.

  9. HIV symptom distress and smoking outcome expectancies among HIV+ smokers: a pilot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Kristin W; Gonzalez, Adam; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Smoking occurs at high rates among people with HIV/AIDS, but little attention has been paid to understanding the nature of tobacco use among HIV+ smokers, especially the role that HIV symptoms may play in cognitive smoking processes. Accordingly, the present investigation examined the relation between HIV symptom distress (i.e., the degree to which HIV symptoms are bothersome) and smoking outcome expectancies. Fifty-seven HIV+ adult smokers (82.50% male; M(age)=47.18; 45.6% White, 28.1% Black, 17.5% Hispanic) were recruited from AIDS service organizations and hospital-based clinics. On average, participants reported knowing their HIV+ status for 16 years and the majority of participants reported that they acquired HIV through unprotected sex (66.6%). Participants completed measures pertaining to HIV symptoms, smoking behavior, and smoking outcome expectancies. HIV symptom distress was positively related to negative reinforcement, negative consequences, and positive reinforcement smoking outcome expectancies after accounting for relevant covariates. The present research suggests that HIV symptom distress may play an important role in understanding smoking outcome expectancies for smokers with HIV/AIDS. Clinical implications for HIV+ smokers are discussed, including the importance of developing effective smoking cessation treatments that meet the unique needs of this group of smokers.

  10. Usefulness of the HIV Dementia Scale in Nigerian patients with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubunmi A Ogunrin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Information on the cognitive complications of HIV/AIDS from sub-Saharan Africa, where statistics on HIV is alarming, is sparse because of lack of validated cognitive tools. This study assessed the usefulness and predictive validity of the HIV Dementia Scale (HDS as a screening tool among HIV-positive Nigerian Africans. Design: HIV-positive patients were randomly selected over a period of two months. Setting: The HIV/AIDS outpatient clinic of the University teaching hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Subjects: Asymptomatic and symptomatic HIV-positive patients were compared with age, sex and level of education-matched controls. Outcome measures: Cognitive performances on the modified HIV Dementia scale. Results: The performances of 160 HIV-positive (comprising 80 asymptomatic and 80 symptomatic subjects were compared with 80 age, sex and level of education-matched HIV-negative subjects on the HDS. The mean HDS scores (maximum =12 were 10.78±1.18 (comparison subjects, 8.85±1.38 (asymptomatic and 5.2±1.13 (symptomatic; p<0.01. The HDS has a sensitivity of 97.3%, specificity of 80.4%, accuracy of 91.9% and predictive value positive of 91.4% and negative of 93.2%. Conclusion: The utility of the HIV Dementia Scale as a sensitive screening tool for patients with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa was evident but insensitive to memory impairment among asymptomatic HIV patients.

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... parties or hanging out with friends? In the “d’cisions” Webisode series, Kim and her friends never ... always will be associated with HIV/AIDS. The “d’cisions” Webisode series is part of the Drugs + ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and to ... clear that injection drug abuse played a significant role in the widespread transmission of the disease. Since ...

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and ... Health Blog The NIDA Science Fair Award for Addiction Science USA Science & Engineering Festival Drug & Alcohol Chat ...

  14. Treatment of primary HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijsen, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we studied the treatment of PHI. Early cART transiently lowered the viral setpoint and deferred the need for restart of cART during chronic HIV infection, which was most likely caused by the effects of the CD4 gain during treatment and the transient lowering of the viral setpoint. Eve

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search ... Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Health Consequences of Drug ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and to ... available for your use to share on your social media accounts. About the Campaign Overview The Learn the ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... link between drug abuse and HIV. http://1.usa.gov/1z20ww6 How many of us think about ... can’t ignore. Learn the Link: http://1.usa.gov/1uSUAI3 Think you’re not at risk? ...

  18. HIV incidence and risk factors for acquisition in HIV discordant couples in Masaka, Uganda: an HIV vaccine preparedness study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Ruzagira

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of and risk factors for HIV acquisition in a cohort of HIV-uninfected partners from HIV discordant couples in Masaka, Uganda, and to establish its suitability for HIV vaccine trials. METHODS: HIV-uninfected adults living in HIV discordant couple relationships were enrolled and followed for 2 years. Interviews, medical investigations, HIV counseling and testing, syphilis and urine pregnancy (women tests were performed at quarterly visits. Sexual risk behaviour data were collected every 6 months. RESULTS: 495 participants were enrolled, of whom 34 seroconverted during 786.6 person-years of observation (PYO. The overall HIV incidence rate [95% confidence interval (CI] was 4.3 [3.1-6]; and 4.3 [2.8-6.4] and 4.4 [2.5-8] per 100 PYO in men and women respectively. Independent baseline predictors for HIV acquisition were young age [18-24 (aRR = 4.1, 95% CI 1.6-10.8 and 25-34 (aRR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-5.8 years]; alcohol use (aRR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6; and reported genital discharge (aRR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.6-7.2 in the past year. Condom use frequency in the year preceding enrolment was predictive of a reduced risk of HIV acquisition [sometimes (aRR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8; always (aRR = 0.1, 95% CI 0.02-0.9]. In the follow-up risk analysis, young age [18-24 (aRR = 6.2, 95% CI 2.2-17.3 and 25-34 (aRR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-5.0 years], reported genital discharge (aRR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.5, serological syphilis (aRR 3.2, 95% CI 1.3-7.7 and the partner being ART naïve (aRR = 4.8, 95% CI 1.4-16.0 were independently associated with HIV acquisition. There were no seroconversions among participants who reported consistent condom use during the study. CONCLUSIONS: The study has identified important risk factors for HIV acquisition among HIV discordant couples. HIV-uninfected partners in discordant couples may be a suitable population for HIV vaccine efficacy trials. However, recent confirmation that

  19. Analysis of Sequence Based Classifier Prediction for HIV Subtypes

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    S. Santhosh Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is a lent virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. The main drawback in HIV treatment process is its sub type prediction. The sub type and group classification of HIV is based on its genetic variability and location. HIV can be divided into two major types, HIV type 1 (HIV-1 and HIV type 2 (HIV-2. Many classifier approaches have been used to classify HIV subtypes based on their group, but some of cases are having two groups in one; in such cases the classification becomes more complex. The methodology used is this paper based on the HIV sequences. For this work several classifier approaches are used to classify the HIV1 and HIV2. For implementation of the work a real time patient database is taken and the patient records are experimented and the final best classifier is identified with quick response time and least error rate.

  20. HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C-Related Liver Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C–Related Liver Fibrosis HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C–Related Liver Fibrosis Email ... the progression of other chronic diseases as well. HIV and Fibrosis Dr. Kirk and his team tapped ...