WorldWideScience

Sample records for admixtures

  1. Ancient Admixture in Human History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Luo, Yontao; Mallick, Swapan; Rohland, Nadin; Zhan, Yiping; Genschoreck, Teri; Webster, Teresa; Reich, David

    2012-01-01

    Population mixture is an important process in biology. We present a suite of methods for learning about population mixtures, implemented in a software package called ADMIXTOOLS, that support formal tests for whether mixture occurred and make it possible to infer proportions and dates of mixture. We also describe the development of a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array consisting of 629,433 sites with clearly documented ascertainment that was specifically designed for population genetic analyses and that we genotyped in 934 individuals from 53 diverse populations. To illustrate the methods, we give a number of examples that provide new insights about the history of human admixture. The most striking finding is a clear signal of admixture into northern Europe, with one ancestral population related to present-day Basques and Sardinians and the other related to present-day populations of northeast Asia and the Americas. This likely reflects a history of admixture between Neolithic migrants and the indigenous Mesolithic population of Europe, consistent with recent analyses of ancient bones from Sweden and the sequencing of the genome of the Tyrolean “Iceman.” PMID:22960212

  2. Role of organic admixtures on thaumasite precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco-Varela, María Teresa; Carmona-Quiroga, Paula María; Sáez del Bosque, I. F.; Martínez-Ramírez, S.

    2012-01-01

    Thaumasite formation is normally a slow process; however some studies have shown that the presence of sucrose promotes its formation substantially. Many of today's concretes contain organic admixtures and no research has been conducted to date to determine whether the presence of these admixtures may induce or favour thaumasite formation. The present study aimed to ascertain whether, like sucrose, admixtures may further that process, and to propose a working methodology to do so. ...

  3. Valorization of Local Mineral Admixtures in Concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudchicha Abdelaziz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is an extension of previous researches on mortars with mineral admixtures and super-plasticizers. In this way, the same methodology was applied to concretes and the use of mineral admixture was limited to low cost materials available in Algeria as limestone, pozzolan and blast furnace slag, with current cement and super-plasticizer. The experimental methodology used was based on the volume substitution of the cement by admixtures in mixtures with the absolute volume of the solid phases and workability preserved constant. The main results achieved showed that the super-plasticizer demand of concretes depends on the nature and the quantity of the incorporated admixture. The combined use of admixtures and super-plasticizer has generally a favourable effect on compressive strengths at 07 and 28 days at low rates of cement substitution, which vary significantly with the nature, fineness and quantity of the used admixtures. At 07 days, limestone admixtures give better improvements and reach more than 20 % of gain to the compressive strength of the reference concrete with no admixtures or super-plasticizer, at 10 % of the cement substitution and still better until 30 %. At 28 days, blast furnace slag admixtures give better improvements at 28 days and reach more than 20 % of gain to the compressive strength of the reference concrete at 20 % of the cement substitution and still better until 30 %. This contribution to the compressive strength is explained on the one hand by the reduction of the quantity of water in the mixtures at the same consistency, by the use of the super-plasticizer and on another hand by the activity of Limestone admixtures at early ages and to the latent hydraulic properties of blast furnace slag at 28 days.

  4. Principal components analysis of population admixture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Ma

    Full Text Available With the availability of high-density genotype information, principal components analysis (PCA is now routinely used to detect and quantify the genetic structure of populations in both population genetics and genetic epidemiology. An important issue is how to make appropriate and correct inferences about population relationships from the results of PCA, especially when admixed individuals are included in the analysis. We extend our recently developed theoretical formulation of PCA to allow for admixed populations. Because the sampled individuals are treated as features, our generalized formulation of PCA directly relates the pattern of the scatter plot of the top eigenvectors to the admixture proportions and parameters reflecting the population relationships, and thus can provide valuable guidance on how to properly interpret the results of PCA in practice. Using our formulation, we theoretically justify the diagnostic of two-way admixture. More importantly, our theoretical investigations based on the proposed formulation yield a diagnostic of multi-way admixture. For instance, we found that admixed individuals with three parental populations are distributed inside the triangle formed by their parental populations and divide the triangle into three smaller triangles whose areas have the same proportions in the big triangle as the corresponding admixture proportions. We tested and illustrated these findings using simulated data and data from HapMap III and the Human Genome Diversity Project.

  5. Early hydration cement Effect of admixtures superplasticizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puertas, F.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Early hydration of portland cement with superplasticizer admixtures of different nature has been studied. These admixtures were: one based on melamine synthetic, other based on vinyl copolymer and other based on polyacrylate copolymers. The dosage of the formers were constant (1% weigth of cement and for the third, the influence of admixture dosage was also evaluated, giving dosage values among 1-0.3%. The pastes obtained were studied by conduction calorimetry, XRD and FTIR. Also the apparent fluidity was determined by "Minislump" test. The main results obtained were: a superplasticizers admixtures used, regardless of their nature and for the polycarboxilate one the dosage, retard the silicate hydration (specially, alite phase, b The ettringite formation is affected by the nature of the admixture. cA relationship between the dosage of admixture based on polycarboxilates and the time at the acceleration has been established. A lineal relation (y = 11.03 + 16.05x was obtained. From these results is possible to know, in function of dosage admixture, the time when the masive hydration products and the setting times are produced. Also the total heat releases in these reactions is independent of the nature and dosage of admixture, saying that in all cases the reactions are the same.

    En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la hidratación inicial de un cemento portland aditivado con superplastificantes de diferente naturaleza. Dichos aditivos fueron: uno basado en melaminas sintéticas, otro en copolímeros vinilicos y otro en policarboxilatos. La dosificación de los dos primeros se fijó constante en 1% en peso con relación al cemento, mientras que para el tercero se evaluó, también, la influencia de la dosificación, tomando proporciones desde el 1% hasta el 0,3%. Las pastas obtenidas se estudiaron por: calorimetría de conducción, DRX y FTIR. También se determinó la fluidez de la pasta a través del ensayo del "Minislump ". Los

  6. Informativeness of the CODIS STR loci for admixture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Pfaff, Carrie L; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Long, Jeffrey C

    2005-11-01

    Population admixture (or ancestry) is used as an approach to gene discovery in complex diseases, particularly when the disease prevalence varies widely across geographic populations. Admixture analysis could be useful for forensics because an indication of a perpetrator's ancestry would narrow the pool of suspects for a particular crime. The purpose of this study was to use Fisher's information to identify informative sets of markers for admixture analysis. Using published founding population allele frequencies we test three marker sets for efficacy for estimating admixture: the FBI CODIS Core STR loci, the HGDP-CEPH Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel and the set of 39 ancestry informative SNPS from the Shriver lab at Pennsylvania State University. We conclude that the FBI CODIS Core STR set is valid for admixture analysis, but not the most precise. We recommend using a combination of the most informative markers from the HGDP-CEPH and Shriver loci sets.

  7. Behavior of passive admixture in a vortical hydrodynamic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.O.Bobrov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The motion of passive admixture of spherical particles in the stationary hydrodynamic field of a swirling flow is studied. A spherical particle of a given mass in the hydrodynamic field of a swirling flow is located on a certain circular orbit, where the centrifugal force is compensated by the radial drag force due to the sink. This leads to the separation of the host fluid and admixture. A theory of Brownian motion of admixture in dilute solutions with a non-uniform flow is constructed.

  8. Learning with Admixture: Modeling, Optimization, and Applications in Population Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Jade Yu

    2016-01-01

    with the big data era. In this PhD dissertation, I present my work on methods and tools developed for two projects, Admixture CoalHMM and Ohana, both of which have been designed to study historical admixture and its influence on population evolution. In Admixture CoalHMM, I make use of full genomic sequences...... geneticists strive to establish working solutions to extract information from massive volumes of biological data. The steep increase in the quantity and quality of genomic data during the past decades provides a unique opportunity but also calls for new and improved algorithms and software to cope...... from a few individuals to perform demographic inference. In Ohana, I use site-independent genomic data from many individuals to analyze individual admixture, to infer population trees, and to identify selection signals. The development of CoalHMM at the Bioinformatics Research Centre at Aarhus...

  9. High-Performance Grouting Mortar Based on Mineral Admixtures

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A study on high-performance grouting mortar is reported. The common mortar was modified by mineral admixtures such as gypsum, bauxite, and alunite. The effects of mineral admixtures on the fluidity, setting time, expansion, strength, and other properties of mortar were evaluated experimentally. The microstructure of the modified mortar was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Moreover, the expansive performance and strength of th...

  10. Geographic patterns of genome admixture in Latin American Mestizos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijia Wang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The large and diverse population of Latin America is potentially a powerful resource for elucidating the genetic basis of complex traits through admixture mapping. However, no genome-wide characterization of admixture across Latin America has yet been attempted. Here, we report an analysis of admixture in thirteen Mestizo populations (i.e. in regions of mainly European and Native settlement from seven countries in Latin America based on data for 678 autosomal and 29 X-chromosome microsatellites. We found extensive variation in Native American and European ancestry (and generally low levels of African ancestry among populations and individuals, and evidence that admixture across Latin America has often involved predominantly European men and both Native and African women. An admixture analysis allowing for Native American population subdivision revealed a differentiation of the Native American ancestry amongst Mestizos. This observation is consistent with the genetic structure of pre-Columbian populations and with admixture having involved Natives from the area where the Mestizo examined are located. Our findings agree with available information on the demographic history of Latin America and have a number of implications for the design of association studies in population from the region.

  11. Geographic Patterns of Genome Admixture in Latin American Mestizos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sijia; Ray, Nicolas; Rojas, Winston; Parra, Maria V.; Bedoya, Gabriel; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Hill, Kim; Hurtado, Ana M.; Camrena, Beatriz; Nicolini, Humberto; Klitz, William; Barrantes, Ramiro; Molina, Julio A.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Salzano, Francisco M.; Petzl-Erler, Maria L.; Tsuneto, Luiza T.; Dipierri, José E.; Alfaro, Emma L.; Bailliet, Graciela; Bianchi, Nestor O.; Llop, Elena; Rothhammer, Francisco; Excoffier, Laurent; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2008-01-01

    The large and diverse population of Latin America is potentially a powerful resource for elucidating the genetic basis of complex traits through admixture mapping. However, no genome-wide characterization of admixture across Latin America has yet been attempted. Here, we report an analysis of admixture in thirteen Mestizo populations (i.e. in regions of mainly European and Native settlement) from seven countries in Latin America based on data for 678 autosomal and 29 X-chromosome microsatellites. We found extensive variation in Native American and European ancestry (and generally low levels of African ancestry) among populations and individuals, and evidence that admixture across Latin America has often involved predominantly European men and both Native and African women. An admixture analysis allowing for Native American population subdivision revealed a differentiation of the Native American ancestry amongst Mestizos. This observation is consistent with the genetic structure of pre-Columbian populations and with admixture having involved Natives from the area where the Mestizo examined are located. Our findings agree with available information on the demographic history of Latin America and have a number of implications for the design of association studies in population from the region. PMID:18369456

  12. The admixture structure and genetic variation of the archipelago of Cape Verde and its implications for admixture mapping studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Beleza

    Full Text Available Recently admixed populations offer unique opportunities for studying human history and for elucidating the genetic basis of complex traits that differ in prevalence between human populations. Historical records, classical protein markers, and preliminary genetic data indicate that the Cape Verde islands in West Africa are highly admixed and primarily descended from European males and African females. However, little is known about the variation in admixture levels, admixture dynamics and genetic diversity across the islands, or about the potential of Cape Verde for admixture mapping studies. We have performed a detailed analysis of phenotypic and genetic variation in Cape Verde based on objective skin color measurements, socio-economic status (SES evaluations and data for 50 autosomal, 34 X-chromosome, and 21 non-recombinant Y-chromosome (NRY markers in 845 individuals from six islands of the archipelago. We find extensive genetic admixture between European and African ancestral populations (mean West African ancestry = 0.57, sd = 0.08, with individual African ancestry proportions varying considerably among the islands. African ancestry proportions calculated with X and Y-chromosome markers confirm that the pattern of admixture has been sex-biased. The high-resolution NRY-STRs reveal additional patterns of variation among the islands that are most consistent with differentiation after admixture. The differences in the autosomal admixture proportions are clearly evident in the skin color distribution across the islands (Pearson r = 0.54, P-value<2e-16. Despite this strong correlation, there are significant interactions between SES and skin color that are independent of the relationship between skin color and genetic ancestry. The observed distributions of admixture, genetic variation and skin color and the relationship of skin color with SES relate to historical and social events taking place during the settlement history of Cape Verde, and have

  13. Research and manufacture about high-activity small admixture in sprayed concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, W.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Y. [Jiaozuo Institute of Technology, Jiaozuo (China)

    2000-04-01

    Two types of high-activity small admixture are researched and produced by using industrial wastes: (1) F-type high-activity small admixture; (2) K-type high-activity small admixture. If these high-activity small admixtures were used to replace 30 percent of cement, the strength of the sprayed concrete may be enhanced by about 20 percent. 1 ref., 7 tabs.

  14. North African populations carry the signature of admixture with Neandertals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Botigué, Laura R; Civit, Sergi;

    2012-01-01

    One of the main findings derived from the analysis of the Neandertal genome was the evidence for admixture between Neandertals and non-African modern humans. An alternative scenario is that the ancestral population of non-Africans was closer to Neandertals than to Africans because of ancient popu...

  15. North African populations carry the signature of admixture with Neandertals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sánchez-Quinto

    Full Text Available One of the main findings derived from the analysis of the Neandertal genome was the evidence for admixture between Neandertals and non-African modern humans. An alternative scenario is that the ancestral population of non-Africans was closer to Neandertals than to Africans because of ancient population substructure. Thus, the study of North African populations is crucial for testing both hypotheses. We analyzed a total of 780,000 SNPs in 125 individuals representing seven different North African locations and searched for their ancestral/derived state in comparison to different human populations and Neandertals. We found that North African populations have a significant excess of derived alleles shared with Neandertals, when compared to sub-Saharan Africans. This excess is similar to that found in non-African humans, a fact that can be interpreted as a sign of Neandertal admixture. Furthermore, the Neandertal's genetic signal is higher in populations with a local, pre-Neolithic North African ancestry. Therefore, the detected ancient admixture is not due to recent Near Eastern or European migrations. Sub-Saharan populations are the only ones not affected by the admixture event with Neandertals.

  16. Stabilization of Dune Sand with Ceramic Tile Waste as Admixture

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. N. K. Ameta

    2013-01-01

    The Dune-Sand has nil cohesion and thus has a very low compressive strength. The stabilization of Dune-Sand is of prime importance since it can be used for various construction works and highways, airfields and helipads projects. The investigation reported herein presents a study of stabilization of Dune- Sand with Ceramic Tiles Wastage as admixture. All the California Bearing Ratio tests were conducted at maximum dry density and optimum moisture content as arrived from Standard Proctor Test....

  17. Venous admixture in COPD: Pathophysiology and therapeutic approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, CB; Celli, B

    2008-01-01

    Chronic obstructive and interstitial lung diseases impair pulmonary gas exchange leading to wasted ventilation (alveolar dead space) and wasted perfusion (venous admixture). These two fundamental types of abnormality represent opposite ends of the spectrum of ventilation-perfusion mismatch with V̇/Q̇ ratios of infinity and zero. Treatment approaches that improve airway function, reduce air trapping and hyperinflation have received much attention and might be successful at ameliorating the pro...

  18. Mirror matter admixtures in K_L to mu^+ mu^-

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Colón, G; Sanchez-Colon, Gabriel; Garcia, Augusto

    2006-01-01

    Our previous analysis on the contributions of mirror matter admixtures in ordinary hadrons to K_L to gamma gamma is extended to study the relevance of such contributions to the K_L to mu^+ mu^- rare decay. The mixing angle of the admixtures previously determined to describe the enhancement phenomenon in two body non-leptonic decays of strange hadrons is used, along with recent results for the description of the strong and electromagnetic interaction parts of the transition amplitudes. We find that these admixtures give a significant contribution with a small SU(3) breaking of only 2.8%, we also find a value of \\sim -17.9^{\\circ} for the eta-eta' mixing angle consistent with some of its determinations in the literature and a preferred negative value around -16 for the local counter-term contribution chi_1 + chi_2 consistent with the existence of a unique counter-term assuming lepton universality. We conclude that those mixings may be relevant in low energy physics and should not be ignored.

  19. Admixture mapping identifies introgressed genomic regions in North American canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Kays, Roland; Pollinger, John P; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid zones typically contain novel gene combinations that can be tested by natural selection in a unique genetic context. Parental haplotypes that increase fitness can introgress beyond the hybrid zone, into the range of parental species. We used the Affymetrix canine SNP genotyping array to identify genomic regions tagged by multiple ancestry informative markers that are more frequent in an admixed population than expected. We surveyed a hybrid zone formed in the last 100 years as coyotes expanded their range into eastern North America. Concomitant with expansion, coyotes hybridized with wolves and some populations became more wolflike, such that coyotes in the northeast have the largest body size of any coyote population. Using a set of 3102 ancestry informative markers, we identified 60 differentially introgressed regions in 44 canines across this admixture zone. These regions are characterized by an excess of exogenous ancestry and, in northeastern coyotes, are enriched for genes affecting body size and skeletal proportions. Further, introgressed wolf-derived alleles have penetrated into Southern US coyote populations. Because no wolves currently exist in this area, these alleles are unlikely to have originated from recent hybridization. Instead, they probably originated from intraspecific gene flow or ancient admixture. We show that grey wolf and coyote admixture has far-reaching effects and, in addition to phenotypically transforming admixed populations, allows for the differential movement of alleles from different parental species to be tested in new genomic backgrounds. PMID:27106273

  20. High-Performance Grouting Mortar Based on Mineral Admixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on high-performance grouting mortar is reported. The common mortar was modified by mineral admixtures such as gypsum, bauxite, and alunite. The effects of mineral admixtures on the fluidity, setting time, expansion, strength, and other properties of mortar were evaluated experimentally. The microstructure of the modified mortar was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Moreover, the expansive performance and strength of the grouting mortar were verified by anchor pullout test. The results show that the best conditions for gypsum-bauxite grouting mortar are as follows: a water-to-binder ratio of 0.3, a mineral admixture content of ~15%, and a molar ratio K of 2. The ultimate bearing capacity of the gypsum-bauxite grouting mortar anchor increased by 39.6% compared to the common mortar anchor. The gypsum-bauxite grouting mortar has good fluidity, quick-setting, microexpansion, early strength, and high strength performances.

  1. Experimental Study on Durability Improvement of Fly Ash Concrete with Durability Improving Admixture

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Hong-zhu; Kasami, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the durability of fly ash concrete, a series of experimental studies are carried out, where durability improving admixture is used to reduce drying shrinkage and improve freezing-thawing resistance. The effects of durability improving admixture, air content, water-binder ratio, and fly ash replacement ratio on the performance of fly ash concrete are discussed in this paper. The results show that by using durability improving admixture in nonair-entraining fly ash concrete,...

  2. Polycarboxylate superplasticiser admixtures: effect on hydration, microstructure and rheological behaviour in cement pastes

    OpenAIRE

    Puertas, F.; Santos, H.; Palacios, M.; Martínez-Ramírez, Sagrario

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted on the effect of a polycarboxylate (PC) admixture on the mechanical, mineralogical, microstructural and rheological behaviour of Portland cement pastes. It was observed that the presence of PC admixture retards the initial cement hydration reactions, although this effect may be offset by possible increased diffusion in later stages. Additionally, the PC admixtures produce a few alterations in the structure and composition of the formed C–S–H gel. The addition of 1% PC...

  3. Dating the age of admixture via wavelet transform analysis of genome-wide data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugach, Irina; Matveyev, Rostislav; Wollstein, Andreas; Kayser, Manfred; Stoneking, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We describe a PCA-based genome scan approach to analyze genome-wide admixture structure, and introduce wavelet transform analysis as a method for estimating the time of admixture. We test the wavelet transform method with simulations and apply it to genome-wide SNP data from eight admixed human populations. The wavelet transform method offers better resolution than existing methods for dating admixture, and can be applied to either SNP or sequence data from humans or other species. PMID:21352535

  4. Dating the age of admixture via wavelet transform analysis of genome-wide data

    OpenAIRE

    Pugach, Irina; Matveyev, Rostislav; Wollstein, Andreas; Kayser, Manfred; Stoneking, Mark

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe describe a PCA-based genome scan approach to analyze genome-wide admixture structure, and introduce wavelet transform analysis as a method for estimating the time of admixture. We test the wavelet transform method with simulations and apply it to genome-wide SNP data from eight admixed human populations. The wavelet transform method offers better resolution than existing methods for dating admixture, and can be applied to either SNP or sequence data from humans or other species.

  5. Practical handling of AIO admixtures – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanga, Z.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available All-in-one admixtures (AIO-admixtures provide safe, effective and low-risk PN (parenteral nutrition for practically all indications and applications. Water, energy (carbohydrates and lipids, amino acids, vitamins and trace elements are infused together with PN either as industrially-manufactured AIO admixtures provided as two- or three-chamber bags (shelf life usually more than 12 months completed with electrolytes and micronutrients where appropriate or as individually compounded ready-to-use AIO admixtures (compounding, usually prepared by a pharmacy on either a daily or weekly basis and stored at 2–8°C. Physico-chemical and microbial stability of an AIO admixture is essential for the safety and effectiveness of patient-specific PN, and its assurance requires specialist pharmaceutical knowledge. The stability should be documented for an application period of 24 (–48 hours. It is advisable to offer a limited selection of different PN regimes in each hospital. For reasons of drug and medication safety, PN admixtures prepared for individual patients must be correctly labelled and specifications for storage conditions must also be followed during transport. Monitoring is required where applicable. Micronutrients are usually administered separately to AIO admixtures. In case compatibility and stability have been well documented trace elements and/or combination preparations including water-soluble or water-soluble/fat soluble vitamin supplements can be added to PN admixtures under strict aseptic conditions. AIO admixtures are usually not used as vehicles for drugs (incompatibilities.

  6. Effect of Anti-freezing Admixtures on Alkali-silica Reaction in Mortars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Junzhe; LI Yushun; LV Lihua

    2005-01-01

    The influence of anti-freezing admixture on the alkali aggregate reaction in mortar was analyzed with accelerated methods. It is confirmed that the addition of sodium salt ingredients of anti-freezing admixture accelerates the alkali silica reaction to some extent, whereas calcium salt ingredient of anti-freezing admixture reduces the expansion of alkali silica reaction caused by high alkali cement. It is found that the addition of the fly ash considerably suppresses the expansion of alkali silica reaction induced by the anti-freezing admixtures.

  7. The influence of shrinkage reducing admixtures on plastic shrinkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora, J.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Shrinkage reducing admixtures (SRAs are viable alternatives for reducing plastic shrinkage cracking in concrete. The objective of the present paper is to study early age plastic shrinkage in restrained concrete elements, where three different SRAs have been used. The influence of the admixture is analyzed through the following measurements: capillary pressure, evaporation, temperature evolution, crack evolution and settlement. The tests for studying the cracking and deformation were made on two different configurations (i.e., restrained prisms with reduced cross-section and restrained panel, in a wind tunnel, with controlled wind temperature and velocity. The conclusions obtained indicate the viability of the use of this type of admixture and the usefulness of the test methods.

    Los aditivos reductores de retracción (SRAs se plantean, hoy en día, como una alternativa viable para reducir la fisuración por retracción plástica. El objetivo del presente artículo es conocer mejor y predecir el comportamiento a primeras edades de la retracción plástica en elementos estructurales coaccionados, a los que se les ha añadido diversos aditivos reductores de retracción (tres tipos diferentes. Esta influencia se analiza a través de las siguientes propiedades: presión capilar, evaporación, evolución de temperaturas, evolución de fisuración, y deformaciones verticales de asentamiento. Los ensayos para estudiar la fisuración y las deformaciones se han realizado sobre diferentes configuraciones (prisma restringido con estrangulamiento y panel restringido, en un túnel de viento, con temperaturas y velocidades de viento controladas. Las conclusiones obtenidas señalan la viabilidad del empleo de este tipo de aditivos y la bondad de los métodos experimentales utilizados.

  8. Mirror matter admixtures in K_S to gamma gamma

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Colón, G; Sanchez-Colon, Gabriel; Garcia, Augusto

    2006-01-01

    The latest measurement of the K_S to gamma gamma branching ratio clearly shows an enhancement over the current theoretical prediction. As in other K and B meson decays, this invites to consider the possibility of the contribution of new physics. We study a particular form of the latter, which may be referred to as manifest mirror symmetry. The experimental data are described using previously determined values for the mixing angles of the admixtures of mirror matter in ordinary hadrons and by assuming that for pi^0, eta, eta', the mirror decay amplitudes have the same magnitudes as their ordinary counterparts.

  9. Symmetry limit properties of decay amplitudes with mirror matter admixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Colón, G; Sanchez-Colon, Gabriel; Garcia, Augusto

    2006-01-01

    We extend our previous analysis on the symmetry limit properties of non-leptonic and weak radiative decay amplitudes of hyperons in a scheme of mirror matter admixtures in physical hadrons to include the two-body non-leptonic decays of $\\Omega^-$ and the two photon and two pion decays of kaons. We show that the so-called parity-conserving amplitudes predicted for all the decays vanish in the strong flavor SU(3) symmetry limit. We also establish the specific conditions under which the corresponding so-called parity-violating amplitudes vanish in the same limit.

  10. Effect of polycarboxylate admixture structure on cement paste rheology

    OpenAIRE

    Aranda, M. A. G.; De la Torre, A.G.; Puertas, F.; Palacios, M.; Alonso, M M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effect of the structural differences in four polycarboxylate and polyether admixtures on the rheological properties of cement pastes with different chemical and mineralogical compositions and different active additions (CEM I 42.5 R, CEM I 52.5 R, CEM I 52.5 N/SR, CEM II/AV 42.5R, CEM II/B-L 32.5 R, CEM III/B 32.5R, BL I 52.5R and CAC – European standard EN 197-1:2000). The results of the minislump test concurred with the variations ob...

  11. Whistler Solitons in Plasma with Anisotropic Hot Electron Admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Krivorutsky, E. N.; Gallagher, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    The longitudinal and transverse modulation instability of whistler waves in plasma, with a small admixture of hot anisotropic electrons, is discussed. If the hot particles temperature anisotropy is positive, it is found that, in such plasma, longitudinal perturbations can lead to soliton formation for frequencies forbidden in cold plasma. The soliton is enriched by hot particles. The frequency region unstable to transverse modulation in cold plasma in the presence of hot electrons is divided by stable domains. For both cases the role of hot electrons is more significant for whistlers with smaller frequencies.

  12. Influence of chloride admixtures on cement matrix durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of various inorganic salts, as chloride admixtures to Portland cement, on the mechanical properties and the durability of the matrix has been studied. The salts used in this study are chromium, nickel and cadmium chlorides. Improved compressive strength values are obtained which have been correlated to the stable metal hydroxide formation in high pH environment. Under static water conditions at 500C, hydrolyzed chloride ions exhibit adverse effects on the matrix durability through rapid release of calcium as calcium chloride in the initial period of leaching. On the contrary, enhanced matrix durability is obtained on long term leaching in the case of cement containing chromium chloride

  13. Physicochemical compatibility of nebulizable drug admixtures containing colistimethate and tobramycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollstadt, A; Krämer, I; Kamin, W

    2013-09-01

    Inhalation therapy with nebulizable antibiotic drugs is a mainstay in treating Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis patients. The combination of tobramycin and colistin was found to be superior to monotherapy in killing P. aeruginosa in biofilms. The simultaneous inhalation of tobramycin and colistin might be an option to increase the compliance of patients. The objective of this in-vitro study was to determine whether admixtures of inhalation solutions containing colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) and tobramycin are physicochemically compatible. Physical compatibility was determined by measuring pH and osmolality. Chemical compatibility was determined by testing the antibiotic activity of the mixtures by the pharmacopoeial microbiological assay and comparing the results to those of standard solutions. Samples were analyzed immediately after mixing and after 24 h. Values of pH and osmolality remained unchanged and in physiologically acceptable ranges. Neither for colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) nor for tobramycin losses of antibiotic potency were registered at any time. Admixtures of nebulizer solutions containing CMS and tobramycin were shown to be physicochemically compatible. Further investigations are needed to determine whether drug delivery is affected by mixing the nebulizer solutions to ensure that simultaneous inhalation is recommendable. PMID:24147342

  14. Incorporation of Mineral Admixtures in Sustainable High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Farzadnia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is a widely used construction material around the world, and its properties have been undergoing changes through technological advancement. Numerous types of concrete have been developed to enhance the different properties of concrete. So far, this development can be divided into four stages. The earliest is the traditional normal strength concrete which is composed of only four constituent materials, which are cement, water, fine and coarse aggregates. With a fast population growth and a higher demand for housing and infrastructure, accompanied by recent developments in civil engineering, such as high-rise buildings and long-span bridges, higher compressive strength concrete was needed. At the beginning, reducing the water-cement ratio was the easiest way to achieve the high compressive strength. Thereafter, the fifth ingredient, a water reducing agent or super plasticizer, was indispensable. However, sometimes the compressive strength was not as important as some other properties, such as low permeability, durability and workability. Thus, high performance concrete was proposed and widely studied at the end of the last century. Currently, high-performance concrete is used in massive volumes due to its technical and economic advantages. Such materials are characterized by improved mechanical and durability properties resulting from the use of chemical and mineral admixtures as well as specialized production processes. This paper reviews the incorporation of mineral admixtures in binary, ternary and quaternary blended mortars in concrete.

  15. The application study of polycarboxylates water-reducing admixture in passenger dedicated line engineering%The application study of polycarboxylates water-reducing admixture in passenger dedicated line engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Zhijiu

    2012-01-01

    Polycarboxylate water-reducing admixture possesses the capability which could meet with the comprehensive performance of high performance concrete used in passenger dedicated line engineering. The problems of polycarboxylates water-reducing admixtures existed in the engineering application of were analyzed. At present the key for polycarboxylates application was to settle the compatibility between the water-reducing admixture and the cement and to keep the quality retention of this admixture.

  16. Harmful admixtures assessment in sinter mixtures used in iron ore sinter plants in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Korol

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study composition of sinter mixtures used in Polish sinter plants were established. Seven sinter mixtures composition were examined, based on iron-bearing materials, admixtures and fuels. Contents of harmful admixtures were examined according to three kinds of environmental impacts: emissions of SOx, heavy metals, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs.

  17. Fly Ash Admixture and its Influence on Alitic Type Cement Concrete Permeability

    OpenAIRE

    Rujanu, Mircea; Rujanu, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies pointed that adding fly ash in concrete composition, could favour its impermeability characteristic improvement. It is known, also, that fly ash admixture achieves cement dosage reduction, so that concrete will be cheaper, and in this conditions it is important to analyse fly ash admixture influence on impermeability degree, too.

  18. Patterns of admixture and population structure in native populations of Northwest North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Verdu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The initial contact of European populations with indigenous populations of the Americas produced diverse admixture processes across North, Central, and South America. Recent studies have examined the genetic structure of indigenous populations of Latin America and the Caribbean and their admixed descendants, reporting on the genomic impact of the history of admixture with colonizing populations of European and African ancestry. However, relatively little genomic research has been conducted on admixture in indigenous North American populations. In this study, we analyze genomic data at 475,109 single-nucleotide polymorphisms sampled in indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest in British Columbia and Southeast Alaska, populations with a well-documented history of contact with European and Asian traders, fishermen, and contract laborers. We find that the indigenous populations of the Pacific Northwest have higher gene diversity than Latin American indigenous populations. Among the Pacific Northwest populations, interior groups provide more evidence for East Asian admixture, whereas coastal groups have higher levels of European admixture. In contrast with many Latin American indigenous populations, the variance of admixture is high in each of the Pacific Northwest indigenous populations, as expected for recent and ongoing admixture processes. The results reveal some similarities but notable differences between admixture patterns in the Pacific Northwest and those in Latin America, contributing to a more detailed understanding of the genomic consequences of European colonization events throughout the Americas.

  19. Dating the age of admixture via wavelet transform analysis of genome-wide data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Pugach (Irina); R. Matveyev (Rostislav); A. Wollstein (Andreas); M.H. Kayser (Manfred); M. Stoneking (Mark)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe describe a PCA-based genome scan approach to analyze genome-wide admixture structure, and introduce wavelet transform analysis as a method for estimating the time of admixture. We test the wavelet transform method with simulations and apply it to genome-wide SNP data from eight admixe

  20. Stabilization of Dune Sand with Ceramic Tile Waste as Admixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. N. K. Ameta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Dune-Sand has nil cohesion and thus has a very low compressive strength. The stabilization of Dune-Sand is of prime importance since it can be used for various construction works and highways, airfields and helipads projects. The investigation reported herein presents a study of stabilization of Dune- Sand with Ceramic Tiles Wastage as admixture. All the California Bearing Ratio tests were conducted at maximum dry density and optimum moisture content as arrived from Standard Proctor Test. Direct shear tests were also performed. The main objective of this experimental study was to obtain an economical stabilized mix of ceramic tiles wastage and dune sand so that largely and cheaply available dune-sand be used for various construction purposes.

  1. Estimating individual admixture proportions from next generation sequencing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skotte, Line; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Inference of population structure and individual ancestry is important both for population genetics and for association studies. With next generation sequencing technologies it is possible to obtain genetic data for all accessible genetic variations in the genome. Existing methods for admixture...... analysis rely on known genotypes. However, individual genotypes cannot be inferred from low-depth sequencing data without introducing errors. This article presents a new method for inferring an individual's ancestry that takes the uncertainty introduced in next generation sequencing data into account....... This is achieved by working directly with genotype likelihoods that contain all relevant information of the unobserved genotypes. Using simulations as well as publicly available sequencing data, we demonstrate that the presented method has great accuracy even for very low-depth data. At the same time, we...

  2. Genetic admixture and population substructure in Guanacaste Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoming Wang

    Full Text Available The population of Costa Rica (CR represents an admixture of major continental populations. An investigation of the CR population structure would provide an important foundation for mapping genetic variants underlying common diseases and traits. We conducted an analysis of 1,301 women from the Guanacaste region of CR using 27,904 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs genotyped on a custom Illumina InfiniumII iSelect chip. The program STRUCTURE was used to compare the CR Guanacaste sample with four continental reference samples, including HapMap Europeans (CEU, East Asians (JPT+CHB, West African Yoruba (YRI, as well as Native Americans (NA from the Illumina iControl database. Our results show that the CR Guanacaste sample comprises a three-way admixture estimated to be 43% European, 38% Native American and 15% West African. An estimated 4% residual Asian ancestry may be within the error range. Results from principal components analysis reveal a correlation between genetic and geographic distance. The magnitude of linkage disequilibrium (LD measured by the number of tagging SNPs required to cover the same region in the genome in the CR Guanacaste sample appeared to be weaker than that observed in CEU, JPT+CHB and NA reference samples but stronger than that of the HapMap YRI sample. Based on the clustering pattern observed in both STRUCTURE and principal components analysis, two subpopulations were identified that differ by approximately 20% in LD block size averaged over all LD blocks identified by Haploview. We also show in a simulated association study conducted within the two subpopulations, that the failure to account for population stratification (PS could lead to a noticeable inflation in the false positive rate. However, we further demonstrate that existing PS adjustment approaches can reduce the inflation to an acceptable level for gene discovery.

  3. A factorial design study on the physical stability of 3-in-1 admixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L C; Sampogna, T P

    1993-11-01

    The effects of dextrose concentration, the compounding method, and storage conditions, on the physical stability of 3-in-1 admixtures were investigated using a 2n factorial design. The main effect of these three variables on the weight percent of oil globules larger than 5 microns (by HIAC) was found to be statistically significant. However, the effects of interaction amongst these variables, except the two-way interaction between dextrose concentration and storage conditions, were found to be statistically insignificant. A higher dextrose concentration was shown to enhance the physical stability of the admixtures, while low-temperature storage (three days at 5 degrees C) was more favourable for maintaining the physical stability of the admixtures with a low dextrose concentration. Although sequential pumping produced admixtures with a slightly lower final weight percentage of larger oil globules (> 5 microns), the method of compounding has the least impact on the physical stability of the admixtures in comparison with the other two variables evaluated in this study. The storage of the admixtures at room temperature for one day was shown to have a greater adverse effect on admixtures with a low dextrose concentration. PMID:7908042

  4. Finding new solutions in pediatric parenteral admixtures: how to improve quality and to deal with shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Watrobska-Swietlikowska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pediatric parenteral nutrition enables normal growth even of preterm infants. Those children require, however, tailored parenteral nutrition and the creation of such can be challenging due to the risk of instability and shortages. Objective: Prototypical parenteral admixtures were created using different calcium salts (organic and inorganic and different lipid emulsions and tested for stability. 36 of parenteral admixtures containing two types of calcium salts: chloride or gluconolactobionate and different lipid emulsions (SMOFlipid® or Lipofundin MCT/LCT® were under investigation. Methods: Preliminary admixtures were prepared in two-chamber bags whereas lipid emulsions were placed separately in the second chamber. Pre-admixtures were stored for up to 21 days at +4ºC. Contents of the two chambers were combined at t = 0 or after 21 days of storage. Physical analysis of completed admixtures (visual inspection, microscopic observation, pH measurement and determination of the size distribution of oily droplets was carried out after 21 days of the storage. Stability of lipid, commercial emulsions stored in ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA bags for 42 days was also studied. Results: Irrespectively of the time of storage of preadmixtures and type of calcium salt and different lipid emulsions among 36 total parenteral admixtures only one showed signs of destabilization after preparation and one was unstable when stored for longer than 14 days. All other formulations were qualified to be stable during the study. All investigated commercial lipid emulsions were physically stable in EVA bags even when stored at room temperature. Conclusion: The study proved that it was possible to store pre-admixture in EVA bags for 21 days at 4ºC as well as that CAN (critical aggregation number and CaxP (the products of multiplication of calcium and phosphate ions concentration should not be used as reliable indicators of admixture physical stability. No

  5. Effect of polycarboxylate admixture structure on cement paste rheology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranda, M. A. G.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effect of the structural differences in four polycarboxylate and polyether admixtures on the rheological properties of cement pastes with different chemical and mineralogical compositions and different active additions (CEM I 42.5 R, CEM I 52.5 R, CEM I 52.5 N/SR, CEM II/AV 42.5R, CEM II/B-L 32.5 R, CEM III/B 32.5R, BL I 52.5R and CAC – European standard EN 197-1:2000. The results of the minislump test concurred with the variations observed in the values of the rheological parameters (shear stress and plastic viscosity. The structural characteristic of the admixtures found to play the most prominent role in their fluidizing effect was the proportion of carboxylate (CG and polyether (EG group components. In cements characteristics such as fineness and the C3A/calcium sulphate and C3S/C3A ratios were also observed to be essential to admixture effectiveness. In this regard, the rheological parameters varied most widely in CEM I 52.5N/SR pastes and least in BL I 52.5R cement pastes. Of the additioned cements, the CEM III/B 32.5R pastes, which contained granulated blast furnace slag, showed the highest rises in flowability. Finally, the fluidizing effect of polycarboxylate superplasticizers was much more intense in calcium aluminate cements, although flowability declined rapidly in this material.El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido estudiar el efecto de las diferencias estructurales de cuatro aditivos basados en policarboxilatos y poliéteres sobre las propiedades reológicas de pastas de cemento con diferente composición química, mineralógica y con distintas adiciones activas (CEM I 42,5 R, CEM I 52,5 R, CEM I 52,5 N/SR, CEM II/AV 42,5R, CEM II/ B-L 32,5 R, CEM III/B 32,5R, BL I 52,5R y CAC - Norma EN 197-1:2000. Los resultados obtenidos sobre la fluidez de la pasta en el ensayo del “Minislump” coinciden con la evolución de los valores de los parámetros reológicos (esfuerzo de

  6. A Genome-Wide Search for Greek and Jewish Admixture in the Kashmiri Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashi, Tsewang; Lorenzo, Felipe Ramos; Feusier, Julie Ellen; Mir, Hyder

    2016-01-01

    The Kashmiri population is an ethno-linguistic group that resides in the Kashmir Valley in northern India. A longstanding hypothesis is that this population derives ancestry from Jewish and/or Greek sources. There is historical and archaeological evidence of ancient Greek presence in India and Kashmir. Further, some historical accounts suggest ancient Hebrew ancestry as well. To date, it has not been determined whether signatures of Greek or Jewish admixture can be detected in the Kashmiri population. Using genome-wide genotyping and admixture detection methods, we determined there are no significant or substantial signs of Greek or Jewish admixture in modern-day Kashmiris. The ancestry of Kashmiri Tibetans was also determined, which showed signs of admixture with populations from northern India and west Eurasia. These results contribute to our understanding of the existing population structure in northern India and its surrounding geographical areas. PMID:27490348

  7. Parenteral Admixture Compatibility in Neurosurgery Ward in Prof. Dr. Margono Soekarjo Regional Public Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laksmi Maharani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parenteral admixtures (intravenous admixtures have been done commonly in hospitals. However, it has a possibility of failures, like incompatibilities and changes in drug stabilities. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of drug incompatibilities in mixing parenteral preparations in neurosurgery ward in Prof. Dr. Margono Soekarjo Regional Public Hospital which undergo physical incompatibility observed in organoleptic. This study was a prospective descriptive research for one month period. Data were collected and analyzed descriptively. The results showed that from 667 parenteral admixtures in neurosurgery ward in Prof Dr Margono Soekarjo Hospital in February 2010, there were 0.45% potential incompatibility and 2.55% actual incompatibility happened. Actual incompatibility shown as crystal 0.17%, sediment 0.17%, and 2.04% was non-permanent haze in phenytoin and sodium chloride or ringer lactate admixtures.

  8. A Genome-Wide Search for Greek and Jewish Admixture in the Kashmiri Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, Jonathan M; Tashi, Tsewang; Lorenzo, Felipe Ramos; Feusier, Julie Ellen; Mir, Hyder; Prchal, Josef T; Jorde, Lynn B; Koul, Parvaiz A

    2016-01-01

    The Kashmiri population is an ethno-linguistic group that resides in the Kashmir Valley in northern India. A longstanding hypothesis is that this population derives ancestry from Jewish and/or Greek sources. There is historical and archaeological evidence of ancient Greek presence in India and Kashmir. Further, some historical accounts suggest ancient Hebrew ancestry as well. To date, it has not been determined whether signatures of Greek or Jewish admixture can be detected in the Kashmiri population. Using genome-wide genotyping and admixture detection methods, we determined there are no significant or substantial signs of Greek or Jewish admixture in modern-day Kashmiris. The ancestry of Kashmiri Tibetans was also determined, which showed signs of admixture with populations from northern India and west Eurasia. These results contribute to our understanding of the existing population structure in northern India and its surrounding geographical areas.

  9. Stability of admixture containing morphine sulfate, bupivacaine hydrochloride, and clonidine hydrochloride in an implantable infusion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, Ashley M; Wimbish, Gary H; Kupiec, Thomas C

    2004-12-01

    Intrathecal infusion is often performed using drug combinations. This study was conducted to evaluate the stability of the admixture of morphine sulfate, bupivacaine hydrochloride, and clonidine hydrochloride when used in an implantable pump under simulated clinical use conditions. SynchroMed implantable pumps were filled with an admixture and incubated at 37 degrees C for a period of 90 days. Drug admixture stored in glass vials at 4 degrees C and at 37 degrees C served as controls. Samples which included pump reservoir and catheter delivered aliquots were collected every 30 days and analyzed for drug concentrations using a stability-indicating HPLC method. All drugs contained in the admixture were stable and the original concentrations remained greater than 96%. Over 90 days, and with the pump at the simulated body temperature of 37 degrees C, there were no evident heat catalyzed or device catalyzed reactions. PMID:15589086

  10. Admixture analysis and stocking impact assessment in brown trout ( Salmo trutta ), estimated with incomplete baseline data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Bekkevold, Dorte;

    2001-01-01

    Studies of genetic interactions between wild and domesticated fish are often hampered by unavailability of samples from wild populations prior to population admixture. We assessed the utility of a new Bayesian method, which can estimate individual admixture coefficients even with data missing from...... by the mean of individual admixture coefficients. This method proved more informative than a multidimensional scaling analysis of individual-based genetic distances and assignment tests. The results showed almost complete absence of stocked, domesticated trout in samples of trout from the rivers. Consequently......, stocking had little effect on improving fisheries. In one population, the genetic contribution by domesticated trout was small, whereas in the other population, some genetic impact was suggested. Admixture in this sample of anadromous trout despite absence of stocked domesticated trout could be because...

  11. Admixture Mapping Identifies a Quantitative Trait Locus Associated with FEV1/FVC in the COPDGene Study

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Margaret M.; Foreman, Marilyn G; Abel, Haley J.; Rasika A Mathias; Hetmanksi, Jacqueline B.; Crapo, James D.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Terri H Beaty

    2014-01-01

    African Americans are admixed with genetic contributions from European and African ancestral populations. Admixture mapping leverages this information to map genes influencing differential disease risk across populations. We performed admixture and association mapping in 3300 African American current or former smokers from the COPDGene Study. We analyzed estimated local ancestry and SNP genotype information to identify regions associated with FEV1/FVC, the ratio of forced expiratory volume in...

  12. Finding new solutions in pediatric parenteral admixtures: how to improve quality and to deal with shortages

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Watrobska-Swietlikowska; Anna Kwidzynska; Agnieszka Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz; Malgorzata Sznitowska; Stanislaw Klek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Pediatric parenteral nutrition enables normal growth even of preterm infants. Those children require, however, tailored parenteral nutrition and the creation of such can be challenging due to the risk of instability and shortages. Objective: Prototypical parenteral admixtures were created using different calcium salts (organic and inorganic) and different lipid emulsions and tested for stability. 36 of parenteral admixtures containing two types of calcium salts: chloride or gluc...

  13. Profile of Intravenous Admixture Compatibility in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharly Dwijayanti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available which may directly impact to the outcome of treatment to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU patients. The objective of this study was to identify the profile of compatibility and incompatibility among IV admixtures given to the ICU patients. This observational research was conducted prospectively to the patients admitted in the ICU at a private hospital in Surabaya from October–December 2014. In this research, compatibility data of IV drug and its solution was compared with drug brochure and Handbook on Injectable Drugs 17th ed (2013 as references to analyze the compatibility of IV admixtures. The admixture between IV drug and its solvent was classified as compatible, incompatible, no information (NI, not applicable (NA, and not clear (NC, using a specific criteria. There were 1.186 IV drug‑solvent admixtures observed in 39 ICU patients. There were no IV drug-solvent admixtures classified as incompatible in both adult and child patients. Most of IV drugs were admixed with compatible solvents (adults: 72.31%; children: 69.84%. However, according to two of IV drugs compatibility references used in this research, there were some IV drug-solvent admixtures with unknown information about its compatibility that were classified as NI (adults: 19.68%; children: 30.16%. There were a few of IV drug-solvent admixtures classified as NA and NC, of 7.48% and 0.53%, respectively. The lack of information related to compatibility and stability of the IV admixtures emphasize the importance to continually monitor patients’ condition and drug concentration.

  14. Diffusion Decay Coefficient for Chloride Ions of Concrete Containing Mineral Admixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Jae-Im Park; Kwang-Myong Lee; Soon-Oh Kwon; Su-Ho Bae; Sang-Hwa Jung; Sung-Won Yoo

    2016-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient for chloride ions and the diffusion decay coefficient for chloride ions are essential variables for a service life evaluation of concrete structures. They are influenced by water-binder ratio, exposure condition, curing temperature, cement type, and the type and use of mineral admixture. Mineral admixtures such as ground granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash, and silica fume have been increasingly used to improve resistance against chloride ions penetration in concr...

  15. A Novel Admixture-Based Pharmacogenetic Approach to Refine Warfarin Dosing in Caribbean Hispanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Duconge

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at developing a novel admixture-adjusted pharmacogenomic approach to individually refine warfarin dosing in Caribbean Hispanic patients.A multiple linear regression analysis of effective warfarin doses versus relevant genotypes, admixture, clinical and demographic factors was performed in 255 patients and further validated externally in another cohort of 55 individuals.The admixture-adjusted, genotype-guided warfarin dosing refinement algorithm developed in Caribbean Hispanics showed better predictability (R2 = 0.70, MAE = 0.72mg/day than a clinical algorithm that excluded genotypes and admixture (R2 = 0.60, MAE = 0.99mg/day, and outperformed two prior pharmacogenetic algorithms in predicting effective dose in this population. For patients at the highest risk of adverse events, 45.5% of the dose predictions using the developed pharmacogenetic model resulted in ideal dose as compared with only 29% when using the clinical non-genetic algorithm (p<0.001. The admixture-driven pharmacogenetic algorithm predicted 58% of warfarin dose variance when externally validated in 55 individuals from an independent validation cohort (MAE = 0.89 mg/day, 24% mean bias.Results supported our rationale to incorporate individual's genotypes and unique admixture metrics into pharmacogenetic refinement models in order to increase predictability when expanding them to admixed populations like Caribbean Hispanics.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01318057.

  16. A slide-rule for assessment of venous admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterström, H

    1989-04-01

    Determination of venous admixture (physiological shunt, Qva/Qt) requires analysis of both arterial and mixed venous blood. When a pulmonary arterial catheter is not in use, the pulmonary oxygenating capacity may be assessed from arterial blood gas data, the fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) and an assumed value of the arterial-mixed venous oxygen content difference. To facilitate this process, a slide-rule based on the "virtual shunt" concept is presented. It permits rapid assessment of Qva/Qt from known values of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) or saturation (SaO2) and FIO2 and may promote the choice of appropriate FIO2. The limitations of the slide-rule were studied theoretically and its validity was tested by comparing 100 determinations of virtual shunt with the corresponding Qva/Qt values. The slide-rule was found to estimate Qva/Qt more accurately than commonly used oxygenation indices such as the PaO2/FIO2 ratio. PMID:2499154

  17. Research on Development and Performance of Active Admixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Comparing with that of low-calcium fly ash (LF) or fly dreg (FD), chemical content of high-calcium fly ash (HF) waves more much. Coarse grain, which existing in HF, would determine soundness more seriously than fine one. Grinding it is a simple method to result this problem. Because of with thiner specific surface and higher CaO content, fine grain exhibits higher activity of hydration than coarse one. Activity of active admixture (AF), which is produced by ways of grinding HF together with calcium carbide sludge (CS), desulfurize gypsum (DG), calcine desulfurize gypsum (CG) and NS (Na2SO4+FeSO4), can catch up with that of grinding blast furnace slag (GBFS) powder with about 400 m2/kg specific surface. AF costs lower than GBFS. 20% cement replaced by the equal amount of AF, compression strength of concrete is similar to that control one, and electrifies coulomb of concrete at 90 day's age reduces to about half of control one.

  18. Influences of a New Admixture MX on Concrete Durability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Baoguo; DONG Rongzhen; ZHU Hongbo; ZHANG Li; ZHONG Kaihong; HE Xingyang; LI Zongjin

    2005-01-01

    The performance of concrete with a new admixture MX was studied by using the freeze-thaw cycle, permeability and chemical attack test. The experimental results show that MX improves the durability of concrete. Within the optimum proportion ranges from 0.1%to 1%,the compressive strength of concrete after freeze-thaw is increased by 20%-50%,and Young's modulus can be increased by 3.76-5.64 times.The strength and weight loss of concrete with 0.4%MX are respectively decreased by 28% and 60% after hydrochloric acid attack.The strength and weight loss of concrete with 0.4% MX are decreased by 5%-20% after sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate attack.The permeability of concrete with 1% MX at 28 days can be decreased by more than 30%. The investigation of the negative temperature property of MX and analysis on concrete composition and microstructure by MIP reveal that the heat conduction is resisted and the freezing procedure of solution in concrete pore is retarded due to the adding of MX. Moreover,the pore structure of concrete with MX is improved, thus improving the durability. Based on this study, a resistance model of MX to block the heat and mass transference was proposed, and the mechanism of durability improvement of concrete with MX was explained.

  19. Multiway admixture deconvolution using phased or unphased ancestral panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchhouse, Claire; Marchini, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel method for inferring the local ancestry of admixed individuals from dense genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data. The method, called MULTIMIX, allows multiple source populations, models population linkage disequilibrium between markers and is applicable to datasets in which the sample and source populations are either phased or unphased. The model is based upon a hidden Markov model of switches in ancestry between consecutive windows of loci. We model the observed haplotypes within each window using a multivariate normal distribution with parameters estimated from the ancestral panels. We present three methods to fit the model-Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling, the Expectation Maximization algorithm, and a Classification Expectation Maximization algorithm. The performance of our method on individuals simulated to be admixed with European and West African ancestry shows it to be comparable to HAPMIX, the ancestry calls of the two methods agreeing at 99.26% of loci across the three parameter groups. In addition to it being faster than HAPMIX, it is also found to perform well over a range of extent of admixture in a simulation involving three ancestral populations. In an analysis of real data, we estimate the contribution of European, West African and Native American ancestry to each locus in the Mexican samples of HapMap, giving estimates of ancestral proportions that are consistent with those previously reported. PMID:23136122

  20. Stability investigation of total parenteral nutrition admixture prepared in a hospital pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Dušica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In the cases when nutrition of patients can not be orally nor enterally performed, parenteral nutrition is a method of the therapy that provides more successful and rapid recovery. In that way, hospitalization can be significantly shorter, healing costs reduced and mortality minimized. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN admixtures are the most complex systems which contain amino acids, carbohydrates, lipid emulsion, macroelectrolytes (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-, PO43-, oligoelements, hydro- and liposoluble vitamines, heparin, insulin and water. Concerning the mentioned complexity, special attention should be payed to physicochemical and microbiological stability of a mixture, because of interactions among components, that can be very hard to analyze. The aim of this study was to investigate the problem of stability of TPN admixtures prepared in a hospital pharmacy. Methods. Admixture TPN was aseptically prepared in laminar air - flow environment on the basis of the specified order in supplementing components and additives to basic solutions. Solutions were kept in sterile multicompartment ethylene-vinyl-acetate bags. After preparation and slow homogenization, TPN admixtures were submitted to physicochemical and microbiological stability analyses in various period of time. The assessment of physical stability of TPN admixture was done on the basis of visual inspection, determination of pH value and measuring of particle size. The investigation of sterility and pyrogenic test were performed according to Ph. Yug. V regulations. Results. Physico-chemical and microbiological analyses were applied and no significant changes in visual sense, pH value and droplet size stability of the TPN admixture were observed during the period of 60 hours. The lipid droplets were smaller in size than 5 μm, that is the most common pharmacopoeia requirement. Conclusion. The results of our study confirmed that a TPN admixture prepared in a hospital

  1. Porosity Parameters Of Cement Stone Containing Chemical Admixtures Of Different Purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Venčkauskas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The conducted research has established a complex influenceand the impact of separate chemical admixtures of differentpurpose on the parameters of the porosity of hardened cementpaste such as open and closed porosity, the average size of poresand the rates of pore inequality. According to the parametersof the porosity of hardened cement paste, on the basis of A. E.Sheikin’s methodology, the number of freezing-thawing cycleswas predicted. This research used plasticizing, viscosity modifyingand antifoaming admixtures. It has been found that, when theamount of plasticizing admixture in cement paste (W/C–0.45 isconstant and makes 1.1% of the cement mass, and the amountof viscosity modifying and antifoaming the admixture increasesfrom 0.1 to 0.6% and from 0.05 to 0.3% respectively, the openporosity of hardened cement paste varies between 30.21% and31.06%, while closed porosity varies between 5.39% and 6.22%.When the amount of the plasticizing admixture in cement paste(W/C–0.45 exceeds 1.1% of the cement mass, the open porosityof hardened cement paste increases by 1.4 times and closedporosity decreases by 2.5 times. While adding 0.1% of the viscositymodifying admixture to cement paste, the open porosityof hardened cement paste is increased by 1.5 times and closedporosity decreases by 2.4 times. The amount of 0.05% of thecement mass of the antifoaming admixture results in the increasedopen porosity of hardened cement paste by 1.5 times and reducedclosed porosity by 3.5 times.

  2. Stability of total nutrient admixtures in a dual-chamber flexible container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, M G; Menon, S K; Mikrut, B A

    1990-11-01

    The stability of total nutrient admixtures (TNAs) prepared from dextrose and amino acid injections commercially packaged in a dual-chamber container and a safflower-soybean oil fat emulsion was studied. The admixtures studied were divided into two groups. Group 1 admixtures represented 14 combinations of Aminosyn II, dextrose, and Liposyn II. Group 2 admixtures represented 10 combinations of Aminosyn II with Electrolytes, dextrose, and Liposyn II. Amino acid concentrations of 7, 8.5, and 10%, dextrose concentrations of 10, 20, 40, and 50%, and 10 and 20% fat emulsion were used. After the amino acid and dextrose injections were mixed in their original container (Nutrimix, Abbott Laboratories), the fat emulsion was added. One of two combinations of electrolytes and trace metals was then added. Multivitamins were added to each TNA just before 24-hour storage at room temperature (25 +/- 4 degrees C). Admixtures were tested initially and at the conclusion of storage periods of 24 hours at room temperature or nine days at 5 degrees C followed by 24 hours at room temperature. Measurements of pH, emulsion particle size, and weight percent of oil particles larger than 5 microns in diameter (HIAC) were made after visual inspection of each admixture. In selected admixtures, concentrations of individual amino acids and dextrose were determined by chromatographic techniques initially and at the conclusion of storage. The TNAs retained a uniform milk-like appearance throughout both storage periods. The pH values, particle size, HIAC measurements, and amino acid and dextrose concentrations remained essentially unchanged.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2126163

  3. Worldwide patterns of ancestry, divergence, and admixture in domesticated cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared E Decker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds and populations have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 animals, we evaluate the population structure of 134 domesticated bovid breeds. Regardless of the analytical method or sample subset, the three major groups of Asian indicine, Eurasian taurine, and African taurine were consistently observed. Patterns of geographic dispersal resulting from co-migration with humans and exportation are recognizable in phylogenetic networks. All analytical methods reveal patterns of hybridization which occurred after divergence. Using 19 breeds, we map the cline of indicine introgression into Africa. We infer that African taurine possess a large portion of wild African auroch ancestry, causing their divergence from Eurasian taurine. We detect exportation patterns in Asia and identify a cline of Eurasian taurine/indicine hybridization in Asia. We also identify the influence of species other than Bos taurus taurus and B. t. indicus in the formation of Asian breeds. We detect the pronounced influence of Shorthorn cattle in the formation of European breeds. Iberian and Italian cattle possess introgression from African taurine. American Criollo cattle originate from Iberia, and not directly from Africa with African ancestry inherited via Iberian ancestors. Indicine introgression into American cattle occurred in the Americas, and not Europe. We argue that cattle migration, movement and trading followed by admixture have been important forces in shaping modern bovine genomic variation.

  4. Spatial assessment of Argentinean genetic admixture with geographical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Lacava, Amalia; Walier, Maja; Penacino, Gustavo; Wienker, Thomas F; Baur, Max P

    2011-08-01

    In recent years there has been much attention to Argentinean population stratification. We were interested in assessing population stratification from a geographical perspective and summarizing it in form of maps. We mapped the genetic admixture of the extant male population in central and northern Argentina on the basis of forensic Y-chromosomal haplotypes. We addressed the question which group of genetically similar individuals is predominant in this area. Haplotypes containing seven Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat polymorphisms (Y-STRs), also known as microsatellites - DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393 - were constructed for 145 individuals, recruited in 10 provinces. 97 distinct haplotypes were clustered into four clusters according to molecular distances. A genetic geostatistical analysis was conducted with the open-source geographical information system GRASS GIS. For each haplotype cluster, the according frequency was spatially interpolated over the total study area. Juxtaposing the interpolation surfaces, we screened point-wisely the maximal frequency as well as the label of the respective cluster. The screening results were combined in one summary map. We repeated this procedure for the second maximal frequencies. The resulting maps subdivide the study area into continuous regions comprising one predominant group of similar haplotypes. The first summary map divides the study area into three regions and the second summary map divides the area into four regions. The results of our analysis indicate that two groups of similar European haplotypes alternatively dominate the largest extension of the Argentinean territory. A third group, including South-American haplotypes, dominates the indigenous northwestern Argentinean area. The last group, including worldwide dispersed haplotypes, preponderates in frequency in second place in central Argentina. Our findings confirm a widespread European paternal ancestry, a substantial Amerindian

  5. Extensive Admixture and Selective Pressure Across the Sahel Belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triska, Petr; Soares, Pedro; Patin, Etienne; Fernandes, Veronica; Cerny, Viktor; Pereira, Luisa

    2015-11-26

    Genome-wide studies of African populations have the potential to reveal powerful insights into the evolution of our species, as these diverse populations have been exposed to intense selective pressures imposed by infectious diseases, diet, and environmental factors. Within Africa, the Sahel Belt extensively overlaps the geographical center of several endemic infections such as malaria, trypanosomiasis, meningitis, and hemorrhagic fevers. We screened 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms in 161 individuals from 13 Sahelian populations, which together with published data cover Western, Central, and Eastern Sahel, and include both nomadic and sedentary groups. We confirmed the role of this Belt as a main corridor for human migrations across the continent. Strong admixture was observed in both Central and Eastern Sahelian populations, with North Africans and Near Eastern/Arabians, respectively, but it was inexistent in Western Sahelian populations. Genome-wide local ancestry inference in admixed Sahelian populations revealed several candidate regions that were significantly enriched for non-autochthonous haplotypes, and many showed to be under positive selection. The DARC gene region in Arabs and Nubians was enriched for African ancestry, whereas the RAB3GAP1/LCT/MCM6 region in Oromo, the TAS2R gene family in Fulani, and the ALMS1/NAT8 in Turkana and Samburu were enriched for non-African ancestry. Signals of positive selection varied in terms of geographic amplitude. Some genomic regions were selected across the Belt, the most striking example being the malaria-related DARC gene. Others were Western-specific (oxytocin, calcium, and heart pathways), Eastern-specific (lipid pathways), or even population-restricted (TAS2R genes in Fulani, which may reflect sexual selection).

  6. ADSORPTION OF CHROMIUM (VI FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY DIFFERENT ADMIXTURES – A BATCH EQUILIBRIUM TEST STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. SHIVA PRASHANTH KUMAR

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wide variety of inorganic compounds such as nutrients and trace metals, organic chemicals, radioactive contaminants and pathogens are commonly present as contaminants in the groundwater. Migration of contaminants in soil involves important mechanisms such as molecular diffusion, dispersion under physical processes, adsorption, precipitation and oxidation - reduction under chemical processes and biodegradation under biological process. Cr (VI is a major and dangerous contaminant as per the ground water is concerned. There are numerous research work carried out with concentrated efforts by the researchers towards removal of Cr (VI contaminant from aqueous solutions. There are few studies relevant to Cr (VI removal with respect to utilization of low cost admixtures and also soil type. In the present study, different low cost admixtures like rice husk (RH, shredded tyre (ST and fly ash (FA are used to understand the performance in removal of Cr (VI from aqueous solution and also two different soil types are used along with the admixture. The results are discussed in terms of sorption capacity and performance of individual admixture and combination of admixture with soil in removal of contaminant. The fly ash, rice husk and shredded tyre admixtures are used and the results revealed that the shredded tyre showed higher performance in removal of contaminant concentration. Also, the soil which has more fine particle content (size<0.075 mm IS sieve showed reasonable reduction in concentration of contaminant at the lower levels of contaminant initial concentration. The sorption capacity results of Cr (VI contaminant, treated with various admixtures are further validated with the published work of other investigators. The shredded tyre (ST showed more adsorption capacity, i.e., 3.283 mg/g at pH of 4.8. For other admixtures, adsorption capacity value is varying in the range of 0.07 mg/g to 1.7 mg/g. Only in case of activated alumina and modified saw dust

  7. The Mechanism of the Eeffect of Mineral Admixtures on the Expansion of Aalkali-silica Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Aiqin; Niu Jishou; ZHANG Chengzhi

    2008-01-01

    On the base of the influence rule of silica fume, slag and fly ash on alkali-silica reaction under the condition of 70℃, the mechanism of the effect of mineral admixtures on alkali-silica reaction is studied further in the paper. The results show that the effects of mineral admixtures on alkali-silica reaction are mainly chemistry effect and surface physichemistry effect. Under suitable condition, the chemistry effect may make alkali-silica reaction to be inhibited effectively, but the physichemistry effect only make alkali-silica reaction to be delayed. The chemistry effect and the physichemistry effect of minerals admixture are relative to the content of Ca(OH)2 in system. Under the condition that there is a large quantity of Ca(OH)2, mineral admixture cannot inhibit alkali-silica reaction effectively. Only when Ca(OH)2 in the system is very less, it is possible that mineral admixture inhibits alkali-silica reaction effectively.

  8. Efficacy of Industrial waste admixture in Improving Engineering Performance of Clayey soil – A quantitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran B. Biradar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure and industrialization serves as a back bone for a country’s economy. However due to rapid industrialization there exist a problem in the form of waste accumulation and subsequent problems due to their disposal & effects of waste. In infrastructure development, roads play a major role. In general pavement construction needs bulk quantities of good soil keeping in view of the service and longevity aspects. Due to limitation in availability of good soil, often the cost of projects escalates. An ideal solution lies for reducing project cost, increasing longevity and reduce accumulation of waste shall be through utilization of industrial waste combined with weak soil for pavement construction. Few types of waste materials namely crusher dust, fly ash and Steel slag waste are popular as admixtures in improving weak soils. This paper discusses the performance of admixtures in improving weak soil through mechanical stabilization. Results of tests on index and engineering properties of mechanically stabilized clayey soil with industrial waste admixtures namely, crusher dust, fly ash and steel slag are presented for different admixture contents and test conditions. A comparison is made based on improved performance. It is observed that Steel slag is proven to be effective over other types. From the results optimum content of admixture for a given improvement is suggested.

  9. Mechanical Characteristics of Hardened Concrete with Different Mineral Admixtures: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The available literature identifies that the addition of mineral admixture as partial replacement of cement improves the microstructure of the concrete (i.e., porosity and pore size distribution) as well as increasing the mechanical characteristics such as drying shrinkage and creep, compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity; however, no single document is available in which review and comparison of the influence of the addition of these mineral admixtures on the mechanical characteristics of the hardened pozzolanic concretes are presented. In this paper, based on the reported results in the literature, mechanical characteristics of hardened concrete partially containing mineral admixtures including fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), metakaolin (MK), and rice husk ash (RHA) are discussed and it is concluded that the content and particle size of mineral admixture are the parameters which significantly influence the mechanical properties of concrete. All mineral admixtures enhance the mechanical properties of concrete except FA and GGBS which do not show a significant effect on the strength of concrete at 28 days; however, gain in strength at later ages is considerable. Moreover, the comparison of the mechanical characteristics of different pozzolanic concretes suggests that RHA and SF are competitive. PMID:24688443

  10. A deterministic model of admixture and genetic introgression: the case of Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forhan, Gerald; Martiel, Jean-Louis; Blum, Michael G B

    2008-11-01

    There is an ongoing debate in the field of human evolution about the possible contribution of Neanderthals to the modern human gene pool. To study how the Neanderthal private alleles may have spread over the genes of Homo sapiens, we propose a deterministic model based on recursive equations and ordinary differential equations. If the Neanderthal population was large compared to the Homo sapiens population at the beginning of the contact period, we show that genetic introgression should have been fast and complete meaning that most of the Neanderthal private alleles should be found in the modern human gene pool in case of ancient admixture. In order to test/reject ancient admixture from genome-wide data, we incorporate the model of genetic introgression into a statistical hypothesis-testing framework. We show that the power to reject ancient admixture increases as the ratio, at the time of putative admixture, of the population size of Homo sapiens over that of Neanderthal decreases. We find that the power to reject ancient admixture might be particularly low if the population size of Homo sapiens was comparable to the Neanderthal population size. PMID:18768141

  11. Genetic admixture and lineage separation in a southern Andean plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Santiago; Sede, Silvana M.

    2016-01-01

    varieties of E. alpina: var. alpina is more closely related to E. rubra and other species than to its own counterpart E. alpina var. carmelitana. Geometric morphometrics analysis (Elliptic Fourier descriptors) revealed significant differences in leaf shape between varieties. We found that diversity in Escallonia species analyzed here is geographically structured and deep divergence between varieties of E. alpina could be associated to ancient evolutionary events like orogeny. Admixture in southern populations could be the result of hybridization at the margins of the parental species’ distribution range. PMID:27179539

  12. Effect of Functional Chemical Admixtures on the Performance of Cement Asphalt Mortar Used in Ballastless Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jinyang; SHE Wei; LI Wei; PAN Li

    2015-01-01

    Chemical admixtures are of paramount importance to the performance of modern cement based composites. In this paper, we performed a series of tests to investigate the effects of chemical admixtures on the cement asphalt mortar (CA mortar), i e, compressive strength, frost resistance, permeability, fatigue resistance, pore structure and microstructure. In particular, two types of chemical admixtures were tested,i e, defoamer (tributyl phosphate (TBP)) and polycarboxylate superplasticizer (PS). The results indicate that the addition of TBP and PS eliminates big bubbles and promotes small non-connected pores forming in matrix. Besides, an optimum dosage of TBP and PS may be determined with respect to the frost resistance, permeability and fatigue resistance of CA mortar. Further elaborative discussions are presented as well as experimental evidences from mercury intrusion porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy.

  13. Effects of GH Admixture on the Early Strength of Fly Ash Concrete and Mortar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Jingfu; WANG Xiufen

    2008-01-01

    The enhancement effects of GH admixture on the early strengths of fly ash concrete and mortar were studied, and the mechanism was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electro microscope (SEM). Experimental results show that, by the incorporation of GH admixture, both of cement hydration and pozzolanic reaction of fly ash are accelerated, the strengths of fly ash concrete and mortar are enhanced noticeably, especially the early strength. With a mixture design of 200 kg/m3 OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement), 200 kg/m3 fly ash and 50 kg/m3 GH admixture, the strength of concrete at 1 d, 3 d and 28 d reaches 25 Mpa, 50 Mpa and 70 Mpa respectively.

  14. Population Genomics of sub-saharan Drosophila melanogaster: African diversity and non-African admixture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Pool

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster has played a pivotal role in the development of modern population genetics. However, many basic questions regarding the demographic and adaptive history of this species remain unresolved. We report the genome sequencing of 139 wild-derived strains of D. melanogaster, representing 22 population samples from the sub-Saharan ancestral range of this species, along with one European population. Most genomes were sequenced above 25X depth from haploid embryos. Results indicated a pervasive influence of non-African admixture in many African populations, motivating the development and application of a novel admixture detection method. Admixture proportions varied among populations, with greater admixture in urban locations. Admixture levels also varied across the genome, with localized peaks and valleys suggestive of a non-neutral introgression process. Genomes from the same location differed starkly in ancestry, suggesting that isolation mechanisms may exist within African populations. After removing putatively admixed genomic segments, the greatest genetic diversity was observed in southern Africa (e.g. Zambia, while diversity in other populations was largely consistent with a geographic expansion from this potentially ancestral region. The European population showed different levels of diversity reduction on each chromosome arm, and some African populations displayed chromosome arm-specific diversity reductions. Inversions in the European sample were associated with strong elevations in diversity across chromosome arms. Genomic scans were conducted to identify loci that may represent targets of positive selection within an African population, between African populations, and between European and African populations. A disproportionate number of candidate selective sweep regions were located near genes with varied roles in gene regulation. Outliers for Europe-Africa F(ST were found to be enriched in genomic regions of locally

  15. Portland cement hydration in the presence of admixtures: black gram pulse and superplasticizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveka Nand Dwivedi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of admixtures such as black gram pulse (BGP and sulfonated naphthalene based superplasticizer (SP on the hydration of Portland cement has been studied. The hydration characteristics of OPC in the presence of BGP and SP were studied with the help of non evaporable water content determinations, calorimetric method, Mössbauer spectroscopic and atomic force microscopic techniques. Results have shown that both BGP and SP get adsorbed at the surface of cement and its hydration products. The hydration of Portland cement is retarded in the presence of both the admixtures and nanosize hydration products are formed.

  16. Y-STR diversity and ethnic admixture in White and Mulatto Brazilian population samples

    OpenAIRE

    Luzitano Brandão Ferreira; Celso Teixeira Mendes-Junior; Cláudia Emília Vieira Wiezel; Marcelo Rizzatti Luizon; Aguinaldo Luiz Simões

    2006-01-01

    We investigated 50 Mulatto and 120 White Brazilians for the Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) markers (DYS19, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392 and DYS393) and found 79 different haplotypes in the White and 35 in the Mulatto sample. Admixture estimates based on allele frequencies showed that the admixture of the white sample was 89% European, 6% African and 5% Amerindian while the Mulatto sample was 93% European and 7% African. Results were consistent with historical records of the directional ma...

  17. Y-STR diversity and ethnic admixture in White and Mulatto Brazilian population samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzitano Brandão Ferreira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated 50 Mulatto and 120 White Brazilians for the Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR markers (DYS19, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392 and DYS393 and found 79 different haplotypes in the White and 35 in the Mulatto sample. Admixture estimates based on allele frequencies showed that the admixture of the white sample was 89% European, 6% African and 5% Amerindian while the Mulatto sample was 93% European and 7% African. Results were consistent with historical records of the directional mating between European males and Amerindian or African females.

  18. COMPUTER DESIGN OF PROCESSES OF MIGRATION OF ADMIXTURES IN NATURAL WATERS STREAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Savenko, V.; Bondarenko, L.

    2006-01-01

    In work new complex approach of research of processes of transfer of harmful admixtures is offered in natural streams, which is founded on the use of methods of three-dimensional computer design. Basic mathematical equalizations, description of software products, examples of numeral calculations, are resulted on the basis of the offered method

  19. Stabilization of Fine Sand with Ceramic Tiles Waste as Admixture for Construction of Embankment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Panwar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the stabilization of fine sand with Ceramic Tiles waste as admixture. As the fine sand has very low bearing capacity and compressive strength along with nil cohesion, thus the construction of any structure on fine soil required stabilization. This study discusses the possibility of fine sand stabilization using Ceramic Tile Waste as admixture. Present work has been taken up by addition of 4.75 mm sieve passed and 2.36 mm sieve retained Ceramic Tile Waste as admixture. The varying percentage 2%, 4%, 8% and 12% of ceramic tile waste were mixed with fine sand of different densities 1.50 gm/cc, 1.55 gm/cc and 1.58 gm/cc. All the Direct Shear Tests were conducted at different mix compositions of ceramic tile waste and fine sand of different dry densities as arrived from Standard Proctor Test. Falling-Head Permeability Tests were also performed on different mix compositions. On the basis of the experiments performed, it is determined that the stabilization of fine sand using ceramic tile waste as admixture improves the strength characteristics of the fine sand so that it becomes usable as construction of embankment.

  20. The scale and nature of Viking settlement in Ireland from Y-chromosome admixture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Brian; Brady, Claire; Moore, Laoise T; Bradley, Daniel G

    2006-12-01

    The Vikings (or Norse) played a prominent role in Irish history but, despite this, their genetic legacy in Ireland, which may provide insights into the nature and scale of their immigration, is largely unexplored. Irish surnames, some of which are thought to have Norse roots, are paternally inherited in a similar manner to Y-chromosomes. The correspondence of Scandinavian patrilineal ancestry in a cohort of Irish men bearing surnames of putative Norse origin was examined using both slow mutating unique event polymorphisms and relatively rapidly changing short tandem repeat Y-chromosome markers. Irish and Scandinavian admixture proportions were explored for both systems using six different admixture estimators, allowing a parallel investigation of the impact of method and marker type in Y-chromosome admixture analysis. Admixture proportion estimates in the putative Norse surname group were highly consistent and detected little trace of Scandinavian ancestry. In addition, there is scant evidence of Scandinavian Y-chromosome introgression in a general Irish population sample. Although conclusions are largely dependent on the accurate identification of Norse surnames, the findings are consistent with a relatively small number of Norse settlers (and descendents) migrating to Ireland during the Viking period (ca. AD 800-1200) suggesting that Norse colonial settlements might have been largely composed of indigenous Irish. This observation adds to previous genetic studies that point to a flexible Viking settlement approach across North Atlantic Europe.

  1. Recycling of tailings from Korea Molybdenum Corporation as admixture for high-fluidity concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Moon Young; Choi, Yun Wang; Jeong, Jae Gwon

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to develop an eco-friendly and a large recycling technique of flotation Tailings from korea (TK) from metal mines as construction materials such as admixtures for high-fluidity concrete (HFC). TK used in this study was obtained from the Korea Molybdenum Corporation in operation. TK was used as the alternative material to adjust flowability and viscosity of HFC in the form of powder agent which enables adjustment of concrete compressive strength. In this study, we have performed concrete rheological tests and concrete flowability tests to obtain the quality characteristics of TK for using as the admixture in producing HFC. The results indicated that the adequate mix ratio of cement to TK should be 8:2 (vol%). It is more effective to use the TK as admixture to control flowability, viscosity and strength of HFC than the normal concrete. It was found that TK could be recycled construction materials in bulk such as admixture for HFC, in terms of the economic and eco-friendly aspects. PMID:21113645

  2. What Causes Birth Order-Intelligence Patterns? The Admixture Hypothesis, Revived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee

    2001-01-01

    Describes why birth order interests both parents and researchers, discussing what really causes apparent birth order effects on intelligence, examining problems with using cross-sectional intelligence data, and noting how to move beyond cross-sectional inferences. Explains the admixture hypothesis, which finds that family size is much more…

  3. Chemical Stability of Admixtures Combining Ziconotide with Morphine or Hydromorphone During Simul ated Intrathecal Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David; Montenegro, Rick; Ragusa, Matthew

    2005-10-01

    Objective.  To determine the stability of admixtures combining ziconotide with morphine or hydromorphone under simulated intrathecal infusions. Materials and Methods.  Admixtures of ziconotide (25 µg/mL) with morphine or hydromorphone (both at 35 mg/mL) were stored in Medtronic SynchroMed® II pumps at 37°C, and in control vials at 37°C and 5°C. Drug concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results.  The ziconotide pump concentration with morphine declined to 79% of initial in 17 days, and to 88% of initial after 25 days with hydromorphone. Ziconotide concentrations in control vials stored at 37°C displayed similar rates of decay, but vials stored at 5°C exhibited no ziconotide loss. A statistical evaluation of the two combinations shows ziconotide-hydromorphone retaining 80% stability for 40 days (extrapolated), compared to 15 days for ziconotide-morphine. Morphine and hydromorphone were stable in the presence of ziconotide under all conditions. Conclusions.  Ziconotide-hydromorphone admixtures were more stable than ziconotide-morphine admixtures. PMID:22151554

  4. Diffusion Decay Coefficient for Chloride Ions of Concrete Containing Mineral Admixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Im Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion coefficient for chloride ions and the diffusion decay coefficient for chloride ions are essential variables for a service life evaluation of concrete structures. They are influenced by water-binder ratio, exposure condition, curing temperature, cement type, and the type and use of mineral admixture. Mineral admixtures such as ground granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash, and silica fume have been increasingly used to improve resistance against chloride ions penetration in concrete structures built in an offshore environment. However, there is not enough measured data to identify the statistical properties of diffusion decay coefficient for chloride ions in concrete using mineral admixtures. This paper is aimed at evaluating the diffusion decay coefficient for chloride ions of concrete using ordinary Portland cement or blended cement. NT BUILD 492 method, an electrophoresis experiment, was used to measure the diffusion coefficient for chloride ions with ages. It was revealed from the test results that the diffusion decay coefficient for chloride ions was significantly influenced by W/B and the replacement ratio of mineral admixtures.

  5. Population admixture, biological invasions and the balance between local adaptation and inbreeding depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Macel, M.; Wolfe, L.M.; Biere, A.

    2011-01-01

    When previously isolated populations meet and mix, the resulting admixed population can benefit from several genetic advantages, including increased genetic variation, the creation of novel genotypes and the masking of deleterious mutations. These admixture benefits are thought to play an important

  6. Zinc content of commercial diluents widely used in drug admixtures prepared for intravenous infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Narendra R; Shah, Syed M; Koczone, Julianna; Vencl-Joncic, Maja; Sisto, Christopher; Ludwig, Stephen A

    2007-01-01

    During ongoing quality improvement efforts with two Wyeth parenteral products, Protonix and Zosyn, we noted that dosing solutions prepared from the products yielded inconsistent results on the United States Pharmacopeia Chapter 788 test for subvisible particulates. This manuscript discusses variables that have a direct impact on intravenous products meeting compendial monograph specifications under conditions that are encountered in the clinical setting. The rubber stoppers of vials used for parenteral products, different parts of commercial admixture bags, and the tubing of the administration sets and devices contain residual amounts of metal ions, plasticizers, and other additives incorparated for specific functions. The transition metal ions, including zinc and copper, may leach into drug products during manufacture and during storage of dosing admixture bags prepared for infusion in hospital pharmacies or clinics. The metal ions may compromise the quality of the infusion admixture through catalytic drug degradation and/or generation of undesirable metal ion complexes, which may convert soluble drug molecules into insoluble particulates. To preserve the quality of the drug product, it is essential that metal ion leachables be controlled proactively during manufacture of the drug product; knowledge of metal ion contents in the commercial diluents use for reconstitution, admixture preparation, and flushing of the administration lines is also critical. PMID:23969523

  7. Effects of Admixtures on the Properties of Corn Cob Ash Cement Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeem Ayinde RAHEEM

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effects of admixtures on the properties of corn cob ash (CCA cement concrete. The workability and compressive strength of CCA cement concrete incorporated with accelerator, plasticizer and water reducing and retarding were carried out. The dosage of admixture incorporated was: 0.124litre per 15.55kg of cementitious material based on the recommendation by BS EN 934-2.The results revealed that admixtures generally improve the workability of corn cob ash cement concrete. The compressive strength obtained at 28th day for concrete without admixture (The Control was 29.82N/mm2, while for concrete with accelerator, plasticizer, and water reducing and retarding it was 32.80 N/mm2, 38.51 N/mm2 and 34.09 N/mm2 respectively. These results showed that CCA cement concrete incorporated with accelerator achieved greater strength at early ages. With plasticizer, it achieved very high strength at both young and old ages; while with water reducing and retarding it achieved greater strength at old ages alone.

  8. The Role of Recent Admixture in Forming the Contemporary West Eurasian Genomic Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, George B.J.; Hellenthal, Garrett; Montinaro, Francesco; Tofanelli, Sergio; Bulayeva, Kazima; Rudan, Igor; Zemunik, Tatijana; Hayward, Caroline; Toncheva, Draga; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Nesheva, Desislava; Anagnostou, Paolo; Cali, Francesco; Brisighelli, Francesca; Romano, Valentino; Lefranc, Gerard; Buresi, Catherine; Ben Chibani, Jemni; Haj-Khelil, Amel; Denden, Sabri; Ploski, Rafal; Krajewski, Pawel; Hervig, Tor; Moen, Torolf; Herrera, Rene J.; Wilson, James F.; Myers, Simon; Capelli, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Summary Over the past few years, studies of DNA isolated from human fossils and archaeological remains have generated considerable novel insight into the history of our species. Several landmark papers have described the genomes of ancient humans across West Eurasia, demonstrating the presence of large-scale, dynamic population movements over the last 10,000 years, such that ancestry across present-day populations is likely to be a mixture of several ancient groups [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. While these efforts are bringing the details of West Eurasian prehistory into increasing focus, studies aimed at understanding the processes behind the generation of the current West Eurasian genetic landscape have been limited by the number of populations sampled or have been either too regional or global in their outlook [8, 9, 10, 11]. Here, using recently described haplotype-based techniques [11], we present the results of a systematic survey of recent admixture history across Western Eurasia and show that admixture is a universal property across almost all groups. Admixture in all regions except North Western Europe involved the influx of genetic material from outside of West Eurasia, which we date to specific time periods. Within Northern, Western, and Central Europe, admixture tended to occur between local groups during the period 300 to 1200 CE. Comparisons of the genetic profiles of West Eurasians before and after admixture show that population movements within the last 1,500 years are likely to have maintained differentiation among groups. Our analysis provides a timeline of the gene flow events that have generated the contemporary genetic landscape of West Eurasia. PMID:26387712

  9. Genetic analysis of ancestry, admixture and selection in Bolivian and Totonac populations of the New World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watkins W

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Populations of the Americas were founded by early migrants from Asia, and some have experienced recent genetic admixture. To better characterize the native and non-native ancestry components in populations from the Americas, we analyzed 815,377 autosomal SNPs, mitochondrial hypervariable segments I and II, and 36 Y-chromosome STRs from 24 Mesoamerican Totonacs and 23 South American Bolivians. Results and Conclusions We analyzed common genomic regions from native Bolivian and Totonac populations to identify 324 highly predictive Native American ancestry informative markers (AIMs. As few as 40–50 of these AIMs perform nearly as well as large panels of random genome-wide SNPs for predicting and estimating Native American ancestry and admixture levels. These AIMs have greater New World vs. Old World specificity than previous AIMs sets. We identify highly-divergent New World SNPs that coincide with high-frequency haplotypes found at similar frequencies in all populations examined, including the HGDP Pima, Maya, Colombian, Karitiana, and Surui American populations. Some of these regions are potential candidates for positive selection. European admixture in the Bolivian sample is approximately 12%, though individual estimates range from 0–48%. We estimate that the admixture occurred ~360–384 years ago. Little evidence of European or African admixture was found in Totonac individuals. Bolivians with pre-Columbian mtDNA and Y-chromosome haplogroups had 5–30% autosomal European ancestry, demonstrating the limitations of Y-chromosome and mtDNA haplogroups and the need for autosomal ancestry informative markers for assessing ancestry in admixed populations.

  10. Effect of high doses of chemical admixtures on the strength development and freeze-thaw durability of portland cement mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Charles J.

    This thesis examines the low-temperature strength development of portland cement concrete made with high doses of chemical admixtures dissolved in the mixing water and the possible beneficial effect of these admixtures on that concrete's long-term freeze-thaw durability. The literature shows that high doses of chemical admixtures can protect fresh concrete against freezing and that, under certain conditions, these admixtures can enhance the freeze-thaw durability of concrete. The challenge is that there are no acceptance standards in the U.S. that allow chemicals to be used to protect concrete against freezing. Also, the perception is that chemicals might somehow harm the concrete. This perception seems to be based on the fact that deicing salts, when applied to concrete pavement, cause roadways to scale away. This study investigated the effect of high doses of commercially available admixtures on fresh concrete while it gained strength at low temperature and on hardened concrete exposed to repeated cycles of freezing and thawing in a moist environment. The reason for studying off-the-shelf admixtures was that these materials are approved for use in concrete; they were already governed by their own set of standards. Four mortars were examined, each with a different cement and water content, when dosed with five commercial admixtures. This allowed the fresh mortar to gain appreciable strength when it was kept at nearly -10C. The admixtures also enhanced the freeze-thaw durability of the mortar, even when it was not air-entrained. Clearly, as the dosage of admixture increased beyond approximately 22% by weight of water, the mortar appeared to be unaffected by up to 700 cycles of freezing and thawing.

  11. Anti-chloride permeability and anti-chloride corrodibility of a green high performance concrete admixture in concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yongbao; LIU Xinrong; LIU Dongyan; CHEN Jiangong; HUANG Xiongjun

    2003-01-01

    The effects of green high performance concrete (GHPC) admixture on the anti-chloride permeability and anti- chloride corrodibility of concrete are studied by a series of experiments designed on the basis of the diffusion principle and electrochemical principle. The GHPC admixture consists of fly ash, gangue, slag, red mud, etc., of which the mass fraction of industrial residues is over 96 %. The anti-permeabilities and anti-corrodibilities of the tested GHPC and normal concrete (NC) are evaluated by the Diffusion Coefficients of chloride which was obtained by measuring the concentration of chloride in the tested systems by the voltage difference method. It is found that the adoption of GHPC admixture greatly improves the anti-chloride permeability and anti-chloride corrodibility by modifying the inner structure and contracting the porosity of concrete to the reduce considerably the diffusion rate of chloride. The admixture is desirable regarding its engineering performances as well as economical and environmental interests.

  12. Shrinkage and cracking behavior of high performance concretes containing chemical admixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓萌; 李宗津; 马保国

    2002-01-01

    Modern concretes often incorporate several chemical admixtures to alter the properties of fresh or hardened concrete. In this work, the influences of three types of chemical admixtures, calcium nitrite inhibitor (CNI), retarder (D-17) and superplasticizer (W-19) on free shrinkage and restrained shrinkage cracking of high performance concrete were experimentally investigated. The test results showed that, with the same water to binder ratio (0.4), mixtures containing D-17 of 0.25 percent or higher ratio of W-19 (2.76 percent) all exhibited a reduction in free shrinkage and shrinkage cracking width. However, the incorporations of various ratios of CNI into mixtures led to an increase in free shrinkage and shrinkage cracking width as compared to control mixture. In order to study the influence of CNI, the microstructure of concrete mixture containing CNI were investigated by Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry as well as Scanning Electronic Microscopy(SEM) technique.

  13. Standard test method for initial screening of corrosion inhibiting admixtures for steel in concrete

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for determining the effects of chemical admixtures on the corrosion of metals in concrete. This test method can be used to evaluate materials intended to inhibit chloride-induced corrosion of steel in concrete. It can also be used to evaluate the corrosivity of admixtures by themselves or in a chloride environment. This test is not applicable for emulsions. 1.2 &solely-SI-units; 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  14. Utilization of black liquor as concrete admixture and set retarder aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar A. El-Mekkawi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of black liquor, produced by the pulp and paper industry in Egypt, as a workability aid and set retarder admixture has been investigated. This approach may help eliminate the environmentally polluting black liquor waste. It also provides a low cost by-product, which can be widely used in the construction industry. The properties of black liquor and its performance on concrete at two different ratios of water to cement have been studied. The results revealed that black liquor from rice straw pulp increases concrete workability, improves compaction, and reduces honeycombing. Moreover, it retards the initial and final set time and enhances uniform compaction. The effect of incorporating small portions of silica fume has been investigated. The ageing effect of this material over a period of one year, to determine its safe storage period, has been studied. Finally, this admixture was found to comply with the relevant Egyptian standards.

  15. Influence of Mineral Admixtures on the Electro-deposition Healing Effect of Concrete Cracks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Hongqiang; JIANG Linhua; YOU Lushen; XU Ning; SONG Zijian; ZHANG Yan

    2014-01-01

    Two types of solutions (ZnSO4, MgSO4) were selected to study the influence of mineral admixtures on the electro-deposition healing effect of concrete cracks. Four parameters (i e, rates of weight gain, surface coating, crack closure and crack filling depth) were measured. The mineral composition of electro-deposits in the cracks was analyzed. The study shows that the healing effect of mortar specimens with 10%fly ash is the worst, while the healing effect of mortar specimens with 20%fly ash is better than that of the specimens without fly ash. The rates of weight gain, surface coating, crack closure and crack filling depth decrease with increasing content of the ground granulated blast-furnace slag(GGBS). The mineral admixtures have no influence on the composition of deposits.

  16. Admixture analysis of stocked brown trout populations using mapped microsatellite DNA markers: indigenous trout persist in introgressed populations

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Michael M; Mensberg, Karen-Lise D.

    2009-01-01

    Admixture between wild and captive populations is an increasing concern in conservation biology. Understanding the extent of admixture and the processes involved requires identification of admixed and non-admixed individuals. This can be achieved by statistical methods employing Bayesian clustering, but resolution is low if genetic differentiation is weak. Here, we analyse stocked brown trout populations represented by historical (1943–1956) and contemporary (2000s) samples, where genetic dif...

  17. Genome-wide Scan of 29,141 African Americans Finds No Evidence of Directional Selection since Admixture

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, Gaurav; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The extent of recent selection in admixed populations is currently an unresolved question. We scanned the genomes of 29,141 African Americans and failed to find any genome-wide-significant deviations in local ancestry, indicating no evidence of selection influencing ancestry after admixture. A recent analysis of data from 1,890 African Americans reported that there was evidence of selection in African Americans after their ancestors left Africa, both before and after admixture. Selection afte...

  18. PREDICTION OF GLOBAL AND LOCAL SIMMENTAL AND RED HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN ADMIXTURE LEVELS IN SWISS FLECKVIEH CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Khayatzadeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we estimated levels of local ancestry for individuals of the Swiss Fleckvieh dairy cattle population. It is a composite breed descending from two pure breeds, Simmental (SIM and Red Holstein Friesian (RHF. Illumina BovineSNP50 Beadchip genotyping data for a total of 500 pure and admixed animals were used for the analysis. The global ancestries estimated by Hidden Markov model were 0.68 and 0.32 for RHF and SIM respectively. Local ancestry levels investigated along chromosomes 2, 3 and 13 indicated that there were some regions across the chromosomes exhibiting substantial fluctuations in admixture. On chromosome 2, in the range of 28 to 31, 41 to 46 and 54 to 56 Mb RHF ancestry is substantially higher than average (0.77-0.78. These regions on chromosome 2 are wide, indicating recent admixture. Along the segments on chromosome 2, many QTLs related to dairy, conformation, reproduction, health and carcass traits were found. We observed sharper excess in favour of SIM on chromosome 3, whereas different regions with excess of RHF and SIM were found out on Chromosome 13. At the first part of chromosome 13, an excess of RHF was observed. Moreover, in regions between 40 and 57 Mb excess of SIM, referred to recent admixture was detected. In respect of RHF chromosome segments in admixed animals, dairy, reproduction and health QTLs were found. In positions where more Simmental segments were detected, QTLs related to meat and carcass traits as well as udder health traits were found. In conclusion, the authors believe that estimation of local admixture levels in crossbred populations can add information to the composite breeds history of selection.

  19. Intraspecific genetic admixture and the morphological diversification of an estuarine fish population complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Julian J; Bourret, Audrey; Barrette, Marie France; Turgeon, Julie; Daigle, Gaétan; Legault, Michel; Lecomte, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The North-east American Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) is composed of two glacial races first identified through the spatial distribution of two distinct mtDNA lineages. Contemporary breeding populations of smelt in the St. Lawrence estuary comprise contrasting mixtures of both lineages, suggesting that the two races came into secondary contact in this estuary. The overall objective of this study was to assess the role of intraspecific genetic admixture in the morphological diversification of the estuarine rainbow smelt population complex. The morphology of mixed-ancestry populations varied as a function of the relative contribution of the two races to estuarine populations, supporting the hypothesis of genetic admixture. Populations comprising both ancestral mtDNA races did not exhibit intermediate morphologies relative to pure populations but rather exhibited many traits that exceeded the parental trait values, consistent with the hypothesis of transgressive segregation. Evidence for genetic admixture at the level of the nuclear gene pool, however, provided only partial support for this hypothesis. Variation at nuclear AFLP markers revealed clear evidence of the two corresponding mtDNA glacial races. The admixture of the two races at the nuclear level is only pronounced in mixed-ancestry populations dominated by one of the mtDNA lineages, the same populations showing the greatest degree of morphological diversification and population structure. In contrast, mixed-ancestry populations dominated by the alternate mtDNA lineage showed little evidence of introgression of the nuclear genome, little morphological diversification and little contemporary population genetic structure. These results only partially support the hypothesis of transgressive segregation and may be the result of the differential effects of natural selection acting on admixed genomes from different sources. PMID:25856193

  20. Intraspecific Genetic Admixture and the Morphological Diversification of an Estuarine Fish Population Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Dodson, Julian J.; Bourret, Audrey; Barrette, Marie France; Turgeon, Julie; Daigle, Gaétan; Legault, Michel; Lecomte, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The North-east American Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) is composed of two glacial races first identified through the spatial distribution of two distinct mtDNA lineages. Contemporary breeding populations of smelt in the St. Lawrence estuary comprise contrasting mixtures of both lineages, suggesting that the two races came into secondary contact in this estuary. The overall objective of this study was to assess the role of intraspecific genetic admixture in the morphological diversification of...

  1. Plant cover and water balance in gravel admixtures at an arid waste-burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolation of radioactive waste buried in unsaturated zones will require long-term control of recharge and erosion. Soil covers control recharge at and sites by storing rainwater close enough to the surface to be removed by evapotranspiration. Surface layers of rock or gravel control erosion at sites with sparse vegetation, but can also alter plant habitat and cause recharge through interred waste. As an alternative, gravel mixed into the uppermost soil law may control erosion ever the king-term better than surface gravel layers. Gravel admixtures may also not influence plant establishment or sod water balance in waste-site covers. The interactive effects of gravel admixture concentration, vegetation, and precipitation on soil water content and plant cover were measured at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Results support use of a combination of vegetation and gravel admixtures for erosion control. Vegetation seasonally depleted root zone water storage to about 6.5 volume % regardless of precipitation amount or the presence of gravel admixture amendments. In contrast, yearly increases in soil water storage as deep as 225 cm in plots without vegetation may be a leading indicator of recharge. The composition and abundance of vegetation changed over time and with precipitation amount, but was not influenced by gravel amendments. Seeded wheatgrasses [Agropyron sibericum Wilde and Agropyron dasystachyum (Hook.) Scribn.] established only when irrigated with twice average precipitation, but persisted after the irrigation ceased. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) and Russian thistle (Salsola kali L.) colonized areas receiving both irrigation and ambient precipitation. Stands with wheatgrasses extracted water more rapidly and depleted soil water to lower levels than cheatgrass-dominated stands. Increases in gravel cover and near-surface gravel concentrations after 5 yr were evidence of the formation of a protective gravel veneer. 44 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes González-Ruiz

    Full Text Available A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1 whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly, or 2 whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan. Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk, but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

  3. Compatibility between base concrete made with different chemical admixtures and surface hardener

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro-Alves, M.ª Teresa; Sequeira, Ana Rita; Bettencourt Ribeiro, António

    2012-01-01

    Many cases of cracking and detachment of the concrete surface have appeared in concrete floors where surface hardeners were used in Portugal. The main causes for cracking and delamination of trowelled concrete pavements are several and it is essential to control bleeding and the time available to perform the finishing operations. Several base concretes were made with different chemical admixtures and one type of surface hardeners. The purpose of this study was evaluating the influence of the ...

  4. Lime-based repair mortars with water-repellent admixtures: laboratory durability assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, C.; Slížková, Z. (Zuzana)

    2015-01-01

    Conservation of architectural structures using lime binders is currently an important research topic aiming compatibility, durability and sustainability. In this study, lime (L) and lime-metakaolin (LM) mortars were prepared with the addition of water-repellent admixtures: linseed oil, stand oil and a silane based water-repellent. Experimental results demonstrate that oil imparts higher hydrophobicity to both L and LM mixtures. Durability was assessed through freeze-thaw and NaCl crystal...

  5. Dissecting the genetic structure and admixture of four geographical Malay populations

    OpenAIRE

    Lian Deng; Boon-Peng Hoh; Dongsheng Lu; Woei-Yuh Saw; Rick Twee-Hee Ong; Anuradhani Kasturiratne; H Janaka de Silva; Bin Alwi Zilfalil; Norihiro Kato; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R; Yik-Ying Teo; Shuhua Xu

    2015-01-01

    The Malay people are an important ethnic composition in Southeast Asia, but their genetic make-up and population structure remain poorly studied. Here we conducted a genome-wide study of four geographical Malay populations: Peninsular Malaysian Malay (PMM), Singaporean Malay (SGM), Indonesian Malay (IDM) and Sri Lankan Malay (SLM). All the four Malay populations showed substantial admixture with multiple ancestries. We identified four major ancestral components in Malay populations: Austrones...

  6. Effect of water-repellent admixtures on the behaviour of aerial lime-based mortars

    OpenAIRE

    Izaguirre, A.; Lanas, J.; Alvarez, J I

    2009-01-01

    Two different anionic surfactants, sodium oleate and calcium stearate, commercialized as water repellents for cement-based mortars, were added to lime-based mortars in order to check whether they were improved by these admixtures. Different properties of lime-based mortars were evaluated: fresh state behaviour through water retention, air content and setting time, hardened state properties such as density, water absorption through capillarity, water vapour permeability, long-term compressive ...

  7. Reduction in nitrate leaching from a concrete waste form by using waterproofing admixture additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Admixture additions of active lime and tricalcium aluminate reduced leach rate about 20% during a seven-day test of a concrete waste form containing a nitrate bearing, aqueous waste. CaO was 5% more effective and, in SEM examination, appeared to hydrate to CaOH which expanded in the concrete pores and blocked water movement. Over time, this compound appeared to dissolve slowly in the water, and the barrier layer it produced slowly receded into the specimen interior

  8. Profile of Intravenous Admixture Compatibility in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sharly Dwijayanti; Sylvi Irawati; Eko Setiawan

    2016-01-01

    which may directly impact to the outcome of treatment to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. The objective of this study was to identify the profile of compatibility and incompatibility among IV admixtures given to the ICU patients. This observational research was conducted prospectively to the patients admitted in the ICU at a private hospital in Surabaya from October–December 2014. In this research, compatibility data of IV drug and its solution was compared with drug brochure and Handb...

  9. Search for admixture of heavy neutrinos with masses between 5 and 55 keV

    OpenAIRE

    Markey, J.; Boehm, F.

    1985-01-01

    Using a magnetic spectrometer at a momentum resolution of 0.3%, we have studied the beta spectrum from 35S. We do not see evidence for the admixture of a heavy neutrino to the usual light (m~0) ν̃e accompanying beta decay, in the mass range between 5 and 50 keV, with a limit for the mixing strength of |U|2

  10. Rate of decay in admixture linkage disequilibrium and its implication in gene mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Modeling linkage disequilibria (LD) between genes usually observed in admixed natural populations has been shown an effective approach in high-resolution mapping of disease genes in humans. A prerequisite to obtain accurate estimation of recombination fraction between genes at a marker locus and the disease locus using the approach is a reliable prediction of the proportion of the admixture populations. The present study suggested the use of gene frequencies to predict the estimate of the admixture propor-tion based on the observation that the gene frequencies are much more stable quantities than the haplotype frequencies over evolution of the population. In this paper, we advanced the theory and methods by which the decay rate of nonlinear term of LD in admixed population may be used to estimate the recombination fraction between the genes. Theoretical analysis and simulation study indicate that, the larger the difference of gene frequencies between parental populations and the more closely the admixture proportion approaches 0.5, the more important the nonlinear term of the LD in the admixed population, and hence the more informative such admixed populations in the high-resolution gene mapping practice.

  11. Effect of Chemical Admixtures on the Engineering Properties of Tropical Peat Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujang B.K. Huat

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This research describes a study on the effect of chemical (cement and lime admixtures on the index and engineering properties (compaction and unconfined strength of tropical peat soils. The ordinary Portland cement and hydrated lime were used. The amounts cement and lime added to the peat soil sample, as a percentage of the dry soil mass was in the range of 5-15% and 5-25%, respectively. The results of the study show that the addition of the chemical admixture, cement and lime, can improve the engineering properties of tropical peat soils. The soil liquid limit is found to decrease with an increase in the cement and lime content. The soil maximum dry density is found to increase while the optimum water content is found to decrease with an increase in the cement and lime content. The unconfined compressive strength of the soil is found to increase significantly with increase in cement and lime content, especially after a long curing period. However it is also found that higher organic content of the soil negate the positive effect of the cement and lime in altering (improving the mechanical properties of the soil. When comparing the performance of the cement and lime as a chemical admixture for the tropical peat soil, the ordinary Portland cement appears to perform better than the hydrated lime.

  12. Analysis of admixture and genetic structure of two Native American groups of Southern Argentinean Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Andrea; Corach, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Argentinean Patagonia is inhabited by people that live principally in urban areas and by small isolated groups of individuals that belong to indigenous aboriginal groups; this territory exhibits the lowest population density of the country. Mapuche and Tehuelche (Mapudungun linguistic branch), are the only extant Native American groups that inhabit the Argentinean Patagonian provinces of Río Negro and Chubut. Fifteen autosomal STRs, 17 Y-STRs, mtDNA full length control region sequence and two sets of Y and mtDNA-coding region SNPs were analyzed in a set of 434 unrelated individuals. The sample set included two aboriginal groups, a group of individuals whose family name included Native American linguistic root and urban samples from Chubut, Río Negro and Buenos Aires provinces of Argentina. Specific Y Amerindian haplogroup Q1 was found in 87.5% in Mapuche and 58.82% in Tehuelche, while the Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups were present in all the aboriginal sample contributors investigated. Admixture analysis performed by means of autosomal and Y-STRs showed the highest degree of admixture in individuals carrying Mapuche surnames, followed by urban populations, and finally by isolated Native American populations as less degree of admixture. The study provided novel genetic information about the Mapuche and Tehuelche people and allowed us to establish a genetic correlation among individuals with Mapudungun surnames that demonstrates not only a linguistic but also a genetic relationship to the isolated aboriginal communities, representing a suitable proxy indicator for assessing genealogical background.

  13. Chemical stability of an admixture combining ziconotide and bupivacaine during simulated intrathecal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David; Montenegro, Rick; Aclan, Jennifer

    2007-10-01

    Objective.  To determine the stability of an admixture combining ziconotide with bupivacaine hydrochloride during simulated intrathecal infusion under laboratory conditions at 37°. Materials and Methods.  An admixture containing ziconotide (25 µg/mL) and bupivacaine hydrochloride (5 mg/mL) was stored in SynchroMed® II pumps at 37° and in control vials at either 37° or 5°. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, drug concentrations were determined from samples obtained at varying intervals during the 30-day study. Results.  After 30 days, pump ziconotide and bupivacaine hydrochloride concentrations measured an average of 86.9% and 99.4% of their initial concentrations, respectively. Control vials displayed similar degradation rates for both drugs. Statistical evaluation of the ziconotide 95% confidence interval indicated that the ziconotide concentration would meet or exceed 90% and 80% of initial concentration for 22 days and 45 days, respectively. Conclusions.  An admixture containing 25 µg/mL ziconotide and 5 mg/mL bupivacaine hydrochloride was 90% stable for 22 days and 80% stable for 45 days (extrapolated) in SynchroMed® II infusion pumps. PMID:22150945

  14. Study on Strength and Microstructure of Cement-Based Materials Containing Combination Mineral Admixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijuan Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The compressive strength of complex binders containing two or three blended mineral admixtures in terms of glass powder (GP, limestone powder (LP, and steel slag powder (SP was determined by a battery solution type compressive testing machine. The morphology and microstructure characteristics of complex binder hydration products were also studied by microscopic analysis methods, such as XRD, TG-DTA, and SEM. The mechanical properties of the cement-based materials were analyzed to reveal the most appropriate mineral admixture type and content. The early sample strength development with GP was very slow, but it rapidly grew at later stages. The micro aggregate effect and pozzolanic reaction mutually occurred in the mineral admixture. In the early stage, the micro aggregate effect reduced paste porosity and the small particles connected with the cement hydration products to enhance its strength. In the later stage, the pozzolanic reaction of some components in the complex powder occurred and consumed part of the calcium hydroxide to form C-S-H gel, thus improving the hydration environment. Also, the produced C-S-H gel made the structure more compact, which improved the structure’s strength.

  15. Effect of chemical admixtures on properties of high-calcium fly ash geopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanasak, Ubolluk; Pankhet, Kanokwan; Chindaprasirt, Prinya

    2011-06-01

    Owing to the high viscosity of sodium silicate solution, fly ash geopolymer has the problems of low workability and rapid setting time. Therefore, the effect of chemical admixtures on the properties of fly ash geopolymer was studied to overcome the rapid set of the geopolymer in this paper. High-calcium fly ash and alkaline solution were used as starting materials to synthesize the geopolymer. Calcium chloride, calcium sulfate, sodium sulfate, and sucrose at dosages of 1wt% and 2wt% of fly ash were selected as admixtures based on concrete knowledge to improve the properties of the geopolymer. The setting time, compressive strength, and degree of reaction were recorded, and the microstructure was examined. The results show that calcium chloride significantly shortens both the initial and final setting times of the geopolymer paste. In addition, sucrose also delays the final setting time significantly. The degrees of reaction of fly ash in the geopolymer paste with the admixtures are all higher than those of the control paste. This contributes to the obvious increases in compressive strength.

  16. Chemical, Mechanical, and Durability Properties of Concrete with Local Mineral Admixtures under Sulfate Environment in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingke Nie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the vast Northwest China, arid desert contains high concentrations of sulfate, chloride, and other chemicals in the ground water, which poses serious challenges to infrastructure construction that routinely utilizes portland cement concrete. Rapid industrialization in the region has been generating huge amounts of mineral admixtures, such as fly ash and slags from energy and metallurgical industries. These industrial by-products would turn into waste materials if not utilized in time. The present study evaluated the suitability of utilizing local mineral admixtures in significant quantities for producing quality concrete mixtures that can withstand the harsh chemical environment without compromising the essential mechanical properties. Comprehensive chemical, mechanical, and durability tests were conducted in the laboratory to characterize the properties of the local cementitious mineral admixtures, cement mortar and portland cement concrete mixtures containing these admixtures. The results from this study indicated that the sulfate resistance of concrete was effectively improved by adding local class F fly ash and slag, or by applying sulfate resistance cement to the mixtures. It is noteworthy that concrete containing local mineral admixtures exhibited much lower permeability (in terms of chloride ion penetration than ordinary portland cement concrete while retaining the same mechanical properties; whereas concrete mixtures made with sulfate resistance cement had significantly reduced strength and much increased chloride penetration comparing to the other mixtures. Hence, the use of local mineral admixtures in Northwest China in concrete mixtures would be beneficial to the performance of concrete, as well as to the protection of environment.

  17. Admixture as a tool for finding linked genes and detecting that difference from allelic association between loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, R; Weiss, K M

    1988-12-01

    Admixture between genetically different populations may produce gametic association between gene loci as a function of the genetic difference between parental populations and the admixture rate. This association decays as a function of time since admixture and the recombination rate between the loci. Admixture between genetically long-separated human populations has been frequent in the centuries since the age of exploration and colonization, resulting in numerous hybrid descendant populations today, as in the Americas. This represents a natural experiment for genetic epidemiology and anthropology, in which to use polymorphic marker loci (e.g., restriction fragment length polymorphisms) and disequilibrium to infer a genetic basis for traits of interest. In this paper we show that substantial disequilibrium remains today under widely applicable situations, which can be detected without requiring inordinately close linkage between trait and marker loci. Very disparate parental allele frequencies produce large disequilibrium, but the sample size needed to detect such levels of disequilibrium can be large due to the skewed haplotype frequency distribution in the admixed population. Such situations, however, provide power to differentiate between disequilibrium due just to population mixing from that due to physical linkage of loci--i.e., to help map the genetic locus of the trait. A gradient of admixture levels between the same parental populations may be used to test genetic models by relating admixture to disequilibrium levels.

  18. Chemical stability of ziconotide-clonidine hydrochloride admixtures with and without morphine sulfate during simulated intrathecal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David; Montenegro, Rick

    2007-10-01

    Objective.  To determine the stability of ziconotide-clonidine hydrochloride admixtures with and without morphine sulfate during simulated intrathecal infusion under laboratory conditions at 37°. Materials and Methods.  Admixtures of ziconotide (25 µg/mL) and clonidine hydrochloride (2 mg/mL) with and without morphine sulfate (35 mg/mL) were stored in Medtronic SynchroMed® II pumps at 37°. Pumps were sampled immediately after filling and at four additional time points over the course of 28 (ziconotide-clonidine hydrochloride admixture) or 20 (ziconotide-clonidine hydrochloride-morphine sulfate admixture) days. Drug concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results.  Ziconotide concentration exceeded 97% of initial at all time points when combined with clonidine alone; statistical evaluation indicated that both ziconotide and clonidine concentrations would remain above 90% of initial for more than 60 days. When compounded with both clonidine and morphine, ziconotide and clonidine concentrations declined; statistical evaluation indicated that the ziconotide concentration was 70% of initial after 20 days, and that clonidine would remain 90% stable for 42 days. Morphine was stable in the presence of ziconotide and clonidine. Conclusions.  A ziconotide-clonidine admixture was 90% stable for 60 days (extrapolated), and a ziconotide-clonidine-morphine admixture was 70% stable for 20 days. PMID:22150946

  19. Admixture mapping of end stage kidney disease genetic susceptibility using estimated mutual information ancestry informative markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geiger Dan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question of a genetic contribution to the higher prevalence and incidence of end stage kidney disease (ESKD among African Americans (AA remained unresolved, until recent findings using admixture mapping pointed to the association of a genomic locus on chromosome 22 with this disease phenotype. In the current study we utilize this example to demonstrate the utility of applying a multi-step admixture mapping approach. Methods A multi-step case only admixture mapping study, consisted of the following steps was designed: 1 Assembly of the sample dataset (ESKD AA; 2 Design of the estimated mutual information ancestry informative markers (n = 2016 screening panel 3; Genotyping the sample set whose size was determined by a power analysis (n = 576 appropriate for the initial screening panel; 4 Inference of local ancestry for each individual and identification of regions with increased AA ancestry using two different ancestry inference statistical approaches; 5 Enrichment of the initial screening panel; 6 Power analysis of the enriched panel 7 Genotyping of additional samples. 8 Re-analysis of the genotyping results to identify a genetic risk locus. Results The initial screening phase yielded a significant peak using the ADMIXMAP ancestry inference program applying case only statistics. Subgroup analysis of 299 ESKD patients with no history of diabetes yielded peaks using both the ANCESTRYMAP and ADMIXMAP ancestry inference programs. The significant peak was found on chromosome 22. Genotyping of additional ancestry informative markers on chromosome 22 that took into account linkage disequilibrium in the ancestral populations, and the addition of samples increased the statistical significance of the finding. Conclusions A multi-step admixture mapping analysis of AA ESKD patients replicated the finding of a candidate risk locus on chromosome 22, contributing to the heightened susceptibility of African Americans to develop non

  20. Ancestral proportions and admixture dynamics in geographically defined African Americans living in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, E J; Kittles, R A; Argyropoulos, G; Pfaff, C L; Hiester, K; Bonilla, C; Sylvester, N; Parrish-Gause, D; Garvey, W T; Jin, L; McKeigue, P M; Kamboh, M I; Ferrell, R E; Pollitzer, W S; Shriver, M D

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed admixture in samples of six different African-American populations from South Carolina: Gullah-speaking Sea Islanders in coastal South Carolina, residents of four counties in the "Low Country" (Berkeley, Charleston, Colleton, and Dorchester), and persons living in the city of Columbia, located in central South Carolina. We used a battery of highly informative autosomal, mtDNA, and Y-chromosome markers. Two of the autosomal markers (FY and AT3) are linked and lie 22 cM apart on chromosome 1. The results of this study indicate, in accordance with previous historical, cultural, and anthropological evidence, a very low level of European admixture in the Gullah Sea Islanders (m = 3.5 +/- 0.9%). The proportion of European admixture is higher in the Low Country (m ranging between 9. 9 +/- 1.8% and 14.0 +/- 1.9%), and is highest in Columbia (m = 17.7 +/- 3.1%). A sex-biased European gene flow and a small Native American contribution to the African-American gene pool are also evident in these data. We studied the pattern of pairwise allelic associations between the FY locus and the nine other autosomal markers in our samples. In the combined sample from the Low Country (N = 548), a high level of linkage disequilibrium was observed between the linked markers, FY and AT3. Additionally, significant associations were also detected between FY and 4 of the 8 unlinked markers, suggesting the existence of significant genetic structure in this population. A continuous gene flow model of admixture could explain the observed pattern of genetic structure. A test conditioning on the overall admixture of each individual showed association of ancestry between the two linked markers (FY and AT3), but not between any of the unlinked markers, as theory predicts. Thus, even in the presence of genetic structure due to continuous gene flow or some other factor, it is possible to differentiate associations due to linkage from spurious associations due to genetic structure.

  1. Influence of Air Temperature on the Performance of Different Water-Reducing Admixtures with Respect to the Properties of Fresh and Hardened Mortar

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Ricardo Leal Silva; Luiz Roberto Prudêncio; Alexandre Lima Oliveira; Gabriela Damo; Eduardo Tochetto

    2010-01-01

    The performance of water-reducing admixtures used in concrete is affected by the weather conditions to which the concrete mixture is exposed. The most used WRAs are lignosulfonate, naphthalene, and polycarboxylate. However, they react differently to weather conditions, especially to air temperature. Therefore, it can be useful to evaluate how temperature affects admixture performance. In this study, the performance of three admixtures (naphthalene, lignosulfonate, and polycarboxylate) was eva...

  2. Effectiveness of shrinkage-reducing admixtures on Portland pozzolan cement concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Videla, C.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying shrinkage causes tensile stress in restrained concrete members. Since all structural elements are subject to some degree of restraint, drying shrinkage is regarded to be one of the main causes of concrete cracking. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of SRA in reducing drying shrinkage strain in Portland pozzolan cement concrete. The major variables examined included slump, admixture type and dose, and specimen size. The measured results indicate that any of the admixtures used in the study significantly reduced shrinkage. Concrete manufactured with shrinkage reducing admixtures shrank an average of 43% less than concrete without admixtures. As a rule, the higher the dose of admixture, the higher was its shrinkage reduction performance. The experimental results were compared to the shrinkage strain estimated with the ACI 209, CEB MC 90, B3, GL 2000, Sakata 1993 and Sakata 2001 models. Although none of these models was observed to accurately describe the behaviour of Portland pozzolan cement concrete with shrinkage reducing admixtures, the Sakata 2001 model, with a weighted coefficient of variation of under 30%, may be regarded to be roughly adequate.

    La retracción por secado es un fenómeno intrínseco del hormigón que produce tensiones de tracción en elementos restringidos de hormigón. Puesto que todos los elementos presentan algún grado de retracción, se considera a la retracción por secado como una de las principales causas de agrietamiento en proyectos de construcción en hormigón. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la efectividad de los aditivos reductores de retracción (SRA en hormigones fabricados con cemento Portland puzolánico. Las variables principales estudiadas incluyen el asentamiento de cono de Abrams, marca y dosis de aditivo reductor de retracción, y tamaño de espécimen de hormigón. Los resultados obtenidos permiten concluir que el uso de

  3. Genome-wide scan of 29,141 African Americans finds no evidence of directional selection since admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Gaurav; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Harris, Curtis C; Henderson, Brian E; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; De Jager, Phillip L; John, Esther M; Kittles, Rick A; Larkin, Emma; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Tucker, Margaret A; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Reich, David; Price, Alkes L

    2014-10-01

    The extent of recent selection in admixed populations is currently an unresolved question. We scanned the genomes of 29,141 African Americans and failed to find any genome-wide-significant deviations in local ancestry, indicating no evidence of selection influencing ancestry after admixture. A recent analysis of data from 1,890 African Americans reported that there was evidence of selection in African Americans after their ancestors left Africa, both before and after admixture. Selection after admixture was reported on the basis of deviations in local ancestry, and selection before admixture was reported on the basis of allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations. The local-ancestry deviations reported by the previous study did not replicate in our very large sample, and we show that such deviations were expected purely by chance, given the number of hypotheses tested. We further show that the previous study's conclusion of selection in African Americans before admixture is also subject to doubt. This is because the FST statistics they used were inflated and because true signals of unusual allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations would be best explained by selection that occurred in Africa prior to migration to the Americas.

  4. Genome-wide Scan of 29,141 African Americans Finds No Evidence of Directional Selection since Admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Gaurav; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Harris, Curtis C.; Henderson, Brian E.; Ingles, Sue A.; Isaacs, William; De Jager, Phillip L.; John, Esther M.; Kittles, Rick A.; Larkin, Emma; McNeill, Lorna H.; Millikan, Robert C.; Murphy, Adam; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Wiencke, John K.; Witte, John S.; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Reich, David; Price, Alkes L.

    2014-01-01

    The extent of recent selection in admixed populations is currently an unresolved question. We scanned the genomes of 29,141 African Americans and failed to find any genome-wide-significant deviations in local ancestry, indicating no evidence of selection influencing ancestry after admixture. A recent analysis of data from 1,890 African Americans reported that there was evidence of selection in African Americans after their ancestors left Africa, both before and after admixture. Selection after admixture was reported on the basis of deviations in local ancestry, and selection before admixture was reported on the basis of allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations. The local-ancestry deviations reported by the previous study did not replicate in our very large sample, and we show that such deviations were expected purely by chance, given the number of hypotheses tested. We further show that the previous study’s conclusion of selection in African Americans before admixture is also subject to doubt. This is because the FST statistics they used were inflated and because true signals of unusual allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations would be best explained by selection that occurred in Africa prior to migration to the Americas. PMID:25242497

  5. A Genomewide Single-Nucleotide–Polymorphism Panel for Mexican American Admixture Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chao ; Hinds, David A. ; Shigeta, Russell ; Adler, Sharon G. ; Lee, Annette ; Pahl, Madeleine V. ; Silva, Gabriel ; Belmont, John W. ; Hanson, Robert L. ; Knowler, William C. ; Gregersen, Peter K. ; Ballinger, Dennis G. ; Seldin, Michael F. 

    2007-01-01

    For admixture mapping studies in Mexican Americans (MAM), we define a genomewide single-nucleotide–polymorphism (SNP) panel that can distinguish between chromosomal segments of Amerindian (AMI) or European (EUR) ancestry. These studies used genotypes for >400,000 SNPs, defined in EUR and both Pima and Mayan AMI, to define a set of ancestry-informative markers (AIMs). The use of two AMI populations was necessary to remove a subset of SNPs that distinguished genotypes of only one AMI subgroup from EUR genotypes. The AIMs set contained 8,144 SNPs separated by a minimum of 50 kb with only three intermarker intervals >1 Mb and had EUR/AMI FST values >0.30 (mean FST=0.48) and Mayan/Pima FST values <0.05 (mean FST<0.01). Analysis of a subset of these SNP AIMs suggested that this panel may also distinguish ancestry between EUR and other disparate AMI groups, including Quechuan from South America. We show, using realistic simulation parameters that are based on our analyses of MAM genotyping results, that this panel of SNP AIMs provides good power for detecting disease-associated chromosomal segments for genes with modest ethnicity risk ratios. A reduced set of 5,287 SNP AIMs captured almost the same admixture mapping information, but smaller SNP sets showed substantial drop-off in admixture mapping information and power. The results will enable studies of type 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and other diseases among which epidemiological studies suggest differences in the distribution of ancestry-associated susceptibility. PMID:17557415

  6. Inferring genome-wide patterns of admixture in Qataris using fifty-five ancestral populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omberg Larsson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Populations of the Arabian Peninsula have a complex genetic structure that reflects waves of migrations including the earliest human migrations from Africa and eastern Asia, migrations along ancient civilization trading routes and colonization history of recent centuries. Results Here, we present a study of genome-wide admixture in this region, using 156 genotyped individuals from Qatar, a country located at the crossroads of these migration patterns. Since haplotypes of these individuals could have originated from many different populations across the world, we have developed a machine learning method "SupportMix" to infer loci-specific genomic ancestry when simultaneously analyzing many possible ancestral populations. Simulations show that SupportMix is not only more accurate than other popular admixture discovery tools but is the first admixture inference method that can efficiently scale for simultaneous analysis of 50-100 putative ancestral populations while being independent of prior demographic information. Conclusions By simultaneously using the 55 world populations from the Human Genome Diversity Panel, SupportMix was able to extract the fine-scale ancestry of the Qatar population, providing many new observations concerning the ancestry of the region. For example, as well as recapitulating the three major sub-populations in Qatar, composed of mainly Arabic, Persian, and African ancestry, SupportMix additionally identifies the specific ancestry of the Persian group to populations sampled in Greater Persia rather than from China and the ancestry of the African group to sub-Saharan origin and not Southern African Bantu origin as previously thought.

  7. Effect of poly car boxy late admixtures on portland cement paste setting and rheological behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puertas, F.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to determine the effects of polycarboxilated-type admixture on the setting times and the rheological properties of different types of cements including CEM I 42.5 R, CEM Il/B-V 42.5 N and CEM III/B 32.5 N, defined according to the UNE EN 197-1:2000 standard. The results show that there is a lineal relationship between the initial setting times and the admixture dosage. Mathematical equations that model this behaviour for each of the cements have been determined. The data obtained from the minislump test and from the rheological parameters determined using the rheometer (plastic viscosity and yield stress point to similar conclusions. It was also verified that the workability effect of the polycarboxilate admixture is most intense for blended cements.

    El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido estudiar el efecto de la dosificación de un aditivo basado en policarboxilatos sobre el inicio de tiempo de fraguado y las propiedades reo lógicas en pastas de diferentes tipos de cemento (CEM 142.5 R, CEM 11/ B-V42.5 NYCEMIII/B 32.5 N-Norma EN 197-1:2000. existe una relación lineal entre el inicio del fraguado y la dosificación del aditivo, se han determinado las ecuaciones matemáticas que describen este comportamiento para cada cemento, los resultados obtenidos sobre la fluidez de la pasta en el ensayo del "minislump" coinciden con la evolución de los valores de los parámetros reológicos (esfuerzo de cizalladura y viscosidad plástica determinados a través de un reómetro. el efecto fluidificante del aditivo superplastificante basado en policarboxilatos es mucho más marcado en cementos que contienen adiciones.

  8. Variation in genetic admixture and population structure among Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino eye study (LALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Marchand Loic

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population structure and admixture have strong confounding effects on genetic association studies. Discordant frequencies for age-related macular degeneration (AMD risk alleles and for AMD incidence and prevalence rates are reported across different ethnic groups. We examined the genomic ancestry characterizing 538 Latinos drawn from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study [LALES] as part of an ongoing AMD-association study. To help assess the degree of Native American ancestry inherited by Latino populations we sampled 25 Mayans and 5 Mexican Indians collected through Coriell's Institute. Levels of European, Asian, and African descent in Latinos were inferred through the USC Multiethnic Panel (USC MEP, formed from a sample from the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC study, the Yoruba African samples from HapMap II, the Singapore Chinese Health Study, and a prospective cohort from Shanghai, China. A total of 233 ancestry informative markers were genotyped for 538 LALES Latinos, 30 Native Americans, and 355 USC MEP individuals (African Americans, Japanese, Chinese, European Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians. Sensitivity of ancestry estimates to relative sample size was considered. Results We detected strong evidence for recent population admixture in LALES Latinos. Gradients of increasing Native American background and of correspondingly decreasing European ancestry were observed as a function of birth origin from North to South. The strongest excess of homozygosity, a reflection of recent population admixture, was observed in non-US born Latinos that recently populated the US. A set of 42 SNPs especially informative for distinguishing between Native Americans and Europeans were identified. Conclusion These findings reflect the historic migration patterns of Native Americans and suggest that while the 'Latino' label is used to categorize the entire population, there exists a strong degree of heterogeneity within that population, and that

  9. Polar and brown bear genomes reveal ancient admixture and demographic footprints of past climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Webb; Schuster, Stephan C.; Welch, Andreanna J.; Ratan, Aakrosh; Bedoya-Reina, Oscar C.; Zhao, Fangqing; Kim, Hie Lim; Burhans, Richard C.; Drautz, Daniela I.; Wittekindt, Nicola E.; Tomsho, Lynn P.; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Peacock, Elizabeth; Farley, Sean; Sage, George K.; Rode, Karyn; Obbard, Martyn E.; Montiel, Rafael; Bachmann, Lutz; Ingólfsson, Ólafur; Aars, Jon; Mailund, Thomas; Wiig, Øystein; Talbot, Sandra L.; Lindqvist, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Polar bears (PBs) are superbly adapted to the extreme Arctic environment and have become emblematic of the threat to biodiversity from global climate change. Their divergence from the lower-latitude brown bear provides a textbook example of rapid evolution of distinct phenotypes. However, limited mitochondrial and nuclear DNA evidence conflicts in the timing of PB origin as well as placement of the species within versus sister to the brown bear lineage. We gathered extensive genomic sequence data from contemporary polar, brown, and American black bear samples, in addition to a 130,000- to 110,000-y old PB, to examine this problem from a genome-wide perspective. Nuclear DNA markers reflect a species tree consistent with expectation, showing polar and brown bears to be sister species. However, for the enigmatic brown bears native to Alaska's Alexander Archipelago, we estimate that not only their mitochondrial genome, but also 5–10% of their nuclear genome, is most closely related to PBs, indicating ancient admixture between the two species. Explicit admixture analyses are consistent with ancient splits among PBs, brown bears and black bears that were later followed by occasional admixture. We also provide paleodemographic estimates that suggest bear evolution has tracked key climate events, and that PB in particular experienced a prolonged and dramatic decline in its effective population size during the last ca. 500,000 years. We demonstrate that brown bears and PBs have had sufficiently independent evolutionary histories over the last 4–5 million years to leave imprints in the PB nuclear genome that likely are associated with ecological adaptation to the Arctic environment.

  10. Application of a polycarboxylate ether admixture in RCC dam construction[ACI SP-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmus, S.M.F.; Christensen, B.J.; Varley, N.J. [BASF Construction Chemicals Asia Pacific, Shanghai (China)

    2006-07-01

    Chemical admixtures are used in dam construction to improve plasticity of the dry materials mixture over time. Roller compacted concrete (RCC) has been used on many dam projects in China. However, the use of RCC has frequently resulted in water reduction problems. This paper provided details of an admixture based on polycarboxylate ether (PCE) which was developed to improve the quality of RCC constructions at the JinHong dam in China. Use of the polymer at the JinHong dam resulted in a vibration sensitive concrete that was sustained over time. Under identical mix-design and compaction conditions in the laboratory, specific gravity of the RCC was increased from 2417 kg/m{sup 3} to 2463 kg/m{sup 3}. The high specific gravity of the material resulted in satisfactory strength data from the dam project. The key-ratio of the splitting tensile strength versus compressive strength was higher than 8 per cent in all cases. A key advantage of the tailored PCE-RCC was the short Vebe times sustained over elapsed time in the RCC. Without additional compaction or vibration efforts, the specific density of RCC was better than conventional admixture technologies. The reduced viscosity provided cement paste films which formed on the surface of each layer of the RCC, which resulted in better bonding between the layers. It was concluded that the new PCE polymer is compatible with alternative retarder systems, which contributes to more extensive setting times under strict hydration regimes. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. Rectification cleaning AsCl3 from the admixture of oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznitska O. V.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of the rectification cleaning of three-chlorous arsenic from the admixtures of products of his hydrolysis in the atmosphere of chlorous hydrogen has been considered in the article. Dependence of coefficient of relative volatility a three-chlorous arsenic from his concentration in muriatic solution is explored. The conduct of coefficient of relative volatility with concentrations of HCl and AsCl3 is compared. Saving of equalization of balance and equalization of working curve of column at such conduct of process of rectification is shown.

  12. Influence of Shrinkage-Reducing Admixtures on the Development of Plastic Shrinkage Cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Pease, Bradley Justin; Mazzotta, Guy;

    2007-01-01

    settlement of the concrete and tensile stress development in the surface of the concrete, which increase the potential for development of plastic shrinkage cracks. Specifically, this paper studies the development of plastic shrinkage cracks in mortars containing a commercially available shrinkage......-reducing admixture (SRA). Mortars containing SRA show fewer and narrower plastic shrinkage cracks than plain mortars when exposed to the same environmental conditions. It is proposed that the lower surface tension of the pore fluid in the mortars containing SRA results in less evaporation, reduced settlement......, reduced capillary tension, and lower crack-inducing stresses at the topmost layer of the mortar....

  13. The Properties and Applications of High-effective Mineral Admixture CRM for Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To utilize industrial residue as building materials is not only the demand for modern concrete technology but also the requirements for maintaining ecological balance and sustainable development.CRM,a new high-effective mineral admixture for concrete,is developed recently from industrial residue,and the systematical studies on CRM's various properties have been performed.The laboratory tests,industrial tests and field applications have shown that CRM can be used as inorganic cementitious material to replace cement,and is also an excellent supplementary cementitious material for high performance concrete (HPC).

  14. A Comparative Study on Compressive and Flexural Strength of Concrete Containing Different Admixtures as Partial Replacement of Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorv Singh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is the most widely used material in the world today. This paper is about the comparative study of the flexural strength and compressive strength of concrete when different admixtures are used as partial replacement of cement in the concrete mix. The mineral admixtures that are used here are Silica Fume, Rice Husk Ash and Iron slag as partial replacement of cement. All these materials are industrial waste products and are abundantly available nowadays. These materials have high silica content and pozzolanic properties and can be effectively used as a replacement of cement during the formation of High Performance Concrete. Compressive and Flexural strength are the two most important characteristic of concrete and are calculated for the hardened concrete to analyze the load bearing capacity for design purposes. Thus for the effective judgment of type of mineral admixtures to be used a comparative study is very useful.

  15. Improvement Of Sub-Grade Soil Properties Using Admixture Quarry Dust And Woven Geo-Textile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Priya Vasudha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The important factor for design and construction of pavement is the behavior of underlying sub-grade. Large deformations in the sub-grade will lead to a continuous deterioration of the paved surface. As the sub-grade soil is too weak to bear the load engineering solutions such as geo reinforcement using geo-synthetics are additives which are earlier used in sub-grade improvement and such experimental study is carried by pervious authors. This paper deals with the sub-grade improvement using geo-textile as a reinforcement sheet and quarry dust as admixtures. In order to increase the strength of the sub-grade the quarry dust is varied with different percentages i.e. 0 5 10 15 20 and 25. In this study Proctors compaction tests and CBR soaked and unsoaked tests are conducted on locally available soil with reinforced material and with admixture. For this study it is identified that the engineering properties of the soil is improved in all conditions. The soil with quarry dust at optimum value is 20 has CBR soaked value is obtained 6.83 and unsoaked value is obtained 7.02 is increased when compared with conventionally soil. The soil quarry dust at optimum value is at 20 and Geo-textile has CBR soaked value is 6.59 and unsoaked value is 8.95 is increased when compared with conventionally soil and soil with quarry dust.

  16. Early-age Electrical Resistivity and Reactive Capacity of Mineral Admixtures in Mortars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Wenquan; HE Zhen; ZHANG Yongchuan; CHEN Meizhu; YANG Huaquan

    2006-01-01

    A non-contacting electrical resistivity measurement device was used to investigate the effect of different types and contents of mineral admixtures on the hydration performance of mortars during early age. The experimental results show that the changes of measured resistivity with time of hydration can be used to describe the hydration characteristics of cement- based materials, as well as the physical and chemical behavior of fly ash; blast furnace slag and silica fume at the very early ages. With an increasing replacement ratio of mineral admixtures, for the specimens blended with fly ash or slag, the resistivity increases firstly, then the following flatting period extends and after setting the resistivity increasing becomes slow and consequently a lower resistivity value at 24 hours occurs. This is due to the dilution effect and lower pozzolanic/ hydraulic activity of fly ash and slag. However, for the samples incorporated with silica fume, the resistivity value through 24 hours is lower with shorter flatting period and larger slope in the resistivity curves, which is because of its particle size effect and higher pozzolanic activity of silica fume. Moreover, non-contacting resistivity measurement might provide a helpful information to predict the long term performance including the durability of cement-based materials at early ages.

  17. The effect of chemical admixtures and mineral additives on the properties of self-compacting mortars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa Sahmaran; Heru Ari Christianto; Ismail Ozgur Yaman [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey). Department of Civil Engineering

    2006-05-15

    Mortar serves as the basis for the workability properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) and these properties could be assessed by self-compacting mortars (SCM). In fact, assessing the properties of SCM is an integral part of SCC design. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various mineral additives and chemical admixtures in producing SCMs. For this purpose, four mineral additives (fly ash, brick powder, limestone powder, and kaolinite), three superplasticizers (SP), and two viscosity modifying admixtures (VMA) were used. Within the scope of the experimental program, 43 mixtures of SCM were prepared keeping the amount of mixing water and total powder content (Portland cement and mineral additives) constant. Workability of the fresh mortar was determined using mini V-funnel and mini slump flow tests. The setting time of the mortars, were also determined. The hardened properties that were determined included ultrasonic pulse velocity and strength determined at 28 and 56 days. It was concluded that among the mineral additives used, fly ash and limestone powder significantly increased the workability of SCMs. On the other hand, especially fly ash significantly increased the setting time of the mortars, which can, however, be eliminated through the use of ternary mixtures, such as mixing fly ash with limestone powder. The two polycarboxyl based SPs yield approximately the same workability and the melamine formaldehyde based SP was not as effective as the other two.

  18. Preparation of High Impermeable and Crack-resistance Chemical Admixture and Its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A kind of high impermeable and crack-resistance chemical admixture (HICRCA) was prepared, which is a compound chemical admixture composed of an expansion ingredient,density ingredient, and organic hydrophobic poreblocking ingredient. The results of the experiments indicate that the addition of HICRCA improves mortar and concrete in the following performances:(1) perfect workability: slump is more than 22cm, the slump after 3h is about 16cm; (2)high impermeability:for the mortar,the pervious height under a water pressure of 1.5MPa is 1.5cm,for the concrete, the pervious height under a water pressure of 5.0MPa is 2.2cm;(3)high crack-resistance:there is a micro-expansion at the age of 90d;(4)high compressivestrength:compared with the controlled concrete,the compressive strengths at the age of 3d and 28d are improved by 66.4% and 62.0%, respectively.At the same time,the effects of different curing condition on mortar and concrete expansive and shrinkage performance were studied.In addition,the impermeable and crack-resistance mechanism was investigated in the present paper.

  19. Growth and characterization of pure and semiorganic nonlinear optical Lithium Sulphate admixtured l-alanine crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, T.; Selvarajan, P.; Freeda, T. H.; Balasubramanian, K.

    2013-04-01

    Lithium sulphate admixtured l-alanine (LSLA) salt was synthesized and the solubility of the commercially available l-alanine and the synthesized LSLA sample was determined in de-ionized water at various temperatures. In accordance with the solubility data, the saturated aqueous solutions of l-alanine and lithium admixtured l-alanine were prepared separately and the single crystals of the samples were grown by the solution method with a slow evaporation technique. Studying single x-ray diffraction shows that pure and LSLA crystal belong to the orthorhombic system with a non-centrosymmetric space group P212121. Using the powder x-ray diffraction study, the crystallinity of the grown crystals is confirmed and the diffraction peaks are indexed. The various functional groups present in the pure and LSLA crystal are elucidated from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study. UV-visible transmittance is recorded to study the optical transmittance range for the grown crystals. The powder second harmonic generation test confirms the nonlinear optical property of the grown crystals. From the microhardness test, the hardness of the grown crystals is estimated. The dielectric behaviour, such as the dielectric constant and the loss of the sample, are measured as a function of temperature and frequency. The ac conductivity of the grown crystals is also studied and the activation energy is calculated.

  20. Growth and characterization of pure and semiorganic nonlinear optical Lithium Sulphate admixtured l-alanine crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium sulphate admixtured l-alanine (LSLA) salt was synthesized and the solubility of the commercially available l-alanine and the synthesized LSLA sample was determined in de-ionized water at various temperatures. In accordance with the solubility data, the saturated aqueous solutions of l-alanine and lithium admixtured l-alanine were prepared separately and the single crystals of the samples were grown by the solution method with a slow evaporation technique. Studying single x-ray diffraction shows that pure and LSLA crystal belong to the orthorhombic system with a non-centrosymmetric space group P212121. Using the powder x-ray diffraction study, the crystallinity of the grown crystals is confirmed and the diffraction peaks are indexed. The various functional groups present in the pure and LSLA crystal are elucidated from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study. UV–visible transmittance is recorded to study the optical transmittance range for the grown crystals. The powder second harmonic generation test confirms the nonlinear optical property of the grown crystals. From the microhardness test, the hardness of the grown crystals is estimated. The dielectric behaviour, such as the dielectric constant and the loss of the sample, are measured as a function of temperature and frequency. The ac conductivity of the grown crystals is also studied and the activation energy is calculated. (paper)

  1. Experimental Investigation of Droplet Evaporation of Water with Ground Admixtures while Motion in a Flame of Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriyenko Margarita A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaporation features for the atomized flow of suspension on the base of water with ground admixtures in an area of high-temperature combustion products of liquid flammable substance (acetone were investigated experimentally by the optical methods of gas flow diagnostic and the high-speed video recording. The scales of influence of clay and silt concentration in droplets of atomized flow on the intensity of its evaporation were determined. The approximation dependences describing a decrease in typical size of suspension droplets at various values of ground admixtures were obtained.

  2. Limit on a right-handed admixture to the weak b→c current from semileptonic decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determine an upper bound for a possible right-handed b→c quark current admixture in semileptonic B→Xcl-ν decays from a simultaneous fit to moments of the lepton-energy and hadronic-mass distribution measured as a function of the lower limit on the lepton energy, using data measured by the BABAR detector. The right-handed admixture is parametrized by a new parameter cR as coefficient of computed moments with right-handed quark current. For the standard-model part we use the prediction of the heavy-quark expansion up to order 1/mb3 and perturbative corrections and for the right-handed contribution only up to order 1/mb2 and perturbative corrections. We find cR'=0.05-0.50+0.33 in agreement with the standard-model prediction of zero. Additionally, we give a constraint on a possible right-handed admixture from exclusive decays, which is with a value of cR'=0.01±0.03 more restrictive than our value from the inclusive fit. The difference in |Vcb| between the inclusive and exclusive extraction is only slightly reduced when allowing for a right-handed admixture in the range of cR'=0.01±0.03.

  3. Development of admixture to produce pumping-concrete with large amount of ordinary-fineness-slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Sun, Z.; Zhang, G. [Tongji Univ., College of Materials Science and Enginnering, Shanghai (China); Zhou, A. W. Z.; Liu, Q.; Chen, K. [HI CON Huaxi Concrete Admixtures Co., Ltd., Sichuan (China)

    1998-12-31

    A special admixture - WZ - which can be applied to prepare pumping-concrete with large amount of OFS to solve the strength problem of slag was developed. The activating components of WZ include no Cl or SO{sub 4}{sup 2}. As a result, the addition of WZ is an effective way to make use of industrial waste, reduce the cost of concrete, improve its durability, and protect the environment at the same time. Impermeability, freezing-thawing resistance, chemical corrosion resistance and resistance to carbonation were found to be superior to concrete of the same strength using only cement as bonding material. Dry shrinking ratio was less than the shrinking ratio for ordinary concrete. 6 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig.

  4. Some radiation-optical properties of fluorphlogopite with admixture of vanadium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avesov, A.D.; Gasanov, E.M. (AN Uzbekskoj SSR, Tashkent. Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1982-10-16

    A study is reported on crystals of synthetic mica fluorphlogopite KMg/sub 3/(AlSi/sub 3/O/sub 10/)F/sub 2/ with vanadium admixtures of 0.5 to 5%. Optical absorption spectra of fluorphlogopite samples neutron irradiated with doses of 10/sup 18/, 5 x 10/sup 18/, and 2.5 x 10/sup 19/ cm/sup -2/ show additional absorption bands at 300 to 330 and 560 nm. Most clearly these bands are observed in samples having small amounts of V/sub 2/O/sub 5/. It was concluded that under neutron irradiation in vanadium fluorphlogopite substitution of F/sup -/ anions by O/sup 2 -/ anions takes place, coupled with a valence transition V/sup 2 +/ ..-->.. V/sup 3 +/ upon growing irradiation dose.

  5. Plastic shrinkage of mortars with shrinkage reducing admixture and lightweight aggregates studied by neutron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrzykowski, Mateusz, E-mail: mateusz.wyrzykowski@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Lodz University of Technology, Department of Building Physics and Building Materials, Lodz (Poland); Trtik, Pavel [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Villigen (Switzerland); Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Münch, Beat [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Weiss, Jason [Purdue University, School of Civil Engineering, West Lafayette (United States); Vontobel, Peter [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Villigen (Switzerland); Lura, Pietro [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Dübendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Institute for Building Materials (IfB), Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    Water transport in fresh, highly permeable concrete and rapid water evaporation from the concrete surface during the first few hours after placement are the key parameters influencing plastic shrinkage cracking. In this work, neutron tomography was used to determine both the water loss from the concrete surface due to evaporation and the redistribution of fluid that occurs in fresh mortars exposed to external drying. In addition to the reference mortar with a water to cement ratio (w/c) of 0.30, a mortar with the addition of pre-wetted lightweight aggregates (LWA) and a mortar with a shrinkage reducing admixture (SRA) were tested. The addition of SRA reduced the evaporation rate from the mortar at the initial stages of drying and reduced the total water loss. The pre-wetted LWA released a large part of the absorbed water as a consequence of capillary pressure developing in the fresh mortar due to evaporation.

  6. Influence of Mineral Admixtures on the Permeability of Lightweight Aggregate Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fazhou; HU Shuguang; DING Qingjun; PENG yanzhou

    2005-01-01

    The permeability of lightweight aggregate concrete was studied. Some efforts were taken to increase the resistance of lightweight aggregate concrete (LC) to water penetration by using the mineral admixtures of fly ash, granulated blast furnace slag or silica fume. Accelerated chloride penetrability test and liquid atmosphere press method were used to study the anti-permeability of lightweight aggregate concrete. The experimental results show that fly ash, granulated blast furnace slag and silica fume can decrease the permeability of lightweight aggregate concrete, but the effect of granulated blast furnace slag is poor. According to the SEM and pore structure analyzing results,an interface self-reinforcing effect model was presented and the reinforced mechanism of mineral mixture on LC was discussed according to the model described by authors.

  7. Effect of Admixtures on the Yield Stresses of Cement Pastes under High Hydrostatic Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Jae Yim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available When cement-based materials are transported at a construction site, they undergo high pressures during the pumping process. The rheological properties of the materials under such high pressures are unknown, and estimating the workability of the materials after pumping is a complex problem. Among various influential factors on the rheology of concrete, this study investigated the effect of mineral and chemical admixtures on the high-pressure rheology. A rheometer was fabricated that could measure the rheological properties while maintaining a high pressure to simulate the pumping process. The effects of superplasticizer, silica fume, nanoclay, fly ash, or ground granulated blast furnace slag were investigated when mixed with two control cement pastes. The water-to-cement ratios were 0.35 and 0.50.

  8. Ancestry inference in complex admixtures via variable-length Markov chain linkage models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jesse M; Bercovici, Sivan; Elmore, Megan; Batzoglou, Serafim

    2013-03-01

    Inferring the ancestral origin of chromosomal segments in admixed individuals is key for genetic applications, ranging from analyzing population demographics and history, to mapping disease genes. Previous methods addressed ancestry inference by using either weak models of linkage disequilibrium, or large models that make explicit use of ancestral haplotypes. In this paper we introduce ALLOY, an efficient method that incorporates generalized, but highly expressive, linkage disequilibrium models. ALLOY applies a factorial hidden Markov model to capture the parallel process producing the maternal and paternal admixed haplotypes, and models the background linkage disequilibrium in the ancestral populations via an inhomogeneous variable-length Markov chain. We test ALLOY in a broad range of scenarios ranging from recent to ancient admixtures with up to four ancestral populations. We show that ALLOY outperforms the previous state of the art, and is robust to uncertainties in model parameters. PMID:23421795

  9. Effect of Some Admixtures on the Hydration of Silica Fume and Hydrated Lime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The effects of sodium salt of naphthalene formaldehyde sulfonic acid and stearic acid on the hydration of silica fume and Ca(0H)2 have been investigated. The hydration was carried out at 60℃ and W/S ratio of 4 for various time intervals namely, 1, 3, 7 and 28 days and in the presence of 0.2% and 5% superplasticizer and stearic acid. The results of the hydration kinetics show that both admixtures accelerate the hydration reaction of silica fume and calcium hydroxide during the first 7 days. Whereas, after 28 days hydration there is no significant effect. Generally, most of free calcium hydroxide seems to be consumed after 28 days. In addition, the phase composition as well as the microstructure of the formed hydrates was examined by using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively.

  10. Cultivar origin and admixture detection in Turkish olive oils by SNP-based CAPS assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncu, Ali Tevfik; Frary, Anne; Doganlar, Sami

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a DNA-based identification key to ascertain the cultivar origin of Turkish monovarietal olive oils. To reach this aim, we sequenced short fragments from five olive genes for SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) identification and developed CAPS (cleaved amplified polymorphic DNA) assays for SNPs that alter restriction enzyme recognition motifs. When applied on the oils of 17 olive cultivars, a maximum of five CAPS assays were necessary to discriminate the varietal origin of the samples. We also tested the efficiency and limit of our approach for detecting olive oil admixtures. As a result of the analysis, we were able to detect admixing down to a limit of 20%. The SNP-based CAPS assays developed in this work can be used for testing and verification of the authenticity of Turkish monovarietal olive oils, for olive tree certification, and in germplasm characterization and preservation studies.

  11. Multilocus Bayesian Estimates of Intra-Oceanic Genetic Differentiation, Connectivity, and Admixture in Atlantic Swordfish (Xiphias gladius L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad L Smith

    Full Text Available Previous genetic studies of Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius L. revealed significant differentiation among Mediterranean, North Atlantic and South Atlantic populations using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data. However, limitations in geographic sampling coverage, and the use of single loci, precluded an accurate placement of boundaries and of estimates of admixture. In this study, we present multilocus analyses of 26 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within 10 nuclear genes to estimate population differentiation and admixture based on the characterization of 774 individuals representing North Atlantic, South Atlantic, and Mediterranean swordfish populations. Pairwise FST values, AMOVA, PCoA, and Bayesian individual assignments support the differentiation of swordfish inhabiting these three basins, but not the current placement of the boundaries that separate them. Specifically, the range of the South Atlantic population extends beyond 5°N management boundary to 20°N-25°N from 45°W. Likewise the Mediterranean population extends beyond the current management boundary at the Strait of Gibraltar to approximately 10°W. Further, admixture zones, characterized by asymmetric contributions of adjacent populations within samples, are confined to the Northeast Atlantic. While South Atlantic and Mediterranean migrants were identified within these Northeast Atlantic admixture zones no North Atlantic migrants were identified respectively in these two neighboring basins. Owing to both, the characterization of larger number of loci and a more ample spatial sampling coverage, it was possible to provide a finer resolution of the boundaries separating Atlantic swordfish populations than previous studies. Finally, the patterns of population structure and admixture are discussed in the light of the reproductive biology, the known patterns of dispersal, and oceanographic features that may act as barriers to gene flow to Atlantic swordfish.

  12. Ancestry analysis reveals a predominant Native American component with moderate European admixture in Bolivians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Tanja; Alvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Taboada-Echalar, Patricia; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Torres-Balanza, Antonio; Rocabado, Omar; Carracedo, Angel; Vullo, Carlos; Salas, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    We have genotyped 46 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) in two of the most populated areas in Bolivia, namely, La Paz (Andean region; n=105), and Chuquisaca (Sub-Andean region; n=73). Using different analytical tools, we inferred admixture proportions of these two American communities by comparing the genetic profiles with those publicly available from the CEPH (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain) panel representing three main continental groups (Africa, Europe, and America). By way of simulations, we first evaluated the minimum sample size needed in order to obtain accurate estimates of ancestry proportions. The results indicated that sample sizes above 30 individuals could be large enough to estimate main continental ancestry proportions using the 46 AIMs panel. With the exception of a few individuals, the results also indicated that Bolivians showed a predominantly Native American ancestry with variable levels of European admixture. The proportions of ancestry were statistically different in La Paz and Chuquisaca: the Native American component was 86% and 77% (Mann-Whitney U-test: un-adjusted P-value=2.1×10(-5)), while the European ancestry was 13% and 21% (Mann-Whitney U-test: un-adjusted P-value=3.6×10(-5)), respectively. The African ancestry in Bolivians captured by the AIMs analyzed in the present study was below 2%. The inferred ancestry of Bolivians fits well with previous studies undertaken on haplotype data, indicating a major proportion of Native American lineages. The genetic differences observed in these two groups suggest that forensic genetic analysis should be better performed based on local databases built in the main Bolivian areas.

  13. Genetic structure of the population of Cabo Verde (west Africa): evidence of substantial European admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, E J; Ribeiro, J C; Caeiro, J L; Riveiro, A

    1995-08-01

    The population of Cabo Verde was founded in the fifteenth century (1462), on the basis of slaves brought from the West African coast and a few Europeans, mainly from Portugal. The polymorphism of six red cell enzymes (ADA, AK1, ALAD, ESD, GLO1, and PGD) and ten plasma proteins (AHSG, BF, F13A, F13B, GC, HP, ORM, PLG, TBG, and TF) was studied in a sample of 268 individuals from Cabo Verde (West Africa). There is no statistical evidence of genetic heterogeneity between the two groups of islands which constitute the archipelago, Barlavento and Sotavento. The gene frequency distribution observed in Cabo Verde differs, in many markers, from that of West African populations, suggesting an important European influence. The proportion of Caucasian genes in the population of Cabo Verde has been calculated to be M = 0.3634 +/- 0.0510, and the considerable dispersion of the locus-specific admixture estimates seems to indicate random drift has also played a role in the evolution of the allele frequencies in the archipelago. Partition of the variance of the mean estimate in evolutionary and sampling variance shows the evolutionary variance is more than ten times higher than the sampling variance. When dendrograms are constructed on the basis of different genetic distances, the population of Cabo Verde clusters with Afro-Americans, forming a different group from the populations of the African continent. This is interpreted as a consequence of the importance of Caucasian admixture both in Afro-Americans and in the population of Cabo Verde. PMID:7485435

  14. Maternal admixture and population structure in Mexican-Mestizos based on mtDNA haplogroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cortés, Gabriela; Salazar-Flores, Joel; Haro-Guerrero, Javier; Rubi-Castellanos, Rodrigo; Velarde-Félix, Jésus S; Muñoz-Valle, José F; López-Casamichana, Mavil; Carrillo-Tapia, Eduardo; Canseco-Avila, Luis M; Bravi, Claudio M; López-Armenta, Mauro; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor

    2013-08-01

    The maternal ancestry (mtDNA) has important applications in different research fields, such as evolution, epidemiology, identification, and human population history. This is particularly interesting in Mestizos, which constitute the main population in Mexico (∼93%) resulting from post-Columbian admixture between Spaniards, Amerindians, and African slaves, principally. Consequently, we conducted minisequencing analysis (SNaPshot) of 11 mitochondrial single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 742 Mestizos of 10 populations from different regions in Mexico. The predominant maternal ancestry was Native American (92.9%), including Haplogroups A, B, C, and D (47, 23.7, 15.9, and 6.2%, respectively). Conversely, European and African ancestries were less frequent (5.3 and 1.9%, respectively). The main characteristics of the maternal lineages observed in Mexican-Mestizos comprised the following: 1) contrasting geographic gradient of Haplogroups A and C; 2) increase of European lineages toward the Northwest; 3) low or absent, but homogeneous, African ancestry throughout the Mexican territory; 4) maternal lineages in Mestizos roughly represent the genetic makeup of the surrounding Amerindian groups, particularly toward the Southeast, but not in the North and West; 5) continuity over time of the geographic distribution of Amerindian lineages in Mayas; and 6) low but significant maternal population structure (FST  = 2.8%; P = 0.0000). The average ancestry obtained from uniparental systems (mtDNA and Y-chromosome) in Mexican-Mestizos was correlated with previous ancestry estimates based on autosomal systems (genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms and short tandem repeats). Finally, the comparison of paternal and maternal lineages provided additional information concerning the gender bias admixture, mating patterns, and population structure in Mestizos throughout the Mexican territory.

  15. Sulfate resistance of concrete containing high volume of mineral admixtures[ACI SP-234-37

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irassar, E.F. [Buenos Aires Central State Univ., Olavarria (Argentina). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Batic, O.R. [La Plata Univ., (Argentina)]|[Commission of Scientific Research of Buenos Aires (Argentina); Di Maio, A. [La Plata Technilogical Univ. (Argentina)]|[CONICET-LEMIT (Argentina); Ponce, J.M. [LEMIT-CIC (Argentina)]|[La Plata Univ. (Argentina). Faculty of Natural Sciences

    2006-07-01

    Various physical and chemical processes that influence the durability of concrete structures were discussed. For underground or on grade structures, the durability of concrete depends on the chemical composition of concrete and the concentration of ionic species present in the soil or groundwater, the permeability of soil, exposition to water, the flow of water, and the shape and size of structure. It also depends on the quality of concrete in terms of compaction, water to cementitious ratio, cementitious content, type of cementitious materials, and curing process. The rate and course of concrete deterioration also depends on environmental conditions such as low temperature, temperature cycles between day and night, and the relative humidity of ambient air. Durable foundations in a sulfate environment require a low permeability concrete in order to assure good compaction and curing procedures. The type of cementitious material is also important in preventing deterioration. This paper summarized 15 years of results related to the effect of high volume mineral admixtures on the sulfate resistance of concrete. A mechanism of concrete degradation was presented based on macroscopic and microscopic behaviour. The physical and chemical attack produced by sulfate soils was emphasized. The presentation outlined the materials used, mixture proportions, curing, exposure conditions, inspection, compressive strength test methods and microstructural analyses. It was shown that a combination of portland cement with a high volume of appropriate fly ash, natural pozzolan or granulated blast-furnace slag provides an excellent performance for concrete structures buried in harsh alkali sulfate soils. Concretes with high volume of mineral admixtures are more susceptible to the physical salt attack caused by cycles of wetting and drying that produce progressive scaling and mass loss. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  16. Genetic origin, admixture, and asymmetry in maternal and paternal human lineages in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Fuentes Antonio

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Before the arrival of Europeans to Cuba, the island was inhabited by two Native American groups, the Tainos and the Ciboneys. Most of the present archaeological, linguistic and ancient DNA evidence indicates a South American origin for these populations. In colonial times, Cuban Native American people were replaced by European settlers and slaves from Africa. It is still unknown however, to what extent their genetic pool intermingled with and was 'diluted' by the arrival of newcomers. In order to investigate the demographic processes that gave rise to the current Cuban population, we analyzed the hypervariable region I (HVS-I and five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA coding region in 245 individuals, and 40 Y-chromosome SNPs in 132 male individuals. Results The Native American contribution to present-day Cubans accounted for 33% of the maternal lineages, whereas Africa and Eurasia contributed 45% and 22% of the lineages, respectively. This Native American substrate in Cuba cannot be traced back to a single origin within the American continent, as previously suggested by ancient DNA analyses. Strikingly, no Native American lineages were found for the Y-chromosome, for which the Eurasian and African contributions were around 80% and 20%, respectively. Conclusion While the ancestral Native American substrate is still appreciable in the maternal lineages, the extensive process of population admixture in Cuba has left no trace of the paternal Native American lineages, mirroring the strong sexual bias in the admixture processes taking place during colonial times.

  17. A Generic Procedure for the Assessment of the Effect of Concrete Admixtures on the Sorption of Radionuclides on Cement: Concept and Selected Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaus, M.A.; Laube, A.; Van Loon, L.R

    2004-03-01

    A screening procedure is proposed for the assessment of the effect of concrete admixtures on the sorption of radionuclides by cement. The procedure is both broad and generic, and can thus be used as input for the assessment of concrete admixtures which might be used in the future. The experimental feasibility and significance of the screening procedure are tested using selected concrete admixtures: i.e. sulfonated naphthalene-formaldehyde condensates, lignosulfonates, and a plasticiser used at PSI for waste conditioning. The effect of these on the sorption properties of Ni(II), Eu(III) and Th(IV) in cement is investigated using crushed Hardened Cement Paste (HCP), as well as cement pastes prepared in the presence of these admixtures. Strongly adverse effects on the sorption of the radionuclides tested are observed only in single cases, and under extreme conditions: i.e. at high ratios of concrete admixtures to HCP, and at low ratios of HCP to cement pore water. Under realistic conditions, both radionuclide sorption and the sorption of isosaccharinic acid (a strong complexant produced in cement-conditioned wastes containing cellulose) remain unaffected by the presence of concrete admixtures, which can be explained by the sorption of them onto the HCP. The pore-water concentrations of the concrete admixtures tested are thereby reduced to levels at which the formation of radionuclide complexes is no longer of importance. Further, the Langmuir sorption model, proposed for the sorption of concrete admixtures on HCP, suggests that the HCP surface does not become saturated, at least for those concrete admixtures tested. (author)

  18. A Generic Procedure for the Assessment of the Effect of Concrete Admixtures on the Sorption of Radionuclides on Cement: Concept and Selected Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A screening procedure is proposed for the assessment of the effect of concrete admixtures on the sorption of radionuclides by cement. The procedure is both broad and generic, and can thus be used as input for the assessment of concrete admixtures which might be used in the future. The experimental feasibility and significance of the screening procedure are tested using selected concrete admixtures: i.e. sulfonated naphthalene-formaldehyde condensates, lignosulfonates, and a plasticiser used at PSI for waste conditioning. The effect of these on the sorption properties of Ni(II), Eu(III) and Th(IV) in cement is investigated using crushed Hardened Cement Paste (HCP), as well as cement pastes prepared in the presence of these admixtures. Strongly adverse effects on the sorption of the radionuclides tested are observed only in single cases, and under extreme conditions: i.e. at high ratios of concrete admixtures to HCP, and at low ratios of HCP to cement pore water. Under realistic conditions, both radionuclide sorption and the sorption of isosaccharinic acid (a strong complexant produced in cement-conditioned wastes containing cellulose) remain unaffected by the presence of concrete admixtures, which can be explained by the sorption of them onto the HCP. The pore-water concentrations of the concrete admixtures tested are thereby reduced to levels at which the formation of radionuclide complexes is no longer of importance. Further, the Langmuir sorption model, proposed for the sorption of concrete admixtures on HCP, suggests that the HCP surface does not become saturated, at least for those concrete admixtures tested. (author)

  19. Influence of the Type and Method of Injection of Oxides Admixtures of Rare Earth Elements on Colour and other Properties of Dental Porcelain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ekaterina A. Kulinich; Tamara A. Khabas; Vladimir I. Vereschagin

    2010-01-01

    A glassceramic material, which can be used in stomatology for production of dentinal layer of the dental crown multilayer coating, was received. In order to colour the material the admixtures of Tb and Ce compounds were used, as well as composite admixture representing a mixture of Ce, Nd and La oxides. It was demonstrated that the admixture of Tb oxide tones the material only when it is used together with Ce oxide. It was found that the more admixtures of rare earth elements oxides are contained in the sample composition, the higher the colour strength of the sintered material is. The wave length for the test samples is in the range of 600~650 nm, which corresponds to the yellow-orange and orange-red spectral range.

  20. Influence of the calcium concentration in the presence of organic phosphorus on the physicochemical compatibility and stability of all-in-one admixtures for neonatal use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Sousa Valeria

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm infants need high amounts of calcium and phosphorus for bone mineralization, which is difficult to obtain with parenteral feeding due to the low solubility of these salts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical compatibility of high concentrations of calcium associated with organic phosphate and its influence on the stability of AIO admixtures for neonatal use. Methods Three TPN admixture formulas were prepared in multilayered bags. The calcium content of the admixtures was adjusted to 0, 46.5 or 93 mg/100 ml in the presence of a fixed organic phosphate concentration as well as lipids, amino acids, inorganic salts, glucose, vitamins and oligoelements at pH 5.5. Each admixture was stored at 4°C, 25°C or 37°C and evaluated over a period of 7 days. The physicochemical stability parameters evaluated were visual aspect, pH, sterility, osmolality, peroxide formation, precipitation, and the size of lipid globules. Results Color alterations occurred from the first day on, and reversible lipid film formation from the third day of study for the admixtures stored at 25°C and 37°C. According to the parameters evaluated, the admixtures were stable at 4°C; and none of them presented precipitated particles due to calcium/phosphate incompatibility or lipid globules larger than 5 μm, which is the main parameter currently used to evaluate lipid emulsion stability. The admixtures maintained low peroxide levels and osmolarity was appropriate for parenteral administration. Conclusion The total calcium and calcium/phosphorus ratios studied appeared not to influence the physicochemical compatibility and stability of AIO admixtures.

  1. Nuclear species-diagnostic SNP markers mined from 454 amplicon sequencing reveal admixture genomic structure of modern citrus varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Curk

    Full Text Available Most cultivated Citrus species originated from interspecific hybridisation between four ancestral taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, and C. micrantha with limited further interspecific recombination due to vegetative propagation. This evolution resulted in admixture genomes with frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Moreover, a major part of the phenotypic diversity of edible citrus results from the initial differentiation between these taxa. Deciphering the phylogenomic structure of citrus germplasm is therefore essential for an efficient utilization of citrus biodiversity in breeding schemes. The objective of this work was to develop a set of species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers for the four Citrus ancestral taxa covering the nine chromosomes, and to use these markers to infer the phylogenomic structure of secondary species and modern cultivars. Species-diagnostic SNPs were mined from 454 amplicon sequencing of 57 gene fragments from 26 genotypes of the four basic taxa. Of the 1,053 SNPs mined from 28,507 kb sequence, 273 were found to be highly diagnostic for a single basic taxon. Species-diagnostic SNP markers (105 were used to analyse the admixture structure of varieties and rootstocks. This revealed C. maxima introgressions in most of the old and in all recent selections of mandarins, and suggested that C. reticulata × C. maxima reticulation and introgression processes were important in edible mandarin domestication. The large range of phylogenomic constitutions between C. reticulata and C. maxima revealed in mandarins, tangelos, tangors, sweet oranges, sour oranges, grapefruits, and orangelos is favourable for genetic association studies based on phylogenomic structures of the germplasm. Inferred admixture structures were in agreement with previous hypotheses regarding the origin of several secondary species and also revealed the probable origin of several acid citrus varieties. The developed species

  2. Nuclear species-diagnostic SNP markers mined from 454 amplicon sequencing reveal admixture genomic structure of modern citrus varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Most cultivated Citrus species originated from interspecific hybridisation between four ancestral taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, and C. micrantha) with limited further interspecific recombination due to vegetative propagation. This evolution resulted in admixture genomes with frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Moreover, a major part of the phenotypic diversity of edible citrus results from the initial differentiation between these taxa. Deciphering the phylogenomic structure of citrus germplasm is therefore essential for an efficient utilization of citrus biodiversity in breeding schemes. The objective of this work was to develop a set of species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the four Citrus ancestral taxa covering the nine chromosomes, and to use these markers to infer the phylogenomic structure of secondary species and modern cultivars. Species-diagnostic SNPs were mined from 454 amplicon sequencing of 57 gene fragments from 26 genotypes of the four basic taxa. Of the 1,053 SNPs mined from 28,507 kb sequence, 273 were found to be highly diagnostic for a single basic taxon. Species-diagnostic SNP markers (105) were used to analyse the admixture structure of varieties and rootstocks. This revealed C. maxima introgressions in most of the old and in all recent selections of mandarins, and suggested that C. reticulata × C. maxima reticulation and introgression processes were important in edible mandarin domestication. The large range of phylogenomic constitutions between C. reticulata and C. maxima revealed in mandarins, tangelos, tangors, sweet oranges, sour oranges, grapefruits, and orangelos is favourable for genetic association studies based on phylogenomic structures of the germplasm. Inferred admixture structures were in agreement with previous hypotheses regarding the origin of several secondary species and also revealed the probable origin of several acid citrus varieties. The developed species-diagnostic SNP

  3. On the use of crystalline admixtures in cement based construction materials: from porosity reducers to promoters of self healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Liberato; Krelani, Visar; Moretti, Fabio

    2016-08-01

    The project detailed in this paper aims at a thorough characterization of the effects of crystalline admixtures, currently employed as porosity reducing admixtures, on the self-healing capacity of the cementitious composites, i.e. their capacity to completely or partially re-seal cracks and, in case, also exhibit recovery of mechanical properties. The problem has been investigated with reference to both a normal strength concrete (NSC) and a high performance fibre reinforced cementitious composite (HPFRCC). In the latter case, the influence of flow-induced fibre alignment has also been considered in the experimental investigation. With reference to either 3-point (for NSC) or 4-point (for HPFRCC) bending tests performed up to controlled crack opening and up to failure, respectively before and after exposure/conditioning recovery of stiffness and stress bearing capacity has been evaluated to assess the self-healing capacity. In a durability-based design framework, self-healing indices to quantify the recovery of mechanical properties will also be defined. In NSC, crystalline admixtures are able to promote up to 60% of crack sealing even under exposure to open air. In the case of HPFRCCs, which would already feature autogenous healing capacity because of their peculiar mix compositions, the synergy between the dispersed fibre reinforcement and the action of the crystalline admixture has resulted in a likely ‘chemical pre-stressing’ of the same reinforcement, from which the recovery of mechanical performance of the material has greatly benefited, up to levels even higher than the performance of the virgin un-cracked material.

  4. Cuba: exploring the history of admixture and the genetic basis of pigmentation using autosomal and uniparental markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcheco-Teruel, Beatriz; Parra, Esteban J; Fuentes-Smith, Evelyn; Salas, Antonio; Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Demontis, Ditte; Torres-Español, María; Marín-Padrón, Lilia C; Gómez-Cabezas, Enrique J; Alvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Mosquera-Miguel, Ana; Martínez-Fuentes, Antonio; Carracedo, Angel; Børglum, Anders D; Mors, Ole

    2014-07-01

    We carried out an admixture analysis of a sample comprising 1,019 individuals from all the provinces of Cuba. We used a panel of 128 autosomal Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) to estimate the admixture proportions. We also characterized a number of haplogroup diagnostic markers in the mtDNA and Y-chromosome in order to evaluate admixture using uniparental markers. Finally, we analyzed the association of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with quantitative estimates of skin pigmentation. In the total sample, the average European, African and Native American contributions as estimated from autosomal AIMs were 72%, 20% and 8%, respectively. The Eastern provinces of Cuba showed relatively higher African and Native American contributions than the Western provinces. In particular, the highest proportion of African ancestry was observed in the provinces of Guantánamo (40%) and Santiago de Cuba (39%), and the highest proportion of Native American ancestry in Granma (15%), Holguín (12%) and Las Tunas (12%). We found evidence of substantial population stratification in the current Cuban population, emphasizing the need to control for the effects of population stratification in association studies including individuals from Cuba. The results of the analyses of uniparental markers were concordant with those observed in the autosomes. These geographic patterns in admixture proportions are fully consistent with historical and archaeological information. Additionally, we identified a sex-biased pattern in the process of gene flow, with a substantially higher European contribution from the paternal side, and higher Native American and African contributions from the maternal side. This sex-biased contribution was particularly evident for Native American ancestry. Finally, we observed that SNPs located in the genes SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 are strongly associated with melanin levels in the sample.

  5. The ion-selective field-effect transistor application for enzyme analysis of toxic admixtures in aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavluchenko A. S.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes design and production technology of pH-sensors based on ion-selective field-effect transis-tors (ISFET intended for enzyme analysis of inhibiting admixtures in aqueous solutions, and architecture of the multichannel measuring system built upon the ISFET-sensors. The characteristics of developed prototypes are given and the ways for further improvement of system design, metrological performance and operating parameters are outlined.

  6. Cuba: exploring the history of admixture and the genetic basis of pigmentation using autosomal and uniparental markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcheco-Teruel, Beatriz; Parra, Esteban J; Fuentes-Smith, Evelyn; Salas, Antonio; Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Demontis, Ditte; Torres-Español, María; Marín-Padrón, Lilia C; Gómez-Cabezas, Enrique J; Alvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Mosquera-Miguel, Ana; Martínez-Fuentes, Antonio; Carracedo, Angel; Børglum, Anders D; Mors, Ole

    2014-07-01

    We carried out an admixture analysis of a sample comprising 1,019 individuals from all the provinces of Cuba. We used a panel of 128 autosomal Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) to estimate the admixture proportions. We also characterized a number of haplogroup diagnostic markers in the mtDNA and Y-chromosome in order to evaluate admixture using uniparental markers. Finally, we analyzed the association of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with quantitative estimates of skin pigmentation. In the total sample, the average European, African and Native American contributions as estimated from autosomal AIMs were 72%, 20% and 8%, respectively. The Eastern provinces of Cuba showed relatively higher African and Native American contributions than the Western provinces. In particular, the highest proportion of African ancestry was observed in the provinces of Guantánamo (40%) and Santiago de Cuba (39%), and the highest proportion of Native American ancestry in Granma (15%), Holguín (12%) and Las Tunas (12%). We found evidence of substantial population stratification in the current Cuban population, emphasizing the need to control for the effects of population stratification in association studies including individuals from Cuba. The results of the analyses of uniparental markers were concordant with those observed in the autosomes. These geographic patterns in admixture proportions are fully consistent with historical and archaeological information. Additionally, we identified a sex-biased pattern in the process of gene flow, with a substantially higher European contribution from the paternal side, and higher Native American and African contributions from the maternal side. This sex-biased contribution was particularly evident for Native American ancestry. Finally, we observed that SNPs located in the genes SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 are strongly associated with melanin levels in the sample. PMID:25058410

  7. Effect of Expansive Admixtures on the Shrinkage and Mechanical Properties of High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Cement Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Won-Chang Choi; Hyun-Do Yun

    2013-01-01

    High-performance fiber-reinforced cement composites (HPFRCCs) are characterized by strain-hardening and multiple cracking during the inelastic deformation process, but they also develop high shrinkage strain. This study investigates the effects of replacing Portland cement with calcium sulfoaluminate-based expansive admixtures (CSA EXAs) to compensate for the shrinkage and associated mechanical behavior of HPFRCCs. Two types of CSA EXA (CSA-K and CSA-J), each with a different chemical composi...

  8. Cuba: exploring the history of admixture and the genetic basis of pigmentation using autosomal and uniparental markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Marcheco-Teruel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We carried out an admixture analysis of a sample comprising 1,019 individuals from all the provinces of Cuba. We used a panel of 128 autosomal Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs to estimate the admixture proportions. We also characterized a number of haplogroup diagnostic markers in the mtDNA and Y-chromosome in order to evaluate admixture using uniparental markers. Finally, we analyzed the association of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with quantitative estimates of skin pigmentation. In the total sample, the average European, African and Native American contributions as estimated from autosomal AIMs were 72%, 20% and 8%, respectively. The Eastern provinces of Cuba showed relatively higher African and Native American contributions than the Western provinces. In particular, the highest proportion of African ancestry was observed in the provinces of Guantánamo (40% and Santiago de Cuba (39%, and the highest proportion of Native American ancestry in Granma (15%, Holguín (12% and Las Tunas (12%. We found evidence of substantial population stratification in the current Cuban population, emphasizing the need to control for the effects of population stratification in association studies including individuals from Cuba. The results of the analyses of uniparental markers were concordant with those observed in the autosomes. These geographic patterns in admixture proportions are fully consistent with historical and archaeological information. Additionally, we identified a sex-biased pattern in the process of gene flow, with a substantially higher European contribution from the paternal side, and higher Native American and African contributions from the maternal side. This sex-biased contribution was particularly evident for Native American ancestry. Finally, we observed that SNPs located in the genes SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 are strongly associated with melanin levels in the sample.

  9. Nuclear species-diagnostic SNP markers mined from 454 amplicon sequencing reveal admixture genomic structure of modern citrus varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Most cultivated Citrus species originated from interspecific hybridisation between four ancestral taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, and C. micrantha) with limited further interspecific recombination due to vegetative propagation. This evolution resulted in admixture genomes with frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Moreover, a major part of the phenotypic diversity of edible citrus results from the initial differentiation between these taxa. Deciphering the phylogenomic structure of citrus germplasm is therefore essential for an efficient utilization of citrus biodiversity in breeding schemes. The objective of this work was to develop a set of species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the four Citrus ancestral taxa covering the nine chromosomes, and to use these markers to infer the phylogenomic structure of secondary species and modern cultivars. Species-diagnostic SNPs were mined from 454 amplicon sequencing of 57 gene fragments from 26 genotypes of the four basic taxa. Of the 1,053 SNPs mined from 28,507 kb sequence, 273 were found to be highly diagnostic for a single basic taxon. Species-diagnostic SNP markers (105) were used to analyse the admixture structure of varieties and rootstocks. This revealed C. maxima introgressions in most of the old and in all recent selections of mandarins, and suggested that C. reticulata × C. maxima reticulation and introgression processes were important in edible mandarin domestication. The large range of phylogenomic constitutions between C. reticulata and C. maxima revealed in mandarins, tangelos, tangors, sweet oranges, sour oranges, grapefruits, and orangelos is favourable for genetic association studies based on phylogenomic structures of the germplasm. Inferred admixture structures were in agreement with previous hypotheses regarding the origin of several secondary species and also revealed the probable origin of several acid citrus varieties. The developed species-diagnostic SNP

  10. Determining ancestry proportions in complex admixture scenarios in South Africa using a novel proxy ancestry selection method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile R Chimusa

    Full Text Available Admixed populations can make an important contribution to the discovery of disease susceptibility genes if the parental populations exhibit substantial variation in susceptibility. Admixture mapping has been used successfully, but is not designed to cope with populations that have more than two or three ancestral populations. The inference of admixture proportions and local ancestry and the imputation of missing genotypes in admixed populations are crucial in both understanding variation in disease and identifying novel disease loci. These inferences make use of reference populations, and accuracy depends on the choice of ancestral populations. Using an insufficient or inaccurate ancestral panel can result in erroneously inferred ancestry and affect the detection power of GWAS and meta-analysis when using imputation. Current algorithms are inadequate for multi-way admixed populations. To address these challenges we developed PROXYANC, an approach to select the best proxy ancestral populations. From the simulation of a multi-way admixed population we demonstrate the capability and accuracy of PROXYANC and illustrate the importance of the choice of ancestry in both estimating admixture proportions and imputing missing genotypes. We applied this approach to a complex, uniquely admixed South African population. Using genome-wide SNP data from over 764 individuals, we accurately estimate the genetic contributions from the best ancestral populations: isiXhosa [Formula: see text], ‡Khomani SAN [Formula: see text], European [Formula: see text], Indian [Formula: see text], and Chinese [Formula: see text]. We also demonstrate that the ancestral allele frequency differences correlate with increased linkage disequilibrium in the South African population, which originates from admixture events rather than population bottlenecks.The collective term for people of mixed ancestry in southern Africa is "Coloured," and this is officially recognized in South

  11. Genetic dating indicates that the Asian–Papuan admixture through Eastern Indonesia corresponds to the Austronesian expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Shuhua; Pugach, Irina; Stoneking, Mark; Kayser, Manfred; Jin, Li

    2012-01-01

    Although the Austronesian expansion had a major impact on the languages of Island Southeast Asia, controversy still exists over the genetic impact of this expansion. The coexistence of both Asian and Papuan genetic ancestry in Eastern Indonesia provides a unique opportunity to address this issue. Here, we estimate recombination breakpoints in admixed genomes based on genome-wide SNP data and date the genetic admixture between populations of Asian vs. Papuan ancestry in Eastern Indonesia. Anal...

  12. The Influence of Mineral Admixtures on Bending Strength of Mortar on the Premise of Equal Compressive Strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiang; YAN Peiyu; FENG Jianwen

    2012-01-01

    The influence of mineral admixtures on bending strength of mortar on the premise of equal compressive strength was investigated.Three mineral admixtures (fly ash,ground granulated blast-furnace slag and steel slag) were used.The adding amount of mineral admixture in this study ranges from 22.5% to 60%,and the water-to-binder ratio ranges from 0.34 to 0.50.With equal compressive strength,different mortars can be arranged in such a descending order with their bending strength:cement-fly ash mortar,cement mortar,cement-GGBS mortar,and cement-steel slag mortar.With the same compressive strength,the higher the steel slag content and water-to-binder ratio,the lower the bending strength of mortars.However,the effect of mineral mixture content and water-to-binder ratio on the bending strength of cement-fly ash mortar and cement-GGBS mortar is far inconspicuous.

  13. Testing models of speciation from genome sequences: divergence and asymmetric admixture in Island South-East Asian Sus species during the Plio-Pleistocene climatic fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Laurent A F; Madsen, Ole; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Groenen, Martien A M; Lohse, Konrad

    2014-11-01

    In many temperate regions, ice ages promoted range contractions into refugia resulting in divergence (and potentially speciation), while warmer periods led to range expansions and hybridization. However, the impact these climatic oscillations had in many parts of the tropics remains elusive. Here, we investigate this issue using genome sequences of three pig (Sus) species, two of which are found on islands of the Sunda-shelf shallow seas in Island South-East Asia (ISEA). A previous study revealed signatures of interspecific admixture between these Sus species (Genome biology, 14, 2013, R107). However, the timing, directionality and extent of this admixture remain unknown. Here, we use a likelihood-based model comparison to more finely resolve this admixture history and test whether it was mediated by humans or occurred naturally. Our analyses suggest that interspecific admixture between Sunda-shelf species was most likely asymmetric and occurred long before the arrival of humans in the region. More precisely, we show that these species diverged during the late Pliocene but around 23% of their genomes have been affected by admixture during the later Pleistocene climatic transition. In addition, we show that our method provides a significant improvement over D-statistics which are uninformative about the direction of admixture. PMID:25294645

  14. Genetics, surnames, grandparents' nationalities, and ethnic admixture in Southern Brazil: Do the patterns of variation coincide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dornelles C.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2,708 individuals from the European-derived population of Rio Grande do Sul, divided into seven mesoregions, and of 226 individuals of similar origin from Santa Catarina were studied. Seventeen protein genetic systems, as well as grandparents' nationalities, individuals' surnames, and interethnic admixture were investigated. The alleles which presented the highest and lowest differences were GLO1*2 (16% and PGD*A (2%, respectively, but in general no significant genetic differences were found among mesoregions. The values observed were generally those expected for individuals of European descent, with the largest difference being a lower prevalence (34-39% of P*1. Significant heterogeneity among mesoregions was observed for the other variables considered, and was consistent with historical records. The Amerindian contribution to the gene pool of European-derived subjects in Rio Grande do Sul was estimated to be as high as 11%. Based on the four data sets, the most general finding was a tendency for a northeast-southwest separation of the populations studied. Seven significant phenotype associations between systems were observed at the 5% level (three at the 0.1% level. Of the latter, the two most interesting (since they were also observed in other studies were MNSs/Duffy and Rh/ACP.

  15. The E2 admixtures in mixed forbidden lines of Bi I and Pb I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasowicz, T J [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Gdansk, ul. Wita Stwosza 57, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

    2007-10-15

    The hyperfine structures (hfs) of mixed (M1+E2) multipole lines 461.5 nm (6p{sup 3} {sup 2}P{sub 1/2}{yields}6p{sup 3} {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}) and 647.6 nm (6p{sup 3} {sup 2}D{sub 5/2}{yields}6p{sup 3} {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}) of Bi I and 733.2 nm (6p{sup 2} {sup 1}D{sub 2}{yields}6p{sup 2} {sup 3}P{sub 1}) of Pb I are presented. A computer modelling technique was used to obtain the predicted hfs contours of these lines. By varying the free parameters describing the line shape and the electric-quadrupole admixture D{sup E2} the calculated profiles were fitted to the recorded spectra. The D{sup E2} values obtained from the best fits were found to be (7.3{+-}0.9), (17.6{+-}1.2) and (5.0{+-}0.6)% for the 461.5, 647.6 and 733.2 nm lines, respectively. These results are compared with other experiments and recent theories.

  16. Genetics, surnames, grandparents' nationalities, and ethnic admixture in Southern Brazil: Do the patterns of variation coincide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. Dornelles

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2,708 individuals from the European-derived population of Rio Grande do Sul, divided into seven mesoregions, and of 226 individuals of similar origin from Santa Catarina were studied. Seventeen protein genetic systems, as well as grandparents' nationalities, individuals' surnames, and interethnic admixture were investigated. The alleles which presented the highest and lowest differences were GLO1*2 (16% and PGD*A (2%, respectively, but in general no significant genetic differences were found among mesoregions. The values observed were generally those expected for individuals of European descent, with the largest difference being a lower prevalence (34-39% of P*1. Significant heterogeneity among mesoregions was observed for the other variables considered, and was consistent with historical records. The Amerindian contribution to the gene pool of European-derived subjects in Rio Grande do Sul was estimated to be as high as 11%. Based on the four data sets, the most general finding was a tendency for a northeast-southwest separation of the populations studied. Seven significant phenotype associations between systems were observed at the 5% level (three at the 0.1% level. Of the latter, the two most interesting (since they were also observed in other studies were MNSs/Duffy and Rh/ACP.

  17. Influence of CG With High Content of Metallic Particles as a Cement Admixture on Cement Strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Hui-wen; LIN Zong-shou; ZHAO Qian; HUANG Yun

    2003-01-01

    Copper gangue (CG), containing a large amount of water with grain sizes of 0.037 to 0.10mm,is an inactive industrial waste generated from copper refineries. When it is dried and used as a cement admixture, the influence of the presence of finely dispersed metallic particles in CG on the microstructure and compressive strength of cement paste has been studied.The results show that the higher the replacement of CG is,the lower the compressive strength of cement mortar is.However,the long-term strength of the specimens with 10% CG,especially after being cured for 3 months,approached to that of the plain mortar.Its mechanism was studied by an electron probe X-ray microanalyzer (EPXMA).The results indicate that a small quantity of Fe(OH)3·nH2O slowly formed from Fe2O3 in the presence of Ca(OH)2, free CaO and MgO of the clinker also slowly hydrated and formed Ca(OH)2 and Mg(OH)2 respectively,so the hardened cement paste became more compact.

  18. Efficiency of the coherent biexciton admixture mechanism for multiple exciton generation in InAs nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the coherent mixing between two-particle (single exciton) and four-particle (biexciton) states of a semiconductor nanocrystal resulting from the Coulomb coupling between states with different numbers of electron-hole pairs. Using a simple model of the nanocrystal wave functions and an envelope function approach, we estimate the efficiency of the multiple exciton generation (MEG) process resulting from such coherent admixture mechanism, including all the relevant states in a very broad energy interval. We show that in a typical ensemble of nanocrystals with an average radius of 3nm, the onset of the MEG process appears about 1 eV above the lower edge of the biexciton density of states. This is due to the angular momentum conservation that imposes selection rules and limits the available MEG pathways, thus taking over the role of momentum conservation that hinders this process in bulk. The efficiency of the MEG process reaches 50% for photon energies around 5 eV. The MEG onset shifts to lower energies and therefore the efficiency increases in a certain energy range as the radius grows. The energy dependence of the MEG efficiency differs considerably between ensembles with small and large inhomogeneity of nanocrystal sizes. (paper)

  19. Genetic structure of marine Borrelia garinii and population admixture with the terrestrial cycle of Lyme borreliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Boulinier, Thierry; Sertour, Natacha; Cornet, Muriel; Ferquel, Elisabeth; McCoy, Karen D

    2011-09-01

    Despite the importance of population structure for the epidemiology of pathogenic bacteria, the spatial and ecological heterogeneity of these populations is often poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of the Lyme borreliosis (LB) spirochaete Borrelia garinii in its marine cycle involving colonial seabirds and different host races of the seabird tick Ixodes uriae. Multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) on eight chromosomal and two plasmid loci (ospA and ospC) indicate that B. garinii circulating in the marine system is highly diverse. Microevolution in marine B. garinii seems to be mainly clonal, but recombination and selection do occur. Sequence types were not evenly distributed among geographic regions, with substantial population subdivision between Atlantic and Pacific Ocean basins. However, no geographic structuring was evident within regions. Results of selection analyses and phylogenetic discordance between chromosomal and plasmid loci indicate adaptive evolution is likely occurring in this system, but no pattern of host or vector-associated divergence was found. Recombination analyses showed evidence for population admixture between terrestrial and marine strains, suggesting that LB spirochaetes are exchanged between these enzootic cycles. Importantly, our results highlight the need to explicitly consider the marine system for a complete understanding of the evolutionary ecology and global epidemiology of Lyme borreliosis. PMID:21651685

  20. Genome-wide analysis in Brazilian Xavante Indians reveals low degree of admixture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia C Kuhn

    Full Text Available Characterization of population genetic variation and structure can be used as tools for research in human genetics and population isolates are of great interest. The aim of the present study was to characterize the genetic structure of Xavante Indians and compare it with other populations. The Xavante, an indigenous population living in Brazilian Central Plateau, is one of the largest native groups in Brazil. A subset of 53 unrelated subjects was selected from the initial sample of 300 Xavante Indians. Using 86,197 markers, Xavante were compared with all populations of HapMap Phase III and HGDP-CEPH projects and with a Southeast Brazilian population sample to establish its population structure. Principal Components Analysis showed that the Xavante Indians are concentrated in the Amerindian axis near other populations of known Amerindian ancestry such as Karitiana, Pima, Surui and Maya and a low degree of genetic admixture was observed. This is consistent with the historical records of bottlenecks experience and cultural isolation. By calculating pair-wise F(st statistics we characterized the genetic differentiation between Xavante Indians and representative populations of the HapMap and from HGDP-CEPH project. We found that the genetic differentiation between Xavante Indians and populations of Ameridian, Asian, European, and African ancestry increased progressively. Our results indicate that the Xavante is a population that remained genetically isolated over the past decades and can offer advantages for genome-wide mapping studies of inherited disorders.

  1. Total nutrient admixtures (3-in-1): pros vs cons for adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasio, Jane

    2015-06-01

    Total nutrient admixture (TNA) is a complete parenteral nutrition (PN) formulation composed of all macronutrients, including dextrose, amino acids, and intravenous fat emulsions (IVFE), in one bag. The TNA may be safely administered to the patient, with all components aseptically compounded and minimal administration manipulation required, lending itself to decreases in risks of catheter contamination and patient infections. The TNA is compatible and stable at recommended concentrations, and since the IVFE is in the TNA, it is infused at slower rates, allowing for better fat clearance. The TNA offers convenience of administration and a potential cost savings to the healthcare institution both directly and indirectly. Unfortunately, the TNA is not without concerns. At low macronutrient concentrations (lower than recommended), the formulation is compromised. Greater divalent and monovalent cation amounts and increased concentrations of phosphate and calcium may destabilize the TNA or result in precipitation, respectively. With the addition of IVFE in the TNA, catheter occlusion is greater and larger pore size filters are necessary, resulting in less microbial elimination. Determining if the implementation of the TNA is appropriate for an institution requires a recognition of the advantages and disadvantages of the TNA as well as an understanding of the institution's patient population and their nutrition requirements. PMID:25855093

  2. USE OF CERTAIN ADMIXTURES IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF PAVEMENT ON EXPANSIVE CLAYEY SUBGRADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.NEERAJA,

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid industrialization throughout the world, the production of huge quantity of produced waste materials creates not only the environmental problem but also the depositional hazards. Many procedures have been developed to improve the mechanical properties of soil by incorporating a wide range of stabilizing agents, additives and conditioners. In this paper, an attempt has been made to utilize industrial wastes like Rice Husk Ash (RHA, Fly Ash (FA and Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag (GGBS as stabilizing agents. In addition to these, Lime was also added as stabilizing agent. The effect of Lime, RHA, FA and GGBS on certain properties of soil such as Optimum moisture content (OMC, Maximum Dry Density(MDD, Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS and California Bearing Ratio (CBR has been studied. It has been established by experiments conducted on the samples that there is a maximum change in the properties with addition of lime up to 5%, RHA and GGBS up to 15% per cent and FA up to 20%. Of all the admixtures, Lime shows considerable increase in strength characteristics at an optimum lime content of 5% which gave maximum.

  3. Use of admixtures in organic-contaminated cement-clay pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Stampino, Paola; Zampori, Luca; Dotelli, Giovanni; Meloni, Paola; Sora, Isabella Natali; Pelosato, Renato

    2009-01-30

    In this work microstructure, porosity and hydration degree of cement-based solidified/stabilized wasteforms were studied before assessing their leaching behaviour. 2-Chloroaniline was chosen as a model liquid organic pollutant and included into cement pastes, which were also modified with different admixtures for concrete: a superplasticizer based on acrylic-modified polymer, a synthetic rubber latex and a waterproofing agent. An organoclay, modified with an ammonium quaternary salt (benzyl-dimethyl-tallowammonium, BDMTA), was added to the pastes as pre-sorbent agent of the organic matter. All the samples were dried up to constant weight in order to stop the hydration process at different times during the first 28 days of curing, typically, after 1 day (1d), 7 days (7d) and 28 days. Then, the microstructure of the hardened cement-clay pastes was investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The hydration degree and porosity were studied by thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), respectively. For samples cured for 28 days a short-term leach test set by Italian regulation for industrial waste recycling (D.M. 5 February 1998) was performed. The best results showed a 5% release of the total initial amount of organic pollutant. PMID:18514398

  4. Admixture between native and invasive populations may increase invasiveness of Mimulus guttatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleunen, Mark; Röckle, Michael; Stift, Marc

    2015-09-22

    Self-fertilization and admixture of genotypes from different populations can have major fitness consequences in native species. However, few studies have addressed their potential roles in invasive species. Here, we used plants of Mimulus guttatus from seven native North American, three invasive Scottish and four invasive New Zealand populations to address this. We created seeds from self-fertilization, within-population outcrossing, between-population outcrossing within the same range, and outcrossing between the native and invasive ranges. A greenhouse experiment showed that native and invasive plants of M. guttatus suffered to similar degrees from inbreeding depression, in terms of asexual reproduction and biomass production. After outcrossing with plants from other populations, M. guttatus benefited from heterosis, in terms of asexual and sexual reproduction, and biomass production, particularly when plants from native and invasive populations were crossed. This suggests that, when novel genotypes of M. guttatus from the native North American range will be introduced to the invasive ranges, subsequent outcrossing with M. guttatus plants that are already there might further boost invasiveness of this species.

  5. Binding Materials of Dehydrated Phases of Waste Hardened Cement Paste and Pozzolanic Admixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Linnu; HE Yongjia; HU Shuguang

    2009-01-01

    Fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) were added to improve the performances of regenerated binding materials (RBM) which refer to dehydrated phases with rebinding ability of waste hardened cement paste. Flowability tests, compressive strength tests,SEM, TG-DSC, and non-evaporable water content tests were employed to study the performances of the combined binding materials and the interactions between RBM, FA, and GGBFS. Results show that adding FA or GGBFS can improve the workability of RBM paste, and GGBFS has positive effects on strength of RBM. Pozzolanic reactions happen between RBM, FA, and GGBFS. And the activation effect of RBM to FA and GGBFS is superior to that of P.O grade-32.5 cement, especially at earlier ages, because of the high reactive f-CaO existing in RBM. On the advantages of the synergetic effects of RBM and pozzolanic admixtures such as FA and GGBFS, new combined binding materials can be prepared by blending them together.

  6. Utilization of water-reducing admixtures in cemented paste backfill of sulphide-rich mill tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercikdi, Bayram; Cihangir, Ferdi; Kesimal, Ayhan; Deveci, Haci; Alp, Ibrahim

    2010-07-15

    This study presents the effect of three different water-reducing admixtures (WRAs) on the rheological and mechanical properties of cemented paste backfill (CPB) samples. A 28-day strength of > or = 0.7 MPa and the maintenance of the stability (i.e. > or = 0.7 MPa) over 360 days of curing were desired as the design criteria. Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and Portland composite cement (PCC) were used as binders at 5 wt.% dose. WRAs were initially tested to determine the dosage of a WRA for a required consistency of 7'' for CPB mixtures. A total of 192 CPB samples were then prepared using WRAs. The utilization of WRAs enhanced the flow characteristics of the CPB mixture and allowed to achieve the same consistency at a lower water-to-cement ratio. For OPC, the addition of WRAs appeared to improve the both short- and long-term performance of CPB samples. However, only polycarboxylate-based superplasticiser produced the desired 28-day strength of > or = 0.7 MPa when PCC was used as the binder. These findings suggest that WRAs can be suitably exploited for CPB of sulphide-rich tailings to improve the strength and stability in short and long terms allowing to reduce binder costs in a CPB plant. PMID:20382473

  7. Interactions between genetic admixture, ethnic identity, APOE genotype and dementia prevalence in an admixed Cuban sample; a cross-sectional population survey and nested case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez Milagros

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence and incidence of dementia are low in Nigeria, but high among African-Americans. In these populations there is a high frequency of the risk-conferring APOE-e4 allele, but the risk ratio is less than in Europeans. In an admixed population of older Cubans we explored the effects of ethnic identity and genetic admixture on APOE genotype, its association with dementia, and dementia prevalence. Methods A cross-sectional catchment area survey of 2928 residents aged 65 and over, with a nested case-control study of individual admixture. Dementia diagnosis was established using 10/66 Dementia and DSM-IV criteria. APOE genotype was determined in 2520 participants, and genetic admixture in 235 dementia cases and 349 controls. Results Mean African admixture proportions were 5.8% for 'white', 28.6% for 'mixed' and 49.6% for 'black' ethnic identities. All three groups were substantially admixed with considerable overlap. African admixture was linearly related to number of APOE-e4 alleles. One or more APOE-e4 alleles was associated with dementia in 'white' and 'black' but not 'mixed' groups but neither this, nor the interaction between APOE-e4 and African admixture (PR 0.52, 95% CI 0.13-2.08 were statistically significant. Neither ethnic identity nor African admixture was associated with dementia prevalence when assessed separately. However, considering their joint effects African versus European admixture was independently associated with a higher prevalence, and 'mixed' or 'black' identity with a lower prevalence of dementia. Conclusions APOE genotype is strongly associated with ancestry. Larger studies are needed to confirm whether the concentration of the high-risk allele in those with African ancestry is offset by an attenuation of its effect. Counter to our hypothesis, African admixture may be associated with higher risk of dementia. Although strongly correlated, effects of admixture and ethnic identity should be

  8. Combination of admixtures to improve the robustness of high-volume fly ash concrete in hot weather[ACI SP-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nkinamubanzi, P.C. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET International Centre for Sustainable Development of Cement and Concrete]|[American Concrete Inst. Farmington Hills, MI (United States); Bhattacharya, A.; Sharma, A. [Hindustan Construction Co., Mumbai (India)

    2006-07-01

    A precise admixtures system is needed when using high-volume fly ash concrete as fresh concrete occasionally undergoes rapid slump loss after mixing, which can cause problems with casting, pumping and finishing of the concrete in hot weather. This paper provided details of a study conducted to implement high-volume fly ash concrete technology in India. Different families of admixtures were investigated to determine their water reduction capacities. A set-retarding admixture was used in some of the concrete mixtures in order to determine its efficacy. An Indian Portland cement was used to create a total of 22 different concrete mixtures. Four different fly ashes were used to replace portions of the concrete. The slump of the fresh concrete mixture was monitored for 2 to 3 hours. Unit weight and temperature of the concrete was measured. Specimens were cast in steel moulds in order to determine the compressive strength and unit weight of the hardened concrete. The concretes were demoulded after 24 hours and cured in a water tank. Results of the study showed that 4 concrete mixtures showed good slump retention after 2 hours. The concretes were made using a combination of polycarboxylate-based admixtures from the naphthalene family. Concrete mixtures using admixtures made from sulfonated polymers also showed good slump resistance. Results showed that the selection of good combinations of admixtures can lead to excellent high volume fly ash concrete mixtures that are resistant to hot weather conditions. Exceptional results were achieved with concrete mixtures using a combination of polycarboxylates-based superplasticizers and sulfonated mid-range water-reducing admixtures. 7 refs., 8 tabs., 3 figs.

  9. Coagulated silica - a-SiO2 admixture in cement paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, Jaroslav; Pavlíková, Milena; Záleská, Martina; Rovnaníková, Pavla; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2016-07-01

    Amorphous silica (a-SiO2) in fine-grained form possesses a high pozzolanic activity which makes it a valuable component of blended binders in concrete production. The origin of a-SiO2 applied in cement-based composites is very diverse. SiO2 in amorphous form is present in various amounts in quite a few supplementary cementing materials (SCMs) being used as partial replacement of Portland cement. In this work, the applicability of a commercially produced coagulated silica powder as a partial replacement of Portland cement in cement paste mix design is investigated. Portland cement CEM I 42.5R produced according to the EU standard EN 197-1 is used as a reference binder. Coagulated silica is applied in dosages of 5 and 10 % by mass of cement. The water/binder ratio is kept constant in all the studied pastes. For the applied silica, specific surface area, density, loss on ignition, pozzolanic activity, chemical composition, and SiO2 amorphous phase content are determined. For the developed pastes on the basis of cement-silica blended binder, basic physical properties as bulk density, matrix density, and total open porosity are accessed. Pore size distribution is determined using MIP analysis. Initial and final setting times of fresh mixtures are measured by automatic Vicat apparatus. Effect of silica admixture on mechanical resistivity is evaluated using compressive strength, bending strength, and dynamic Young's modulus measurement. The obtained data gives evidence of a decreased workability of paste mixtures with silica, whereas the setting process is accelerated. On the other hand, reaction activity of silica with Portland cement minerals results in a slight decrease of porosity and improvement of mechanical resistivity of cement pastes containing a-SiO2.

  10. Comparison of measures of marker informativeness for ancestry and admixture mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Lili

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Admixture mapping is a powerful gene mapping approach for an admixed population formed from ancestral populations with different allele frequencies. The power of this method relies on the ability of ancestry informative markers (AIMs to infer ancestry along the chromosomes of admixed individuals. In this study, more than one million SNPs from HapMap databases and simulated data have been interrogated in admixed populations using various measures of ancestry informativeness: Fisher Information Content (FIC, Shannon Information Content (SIC, F statistics (FST, Informativeness for Assignment Measure (In, and the Absolute Allele Frequency Differences (delta, δ. The objectives are to compare these measures of informativeness to select SNP markers for ancestry inference, and to determine the accuracy of AIM panels selected by each measure in estimating the contributions of the ancestors to the admixed population. Results FST and In had the highest Spearman correlation and the best agreement as measured by Kappa statistics based on deciles. Although the different measures of marker informativeness performed comparably well, analyses based on the top 1 to 10% ranked informative markers of simulated data showed that In was better in estimating ancestry for an admixed population. Conclusions Although millions of SNPs have been identified, only a small subset needs to be genotyped in order to accurately predict ancestry with a minimal error rate in a cost-effective manner. In this article, we compared various methods for selecting ancestry informative SNPs using simulations as well as SNP genotype data from samples of admixed populations and showed that the In measure estimates ancestry proportion (in an admixed population with lower bias and mean square error.

  11. Straightforward inference of ancestry and admixture proportions through ancestry-informative insertion deletion multiplexing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Pereira

    Full Text Available Ancestry-informative markers (AIMs show high allele frequency divergence between different ancestral or geographically distant populations. These genetic markers are especially useful in inferring the likely ancestral origin of an individual or estimating the apportionment of ancestry components in admixed individuals or populations. The study of AIMs is of great interest in clinical genetics research, particularly to detect and correct for population substructure effects in case-control association studies, but also in population and forensic genetics studies. This work presents a set of 46 ancestry-informative insertion deletion polymorphisms selected to efficiently measure population admixture proportions of four different origins (African, European, East Asian and Native American. All markers are analyzed in short fragments (under 230 basepairs through a single PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis (CE allowing a very simple one tube PCR-to-CE approach. HGDP-CEPH diversity panel samples from the four groups, together with Oceanians, were genotyped to evaluate the efficiency of the assay in clustering populations from different continental origins and to establish reference databases. In addition, other populations from diverse geographic origins were tested using the HGDP-CEPH samples as reference data. The results revealed that the AIM-INDEL set developed is highly efficient at inferring the ancestry of individuals and provides good estimates of ancestry proportions at the population level. In conclusion, we have optimized the multiplexed genotyping of 46 AIM-INDELs in a simple and informative assay, enabling a more straightforward alternative to the commonly available AIM-SNP typing methods dependent on complex, multi-step protocols or implementation of large-scale genotyping technologies.

  12. Admixture in Humans of Two Divergent Plasmodium knowlesi Populations Associated with Different Macaque Host Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C S Divis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Human malaria parasite species were originally acquired from other primate hosts and subsequently became endemic, then spread throughout large parts of the world. A major zoonosis is now occurring with Plasmodium knowlesi from macaques in Southeast Asia, with a recent acceleration in numbers of reported cases particularly in Malaysia. To investigate the parasite population genetics, we developed sensitive and species-specific microsatellite genotyping protocols and applied these to analysis of samples from 10 sites covering a range of >1,600 km within which most cases have occurred. Genotypic analyses of 599 P. knowlesi infections (552 in humans and 47 in wild macaques at 10 highly polymorphic loci provide radical new insights on the emergence. Parasites from sympatric long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis and pig-tailed macaques (M. nemestrina were very highly differentiated (FST = 0.22, and K-means clustering confirmed two host-associated subpopulations. Approximately two thirds of human P. knowlesi infections were of the long-tailed macaque type (Cluster 1, and one third were of the pig-tailed-macaque type (Cluster 2, with relative proportions varying across the different sites. Among the samples from humans, there was significant indication of genetic isolation by geographical distance overall and within Cluster 1 alone. Across the different sites, the level of multi-locus linkage disequilibrium correlated with the degree of local admixture of the two different clusters. The widespread occurrence of both types of P. knowlesi in humans enhances the potential for parasite adaptation in this zoonotic system.

  13. Effects of birthplace and individual genetic admixture on lung volume and exercise phenotypes of Peruvian Quechua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutsaert, Tom D; Parra, Esteban; Shriver, Mark; Gamboa, Alfredo; Palacios, Jose-Antonio; Rivera, Maria; Rodriguez, Ivette; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2004-04-01

    Forced vital capacity (FVC) and maximal exercise response were measured in two populations of Peruvian males (age, 18-35 years) at 4,338 m who differed by the environment in which they were born and raised, i.e., high altitude (Cerro de Pasco, Peru, BHA, n = 39) and sea level (Lima, Peru, BSL, n = 32). BSL subjects were transported from sea level to 4,338 m, and were evaluated within 24 hr of exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Individual admixture level (ADMIX, % Spanish ancestry) was estimated for each subject, using 22 ancestry-informative genetic markers and also by skin reflectance measurement (MEL). Birthplace accounted for the approximately 10% larger FVC (P < 0.001), approximately 15% higher maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2)max, ml.min(-1).kg(-1)) (P < 0.001), and approximately 5% higher arterial oxygen saturation during exercise (SpO(2)) (P < 0.001) of BHA subjects. ADMIX was low in both study groups, averaging 9.5 +/- 2.6% and 2.1 +/- 0.3% in BSL and BHA subjects, respectively. Mean underarm MEL was significantly higher in the BSL group (P < 0.001), despite higher ADMIX. ADMIX was not associated with any study phenotype, but study power was not sufficient to evaluate hypotheses of genetic adaptation via the ADMIX variable. MEL and FVC were positively correlated in the BHA (P = 0.035) but not BSL (P = 0.335) subjects. However, MEL and ADMIX were not correlated across the entire study sample (P = 0.282). In summary, results from this study emphasize the importance of developmental adaptation to high altitude. While the MEL-FVC correlation may reflect genetic adaptation to high altitude, study results suggest that alternate (environmental) explanations be considered.

  14. Influence of Air Temperature on the Performance of Different Water-Reducing Admixtures with Respect to the Properties of Fresh and Hardened Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Ricardo Leal Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of water-reducing admixtures used in concrete is affected by the weather conditions to which the concrete mixture is exposed. The most used WRAs are lignosulfonate, naphthalene, and polycarboxylate. However, they react differently to weather conditions, especially to air temperature. Therefore, it can be useful to evaluate how temperature affects admixture performance. In this study, the performance of three admixtures (naphthalene, lignosulfonate, and polycarboxylate was evaluated at 15, 25, and 35°C by means of the flow table test, mixture air content, and compressive strength. Moreover, mixture temperature was monitored and time-temperature curves were plotted in order to assess whether the admixtures affected cement hydration reactions at different temperatures. The final results indicate that an increase in temperature leads to an increase in saturation dosage; lignosulfonate had the most pronounced retarding effect, followed by polycarboxylate, and finally, naphthalene, and considering the weather conditions in the area where the study was carried, the final finding would be that the naphthalene-based admixture had the best performance.

  15. Fine Sand Stabilization Using Sanitary Ware Waste as Admixture for Design of Flexible Pavement in Construction of Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Gupta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available When designing and constructing highways or more generally any road on fine sands type of soil, it is essential to make sure that the foundation soil is providing a stable, non-yielding surface for the movement of heavy vehicles. Fine sand is found in abundance in Western Rajasthan (India in which hundreds of kilometers of new roads and highways are being constructed and maintained every year. As per Indian Standard Classification System of soils, the fine sand has nil cohesion. Due to very low compressive strength and high permeability, fine sand is not readily suitable for supporting flexible pavements as sub grade. This study discusses the possibility of stabilization of fine sand using Sanitary Ware Waste as admixture. Present work has been taken up by addition of 4.75 mm sieve passed and 2.36 mm sieve retained Sanitary Ware Waste as admixture. The varying percentage 0%, 2%, 4%, 8% and 12% of sanitary ware waste were mixed with fine sand of different densities 1.50 gm/cc, 1.55 gm/cc and 1.58 gm/cc (M.D.D.. All the California Bearing Ratio Tests were conducted at different mix compositions of sanitary ware waste and fine sand of different dry densities as arrived from Standard Proctor Test. Falling-Head Permeability Tests were also performed on different mix compositions. On the basis of the experiments performed, it is determined that the stabilization of fine sand using sanitary ware waste as admixture improves the strength characteristics of the fine sand so that it becomes usable as a base material for flexible pavement in construction of roads.

  16. Sociocultural behavior, sex-biased admixture, and effective population sizes in Central African Pygmies and non-Pygmies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdu, Paul; Becker, Noémie S A; Froment, Alain; Georges, Myriam; Grugni, Viola; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Van der Veen, Lolke; Le Bomin, Sylvie; Bahuchet, Serge; Heyer, Evelyne; Austerlitz, Frédéric

    2013-04-01

    Sociocultural phenomena, such as exogamy or phylopatry, can largely determine human sex-specific demography. In Central Africa, diverging patterns of sex-specific genetic variation have been observed between mobile hunter-gatherer Pygmies and sedentary agricultural non-Pygmies. However, their sex-specific demography remains largely unknown. Using population genetics and approximate Bayesian computation approaches, we inferred male and female effective population sizes, sex-specific migration, and admixture rates in 23 Central African Pygmy and non-Pygmy populations, genotyped for autosomal, X-linked, Y-linked, and mitochondrial markers. We found much larger effective population sizes and migration rates among non-Pygmy populations than among Pygmies, in agreement with the recent expansions and migrations of non-Pygmies and, conversely, the isolation and stationary demography of Pygmy groups. We found larger effective sizes and migration rates for males than for females for Pygmies, and vice versa for non-Pygmies. Thus, although most Pygmy populations have patrilocal customs, their sex-specific genetic patterns resemble those of matrilocal populations. In fact, our results are consistent with a lower prevalence of polygyny and patrilocality in Pygmies compared with non-Pygmies and a potential female transmission of reproductive success in Pygmies. Finally, Pygmy populations showed variable admixture levels with the non-Pygmies, with often much larger introgression from male than from female lineages. Social discrimination against Pygmies triggering complex movements of spouses in intermarriages can explain these male-biased admixture patterns in a patrilocal context. We show how gender-related sociocultural phenomena can determine highly variable sex-specific demography among populations, and how population genetic approaches contrasting chromosomal types allow inferring detailed human sex-specific demographic history.

  17. Influence of shrinkage-reducing admixture on drying shrinkage and mechanical properties of high-performance concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nguyen Quangphu; Jiang Linhua; Liu Jiaping; Tian Qian; Do Tienquan

    2008-01-01

    High-performance concrete (HPC) has specific performance advantages over conventional concrete in strength and durability. HPC mixtures are usually produced with water/binder mass ratios (mw/mB) in the range of 0.2-0.4, so volume changes of concrete as a result of drying, chemical reactions, and temperature change cannot be avoided. For these reasons, shrinkage and cracking are frequent phenomena. It is necessary to add some types of admixture for reduction of shrinkage and cracking of HPC. This study used a shrinkage-reducing admixture (SRA) for that purpose. Concrete was prepared with two different mw/mB(0.22 and 0.40) and four different mass fractions of SRA to binder (w(SRA) = 0%, 1%, 2%, and 4%). The mineral admixtures used for concrete mixes were: 25% fly ash (FA) and 25% slag by mass of binder for the mixture with mw/mB=0.40, and 15% silica fume (SF) and 25% FA for the mixture with mw/ma=0.22. Tests were conducted on 24 prismatic specimens, and shrinkage strains were measured through 120 days of drying. Compressive strength, splitting strength, and static modulus of elasticity were also determined. The results show that the SRA effectively reduces some mechanical properties of HPC. The reductions in compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and elastic modulus of the concrete were 7%-24%, 9%-19%, and 5%-12%, respectively, after 90 days, compared to concrete mixtures without SRA. SRA can also help reduce drying shrinkage of concrete. The shrinkage strains of HPC with SRA were only as high as 41% of the average free shrinkage of concrete without SRA after 120 days of drying.

  18. Historical environmental change in Africa drives divergence and admixture of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes: a precursor to successful worldwide colonization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kelly Louise; Shija, Fortunate; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Misinzo, Gerald; Kaddumukasa, Martha; Djouaka, Rousseau; Anyaele, Okorie; Harris, Angela; Irish, Seth; Hlaing, Thaung; Prakash, Anil; Lutwama, Julius; Walton, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    Increasing globalization has promoted the spread of exotic species, including disease vectors. Understanding the evolutionary processes involved in such colonizations is both of intrinsic biological interest and important to predict and mitigate future disease risks. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is a major vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika, the worldwide spread of which has been facilitated by Ae. aegypti's adaption to human-modified environments. Understanding the evolutionary processes involved in this invasion requires characterization of the genetic make-up of the source population(s). The application of approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to sequence data from four nuclear and one mitochondrial marker revealed that African populations of Ae. aegypti best fit a demographic model of lineage diversification, historical admixture and recent population structuring. As ancestral Ae. aegypti were dependent on forests, this population history is consistent with the effects of forest fragmentation and expansion driven by Pleistocene climatic change. Alternatively, or additionally, historical human movement across the continent may have facilitated their recent spread and mixing. ABC analysis and haplotype networks support earlier inferences of a single out-of-Africa colonization event, while a cline of decreasing genetic diversity indicates that Ae. aegypti moved first from Africa to the Americas and then to Asia. ABC analysis was unable to verify this colonization route, possibly because the genetic signal of admixture obscures the true colonization pathway. By increasing genetic diversity and forming novel allelic combinations, divergence and historical admixture within Africa could have provided the adaptive potential needed for the successful worldwide spread of Ae. aegypti. PMID:27439067

  19. Low-frequency resonances of the refractive index in weakly ionized plasma with an admixture of dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The propagation of low-frequency electromagnetic waves along the magnetic field in weakly ionized plasma with an admixture of dust is studied in the framework of the Hall magnetohydrodynamics. Explicit expressions for the coefficients of magnetic field diffusion in plasma are derived. The resonance of the refractive index is found to occur for either right- or left-hand polarized waves. A quantitative criterion is obtained that allows one to determine the polarization of waves that experience resonance at given plasma parameters. The physical mechanism of the resonance is discussed, and the obtained results are compared with the available literature data

  20. Genome-wide scan of 29,141 African Americans finds no evidence of selection since admixture

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, Gaurav; Tandon, Arti; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; William J Blot; Bock, Cathryn H.; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    We scanned through the genomes of 29,141 African Americans, searching for loci where the average proportion of African ancestry deviates significantly from the genome-wide average. We failed to find any genome-wide significant deviations, and conclude that any selection in African Americans since admixture is sufficiently weak that it falls below the threshold of our power to detect it using a large sample size. These results stand in contrast to the findings of a recent study of selection in...

  1. Current situation and reflection of domestic intravenous pharmacy admixture models%国内静脉药物调配模式现状与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏英华; 毛燕君; 朱建英

    2012-01-01

    This article summarized the current situation of three intravenous pharmacy admixture models,including ward intravenous drag distribution model, Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Services (PIVAS) and decentralized distribution model. It analyzed the advantages and disadvantages,and on the basis,reflection and suggestions of pharmacy admixture methods were put forward.%文章分别归纳了国内病区药物自配模式、静脉药物集中调配模式和分散药物调配模式的发展现状及其优缺点,在此基础上,对国内静脉药物调配模式的发展进行思考并提出建议.

  2. Admixture in Latin America: geographic structure, phenotypic diversity and self-perception of ancestry based on 7,342 individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ruiz-Linares

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current genetic makeup of Latin America has been shaped by a history of extensive admixture between Africans, Europeans and Native Americans, a process taking place within the context of extensive geographic and social stratification. We estimated individual ancestry proportions in a sample of 7,342 subjects ascertained in five countries (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, México and Perú. These individuals were also characterized for a range of physical appearance traits and for self-perception of ancestry. The geographic distribution of admixture proportions in this sample reveals extensive population structure, illustrating the continuing impact of demographic history on the genetic diversity of Latin America. Significant ancestry effects were detected for most phenotypes studied. However, ancestry generally explains only a modest proportion of total phenotypic variation. Genetically estimated and self-perceived ancestry correlate significantly, but certain physical attributes have a strong impact on self-perception and bias self-perception of ancestry relative to genetically estimated ancestry.

  3. Effects of Leaching Behavior of Calcium Ions on Compression and Durability of Cement-based Materials with Mineral Admixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ting Lin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Leaching of calcium ions increases the porosity of cement-based materials, consequently resulting in a negative effect on durability since it provides an entry for aggressive harmful ions, causing reinforcing steel corrosion. This study investigates the effects of leaching behavior of calcium ions on the compression and durability of cement-based materials. Since the parameters influencing the leaching behavior of cement-based materials are unclear and diverse, this paper focuses on the influence of added mineral admixtures (fly ash, slag and silica fume on the leaching behavior of calcium ions regarding compression and durability of cemented-based materials. Ammonium nitrate solution was used to accelerate the leaching process in this study. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis were employed to analyze and compare the cement-based material compositions prior to and after calcium ion leaching. The experimental results show that the mineral admixtures reduce calcium hydroxide quantity and refine pore structure through pozzolanic reaction, thus enhancing the compressive strength and durability of cement-based materials.

  4. Range expansion of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in Kenya: evidence of genetic admixture and human-mediated dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrey, Aaron W; Liebl, Andrea L; Richards, Christina L; Martin, Lynn B

    2014-01-01

    Introduced species offer an opportunity to study the ecological process of range expansions. Recently, 3 mechanisms have been identified that may resolve the genetic paradox (the seemingly unlikely success of introduced species given the expected reduction in genetic diversity through bottlenecks or founder effects): multiple introductions, high propagule pressure, and epigenetics. These mechanisms are probably also important in range expansions (either natural or anthropogenic), yet this possibility remains untested in vertebrates. We used microsatellite variation (7 loci) in house sparrows (Passer domesticus), an introduced species that has been spreading across Kenya for ~60 years, to determine if patterns of variation could explain how this human commensal overcame the genetic paradox and expresses such considerable phenotypic differentiation across this new range. We note that in some cases, polygenic traits and epistasis among genes, for example, may not have negative effects on populations. House sparrows arrived in Kenya by a single introduction event (to Mombasa, ~1950) and have lower genetic diversity than native European and introduced North American populations. We used Bayesian clustering of individuals (n = 233) to detect that at least 2 types of range expansion occurred in Kenya: one with genetic admixture and one with little to no admixture. We also found that genetic diversity increased toward a range edge, and the range expansion was consistent with long-distance dispersal. Based on these data, we expect that the Kenyan range expansion was anthropogenically influenced, as the expansions of other introduced human commensals may also be.

  5. Admixture in Latin America: Geographic Structure, Phenotypic Diversity and Self-Perception of Ancestry Based on 7,342 Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Fuentes, Macarena; Pizarro, María; Everardo, Paola; de Avila, Francisco; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; León-Mimila, Paola; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C.; Burley, Mari-Wyn; Konca, Esra; de Oliveira, Marcelo Zagonel; Veronez, Mauricio Roberto; Rubio-Codina, Marta; Attanasio, Orazio; Gibbon, Sahra; Ray, Nicolas; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Rosique, Javier; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Balding, David; Gonzalez-José, Rolando

    2014-01-01

    The current genetic makeup of Latin America has been shaped by a history of extensive admixture between Africans, Europeans and Native Americans, a process taking place within the context of extensive geographic and social stratification. We estimated individual ancestry proportions in a sample of 7,342 subjects ascertained in five countries (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, México and Perú). These individuals were also characterized for a range of physical appearance traits and for self-perception of ancestry. The geographic distribution of admixture proportions in this sample reveals extensive population structure, illustrating the continuing impact of demographic history on the genetic diversity of Latin America. Significant ancestry effects were detected for most phenotypes studied. However, ancestry generally explains only a modest proportion of total phenotypic variation. Genetically estimated and self-perceived ancestry correlate significantly, but certain physical attributes have a strong impact on self-perception and bias self-perception of ancestry relative to genetically estimated ancestry. PMID:25254375

  6. Secondary contact between Lycaeides idas and L. melissa in the Rocky Mountains: extensive admixture and a patchy hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompert, Zachariah; Lucas, Lauren K; Fordyce, James A; Forister, Matthew L; Nice, Chris C

    2010-08-01

    Studies of hybridization have increased our understanding of the nature of species boundaries, the process of speciation, and the effects of hybridization on the evolution of populations and species. In the present study we use genetic and morphological data to determine the outcome and consequences of secondary contact and hybridization between the butterfly species Lycaeides idas and L. melissa in the Rocky Mountains. Admixture proportions estimated from structure and geographical cline analysis indicate L. idas and L. melissa have hybridized extensively in the Rocky Mountains and that reproductive isolation was insufficient to prevent introgression for much of the genome. Geographical patterns of admixture suggest that hybridization between L. idas and L. melissa has led to the formation of a hybrid zone. The hybrid zone is relatively wide, given estimates of dispersal for Lycaeides butterflies, and does not show strong evidence of cline concordance among characters. We believe the structure of the Lycaeides hybrid zone might be best explained by the patchy distribution of Lycaeides, local extinction and colonization of habitat patches, environmental variation and weak overall selection against hybrids. We found no evidence that hybridization in the Rocky Mountains has resulted in the formation of independent hybrid species, in contrast to the outcome of hybridization between L. idas and L. melissa in the Sierra Nevada. Finally, our results suggest that differences in male morphology between L. idas and L. melissa might contribute to isolation, or perhaps even that selection has favoured the spread of L. melissa male genitalia alleles. PMID:20618903

  7. Gene admixture in ethnic populations in upper part of Silk Road revealed by mtDNA polymorphism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the gene admixture on the current genetic landscape in Gansu Corridor (GC) in China, the upper part of the ancient Silk Road which connects the Eastern and Central Asia, we examined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms of five ethnic populations in this study. Using PCR-RFLP and sequencing, we analyzed mtDNA haplotypes in 242 unrelated samples in three ethnic populations from the GC region and two ethnic populations from the adjacent Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. We analyzed the data in comparison with the previously reported data from Eastern, Central and Western Asia and Europe. We found that both European-specific haplogroups and Eastern Asian-specific haplogroups exist in the Gansu Corridor populations, while a modest matrilineal gene flow from Europeans to this region was revealed. The Gansu Corridor populations are genetically located between Eastern Asians and Central Asians, both of who contributed significantly to the maternal lineages of the GC populations. This study made the landscape of the gene flow and admixture along the Silk Road from Europe, through Central Asia, to the upper part of the Silk Road more complete.

  8. Identification of admixture for pelletization and strength enhancement of sintered coal pond ash aggregate through statistically designed experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Sintered aggregate using pond ash from lignite and bituminous coal source. • Identification of admixtures and its dosage through design of experiments. • Clay, bentonite and kaolinite as binders enhance the strength of aggregate. • Use of calcium hydroxide with clay binder enhanced pelletization efficiency. • Use of borax with clay binders enhanced the strength of aggregate. - Abstract: Statistically designed experiments using Response Surface Methodology have been undertaken to identify the parameters influencing manufacturing process and properties of aggregate using coal pond ash (generated from bituminous and lignite coal sources). Based on the preliminary studies, Ca(OH)2 and borax have been identified as pelletization and strength enhancing admixture respectively. Pelletization efficiency of bituminous and lignite pond ash increased with an increase in binder and Ca(OH)2 dosage to 20–98% and 50–98% respectively, with proportionate quantity of water. Sintering has been used as a hardening method with temperature range of 900 °C and 1100 °C for a duration range of 45–120 min. Phase composition and sintered microstructure of aggregate has been reported using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy respectively. The ten percent fines value of aggregate with clay binder was 5.5 tonne as against a value of 4.5 tonne with aggregate with bentonite binder. Among the binders studied, bentonite resulted in high volume utilization of pond ash, i.e. up to 88%

  9. Genetic dating indicates that the Asian–Papuan admixture through Eastern Indonesia corresponds to the Austronesian expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuhua; Pugach, Irina; Stoneking, Mark; Kayser, Manfred; Jin, Li

    2012-01-01

    Although the Austronesian expansion had a major impact on the languages of Island Southeast Asia, controversy still exists over the genetic impact of this expansion. The coexistence of both Asian and Papuan genetic ancestry in Eastern Indonesia provides a unique opportunity to address this issue. Here, we estimate recombination breakpoints in admixed genomes based on genome-wide SNP data and date the genetic admixture between populations of Asian vs. Papuan ancestry in Eastern Indonesia. Analyses of two genome-wide datasets indicate an eastward progression of the Asian admixture signal in Eastern Indonesia beginning about 4,000–3,000 y ago, which is in excellent agreement with inferences based on Austronesian languages. The average rate of spread of Asian genes in Eastern Indonesia was about 0.9 km/y. Our results indicate that the Austronesian expansion had a strong genetic as well as linguistic impact on Island Southeast Asia, and they significantly advance our understanding of the biological origins of human populations in the Asia–Pacific region. PMID:22396590

  10. Genetic dating indicates that the Asian-Papuan admixture through Eastern Indonesia corresponds to the Austronesian expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuhua; Pugach, Irina; Stoneking, Mark; Kayser, Manfred; Jin, Li

    2012-03-20

    Although the Austronesian expansion had a major impact on the languages of Island Southeast Asia, controversy still exists over the genetic impact of this expansion. The coexistence of both Asian and Papuan genetic ancestry in Eastern Indonesia provides a unique opportunity to address this issue. Here, we estimate recombination breakpoints in admixed genomes based on genome-wide SNP data and date the genetic admixture between populations of Asian vs. Papuan ancestry in Eastern Indonesia. Analyses of two genome-wide datasets indicate an eastward progression of the Asian admixture signal in Eastern Indonesia beginning about 4,000-3,000 y ago, which is in excellent agreement with inferences based on Austronesian languages. The average rate of spread of Asian genes in Eastern Indonesia was about 0.9 km/y. Our results indicate that the Austronesian expansion had a strong genetic as well as linguistic impact on Island Southeast Asia, and they significantly advance our understanding of the biological origins of human populations in the Asia-Pacific region. PMID:22396590

  11. Effects of (V + A)-, S-, T-interaction admixtures and of a time reversal invariance violation on the first-forbidden beta-decay of RaE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shape factor and the electron longitudinal polarization of RaE have been calculated under the assumption of (V + A)-, S-, T-interaction admixtures. In addition the influence of a time reversal invariance violation has been considered. It is shown that the effect of (V + A) admixtures on the electron longitudinal polarization is enhanced by two orders of magnitude compared to the case of allowed transitions. Such an effect is also observed for the shape factor. It is also demonstrated that a time reversal invariance violation also affects the observables mentioned above. (orig.)

  12. Admixture Mapping in Lupus Identifies Multiple Functional Variants within IFIH1 Associated with Apoptosis, Inflammation, and Autoantibody Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looger, Loren L.; Han, Shizhong; Kim-Howard, Xana; Glenn, Stuart; Adler, Adam; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Niewold, Timothy B.; Gilkeson, Gary S.; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Edberg, Jeffrey C.; Petri, Michelle; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Reveille, John D.; Vilá, Luis M.; Freedman, Barry I.; Tsao, Betty P.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Jacob, Chaim O.; Moore, Jason H.; Vyse, Timothy J.; Langefeld, Carl L.; Guthridge, Joel M.; Gaffney, Patrick M.; Moser, Kathy L.; Scofield, R. Hal; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Williams, Scott M.; Merrill, Joan T.; James, Judith A.; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Kimberly, Robert P.; Harley, John B.; Nath, Swapan K.

    2013-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component. African-Americans (AA) are at increased risk of SLE, but the genetic basis of this risk is largely unknown. To identify causal variants in SLE loci in AA, we performed admixture mapping followed by fine mapping in AA and European-Americans (EA). Through genome-wide admixture mapping in AA, we identified a strong SLE susceptibility locus at 2q22–24 (LOD = 6.28), and the admixture signal is associated with the European ancestry (ancestry risk ratio ∼1.5). Large-scale genotypic analysis on 19,726 individuals of African and European ancestry revealed three independently associated variants in the IFIH1 gene: an intronic variant, rs13023380 [Pmeta = 5.20×10−14; odds ratio, 95% confidence interval = 0.82 (0.78–0.87)], and two missense variants, rs1990760 (Ala946Thr) [Pmeta = 3.08×10−7; 0.88 (0.84–0.93)] and rs10930046 (Arg460His) [Pdom = 1.16×10−8; 0.70 (0.62–0.79)]. Both missense variants produced dramatic phenotypic changes in apoptosis and inflammation-related gene expression. We experimentally validated function of the intronic SNP by DNA electrophoresis, protein identification, and in vitro protein binding assays. DNA carrying the intronic risk allele rs13023380 showed reduced binding efficiency to a cellular protein complex including nucleolin and lupus autoantigen Ku70/80, and showed reduced transcriptional activity in vivo. Thus, in SLE patients, genetic susceptibility could create a biochemical imbalance that dysregulates nucleolin, Ku70/80, or other nucleic acid regulatory proteins. This could promote antibody hypermutation and auto-antibody generation, further destabilizing the cellular network. Together with molecular modeling, our results establish a distinct role for IFIH1 in apoptosis, inflammation, and autoantibody production, and explain the molecular basis of these three risk alleles for SLE pathogenesis. PMID

  13. Admixture mapping in lupus identifies multiple functional variants within IFIH1 associated with apoptosis, inflammation, and autoantibody production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio E Molineros

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an inflammatory autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component. African-Americans (AA are at increased risk of SLE, but the genetic basis of this risk is largely unknown. To identify causal variants in SLE loci in AA, we performed admixture mapping followed by fine mapping in AA and European-Americans (EA. Through genome-wide admixture mapping in AA, we identified a strong SLE susceptibility locus at 2q22-24 (LOD=6.28, and the admixture signal is associated with the European ancestry (ancestry risk ratio ~1.5. Large-scale genotypic analysis on 19,726 individuals of African and European ancestry revealed three independently associated variants in the IFIH1 gene: an intronic variant, rs13023380 [P(meta = 5.20×10(-14; odds ratio, 95% confidence interval = 0.82 (0.78-0.87], and two missense variants, rs1990760 (Ala946Thr [P(meta = 3.08×10(-7; 0.88 (0.84-0.93] and rs10930046 (Arg460His [P(dom = 1.16×10(-8; 0.70 (0.62-0.79]. Both missense variants produced dramatic phenotypic changes in apoptosis and inflammation-related gene expression. We experimentally validated function of the intronic SNP by DNA electrophoresis, protein identification, and in vitro protein binding assays. DNA carrying the intronic risk allele rs13023380 showed reduced binding efficiency to a cellular protein complex including nucleolin and lupus autoantigen Ku70/80, and showed reduced transcriptional activity in vivo. Thus, in SLE patients, genetic susceptibility could create a biochemical imbalance that dysregulates nucleolin, Ku70/80, or other nucleic acid regulatory proteins. This could promote antibody hypermutation and auto-antibody generation, further destabilizing the cellular network. Together with molecular modeling, our results establish a distinct role for IFIH1 in apoptosis, inflammation, and autoantibody production, and explain the molecular basis of these three risk alleles for SLE pathogenesis.

  14. Alkali-silica reactions of mortars produced by using waste glass as fine aggregate and admixtures such as fly ash and Li2CO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçu, Ilker Bekir; Boğa, Ahmet Raif; Bilir, Turhan

    2008-01-01

    Use of waste glass or glass cullet (GC) as concrete aggregate is becoming more widespread each day because of the increase in resource efficiency. Recycling of wastes is very important for sustainable development. When glass is used as aggregate in concrete or mortar, expansions and internal stresses occur due to an alkali-silica reaction (ASR). Furthermore, rapid loss in durability is generally observed due to extreme crack formation and an increase in permeability. It is necessary to use some kind of chemical or mineral admixture to reduce crack formation. In this study, mortar bars are produced by using three different colors of glass in four different quantities as fine aggregate by weight, and the effects of these glass aggregates on ASR are investigated, corresponding to ASTM C 1260. Additionally, in order to reduce the expansions of mortars, 10% and 20% fly ash (FA) as mineral admixture and 1% and 2% Li(2)CO(3) as chemical admixture are incorporated by weight in the cement and their effects on expansion are examined. It is observed that among white (WG), green (GG) and brown glass (BG) aggregates, WG aggregate causes the greatest expansion. In addition, expansion increases with an increase in amount of glass. According to the test results, it is seen that over 20% FA and 2% Li(2)CO(3) replacements are required to produce mortars which have expansion values below the 0.2% critical value when exposed to ASR. However, usages of these admixtures reduce expansions occurring because of ASR.

  15. Phylogeographic Analyses of American Black Bears (Ursus americanus) Suggest Four Glacial Refugia and Complex Patterns of Postglacial Admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Emily E; Etter, Paul D; Johnson, Eric A; Eggert, Lori S

    2015-09-01

    Studies of species with continental distributions continue to identify intraspecific lineages despite continuous habitat. Lineages may form due to isolation by distance, adaptation, divergence across barriers, or genetic drift following range expansion. We investigated lineage diversification and admixture within American black bears (Ursus americanus) across their range using 22 k single nucleotide polymorphisms and mitochondrial DNA sequences. We identified three subcontinental nuclear clusters which we further divided into nine geographic regions: Alaskan (Alaska-East), eastern (Central Interior Highlands, Great Lakes, Northeast, Southeast), and western (Alaska-West, West, Pacific Coast, Southwest). We estimated that the western cluster diverged 67 ka, before eastern and Alaskan divergence 31 ka; these divergence dates contrasted with those from the mitochondrial genome where clades A and B diverged 1.07 Ma, and clades A-east and A-west diverged 169 ka. We combined estimates of divergence timing with hindcast species distribution models to infer glacial refugia for the species in Beringia, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, and Southeast. Our results show a complex arrangement of admixture due to expansion out of multiple refugia. The delineation of the genomic population clusters was inconsistent with the ranges for 16 previously described subspecies. Ranges for U. a. pugnax and U. a. cinnamomum were concordant with admixed clusters, calling into question how to order taxa below the species level. Additionally, our finding that U. a. floridanus has not diverged from U. a. americanus also suggests that morphology and genetics should be reanalyzed to assess taxonomic designations relevant to the conservation management of the species. PMID:25989983

  16. Experimental Research on Polycarboxylic Slump-retaining Admixture%聚羧酸减水剂的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖国胜; 艾涛; 肖煜; 潘会

    2014-01-01

    Adopting methyl allyl polyoxyethylene ether (TPEG)and unsaturated carboxylic acid throught REDOX system synthetize the polycarboxylic slump-retaining admixture.The impact factors were researched of temperature,re-action time,acid alcohol ratio,dosage of initiator and molecular regulator to the polycarboxylic superplasticizer with slump retaining.In the circumstance of n(AA)∶n(Itaconic acid)∶n(Thioglycolic acid)∶n(TPEG)=1.7∶0.23∶0.005∶1,m(initiator)∶m(TPEG)=0.20%,reaction time is 4 h and temperaure is 45 ℃,the admixture has the best performance.%采用甲基烯丙基聚氧乙烯醚(TPEG)与不饱和羧酸在氧化还原体系下合成聚羧酸减水剂。研究了反应温度、反应时间、单体与不饱和羧酸摩尔比(酸醚比)、引发剂用量及分子量调节剂用量对聚羧酸减水剂性能的影响。在n(AA)∶n(Itaconic acid)∶n(Thioglycolic acid)∶n(TPEG)=1.7∶0.23∶0.005∶1,m(initiator)∶m(TPEG)=0.20%、反应时间4 h、反应温度45℃时,聚羧酸减水剂各项性能最佳。

  17. Multispecies Outcomes of Sympatric Speciation after Admixture with the Source Population in Two Radiations of Nicaraguan Crater Lake Cichlids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautt, Andreas F.; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Meyer, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The formation of species in the absence of geographic barriers (i.e. sympatric speciation) remains one of the most controversial topics in evolutionary biology. While theoretical models have shown that this most extreme case of primary divergence-with-gene-flow is possible, only a handful of accepted empirical examples exist. And even for the most convincing examples uncertainties remain; complex histories of isolation and secondary contact can make species falsely appear to have originated by sympatric speciation. This alternative scenario is notoriously difficult to rule out. Midas cichlids inhabiting small and remote crater lakes in Nicaragua are traditionally considered to be one of the best examples of sympatric speciation and lend themselves to test the different evolutionary scenarios that could lead to apparent sympatric speciation since the system is relatively small and the source populations known. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of two small-scale radiations of Midas cichlids inhabiting crater lakes Apoyo and Xiloá through a comprehensive genomic data set. We find no signs of differential admixture of any of the sympatric species in the respective radiations. Together with coalescent simulations of different demographic models our results support a scenario of speciation that was initiated in sympatry and does not result from secondary contact of already partly diverged populations. Furthermore, several species seem to have diverged simultaneously, making Midas cichlids an empirical example of multispecies outcomes of sympatric speciation. Importantly, however, the demographic models strongly support an admixture event from the source population into both crater lakes shortly before the onset of the radiations within the lakes. This opens the possibility that the formation of reproductive barriers involved in sympatric speciation was facilitated by genetic variants that evolved in a period of isolation between the initial founding

  18. Improvement Concretes Outside Admixture and Cement Compatible Measure%论改善混凝土外掺剂与水泥适应性的措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小萍

    2009-01-01

    文章论述了水泥与外加剂的适应性是影响混凝土质量的重要因素,提出几点改善措施:即新型高性能减水荆的开发应用、外加剂的复合使用、减水剂的掺入方法、适当"增硫法"和适当调整混凝土配合比.%This article elaborated the cement and the admixture compatibility is affects the concretes quality the important attribute, proposes sev-eral improvement measures: new high performance water reducing agent development application, admixture compound use, the water reducing a-gent mixes in the method, suitable "increases the sulfur law", appropriate readjustment proportioning of concrete.

  19. Standard test method for determining effects of chemical admixtures on corrosion of embedded steel reinforcement in concrete exposed to chloride environments

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for determining the effects of chemical admixtures on the corrosion of metals in concrete. This test method can be used to evaluate materials intended to inhibit chloride-induced corrosion of steel in concrete. It can also be used to evaluate the corrosivity of admixtures in a chloride environment. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. The isospin admixture of the ground state and the properties of the isobar analog resonances in medium and heavy mass nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D I Salmov; T Babacan; A Kücükbursa; S Ünlü; İ Maraṣ

    2006-06-01

    Within the framework of quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA), Pyatov–Salamov method [23] for the self-consistent determination of the isovector effective interaction strength parameter, restoring a broken isotopic symmetry for the nuclear part of the Hamiltonian, is used. The isospin admixtures in the ground state of the parent nucleus, and the isospin structure of the isobar analog resonance (IAR) state were investigated with the inclusion of the pairing correlations between nucleons for the medium and heavy mass regions: 80 < < 90, 102 < < 124, and 204 < < 214. It was determined that the influence of the pairing interaction between nucleons on the isospin admixtures in the ground state and the isospin structure of the IAR state is more pronounced for the light isotopes ( ≈ ) of the investigated nuclei.

  1. Autosomal and X-linked single nucleotide polymorphisms reveal a steep Asian-Melanesian ancestry cline in eastern Indonesia and a sex bias in admixture rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Murray P; Karafet, Tatiana M; Lansing, J Stephen; Sudoyo, Herawati; Hammer, Michael F

    2010-05-22

    The geographical region between mainland Asia and New Guinea is characterized by numerous small islands with isolated human populations. Phenotypically, groups in the west are similar to their neighbours in mainland Southeast Asia, eastern groups near New Guinea are similar to Melanesians, and intervening populations are intermediate in appearance. A long-standing question is whether this pattern primarily reflects mixing between groups with distinct origins or whether natural selection has shaped this range of variation by acting differentially on populations across the region. To address this question, we genotyped a set of 37 single nucleotide polymorphisms that are evolutionarily independent, putatively neutral and highly informative for Asian-Melanesian ancestry in 1430 individuals from 60 populations spanning mainland Asia to Melanesia. Admixture analysis reveals a sharp transition from Asian to Melanesian genetic variants over a narrow geographical region in eastern Indonesia. Interestingly, this admixture cline roughly corresponds to the human phenotypic boundary noted by Alfred Russell Wallace in 1869. We conclude that this phenotypic gradient probably reflects mixing of two long-separated ancestral source populations-one descended from the initial Melanesian-like inhabitants of the region, and the other related to Asian groups that immigrated during the Paleolithic and/or with the spread of agriculture. A higher frequency of Asian X-linked markers relative to autosomal markers throughout the transition zone suggests that the admixture process was sex-biased, either favouring a westward expansion of patrilocal Melanesian groups or an eastward expansion of matrilocal Asian immigrants. The matrilocal marriage practices that dominated early Austronesian societies may be one factor contributing to this observed sex bias in admixture rates.

  2. Autosomal and X-linked single nucleotide polymorphisms reveal a steep Asian–Melanesian ancestry cline in eastern Indonesia and a sex bias in admixture rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Murray P.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Lansing, J. Stephen; Sudoyo, Herawati; Hammer, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    The geographical region between mainland Asia and New Guinea is characterized by numerous small islands with isolated human populations. Phenotypically, groups in the west are similar to their neighbours in mainland Southeast Asia, eastern groups near New Guinea are similar to Melanesians, and intervening populations are intermediate in appearance. A long-standing question is whether this pattern primarily reflects mixing between groups with distinct origins or whether natural selection has shaped this range of variation by acting differentially on populations across the region. To address this question, we genotyped a set of 37 single nucleotide polymorphisms that are evolutionarily independent, putatively neutral and highly informative for Asian–Melanesian ancestry in 1430 individuals from 60 populations spanning mainland Asia to Melanesia. Admixture analysis reveals a sharp transition from Asian to Melanesian genetic variants over a narrow geographical region in eastern Indonesia. Interestingly, this admixture cline roughly corresponds to the human phenotypic boundary noted by Alfred Russell Wallace in 1869. We conclude that this phenotypic gradient probably reflects mixing of two long-separated ancestral source populations—one descended from the initial Melanesian-like inhabitants of the region, and the other related to Asian groups that immigrated during the Paleolithic and/or with the spread of agriculture. A higher frequency of Asian X-linked markers relative to autosomal markers throughout the transition zone suggests that the admixture process was sex-biased, either favouring a westward expansion of patrilocal Melanesian groups or an eastward expansion of matrilocal Asian immigrants. The matrilocal marriage practices that dominated early Austronesian societies may be one factor contributing to this observed sex bias in admixture rates. PMID:20106848

  3. Northern range expansion of European populations of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi is associated with global warming-correlated genetic admixture and population-specific temperature adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehenwinkel, Henrik; Tautz, Diethard

    2013-04-01

    Poleward range expansions are observed for an increasing number of species, which may be an effect of global warming during the past decades. However, it is still not clear in how far these expansions reflect simple geographical shifts of species ranges, or whether new genetic adaptations play a role as well. Here, we analyse the expansion of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi into Northern Europe during the last century. We have used a range-wide sampling of contemporary populations and historical specimens from museums to trace the phylogeography and genetic changes associated with the range shift. Based on the analysis of mitochondrial, microsatellite and SNP markers, we observe a higher level of genetic diversity in the expanding populations, apparently due to admixture of formerly isolated lineages. Using reciprocal transplant experiments for testing overwintering tolerance, as well as temperature preference and tolerance tests in the laboratory, we find that the invading spiders have possibly shifted their temperature niche. This may be a key adaptation for survival in Northern latitudes. The museum samples allow a reconstruction of the invasion's genetic history. A first, small-scale range shift started around 1930, in parallel with the onset of global warming. A more massive invasion of Northern Europe associated with genetic admixture and morphological changes occurred in later decades. We suggest that the latter range expansion into far Northern latitudes may be a consequence of the admixture that provided the genetic material for adaptations to new environmental regimes. Hence, global warming could have facilitated the initial admixture of populations and this resulted in genetic lineages with new habitat preferences. PMID:23496675

  4. Research status of mine tailings used as cement admixture%尾矿作水泥混合材的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭明洋; 吕宪俊; 姜梅芬

    2015-01-01

    概述了近年来尾矿在水泥中的应用及研究现状,并据此提出了今后尾矿用作水泥混合材的研究方向。%Summarized the application status and the up-to-date progress of mine tailings used in cement,and further research topics for the application performance of cement admixtures were proposed accordingly.

  5. The effects of Propofol-Thiopental admixture on hemodynamic changes, pain on injection, and hypnotic dose at the time of anesthesia induction: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltani Mohammadi S

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Propofol and Thiopental are intravenous anesthetics having relatively different hemodynamic influences and adverse effects. In addition, there is significant pain on intravenous injection of propofol. This study was performed to examine the effects of Propofol-Thiopental admixture on hemodynamic variables, pain on injection and hypnotic dose at the time of induction of general anesthesia.Methods: One hundred and twenty-five ASA I or II patients scheduled for elective surgery were randomized into four groups for induction of anesthesia in a double-blinded manner. With an original concentration of Propofol of 1% and that of Thiopental of 2.5%, we used these drugs in each group as follows: group P100: Propofol alone; group P75: ¾ Propofol and ¼ thiopental (volume/volume; group P50: ½ Propofol and ½ thiopental; group T100: Thiopental alone (control group. Hemodynamic variables (before and after induction, score of pain on injection and hypnotic doses were recorded and statistically analyzed.Results: Admixture of Thiopental and Propofol reduces the injection pain of Propofol, as admixtures P75 and P50 were significantly less painful on injection than P100. Induction of hypnosis was significantly more rapid in group T100 than in groups P100 and P75. The interaction of Propofol and Thiopental with regard to their hypnotic effect is additive. Therefore a reduction in the dose of one was compensated by proportional increase in the dose of the other drug for a hypnotic effect. After anesthesia induction, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly lower in group P100 than in groups P75, P50 and T100. The heart rate after laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation was significantly lower in group P100 than in groups P50 and T100.Conclusion: Propofol-Thiopental admixture causes minimal pain on injection for intravenous induction of anesthesia with modified hemodynamic effects in comparison with each drug when used separately.

  6. Progress in Lignin-based Concrete Admixtures%含木质素基混凝土外加剂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌凡琪

    2012-01-01

    综述了木质素在混凝土外加剂中的应用。工业木质素,尤其是木质素磺酸盐,可以充当混凝土减水剂、缓凝剂、引气剂和泵送剂。由于未经改性的工业木质素性能不够理想,为了提高木质素基混凝土添加剂的性能,宜对其进行适当的改性。碱木质素经过氧化、磺化、磺甲基化、接枝共聚等改性后,可以得到具有良好性能的混凝土外加剂。%The applications of lignin derivatives in concrete admixtures are reviewed. Technical lignins, especially lignosulfonates, can serve as concrete water reducers, retarders, air entraining agents and pumping agents. The performance of lignin is not good. Some appropriate modifications are sometimes required in order to improve the performance of the lignin-based concrete admixtures. Lignin-based concrete admixtures with good performaces can be obtained fxom alkali lignin after modifications such as oxidation, sulfonation, sulfomethylation and graft copolymerization.

  7. Investigations regarding the mass budget in the propagation of a passive admixture from a line source; Untersuchungen zur Stoffbilanz bei der Ausbreitung einer passiven Beimengung aus einer Linienquelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, A. [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany). Inst. fuer Boden-, Luft- und Gewaesserschutz

    1998-01-01

    Under stationary conditions, passive admixtures are transported by advection and by vertical as well as horizontal turbulent diffusion. The importance of individual contributions for the exchange of passive admixtures emanating from a straight line source with a constant source strength under neutral stratification conditions is discussed. For this purpose, all terms of the mass budget for a control volume around a straight line source are calculated using a stochastic Lagrange model (LS), whose properties are discussed. As a test for the LS model, the vertical and horizontal mass flows in the soil layer are simulated and compared with SANA data. The mass flows calculated for the propagation of a passive admixture from a line source are evaluated regarding their share of the mass budget. (orig.) [Deutsch] Unter stationaeren Bedingungen erfolgt der Transport von passiven Beimengungen durch Advektion sowie vertikale und horizontale turbulente Diffusion. Die Bedeutung der einzelnen Beitraege fuer den Austausch von passiven Beimengungen, die von einer geraden Linienquelle mit konstanter Quellstaerke unter neutralen Schichtungsbedingungen ausgehen, wird diskutiert. Dazu werden mit einem Lagrangeschen stochastischen (LS) Modell, dessen Eigenschaften besprochen werden, alle Terme der Stoffbilanz fuer ein Kontrollvolumen um eine gerade Linienquelle berechnet. Als Test fuer das LS-Modell werden die vertikalen und die horizontalen Stofffluesse in der Bodenschicht simuliert und mit SANA-Daten verglichen. Die fuer die Ausbreitung einer passiven Beimengung von einer Linienquelle berechneten Massenfluesse, werden hinsichtlich ihres Anteils an der Stoffbilanz ausgewertet. (orig.)

  8. Viscosity and Electrical Conductivity of the Liquid Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu Alloy with Minor Co Admixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakymovych, A.; Sklyarchuk, V.; Plevachuk, Yu.; Sokoliuk, B.

    2016-10-01

    The viscosity and electrical conductivity as structure-sensitive transport properties of the liquid metals and alloys are important for modeling of the melting and solidification processes. The viscosity and electrical conductivity data provide additional information about the influence of impurities on the structure and physicochemical properties of the liquid metal matrix, which is useful for understanding of structural transformations in the liquid state. In the present work, an impact of minor Co admixtures on the viscosity and electrical conductivity of liquid Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu alloy was studied. An increase in viscosity with minor Co admixtures is in a satisfactory agreement with model predicted data obtained from thermodynamic approaches and suggests a significant impact of interatomic interactions. Cobalt admixtures significantly affect the electrical conductivity, which gradually decreases with increasing the amount of Co. Additionally, the sample microstructure has been examined using x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The formation of Sn-based Co-Sn intermetallic compounds was detected in the alloys with more than 1 wt.% Co.

  9. Brief talk about quality control of various aspects in pharmacy intravenous admixture service%浅谈 PIVAS 工作中各环节质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石锐

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过分析总结静脉用药调配中心(PIVAS)各工作环节注意事项,为提高工作质量提供参考。方法:分析医嘱审核、摆药、配制等环节,提出针对性的解决措施。结果:加强医嘱审核、科学合理摆药、严密把握配制关等环节可进一步提高各环节质量。结论:通过各工作环节质量控制,为临床提供安全输液的静脉用药。%Objective:To summarize and analyze the points for attention of all work aspects in pharmacy intravenous ad-mixture service(PIVAS),to provide a reference for improve work quality. Methods:By analyzing prescriptions analysis,drug dispensing and admixture,to come up with purposeful solving measures. Results:By means of reinforcing prescription analysis, scientific and reasonable drug dispensing and strict drug admixture and so on,all aspects of work can be further improved. Con-clusion:According to the improvement measure of all work aspects,safe clinical infusion can be provided.

  10. Viscosity and Electrical Conductivity of the Liquid Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu Alloy with Minor Co Admixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakymovych, A.; Sklyarchuk, V.; Plevachuk, Yu.; Sokoliuk, B.

    2016-08-01

    The viscosity and electrical conductivity as structure-sensitive transport properties of the liquid metals and alloys are important for modeling of the melting and solidification processes. The viscosity and electrical conductivity data provide additional information about the influence of impurities on the structure and physicochemical properties of the liquid metal matrix, which is useful for understanding of structural transformations in the liquid state. In the present work, an impact of minor Co admixtures on the viscosity and electrical conductivity of liquid Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu alloy was studied. An increase in viscosity with minor Co admixtures is in a satisfactory agreement with model predicted data obtained from thermodynamic approaches and suggests a significant impact of interatomic interactions. Cobalt admixtures significantly affect the electrical conductivity, which gradually decreases with increasing the amount of Co. Additionally, the sample microstructure has been examined using x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The formation of Sn-based Co-Sn intermetallic compounds was detected in the alloys with more than 1 wt.% Co.

  11. Properties of Calcium Acetate Manufactured with Etching Waste Solution and Limestone Sludge as a Cementitious High-Early-Strength Admixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deuck-Mo Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is one of the most widely used construction materials. There are several methods available to improve its performance, with one of them being the use of high-early-strength admixtures (HESAs. Typical HESAs include calcium nitrate, calcium chloride, and calcium formate (CF. Industrial by-products, such as acetic acid and lime stone sludge (LSS, can be used together to produce calcium acetate (CA, which can subsequently be used as a cementitious HESA. In this study, calcium carbonate and LSS were mixed with cement in weight ratios of 1 : 1, 1 : 1.5, and 1 : 2, and the properties of the as-produced CA were evaluated. CA and CF were mixed with cement in different weight ratios (0, 1, 2, and 3 wt% to obtain CA- and CF-mortars, respectively. The flow behavior, setting time, pH, and compressive strength of these mortars were evaluated, and their X-ray diffraction patterns were also analyzed. It was found that as the CF content in the CF-mortar increased, the initial strength of the mortar also increased. However, it impaired its long-term strength. On the other hand, when 1% CA was mixed with cement, satisfactory early and long-term strengths were achieved. Thus, CA, which is obtained from industrial by-products, can be an effective HESA.

  12. Corona discharge experiments in admixtures of N2 and CH4: a laboratory simulation of Titan's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A positive corona discharge fed by a N2 : CH4 mixture (98 : 2) at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature has been studied as a laboratory mimic of the chemical processes occurring in the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. In situ measurements of UV and IR transmission spectra within the discharge have shown that the main chemical product is C2H2, produced by dissociation of CH4, with small but significant traces of ethane and HCN, all species that have been detected in Titan's atmosphere. A small amount (0.2%) of CH4 was decomposed after 12 min of treatment requiring an average energy of 2.7 kWh g-1. After 14 min the discharge was terminated due to the formation of a solid yellow deposit on the central wire electrode. Such a deposit is similar to that observed in other discharges and is believed to be an analogue of the aerosol and dust observed in Titan's atmosphere and is composed of chemical species commonly known as 'tholins'. We have also explored the electrical properties of the discharge. The admixture of methane into nitrogen caused an increase in the onset voltage of the discharge and consequently led to a reduction in the measured discharge current.

  13. Effect of expansive admixtures on the shrinkage and mechanical properties of high-performance fiber-reinforced cement composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Chang; Yun, Hyun-Do

    2013-01-01

    High-performance fiber-reinforced cement composites (HPFRCCs) are characterized by strain-hardening and multiple cracking during the inelastic deformation process, but they also develop high shrinkage strain. This study investigates the effects of replacing Portland cement with calcium sulfoaluminate-based expansive admixtures (CSA EXAs) to compensate for the shrinkage and associated mechanical behavior of HPFRCCs. Two types of CSA EXA (CSA-K and CSA-J), each with a different chemical composition, are used in this study. Various replacement ratios (0%, 8%, 10%, 12%, and 14% by weight of cement) of CSA EXA are considered for the design of HPFRCC mixtures reinforced with 1.5% polyethylene (PE) fibers by volume. Mechanical properties, such as shrinkage compensation, compressive strength, flexural strength, and direct tensile strength, of the HPFRCC mixtures are examined. Also, crack width and development are investigated to determine the effects of the EXAs on the performance of the HPFRCC mixtures, and a performance index is used to quantify the performance of mixture. The results indicate that replacements of 10% CSA-K (Type 1) and 8% CSA-J (Type 2) considerably enhance the mechanical properties and reduce shrinkage of HPFRCCs. PMID:24376382

  14. Growth, structural, spectral, mechanical, thermal and dielectric characterization of phosphoric acid admixtured L-alanine (PLA) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, A. S. J. Lucia; Selvarajan, P.; Perumal, S.

    2011-10-01

    Phosphoric acid admixtured L-alanine (PLA) single crystals were grown successfully by solution method with slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Crystals of size 18 mm × 12 mm × 8 mm have been obtained in 28 days. The grown crystals were colorless and transparent. The solubility of the grown samples has been found out at various temperatures. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals were determined by X-ray diffraction technique. The reflection planes of the sample were confirmed by the powder X-ray diffraction study and diffraction peaks were indexed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies were used to confirm the presence of various functional groups in the crystals. UV-visible transmittance spectrum was recorded to study the optical transparency of grown crystal. The nonlinear optical (NLO) property of the grown crystal was confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique and a study of its second harmonic generation efficiency in comparison with potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) has been made. The mechanical strength of the crystal was estimated by Vickers hardness test. The grown crystals were subjected to thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA). The dielectric behavior of the sample was also studied.

  15. Effect of Expansive Admixtures on the Shrinkage and Mechanical Properties of High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Cement Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Chang Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High-performance fiber-reinforced cement composites (HPFRCCs are characterized by strain-hardening and multiple cracking during the inelastic deformation process, but they also develop high shrinkage strain. This study investigates the effects of replacing Portland cement with calcium sulfoaluminate-based expansive admixtures (CSA EXAs to compensate for the shrinkage and associated mechanical behavior of HPFRCCs. Two types of CSA EXA (CSA-K and CSA-J, each with a different chemical composition, are used in this study. Various replacement ratios (0%, 8%, 10%, 12%, and 14% by weight of cement of CSA EXA are considered for the design of HPFRCC mixtures reinforced with 1.5% polyethylene (PE fibers by volume. Mechanical properties, such as shrinkage compensation, compressive strength, flexural strength, and direct tensile strength, of the HPFRCC mixtures are examined. Also, crack width and development are investigated to determine the effects of the EXAs on the performance of the HPFRCC mixtures, and a performance index is used to quantify the performance of mixture. The results indicate that replacements of 10% CSA-K (Type 1 and 8% CSA-J (Type 2 considerably enhance the mechanical properties and reduce shrinkage of HPFRCCs.

  16. Influence on the physical-mechanical properties of portland-cement mortar, have admixtures of colophony and tannin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Cánovas, M.

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The colophony has been used as an admixture in the Portland cement mortar with the intention to observe its influence on the air content, water absorption, adhesive capacity and mechanical properties. The results obtained have shown that, the colophony acts as air entrainment, reduces the permeability and improves the adhesion between the past and aggregates. Likewise, the addition of tannin and montan wax to the colophony has the efect of reducing the formation of foam and improves the impermeability of the mortar.

    Se ha empleado la colofonia como aditivo en el mortero de cemento portland con el fin de observar su influencia sobre el contenido de aire, absorción de agua, capacidad adhesiva y propiedades mecánicas. Los resultados obtenidos han puesto de manifiesto que la colofonia actúa como aireante, aumenta la impermeabilidad y mejora la adherencia de la pasta al árido. Asimismo, la adición de tanino y cera montana a la colofonia tiene el efecto de reducir la formación de espuma y mejorar también la impermeabilidad del mortero.

  17. Reduced admixture of North Atlantic Deep Water to the deep central South Pacific during the last two glacial periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Kescher, Mario; Frank, Martin; Tapia, Raúl; Ronge, Thomas A.; Nürnberg, Dirk; Tiedemann, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    The South Pacific is a sensitive location for the variability of the global oceanic thermohaline circulation given that deep waters from the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and the Pacific Basin are exchanged. Here we reconstruct the deep water circulation of the central South Pacific for the last two glacial cycles (from 240,000 years ago to the Holocene) based on radiogenic neodymium (Nd) and lead (Pb) isotope records complemented by benthic stable carbon data obtained from two sediment cores located on the flanks of the East Pacific Rise. The records show small but consistent glacial/interglacial changes in all three isotopic systems with interglacial average values of -5.8 and 18.757 for ɛNd and 206Pb/204Pb, respectively, whereas glacial averages are -5.3 and 18.744. Comparison of this variability of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) to previously published records along the pathway of the global thermohaline circulation is consistent with reduced admixture of North Atlantic Deep Water to CDW during cold stages. The absolute values and amplitudes of the benthic δ13C variations are essentially indistinguishable from other records of the Southern Hemisphere and confirm that the low central South Pacific sedimentation rates did not result in a significant reduction of the amplitude of any of the measured proxies. In addition, the combined detrital Nd and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotope signatures imply that Australian and New Zealand dust has remained the principal contributor of lithogenic material to the central South Pacific.

  18. A multicenter study of biological effects assessment of pharmacy workers occupationally exposed to antineoplastic drugs in Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Bao, Jianan; Wang, Renying; Geng, Zhou; Chen, Yao; Liu, Xinchun; Xie, Yongzhong; Jiang, Ling; Deng, Yufei; Liu, Gaolin; Xu, Rong; Miao, Liyan

    2016-09-01

    This multi-centered study was designed to evaluate the biological effects of exposure to antineoplastic drugs (ADs) at PIVAS (Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Service) across ten Chinese hospitals. 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was used as a biomarker of DNA oxidative damage and lymphocyte apoptosis assays using peripheral lymphocyte cells were used to detect primary DNA damage. The mutagenicity activity was estimated with the Ames fluctuation test. 158 exposed and 143 unexposed workers participated in this study. The urinary 8-OHdG/Cr concentrations of the exposed group was 22.05±17.89ng/mg Cr, which was significantly higher than controls of 17.36±13.50ng/mg Cr (P<0.05). The rate of early lymphocyte apoptosis was slightly increased in exposed group than that of the control group (P=0.087). The mutagenic activity was significantly higher in the exposed group relative to the control group (P<0.05). Moreover, while no statistically significant difference was observed, higher concentrations of 8-OHdG/Cr in urine and an early lymphocyte apoptosis rate were found in exposed group II as compared to exposed group I. In addition, a significant correlation between early lymphocyte apoptosis and exposure time to ADs was also observed (P<0.05). In conclusion, our study identified elevated biomarkers in PIVAS workers exposed to ADs. However whether these findings could lead to increased incidence of genotoxic responses remains to be further investigated. PMID:27179702

  19. 复杂环境下矿物掺合料混凝土的耐久性研究%Study on Mineral Admixture Concrete Durability under the Complex Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈剑毅; 胡明玉; 肖烨; 李建平

    2011-01-01

    Using fly ash, slag, diatomite and zeolite as mineral admixtures, by designing orthogonal test with types and dosages of mineral admixtures for concrete improvement, to study the concrete durability adding various different active mineral admixtures under the complex conditions of chloride, sulfate and freeze-thaw erosion, to get the types and dosages of mineral admixtures of the best durability concrete by analyze of experimental results, with the aid of analysis methods such as X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope, study micro-mechanism of concrete improvement mixing mineral admixtures. The research results show that the mineral admixtures can restrict the formation of Thaumasite and improving the concrete pore structure, in order to improve evidently the concrete durabilyty, and diatomite is the best mineral admixture among them.%以粉煤灰、矿渣、硅藻土和沸石作为矿物掺合料,通过设计矿物掺合料种类和掺量对混凝土改性的正交试验,研究在氯盐-硫酸盐-冻融复杂环境下掺活性矿物掺合料混凝土的耐久性,并通过X射线衍射和扫描电子显微镜分析,探求矿物掺合料对混凝土改性的微观机理.研究表明,矿物掺合料能够抑制碳硫硅钙石晶体的生成和改善混凝土孔结构,从而明显提高混凝土的耐久性,其中硅藻土效果最佳.

  20. Development of a panel of genome-wide ancestry informative markers to study admixture throughout the Americas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Mark Galanter

    Full Text Available Most individuals throughout the Americas are admixed descendants of Native American, European, and African ancestors. Complex historical factors have resulted in varying proportions of ancestral contributions between individuals within and among ethnic groups. We developed a panel of 446 ancestry informative markers (AIMs optimized to estimate ancestral proportions in individuals and populations throughout Latin America. We used genome-wide data from 953 individuals from diverse African, European, and Native American populations to select AIMs optimized for each of the three main continental populations that form the basis of modern Latin American populations. We selected markers on the basis of locus-specific branch length to be informative, well distributed throughout the genome, capable of being genotyped on widely available commercial platforms, and applicable throughout the Americas by minimizing within-continent heterogeneity. We then validated the panel in samples from four admixed populations by comparing ancestry estimates based on the AIMs panel to estimates based on genome-wide association study (GWAS data. The panel provided balanced discriminatory power among the three ancestral populations and accurate estimates of individual ancestry proportions (R² > 0.9 for ancestral components with significant between-subject variance. Finally, we genotyped samples from 18 populations from Latin America using the AIMs panel and estimated variability in ancestry within and between these populations. This panel and its reference genotype information will be useful resources to explore population history of admixture in Latin America and to correct for the potential effects of population stratification in admixed samples in the region.

  1. Development of a Panel of Genome-Wide Ancestry Informative Markers to Study Admixture Throughout the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, Joshua Mark; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Fernandez-Rozadilla, Ceres; Via, Marc; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Contreras, Alejandra V.; Figueroa, Laura Uribe; Raska, Paola; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Silva Zolezzi, Irma; Torres, Maria; Ponte, Clara Ruiz; Ruiz, Yarimar; Salas, Antonio; Nguyen, Elizabeth; Eng, Celeste; Borjas, Lisbeth; Zabala, William; Barreto, Guillermo; Rondón González, Fernando; Ibarra, Adriana; Taboada, Patricia; Porras, Liliana; Moreno, Fabián; Bigham, Abigail; Gutierrez, Gerardo; Brutsaert, Tom; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Moore, Lorna G.; Vargas, Enrique; Cruz, Miguel; Escobedo, Jorge; Rodriguez-Santana, José; Rodriguez-Cintrón, William; Chapela, Rocio; Ford, Jean G.; Bustamante, Carlos; Seminara, Daniela; Shriver, Mark; Ziv, Elad; Gonzalez Burchard, Esteban; Haile, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Most individuals throughout the Americas are admixed descendants of Native American, European, and African ancestors. Complex historical factors have resulted in varying proportions of ancestral contributions between individuals within and among ethnic groups. We developed a panel of 446 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) optimized to estimate ancestral proportions in individuals and populations throughout Latin America. We used genome-wide data from 953 individuals from diverse African, European, and Native American populations to select AIMs optimized for each of the three main continental populations that form the basis of modern Latin American populations. We selected markers on the basis of locus-specific branch length to be informative, well distributed throughout the genome, capable of being genotyped on widely available commercial platforms, and applicable throughout the Americas by minimizing within-continent heterogeneity. We then validated the panel in samples from four admixed populations by comparing ancestry estimates based on the AIMs panel to estimates based on genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. The panel provided balanced discriminatory power among the three ancestral populations and accurate estimates of individual ancestry proportions (R2>0.9 for ancestral components with significant between-subject variance). Finally, we genotyped samples from 18 populations from Latin America using the AIMs panel and estimated variability in ancestry within and between these populations. This panel and its reference genotype information will be useful resources to explore population history of admixture in Latin America and to correct for the potential effects of population stratification in admixed samples in the region. PMID:22412386

  2. Admixture mapping of 15,280 African Americans identifies obesity susceptibility loci on chromosomes 5 and X.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yu Cheng

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity (body mass index (BMI > or =30 kg/m(2 is higher in African Americans than in European Americans, even after adjustment for socioeconomic factors, suggesting that genetic factors may explain some of the difference. To identify genetic loci influencing BMI, we carried out a pooled analysis of genome-wide admixture mapping scans in 15,280 African Americans from 14 epidemiologic studies. Samples were genotyped at a median of 1,411 ancestry-informative markers. After adjusting for age, sex, and study, BMI was analyzed both as a dichotomized (top 20% versus bottom 20% and a continuous trait. We found that a higher percentage of European ancestry was significantly correlated with lower BMI (rho = -0.042, P = 1.6x10(-7. In the dichotomized analysis, we detected two loci on chromosome X as associated with increased African ancestry: the first at Xq25 (locus-specific LOD = 5.94; genome-wide score = 3.22; case-control Z = -3.94; and the second at Xq13.1 (locus-specific LOD = 2.22; case-control Z = -4.62. Quantitative analysis identified a third locus at 5q13.3 where higher BMI was highly significantly associated with greater European ancestry (locus-specific LOD = 6.27; genome-wide score = 3.46. Further mapping studies with dense sets of markers will be necessary to identify the alleles in these regions of chromosomes X and 5 that may be associated with variation in BMI.

  3. Admixture mapping of 15,280 African Americans identifies obesity susceptibility loci on chromosomes 5 and X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Kao, W H Linda; Patterson, Nick; Tandon, Arti; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Xing, Chao; John, Esther M; Ambrosone, Christine B; Brancati, Frederick L; Coresh, Josef; Press, Michael F; Parekh, Rulan S; Klag, Michael J; Meoni, Lucy A; Hsueh, Wen-Chi; Fejerman, Laura; Pawlikowska, Ludmila; Freedman, Matthew L; Jandorf, Lina H; Bandera, Elisa V; Ciupak, Gregory L; Nalls, Michael A; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Orwoll, Eric S; Leak, Tennille S; Miljkovic, Iva; Li, Rongling; Ursin, Giske; Bernstein, Leslie; Ardlie, Kristin; Taylor, Herman A; Boerwinckle, Eric; Zmuda, Joseph M; Henderson, Brian E; Wilson, James G; Reich, David

    2009-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity (body mass index (BMI) > or =30 kg/m(2)) is higher in African Americans than in European Americans, even after adjustment for socioeconomic factors, suggesting that genetic factors may explain some of the difference. To identify genetic loci influencing BMI, we carried out a pooled analysis of genome-wide admixture mapping scans in 15,280 African Americans from 14 epidemiologic studies. Samples were genotyped at a median of 1,411 ancestry-informative markers. After adjusting for age, sex, and study, BMI was analyzed both as a dichotomized (top 20% versus bottom 20%) and a continuous trait. We found that a higher percentage of European ancestry was significantly correlated with lower BMI (rho = -0.042, P = 1.6x10(-7)). In the dichotomized analysis, we detected two loci on chromosome X as associated with increased African ancestry: the first at Xq25 (locus-specific LOD = 5.94; genome-wide score = 3.22; case-control Z = -3.94); and the second at Xq13.1 (locus-specific LOD = 2.22; case-control Z = -4.62). Quantitative analysis identified a third locus at 5q13.3 where higher BMI was highly significantly associated with greater European ancestry (locus-specific LOD = 6.27; genome-wide score = 3.46). Further mapping studies with dense sets of markers will be necessary to identify the alleles in these regions of chromosomes X and 5 that may be associated with variation in BMI.

  4. Admixture and genetic relationships of Mexican Mestizos regarding Latin American and Caribbean populations based on 13 CODIS-STRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Flores, J; Zuñiga-Chiquette, F; Rubi-Castellanos, R; Álvarez-Miranda, J L; Zetina-Hérnandez, A; Martínez-Sevilla, V M; González-Andrade, F; Corach, D; Vullo, C; Álvarez, J C; Lorente, J A; Sánchez-Diz, P; Herrera, R J; Cerda-Flores, R M; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2015-02-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) of the combined DNA index system (CODIS) are probably the most employed markers for human identification purposes. STR databases generated to interpret DNA profiles are also helpful for anthropological purposes. In this work, we report admixture, population structure, and genetic relationships of Mexican Mestizos with respect to Latin American and Caribbean populations based on 13 CODIS-STRs. In addition, new STR population data were included from Tijuana, Baja California (Northwest, Mexico), which represents an interesting case of elevated genetic flow as a bordering city with the USA. Inter-population analyses included CODIS-STR data from 11 Mexican Mestizo, 12 Latin American and four Caribbean populations, in addition to European, Amerindian, and African genetic pools as ancestral references. We report allele frequencies and statistical parameters of forensic interest (PD, PE, Het, PIC, typical PI), for 15 STRs in Tijuana, Baja California. This Mexican border city was peculiar by the increase of African ancestry, and by presenting three STRs in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium, probably explained by recurrent gene flow. The Amerindian ancestry in Central and Southeast of Mexico was the greatest in Latin America (50.9-68.6%), only comparable with the North of Central America and Ecuador (48.8-56.4%), whereas the European ancestry was prevalent in South America (66.7-75%). The African ancestry in Mexico was the smallest (2.2-6.3%) in Latin America (≥ 2.6%), particularly regarding Brazil (21%), Honduras (62%), and the Caribbean (43.2-65.2%). CODIS-STRs allowed detecting significant population structure in Latin America based on greater presence of European, Amerindian, and African ancestries in Central/South America, Mexican Mestizos, and the Caribbean, respectively.

  5. Unexpected patterns of admixture in German populations of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae underscore the importance of human intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee E Zielke

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus, originally restricted to temperate East Asia, is now widespread in North America and more recently has become established in Europe. To ascertain the putative number of separate introductions to Europe and examine patterns of expansion we analyzed the genetic makeup of Ae. j. japonicus populations from five cemeteries in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, two western German federal states, as well as of specimens from populations in Belgium, Switzerland, and Austria/Slovenia. To do so, we genotyped individual specimens at seven pre-existing polymorphic microsatellite loci and sequenced part of the nad4 mitochondrial locus. We found evidence of two different genotypic signatures associated with different nad4 mitochondrial haplotypes, indicating at least two genetically differentiated populations of Ae. j. japonicus in Europe (i.e. two distinct genotypes. Belgian, Swiss, and Austrian/Slovenian populations all share the same genotypic signature although they have become differentiated since isolation. Contrary to expectations, the German Ae. j. japonicus are not closely related to those in Belgium which are geographically nearest but are also highly inbred. German populations have a unique genotype but also evidence of mixing between the two genotypes. Also unexpectedly, the populations closest to the center of the German infestation had the highest levels of admixture indicating that separate introductions did not expand and merge but instead their expansion was driven by punctuated human-mediated transport. Critically, the resulting admixed populations have higher genetic diversity and appear invasive as indicated by their increased abundance and recent spread across western Germany.

  6. Unexpected patterns of admixture in German populations of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) underscore the importance of human intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielke, Dorothee E; Werner, Doreen; Schaffner, Francis; Kampen, Helge; Fonseca, Dina M

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus, originally restricted to temperate East Asia, is now widespread in North America and more recently has become established in Europe. To ascertain the putative number of separate introductions to Europe and examine patterns of expansion we analyzed the genetic makeup of Ae. j. japonicus populations from five cemeteries in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, two western German federal states, as well as of specimens from populations in Belgium, Switzerland, and Austria/Slovenia. To do so, we genotyped individual specimens at seven pre-existing polymorphic microsatellite loci and sequenced part of the nad4 mitochondrial locus. We found evidence of two different genotypic signatures associated with different nad4 mitochondrial haplotypes, indicating at least two genetically differentiated populations of Ae. j. japonicus in Europe (i.e. two distinct genotypes). Belgian, Swiss, and Austrian/Slovenian populations all share the same genotypic signature although they have become differentiated since isolation. Contrary to expectations, the German Ae. j. japonicus are not closely related to those in Belgium which are geographically nearest but are also highly inbred. German populations have a unique genotype but also evidence of mixing between the two genotypes. Also unexpectedly, the populations closest to the center of the German infestation had the highest levels of admixture indicating that separate introductions did not expand and merge but instead their expansion was driven by punctuated human-mediated transport. Critically, the resulting admixed populations have higher genetic diversity and appear invasive as indicated by their increased abundance and recent spread across western Germany. PMID:24992470

  7. Studies on the compressibility of wax matrix granules of acetaminophen and their admixtures with various tableting bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhumwangho, M U; Okor, R S

    2006-04-01

    Matrix granules of acetaminophen have been formed by a melt granulation process whereby the acetaminophen powder was triturated with the melted wax--goat wax, glyceryl monostearate or carnuba wax. The compressibility of the matrix granules and their admixture, with diluent granules (lactose, alpha-cellulose or microcrystalline cellulose) was investigated. The granules were compressed to tablets at a constant load (30 arbitrary units on the load scale) of a manesty single punch machine. Resulting tablets were evaluated for tensile strength (T) and disintegration times (DT). Granule flow was determined by measuring their angle of repose when allowed to fall freely on a level surface. Matrix granules prepared by melt granulation with goat wax or glyceryl monostearate were too sticky and therefore did not flow at all. They were also poorly compressible (T values = 0.20MN/m2). Inclusion of the diluent remarkably improved granule flow property and compressibility. The T values of the tablets (measure of compressibility) increased from about 0.24 to 0.65 MN/m2 during increase in diluent (lactose) content from 20 to 80 %w/w. Microcrystalline cellulose and alpha-cellulose were more effective than lactose in promoting compressibility of the granules. By contrast the matrix granules formed with carnuba wax were free flowing (angle of repose, 18.60). Addition of the diluent further improved flowability slightly. The matrix granules (without a diluent) were readily compressible (T value, 1.79MN/m2). Addition of the diluent (80%w/w) reduced T values (MN/m2) slightly to 1.32 (lactose), 1.48 (alpha-cellulose) and 1.74 (microcrystalline cellulose). Tablets of the matrix granules only, disintegrated rapidly within 3 minutes. DT was further reduced to wax proved most promising in the melt granulation of the test drug for sustained release applications.

  8. Infrared studies of molecular shocks in the supernova remnant HB 21: II. Thermal admixture of shocked H2 gas in the south

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Jong-Ho; Koo, Bon-Chul; Burton, Michael; Lee, Ho-Gyu; Moon, Dae-Sik

    2010-02-01

    We present near- and mid-infrared observations on the shock-cloud interaction region in the southern part of the supernova remnant HB 21, performed with the InfraRed Camera (IRC) aboard AKARI satellite and the Wide InfraRed Camera (WIRC) at the Palomar 5 m telescope. The IRC 4 μm (N4), 7 μm (S7), and 11 μm (S11) band images and the WIRC Hυ=1→0S(1) 2.12 μm image show similar diffuse features, around a shocked CO cloud. We analyzed the emission through comparison with the H2 line emission of several shock models. The IRC colors are well explained by the thermal admixture model of H2 gas - whose infinitesimal H2 column density has a power-law relation with the temperature T, dN˜T-dT - with n(H)˜3.9×104cm-3,b˜4.2, and N(H;T>100K)˜2.8×1021cm-2. We interpreted these parameters with several different pictures of the shock-cloud interactions - multiple planar C-shocks, bow shocks, and shocked clumps - and discussed their weaknesses and strengths. The observed Hυ=1→0S(1) intensity is four times greater than the prediction from the power-law admixture model, the same tendency as found in the northern part of HB 21 (Paper I). We also explored the limitation of the thermal admixture model with respect to the derived model parameters.

  9. African ancestry and its correlation to type 2 diabetes in African Americans: a genetic admixture analysis in three U.S. population cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yu Cheng

    Full Text Available The risk of type 2 diabetes is approximately 2-fold higher in African Americans than in European Americans even after adjusting for known environmental risk factors, including socioeconomic status (SES, suggesting that genetic factors may explain some of this population difference in disease risk. However, relatively few genetic studies have examined this hypothesis in a large sample of African Americans with and without diabetes. Therefore, we performed an admixture analysis using 2,189 ancestry-informative markers in 7,021 African Americans (2,373 with type 2 diabetes and 4,648 without from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, the Jackson Heart Study, and the Multiethnic Cohort to 1 determine the association of type 2 diabetes and its related quantitative traits with African ancestry controlling for measures of SES and 2 identify genetic loci for type 2 diabetes through a genome-wide admixture mapping scan. The median percentage of African ancestry of diabetic participants was slightly greater than that of non-diabetic participants (study-adjusted difference = 1.6%, P<0.001. The odds ratio for diabetes comparing participants in the highest vs. lowest tertile of African ancestry was 1.33 (95% confidence interval 1.13-1.55, after adjustment for age, sex, study, body mass index (BMI, and SES. Admixture scans identified two potential loci for diabetes at 12p13.31 (LOD = 4.0 and 13q14.3 (Z score = 4.5, P = 6.6 × 10(-6. In conclusion, genetic ancestry has a significant association with type 2 diabetes above and beyond its association with non-genetic risk factors for type 2 diabetes in African Americans, but no single gene with a major effect is sufficient to explain a large portion of the observed population difference in risk of diabetes. There undoubtedly is a complex interplay among specific genetic loci and non-genetic factors, which may both be associated with overall admixture, leading to the observed ethnic differences in diabetes

  10. Parameterization of light scattering for solving the inverse problem of determining the concentrations of the principal light scattering and absorbing admixtures in shelf waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim N. Pelevin

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A method for estimating the water backscattering coefficient was put forward on the basis of experimental data of diffuse attenuation coefficient for downwelling irradiance and irradiance reflectance. Calculations were carried out for open sea waters of different types and the spectral dependencies were found ("anomalous" spectra and explained. On this basis, a new model of light backscattering on particles in the sea is proposed. This model may be useful for modelling remote sensing reflectance spectra in order to solve the inverse problems of estimating the concentration of natural admixtures in shelf waters.

  11. The matters should pay attention to of polycarboxylic acid admixture in concrete engineering application%聚羧酸外加剂在混凝土工程应用中应注意的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾钢

    2015-01-01

    结合混凝土外加剂的应用现状,阐述了聚羧酸外加剂的特点及其发展方向,并通过对聚羧酸外加剂在工程应用中常见问题的分析,研究了使用聚羧酸时应注意的具体事项,以供参考。%Combining with the application situation of concrete admixture,this paper elaborated the characteristics and development direction of polycarboxylic acid admixture,and through the analysis on common problems of polycarboxylic acid admixture in engineering application,re-searched the specific matters should be paid attention to using polycarboxylic acid,for reference.

  12. Application of Orthogonal Experiment in Compound Admixture of Freezing Mine Shaft Lining Concrete%正交法在冻结井壁砼复合外加剂试验中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗翔; 徐颖; 李寅珺

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve the setting and hardening of mine shaft lining concrete under the minus temperature in freezing construction and to meet the demands of every performance of concrete, the technique of compounding air entraining admixture and antifreezing admixture and early strength water reducing admixture was applied in this research. Based on the Orthogonal experimental design, several mix proportions of compound admixture for early strength liquid mine shaft lining concrete were developed in the laboratory. The data collected in this research provide reference for the optimum mix proportion of the adulteration quantity of the concrete admixture. The results show that the 2. 1% amount of compound antifreezing admixture achieves favorable effects of liquid,early strength,freezing prevention and antifreezing.%为了使冻结施工井壁混凝土能够在负温条件下凝结与硬化,并满足其各项性能要求,采用引气剂+防冻剂+早强减水剂复合的技术路线,通过正交试验设计复配了适应冻结施工早强流态井壁混凝土的复合外加剂.通过试验分析最终确定各组分掺量之间的最佳配比.复合外加剂的掺量为2.1%,可起到流态、早强、防冻及抗冻的作用.

  13. 糯扎渡水电站混凝土掺合料优选试验%Optimization Tests on Concrete Admixtures in Nuozadu Hydropower Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董艳萍; 李锡林; 王清宝; 蒋许章

    2012-01-01

    由于便于就地取材,在实际工程应用中,以矿渣、石灰石粉作为混凝土掺合料较为普遍.针对糯扎渡水电站工程,通过对铁矿渣与石灰石粉掺配的掺合料进行试验研究,优选双掺料品种、掺量及掺配比例,进一步改善了混凝土的性能.%Taking ihe mixture of iron slag powder and lime stone powder as concrete admixture has hern commonly used in recent years in the construction of hydropower projects because of its accessibility. In the construction of Nuozhddu Hydropower Station, the concrete admixture consisted by iron slag powder and lime stone powder is researched by tests, and the varieties, contents and the mixing proportion of double admixlures -powder are also proposed to further improve the performance of concrete..

  14. Chemical composition, effective atomic number and electron density study of trommel sieve waste (TSW), Portland cement, lime, pointing and their admixtures with TSW in different proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurudirek, Murat; Aygun, Murat; Erzeneoğlu, Salih Zeki

    2010-06-01

    The trommel sieve waste (TSW) which forms during the boron ore production is considered to be a promising building material with its use as an admixture with Portland cement and is considered to be an alternative radiation shielding material, also. Thus, having knowledge on the chemical composition and radiation interaction properties of TSW as compared to other building materials is of importance. In the present study, chemical compositions of the materials used have been determined using a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (WDXRFS). Also, TSW, some commonly used building materials (Portland cement, lime and pointing) and their admixtures with TSW have been investigated in terms of total mass attenuation coefficients (mu/rho), photon interaction cross sections (sigma(t)), effective atomic numbers (Z(eff)) and effective electron densities (N(e)) by using X-rays at 22.1, 25keV and gamma-rays at 88keV photon energies. Possible conclusions were drawn with respect to the variations in photon energy and chemical composition. PMID:20080413

  15. Eco-genomic analysis of the poleward range expansion of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi shows rapid adaptation and genomic admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehenwinkel, Henrik; Rödder, Dennis; Tautz, Diethard

    2015-12-01

    Poleward range expansions are commonly attributed to global change, but could alternatively be driven by rapid evolutionary adaptation. A well-documented example of a range expansion during the past decades is provided by the European wasp spider Argiope bruennichi. Using ecological niche modeling, thermal tolerance experiments and a genome-wide analysis of gene expression divergence, we show that invasive populations have adapted to novel climatic conditions in the course of their expansion. Their climatic niche shift is mirrored in an increased cold tolerance and a population-specific and functionally differentiated gene expression response. We generated an Argiope reference genome sequence and used population genome resequencing to assess genomic changes associated with the new climatic adaptations. We find clear genetic differentiation and a significant admixture with alleles from East Asian populations in the invasive Northern European populations. Population genetic modeling suggests that at least some of these introgressing alleles have contributed to the new adaptations during the expansion. Our results thus confirm the notion that range expansions are not a simple consequence of climate change, but are accompanied by fast genetic changes and adaptations that may be fuelled through admixture between long separated lineages. PMID:26183328

  16. 高性能混凝土外加剂对水泥砂浆力学性能的影响%Mechanical properties research of high-performance concrete admixtures on the cement mortar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程朝霞; 张自新; 胡志超; 杨健辉

    2011-01-01

    A new type of admixtures on mortar strength was researched with mixed-level orthogonal table.Mixing a few different factors and levels of additives to form a new group of 16 specimens of cement mortar,and testing 3 d and 28 d strength of these prism specimens,then using orthogonal design analysis of variance test methods such as error analysis researched the influence of high-performance concrete admixtures on the cement mortar strength.The results showed that high-performance concrete admixtures are not the most perfect additives.Without reducing water consumption,high performance concrete admixtures with the same quality of cement replacement,the admixtures on the strength of the effect is not significant factors.In the dosage less case,the improvement is not obvious on the strength of concrete,and mixed with excessive can cause retardation.Admixture of polycarboxylate superplasticizer increases the strength.There was an interaction between high-performance concrete admixtures and water reducing agent.%采用混合水平正交表研究了新型外加剂对砂浆强度的影响.通过掺加不同因子及水平数的新型外加剂成型了16组水泥砂浆试件,测试了3 d和28 d龄期的强度,采用正交设计中的方差分析、试验误差等方法分析表明,高性能混凝土外加剂并不是性能最好的外加剂,不减少用水量的情况下,用高性能混凝土外加剂替代同等质量水泥后,外加剂对强度的影响并不是显著因素.掺量较少的情况下,对混凝土强度的提高不明显,掺量过大,会造成缓凝.掺加聚羧酸减水剂提高强度,高性能混凝土外加剂和减水剂之间存在交互作用.

  17. The effect of low-NOx combustion on residual carbon in fly ash and its adsorption capacity for air entrainment admixtures in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Hougaard; Jensen, Anker Degn; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Fly ash from pulverized coal combustion contains residual carbon that can adsorb the air-entraining admixtures (AEAs) added to control the air entrainment in concrete. This is a problem that has increased by the implementation of low-NOx combustion technologies. In this work, pulverized fuel has...... by up to a factor of 25. This was due to a lower carbon content in the ash and a lower specific AEA adsorptivity of the carbon. The latter was suggested to be caused by changes in the adsorption properties of the unburned char and a decreased formation of soot, which was found to have a large AEA...... adsorption capacity based on measurements on a carbon black. The NOx formation increased by up to three times with more oxidizing conditions and thus, there was a trade-off between the AEA requirements of the ash and NOx formation. The type of fuel had high impact on the AEA adsorption behavior of the ash...

  18. Genetic admixture studies on four in situ evolved, two migrant and twenty-one ethnic populations of Tamil Nadu, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhasini, G; Sonaa, E; Shila, S; Srikumari, C R; Jayaraman, G; Ramesh, A

    2011-08-01

    We analysed the genetic structure of ≈ 1000 samples representing 27 ethnic groups settled in Tamil Nadu, south India, derived from two linguistic families (Dravidians and Indo-Europeans) representing four religious groups (Hinduism, Islam, Christianity and Jainism) using 11 mtDNA markers. Out of 27 ethnic groups, four are in situ populations (Anglo-Indian, Labbai Muslim, Nadar Christian and south Indian Jain) and two are migrants (Gypsy and north Indian Jain) from north India to Tamil Nadu, and 21 are native ethnic groups. Six of the markers we used were monomorphic (HaeIII663, HpaI3592, AluI5176, AluI7025, AluI13262, 9-bp deletion) and five markers were polymorphic (DdeI10394, AluI10397, HinfI12308, HincII13259 and HaeIII16517). Haplogroup frequencies, genetic affinities and admixture analysis are based on the genotype data of polymorphic markers observed in these populations. Haplogroup frequencies indicate that various ethnic groups entered Tamil Nadu during different time periods. Genetic affinities and admixture estimates revealed that the ethnic groups possessing advanced knowledge of farming cluster in a branch (C), and could be the late arrived settlers as agriculture, was introduced to this region at about 5 to 3 thousand years ago. In situ ethnic groups appear to have arisen at various times as a result of the prevailing dominant socio-cultural forces. Hierarchical Hindu caste system created many ethnic groups in the history of its existence; some of them became isolated for considerable period of time. Over all, among Tamil ethnic groups, in spite of caste systems' rigidity, built in flexibility in the system in the form of hypergamy and hypogamy had allowed maternal gene flow between them.

  19. CO2 capture using fly ash from coal fired power plant and applications of CO2-captured fly ash as a mineral admixture for concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriruang, Chaichan; Toochinda, Pisanu; Julnipitawong, Parnthep; Tangtermsirikul, Somnuk

    2016-04-01

    The utilization of fly ash as a solid sorbent material for CO2 capture via surface adsorption and carbonation reaction was evaluated as an economically feasible CO2 reduction technique. The results show that fly ash from a coal fired power plant can capture CO2 up to 304.7 μmol/g fly ash, consisting of 2.9 and 301.8 μmol/g fly ash via adsorption and carbonation, respectively. The CO2 adsorption conditions (temperature, pressure, and moisture) can affect CO2 capture performance of fly ash. The carbonation of CO2 with free CaO in fly ashes was evaluated and the results indicated that the reaction consumed most of free CaO in fly ash. The fly ashes after CO2 capture were further used for application as a mineral admixture for concrete. Properties such as water requirement, compressive strength, autoclave expansion, and carbonation depth of mortar and paste specimens using fly ash before and after CO2 capture were tested and compared with material standards. The results show that the expansion of mortar specimens using fly ash after CO2 capture was greatly reduced due to the reduction of free CaO content in the fly ash compared to the expansion of specimens using fresh fly ash. There were no significant differences in the water requirement and compressive strength of specimens using fly ash, before and after CO2 capture process. The results from this study can lead to an alternative CO2 capture technique with doubtless utilization of fly ash after CO2 capture as a mineral admixture for concrete. PMID:26803257

  20. Population genomic analysis uncovers African and European admixture in Drosophila melanogaster populations from the south-eastern United States and Caribbean Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Joyce Y; Zubair, Asif; Salomon, Matthew P; Nuzhdin, Sergey V; Campo, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is postulated to have colonized North America in the past several 100 years in two waves. Flies from Europe colonized the east coast United States while flies from Africa inhabited the Caribbean, which if true, make the south-east US and Caribbean Islands a secondary contact zone for African and European D. melanogaster. This scenario has been proposed based on phenotypes and limited genetic data. In our study, we have sequenced individual whole genomes of flies from populations in the south-east US and Caribbean Islands and examined these populations in conjunction with population sequences from the west coast US, Africa, and Europe. We find that west coast US populations are closely related to the European population, likely reflecting a rapid westward expansion upon first settlements into North America. We also find genomic evidence of African and European admixture in south-east US and Caribbean populations, with a clinal pattern of decreasing proportions of African ancestry with higher latitude. Our genomic analysis of D. melanogaster populations from the south-east US and Caribbean Islands provides more evidence for the Caribbean Islands as the source of previously reported novel African alleles found in other east coast US populations. We also find the border between the south-east US and the Caribbean island to be the admixture hot zone where distinctly African-like Caribbean flies become genomically more similar to European-like south-east US flies. Our findings have important implications for previous studies examining the generation of east coast US clines via selection. PMID:25735402

  1. Genetic admixture studies on four in situ evolved, two migrant and twenty-one ethnic populations of Tamil Nadu, south India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G. Suhasini; E. Sonaa; S. Shila; C. R. Srikumari; G. Jayaraman; A. Ramesh

    2011-08-01

    We analysed the genetic structure of ∼1000 samples representing 27 ethnic groups settled in Tamil Nadu, south India, derived from two linguistic families (Dravidians and Indo–Europeans) representing four religious groups (Hinduism, Islam, Christianity and Jainism) using 11 mtDNA markers. Out of 27 ethnic groups, four are in situ populations (Anglo-Indian, Labbai Muslim, Nadar Christian and south Indian Jain) and two are migrants (Gypsy and north Indian Jain) from north India to Tamil Nadu, and 21 are native ethnic groups. Six of the markers we used were monomorphic (HaeIII663, HpaI3592, AluI5176, AluI7025, AluI13262, 9-bp deletion) and five markers were polymorphic (DdeI10394, AluI10397, HinfI12308, HincII13259 and HaeIII16517). Haplogroup frequencies, genetic affinities and admixture analysis are based on the genotype data of polymorphic markers observed in these populations. Haplogroup frequencies indicate that various ethnic groups entered Tamil Nadu during different time periods. Genetic affinities and admixture estimates revealed that the ethnic groups possessing advanced knowledge of farming cluster in a branch (C), and could be the late arrived settlers as agriculture, was introduced to this region at about 5 to 3 thousand years ago. In situ ethnic groups appear to have arisen at various times as a result of the prevailing dominant socio-cultural forces. Hierarchical Hindu caste system created many ethnic groups in the history of its existence; some of them became isolated for considerable period of time. Over all, among Tamil ethnic groups, in spite of caste systems’ rigidity, built in flexibility in the system in the form of hypergamy and hypogamy had allowed maternal gene flow between them.

  2. CO2 capture using fly ash from coal fired power plant and applications of CO2-captured fly ash as a mineral admixture for concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriruang, Chaichan; Toochinda, Pisanu; Julnipitawong, Parnthep; Tangtermsirikul, Somnuk

    2016-04-01

    The utilization of fly ash as a solid sorbent material for CO2 capture via surface adsorption and carbonation reaction was evaluated as an economically feasible CO2 reduction technique. The results show that fly ash from a coal fired power plant can capture CO2 up to 304.7 μmol/g fly ash, consisting of 2.9 and 301.8 μmol/g fly ash via adsorption and carbonation, respectively. The CO2 adsorption conditions (temperature, pressure, and moisture) can affect CO2 capture performance of fly ash. The carbonation of CO2 with free CaO in fly ashes was evaluated and the results indicated that the reaction consumed most of free CaO in fly ash. The fly ashes after CO2 capture were further used for application as a mineral admixture for concrete. Properties such as water requirement, compressive strength, autoclave expansion, and carbonation depth of mortar and paste specimens using fly ash before and after CO2 capture were tested and compared with material standards. The results show that the expansion of mortar specimens using fly ash after CO2 capture was greatly reduced due to the reduction of free CaO content in the fly ash compared to the expansion of specimens using fresh fly ash. There were no significant differences in the water requirement and compressive strength of specimens using fly ash, before and after CO2 capture process. The results from this study can lead to an alternative CO2 capture technique with doubtless utilization of fly ash after CO2 capture as a mineral admixture for concrete.

  3. Material and Structural Performance Evaluations of Hwangtoh Admixtures and Recycled PET Fiber-Added Eco-Friendly Concrete for CO2 Emission Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bon-Min Koo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions and produce an eco-friendly construction material, a type of concrete that uses a minimal amount of cement, yet still retains equivalent properties to ordinary cement concrete, has been developed and studied all over the world. Hwangtoh, a type of red clay broadly deposited around the world, has traditionally been considered an eco-friendly construction material, with bonus advantages of having health and cost benefits. Presently, Hwangtoh is not commonly used as a modern construction material due to properties such as low strength and high rates of shrinkage cracking. Recent studies, however, have shown that Hwangtoh can be used as a mineral admixture to improve the strength of concrete. In addition, polyethylene terephthalate (PET fibers recycled from PET bottle waste can be used to control shrinkage cracks in Hwangtoh concrete. Therefore, in this study, performance verification is conducted on newly developed Hwangtoh concrete mixed with short recycled PET fibers. The results show that Hwangtoh concrete has compressive strength, elastic modulus, and pH properties that are similar to these features in ordinary cement concrete. The properties of carbonation depth and creep strain of Hwangtoh concrete, however, are larger and smaller, respectively, than in ordinary cement concrete. According to flexural tests, reinforced concrete (RC specimens cast with Hwangtoh admixtures (with and without PET fibers possess similar or better capacities than ordinary RC specimens. The addition of PET fibers significantly improves the structural ductility of RC specimens under normal environmental conditions. However, the implementations of the concrete in aggressive environment must be carefully considered, since a previous study result indicates degradation of its durability performance in aggressive environments, such as seawater [1]. The results of this study validate the possibility of using eco

  4. Analysis of Environmental Impact for Concrete Using LCA by Varying the Recycling Components, the Compressive Strength and the Admixture Material Mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehyoung Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is a type of construction material in which cement, aggregate, and admixture materials are mixed. When cement is produced, large amounts of substances that impact the environment are emitted during limestone extraction and clinker manufacturing. Additionally, the extraction of natural aggregate causes soil erosion and ecosystem destruction. Furthermore, in the process of transporting raw materials such as cement and aggregate to a concrete production company, and producing concrete in a batch plant, substances with an environmental impact are emitted into the air and water system due to energy use. Considering the fact that the process of producing concrete causes various environmental impacts, an assessment of various environmental impact categories is needed. This study used a life cycle assessment (LCA to evaluate the environmental impacts of concrete in terms of its global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, ozone depletion potential, photochemical ozone creation potential, and abiotic depletion potential (GWP, AP, EP, ODP, POCP, ADP. The tendency was that the higher the strength of concrete, the higher the GWP, POCP, and ADP indices became, whereas the AP and EP indices became slightly lower. As the admixture mixing ratio of concrete increased, the GWP, AP, ODP, ADP, and POCP decreased, but EP index showed a tendency to increase slightly. Moreover, as the recycled aggregate mixing ratio of concrete increased, the AP, EP, ODP, and ADP decreased, while GWP and POCP increased. The GWP and POCP per unit compressed strength (1 MPa of high strength concrete were found to be about 13% lower than that for its normal strength concrete counterpart. Furthermore, in the case of AP, EP, ODP, and ADP per unit compressed strength (1 MPa, high-strength concrete was found to be about 10%~25% lower than its normal strength counterpart. Among all the environmental impact categories, ordinary cement was found to have

  5. Genetic admixture studies on four in situ evolved, two migrant and twenty-one ethnic populations of Tamil Nadu, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhasini, G; Sonaa, E; Shila, S; Srikumari, C R; Jayaraman, G; Ramesh, A

    2011-08-01

    We analysed the genetic structure of ≈ 1000 samples representing 27 ethnic groups settled in Tamil Nadu, south India, derived from two linguistic families (Dravidians and Indo-Europeans) representing four religious groups (Hinduism, Islam, Christianity and Jainism) using 11 mtDNA markers. Out of 27 ethnic groups, four are in situ populations (Anglo-Indian, Labbai Muslim, Nadar Christian and south Indian Jain) and two are migrants (Gypsy and north Indian Jain) from north India to Tamil Nadu, and 21 are native ethnic groups. Six of the markers we used were monomorphic (HaeIII663, HpaI3592, AluI5176, AluI7025, AluI13262, 9-bp deletion) and five markers were polymorphic (DdeI10394, AluI10397, HinfI12308, HincII13259 and HaeIII16517). Haplogroup frequencies, genetic affinities and admixture analysis are based on the genotype data of polymorphic markers observed in these populations. Haplogroup frequencies indicate that various ethnic groups entered Tamil Nadu during different time periods. Genetic affinities and admixture estimates revealed that the ethnic groups possessing advanced knowledge of farming cluster in a branch (C), and could be the late arrived settlers as agriculture, was introduced to this region at about 5 to 3 thousand years ago. In situ ethnic groups appear to have arisen at various times as a result of the prevailing dominant socio-cultural forces. Hierarchical Hindu caste system created many ethnic groups in the history of its existence; some of them became isolated for considerable period of time. Over all, among Tamil ethnic groups, in spite of caste systems' rigidity, built in flexibility in the system in the form of hypergamy and hypogamy had allowed maternal gene flow between them. PMID:21869467

  6. 含掺合料混凝土水化产物体积分数计算及其影响因素%Calculation of concrete with mineral admixture hydration products volume fraction and its influential factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴福飞; 董双快; 宫经伟; 陈亮亮; 李东生; 侍克斌

    2016-01-01

    Powers theory proposes calculation method for the pure volume of cement hydration products, which does not apply to calculate the volume of cementitious materials with mineral admixture. The formula of cementitious materials volume was proposed that based on the basic principles of cement and mineral admixture hydration, and the proposed method of reliability was verified by the results of Powers theoretical model and volume fraction of cement hydration products. On this basis, the factor such as water-cement ratio, the ratio of admixture and types was further researched for the volumes of cementitious materials hydration products. Mixture in test were designed 2 water-cement ratio (0.30 and 0.40, respectively), two content (20% and 60%, respectively) of mineral admixture, and 3 kinds of mineral admixture (lithium slag, fly ash and steel slag, respectively), forming paste that was stirred according with the designed ratio in 5 mL centrifuge tube in a blender and curing to 1, 7, 14, 28, 60 and 90 d in curing room (temperature was (20±1)℃, humidity was not less than 95%), and then testing reaction extent of cement and mineral admixture (such as fly ash, steel slag. lithium slag) according with the chemical bound water and HCl dissolution method. The results showed that hydration extent of lithium slag, fly ash and steel slag at 28d decreased by 46.63%, 69.56% and 74.82% (P<0.05) when mineral admixture content varied from 20% to 60% and water-cement ratio was 0.30. Hydration extent of cement at 28 d was increased by 7.25% when water-cement ratio increased from 0.30 to 0.40. When mineral admixture content varied from 20% to 60%, hydration extent of lithium slag, fly ash and steel slag at 28 d increased by 24.14% 18.56%, 17.61% and 8.84%, 12.21%, and 29.37% (P<0.05), respectively. In contrast, the influence of the mineral admixture content was bigger than water-cement ratio for the hydration extent of composite cementitious materials. In different water-cement ratio

  7. 高性能混凝土复合剂性能及应用研究%Study on Properties and Application of High Performance Concrete Compound Admixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程朝霞; 余永强; 彭小芹

    2013-01-01

      采用电镜扫描及能谱分析混凝土复合剂的组成,测试了复合剂减水率、强度和复合剂配制混凝土的工作性、力学性能及耐久性,并对使用该复合剂的大体积矿井建设混凝土温度分布进行了ANSYS模拟。结果表明,复合剂为富含SiO2、Al2O3矿物材料和有机物的复合物。复合剂掺量为10%时,配制的混凝土坍落度达到195 mm,1 d、3 d抗压强度可分别达到28 d的48%、78%。渗水高度比基准混凝土降低了49.7%,28 d声速提高了6.2%,回弹值提高了10.3%,孔隙率降低了54.7%,大体积混凝土1 d最高温度达到38℃,7 d时达到46℃,28 d下降到21℃。%Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy spectrum technology to analyze the composition of mine construction high-performance concrete compound admixture. The compound admixture work, mechanical properties and durability were tested and the mass mine construction concrete thermal field was simulated through finite element ANSYS package. The results showed that compound material composition, was rich in silica, aluminium oxide mineral materials and organic additive compound, wherein the optimal compound concrete compressive strength of 1 d and 3 d reached 28 d strength of 48%and 78%, respectively. Compared with the reference concrete, water penetration height reduced by 49.7%, 28 d velocity increased by 6.2%, rebound raised 10.3%, AC impedance testing porosity decreased by 54.7%, ANSYS simulation showed that the maximum temperature of mass concrete reached 38℃in 1 d, 46℃in 7 d, dropped to 21℃in 28 d.

  8. 静脉用药调配中心微生物监测分析%Investigation analysis report of pharmacy intravenous admixture service about microbe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶建林; 华燕

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To inspect the environment and microbe contaminated by such factors as air, object surface and operators in pharmacy intravenous admixture service (PIVAS), in order to find the dangerous causes for the microbial contamination of PIVAS, and take effective measures to control the contamination routes. Methods: The methods of this research included the cultivation and germ -containing quantity counting of air, object surface -microbe and operators' hands in PIVAS. Results: All samples conformed with the microbial contamination control value of hospital disinfection technical specifications, excepted two samples from operators' hands. Conclusion: PIVAS should to pay close attention to all the dangerous factors of microbial contamination and the improvement of existent problems. We should take precautions to control the potential factors of microbial contamination by controlling the preparation condition and to monitor the microbial contamination rate of prepared infusion bag surfaces in PIVAS.%目的:监测静脉用药调配中心(pharmacy intravenous admixture service,PIVAS)空气、物体表面、操作人员等环境和环节微生物污染情况,寻找PIVAS 微生物污染的危险因素,并采取有效措施控制PIVAS 微生物污染的途径.方法:通过细菌培养及含菌量测定,对PIVAS 分别进行空气培养、物体表面、操作人员手部采样,进行细菌培养.结果:本次检测结果有配制人员手部取样的两只样本高于规定的微生物污染控制值,其他均符合标准.结论:PIVAS 应充分重视微生物污染的危险因素,改进存在问题.通过环境与环节的控制预防微生物污染;通过监测PIVAS 已配制静脉输液药袋表面微生物污染率,控制引起院内感染的潜在因素.

  9. The Laterite Nickel Ore Smelting Slag Used as Cement Admixture%江西某红土镍矿冶炼炉渣作水泥混合材

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段光福; 刘万超; 陈湘清; 于延芬

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of applying the laterite nickel ore smelting slag as the admixture of cement is analyzed. The result shows that the slag radioactivity and leaching toxicity are far lower than the limit value of national standard, without any hazards. The slag belongs to the common industrial waste solid and can be used as the raw building materials that not affect the product quality. It has potential hydraulic property with qualified pozzolanic property, and it can be used as active admixture. After stabilizing treatment, the cement mixed with the slag has a qualified autoclave expansion. The cement-mortar strength gradually decreased with the increasing of the slag content. SEM images and XRD patterns of the specimens of cement pastes without the slag and mixing with 30% slag at 28 d are analyzed,and the reason for affecting the property of the specimens of cement pastes is pointed out.%研究了江西某红土镍矿冶炼炉渣作为水泥混合材使用的可行性.研究结果表明:炉渣放射性和浸出毒性远小于国家标准限值,不具有危险性,属于一般工业固体废物,作为建筑材料原料不会影响产品使用;炉渣火山灰活性合格,具有潜在的水硬性,是一种活性混合材;经稳定化处理后,掺加炉渣的水泥压蒸安定性合格,随着炉渣掺量的增加,水泥胶砂强度逐渐降低;对不掺炉渣和掺入30%炉渣的净浆28 d试块的XRD图谱和SEM图谱进行了分析,指出了对净浆试块性能产生影响的原因.

  10. On exploration for C45 pumping concrete issue with polycarboxylate as admixture%掺聚羧酸盐系外加剂的C45泵送混凝土问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琪; 李晓峰

    2012-01-01

    针对实际施工中掺聚羧酸外加剂的C45泵送混凝土发粘、坍落度损失较快的问题,结合我省现有商品混凝土搅拌站所用原材料、生产工艺,提出了一条有效提高掺聚羧酸外加剂的高标号混凝土和易性的有效途径。%According to some problems of C45 pumping concrete issue with polycarboxylate as admixture, such as stickiness and fast slump loss, the paper points out an effective channel to improve the workability of the high mark concrete with polycarboxylate as admixture by combining with the raw materials and production craft of current commercial concrete in Shanxi.

  11. Thermoelectric behavior of carbon fiber reinforced lightweight concrete with mineral admixtures%炭纤维增强轻质矿粉混凝土的热电行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahar Demirel; Salih Yazicioglu

    2008-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced concrete can be used to sense temperature owing to the Seebeck effect caused by the p-type conductivity of short carbon fibers. Both the temperature sensing ability of the carbon fiber reinforced lightweight concrete and the influence of mineral admixtures on the Seebeck effect were investigated by measuring the thermo electric power of six Portland cement-based concretes with or without carbon fibers or mineral admixtures (fly ash, silica fume). It was found that the carbon fiber reinforced lightweight concretes had a Seebeck effect similar to the carbon fiber reinforced normal concrete, but their Seebeck coefficients were decreased by mineral admixtures. Carbon fiber reinforced lightweight concrete with mineral admixtures can be used as a thermal sensor in buildings.%炭纤维增强混凝土能用来感知温度,其因在于短炭纤维的P-型传导性引起的塞贝克(Seebeck)效应所致.通过测量添加炭纤维或矿质掺和物(飞灰、硅土粉)前后六种波特兰水泥基混凝土的热电功率,研究了炭纤维增强轻质混凝土热敏的能力及其矿质掺合物对Seebeck效应的影响.结果表明: 炭纤维增强轻质混凝土具有类似于炭纤维增强标准混凝土的Seebeck效应,只是Seebeck系数因掺合了矿粉而减低.掺有矿粉的炭纤维增强轻质混凝土可用作建筑物的热传感器.

  12. Application of high performance polycarboxylate concrete admixtures in production of PHC pile%聚羧酸高性能减水剂在PHC管桩生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锦光; 王庆军; 黄红建

    2009-01-01

    The QL-PC5 type of high performance polycarboxylate concrete admixture is studied in the production of prestress high-strength concrete pile with their characteristics of performance.%阐述了QL-PC5型聚羧酸高性能减水剂在预应力高强混凝土管桩生产中的应用研究及管桩的性能特点.

  13. 不同内掺材料自密实混凝土的研究现状%Current Status of the Research on Self-compacting Concrete with Different Admixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖良丽; 刘鸿明; 骆恒

    2015-01-01

    自密实混凝土内掺材料不同不仅影响新拌混凝土的工作性,而且影响硬化混凝土的力学性和耐久性。简要介绍了自密实混凝土的定义及特点,讨论了近年来自密实混凝土内掺材料的发展概况。较详细综述了不同内掺材料自密实混凝土性能研究的最新成果。在此基础上,对内掺材料在自密实混凝土中的研究前景进行了展望。%The different admixtures of self-compacting concrete influence not only the workability of fresh concrete but also the mechanical properties and durability of hardened concrete.The definition and characteristic of self-compac-ting concrete are briefly introduced.The development surveys of self-compacting concrete admixtures in recent years are discussed.The latest results of the property research on self-compacting concrete are summarized.On the basis, the research prospects of admixtures in self-compacting concrete are outlined.

  14. Effect of air entraining admixture on mechanical properties and durability of coarse porous concrete%引气剂对大孔混凝土力学性能及耐久性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蔚

    2012-01-01

    The addition of air entraining admixture could improve durability of ordinary concrete effectively, while the effect on coarse porous concrete is not obvious. The article describe the reseach on the effect of air entraining admixture on mechanical properties and durability of coarse porous con- crete. The result shows that the compressive strength and resistance properties to freeze--thaw could be improved with the appropriate amount of air entraining admixture by testing.%引气剂能有效改善普通混凝土的耐久性.但对大孔混凝土性能的影响不明确。本文通过试验,研究不同掺量引气剂对大孔混凝土力学性能及耐久性能的影响。结果表明,适量的引气剂能够增强大孔混凝土的抗压强度和改善抗冻性能。

  15. 掺合料对活性粉末混凝土性能的影响%Effect of Admixture on Mechanical Properties of Reactive Powder Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩宇; 李俊毅; 王娜; 苏忠纯; 张鹏

    2013-01-01

      活性粉末混凝土具有较高的强度、韧性和耐久性,在一些领域得到很好的应用。但是目前对活性粉末混凝土的研究主要是采用蒸汽养护的方法,蒸汽养护费用高,工艺复杂,不适宜工地使用。文章采用标准养护方法,研究不同掺合料的种类和掺量对活性粉末混凝土力学性能的影响情况。%Reactive powder concrete (RPC) with high strength,toughness and durability,which has been a very good ap-plication in some areas. But the study on reactive powder concrete is mainly the application of steam curing method at pre-sent; steam curing is high cost and complex process, not suitable for the use of the construction site. This paper uses the standard curing method, studies effects on the mechanical properties of reactive powder concrete by different types and dosage admixture.

  16. Experimental and numerical study on the dynamics of a μs helium plasma gun discharge with various amounts of N2 admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Anne; Darny, Thibault; Robert, Eric; Pechereau, Francois; Viegas, Pedro; Pouvesle, Jean-Michel

    2015-09-01

    These last years, atmospheric pressure plasma jets formed by pulsed helium discharges ignited in thin dielectric tubes have been extensively studied due to their potential for biomedical applications. So far, most experiments have been dedicated to the study of the plasma plume. For endoscopic treatments, it is also important to better understand and optimize the propagation of discharges in long dielectric tubes as catheters. First we present an experimental and numerical study on the dynamics of a μs helium plasma discharge with N2 admixture in a long dielectric tube. We compare the velocity of the discharge front for various amounts of N2 and different applied voltages and show a good agreement between experiments and simulations. Second, we compare time-resolved measurements and simulations of longitudinal and radial electric fields associated with plasma propagation in the dielectric tube and in the plasma plume. It is interesting to note that measurements obtained with a probe located outside the dielectric tube are in excellent agreement with simulations. This allows to infer from simulations the time evolution of the electric field on the discharge axis which is a key parameter for applications. The authors acknowledge the computational resources of the Mesocentre of Ecole Centrale Paris.

  17. Pressure-Dependent Base-Wavefunction Admixture and Lifetime of R1 State of La3Lu2Ga3O12:Cr3+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zheng-Jie; MA Dong-Ping

    2006-01-01

    As a key factor leading to the pressure-dependent R1-line-shift reversal and R1-state lifetime, at 10 K,the pressure-dependent variation of mixing-degree of |t22(3T1)e4T2> and |t322E> base-wavefunctions in the wavefunction of R1 state of LLGG:Cr3+ has been calculated and analyzed. From this, the physical origin of the pressure-dependent R1-line-shift reversal has been revealed. Furthermore, by using the pressure-dependent values of the sum of all square mixing-coefficients of|t22 (3T1)e4T2> in the wavefunction of R1 state, the lifetimes of Ri state of LLGG:Cr3+ at various pressures have been calculated, which are in good agreement with observed results. The quantum anticrossing effect between t322E and t22(3T1)e4T2 levels due to both spin-orbital interaction and electron-phonon interaction is remarkable,which is related to the admixture of |t22(3T1)e4T2> and |t32E> as well as the low-high crystal-field transition.

  18. Corona discharge experiments in admixtures of N{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}: a laboratory simulation of Titan's atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, G; Skalny, J D; Klas, M; Zahoran, M [Department of Experimental Physics, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina F-2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); Mason, N J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Open University, Walton Hall, MK7 6AA, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom); Vladoiu, R; Manole, M [Ovidius University Constanta, B - dul Mamaia 124, 900527 Constanta (Romania)], E-mail: horeszka@gmail.com

    2009-08-15

    A positive corona discharge fed by a N{sub 2} : CH{sub 4} mixture (98 : 2) at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature has been studied as a laboratory mimic of the chemical processes occurring in the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. In situ measurements of UV and IR transmission spectra within the discharge have shown that the main chemical product is C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, produced by dissociation of CH{sub 4}, with small but significant traces of ethane and HCN, all species that have been detected in Titan's atmosphere. A small amount (0.2%) of CH{sub 4} was decomposed after 12 min of treatment requiring an average energy of 2.7 kWh g{sup -1}. After 14 min the discharge was terminated due to the formation of a solid yellow deposit on the central wire electrode. Such a deposit is similar to that observed in other discharges and is believed to be an analogue of the aerosol and dust observed in Titan's atmosphere and is composed of chemical species commonly known as 'tholins'. We have also explored the electrical properties of the discharge. The admixture of methane into nitrogen caused an increase in the onset voltage of the discharge and consequently led to a reduction in the measured discharge current.

  19. 外加剂对石膏制品性能影响的研究%Research on influence of admixture on performance of gypsum products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚俊; 丁益

    2012-01-01

    The paper mainly researches influence of adding the activators and the hydrophobic admixture on the performance of the gypsum prod- ucts, and concludes the optimal allocation scheme for the waterproof gypsum block is the compressive strength is 3.40 MPa and its softening co- efficient is 0.789, as the water cement ratio is 0.68, the mixing amount of the sodium sulfate is 1% and the silicone hydrophobic agent is 0.5% by the tests on the flexural and compressive strength and the comparison of the soften coefficients.%主要研究了激发剂与憎水剂的加入对石膏制品性能的影响,通过抗折、抗压强度的测定及软化系数的比较得出防水石膏砌块的最佳配置方案为水灰比0.68,硫酸钠掺量l%,有机硅憎水剂掺量0.5%时,它的抗压强度是3.40MPa,软化系数为0.789。关键词:外加剂,石膏制品,水灰比,抗压强度,抗折强度,软化系数

  20. The potential of SNP-based PCR-RFLP capillary electrophoresis analysis to authenticate and detect admixtures of Mediterranean olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazakos, Christos; Khanfir, Emna; Aoun, Mariem; Spano, Thodhoraq; Zein, Zeina El; Chalak, Lamis; Riachy, Milad El; Abou-Sleymane, Gretta; Ali, Sihem Ben; Grati Kammoun, Naziha; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    Authentication and traceability of extra virgin olive oil is a challenging research task due to the complexity of fraudulent practices. In this context, the monovarietal olive oils of Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) and Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) require new tests and cutting edge analytical technologies to detect mislabeling and misleading origin. Toward this direction, DNA-based technologies could serve as a complementary to the analytical techniques assay. Single nucleotide polymorphisms are ideal molecular markers since they require short PCR analytical targets which are a prerequisite for forensic applications in olive oil sector. In the present study, a small number of polymorphic SNPs were used with an SNP-based PCR-RFLP capillary electrophoresis platform to discriminate six out of 13 monovarietal olive oils of Mediterranean origin from three different countries, Greece, Tunisia, and Lebanon. Moreover, the high sensitivity of capillary electrophoresis in combination with the DNA extraction protocol lowered the limit of detection to 10% in an admixture of Tsounati in a Koroneiki olive oil matrix. PMID:26864388

  1. Spatial variability of throughfall in a stand of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) with deciduous admixture as influenced by canopy cover and stem distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Anna; Boczoń, Andrzej; Hildebrand, Robert; Polkowska, Żaneta

    2016-07-01

    Vegetation cover affects the amount of precipitation, its chemical composition and its spatial distribution, and this may have implications for the distribution of water, nutrients and contaminants in the subsurface soil layer. The aim of this study was a detailed diagnosis of the spatio-temporal variability in the amount of throughfall (TF) and its chemical components in a 72-year-old pine stand with an admixture of oak and birch. The spatio-temporal variability in the amount of TF water and the concentrations and deposition of the TF components were studied. The components that are exchanged in canopy (H+, K, Mg, Mn, DOC, NH4+) were more variable than the components whose TF deposition is the sum of wet and dry (including gas) deposition and which undergo little exchange in the canopy (Na, Cl, NO3-, SO42-). The spatial distribution was temporally stable, especially during the leafed period. This study also investigated the effect of the selected pine stand characteristics on the spatial distribution of throughfall and its chemical components; the characteristics included leaf area index (LAI), the proportion of the canopy covered by deciduous species and pine crowns, and the distance from the nearest tree trunk. The LAI measured during the leafed and leafless periods had the greatest effect on the spatial distribution of TF deposition. No relationship was found between the spatial distribution of the amount of TF water and (i) the LAI; (ii) the canopy cover of broadleaf species or pines; or (iii) the distance from the trunks.

  2. Effect of CO{sub 2}-admixture on the catalytic performance of Ni-Nb-M-O catalysts in oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane to ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, A.; Kalevaru, V.N.; Martin, A. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Leibniz-Institut fuer Katalyse e.V.; Hari Kumar, A. Sri; Lingaiah, N.; Prasad, P.S. Sai [Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad (India). Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Div.

    2012-07-01

    In this work, we report the synthesis, characterization and application of Ni-Nb-M-O catalysts with different promoters (M = Cr, Mo, W) for the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of ethane to ethylene. Ni:Nb:M ratio was kept at 1:0.176:0.1 (atomic ratio). The catalysts were calcined at 450 C/5h/air. Catalytic tests were carried out in a fixed bed quartz reactor in the temperature range from 300 to 450 C, with a fixed W/F (1.02 g/cm{sup 3} . s{sup -1}) but with changing mole ratios of C{sub 2}H{sub 6}:O{sub 2}:CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} (1:0-1.4:1.4-0:2). The product analysis was made off-line using GC equipped with FID. It is evident that the CO{sub 2}-admixture to the reactant feed caused a slight decrease in the conversion of ethane but considerably improved the selectivity of ethylene. Among the three promoters of the same group applied, Cr exhibited superior performance compared to other two. This means increase in d-character of transition metal (i.e. from 3d to 5d) has shown an adverse effect on the conversion of ethane and selectivity of ethylene. (orig.)

  3. A genome-wide admixture scan identifies MYH9 as a candidate locus associated with non-diabetic end stage renal disease in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Kao, WH; Klag, Michael J; Meoni, Lucy A; Reich, David; Berthier-Schaad, Yvette; Li, Man; Coresh, Josef; Patterson, Nick; Tandon, Arti; Powe, Neil R; Fink, Nancy E; Sadler, John H; Weir, Matthew R; Abboud, Hanna E; Adler, Sharon; Divers, Jasmin; Iyengar, Sudha K; Freedman, Barry I; Kimmel, Paul L; Knowler, William C; Kohn, Orly F; Kramp, Kristopher; Leehey, David J; Nicholas, Susanne; Pahl, Madeleine; Schelling, Jeffrey R; Sedor, John R; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Winkler, Cheryl A; Smith, Michael W.; Parekh, Rulan S.

    2008-01-01

    End stage renal disease (ESRD) has a four times higher incidence in African Americans compared to European Americans. This led to the hypothesis that susceptibility alleles for ESRD have a higher frequency in West African than European gene pool. We performed a genome-wide admixture scan in 1,372 ESRD cases and 806 controls and demonstrated a highly significant association between excess African ancestry and non-diabetic ESRD (LOD 5.70) but not diabetic ESRD (LOD 0.47) on chromosome 22q12. Each copy of the European ancestral allele conferred a relative risk of 0.50 (95% credible interval 0.39 – 0.63) compared to African ancestry. Multiple common SNPs (allele frequency ranging from 0.2 to 0.6) in the gene that encodes non-muscle myosin heavy chain type II isoform A (MYH9) were associated with 2-4 times greater risk of non-diabetic ESRD and accounted for a large proportion of the excess risk of ESRD observed in African compared to European Americans. PMID:18794854

  4. 静脉药物配置中心退药原因分析%Analysis of the cause of drug withdrawal in Pharmacy intravenous admixture services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丰

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析医院静脉药物配置中心退药现状及原因,促进合理用药.方法 药师通过审查静脉药物配置中心处方,对退药处方进行整理分析.结果 退药原因主要有医生因素、护士因素、工作人员因素、患者因素、药物因素、处方信息因素等.结论 药师通过静脉药物配置中心对退药原因进行分析,降低成本,提高药师的工作效率,减少差错的发生,充分体现了药师的价值.%Objective To analyze the situation and the causes of drug withdrawal in Pharmacy intravenous admixture services(PIVAS) ,to promote the rational drug use in our hospital. Methods The prescriptions of drug withdrawal in PIV AS were collected and analyzed. Results The main reasons for drug withdrawal were the doctor factors, the nurse factors, staff factors, patient factors, drug factors, prescribing information factors. Conclusion Analysis on the reasons of drug withdrawal in PIV AS by pharmacist can reduce the cost, improve working efficiency of pharmacists, reduce the error rate,thus fully embody the value of pharmacist.

  5. Student Award Finalist: Reactive species generated in atmospheric-pressure plasmas with water admixtures for biomedical applications: Absolute measurements and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Sandra; Bredin, J.; West, A.; Niemi, K.; Dedrick, J.; de Oliveira, N.; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.; Foucher, M.; Booth, J.-P.; Wagenaars, E.; Gans, T.; O'Connell, D.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the production of atomic oxygen (O), hydroxyl (OH) and atomic hydrogen (H) in an rf atmospheric-pressure plasma operated in helium with water admixtures. These species, and their longer-lived products, are known to influence biological systems. Absolute measurements of species densities are required to develop these plasmas for therapeutics. Accurate determination of radical densities is challenging at elevated pressures in complex gas mixtures due to collisional quenching. We measure radical densities using VUV high-resolution Fourier-transform absorption spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation, UV broadband absorption spectroscopy, and picosecond two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (ps-TALIF). These diagnostics are the most suitable techniques allowing direct, absolute and 2-dimensional spatial resolution measurements at atmospheric pressure. Ps-TALIF also enables measurements of the lifetimes of laser-excited states of O and H, providing insight into the chemical kinetics and ambient air diffusion into the plasma jet region. Good agreement has been found between the measurements and a numerical chemical-kinetic simulation. Funding from the UK EPSRC (EP/K018388/1 & EP/H003797/1), the York-Paris Low Temperature Plasma Collaborative Research Centre and financial state aid managed by the laboratory of excellence Plas@Par (ANR-11-IDEX-0004-02).

  6. Numerical and experimental study of the dynamics of a μs helium plasma gun discharge with various amounts of N2 admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Anne; Darny, Thibault; Pechereau, François; Pouvesle, Jean-Michel; Viegas, Pedro; Iséni, Sylvain; Robert, Eric

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a combined 2D numerical and experimental study of the influence of {{\\text{N}}2} admixture on the dynamics of a He-{{\\text{N}}2} discharge in the 10 cm long dielectric tube of a plasma gun set-up. First, the comparison between experiments and simulations is carried out on the ionization front propagation velocity in the tube. The importance of taking into account a detailed kinetic scheme for the He-{{\\text{N}}2} mixture in the simulations to obtain a good agreement with the experiments is put forward. For the μs driven plasma gun, the two- and three-body Penning reactions occurring in the plasma column behind the ionization front, are shown to play a key role on the discharge dynamics. In the experiments and simulations, the significant influence of the amplitude of the applied voltage on the ionization front propagation velocity is observed. As the amount of {{\\text{N}}2} varies, simulation results show that the ionization front velocity, depends on a complex coupling between the kinetics of the discharge, the photoionization and the 2D structure of the discharge in the tube. Finally, the time evolution of axial and radial components of the electric field measured by an electro-optic probe set outside the tube are compared with simulation results. A good agreement is obtained on both components of the electric field. In the tube, simulations show that the magnitude of the axial electric field on the discharge axis depends weakly on the amount of {{\\text{N}}2} conversely to the magnitude of the off-axis peak electric field. Both, simulations and first measurements in the tube or within the plasma plume show peak electric fields of the order of 45 kV·cm-1.

  7. Genome-wide set of SNPs reveals evidence for two glacial refugia and admixture from postglacial recolonization in an alpine ungulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Zijian; Hall, Jocelyn C; Jex, Bill; Hegel, Troy M; Coltman, David W

    2016-08-01

    Past glaciation events have played a major role in shaping the genetic diversity and distribution of wild sheep in North America. The advancement of glaciers can isolate populations in ice-free refugia, where they can survive until the recession of ice sheets. The major Beringian refugium is thought to have held thinhorn sheep (Ovis dalli) populations during times of glacial advance. While isolation in the major refugium can account for much of the genetic and morphological diversity seen in extant thinhorn sheep populations, mounting evidence suggests the persistence of populations in smaller minor refugia. We investigated the refugial origins of thinhorn sheep using ~10 000 SNPs obtained via a cross-species application of the domestic sheep ovine HD BeadChip to genotype 52 thinhorn sheep and five bighorn sheep (O. canadensis) samples. Phylogenetic inference revealed a distinct lineage of thinhorn sheep inhabiting British Columbia, which is consistent with the survival of a group of thinhorn sheep in a minor refugium separate from the Beringian refugium. Isolation in separate glacial refugia probably mediated the evolution of the two thinhorn sheep subspecies, the white Dall's sheep (O. d. dalli), which persisted in Beringia, and the dark Stone's sheep (O. d. stonei), which utilized the minor refugium. We also found the first genetic evidence for admixture between sheep from different glacial refugia in south-central Yukon as a consequence of post glacial expansion and recolonization. These results show that glaciation events can have a major role in the evolution of species inhabiting previously glaciated habitats and the need to look beyond established refugia when examining the evolutionary history of such species.

  8. Male ancestry structure and interethnic admixture in African-descent communities from the Amazon as revealed by Y-chromosome Strs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palha, Teresinha de Jesus Brabo Ferreira; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Elzemar Martins; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea; Guerreiro, João Farias; de Moura, Luciene Soraya Souza; Santos, Sidney

    2011-03-01

    Some genetic markers on both the Y chromosome and mtDNA are highly polymorphic and population-specific in humans, representing useful tools for reconstructing the past history of populations with poor historical records. Such lack of information is usually true in the case of recent African-descent populations of the New World founded by fugitive slaves throughout the slavery period in the Americas, particularly in Brazil, where those communities are known as quilombos. Aiming to recover male-derived ethnic structure of nine quilombos from the Brazilian Amazon, a total of 300 individuals, belonging to Mazagão Velho (N = 24), Curiaú (N = 48), Mazagão (N = 36), Trombetas (N = 20), Itacoã (N = 22), Saracura (N = 46), Marajó (N = 58), Pitimandeua (N = 26), and Pontal (N = 20), were investigated for nine Y-STRs (DYS393, DYS19, DYS390, DYS389 I, DYS389 II, DYS392, DYS391, DYS385 I/II). From the 169 distinct haplotypes obtained, 120 were singletons. The results suggest the West African coast as the main origin of slaves brought to Brazil (54% of male contribution); the European contribution was high (41%), while the Amerindian's was low (5%). Those results contrast with previous mtDNA data that showed high Amerindian female contribution (46.6%) in African-descent populations. AMOVA suggests that the genetic differentiation among the quilombos is mainly influenced by admixture with European. However, when restricting AMOVA to African-specific haplotypes, low differentiation was detected, suggesting great genetic homogeneity of the African founding populations and/or a later homogenization by intense slave trade inside Brazil. PMID:21302273

  9. Influence of drift and admixture on population structure of American black bears (Ursus americanus) in the Central Interior Highlands, USA, 50 years after translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Emily E; Kristensen, Thea V; Wilton, Clay M; Lyda, Sara B; Noyce, Karen V; Holahan, Paula M; Leslie, David M; Beringer, Jeff; Belant, Jerrold L; White, Don; Eggert, Lori S

    2014-05-01

    Bottlenecks, founder events, and genetic drift often result in decreased genetic diversity and increased population differentiation. These events may follow abundance declines due to natural or anthropogenic perturbations, where translocations may be an effective conservation strategy to increase population size. American black bears (Ursus americanus) were nearly extirpated from the Central Interior Highlands, USA by 1920. In an effort to restore bears, 254 individuals were translocated from Minnesota, USA, and Manitoba, Canada, into the Ouachita and Ozark Mountains from 1958 to 1968. Using 15 microsatellites and mitochondrial haplotypes, we observed contemporary genetic diversity and differentiation between the source and supplemented populations. We inferred four genetic clusters: Source, Ouachitas, Ozarks, and a cluster in Missouri where no individuals were translocated. Coalescent models using approximate Bayesian computation identified an admixture model as having the highest posterior probability (0.942) over models where the translocation was unsuccessful or acted as a founder event. Nuclear genetic diversity was highest in the source (AR = 9.11) and significantly lower in the translocated populations (AR = 7.07-7.34; P = 0.004). The Missouri cluster had the lowest genetic diversity (AR = 5.48) and served as a natural experiment showing the utility of translocations to increase genetic diversity following demographic bottlenecks. Differentiation was greater between the two admixed populations than either compared to the source, suggesting that genetic drift acted strongly over the eight generations since the translocation. The Ouachitas and Missouri were previously hypothesized to be remnant lineages. We observed a pretranslocation remnant signature in Missouri but not in the Ouachitas.

  10. The role of SiO2 nanoparticles and ground granulated blast furnace slag admixtures on physical, thermal and mechanical properties of self compacting concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Nanoparticles in concrete. → Ground granulated blast furnace slag as concrete's binder. → Mechanical properties of concrete specimens by non-traditional admixtures. - Abstract: In this work, strength assessments and percentage of water absorption of self compacting concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag and SiO2 nanoparticles as binder have been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impacts the physical and mechanical properties of concrete at early ages of curing, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt% at later ages. SiO2 nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to concrete with the optimum content of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens were measured. SiO2 nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3.0 wt% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH)2 amount at the early ages and hence increase strength and improve the resistance to water permeability of concrete specimens. The increased SiO2 nanoparticles' content by more than 3.0 wt%, causes the reduced strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH)2 content required for C-S-H gel formation. Several empirical relationships have been presented to predict flexural and split tensile strength of the specimens by means of the corresponding compressive strength at a certain age of curing. Accelerated peak appearance in conduction calorimetry tests, more weight loss in thermogravimetric analysis and more rapid appearance of the peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results, all indicate that SiO2 nanoparticles could improve mechanical and physical properties of the concrete specimens.

  11. To Shorten the Time of Admixture of Temporary Medical Order in PIVAS Using Six Sigma Method%采用六西格玛方法缩短PIVAS临时医嘱配置时间

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单慧亭; 米文杰; 刘冰; 陈迹

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To shorten the time of admixture of temporary medical order in PIVAS,and to guarantee the timely treatment of patients. METHODS:Through the definition,measurement,analysis,improvement and control ie. five steps of six sigma method,the consumed time of each link of temporary medical order admixture in PIVAS was analyzed in our hospital during Mar. 9th-22nd in 2015 (before improvement);key points were found out,and relevant measures were formulated and improved;the consumed time of each link of temporary medical order admixture in PIVAS was collected again during Jul. 27th-Aug. 9th in 2015 in order to evaluate improvement effects. RESULTS:It was quality key point that total length of temporary medical order ad-mixture which included injection sequence,label checking,preparation,package rechecking,drug distribution and so on,was con-trolled within 120 min;through formulating and implementing various measures as improving information system,adjusting prepa-ration sequence and shunting staff posts flexibly,the total time of first 3 batches of temporary order admixture were 120,98 and 77 min after improvement,shortening by about 30,50 and 55 min respectively,compared with before improvement (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS:The six sigma method has shortened the time of temporary order medical admixture in our hospital. The formulat-ed measures are effective and feasible.%目的:缩短静脉药物集中调配中心(PIVAS)临时医嘱配置时间,保障患者及时用药.方法:应用六西格玛方法的定义、测量、分析、改善、控制五步法,对我院2015年3月9-22日(改进前)PIVAS临时医嘱工作流程中的各环节耗时进行分析,找出关键控制点,制订相关措施并改进;再次收集分析2015年7月27日-8月9日(改进后)的临时医嘱工作流程中的各环节耗时,评价改进效果.结果:将工作流程中的分配输液批次、核对贴签、配制、复核包装、药品配送等环节耗时总长控制在120 min内确定为质

  12. Influence of Inorganic Admixture on Performance of Sticky Rice-Lime Mortar and Its Mechanism%无机添加剂对糯米灰浆性能影响及机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李祖光; 方世强; 魏国锋; 张秉坚

    2013-01-01

    采用扫描电镜(SEM)和X射线衍射(XRD)等分析技术,探讨了硫酸铝、明矾和工业石膏对糯米灰浆性能的影响及作用机理.结果显示:硫酸铝对于改善糯米灰浆的力学性能、耐冻融性和耐水性均有较大帮助;明矾对糯米灰浆的改善主要表现在力学性能方面;工业石膏对糯米灰浆在力学性能和耐候性方面均未有明显改善;3种添加剂对减缓和减少糯米灰浆收缩均表现出良好的效果.在实际应用中,建议采用一定比例的硫酸铝作为糯米灰浆的添加剂.%The influence of admixtures(aluminum sulfate,alum,gypsum) on properties of traditional sticky rice-lime mortar and its scientific mechanism was studied by means of SEM and XRD.Results indicate that addition of aluminum sulfate improves the mechanical property,freeze-thaw resistance and water resistance of sticky rice-lime mortar significantly.Whereas the addition of alum mostly improves the mechanical property of sticky rice-lime mortar.Gypsum has few contribution to improvement of mechanical property and weather resistance of sticky rice-lime mortar.All of these three admixtures have favorable effect on slowing down and reducing the shrink of sticky rice-lime mortar.Aluminum sulfate should be used as admixtures for sticky rice-lime mortar in conservation of cultural relics.

  13. 持续质量改进在静脉用药调配中心的应用%Application of Continuous Quality Improvement in Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅蘋; 苏素红; 朱光辉; 温润姑; 张琼; 张丽萍

    2013-01-01

    In response to the weaknesses in the original management of Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Services (PIVAS), our hospital has introduced Continuous Quality Control (CQI) as well as manifold reforms and improvements since 2011. The results showed that CQI not only improved PIVAS pharmacists and nurses' risk awareness and admixture capabilities, but also significantly reduced admixture errors. Internal errors made by pharmacists were lowered to 0.01%, a reduction of 36.6%, while external errors by nurses to 0.02‰, a reduction of 28.5%. The conduct ensured patient's safe use of intravenous drugs and promoted patient's satisfaction and healthcare quality.%针对PIVAS静脉药物配置中原有管理方法的不足,我院自2011年以来通过引入持续质量改进管理理念及多方面多环节的改革及完善,结果表明实施持续质量改进后不仅增强了PIVAS药师与配置护士风险意识与安全配置能力,而且静脉药物配置差错发生率明显降低,药师摆药内差为0.01%,降低了36.6%,护士配置外差为0.02‰,降低了28.5%。从而保障了患者静脉用药安全,提高了服务患者满意度和医疗护理质量。

  14. The effect of the pairing interaction on the energies of isobar analogue resonances in {sup 112-124}Sb and isospin admixture in {sup 100-124}Sn isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babacan, Tahsin [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey); Salamov, Djavad [Department of Physics, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Kuecuekbursa, Atalay [Department of Physics, Dumlupinar University, Kuetahya (Turkey); Babacan, Halil [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey); Maras, Ismail [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey); Aygoer, Hasan A [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey); Uenal, Arslan [Department of Physics, Dumlupinar University, Kuetahya (Turkey)

    2004-06-01

    In the present study, the effect of the pairing interaction and the isovector correlation between nucleons on the properties of the isobar analogue resonances (IAR) in {sup 112-124}Sb isotopes and the isospin admixture in {sup 100-124}Sn isotopes is investigated within the framework of the proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pnQRPA). The form of the interaction strength parameter is related to the shell-model potential by restoring the isotopic invariance of the nuclear part of the total Hamiltonian. In this respect, the isospin admixtures in the {sup 100-124}Sn isotopes are calculated, and the dependence of the differential cross section and the volume integral J{sub F} for the Sn({sup 3}He,t)Sb reactions at E({sup 3}He) =200 MeV occurring by the excitation of IAR on mass number A is examined. Our results show that the calculated value for the isospin mixing in the {sup 100}Sn isotope is in good agreement with Colo et al's estimates (4-5%), and the obtained values for the volume integral change within the error range of the value reported by Fujiwara et al (53 {+-} 5 MeV fm{sup 3}). Moreover, it is concluded that although the differential cross section of the isobar analogue resonance for the ({sup 3}He,t) reactions is not sensitive to pairing correlations between nucleons, a considerable effect on the isospin admixtures in N {approx} Z isotopes can be seen with the presence of these correlations.

  15. 集束化管理在静脉用药调配中心预防医院感染的应用%Application of Cluster Management in Nosocomial Infection Prevention for Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅蘋; 苏素红; 戈霓云; 张琼; 朱光辉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To avoid nosocomial infection in the pharmacy intravenous admixture services (PIVAS), our hospital took cluster management strategy on PIVAS, nosocomial infection control department, logistic engineering department and specialized company.Method The combination of self-examination, random check by nosocomial infection control department with equipment maintenance and purification environment by specialized company were adopted to find out the problems, after which cause analysis and quality improvement were conducted.ResultPIVAS infection control measures were made, which helped the inspection and monitoring indicators meet the standard.Conclusion PIVAS nosocomial infection control was improved by cluster management strategy, which ensured patients' intravenous medication safety.

  16. 精细化管理在静脉药物配置中心作业中的应用%Application of Delicacy Management in Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽华; 范军

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacy intravenous admixture services (PIVAS) aims at improving infusion quality and efficiency. Delicacy management is conducive to improving PIVAS effects by specifying critical PIVAS steps with targeted management.%静脉药物配置中心作业的目的在于提高输液质量,提高输液配制效率,在PIVAS引入精细化管理,将其中关键步骤进行细分,实现针对性的管理,可以有效提升PIVAS作业的效果。

  17. 外加剂对混凝土TSA腐蚀的抑制作用%Inhibiting Effect of Admixtures on TSA of Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨长辉; 班克成; 刘本万

    2011-01-01

    The cement paste added with chemical admixtures is kept out (5± 2)℃, 5% in mass MgSO4 corrosion solution in 300 d of immersion. Its visual appearance, compressive strength and erosion products are studied. Its erosion products are analyzed by the way of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). It shows that the calcium formate can delay the TSA of harden cement paste to occur, but can not stop the development of TSA. The resistance of mortar to TSA increases with the raise of calcium formate in the range of 0.3% to 0. 7%. The reason why barium nitrate can inhibit the formation of thaumasite is that it can combine with SO2-4 which is essential for the forming of thaumasite. Thus, the TSA of mortar is reduced in degree. The harden cement paste shows good resistance to TSA when barium nitrate is approximately 1 % of cement.%研究了掺加化学外加剂的水泥净浆试件在(5±2)℃、质量分数5%的硫酸镁溶液中浸泡300d的外观变化、强度发展及侵蚀产物,采用X射线衍射(XRD)、傅立叶转换红外光谱(FTIR)等方法分析了侵蚀产物的组成.结果表明:甲酸钙能延缓水泥石发生TSA腐蚀,但不能阻止TSA发生,在0.3%~0.7%范围内,随着甲酸钙掺量的增加,水泥石抗TSA腐蚀的能力增强.硝酸钡能有效抑制水泥石中碳硫硅钙石的生成,原因是硝酸钡能结合生成碳硫硅钙石所需的SO42-,从而降低了水泥石发生TSA腐蚀的程度.硝酸钡掺量在1%左右时,水泥石抗TSA性能较好.

  18. Ancient Admixture in Human History

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Luo, Yontao; Mallick, Swapan; Rohland, Nadin; Zhan, Yiping; Genschoreck, Teri; Webster, Teresa; Reich, David

    2012-01-01

    Population mixture is an important process in biology. We present a suite of methods for learning about population mixtures, implemented in a software package called ADMIXTOOLS, that support formal tests for whether mixture occurred and make it possible to infer proportions and dates of mixture. We also describe the development of a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array consisting of 629,433 sites with clearly documented ascertainment that was specifically designed for population gen...

  19. Mechanism and Test of Mineral Admixture Filling in Cement Mortar%矿物掺合料在水泥砂浆中的填充机理及试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李滢

    2013-01-01

    主要讨论了矿物掺合料在水泥砂浆中的填充机理,并且以粉煤灰、矿渣粉及硅灰单一组分、复合组分考察其对水泥胶砂强度及微观结构的影响.研究表明,不同细度的矿物掺合料掺入到水泥浆体中后,可以优化粉体的次级颗粒级配,提高密实度.从而表现出水泥砂浆的强度得到提高,微观结构趋于密实.%Filling mechanism of mineral admixture in cement mortar was discussed,with fly ash,superfine slag powder,silica fume and their compounds filling into cement mortar to study their influence on the strength and microstructure of cement mortar.It is demonstrated that the different mineral admixtures can improve the secondary particles size distribution of cementations materials,and then improve the density of cement mortar.So the strength of cement mortar increased and the microstructure of cement mortar get denser.

  20. Test Research on Compound Polycarboxylic Acid Admixture During Winter Construction%复合型聚羧酸外加剂在冬期施工应用中的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建国; 王明明; 李忠雨; 娄维萍; 马学伟

    2011-01-01

    Based on the E bid section in one stage of Jinwan Square, reasonable test method is selected during the winter construction of compound polycarboxylic acid admixture.Besides, effects of different concrete mix proportions are studied on the concrete workability, and effects of different maintenance conditions are researched on concrete compressive strength.The optimum mixing amount is chosen by analyzing data to be applied in the engineering.Good economic benefit is obtained.The results show that compound polycarboxylic acid admixture can not only enhance mechanical performance of concrete, but also offer the convenient construction technology.%结合津湾广场一期E标段工程,在聚羧酸外加剂冬期施工中,恰当选取试验方法,考虑不同混凝土配合比对混凝土工作性的影响以及不同养护条件对混凝土抗压强度的影响.经过数据分析,优选了聚羧酸的最佳掺量,并应用于工程中,取得了良好的经济效果.结果表明:复合型聚羧酸外加剂不仅能提高混凝土的力学性能,而且能提供简便易行的施工工艺.

  1. 矿物掺合料混凝土碳化分析的非线性多场耦合模型%Multi-field coupled model for concrete carbonation with mineral admixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余波; 成荻; 杨绿峰

    2014-01-01

    Considering the influences of the type and quantity of the mineral admixtures ,a nonlinear multi-field coupled model for car-bonation analysis of concrete with mineral admixtures was established and verified by combining the rule of diffusion of CO 2 within con-crete with the law of conservation of mass for carbonatable substances.The diffusion coefficient of CO 2,the coefficient of reaction rate be-tween CO2 and carbonatable substances,and the kind and dosage of the carbonatable substances were adopted as the governing parameters in the proposed model.According to the Fick's second law of diffusion and the balance chemical equations ,a nonlinear multi-field coupled model for carbonation analysis of concrete with mineral admixtures was established based on the mechanism of cement hydration ,second hydration of minerals and concrete carbonation first.Then,computation expressions of model parameters,such as the diffusion coefficient of CO2 within concrete,the coefficient of reaction rate between CO2 and carbonatable substances,and the amount of the carbonatable sub-stances,were developed by taking into account the influences of the temperature,relative humidity,water to binder ratio,and mineral ad-mixtures on carbonation.The proposed model was verified by comparing with experimental data and the influences of the temperature ,rel-ative humidity,water to binder ratio and mineral admixtures on carbonation depth were quantificationally investigated based on the distri-bution of CO2,carbonatable substances and the pH value within the concrete.%考虑矿物掺合料种类和掺量的影响,结合混凝土中CO2的扩散规律以及可碳化物质的质量守恒定律,以CO2扩散系数、碳化反应速率系数和混凝土中可碳化物质的量为控制参数,研究建立了矿物掺合料混凝土碳化分析的非线性多场耦合模型,并利用试验数据进行了对比验证。首先基于水泥水化、矿物掺合料二次水化以及混凝土碳化

  2. Investigation on the preparation of metakaolin-supported titanium mineral admixture with photocatalytic activity%高岭土负载钛制备具有光催化活性矿物掺合料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭; 严云; 谢斐琳; 付丽; 胡志华

    2013-01-01

    A new process for preparing metakaolin-supported titania with the feature of both photocatalytic and pozzolanic activity by so called single calcination method was investigated.The ground pyrite tailing was mixed with the titania sol by sol-gel method firstly and then calcining the mixture with the optimum calcination regime by which could turn the kaolin into metakaolin-supported titania which has both good pozzolanic activity and photocatalytic performance.The effect of metakaolin-supported titania mineral admixture's dosage,load time on the of cement slurry has been investigated.The results show that the optimum calcination regime was 750 ℃for 2 h;the optimum loading time was 2 h;the optimum mineral admixture's dosage was 1 5%.The 7 d pozzo-lanic activity index of the metakaolin-supported titania mineral admixture can reach up to 1 1 3%.The photocata-lytic degradation efficiency on the MB of the admixture was high up to 93. 5% with the initial concentration of the MB was 1 5 mg/L.Micro-analysis was examined by XRD,ABS and TAM.The crystal form of titania sup-ported on the metakaolin powder was anatase and had a good crystallinity.The metakaolin-supported titania mineral admixture fabricated by this method demonstrates both a good photocatalytic,self-cleaning effect and excellent pozzolanic activity while incorporating into cementitious materials.%将溶胶-凝胶法制备的钛溶胶负载到硫铁矿尾矿上,采用一步煅烧法把尾矿转化为具有一定火山灰活性和光催化性的负载钛偏高岭土,并用它作为掺合料掺加到了水泥基体中。研究了负载时间、煅烧制度及负载钛量对该掺合料对水泥基材料的力学性能、早期水化行为及光催化性能的影响。结果表明,最佳负载时间为2 h,最佳煅烧制度是750℃×2 h,TiO2的晶型为结晶度较好的锐钛矿型。掺入水泥中最佳掺量为15%,7 d 活性指数达到113%,此时水化热低。高岭土中最佳负载钛量为7.5%,此时,0

  3. Formulación de mezclas intratecales para el tratamiento del dolor Compounding of drug admixtures for intrathecal treatment of pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Ortega-García

    2012-08-01

    intrathecal analgesia are recommended in international consensus, but there are few studies about their stability and safety. The objectives of this review are to evaluate specific considerations for compounded formulations for intrathecal pumps and to review stability studies of drug combinations recommended. Compounding formulations for intrathecal pumps has specific recommendations: avoiding preservatives, antioxidants, and solubility enhancers, using buffers that are compatible with the delivery system, using a pH that is physiologically appropriate and is consistent with the delivery system, normally between 4 and 8, using solutions isotonic with normal CSF, preparing the solution in a manner that does not alter the solubility of the constituents, verifying the chemical and physical stability of the preparation under relevant conditions in accordance with literature and verifying the sterility of the preparation in accordance with the United States Pharmacopeia (Chapter 797 and American Society of Health-System Pharmacist publications. But pharmacist, moreover compounding, play an important role in maintaining quality assurance of intrathecal drug use, validating prescriptions and using standard procedures for ordering and compounding medications, checking dose calculations and monitoring of patients outcomes. Drug combinations for intrathecal analgesia with stability studies are: morphine and ziconotide, morphine and clonidine, ziconotide and bupivacaine, morphine, bupivacaine and clonidine, morphine, ziconotide and clonidine, baclofen and clonidine, ziconotide and baclofen, ziconotide and clonidine, ziconotide and fentanyl. Except for ziconotide combinations, concentration of drugs remains over 90% during 90 days. But ziconotide is very unstable and admixtures with other drugs can accelerate the rate of ziconotide degradation.

  4. 我院静脉用药调配常见问题及差错分析%Analysis on Frequent Asked Questions and Errors of Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture in Our Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红燕; 刘思源; 李诗; 刘莉; 袁丽娟; 李阳; 廖永洪

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the frequent asked questions of the pharmacy intravenous admixture to reduce the occurrence of adverse drug reactions and increase the security of clinical infusion.Methods Through reading the drug instructions and consulting lots of relevant information, we examined the rationality of drug prescription in the pharmacy intravenous admixture services (PIVAS) from June,2010 to March,2011 and statistically analyzed the unreasonable ones.Results The examination found that the irrational drug prescriptions were 815 groups, accounting for 0.26%, including drug incompatibility, improper choice of solvent, improper concentration of drug, improper dose, improper route of administration and physician order entry errors, etc.Conclusion Pharmacy intravenous admixture should be strictly adheredto the rules, pharmaceutical instrutions and drug manuals.Pharmacists' important role on examining prescriptions should be fully played for ensuring the safety of patients' use of intravenous drugs.%目的 分析临床静脉输液调配过程中易出现的问题,减少药品不良反应发生,提高临床输液的安全性.方法 解读药品说明书,查阅相关资料,对医院2010年6月至2011年3月静脉用药调配中心的长期医嘱进行适宜性审核,并对其中不合理静脉输液配置情况进行统计、分析.结果 发现不合理用药医嘱815组,占调配总数的0.26%,主要包括药物配伍禁忌、配伍不当、溶剂选择不当、药物配置浓度过大、给药剂量不当、给药途径不当以及医嘱录入错误等.结论 静脉输液调配应严格执行各项操作规范,严格遵照药品说明书及相关要求,充分发挥药师的审方作用,确保患者用药安全合理.

  5. Influence of Admixtures on Properties of Traditional Sticky Rice-lime Mortar and Their Mechanisms%添加剂对传统糯米灰浆性能的影响及其机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏国锋; 张秉坚; 方世强

    2011-01-01

    糯米灰浆是中国古代建筑史上的一项重要科技发明,为了使该传统工艺科学化地为现代文化遗产保护服务,采用SEM和XRD等技术手段,探讨了纸筋、硫酸铝和二水石膏3种添加剂对糯米灰浆性能的影响及其机理.结果表明:纸筋对糯米灰浆抗压强度和耐冻融性的改进最为明显;硫酸铝对改善糯米灰浆的干燥收缩性效果最佳;二水石膏的加入,对样品的耐冻融性并无改进,而且,随着其含量的增加,样品的抗压强度和表面硬度增幅降低.在文化遗产保护实践中,建议采用6%的硫酸铝或3%的纸筋作为糯米灰浆的添加剂.%On the basis of characterization of property of traditional sticky rice-lime mortar, influence of admixtures (aluminum sulfate, gypsum, paper fiber) on properties of traditional sticky rice-lime mortar and their scientific mechanisms are discussed by means of SEM and XRD. It is indicated that paper fiber is the most effective admixture to endure freezing-thawing cycles and increase compressive strength of sticky rice-lime mortar due to disorderly distribution and water-retaining of paper fiber, and the use of aluminum sulfate reduces dry shrinkage values and improves compressive strength because of formation of ettringite in sticky rice-lime mortar. Gypsum is proved to be ineffective to modify freezing-thawing cycles of sticky rice-lime mortar. Meanwhile, compressive strength and surface hardness of sticky rice-lime mortar with gypsum decline as gypsum amounts. It is suggested that 6% aluminum sulfate or 3% paper fiber can be used as admixtures of sticky rice-lime mortar in conservation of cultural relics.

  6. Research on Feasibility of Using Steel Slag as Mineral Admixture in Concrete%钢渣作为混凝土掺合料的可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈苗苗; 冯春花; 李东旭

    2011-01-01

    适量掺加矿物掺合料可以降低混凝土结构的孔隙率,提高水化产物的致密性,有效降低氯离子的渗透性,提高混凝土的使用寿命.本文主要研究了钢渣作为掺合料单掺或复掺对混凝土Cl-渗透性能及力学性能的影响,并分析探讨了其影响机理.结果表明:一定量的钢渣和粉煤灰复掺可以较好的提高混凝土抗压强度;随着钢渣掺量的增加,混凝土坍落度降低,抗氯离子渗透性能逐渐下降;钢渣与粉煤灰复掺时,混凝土抗氯离子渗透性能增加;大掺量(钢渣、粉煤灰掺量50%)掺合料可以提高混凝土抗氯离子渗透性能.%The mineral admixture can reduce the pore porosity and improve the chloride ion permeability of concrete. The influence of steel slag as mineral admixture on mechanical properties and chloride ion permeability of concrete were studied, and the reaction mechanism of steel slag in concrete was discussed in this paper. The results showed that the concrete doped with steel slag and fly ash can increase the compressive strength of concrete; and with the steel slag content increased, the slump and the chloride ion permeability of concrete decreased; after compound of steel slag and fly ash, the chloride ion permeability of concrete is improved; when the content of the steel slag and fly ash admixture is 50% ( mass fraction) in concrete, the permeability of chloride ion is better in this experiment.

  7. The Physicochemical Evaluation and Applicability of Landolphia owariensis latex as a Release Modulating Agent in its Admixture with Carbosil® in Ibuprofen-loaded Self-Emulsifying Oil Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N C Obitte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The need to address the problematic gastric irritation side effects and inconsistent bioavailability of most poorly soluble drugs has drawn the attention of researchers to self emulsifying drug delivery system as one of the possible solutions to these problems. Secondly self emulsifying oil formulations good as they may be could be associated with leakage from their hard gelatin capsules. This further motivated the introduction of gelling agents to address this problem. The objective of this work was to investigate some preliminary properties of Landolphia owariensis latex, including its applicability as a release modulating agent when admixed with Carbosil®, a gelling agent in Ibuprofen-loaded Palm Kernel oil (PKO-based self-emulsifying oil formulations (SEOFs. Purification and precipitation were carried out on the oil and the latex respectively. Some physicochemical properties of the latex were also determined. SEOFs were formulated using varying concentrations of PKO, Tween 80 and Span 85 and thereafter tested for isotropicity. Drug-loaded SEOFs with or without Landolphia owariensis latex (LOL and Carbosil-LOL admixture respectively were evaluated for stability, emulsification time, drug release, aqueous dilution, freeze thaw and drug precipitation tests. Results showed that LOL contained some phytocostituents, had a reasonable adhesive strength, and could retard aqueous permeation. Three out of nine batches of the SEOFs passed the isotropicity test, witnessed no phase separation when emulsified and diluted, and could resist drug precipitation after dilution. LOL did not at all delay drug release from SEOFs unlike LOL-Carbosil admixture. LOL-Carbosil admixture significantly (p<0.05 reduced emulsification time. There was no consistent trend in the dynamic viscosity result. Stability of the SEOFs was maintained at refrigeration temperature of 20C. The above results indicated that LOL, an oil-soluble latex possesses excipient

  8. Influence of Mineral Admixture on Anti-chloride Ion Permeability of Recycled Aggregate Concrete%矿物掺和料对再生混凝土抗氯离子渗透性能的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗伯光; 覃荷瑛

    2014-01-01

    Some recycled concrete specimens with different water to binder ratio are analyzed by experiments in order to study on the influence of the mineral admixture on anti-chloride ion permeability of recycled aggregate concrete by accelerated chloride migration test.The results show that the diffusion coefficient of chloride ion of recycled concrete with 8% silica fume has lower 12.2%~53.4% than that of them not with the mineral admixture,with 25% fly ash has lower 7.8%~50. 1% and with 25% slag has lower 7. 1%~43.9%.We can see that three kinds of mineral admixtures can all enhance anti-chlo-ride ion permeability of recycled aggregate concrete,silica fume has the best effect,slag is in the second place,and fly ash is in the third place.%试验设计制作了几组掺有不同矿物掺和料、不同配合比的再生混凝土试块,利用加速氯离子渗透性试验对试块进行了抗氯离子渗透性能的测定,以考察常用矿物掺和料对再生混凝土抗氯离子渗透性能的影响规律。试验结果表明,掺有8%硅灰的再生混凝土试块,其氯离子渗透系数减少12.2%~53.4%;掺有25%的粉煤灰,再生混凝土试块氯离子渗透系数减少7.8%~50.1%;掺有25%矿渣微粉的再生混凝土试块,其氯离子渗透系数减少7.1%~43.9%;可见3种矿物掺和料-粉煤灰、矿渣微粉以及硅灰对再生混凝土的抗氯离子渗透性能均有一定的提高,其中以硅粉的效果最好,粉煤灰次之,矿渣微粉较差。

  9. Mesoscopic perovskite solar cells with an admixture of nanocrystalline TiO2 and Al2O3: role of interconnectivity of TiO2 in charge collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae-Min; Lee, Jin-Wook; Son, Dae-Yong; Kim, Hui-Seon; Jang, In-Hyuk; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2016-03-01

    Perovskite solar cells with high power conversion efficiency usually employ mesoporous TiO2, however the role of the TiO2 layer has not been clearly resolved. Here we prepared MAPbI3 (MA = CH3NH3) perovskite solar cells with an admixture of nanocrystalline TiO2 and Al2O3 to investigate the role of the mesoporous TiO2 layer. The Al2O3 content was varied from 0% (pure TiO2) to 100% (pure Al2O3) with nominal composition of (1 - x)TiO2 + xAl2O3 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1). The photocurrent density and fill factor decreased as Al2O3 content increased, whereas the open-circuit voltage was hardly changed. Steady-state photoluminescence (PL) was less quenched as the Al2O3 content increased due to its non-electron-injecting characteristics, where a decrease in PL intensity with increasing TiO2 content was correlated to an increase in photocurrent. Electron injection to TiO2 was also evidenced by time-resolved PL and time-limited photocurrent measurements, where interconnection of TiO2 particles played an important role in charge collection. The slight change in voltage with Al2O3 content was explained by balancing the Fermi position due to a trade-off between charge recombination and the Fermi level. The results observed from the admixture mesoporous layer comprising electron-injecting and electron-non-injecting oxides suggest that electron-injection characteristics play an important role in determining photovoltaic parameters.

  10. 输注静脉营养液滴系数的影响因素分析%Influencing Factors of Drop Coefficient of Total Nutrient Admixture Infusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱刚; 熊想莲; 邱紫; 廖珊; 高兆容; 邝景云; 洪祥乐; 冯结兰; 廖旭嘉

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨输注静脉全营养混合液(total nutrient admixture,TNA)滴系数的主要影响因素,为临床计划输注 TNA提供理论依据。方法模拟输液方法,测定2种不同配方的TNA在3种不同输注管道及2种不同滴注流量下5 mL的滴数各50次,计算出滴系数并比较其差异;测定2种不同配方TNA的表面张力、黏度及密度各20次,比较其差异。结果2种不同配方TNA在同一滴注流量下同一输注管道中滴系数比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),不同滴注流量下同一种配方 TNA在同一种输注管道滴系数的比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),不同输注管道中同一种配方TNA在同一滴注流量下滴系数的比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);2种不同配方TNA的表面张力、黏度及密度差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论临床计划输注TNA时不能按管道包装上标注的滴系数来计算,在相同条件下输注与本研究相同配方的TNA滴系数可按本研究结果计算;输注不同配方 TNA时,可利用本研究结果的规律来推测滴系数的值,精确的方法是在输前实测滴系数的值。%Objective To find out drop coefficient (drops in per mL) of total nutrient admixture (TNA) fluids infusion and its main influencing factors and to provide theoretical basis for planned TNA infusion in the clinical. Methods The drop number in 5 mL TNA with two different formulas in three different infusion tubes and with two different flow rate was measured for 50 times to calculate the average number of drop each milliliter. The influencing factors of drop coefficient were analyzed by measuring the viscosity, density and surface tension of two different formulas of TNA for 20 times. Results It was proved that the difference of drop coefficient between two TNAs with same flow rate and same infusion tube was statistical significant (P<0.01), and the difference of same TNA but with different flow

  11. Effect of total nutrient admixture on lipid metabolism in acute hepatic failure rats%全营养液对急性肝功能衰竭大鼠脂代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐玉梅; 张明; 陈亚军; 许晋; 杨辉

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of total nutrient admixture (TNA) on lipid metabolism in rats with acute hepatic failure (AHF). Methods Fifty-six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet group, nitrogen-free diet group, fat-free nutrient admixture group, and TNA group. All rats were injected with D-galac- tosamine to induce AHF model Meanwhile, 6 healthy Wistar rats were used as control group. TNA provided energy 221.75 kJ (1 kcal=4.184 kJ), nitrogen 0.365 g, nitrogen to energy ratio 1:145, amino acids 2.28 g (including branched-chain amino acid 0.70 g), glucose 7.85 g, and fat 1.25 g on a daily basis. After 10 days of the operation of Jugular vein puncture tube, blood glucose, blood lipid, liver and renal function were determined. Results The blood glucose level was significantly higher in TNA group than that in fat-free nutrient admixture group (P < 0.05). The levels of serum triglyceride and cholesterol were highest in fat-free nutrition admixture group, and triglyceride level was signif- icantly higher than that in normal diet group and nitrogen-free diet group (P <0.05). The levels of serum triglyceride and cholesterol were significantly higher in TNA group than those in normal diet group (P <0.05). The levels of ala- nine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and blood urea nitrogen were lower in TNA group than those in fat-free nutrient admixture group (P < 0.05). Conclusion The nutritional proportion of TNA is suitable for the metabolism disorder of hepatic failure, and therefore TNA can reasonably promote the anabolism and reverse the deteri- oration of hepatic failure in rats.%目的 探讨全营养液对急性肝功能衰竭大鼠脂代谢的影响.方法 将56只急性肝功能衰竭模型大鼠随机分为普通饲料组、无氮饲料组、无脂肪营养液组和全营养液组.采用D-半乳糖胺诱导法复制急性肝功能衰竭大鼠模型.同时用6只健康雄性Wistar大鼠作为对照组.全营

  12. 矿物掺合料对腐蚀混凝土强度影响及关联分析%Influences of Mineral Admixtures on the Strengths of Corroded Concrete and Corresponding Correlation Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭剑; 邓通发; 朱南海; 易道新

    2016-01-01

    结合赣南区域稀土开采残留硫酸铵的环境问题,在后期土地开发的背景下,通过对粉煤灰混凝土、矿渣混凝土、双掺混凝土受硫酸铵腐蚀的试验,测定受腐蚀混凝土的力学性能,分析受腐蚀混凝土强度劣化的规律,并运用灰色关联分析理论对不同掺量矿物掺合料混凝土强度进行关联度分析。结果表明:混凝土中掺入粉煤灰和矿渣等量替换水泥能显著提高混凝土抗硫酸铵腐蚀性能;大掺量矿物掺合料的混凝土强度增长较慢,但抗硫酸铵腐蚀能力较好;矿物掺合料对受腐蚀混凝土的抗压强度衰减有较好延缓效果,但对抗折强度的延缓衰减的效果较差;通过灰色相关理论得粉煤灰掺量10%,矿渣掺量40%和50%腐蚀混凝土的总体强度与未腐蚀混凝土强度关联度达到80%,抗硫酸铵腐蚀效果最佳,与试验结果一致。%In view of the environmental problem of ammonium sulfate residue caused by rare earth mining in the southern part of Jiangxi , we tested the mechanical properties of corroded concrete and analyzed the regularity of strength deterioration of corroded concrete through tests of corrosion ( by ammonium sulfate solution ) on concretes mixed with fly ash , slag , and both fly ash and slag , respectively .Furthermore , we employed the theory of gray cor-relation to analyze the correlation between strength and mineral admixtures of concrete .Results show that the con-crete mixed with fly ash and slag replacing cement in equal amount could significantly increase the resistance of concrete to ammonium sulfate corrosion; the strength of concrete with high content of mineral admixtures grows slowly, but the resistance to ammonium sulfate corrosion is better;mineral admixtures have good effect in delaying the decline of compressive strength of corroded concrete , but shows worse effect for flexural strength .The results of grey analysis reveal that

  13. Effect of Mineral Admixtures on Sulfate Attack Resistance of Cement-Based Materials%矿物掺合料改善水泥基材料抗硫酸盐侵蚀性能的微观分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 孙伟; 左晓宝

    2012-01-01

    采用CT、X射线衍射、扫描电子显微镜等测试方法,通过对不掺矿物掺合料以及掺30%粉煤灰或50%矿渣的水泥净浆、水泥砂浆在室温下5%Na2SO4溶液中浸泡2a后的宏观破坏形态和浆体组分及浆体形貌的分析,从微观层次上研究了矿物掺合料对水泥基材料抗硫酸盐侵蚀破坏的影响。结果表明:侵蚀后不掺矿物掺合料的试件由表及里呈现三层不同侵蚀状态,即表层石膏区、中层钙矾石区以及内层未侵蚀区。矿物掺合料的C3A含量稀释效应、火山灰反应以及微集料填充效应协同作用的结果使得试件的抗硫酸钠溶液侵蚀破坏性能显著提高。但矿渣中活性Al3+含量较高,能与SO42–反应生成大量钙矾石晶体,掺量不当会对试件的抗硫酸钠侵蚀性能不利。砂集料有阻碍微裂纹发展及增大试样内部不均匀性的相反作用,集料的含量、颗粒尺寸及分布对水泥基材料的抗硫酸钠侵蚀破坏性能的影响是以后研究中需关注的问题。%The appearance observation, mineral composition, as well ;as microstructure morphology towards various cement pastes and motars with and without 30% fly ash or 50% slag dipped in 5% Na2SO4 solution at room temperature for 2 years were characterized by X-CT, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the effects of mineral admixtures such as slag and fly ash on the sulfate resistance performance of cement-based materials from the micro-level angle. The results show that the specimens without mineral admixtures appear three different attack states from surface to inside, i.e., the gypsum area, the ettringite area and the unaffected area. Mineral admixtures can improve the sulfate resistance performance of cement-based materials via synergy effect of reducing C3A content, pozzolanic reaction and micro-aggregates filling. However, the improper content of slag in cement-based mate- rials has a negative effect on

  14. Study on strength and shrinkage of high performance concrete with compound mineral admixtures%双掺矿物掺合料高性能混凝土的强度与收缩试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵素梅; 贡金鑫

    2016-01-01

    对双掺粉煤灰和矿渣的高性能混凝土进行了强度和收缩试验,分析了粉煤灰和矿渣双掺比例(1∶2、2∶3、1∶1)及双掺总量(30%、40%、50%)的影响。研究表明,在双掺比例相同的条件下,随着双掺总量的增加,高性能混凝土强度降低,总收缩和干缩降低,自收缩增加;在双掺总量相同的条件下,随着双掺比例的增加,高性能混凝土早期强度降低,后期强度增加、总收缩降低、自收缩减少和干缩增加。在双掺情况下,单独增加粉煤灰或矿渣的掺量,粉煤灰降低早期强度和总收缩的效果更明显,但矿渣引起自收缩增大的幅度大于粉煤灰引起自收缩减小的幅度;相比于粉煤灰,矿渣降低干缩的效果更明显;矿渣增大自收缩的幅度远小于其降低干缩的幅度。通过回归分析得到了双掺高性能混凝土的收缩计算式。%Experiments were made on the strength and shrinkage properties of high performance concrete with fly ash( FA)and ground granulated blast furnace slag(GGBFS),including the effect of the ratio of FA to GGBFS(1∶2,2∶3,1∶1)and the amount of FA and GG-BFS(30%,40%,50%).The results show that in the case of identical ratio of FA to GGBFS,the strength of the concrete decreases with the increase of the amount of the compound mineral admixtures,while the total shrinkage strain and the drying shrinkage strain reduces and the autogenous shrinkage strain increases. In the case of identical amount of the compound mineral admixtures,the strength of con-crete decreases at early age and increases later with the increase of ratio of FA to GGBFS,while total shrinkage strain and autogenous shrinkage strain decreases and drying shrinkage strain increases. For the compound mineral admixtures,the strength and total shrinkage strain of concrete decrease at early age with the increase of amount of FA or GGBFS. Contrast to GGBFS,the influence of FA is greater

  15. 矿物掺合料对硫铝酸盐水泥基灌浆料性能的影响%Effect of mineral admixtures on performance of grout material based on sulphate aluminium cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴民; 赵慧

    2014-01-01

    为研究矿物掺合料对硫铝酸盐水泥基灌浆料力学性能及流动性能的影响,分别以硅灰、双飞粉、轻质碳酸钙为掺合料制备了硫铝酸盐水泥基灌浆料。在不同水胶比条件下,测试了灌浆料的流动度及不同龄期的抗折、抗压强度。试验结果表明:加入一定量硅灰可以提高灌浆料各龄期强度,但随着硅灰掺量增大,灌浆料流动度降低;加入一定量双飞粉对灌浆料流动度及各龄期强度均有负面影响;加入一定量轻质碳酸钙对灌浆料不同龄期抗压强度有所提高,对流动度及抗折强度没有明显影响。%In order to study mineral admixtures' impact on the mechanical and flow properties of sulfur aluminate cement-based grouting material,the author produces sulfur aluminate cement-based grouting material samples by useing silica fume ,Flying powder and light cal-cium carbonate as mineral admixtures.The author also tests and analysises fluidity ,strength index in different water cement ratio. The fl-lowing are the results that we can conclude:(1)adding a certain amount of silica fume can improve the strength of grouting material in each stage,while the grout fluidity will reduce when the dosage of silica fume increases;(2)adding a certain amount of flying powder has negative effects on the grout fluidity and the strength in each stage;(3)adding a certain amount of light calcium carbonate can improve the compressive strength of grout in ecah stage,while has no obvious effects on fluidity and flexural strength.

  16. Integration approach of the Couette inverse problem of powder-type self-compacting concrete in a wide-gap concentric cylinder rheometer Part II. Influence of mineral additions and chemical admixtures on the shear thickening flow behaviour of powder type self-compacting concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Heirman, Gert; Hendrickx, Roel; Vandewalle, Lucie; Gemert, Dionys van; Feys, Dimitri; De Schutter, Geert; Desmet, Bram; Vantomme, John

    2009-01-01

    The influence of mineral additions and chemical admixtures on the shear thickening flow behaviour of powder type self-compacting concrete (SCC) is studied by means of a wide-gap concentric cylinder rheometer. The Couette inverse problem is treated by means of the integration method in order to derive the flow curve tau(gamma_dot) from the torque measurements. According to the experimental results, the shear thickening effect is found to be strongly influenced by the addition of the chemica...

  17. 聚羧酸系减水剂在C60高性能混凝土中应用的对比试验研究%Research of polycarboxylates high performance water-reducing admixture in C60 high performance concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高林; 张永恒; 石焱

    2011-01-01

    通过对比试验,探讨了萘系减水剂和聚羧酸系高效减水剂配制的C60高性能混凝土性能.试验结果表明,聚羧酸系减水剂能够很好地满足C60高性能混凝土工作性和强度要求,而萘系减水剂很难达到C60高性能混凝土的要求,聚羧酸系高效减水剂用于C60及以上高强、高性能混凝土,是其应用发展的重要方向.%It discusses the performance of C60 high performance concrete adding naphthalene water reducer and polycarboxylates high performance water-reducing admixture.The result show that polycar1boxylates high performance water-reducing admixture can meet the performance and strength requerements of C60 high performance concrete and naphthalene water reducer can not compare to it.So the major develop direction of polycarhoxylates high performance water-reducing admixture is high-strength and high-performance concrete in C60 and above.

  18. 人文管理在静脉用药调配中心管理中的探索和实践%Exploration and practice of humanistic management in pharmacy intravenous admixture service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘荣; 丁仕华; 董平

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the practical effectiveness of humanistic management in pharmacy intravenous admixture service (PIVAS). Methods: Through the access of enhancing brand awareness, intensifying system management, adhering to full-staff training, perfecting incentive innovation mechanism and creating a safe and comfortable working environment, humanistic management was integrated into the administration of PIVAS from the levels of personal management and team management. Results: Through humanistic management, the working enthusiasm and management compliance in the PIVAS staff obviously increased, work error rate decreased, and satisfaction of work in the clinical department was greatly improved. Conclusion: Humanistic management helps to promote the administration of PIVAS.%目的:探讨人文管理在静脉药物配置中心(PIVAS)管理中的实践效果.方法:从个人管理和团队管理两个层面,通过树立品牌意识,强化制度管理,坚持全员培训,健全创新激励机制,营造安全、舒适的工作环境等方式,将人文管理融入PIVAS管理中.结果:通过实施人文管理,PIVAS员工的工作积极性和管理依从性明显提高,工作差错率下降,临床科室满意度上升.结论:人文管理有助于提高PIVAS的管理水平.

  19. 临床药师在静脉药物配置中心批次决策中的作用%Role of clinical pharmacists in batches decision making in pharmacy intravenous admixture services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦娜; 魏立伟

    2015-01-01

    Reasonable batch decision-making of pharmacy intravenous admixture services (PIVAS) is a prerequisite for clinical rational drug use in the intravenous infusion. Clinical pharmacists in Luoyang Orthopedics Traumatological Hospital PIVAS draw up intravenous infusion batch rule according to the rational use of drug principle, and take manual intervention in special cases, which make the clinical PIVAS infusion delivery batches more scientific and reasonable, the clinical pharmacists play a decisive role in batches decision making.%静脉药物配置中心合理的批次决策能有效保障临床静脉输液合理用药。河南省洛阳正骨医院临床药师根据合理用药原则,制定静脉输液批次规则,在特殊情况下进行人工干预,使临床输液配送批次更加科学合理。临床药师在批次决策中起到举足轻重的作用。

  20. Pharmaceutical Care Practice of Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Services in Our Hospital%我院静脉药物配置中心的药学服务实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓东

    2013-01-01

    我院静脉药物配置中心(PIVAS)成立以来,药师借助医院提供的医药信息服务软件、电子审方系统、出仓核对、轨道小车、例会学习等平台开展符合我院实际的药学服务工作。在医嘱审核、药品核对、输液配送等环节为医师、护士、患者提供更加专业的药学服务,保障临床合理用药,提升了自我价值。%Since the establishment of the pharmacy intravenous admixture services ( PIVAS ) , pharmaceutical ser-vices have been carried out by pharmacists in accordance with the actual situation of our hospital by means of the sup-portive platform provided by the hospital such as the medical information service software , electronic prescription sys-tem , warehouse release check and regular meetings , and so on . More professional pharmaceutical services were pro-vided to physicians , nurses and patients in the audit of doctor orders , medicine check and infusion distribution , etc . so as to guarantee the rational drug use and upgrade the self-value of pharmacist .

  1. On the Juvenile Compulsory Education Measures:The Admixture of Compulsory Education Measures and Community Correction%论未成年人强制性教育措施--兼论与社区矫正之契合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程莹

    2014-01-01

    未成年人强制性教育措施具有灵活、开放和有效的特性,在预防犯罪、维护社会稳定方面发挥着重要作用,但却存在一定程度的滥用。未成年人社区矫正的推行更是加剧了其适用方式的错位与失衡。引入社区矫正,推动未成年人强制性教育措施的去行政化、社会化和多样化。通过两者的衔接与契合,实现对该措施的改造。%Compulsory education measures, with flexible, open and efficient characteristics, play an important role in preventing juvenile crime and maintaining social stability. However, there is a certain degree of abusing compulsory education measures, because they lack the necessary power restriction and statutory authority. The defects of juvenile compulsory education measures become more serious with the implementation of community correction. Introducing the idea of community correction in juvenile compulsory education measures can promote the compulsory education measures to keep the judicature, socialization and diversification. The admixture of compulsory education measures and community correction can improve and perfect juvenile compulsory education measures, and realize the active prevention of minor crime.

  2. Role of clinical pharmacists in batches decision making in pharmacy intravenous admixture services%临床药师在静脉药物配置中心批次决策中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦娜; 魏立伟

    2015-01-01

    Reasonable batch decision-making of pharmacy intravenous admixture services (PIVAS) is a prerequisite for clinical rational drug use in the intravenous infusion. Clinical pharmacists in Luoyang Orthopedics Traumatological Hospital PIVAS draw up intravenous infusion batch rule according to the rational use of drug principle, and take manual intervention in special cases, which make the clinical PIVAS infusion delivery batches more scientific and reasonable, the clinical pharmacists play a decisive role in batches decision making.%静脉药物配置中心合理的批次决策能有效保障临床静脉输液合理用药。河南省洛阳正骨医院临床药师根据合理用药原则,制定静脉输液批次规则,在特殊情况下进行人工干预,使临床输液配送批次更加科学合理。临床药师在批次决策中起到举足轻重的作用。

  3. 危机管理在新生儿静脉营养液配置中的应用%Application of Risk Management in Preparation of Parenteral Total Nutrient Admixture for Neonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅蘋; 张丽萍; 苏素红; 温润姑; 张琼; 朱光辉

    2013-01-01

    The article summarizes the application of risk management in preparation of parenteral total nutrient admixture (TNA) for neonates. Risk management, including risk factor analysis on safe preparation of TNA, pre-risk prevention and preparation, and corresponding countermeasures, could enhance the risk awareness and TNA preparation ability of nurses, ensure safe intravenous medication for neonates, and gain public recognition of neonate ward.%总结4年来危机管理理念在新生儿静脉营养液配置的应用体会。通过对安全配置危机因素分析,危机前的预防和准备,危机发生时的应对措施等危机管理,增强了护士危机意识与配置能力,确保患儿静脉用药安全,赢得新生儿病区的高度认可。

  4. Experience of Improving the Workflow in Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Services%改进静脉药物调配中心工作流程的实践和体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文超

    2015-01-01

    目的:持续改进我院静脉药物调配中心的工作流程,提高效率,减少差错。方法:对比我院静脉药物调配中心流程改进前后的不同点,分析其利弊。结果:改进后的流程更符合实际操作,节约成本,提高工作效率,保证合理用药。结论:静脉药物配置中心流程是需要根据实际情况,进行持续质量改进。我院的流程改进是卓有成效的。%OBJECTIVE:Improving the Workflow in Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Services,to improve efficiency and reduce errors.METHODS:Comparison of process improvement,analyse its advantages and disadvantages.RESULTS:The improved process is more consistent with the actual operation, save cost,improve work efficiency,ensure the rational use of drugs.CONCLUSIONS:PIVAS according to the practical situation,continuous quality improve-ment.Our process improvement is very fruitful.

  5. Establishment of pharmacy intravenous admixture service in our hospital and its signification%我院静脉药物配置中心的开展与意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林良沫

    2012-01-01

    By introducing the establishment, personnel, processes and other aspects about pharmacy intravenous admixture service (PIVAS) and analyzing the deficiencies of PIVAS which needed to be improved, this article discusses the significance of PIVAS in our hospital. PIVAS can promote the development of clinic pharmacy, ensure ' the safety of drugs use and improve the nursing quality, which is sure to be of great importance to the clinical pharmacy practice in our hospital.%通过介绍我院PIVAS的设施、人员和工作流程等情况,探讨开展PIVAS的意义并在工作实践中分析PIVAS存在的不足之处.PIVAS能有效促进医院临床药学的发展,有利于保障用药安全、提高护理质量等.PIVAS的开展对我院临床药学实践具有重要意义.

  6. Experience of Improving the Workflow in Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Services%改进静脉药物调配中心工作流程的实践和体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文超

    2015-01-01

    Objective Improving the Workflow in Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Services,to improve ef iciency and reduce er ors. Methods Comparison of process improvement, analyse its advantages and disadvantages. Results The improved process is more consistent with the actual operation, save cost, improve work ef iciency, ensure the rational use of drugs. Conclusion PIVAS according to the practical situation, continuous quality improvement. Our process improvement is very fruitful.%目的:持续改进我院静脉药物调配中心的工作流程,提高效率,减少差错。方法对比我院静脉药物调配中心流程改进前后的不同点,分析其利弊。结果改进后的流程更符合实际操作,节<成本,提高工作效率,保证合理用药。结论静脉药物配置中心流程是需要根据实际情况,进行持续质量改进。我院的流程改进是卓有成效的。

  7. Efeito da aplicação do poliestireno sulfonado (PSSNa como aditivo em argamassas e concretos de cimento Portland CPV32 Effect of PSSNa as admixture in mortars and concrete of cement portand CPV32

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Royer

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi investigado o uso do Poliestireno sulfonado (PSSNa, produzido a partir de copos plásticos descartáveis de Poliestireno (PS, como aditivo em argamassas e concretos de cimento Portland CPV32. A avaliação do PSSNa como aditivo foi baseada em ensaios de fluidez e resistência mecânica à compressão de corpos de prova. Foi observado, em argamassas com relação água/cimento (a/c de 0,48, um aumento na fluidez com o aumento das porcentagens de PSSNa (0,25 a 1,00%. A adsorção do PSSNa sobre as partículas de cimento melhora a dispersão dos componentes da argamassa, aumentando a resistência mecânica à compressão dos corpos de prova após a cura. A aplicação do PSSNa em concreto apresentou o mesmo efeito. O abatimento do concreto sem PSSNa foi de 50 mm, atingindo cerca de 200 mm com o uso do polieletrólito. Devido à elevada plasticização observada é possível empregar o PSSNa como aditivo redutor de água. Foi produzido um concreto com o mesmo abatimento da referência sem aditivo reduzindo-se a quantidade de água em 20,8%. O ganho de resistência mecânica à compressão obtido foi de 21,5 e 26,3 %, respectivamente aos 7 e 28 dias de cura. Estes resultados mostraram que soluções de PSSNa podem atuar eficientemente como aditivo superplastificante ou redutor de água em argamassas e concretos.In this work an investigation was made of the effects from adding PSSNa, obtained from disposable polystyrene (PS cups, as admixture agent in mortars and concrete with varying ratios from 0.25 to 1.00%. The evaluation of PSSNa as additive was based on results of fluidity and mechanical strength to compression. In mortars with water/cement ratio of 0.48, an increase in flow was observed when the dosage of PSSNa varied from 0.25 to 1.00%. The dispersion of mortar components was improved due to the adsorption of PSSNa on cement particles, which increased the mechanical strength of mortars. Similar results were obtained with the

  8. Experimental research on pervious concrete mixed with low - quality active mineral admixture%低品质活性矿物掺合料透水混凝土试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高润东; 许清风; 李向民; 贡春成

    2015-01-01

    Performance tests were conducted on pervious concrete mixed with low - quality active mineral admixture,including adding single low - quality silica fume,adding single low - quality fly ash,and adding both low - quality silica fume and low - quality fly ash. Macro - observations involve compressive strength,flexural strength,porosity and permeability coefficient.Micro - observations involve microstructure of cemented layer by SEM and chemical composition of cemented layer by EDS.Results indicate mixed with a certain a-mount of low - quality active mineral admixture in place of cement in ordinary pervious concrete is feasible. Adding single low - quality silica fume with mass fraction of about 6%works best,followed by adding single low - quality fly ash with mass fraction of about 15%. Whether adding single low - quality silica fume or adding single low - quality fly ash,the strength class of concrete is about C15,the porosity is not less than 20%,and the permeability coefficient is not less than 20 × 10 - 2 cm?s,which meet with application conditions of ordinary light traffic pavements.%通过试验研究了低品质活性矿物掺合料透水混凝土的基本性能,包括单掺低品质硅灰、单掺低品质粉煤灰、双掺低品质硅灰和粉煤灰。宏观上测试了抗压强度、抗折强度、孔隙率和透水系数;微观上用 SEM 观测了胶结层的微观结构、用 EDS 观测了胶结层的化学组成。试验结果表明:在普通透水混凝土中掺入一定量的低品质活性矿物掺合料替代部分水泥是可行的;单掺低品质硅灰效果最佳、掺量可在6%左右,单掺低品质粉煤灰次之、掺量可在15%左右;单掺低品质硅灰透水混凝土和单掺低品质粉煤灰透水混凝土强度等级为 C15左右,孔隙率均不低于20%,透水系数均不低于20×10-2 cm?s,可以满足一般轻交通路面的应用条件。

  9. Management and operation effects of the outpatient and emergency department pharmacy intravenous admixture services%我院门急诊静脉药物配置中心的管理及运行效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏涣新; 黄灿炘

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the operation mechanism and effects of an outpatient and emergency department pharmacy intravenous admixture services ( PIVAS). Methods Many measures were taken,such as defining personal responsibilities,formulating reasonable management models,working processes,transfusion processes for outpatients and emergency patients, and quality control standards, implementing on - the -job training for nursing staff and layered quality control, and so on. Results It ensured the safety of clinical intravenous medication,reduced the occurrence of unreasonable drug use,drug wasting,and adverse drug events. Conclusion The PIVAS in outpatient and emergency department can improve the safety of clinical intravenous medication and increase patient satisfaction.%目的 探讨门急诊静脉药物配制中心管理机制及运行效果.方法 明确人员职责与排班,制订合理的管理模式、工作流程、门诊患者输液流程、急诊患者输液流程及质量管理规范,并对护理人员进行岗位培训,制订管理规范和工作流程,进行分层质量控制.结果 管理制度的运行保证了临床静脉用药安全,减少了不合理用药、药品浪费以及用药不良事件的发生.结论 门诊静脉药物配置中心在提高患者静脉用药安全和提高患者满意度方面发挥了积极的作用.

  10. Roles of Quality Control Circle in Reducing the Number of Intra-variance of Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Service%品管圈在降低静脉药物配置中心内差中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵敏; 童本定

    2015-01-01

    为降低静脉配置中心内差,开展品管圈质量改进活动。针对内差发生的主要原因如取药错误、贴标签错误、审方错误,制订了包括重新设置病区取药汇总单格式、完善实习生培训制度、建立缺药处置措施等对策。活动后有形成果评价指标内差件数由每周27.5件下降到16.25件(降低40.9%);无形成果评价指标圈能力均为正向,均达到品管圈降低内差件数的目的。%To investigate the application of quality control circle activity in improving pharmaceutical care quality in a Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Service (PIVAS). Quality control circle activity was applied in reducing the number of intra-variance of a PIVAS. The causes accountable for the intra-variance were analyzed, the countermeasures were worked out and implemented and the activity effects were evaluated. The errors were mainly mistakes in dispensing, labelling or auditing. Many countermeasures were established, such as re-setting the format of drug lists, improving the training system for trainees and establishing disposal measures for drug shortage. Due to the application of quality control circle activity, the number of errors as the tangible achievement evaluation index decreased from 27.5 per week to 16.25 per week (decreased by 40.9%), and the QCC ability as the intangible achievement evaluation index was positive. The practice of quality control circle activity reduced the number of intra-variance, ensured clinical safety.

  11. The SSR-based molecular profile of 1005 grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) accessions uncovers new synonymy and parentages, and reveals a large admixture amongst varieties of different geographic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Guido; Spadotto, Alessandro; Jurman, Irena; Di Gaspero, Gabriele; Crespan, Manna; Meneghetti, Stefano; Frare, Enrica; Vignani, Rita; Cresti, Mauro; Morgante, Michele; Pezzotti, Mario; Pe, Enrico; Policriti, Alberto; Testolin, Raffaele

    2010-11-01

    A collection of 1005 grapevine accessions was genotyped at 34 microsatellite loci (SSR) with the aim of analysing genetic diversity and exploring parentages. The comparison of molecular profiles revealed 200 groups of synonymy. The removal of perfect synonyms reduced the database to 745 unique genotypes, on which population genetic parameters were calculated. The analysis of kinship uncovered 74 complete pedigrees, with both parents identified. Many of these parentages were not previously known and are of considerable historical interest, e.g. Chenin blanc (Sauvignon × Traminer rot), Covè (Harslevelu selfed), Incrocio Manzoni 2-14 and 2-15 (Cabernet franc × Prosecco), Lagrein (Schiava gentile × Teroldego), Malvasia nera of Bolzano (Perera × Schiava gentile), Manzoni moscato (Raboso veronese × Moscato d'Amburgo), Moscato violetto (Moscato bianco × Duraguzza), Muscat of Alexandria (Muscat blanc à petit grain × Axina de tres bias) and others. Statistical robustness of unexpected pedigrees was reinforced with the analysis of an additional 7-30 SSRs. Grouping the accessions by profile resulted in a weak correlation with their geographical origin and/or current area of cultivation, revealing a large admixture of local varieties with those most widely cultivated, as a result of ancient commerce and population flow. The SSRs with tri- to penta-nucleotide repeats adopted for the present study showed a great capacity for discriminating amongst accessions, with probabilities of identity by chance as low as 1.45 × 10(-27) and 9.35 × 10(-12) for unrelated and full sib individuals, respectively. A database of allele frequencies and SSR profiles of 32 reference cultivars are provided. PMID:20689905

  12. A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF POST-COMBUSTION AMMONIA INJECTION ON FLY ASH QUALITY: CHARACTERIZATION OF AMMONIA RELEASE FROM CONCRETE AND MORTARS CONTAINING FLY ASH AS A POZZOLANIC ADMIXTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert F. Rathbone; Thomas L. Robl

    2001-10-11

    Work completed in this reporting period focused on the measurement of the rate of ammonia loss from mortar and concrete, and the measurement of ammonia gas in the air above the materials immediately after placement. The majority of mortar experiments have been completed, and testing has begun on concrete. The mortar experiments indicate that the rate of ammonia loss is greater in mortars prepared using a higher water content and water:cement (W:C) ratio, although the higher rate is primarily observed within the first 2 days, after which the loss rates are nearly the same. The source of low-calcium (Class F) fly ash exerted a negligible influence on the loss rate. However, mortar prepared using a higher-calcium fly ash evolved ammonia at a slightly slower rate than the Class F ash mortars. The data also indicate that an increase in ventilation increases the ammonia loss rate from mortar, and suggest that a well-ventilated space could substantially increase the loss of ammonia from mortar and, by inference, a concrete slab. Analysis of ammonia concentrations in the air above freshly-placed mortars in an enclosed space indicate that the fly ash ammonia concentration should not exceed 100 mg N/kg ash in confined space applications. For most other applications with some ventilation the maximum acceptable concentration would be approximately 200 mg/kg. Early results from experiments on concrete suggest that, under similar conditions, ammonia diffusion from concrete occurs at a higher rate than in mortar. In addition, increasing the slump of concrete through the use of chemical admixtures has only a minor effect on the ammonia loss rate.

  13. 掺加粉煤灰和矿粉对嵌缝加固胶泥性能的试验研究%Experimental research on admixture of fly ash and mineral powder on the properties of reinforced cement sealing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡向阳; 何忠茂; 何廷树

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the fly ash and mineral powder on the properties of cement sealing,Experimental research on different age, different content of fly ash and mineral powder to cement caulking compressive strength.And use the SEM ,mercury injection apparatus to analyze its microcosmic mechanism.Experiment shows that the fly ash and mineral powder after sealing isometric substitute cement in the cement caulking, the flexural compressive strength with the increase of the dosage of admixture showed a trend of decline.Double mixing fly ash mineral powder group of microscopic test results show that the most probable aperture smaller than single mixing fly ash mineral group,and double mixing group later hydration products is rich,is conducive to the growth of the late strength.%为了研究粉煤灰、矿粉对嵌缝胶泥性能的影响,对粉煤灰、矿粉不同龄期不同掺量的嵌缝胶泥进行抗折、抗压强度试验。并使用SEM、压汞仪分析其微观机理。试验表明:粉煤灰、矿粉在等量取代嵌缝胶泥中的水泥之后,其抗折抗压强度随掺合料掺量的增加呈现下降趋势。双掺粉煤灰矿粉组的微观测试结果显示其最可几孔径小于单掺粉煤灰矿粉组,且双掺组后期的水化产物丰富,有利于后期强度的增长。

  14. Influence of mineral admixture double mixing on the cement base material rheological properties%矿物掺合料复掺对水泥基材料流变性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马保国; 付浩兵; 王慧贤; 王迎斌; 田振; 卢斯文

    2013-01-01

    The Marsh cone method,H tube method,micro slumps method and rheometer method are used to study the influence of double mixing of fly ash and mineral powder in polycarboxylic acid system on liquidity and rheological properties of cement slurry.Test results show that when the mineral admixture total substitution increased from 20% to 40%,flow rate was increasing; while in total dosage fixed condition,with the fly ash content increased,the rheology was reducing;Rheological test results show that,when the total substitution is 30%,the slurry exhibits a linear Newtonian fluid properties,and when the replace content is 20% and 40%,the slurry exhibits the characteristics of nonlinear pseudoplastic fluid.%采用Marsh筒法、H管法、微型坍落度法与流变仪法研究了在聚羧酸体系中复掺粉煤灰和矿粉2种矿物掺合料对水泥浆体流动性和流变性能的影响.试验结果表明:矿物掺合料的总取代量从20%增加到40%时,流动速度呈增大趋势;而在总掺量固定的条件下,随着粉煤灰掺量增加,流变性呈降低的趋势;流变试验结果表明,当总取代量为30%时,浆体表现出线性的牛顿流体特性,而总取代量为20%和40%时,浆体表现出非线性假塑性流体的特征.

  15. Effect of sialic mineral admixture on sulfate attack of cement-based material with limestone%硅铝质掺合料对含石灰石组分水泥基材料硫酸盐侵蚀的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张风臣; 赵云; 朱富万

    2014-01-01

    通过腐蚀试验后试件的外观形貌和强度变化、腐蚀物相分析,研究较低环境温度下硅铝质掺合料对含石灰石组分水泥基材料硫酸盐侵蚀的影响。结果表明:随着硅铝质掺合料掺量的增加,含石灰石粉硅酸盐水泥试件外观完整性明显提高,强度损失率逐渐降低;当硅铝质组分掺量为15%、30%时,矿粉对含石灰石组分水泥基材料抗硫酸盐侵蚀的改善作用明显优于相同掺量的粉煤灰;硅铝质组分能够延缓较低环境温度下含石灰石粉硅酸盐水泥的硫酸盐侵蚀,抑制腐蚀物相碳硫硅钙石的生成。%The effect of a sialic mineral admixture on the sulfate attack of cement-based material with limestone at low temperature was studied based on analysis of the visual appearance and strength changes of specimens, and erosion phases through erosion experiments. The results show that, with an increase of the content of the sialic mineral admixture, the integrity of the Portland cement specimens with limestone powder improved, and the strength loss ratios of the specimens decreased. When 15% and 30% of sialic mineral admixtures were added, the mineral powder had a greater effect in increasing the resistance to sulfate attack of the cement-based material with limestone than fly ash with the same content. Furthermore, the sialic mineral admixture could defer the sulfate attack of Portland cement with limestone powder at low temperature, and restrain the formation of thaumasite.

  16. The influence of sulfuric environments on concretes elaborated with sulfate resistant cements and mineral admixtures. Part 2: Concrete exposed to Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO4) = Estudio de la influencia de los medios con presencia de sulfatos en hormigones con cementos sulforresistentes y adiciones minerales. Parte 2.Hormigones expuestos a sulfato magnésico (MgSO4)

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal Camacho, Jesús Manuel; Mahmoud Abdelkader, Safwat; Reyes Pozo, Encarnación; Monteagudo Viera, Silvia M.

    2013-01-01

    The present work studies the resistant of the concrete against magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) and compare the results with values obtained previously of the same concretes exposed to sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). Thus, it is possible analyze the influence of the cation type. To that end, four different concrete mixes were made with sulfur resistant cement and mineral admixtures (silica fume, fly ash and blast furnace slag). The concretes were submerged for different period in magnesium sulfate (MgSO4)....

  17. Experimental Study on Frost Resistance Properties of Mixed Aggregate Concrete with Mineral Admixture%矿物超细粉混合骨料混凝土抗冻性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍俊芳; 李伟玲; 宋的添; 李金帅

    2012-01-01

    将天然浮石与碎石作为粗骨料,配制混合骨料混凝土.在混合骨料混凝土中单掺30%粉煤灰及20%粉煤灰分别与10%石粉、10%矿粉、10%硅粉复掺,对比其抗压性能及抗冻性能.试验结果表明:粉煤灰与硅粉复掺的混合骨料混凝土28d立方体抗压强度最高,粉煤灰与矿粉复掺次之,粉煤灰与石粉复掺较低,单掺粉煤灰最低.对于混合骨料混凝土的抗冻性能,粉煤灰与硅粉复掺最高,与矿粉复掺次之,单掺粉煤灰较低,粉煤灰与石粉复掺最低.掺加矿物掺合料的混合骨料混凝土的抗压性能和抗冻性能均比基准混凝土差.%When mixed aggregate concrete is prepared, natural pumice and gravel are mixed in as the coarse aggregate, while 30% fly ash is added singly and 20% fly ash with 10% limestone powder, 10% pulverized slag and 10% silica fume respectively. Compression performance and frost resistance of mixed aggregate concrete are compared. Test results indicate that: mixed aggregate concrete containing fly ash and silica fume has the highest 28d cube compressive strength, followed by fly ash mixed with pulverized slag, and then with limestone powder, fly ash alone the lowest. To frost resistance, fly ash mixed with silica fume is the highest, followed by fly ash with pulverized slag, then fly ash alone, fly ash with limestone powder the lowest. Reference concrete is better than mixed aggregate concrete with mineral admixture on compressive performance and frost resistance.

  18. EFFECT OF SHRINKAGE REDUING ADMIXTURE ON HYDRATION AND PORE STRUCTURE OF CEMENT-BASED MATERIALS%减缩剂对水泥基材料水化和孔结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志宾; 徐玲玲; 唐明述

    2009-01-01

    The effect of shrinkage reducing admixture (SPA) on hydration process and pore structure of cement-based materials was studied. The hydration heat, chemically combined water and Ca(OH)2 content of cement paste and pore structure of mortar were measured by isothermal calorimeter, gravimetric method, X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The results indicate that the SPA has a slight retarding effect on hydration of cement, and the hydration of paste with and without the SPA tended to be the same with increasing the curing time. The appearance time of exothermic peak can be delayed, and the peak value as well as the hydration heat of cement can be lowered by adding the SPA. The chemically combined water of the SPA paste is less than that of the controlled sample. A difference of hydration between the controlled paste and the SPA paste is shortened with hydration age. The Ca(OH)2 content of the SPA paste is less than that of the controlled paste at 3 d, but they are similar at 28 d. Furthermore, the pore volume can be reduced and the innocuous pores can be increased by the SPA used. In addition, the resultant formation of the SRA in pore solution of cement-based materials was supposed.%通过对水泥净浆水化放热量、Ca(OH)2的含量和化学结合水量及水泥砂浆的孔结构的测定,研究减缩剂对水泥基材料水化和孔结构的影响.结果表明:减缩剂会延缓水泥的水化,且随着龄期的发展,延缓作用渐弱.具体表现为减缩剂会降低水泥水化放热的峰值,延迟峰值出现的时间,减小水化放热量;减缩剂能够减小水泥净浆的化学结合水量;龄期为3d时,掺减缩剂的净浆中Ca(OH)2的含量明显低于空白样的,28d时与空白样的相当;减缩剂能够减小水泥砂浆中多害孔和有害孔的孔体积,增加无害孔的孔体积.另外还对减缩剂在水泥基材料中存在的形态提出设想.

  19. Analysis of Practice and Results of Quality Control Circle in Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Services%品管圈在静脉用药调配中心的实践与结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛进; 罗建华; 张先明

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Through carrying out quality control circle (QCC) in pharmacy intravenous admixture services (PIVAS),to reduce medicine configuration errors,ensure patients' medication safety and improve the level of pharmaceutical affairs management in hospital.Methods:Introduce concept of quality management,use a variety of statistical methods,and solve problems in practice work by seven QC gimmick.Results:Configuration errors in the process of PIVAS fell by an average of 34.00 per month to an average of 17.17 per month after implementation of QCC.Conclusions:Operating QCC on the management of medicine configuration and quality in PIVAS,can greatly exert the team cooperation ability of whole department,reduce the medicine configuration errors,improve the quality of the medicine,and reduce the risk in the process of practice.%目的:通过在静脉用药调配中心(PIVAS)推行品管圈活动,减少药物调配差错,保障患者用药安全,提高医院药事管理水平.方法:引入品质管理概念,运用多种统计方法,按照品管七大手法来解决实际工作中的问题.结果:PIVAS药物调配过程的差错由改善前的平均每月34.00例降低至改善后的平均每月17.17例.结论:将品管圈的改善方法运用于PIVAS的药物调配质量管理中,可以极大发挥整个科室团队协作能力,减少药物调配差错,提高药物调配质量,降低工作过程中的风险.

  20. Admixture and Drift in Oscillating Fluid Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Vladimirov, V A

    2010-01-01

    The motions of a passive scalar $\\hat{a}$ in a general high-frequency oscillating flow are studied. Our aim is threefold: (i) to obtain different classes of general solutions; (ii) to identify, classify, and develop related asymptotic procedures; and (iii) to study the notion of drift motion and the limits of its applicability. The used mathematical approach combines a version of the two-timing method, the Eulerian averaging procedure, and several novel elements. Our main results are: (i) the scaling procedure produces two independent dimensionless scaling parameters: inverse frequency $1/\\omega$ and displacement amplitude $\\delta$; (ii) we propose the \\emph{inspection procedure} that allows to find the natural functional forms of asymptotic solutions for $1/\\omega\\to 0, \\delta\\to 0$ and leads to the key notions of \\emph{critical, subcritical, and supercritical asymptotic families} of solutions; (iii) we solve the asymptotic problems for an arbitrary given oscillating flow and any initial data for $\\hat{a}$; ...

  1. Tests on concrete containing cork powder admixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra, I.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine the physical and mechanical properties of laboratory concrete made with different proportions of cork powder. While the resulting material lacked the mechanical strength characteristic of concrete, its properties may prove to be apt for certain hardscaping and agricultural uses, such as in the manufacture of pavement for playgrounds and parks, or certain kinds of structures used in livestock raising. These findings need to be analyzed and verified.Este trabajo de investigación tiene por objeto conocer algunas propiedades físicas y mecánicas de un hormigón elaborado en laboratorio, adicionándole diversas proporciones de polvo de corcho. Las propiedades del material resultante, si bien carecen de la resistencia mecánica que caracteriza al hormigón, parecen interesantes para su uso en ciertas aplicaciones de la ingeniería agronómica tales como en la fabricación de piezas para solados de parques infantiles y jardines, o en los cubículos de ciertas construcciones ganaderas, extremos que es preciso analizar y comprobar.

  2. Effect of Water-repellent Admixtures on Repair Mortars Made of Lime and Metakaolin%防水剂对石灰偏高岭土修补砂浆性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭小芹; 曹春鹏; 季晓丽; 曾路

    2016-01-01

    以石灰和偏高岭土为主要材料,制备一种适用于岩土类建筑的修补砂浆.用桐油和硬脂酸钙两种防水剂来改善砂浆的耐水性,研究桐油和硬脂酸钙对砂浆强度、反应过程、吸水率和软化系数、干燥收缩的影响,并通过XRD和SEM 对砂浆进行物相分析和微观形貌观测.结果表明:桐油和硬脂酸钙可以显著提高石灰偏高岭土砂浆的耐水性,可使吸水率下降至2.5%以下;桐油和硬脂酸都会阻碍偏高岭土的火山灰反应,在一定程度上降低砂浆的强度,但28 d的抗压强度仍在5 M Pa以上,达到天然水硬性石灰N HL5的强度等级;桐油和硬脂酸钙会影响石灰偏高岭土砂浆的微观形态和结构,桐油使产物的颗粒更细小、更致密,硬脂酸钙则会使产物结构比较疏松.综合考虑砂浆强度、耐水性等因素,得出桐油和硬脂酸钙的最佳掺量分别为5%和1.5%.%A kind of repair mortar for geotechnical building was prepared with lime and metakaolin as major materials .Two kinds of water‐repellent admixtures (tung oil and calcium stearate) were used to im‐prove the water resistance of the mortars .Different properties of the mortars were evaluated ,such as strength ,the process of reaction ,water absorption ,softening coefficient and shrinkage .Phase and micro‐structure analysis of the mortars were carried out through XRD and SEM .The results show that tung oil and calcium stearate can improve water resistance of the mortars significantly .Water absorption of the mortars with tung oil or calcium stearate can be below 2 .5% .Tung oil and calcium stearate hinder the poz‐zolanic reaction of metakaolin ,which as a result decrease the mortars’ strength .But 28 d compressive strength of the mortars are all above 5 MPa .Also ,tung oil and calcium stearate can regulate the growth of products and affect the micromorphology and structure of mortars .Tung oil make the

  3. 某金矿尾矿用作水泥混合材的试验研究%Experiment study on gold tailings utilization as cement admixture from one gold mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭明洋; 吕宪俊; 姜梅芬; 吴蓬

    2015-01-01

    The experiment study on gold tailings used as cement admixture is conducted by mechanical activation method.The result shows that activity index of the tailings increased with the specific surface area within a certain range.When the specific surface area reached about 400 m2/kg,the activity index reached 65 %,and changed little after 500 m2/kg.The test of pozzolanicity has been identified unacceptable,the pozzolanic feature of the tailings is un-qualified so that they can't be used as pozzolanic materials.By the EDS,it is seen in the microscale analysis that the gold tailings partly participate in the hydration reaction.Furthermore,when the tailings were added less than 20 %,ce-ment of 42.5R grade would be prepared.While the addition is less than 30%,cement of 32.5R grade would be gen-erated,of which the stability,coagulation time met ordinary Portland cement standards.%采用机械活化的方法对某金矿尾矿用作水泥混合材进行了试验研究。其研究结果表明:比表面积在一定的范围内,尾矿的活性指数随着尾矿比表面积的增大而提高;当尾矿粉磨至比表面积为400 m2/kg时尾矿的活性指数已达到65%,当尾矿粉磨至比表面积为500 m2/kg后尾矿的活性指数几乎不再发生变化。通过火山灰性试验发现,该金矿尾矿的火山灰性不合格,因此不属于火山灰质混合材;利用电子探针对尾矿水泥净浆微观形貌分析发现,尾矿参与了部分水化反应;通过进一步研究发现,尾矿掺量在20%以内其强度满足42.5R等级水泥强度要求,掺量在30%以内其强度满足32.5 R等级水泥要求,其安定性、凝结时间等均符合普通硅酸盐水泥的要求。

  4. 用作混凝土掺合料的火山岩的组成与火山灰活性%Constitution and Pozzolanic Activity of Volcanic Rocks Used as Mineral Admixture in Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻乐华; 周双喜; 欧辉; 邓文武

    2013-01-01

    due to the rich vitrescence on texture and silicon aluminum minerals generated at high temperature. However, the tuff with some big brecciated gravel fragments and minerals generated at low temperature appears a lower pozzolanic activity. The matrix content of volcanic rocks by petrographic analysis is consistent with the amorphous phase content of volcanic rocks on the rock properties and pozzolanic ac-tivity. There is a positive multiple correlation between the pozzolanic activity index and the amorphous content, silicon content or silicon aluminum contents, predicting the pozzolanic activity index by the fitting equations and further to analyze the potential of volcanic rocks used for mineral admixture in concrete.

  5. 掺黏度改性剂与减水剂水泥浆的zeta电位研究%Study on Zeta Potential of Cement Pastes with Viscosity Modifying Admixtures and Superplasticizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟世云; 李晋梅; 韩冬冬; 倪坤

    2012-01-01

    采用zeta(ξ)电位仪研究了黏度改性剂(VMA)、减水剂单掺以及VMA与减水剂复掺对水泥浆ξ电位的影响.结果表明:由于水泥粒子吸附VMA或减水剂分子,因此单掺VMA或减水剂水泥浆ξ电位降低.VMA与聚羧酸系减水剂(PC)同掺水泥浆表现出来的主要是水泥粒子吸附PC分子后的ξ电位特性;VMA与萘系减水剂(NF)同掺水泥浆ξ电位绝对值比单掺NF水泥浆低.无论是滴加PC到掺VMA水泥浆中还是滴加VMA到掺PC水泥浆中,水泥浆ξ电位都有所提高;VMA的加入使得掺NF水泥浆的ξ电位升高,但仍低于两者同掺水泥浆的ξ电位;在掺VMA水泥浆中,当NF滴加量达到一定值时,水泥浆ξ电位绝对值甚至高于两者同掺水泥浆ξ电位绝对值.%The influence of viscosity modifying admixturesC VMA) and superplasticizers and mixing of these two agents on zeta(ζ) potential of cement pastes(fresh) were analyzed using the ZetaProbe instrument. The experimental results show that since cement grains adsorb VMA or superplasticizer molecules, the ζ potential of cement pastes with VMA or superplasticizer decreases. The ζ potential of cement pastes with both VMA and polycarboxylic superplasticizer (PC) shows that cement grains primarily adsorb PC molecules, whereas the absolute value of ζ potential of cement pastes with both VMA and naphthalene formaldehyde condensate superplasticizer(NF) is lower than that with only NF. To add PC into cement pastes with VMA or to add VMA into cement pastes with PC will result in the ζ potential increase. The ζ potential of cement pastes with NF increases from —8 mV to —3 mV as VMA is added in. However, it is still lower than that with both VMA and NF. The f potential of cement pastes with VMA decreases as NF is added in, and the ζ potential absolute value is higher than that with both VMA and NF when the use level of NF increases to a certain value.

  6. Influence du type d’addition minérale sur les propriétés de transfert des Bétons AutoPlaçants Influence of the type of mineral admixtures on the transport properties of self compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khelafi H.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La formulation des bétons autoplaçants (BAP présente certaines spécificités dont un volume élevé de pâte et une quantité importante d’ajouts minéraux. Ces deux paramètres influencent sensiblement les propriétés de transfert de ces bétons. Dans ce travail, nous avons étudié l’influence de la nature et du pourcentage de plusieurs additions minérales sur certaines propriétés de transfert (la diffusion des ions chlore et la perméabilité au gaz des BAP. Trois différentes additions minérales ont été testées : des fillers calcaires, de la pouzzolane naturelle et des cendres volantes. Ensuite, nous avons cherché une probable relation analytique entre ces propriétés et la résistance à la compression de ces bétons. Au total, douze formulations ont été étudiées, elles couvrent trois différentes classes de résistances (30 MPa, 50 MPa et 70 MPa et quatre types de bétons: un béton ordinaire vibré, un BAP à base de pouzzolanes naturelles, un BAP à base de fillers calcaires et un BAP à base de cendres volantes. Les résultats montrent que la nature de l’addition minérale dans les BAP influe considérablement sur les propriétés de transferts de ces bétons. Après 28, 90 et 360 jours de cure, les BAP contenant de la pouzzolane naturelle représentent des performances très comparables à celles obtenues sur des BAP à base de cendres volantes et bien meilleures que celles obtenues sur des BAP formulés avec du filler calcaire. Indépendamment du type d’addition minérale, les résultats confirment l’existence d’une forte corrélation entre le développement de la résistance à la compression et les propriétés de transferts des BAP. Formulation of self compacting concrete (SCC has some specific characteristics including a high volume of paste and a large amount of mineral admixtures. These two parameters influence significantly the transport properties of SCC. In this work, we studied the influence of

  7. INFLUENCE OF GROUND MINERAL ADMIXTURES ON PORE STRUCTURE OF HARDENED CEMENT PASTE AND STRENGTH OF CEMENT MORTAR%磨细矿物掺合料对水泥硬化浆体孔结构及砂浆强度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永鑫; 陈益民

    2006-01-01

    采用压汞法研究了钢渣、矿渣、粉煤灰单掺或复掺对水泥硬化浆体孔结构的影响.同时还研究了掺合料单掺或复掺对水泥砂浆抗压强度的影响.结果表明:掺合料单掺或复掺对早期水泥硬化浆体的孔结构有一定的劣化作用;水化后期,矿渣与钢渣均明显降低了水泥硬化浆体的孔隙率,矿渣与粉煤灰均明显降低了水泥硬化浆体的中值孔径并改善了水泥石的孔径分布,掺合料复掺对改善水泥硬化浆体的孔结构有积极作用,尤其是掺合料三元复合可取得最佳的效果.3种掺合料降低水泥硬化浆体孔隙率能力的大小顺序为:矿渣>钢渣>粉煤灰.3种掺合料降低水泥硬化浆体孔径并改善孔径分布能力的大小顺序为:矿渣>粉煤灰>钢渣.掺合料降低了水泥砂浆早期的抗压强度,却增加了水泥砂浆90 d的抗压强度.掺合料的活性大小顺序为:矿渣>钢渣>粉煤灰.%The influence of singly and compositely adding steel slag, blast furnace slag and fly ash on the pore structure of handened cement paste was studied using mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). Furthermore, their influence on the compressive strength of cement mortar was also investigated. The results show that the pore structure of cement paste become worse at early ages by singly or compositely adding any of the mineral admixtures. At later ages, adding either blast furnace slag or steel slag remarkably reduces the porosity of cement paste, while either blast furnace slag or fly ash remarkably reduces median pore diameter and improves pore size distribution. The most reduction in the porosity of cement paste is observed for the cement with blast furnace slag, while the cement with steel slag less, and the cement with fly ash the least. The biggest improvement on pore structure is observed for the cement with blast furnace slag, while the cement with fly ash smaller, and the cement with steel slag the smallest. Pore structure

  8. 基于六西格玛理论优化我院静脉用药调配中心的工作流程%Optimization of the workflow of pharmacy intravenous admixture service center based on the six Sigma theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝春凤; 杨跃辉; 菅凌燕

    2012-01-01

    Objective Based on the six Sigma theory, to optimize the workflow of pharmacy intravenous admixture service center and improve the work efficiency. Method According to the five-step method of six Sigma theory ( DMAIC ) , we determine the non-effective factors and implement the improved measures. Result During the whole processes, we finally determined and revised three kinds of no-effective factors, including how to arrange personnel, distribute the different work and adjust the hospital electronic information system. Conclusion The six Sigma theory significantly improves the work efficiency of pharmacy intravenous admixture service center, and the whole workflow is tended to be standardized and normalized.%目的 基于六西格玛理论,优化静脉用药调配中心工作流程,提高工作效率.方法 依据六西格玛五步法(DMAIC),界定并测量非增效因素,制定有针对性的改进措施并严格执行.结果 在整个优化工作流程过程中,共界定并改进了3种主要的非增效因素,包括人员的安排、工作的分配、医院电子信息化系统的设置.结论 采用六西格玛管理方法,可极大地提高静脉用药调配中心的工作效率,使工作流程更趋于标准化和规范化.

  9. 掺合料和水胶比对水泥基材料水化产物和力学性能的影响%Influence of admixture and water-cement ratio on hydration products and mechanical properties of cement-based materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴福飞; 侍克斌; 董双快; 陈亮亮; 慈军; 王欣; 张凯

    2016-01-01

    Admixture and water-cement ratio are important factors affecting the development of properties of cement mortar or concrete. In order to study the influence of admixtures and water-cement ratio on the hydration products and the mechanical properties of cement-based materials, the study combined hydration reaction mechanism of pure cement and silicate admixture, derived the formulae of hydration products, theoretical maximum mixing amount and total porosity of composite cement-based materials, and investigated the effects of mixing amount of cement mortar with fly ash, steel slag and lithium slag on total porosity, mechanical properties and hydration products. This paper designed 3 gradients of water-cement ratio (0.50, 0.42 and 0.34), 3 kinds of admixtures (lithium slag, fly ash and steel slag) and 2 contents (20% and 60%); the ratio of cementitious material to sand was 1:2.5, and then, molding specimen accorded with the mix of mortar in the triple mold and the mechanical properties of mortar were tested when specimen was cured to 1, 3, 7, 28 and 90 d. The results showed that, after the same content of fly ash, steel slag and lithium slag incorporation, the contents of hydration products of composite cementitious materials, i.e. calcium hydroxide (CH) and calcium silicate hydrate (CSH), and the total porosity were smaller than those of pure cement; when the water-cement ratio decreased from 0.50 to 0.34, the total porosity of cement mortar decreased from 16.0% to 9.3%, and the contents of CH and CSH increased for the compound cement-based materials with mixing amount of 5%, but the increments were not big; the porosity of fly ash, steel slag and lithium slag cement-based composite materials reduced from 16.6%, 17.2% and 16.0% to 9.9%, 10.9% and 9.3%, respectively. When the admixture amount increased to 10%, the variation of porosity and hydration products of the 3 kinds of mortar was different. The content of hydration products (CH and CSH) of composite

  10. 矿物掺合料对再生混凝土抗氯离子渗透性研究%Research on Recycled Concrete Resistance to Penetration of Chloride Ion by Adding Mineral Admixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜健; 徐惠; 唐轶繁

    2015-01-01

    The test begins with preparation of cylindrical specimens about 100±1mm in diameter and 50± 2mm in height which are made of C25 normal concrete, C30 normal concrete, recycled concrete and modified recycled concrete by adding some mineral admixtures such as fly ash, silicon ash, steel fiber and polypropylene fiber etc. as the modified measures. Then it measures Cl-permeability coefficients of 40 days without external loads by RCM and studies Cl-diffusion coefficients of recycled concrete under different modified measures. The results show that the resistance of unmodified recycled concrete to Cl-permeability is poorer than that of normal concrete and there are pretty different Cl- diffusion coefficients; the resistance of normal concrete and recycled concrete to Cl- permeability can be improved with increase of strength grade; by adding fly ash and silicon ash in the proportion of 1:1 into recycled concrete, the resistance of modified recycled concrete to Cl- permeability can be improved in comparison to recycled concrete of the same strength grade but is lower than that of normal concrete of the same strength grade; by adding steel fiber or polypropylene fiber within the range of 0~1.0% on the premise of mixing fly ash and silicon ash, the resistance of modified recycled concrete to Cl-permeability can be improved a lot in comparison to recycled concrete of the same strength grade and is higher than that of normal concrete of the same strength grade; within the range, Cl- permeability coefficient of modified recycled concrete decreases rapidly as the amount of steel fiber or polypropylene fiber increases; adding polypropylene fiber is more effective than adding steel fiber within the range 0~1.0%on the premise of mixing fly ash and silicon ash.%以掺加粉煤灰、硅灰、钢纤维、聚丙烯纤维等矿物掺合料为改性措施,制备C25、C30普通混凝土、再生混凝土和改性再生混凝土的圆柱体试件,直径(100±1)mm,高度(50

  11. 矿物掺合料对再生混凝土抗氯离子渗透性研究%Research on Recycled Concrete Resistance to Penetration of Chloride Ion by Adding Mineral Admixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜健; 徐惠; 唐轶繁

    2016-01-01

    The test begins with preparation of cylindrical specimens about(100 ± 1)mm in diameter and (50 ± 2)mm in height which are made of C25 normal concrete, C30 normal concrete, recycled concrete and modified recycled concrete by adding some mineral admixtures such as fly ash, silicon ash, steel fiber and polypropylene fiber etc. as the modified measures. Then it measures Cl- permeability coefficients of 40 days without external loads by RCM and studies Cl- diffusion coefficients of recycled concrete under different modified measures. The results show that the resistance of unmodified recycled concrete to Cl- permeability is poorer than that of normal concrete and there are pretty different Cl-diffusion coefficients; the resistance of normal concrete and recycled concrete to Cl- permeability can be improved with increase of strength grade; by adding fly ash and silicon ash in the proportion of 1:1 into recycled concrete, the resistance of modified recycled concrete to Cl- permeability can be improved in comparison to recycled concrete of the same strength grade but is lower than that of normal concrete of the same strength grade;by adding steel fiber or polypropylene fiber within the range of 0%~1.0%on the premise of mixing fly ash and silicon ash, the resistance of modified recycled concrete to Cl-permeability can be improved a lot in comparison to recycled concrete of the same strength grade and is higher than that of normal concrete of the same strength grade; within the range, Cl- permeability coefficient of modified recycled concrete decreases rapidly as the amount of steel fiber or polypropylene fiber increases;adding polypropylene fiber is more effective than adding steel fiber within the range 0%~1.0%on the premise of mixing fly ash and silicon ash.%以掺加粉煤灰、硅灰、钢纤维、聚丙烯纤维等矿物掺合料为改性措施,制备C25、C30普通混凝土、再生混凝土和改性再生混凝土的圆柱体试件,直径(100±1)mm,高度(50±2)mm

  12. The use of cycleave PCR for the differentiation of the rejuvenating herb species Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna macrocarpa (Black Kwao Khruea), and the simultaneous detection of multiple DNA targets in a DNA admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiriyakarun, Suchaya; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko; Sukrong, Suchada

    2014-01-01

    Kwao Khruea, the tuberous roots of Pueraria candollei Graham ex Benth. (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba Roxb. (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna macrocarpa Wall. (Black Kwao Khruea), are used as rejuvenating herbs in traditional medicine in many tropical countries. Although Kwao Khruea has attracted strong interest because of its rejuvenation properties, each species is used for specific purposes and effects. P. candollei shows estrogenic effects in females. In contrast, B. superba and M. macrocarpa show androgenic effects in males. The potential misidentification of dried tuberous roots of various Kwao Khruea species might cause problems in the drug market, especially when they are reduced into powders. A cycleave PCR, which is based on the sequence of chloroplast matK gene, was developed to differentiate P. candollei, B. superba, and M. macrocarpa. The results showed that cycleave PCR is able to identify specific Kwao Khruea species. A multiplex cycleave PCR was optimized for the simultaneous detection of two different DNA targets in a DNA admixture. The specificity of this technique was confirmed by its ability to distinguish M. macrocarpa from five related Mucuna species. Cycleave PCR can be a specific, sensitive, and rapid method for the identification of medicinal plants and crude plant samples. PMID:24660477

  13. Evaluation of Healthcare Failure Mode and Effect Analysis in Management of Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Services%医疗失效模式与效果分析用于静脉用药调配中心效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金华; 侯疏影; 薄红

    2016-01-01

    Objective To discuss the healthcare failure mode and effect analysis(HFMEA)in reducing the error rate of finished trans-fusions produced by pharmacy intravenous admixture services (PIVAS). Methods According to the process of healthcare failure mode and effect analysis,the link which was the most prone to error(Finished Transfusion Check)was chosen. Then the assessment team was founded,the process map of each link was drawn to analyze the failure mode and failure cause and then to search the solutions and carry them out. At last,the error rates of the finished transfusions check before and after applying HFMEA were compared. Results After applying HFMEA to the management of PIVAS,the error rate of finished transfusions check was decreased obviously( P < 0. 05). Conclusion HFMEA could refine the working process of PIVAS,decrease the error rate,and provide safety assurance for the clinical usage of drugs.%目的:探讨医疗失效模式与效果分析(HFMEA)在减少静脉用药调配中心(PIVAS)成品核对差错中的应用效果。方法根据HFMEA的工作流程,选取在静脉用药调配过程中易出现错误的环节(成品核对),成立评估小组,创建相应的流程图,分析流程中的失效模式及原因,寻找并执行改进方案,并比较HFMEA实施前后PIVAS成品核对环节差错数量差异。结果对PIVAS实施HFMEA管理后,成品核对各环节出错率均明显下降( P<0.05)。结论应用HFMEA可细化PIVAS工作流程,减少操作差错,为临床用药提供了安全保障。

  14. Recent trend: Use of metakaolin as admixture: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. R.M. Sawant; Dr. Y.M. Ghugal

    2015-01-01

    Due to worldwide infrastructural development, since 20th century use of concrete has tremendously increased which resulted in heavy manufacturing of cement. Production of cement results in heavy environmental pollution due to emission of CO2 gas. Also the raw materials used for the manufacturing of cement are quarried from the natural geological formations. Researchers have started working on partial supplementation of ordinary portland cement mineral or raw materials by naturally occuring, m...

  15. Effect of aluminium phosphate as admixture on oxychloride cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P S Chandrawat; R N Yadav

    2000-02-01

    The effect of admixing of aluminium phosphate on oxychloride cement in the matrix has been investigated. It is shown that aluminium phosphate retards the setting process of the cement and improves water-tightness.

  16. Characterization of ceramic roof tile wastes as pozzolanic admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavat, Araceli E; Trezza, Monica A; Poggi, Mónica

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this work is to study the recycling of tile wastes in the manufacture of blended cements. Cracked or broken ceramic bodies are not accepted as commercial products and, therefore, the unsold waste of the ceramic industry becomes an environment problem. The use of powdered roof tile in cement production, as pozzolanic addition, is reported. The wastes were classified as nonglazed, natural and black glazed tiles. The mineralogy of the powders was controlled by SEM-EDX microscopy, XRD analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Particle size was checked by laser granulometry. Once the materials were fully characterized, pozzolanic lime consumption tests and Fratini tests were carried out. Different formulations of cement-tile blends were prepared by incorporation of up to 30% weight ratios of recycled waste. The compressive strength of the resulting specimens was measured. The evolution of hydration of the cement-tile blends was analyzed by XRD and FTIR techniques. Vibrational spectroscopy presented accurate evidence of pozzolanic activity. The results of the investigation confirmed the potential use of these waste materials to produce pozzolanic cement. PMID:19124234

  17. Complex admixtures of clathrate hydrates in a water desalination method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Blake A.; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Anderson, David W.

    2009-07-14

    Disclosed is a method that achieves water desalination by utilizing and optimizing clathrate hydrate phenomena. Clathrate hydrates are crystalline compounds of gas and water that desalinate water by excluding salt molecules during crystallization. Contacting a hydrate forming gaseous species with water will spontaneously form hydrates at specific temperatures and pressures through the extraction of water molecules from the bulk phase followed by crystallite nucleation. Subsequent dissociation of pure hydrates yields fresh water and, if operated correctly, allows the hydrate-forming gas to be efficiently recycled into the process stream.

  18. Recent trend: Use of metakaolin as admixture: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. R.M. Sawant

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to worldwide infrastructural development, since 20th century use of concrete has tremendously increased which resulted in heavy manufacturing of cement. Production of cement results in heavy environmental pollution due to emission of CO2 gas. Also the raw materials used for the manufacturing of cement are quarried from the natural geological formations. Researchers have started working on partial supplementation of ordinary portland cement mineral or raw materials by naturally occuring, manufactured, or manmade waste. Various types of pozzolonic materials viz.fly ash, silica fume, metakaolin, blast furnace slag etc. are available which has cementeous properties. Blending these materials with ordinary portland cement can improve the cementing and mechanical properties of cement. These days use of metakaolin is tremendously gaining popularity in partial replacement of cement due to its fineness in improving various strengths and parameters of mortars and concrete.

  19. High-resolution gene mapping using admixture linkage disequilibrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This note reports simulation study on the rate of decay in linkage dis equilibrium (LD) in mixed populations over multiple discrete generations and explores the usefulness of the LD analysis in high-resolution gene mapping. The results indicate that the smaller the recombination fraction and the fewer generati ons since admixtureevent, the higher power of the approach in gene mapping. The expected estimate of recombination fraction would give an estimate that is slig htly biased upwards, if relevant genes are in tight linkage. The estimated recom bination fraction is usually larger than the true value within 2-5 generations. From generations 10-20, the mean estimates are in good agreement with the true value. The method presented here enables estimation of means and corresponding confidence intervals of the recombination fraction at any number of generations.

  20. Chimpanzee genomic diversity reveals ancient admixture with bonobos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Manuel, Marc; Kuhlwilm, Martin; Frandsen, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    Our closest living relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos, have a complex demographic history. We analyzed the high-coverage whole genomes of 75 wild-born chimpanzees and bonobos from 10 countries in Africa. We found that chimpanzee population substructure makes genetic information a good predictor o...

  1. Early structure formation of foam concrete mix containing modifying admixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Steshenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cement based foam concrete of natural aging experiences high shrinkage of foam concrete mix in the formwork and shrinkage strain when drying. When managing the microstructure of the composite, namely the change (acceleration of the microstructure formation and reinforcement of the cement stone, significant decrease can be achieved in the values of shrinkage strain. The purpose of this research is to study the patterns of influence of the chrysotile asbestos fibers and the glyoxal crystalline on shrinkage deformations of cement based foam concrete of natural aging. The foam concrete mixture was produced by one-step technology in the laboratory mixer. Values of plastic shrinkage and plastic strength were determined during three hours after pouring the foam concrete mixture into a metal vessel. The microstructure investigation results have shown that introduction of chrysotile asbestos fibers in an amount of 2 % and glyoxal crystalline in an amount of 0.01 % by weight of cement provides a finely porous foam concrete structure with more uniform size closed pores, which are evenly distributed over the volume. Experimental studies have demonstrated that if chrysotile asbestos fibers are introduced in an amount of 2% and the crystalline glyoxal in an amount of 0.01 % by weight of cement it leads to decrease in plastic shrinkage by 40 to 29%, shrinkage when drying by 44 and 50% and growth in plastic strength by 63 and 45% respectively.

  2. Properties of Portland cement concretes containing pozzolanic admixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, D. D.; Pasko, T. J., Jr.; Jones, W. R.

    1981-04-01

    A laboratory comparison was made of the properties of a concrete containing no pozzolan with several mixtures containing pozzolans. Used were a natural pozzolan (Lassenite), two fly ashes of different fineness and low carbon and an amorphous silica fume dust from a metal-producing plant. One cement, one coarse crushed limestone aggregate, and one fine river aggregate were used. Replacing a faster reacting binder with a slower one, produced lower early strengths and adversely affected the properties which are highly dependent on strength. The measures of durability were greatly affected by the air contents and aging or treatment prior to exposure. The amorphous silica fume dust increased the early strengths of a fly ash mixture.

  3. Origins, admixture and founder lineages in European Roma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Mendizabal, Isabel; Harmant, Christine; de Pablo, Rosario; Ioana, Mihai; Angelicheva, Dora; Kouvatsi, Anastasia; Makukh, Halyna; Netea, Mihai G; Pamjav, Horolma; Zalán, Andrea; Tournev, Ivailo; Marushiakova, Elena; Popov, Vesselin; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Comas, David

    2016-06-01

    The Roma, also known as 'Gypsies', represent the largest and the most widespread ethnic minority of Europe. There is increasing evidence, based on linguistic, anthropological and genetic data, to suggest that they originated from the Indian subcontinent, with subsequent bottlenecks and undetermined gene flow from/to hosting populations during their diaspora. Further support comes from the presence of Indian uniparentally inherited lineages, such as mitochondrial DNA M and Y-chromosome H haplogroups, in a significant number of Roma individuals. However, the limited resolution of most genetic studies so far, together with the restriction of the samples used, have prevented the detection of other non-Indian founder lineages that might have been present in the proto-Roma population. We performed a high-resolution study of the uniparental genomes of 753 Roma and 984 non-Roma hosting European individuals. Roma groups show lower genetic diversity and high heterogeneity compared with non-Roma samples as a result of lower effective population size and extensive drift, consistent with a series of bottlenecks during their diaspora. We found a set of founder lineages, present in the Roma and virtually absent in the non-Roma, for the maternal (H7, J1b3, J1c1, M18, M35b, M5a1, U3, and X2d) and paternal (I-P259, J-M92, and J-M67) genomes. This lineage classification allows us to identify extensive gene flow from non-Roma to Roma groups, whereas the opposite pattern, although not negligible, is substantially lower (up to 6.3%). Finally, the exact haplotype matching analysis of both uniparental lineages consistently points to a Northwestern origin of the proto-Roma population within the Indian subcontinent. PMID:26374132

  4. Detecting population admixture in honey bees of Serbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedic, Nebojsa; Francis, Roy Mathew; Stanisavljevic, Ljubisa;

    2014-01-01

    Honey bee workers were sampled across the Serbian territory during 2009-2010 from mostly non-migratory apiaries to determine the population structure of these bees using morphometric, genetic, and spatial information. A total of 134 bees were sampled, of which 77 were analysed using classical wing...... morphometrics and 122 bees were successfully analysed using 24 DNA microsatellite markers. A combination of methods including multivariate statistics and assignment tests (frequency-based and Bayesian) revealed the honey bees of this region to resemble the subspecies Apis mellifera macedonica, Apis mellifera...... carnica or hybrids of these two subspecies. Based on Bayesian assignment (‘Structure’) and spatial PCA, honey bees within the Serbian territory were composed of 56%-58% A. m. carnica and 42%-44% A. m. macedonica. Spatial analysis showed the existence of a north-west to south-east cline in genetic...

  5. Experimental study on the electrical resistivity of soil cement admixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Song Yu; Du, Yan Jun; Han, L. H.; Gu, M. F.

    2008-05-01

    Recently in China, soil cement is widely used to improve the soft ground in the highway construction engineering. Literature studies are mainly investigating the mechanical properties of the soil cement, while its properties of the electrical resistivity are not well addressed. In this paper, the properties of the electrical resistivity of the reconstituted soil-cement and the in situ soil cement columns are investigated. The test results show that the electrical resistivity of the soil cement increases with the increase in the cement-mixing ratio and curing time, whereas it decreases with the increase in the water content, degree of saturation and water cement ratio. A simple equation is proposed to predict the electrical resistivity of soil cement under the condition of the specified curing time and water cement ratio. It is found that the electrical resistivity has a good relationship with the unconfined compression strength and blow count of SPT. It is expected that the electrical resistivity method can be widely used for checking/controlling the quality of soil cement in practice.

  6. Leveraging population admixture to explain missing heritability of complex traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitlen, Noah; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Sankararaman, Sriram; Bhatia, Gaurav; Zhang, Jianqi; Gusev, Alexander; Young, Taylor; Tandon, Arti; Pollack, Samuela; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Blot, William J.; Chanock, Stephen; Franceschini, Nora; Goodman, Phyllis G.; He, Jing; Hennis, Anselm JM; Hsing, Ann; Ingles, Sue A.; Isaacs, William; Kittles, Rick A.; Klein, Eric A.; Lange, Leslie A.; Nemesure, Barbara; Patterson, Nick; Reich, David; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Stanford, Janet L.; Stevens, Victoria L; Strom, Sara S.; Whitsel, Eric A; Witte, John S.; Xu, Jianfeng; Haiman, Christopher; Wilson, James G.; Kooperberg, Charles; Stram, Daniel; Reiner, Alex P.; Tang, Hua; Price, Alkes L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent progress on estimating the heritability explained by genotyped SNPs (hg2), a large gap between hg2 and estimates of total narrow-sense heritability (h2) remains. Explanations for this gap include rare variants, or upward bias in family-based estimates of h2 due to shared environment or epistasis. We estimate h2 from unrelated individuals in admixed populations by first estimating the heritability explained by local ancestry (hγ2). We show that hγ2 = 2FSTCθ(1−θ)h2, where FSTC measures frequency differences between populations at causal loci and θ is the genome-wide ancestry proportion. Our approach is not susceptible to biases caused by epistasis or shared environment. We examined 21,497 African Americans from three cohorts, analyzing 13 phenotypes. For height and BMI, we obtained h2 estimates of 0.55 ± 0.09 and 0.23 ± 0.06, respectively, which are larger than estimates of hg2 in these and other data, but smaller than family-based estimates of h2. PMID:25383972

  7. Effect of Mineral Admixtures on Alkali-Silica Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chengzhi; WANG Aiqin

    2008-01-01

    The influence of silica fume,slag and fly ash on alkali-silica reaction under the condition of 70℃ is studied.The results show that silica,slag and fly ash may inhibit alkali-silica reaction only under suitable content.When the content is less than 10%,silica fume does not markedly influence the expansion of alkali-silica reaction.When the content is 15%-20%,silica fume only may delay the expansion of alkali-silica reaction.When the content is 30%-70%,slag may only delay the expansion of alkali-silica reaction,but cannot inhibit the expansion of alkali-silica reaction.When the content is 10%,fly ash does not markedly influence the expansion of alkali-silica reaction.When the content is 20%-30%,fly ash may only delay the expansion of alkali-silica reaction,but cannot inhibit the expansion of alkali-silica reaction.When the content is over 50%,it is possible that fly ash can inhibit effectively alkali-silica reaction.

  8. Admixtures in Spent Plutonium Sources and Gamma-Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Pelanytė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The isotopic composition of several spent smoke detectors containing plutonium has been investigated. The article also presents the calculated results of 241Am and 241Pu activities in smoke detectors. The received values vary from (0.934±0.028 MBq to (91.2±4.6 MBq. The eguivalent dose rate of the established gamma radiation vary from 220 nSv/h to 500 nSv/h. A dose caused by artificial radionuclides in spent smoke detectors was evaluated and compared in the article. It has been found out that due to smoke detectors, an annual dose varies from 0.06 mSv to 0.31 mSv. Article in Lithuanian

  9. 静脉营养液中加入肝素钠预防早产儿PICC导管堵塞的1例报告%Heparin Added in Total Nutrient Admixture for Preventing Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Occlusion in Neonate: A Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万兴丽; 曾力楠

    2012-01-01

    Objective To make an individualized administration scheme via evidence-based medicine methods, namely adding heparin into the total nutrient admixture (TNA) solution, so as to help a neonate to prevent the occlusion of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). Methods After carefully assessing the condition of neonate, this clinical issue was put forward in accordance with the PICO principles. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews on neonates' PICC occlusion were collected from The Cochrane Library, CCTR, DARE, NGC, MEDLINE (Ovid) and CBM from inception to 2011. The clinical intervention scheme was finally made after the assessment of the retrieved evidence and neonate's physiological condition. Results A total of 4 RCTs and 1 systematic review related to the issues were identified. The following scheme was finally made for the neonate through the assessment of the retrieved evidence and combination of intentions of the patient's family members: heparin (0.5 U/mL) was added into TNA to prevent PICC occlusion. During the application, blood routine test and blood coagulation were monitored, and the catheter opening time and extubation reason were recorded. Through the above treatment, the neonate successfully completed the treatment before extubation. The time of both PICC detaining and opening was 20 days in total, and there were no PICC occlusion, no catheter thrombosis, and no catheter related bloodstream infection. Moreover, no observation showed throm-bopenia and aggravated coagulation disorders resulted from heparin. Conclusion The evidence-based medicine method is an effective way to make reasonable heparin scheme for neonate, so as to prevent PICC occlusion, reduce catheter thrombosis, decrease risks of catheter related blood circulation infection, assure successful completion of treatment, and guarantee the safety of patients.%目的 借助循证医学方法为1例经外周静脉穿刺中心静脉导管(PICC)输注全合一静脉

  10. The influence of cement type and admixture on life span of reinforced concrete utility poles subjected to the high salinity environment of Northeastern Brazil, studied by corrosion potential testing A influência do tipo de cimento e adição na vida útil de postes de concreto armado submetidos ao ambiente de alta salinidade do Nordeste do Brasil, estudada pela técnica de potencial de corrosão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Joukoski

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete structures installed in coastal zones have constantly been threatened by environmental damaging elements. The chloride ion is known as one of the most aggressive of these elements, causing, among other damages, corrosion of the steel reinforcement and then degradation of the concrete matrix. The goal of this work was to determine the influence of cement type on the resistance and durability of reinforced concrete samples with 25 mm cover thickness, when submitted to aging in a 3.4% sodium chloride aqueous solution and in a high salinity marine environment. Reinforced concrete light poles were cast following the same batching procedures, and after the curing period, they were exposed to atmosphere in a corrosion station near Aracaju, Sergipe State, Northeastern Brazil's coast. Two concrete mixtures were made using CPII-F 32 (filler-modified Portland cement: a mix with no admixture and a mix with addition of 8% silica fume swapping fine aggregates. Another mixture was batched with CPV-ARI RS (high-early-strength Portland cement, with sulfur resistance. All the three mixtures were designed with cement content of about 350 kg/m³. The performance of the structures was evaluated from the results of physicochemical, mechanical and electrochemical testing, after over a year of natural aging. Corrosion potentials of the reinforced concrete samples and of the cast utility poles were measured in terms of the aging time at the natural environment and under chloride ion accelerated aging at laboratory. The half-cell potential measurements showed that the best results were obtained from the mixture containing CPII-F 32 cement and silica fume, followed by the concrete made with CPV-ARI RS cement. The mixture batched with CPII-F 32 cement without admixture presented the worst durability performance.Estruturas de concreto armado instaladas em zonas costeiras têm sido constantemente ameaçadas por elementos ambientais nocivos. O íon cloreto

  11. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R; Estornell, Leandro H; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes--a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-orange genomes--and show that cultivated types derive from two progenitor species. Although cultivated pummelos represent selections from one progenitor species, Citrus maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species Citrus reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, thus implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A Chinese wild 'mandarin' diverges substantially from C. reticulata, thus suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and facilitates sequence-directed genetic improvement. PMID:24908277

  12. Next generation haplotyping to decipher nuclear genomic interspecific admixture in Citrus species: analysis of chromosome 2

    OpenAIRE

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Luro, François; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background The most economically important Citrus species originated by natural interspecific hybridization between four ancestral taxa (Citrus reticulata, Citrus maxima, Citrus medica, and Citrus micrantha) and from limited subsequent interspecific recombination as a result of apomixis and vegetative propagation. Such reticulate evolution coupled with vegetative propagation results in mosaic genomes with large chromosome fragments from the basic taxa in frequent interspecific heterozygosity....

  13. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, G. Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurelio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes-a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-orange genomes- and show that cultivated types derive from two progenitor species. Although cultivated pummelos represent selections from one progenitor species, Citrus maxima, cultivated mandarins ...

  14. Chemical Composition and Microstructure of Hydration Products of Hardened White Portland Cement Pastes Containing Admixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the nature of hydration products of white portland cement (WPC) containing 20 mM malic acid or 1 M calcium chloride hydrated for 11 years. The study identiifed the hydration products and characterized the chemical composition, morphology, micro/nano structure of C-S-H and the main binding phase in cementitious materials. Calcium hydroxide (CH), ettringite and C-S-H were identiifed in WPC with 20 mM malic acid paste hydrated for 11 years. WPC with 1 M calcium chloride paste hydrated for 11 years contained the same phases, but with less CH, and the presence of Friedel’s salt (Ca2Al(OH)6Cl·2H2O). There were still small amount of anhydrous cement particles remaining in both pastes after 11 years hydration according to the SEM and29Si MAS NMR results. The hydration products of paste containing malic acid had a lower porosity than those prepared with calcium chloride upon visual inspection under SEM. The morphology of the outer product (Op) C-S-H was coarse ifbrillar and the inner product (Ip) C-S-H had a very ifne microstructure in both pastes under TEM. Both Ip and Op C-S-H formed in paste containing malic acid had lower Ca/Si and higher Al/Si than those in paste containing calcium chloride. C-S-H in paste containing calcium chloride had longer MCL and less percentage of bridging tetrahedra occupied by aluminum in silicon/aluminum chains due to relatively lessQ1 and moreQ2. A new type of silicon tetrahedra,Q2B, was introduced during deconvolution of29Si MAS NMR results. Ip and Op C-S-H in both pastes had aluminum substituted tobermorite-type and jennite-type structure, and all the charges caused by aluminum substituting silicon bridging tetrahedra were balanced by Ca2+.

  15. Characterization of the genetic diversity, structure and admixture of British chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, S; Wiener, P; Teverson, D; Haley, C S; Hocking, P M

    2012-10-01

    The characterization of livestock genetic diversity can inform breed conservation initiatives. The genetic diversity and genetic structure were assessed in 685 individual genotypes sampled from 24 British chicken breeds. A total of 239 alleles were found across 30 microsatellite loci with a mean number of 7.97 alleles per locus. The breeds were highly differentiated, with an average F(ST) of 0.25, similar to that of European chicken breeds. The genetic diversity in British chicken breeds was comparable to that found in European chicken breeds, with an average number of alleles per locus of 3.59, ranging from 2.00 in Spanish to 4.40 in Maran, and an average expected heterozygosity of 0.49, ranging from 0.20 in Spanish to 0.62 in Araucana. However, the majority of breeds were not in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, as indicated by heterozygote deficiency in the majority of breeds (average F(IS) of 0.20), with an average observed heterozygote frequency of 0.39, ranging from 0.15 in Spanish to 0.49 in Cochin. Individual-based clustering analyses revealed that most individuals clustered to breed origin. However, genetic subdivisions occurred in several breeds, and this was predominantly associated with flock supplier and occasionally by morphological type. The deficit of heterozygotes was likely owing to a Wahlund effect caused by sampling from different flocks, implying structure within breeds. It is proposed that gene flow amongst flocks within breeds should be enhanced to maintain the current levels of genetic diversity. Additionally, certain breeds had low levels of both genetic diversity and uniqueness. Consideration is required for the conservation and preservation of these potentially vulnerable breeds. PMID:22497565

  16. Evidence for a bimodal distribution of hybrid indices in a hybrid zone with high admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Jessica L; Dhillon, Rashpal S; Schulte, Patricia M

    2015-12-01

    The genetic structure of a hybrid zone can provide insights into the relative roles of the various factors that maintain the zone. Here, we use a multilocus approach to characterize a hybrid zone between two subspecies of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus, Walbaum 1792) found along the Atlantic coast of North America. We first analysed clinal variation along the Atlantic coast using a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) displacement loop (D-loop) and a panel of nine nuclear microsatellite markers. A model constraining all clines to the same width and centre was not significantly different from a model in which the clines were allowed to vary independently. Locus-by-locus analysis indicated that the majority of nuclear clines shared the same centre as the mtDNA cline, and the widths of these clines were also narrower than that predicted by a neutral model, suggesting that selection is operating to maintain the hybrid zone. However, two of the nuclear clines had widths greater than the neutral prediction and had centres that were displaced relative to the mtDNA cline centre. We also found that a marsh located near the centre of the mtDNA cline demonstrated a bimodal distribution of nuclear hybrid index values, suggesting a deficit of first-generation hybrids and backcrossed genotypes. Thus, selection against hybrid genotypes may be playing a role in maintaining this hybrid zone and the associated steep nuclear and mtDNA clines. PMID:27019720

  17. Ancestry Informative Marker Sets for Determining Continental Origin and Admixture Proportions in Common Populations in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosoy, Roman; Nassir, Rami; Tian, Chao; White, Phoebe A; Butler, Lesley M.; Silva, Gabriel; Kittles, Rick; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Belmont, John W.; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Seldin, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    To provide a resource for assessing continental ancestry in a wide variety of genetic studies we identified, validated and characterized a set of 128 ancestry informative markers (AIMs). The markers were chosen for informativeness, genome-wide distribution, and genotype reproducibility on two platforms (TaqMan® assays and Illumina arrays). We analyzed genotyping data from 825 subjects with diverse ancestry, including European, East Asian, Amerindian, African, South Asian, Mexican, and Puerto Rican. A comprehensive set of 128 AIMs and subsets as small as 24 AIMs are shown to be useful tools for ascertaining the origin of subjects from particular continents, and to correct for population stratification in admixed population sample sets. Our findings provide general guidelines for the application of specific AIM subsets as a resource for wide application. We conclude that investigators can use TaqMan assays for the selected AIMs as a simple and cost efficient tool to control for differences in continental ancestry when conducting association studies in ethnically diverse populations. PMID:18683858

  18. INFLUENCE OF MINERAL ADMIXTURES ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The improvements of the me chanical properties, including bulk density of fresh mixtures, elastic modulus, and compressive strengths of four high-performance concrete mixtures, made with the addition of fly ash, refined ground blast-furnace microslag(microslag) and s ilica fume are studied.The concrete mixtures were determined based on the disper sion testing results.The study indicates that the elastic modulus at 28 and 91 days, an d compressive strengths of the concretes are improved a lot when fl y ash and microslag by 25 percent by weight of cement are added into the mixture s individually.The improvement is especially evident when silica fume by 5 perc e nt and fly ash by 25 percent by weight of cement are added together into the mix ture, while the fresh concrete mixture keeps a good workability.Through the anal ysis of chemically combined water ratios of the four mixtures at various hydrati on ages, it is found that the addition of all these mineral mixtures are benefic ial to the hydration process, especially, at later stages, which might be one of the reasons for the improvement of mechanical properties.

  19. Analysis of quality of welder's working atmosphere during application of alloyed filler admixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism is described of the development of welding aerosols and the kinetics of harmful chemical compounds in the human organism. Model welding was implemented using welding rectifier WTU 315-3. Used in the experiments were austenitic coated electrode and wires for welding in the control argon atmosphere using the MIG technology. Trapped aerosols were irradiated with fast neutrons from a linear charged particle accelerator operating as a neutron generator. The neutron flux was 109s-1. A coaxial Ge(Li) detector was used for the detection of gamma spectra. The results of the analysis of aerosols are summed up in tables. It was found that fast neutron activation analysis of welding aerosols is reliable for the determination of F, Mn, Si, Na, Ba, Cr and V; lower accuracy was achieved in the determination of Fe, Co, Mo, K, Al and other elements. It is not suitable for the determination of Ni. (E.S.). 7 tabs., 7 figs., 21 refs

  20. Extensive population admixture on drone congregation areas of the giant honeybee, Apis dorsata (Fabricius, 1793).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaurepaire, Alexis L; Kraus, Bernard F; Koeniger, Gudrun; Koeniger, Nikolaus; Lim, Herbert; Moritz, Robin F A

    2014-12-01

    The giant honeybee Apis dorsata often forms dense colony aggregations which can include up to 200 often closely related nests in the same location, setting the stage for inbred matings. Yet, like in all other Apis species, A. dorsata queens mate in mid-air on lek like drone congregation areas (DCAs) where large numbers of males gather in flight. We here report how the drone composition of A. dorsata DCAs facilitates outbreeding, taking into the account both spatial (three DCAs) and temporal (subsequent sampling days) dynamics. We compared the drones' genotypes at ten microsatellite DNA markers with those of the queen genotypes of six drone-producing colonies located close to the DCAs (Tenom, Sabah, Malaysia). None of 430 sampled drones originated from any of these nearby colonies. Moreover, we estimated that 141 unidentified colonies were contributing to the three DCAs. Most of these colonies were participating multiple times in the different locations and/or during the consecutive days of sampling. The drones sampled in the DCAs could be attributed to six subpopulations. These were all admixed in all DCA samples, increasing the effective population size an order of magnitude and preventing matings between potentially related queens and drones. PMID:25558361

  1. Genetic structure of marine Borrelia garinii and population admixture with the terrestrial cycle of Lyme borreliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Diaz, E.; Boulinier, T.; Sertour, N.; Cornet, M.; Ferquel, E.; McCoy, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of population structure for the epidemiology of pathogenic bacteria, the spatial and ecological heterogeneity of these populations is often poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of the Lyme borreliosis (LB) spirochaete Borrelia garinii in its marine cycle involving colonial seabirds and different host races of the seabird tick Ixodes uriae. Multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) on eight chromosomal and two plasmid loci ...

  2. [Anesthesia and sedation by admixture of xenon-oxygen in dentistry. Part I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, S A; Zavodilenko, L A; Babikov, A S

    2014-01-01

    The modern out-patient dental treatment which is performed under combined anesthesia with of xenon-oxygen inhalations provides comfortable conditions for the doctor and the patient, effective anesthesia and safe level of the sedation controlled by dentist.

  3. The population genomic landscape of human genetic structure, admixture history and local adaptation in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lian; Hoh, Boon Peng; Lu, Dongsheng; Fu, Ruiqing; Phipps, Maude E; Li, Shilin; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Hatin, Wan Isa; Ismail, Endom; Mokhtar, Siti Shuhada; Jin, Li; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi; Marshall, Christian R; Scherer, Stephen W; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Xu, Shuhua

    2014-09-01

    Peninsular Malaysia is a strategic region which might have played an important role in the initial peopling and subsequent human migrations in Asia. However, the genetic diversity and history of human populations--especially indigenous populations--inhabiting this area remain poorly understood. Here, we conducted a genome-wide study using over 900,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four major Malaysian ethnic groups (MEGs; Malay, Proto-Malay, Senoi and Negrito), and made comparisons of 17 world-wide populations. Our data revealed that Peninsular Malaysia has greater genetic diversity corresponding to its role as a contact zone of both early and recent human migrations in Asia. However, each single Orang Asli (indigenous) group was less diverse with a smaller effective population size (N(e)) than a European or an East Asian population, indicating a substantial isolation of some duration for these groups. All four MEGs were genetically more similar to Asian populations than to other continental groups, and the divergence time between MEGs and East Asian populations (12,000--6,000 years ago) was also much shorter than that between East Asians and Europeans. Thus, Malaysian Orang Asli groups, despite their significantly different features, may share a common origin with the other Asian groups. Nevertheless, we identified traces of recent gene flow from non-Asians to MEGs. Finally, natural selection signatures were detected in a batch of genes associated with immune response, human height, skin pigmentation, hair and facial morphology and blood pressure in MEGs. Notable examples include SYN3 which is associated with human height in all Orang Asli groups, a height-related gene (PNPT1) and two blood pressure-related genes (CDH13 and PAX5) in Negritos. We conclude that a long isolation period, subsequent gene flow and local adaptations have jointly shaped the genetic architectures of MEGs, and this study provides insight into the peopling and human migration history in Southeast Asia.

  4. Search for the admixture of heavy neutrinos in the recoil spectra of 37Ar decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutrino-induced recoil spectra of 37Cl ions produced in the electron capture (EC) decay of 37Ar were measured and searched for the presence of massive neutrinos admixed to the dominant electron neutrino. Fractions of a monolayer of 37Ar were physisorbed on Au and on several underlayers of 40Ar adsorbed on both Au and graphite substrates cooled to ≤20 K under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Time-of-flight spectra of the recoiling ions were recorded in coincidence with x rays and Auger electrons emitted following the EC decay. By searching these spectra for peaks with energies between 7.6 eV and 3.6 eV upper limits were placed on the mixing probability of the electron neutrino with heavy neutrinos in the 370 - 640 keV mass range. These limits vary from 1 to 4%, at the 90% confidence level. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  5. Spectral determination admixture of tin, antimony, lead, germanium by the method of fluoride sublimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In article introduced spectrographic investigation of selective treatment of Sn, Pb, Sb, Ge in form of their volatile fluoride, which are the product of decomposition of synthesized fluorine complex with iron

  6. Male Lineages in Brazil: Intercontinental Admixture and Stratification of the European Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, Maria; Roewer, Lutz; Palha, Teresinha; Alvarez, Luis; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea; Santos, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    The non-recombining nature of the Y chromosome and the well-established phylogeny of Y-specific Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) make them useful for defining haplogroups with high geographical specificity; therefore, they are more apt than the Y-STRs to detect population stratification in admixed populations from diverse continental origins. Different Y-SNP typing strategies have been described to address issues of population history and movements within geographic territories of interest. In this study, we investigated a set of 41 Y-SNPs in 1217 unrelated males from the five Brazilian geopolitical regions, aiming to disclose the genetic structure of male lineages in the country. A population comparison based on pairwise FST genetic distances did not reveal statistically significant differences in haplogroup frequency distributions among populations from the different regions. The genetic differences observed among regions were, however, consistent with the colonization history of the country. The sample from the Northern region presented the highest Native American ancestry (8.4%), whereas the more pronounced African contribution could be observed in the Northeastern population (15.1%). The Central-Western and Southern samples showed the higher European contributions (95.7% and 93.6%, respectively). The Southeastern region presented significant European (86.1%) and African (12.0%) contributions. The subtyping of the most frequent European lineage in Brazil (R1b1a-M269) allowed differences in the genetic European background of the five Brazilian regions to be investigated for the first time. PMID:27046235

  7. Finding new solutions in pediatric parenteral admixtures: how to improve quality and to deal with shortages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrobska-Swietlikowska, Dorota; Kwidzynska, Anna; Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Agnieszka; Sznitowska, Malgorzata; Klek, Stanislaw

    2014-07-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: La nutrición parenteral pediátrica permite un crecimiento normal incluso en lactantes pretérmino. Sin embargo, estos niños requieren una nutrición parenteral a medida y la formulación de tal nutrición puede suponer un reto por el riesgo de inestabilidad y el desabastecimiento.

  8. Influence of the mineral admixture on the durability of medium-strenght self compacting concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Bermejo Núñez, Ester B.; Gálvez Ruíz, Jaime; Fernández Cánovas, Manuel; Moragues Terrades, Amparo

    2010-01-01

    Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is an innovative concrete that does not require vibration for placing and compacting. SCC, developed in Japan in the 1980s, provides a present-day and attractive challenge for many researchers, as the long list of papers on the topic corroborates. Nevertheless, the durability of SCC, especially medium strength SCC, provides the researcher with opportunities for study in depth. This paper deals with the durability of SCC: two SCC mixtures, with 30 MPa com...

  9. Nested Hierarchical Dirichlet Processes for Multi-Level Non-Parametric Admixture Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Tekumalla, Lavanya Sita; Agrawal, Priyanka; Bhattacharya, Indrajit

    2015-01-01

    Dirichlet Process(DP) is a Bayesian non-parametric prior for infinite mixture modeling, where the number of mixture components grows with the number of data items. The Hierarchical Dirichlet Process (HDP), is an extension of DP for grouped data, often used for non-parametric topic modeling, where each group is a mixture over shared mixture densities. The Nested Dirichlet Process (nDP), on the other hand, is an extension of the DP for learning group level distributions from data, simultaneousl...

  10. Effect of Mineral Admixtures on Resistance to Sulfuric Acid Solution of Mortars with Quaternary Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhloufi, Zoubir; Bederina, Madani; Bouhicha, Mohamed; Kadri, El-Hadj

    This research consists to study the synergistic action of three mineral additions simultaneously added to the cement. This synergistic effect has a positive effect on the sustainability of limestone mortars. Tests were performed on mortars based on crushed limestone sand and manufactured by five quaternary binders (ordinary Portland cement and CPO mixed simultaneously with filler limestone, blast-furnace and natural pozzolan). The purpose of this research was to identify the resistance of five different mortars to the solution of sulfuric acid. Changes in weight loss and compressive strength measured at 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 days for each acid solution were studied. We followed up on the change in pH of the sulfuric acid solution at the end of each month up to 180 days.

  11. Genome-wide Ancestry Patterns in Rapanui Suggest Pre-European Admixture with Native Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Rasmussen, Simon; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Rapa Nui (Easter Island), located in the easternmost corner of the Polynesian Triangle, is one of the most isolated locations on the planet inhabited by humans. Archaeological and genetic evidence suggests that the island was first colonized by Polynesians around AD 1200, during their...

  12. The influence of the nitrogen admixture on the evolution of a deuterium pinch column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubes, P.; Paduch, M.; Cikhardtova, B.; Cikhardt, J.; Klir, D.; Kravarik, J.; Rezac, K.; Kortanek, J.; Zielinska, E.; Sadowski, M. J.; Tomaszewski, K.

    2016-08-01

    The application of a mixture of nitrogen and deuterium for the gas-puffing along the anode axis in deuterium plasma-focus discharges, as carried out at megaampere-level currents, enabled observations of the filamentary structure, and the decrease in the transformation velocity of the plasma column to be performed. It made possible to investigate the instability evolution during the production of hard X-rays and fast neutrons in more detail. The constriction of a plasma column transforms itself during the final phase of the compression into one or more small dense plasmoid-like structures which are separated by narrow necks. During the next phase, these structures start to decay by an expansion, in which a part of the plasma volume maintains its compactness. This evolution is explained by an increase and later decrease in the internal poloidal current component by reconnections of the associated magnetic lines, which are responsible for the acceleration of electron and ion beams.

  13. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G. Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R.; Estornell, Leandro H.; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V.; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G.; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The domestication of citrus, is poorly understood. Cultivated types are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species, whose identities and contributions remain controversial. By comparative analysis of a collection of citrus genomes, including a high quality haploid reference, we show that cultivated types were derived from two progenitor species. Though cultivated pummelos represent selections from a single progenitor species, C. maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species, C. reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A wild “mandarin” from China exhibited substantial divergence from C. reticulata, suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and enables sequence-directed genetic improvement. PMID:24908277

  14. Consistent long-range linkage disequilibrium generated by admixture in a Bantu-Semitic hybrid population

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, J F; Goldstein, D. B.

    2000-01-01

    Both the optimal marker density for genome scans in case-control association studies and the appropriate study design for the testing of candidate genes depend on the genomic pattern of linkage disequilibrium (LD). In this study, we provide the first conclusive demonstration that the diverse demographic histories of human populations have produced dramatic differences in genomewide patterns of LD. Using a panel of 66 markers spanning the X chromosome, we show that, in the Lemba, a Bantu-Semit...

  15. Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Coconut Fiber as a Concrete Admixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramli M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high cost of conventional construction materials is the dominating factor affecting housing systems worldwide. Because of this, further research into alternative materials in construction is required. The purpose of this study is to experimentally investigate the physical characteristics and mechanical properties of concrete produced using shredded coconut fibre composites. The following percentage amounts of fibre were tested: 0 % (control, 0.6 %, and 1.8 %. The coconut fibres were cut to a certain length according to previous studies which suggested that the most ideal length is around 30 - 60mm. The test results showed that the compressive strength of concrete decreased as the percentage of total fibre in the concrete mix increased. The experimental results also showed that coconut fibre concrete performed satisfactorily in terms of crack growth in comparison to that of conventional concrete. Finally, it was concluded that the use of coconut fibres has great potential in the production of lightweight concrete or normal concrete for use in the construction of concrete structures. As coconut fibre is a natural material that is easily available and cheap, it is a particularly good, low-cost alternative. Therefore, this material has the potential to overcome the problem of escalating costs in the industry.

  16. Use of Cement-Sand Admixture in Laterite Brick Production for Low Cost Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Olufemi AGBEDE

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Laterite was modified with 45% sand content by dry weight and stabilized with up to 9% cement content respectively and used in the production of 330 mm × 150 mm × 150 mm bricks through the application of a pressure of 3 N/mm2 with a brick moulding machine. Results showed that laterite used in this study cannot be stabilized for brick production within the economic cement content of 5% specified for use in Nigeria. However, bricks made with laterite admixed with 45% sand and 5% cement attained a compressive strength of 1.80 N/mm2 which is greater than the specified minimum strength value of 1.65 N/mm2. Cost comparison of available walling materials in Makurdi metropolis showed that the use of bricks made from 45% sand and 5% cement resulted in a saving of 30 - 47% when compared with the use of sandcrete blocks while the use of fired clay bricks resulted in a savings of 19% per square meter of wall. The study therefore recommends the use of laterite bricks in Makurdi and other locations because it is more economical and environmental friendly than fired clay bricks.

  17. Search for the admixture of heavy neutrinos in the recoil spectra of {sup 37}Ar decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindi, M.M.; Kozub, R.L.; Miocinovic, P. [Department of Physics, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee 38505 (United States); Avci, R.; Zhu, L. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717 (United States); Hussein, A.H. [Physics Program, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia, V2N 4Z9 (CANADA)

    1998-10-01

    Neutrino-induced recoil spectra of {sup 37}Cl ions produced in the electron capture (EC) decay of {sup 37}Ar were measured and searched for the presence of massive neutrinos admixed to the dominant electron neutrino. Fractions of a monolayer of {sup 37}Ar were physisorbed on Au and on several underlayers of {sup 40}Ar adsorbed on both Au and graphite substrates cooled to {le}20 K under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Time-of-flight spectra of the recoiling ions were recorded in coincidence with x rays and Auger electrons emitted following the EC decay. By searching these spectra for peaks with energies between 7.6 eV and 3.6 eV upper limits were placed on the mixing probability of the electron neutrino with heavy neutrinos in the 370{endash}640 keV mass range. These limits vary from 1 to 4{percent}, at the 90{percent} confidence level. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. The population genomic landscape of human genetic structure, admixture history and local adaptation in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lian; Hoh, Boon Peng; Lu, Dongsheng; Fu, Ruiqing; Phipps, Maude E; Li, Shilin; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Hatin, Wan Isa; Ismail, Endom; Mokhtar, Siti Shuhada; Jin, Li; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi; Marshall, Christian R; Scherer, Stephen W; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Xu, Shuhua

    2014-09-01

    Peninsular Malaysia is a strategic region which might have played an important role in the initial peopling and subsequent human migrations in Asia. However, the genetic diversity and history of human populations--especially indigenous populations--inhabiting this area remain poorly understood. Here, we conducted a genome-wide study using over 900,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four major Malaysian ethnic groups (MEGs; Malay, Proto-Malay, Senoi and Negrito), and made comparisons of 17 world-wide populations. Our data revealed that Peninsular Malaysia has greater genetic diversity corresponding to its role as a contact zone of both early and recent human migrations in Asia. However, each single Orang Asli (indigenous) group was less diverse with a smaller effective population size (N(e)) than a European or an East Asian population, indicating a substantial isolation of some duration for these groups. All four MEGs were genetically more similar to Asian populations than to other continental groups, and the divergence time between MEGs and East Asian populations (12,000--6,000 years ago) was also much shorter than that between East Asians and Europeans. Thus, Malaysian Orang Asli groups, despite their significantly different features, may share a common origin with the other Asian groups. Nevertheless, we identified traces of recent gene flow from non-Asians to MEGs. Finally, natural selection signatures were detected in a batch of genes associated with immune response, human height, skin pigmentation, hair and facial morphology and blood pressure in MEGs. Notable examples include SYN3 which is associated with human height in all Orang Asli groups, a height-related gene (PNPT1) and two blood pressure-related genes (CDH13 and PAX5) in Negritos. We conclude that a long isolation period, subsequent gene flow and local adaptations have jointly shaped the genetic architectures of MEGs, and this study provides insight into the peopling and human migration history in Southeast Asia. PMID:24916469

  19. Preparation of High Performance Foamed Concrete from Cement, Sand and Mineral Admixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Zhihua; Fujiwara Hiromi; Wee Tionghuan

    2007-01-01

    The titled high performance foamed concrete was developed from Portland cement, ultra fine granulated blast-furnace slag, pulverized fly ash and condensed silica fume by means of pre-foaming process. The resultant foamed concrete presents its thermal conductivity of about 0.16-0.75 W/(m·℃) and 28 d compressive strength of about 1.1-23.7 MPa when its mix proportion varies in the range of cement content 280 kg-650 kg/m3, fly ash 42-97 kg/m3, slag 64-146 kg/m3, silica fume 34-78 kg/m3, and sand 0-920 kg/m3. The compressive strength of the foamed concrete with oven dried bulk density of 1500 kg/m3 in appropriate mix proportion and with small amount of superplasticizer reached as high as 44.1 MPa. Meanwhile, the fresh foamed concrete behaves like an excellent flow-ability, therefore, is especially suitable for the application in case of massive foamed concrete casting in situ and in the case of filling casting into large volume underground irregular voids, except for pre-casting of building components like blocks, bricks, and wall panels.

  20. Male Lineages in Brazil: Intercontinental Admixture and Stratification of the European Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resque, Rafael; Gusmão, Leonor; Geppert, Maria; Roewer, Lutz; Palha, Teresinha; Alvarez, Luis; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea; Santos, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    The non-recombining nature of the Y chromosome and the well-established phylogeny of Y-specific Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) make them useful for defining haplogroups with high geographical specificity; therefore, they are more apt than the Y-STRs to detect population stratification in admixed populations from diverse continental origins. Different Y-SNP typing strategies have been described to address issues of population history and movements within geographic territories of interest. In this study, we investigated a set of 41 Y-SNPs in 1217 unrelated males from the five Brazilian geopolitical regions, aiming to disclose the genetic structure of male lineages in the country. A population comparison based on pairwise FST genetic distances did not reveal statistically significant differences in haplogroup frequency distributions among populations from the different regions. The genetic differences observed among regions were, however, consistent with the colonization history of the country. The sample from the Northern region presented the highest Native American ancestry (8.4%), whereas the more pronounced African contribution could be observed in the Northeastern population (15.1%). The Central-Western and Southern samples showed the higher European contributions (95.7% and 93.6%, respectively). The Southeastern region presented significant European (86.1%) and African (12.0%) contributions. The subtyping of the most frequent European lineage in Brazil (R1b1a-M269) allowed differences in the genetic European background of the five Brazilian regions to be investigated for the first time. PMID:27046235

  1. Determination of chloride diffusion constants for concretes of differing water to cement ratios and admixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, David Gilman

    1988-01-01

    Reinforced concrete exposed to chlorides is subject to rapid deterioration once the concentration of the chloride ion in the concrete reaches a critical level to cause corrosion of the reinforcing steel. The chloride ion diffuses through concrete according to Fick's Law, which is a function of time, a driving concentration, and a diffusion constant. The diffusion constant varies with temperature and the variety of concrete . The research included determination of diffusion ...

  2. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R; Estornell, Leandro H; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes--a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-orange genomes--and show that cultivated types derive from two progenitor species. Although cultivated pummelos represent selections from one progenitor species, Citrus maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species Citrus reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, thus implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A Chinese wild 'mandarin' diverges substantially from C. reticulata, thus suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and facilitates sequence-directed genetic improvement.

  3. Extensive population admixture on drone congregation areas of the giant honeybee, Apis dorsata (Fabricius, 1793)

    OpenAIRE

    Beaurepaire, Alexis L; Kraus, Bernard F; Koeniger, Gudrun; KOENIGER, Nikolaus; Lim, Herbert; Moritz, Robin F.A.

    2014-01-01

    The giant honeybee Apis dorsata often forms dense colony aggregations which can include up to 200 often closely related nests in the same location, setting the stage for inbred matings. Yet, like in all other Apis species, A. dorsata queens mate in mid-air on lek like drone congregation areas (DCAs) where large numbers of males gather in flight. We here report how the drone composition of A. dorsata DCAs facilitates outbreeding, taking into the account both spatial (three DCAs) and temporal (...

  4. Genetic landscape of populations along the Silk Road: admixture and migration patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Mezzavilla, Massimo; Vozzi, Diego; Pirastu, Nicola; Girotto, Giorgia; D’Adamo, Pio; Gasparini, Paolo; Colonna, Vincenza

    2014-01-01

    Background The ancient Silk Road has been a trading route between Europe and Central Asia from the 2nd century BCE to the 15th century CE. While most populations on this route have been characterized, the genetic background of others remains poorly understood, and little is known about past migration patterns. The scientific expedition “Marco Polo” has recently collected genetic and phenotypic data in six regions (Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan) along the Sil...

  5. Cooperative phenomena induced by Nb admixture in K1-xLixTaO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman scattering observations were performed on samples of K1-xLixTa1-yNbyO3, with x in the range 0.6-1.0 mol% and y in the range 0.2-0.3 mol%. Concentrations of Li and Nb, determined by analytical methods, were below the known thresholds at which these substituents can separately induce a ferroelectric transition in the quantum paraelectric KTaO3. The temperature evolution of TO1 and TO4 spectra was monitored. The results show a critical behaviour below 50 K, characterized by an abrupt increase of first-order scattering strengths and by spontaneous splitting of the non-softening TO1 mode. From our data, we infer the occurrence of a ferroelectric phase transition of order-disorder character. This proves that small additions of Nb enhance the tendency of the Li subsystem towards cooperative ordering in the KTaO3 matrix. (author)

  6. Hydraulic activity of belite cement from class C coal fly ash. Effect of curing and admixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrero, A.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of curing method and a water-reducing additive on the hydraulic activity of high lime content (ASTM type C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W is reported. A class C fly ash was subjected to hydrothermal treatment and subsequent calcination to synthesize FABC. Hydraulic activity was evaluated in the cement paste over 180 days from the physically bound water content as determined by thermogravimetric analysis and the degree of hydration, in turn found with X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. Mechanical strength, porosity and pore size distribution were also studied in equivalent mortar samples.En este trabajo se discute la influencia del tipo de curado y de un aditivo reductor de la demanda de agua en la actividad hidráulica de un cemento belítico de cenizas volantes de alto contenido en cal denominado (CBCV-2-A. Este cemento ha sido sintetizado por una ruta húmeda hidrotermal con posterior calcinación, empleando ceniza volante de alto contenido en cal (ASTM tipo C como materia prima. La actividad hidráulica se ha estudiado en la pasta de cemento, durante un periodo de 180 días, por medio del contenido de agua combinada, determinada por análisis termogravimétrico, y el grado de hidratación por difracción de rayos X (DRX. La resistencia mecánica y la porosidad total y distribución de tamaño de poro se han estudiado en probetas equivalentes de mortero

  7. Exciton luminescence in krypton cryocrystals with an admixture of molecular deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental data on VUV and UV cathodoluminescence spectra of Kr-based solid mixtures Kr-D2, Kr-D2-O2, and Kr-Xe-O2 for various dopant concentrations are presented. It is shown that introduction of a molecular deuterium impurity into krypton cryocrystals does not result in any new spectral features, suggesting that no excitation or dissociation of D2 takes place upon electron irradiation of the crystals. The intensity of the luminescence of matrix excitations is found to grow with D2 concentration. It is shown that the observed intensity growth is related to localization of matrix excitons in a limited crystal volume due to their quasi-elastic scattering by deuterium impurity molecules which results in a considerable decrease in mean free path and diffusion path length of the excitons, as well as their faster localization. Possible mechanisms of luminescence quenching in pure krypton cryocrystals are discussed. It is concluded that the quenching is due to annihilation of excitons in the process of their interactions with each other and with other electronic excitations of the crystal.

  8. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes—a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-o...

  9. Effects of (gsub(9/2))/sup 2/ admixtures in Cu isotopes and /sup 68/Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfini, M.G.; Glaudemans, P.W.M.

    1984-07-01

    Shell-model calculations in a proton-neutron formalism on /sup 63 -66/Cu and /sup 68/Ni are presented. The adopted model space includes excitation of two particles into the gsub(9/2) orbit and one hole in the fsub(7/2) orbit. It turns out that effects of the gsub(9/2) orbit are more important for these nuclei than those of a break-up of the /sup 56/Ni core.

  10. Race, Interracial Admixture and Genetic Differentiation of Avocado (Persea americana Mill)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a major tropical fruit crop native to Mesoamerica and domesticated around 8000 to 7000 BC. It is a member of the Laureace family and currently classified into three subspecies or races: Guatemalan (G), Mexican (M) and West Indian (WI) according to their ecological...

  11. Complex history of admixture during citrus domestication revealed by genome analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, G. Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aur& #233; lio,; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Fabbro, Cristian Del; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco; Estornell, Leandro H.; Mu?oz-Sanz, Juan V.; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; P& #233; rez, Juli& #225; n P& #233; rez,; Ramon, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, Francois; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G.; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astua, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-06-30

    Although Citrus is the most globally significant tree fruit, its domestication history is poorly understood. Cultivated citrus types are believed to comprise selections from and/or hybrids of several wild progenitor species, but the identities of these progenitors, and their contribution to modern cultivars, remain controversial. Here we report the genomes of a collection of mandarins, pummelos, and oranges, including a high quality reference sequence from a haploid Clementine mandarin. By comparative genome analysis we show that these cultivated types can be derived from two progenitor species. Cultivated pummelos represent selections from a single progenitor species C. maxima. Unexpectedly, however, we find that cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into a distinct second population that we identify with the ancestral wild mandarin species C. reticulata. Sweet and sour oranges are found to be interspecific hybrids. Sweet orange, the most widely cultivated citrus, arose as the offspring of previously admixed individuals. In contrast, sour (or Seville) orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. Surprisingly, we also find that a wild Chinese mandarin from Mangshan, China shows substantial sequence divergence from C. reticulata and appears to represent a distinct taxon. Understanding the relationships and phylogeny of cultivated citrus through genome analysis will clarify taxonomic relationships and enable previously inconceivable opportunities for sequence-directed genetic improvement. Citrus are widely consumed worldwide as juice or fresh fruit, providing important sources of vitamin C and other health-promoting compounds. Global production in 2012 exceeded 86 million metric tons, with an estimated value of US$9 billion (http://www.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/circulars/citrus.pdf). The very narrow genetic diversity of cultivated citrus makes it highly vulnerable to disease outbreaks, including citrus greening disease (also known as Huanglongbing) that is rapidly spreading throughout the world's major citrus producing regions1. Understanding the population genomics and domestication of citrus will enable strategies for improvements to citrus including resistance to greening and other diseases. The domestication and distribution of edible citrus types began several thousand years ago in Southeast Asia and spread globally following ancient land and sea routes. The lineages that gave rise to most modern cultivated varieties, however, are lost in undocumented antiquity, and their identities remain controversial2, 3. Several features of Citrus biology and cultivation make deciphering these origins difficult. Cultivated varieties are typically propagated clonally by grafting and through asexual seed production (apomixis via nucellar polyembryony) to maintain desirable combinations of traits (Fig. 1). Thus many important cultivar groups have characteristic basic genotypes that presumably arose through interspecific hybridization and/or successive introgressive hybridizations of wild ancestral species. These domestication events predated the global expansion of citrus cultivation by hundreds or perhaps thousands of years, with no record of the domestication process. Diversity within such groups arises through accumulated somatic mutations, generally without sexual recombination, either as limb sports on trees or variants among apomictic seedling progeny. Two wild species are believed to have contributed to domesticated pummelos, mandarins and oranges. Based on morphology and genetic markers, pummelos have generally been identified with the wild species C. maxima (Burm.) Merrill that is indigenous to Southeast Asia. Although mandarins are similarly widely identified with the species C. reticulata Blanco 4-6, wild populations of C. reticulata have not been definitively described. Various authors have taken dif

  12. Wild Trypanosoma cruzi I genetic diversity in Brazil suggests admixture and disturbance in parasite populations from the Atlantic Forest region

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, VS; Jansen, AM; Messenger, LA; Miles, MA; Llewellyn, MS

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) infection is an ancient and widespread zoonosis distributed throughout the Americas. Ecologically, Brazil comprises several distinct biomes: Amazonia, Cerrado, Caatinga, Pantanal and the Atlantic Forest. Sylvatic T. cruzi transmission is known to occur throughout these biomes, with multiple hosts and vectors involved. Parasite species-level genetic diversity can be a useful marker for ecosystem health. Our aims were to: investiga...

  13. Sociocultural Behavior, Sex-Biased Admixture, and Effective Population Sizes in Central African Pygmies and Non-Pygmies

    OpenAIRE

    Verdu, Paul; Becker, Noémie S.A.; Froment, Alain; Georges, Myriam; Grugni, Viola; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Van der Veen, Lolke; Le Bomin, Sylvie; Bahuchet, Serge; Heyer, Evelyne; Austerlitz, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Sociocultural phenomena, such as exogamy or phylopatry, can largely determine human sex-specific demography. In Central Africa, diverging patterns of sex-specific genetic variation have been observed between mobile hunter-gatherer Pygmies and sedentary agricultural non-Pygmies. However, their sex-specific demography remains largely unknown. Using population genetics and approximate Bayesian computation approaches, we inferred male and female effective population sizes, sex-specific migration,...

  14. Evaluation of physical stability of all in one parenteral admixtures for pediatric home care with high electrolytes concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrobska-Swietlikowska, Dorota; Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Agnieszka; Łuszkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la estabilidad de un total de 48 preparados o mezclas parenterales para pacientes pediátricos con necesidad de nutrición parenteral domiciliaria. Los preparados contienen cantidades elevadas de electrolitos. En la práctica clínica, el enriquecimiento con electrolitos de los preparados de nutrición parenteral es una demanda habitual, especialmente en las unidades neonatales/pediátricas. El complemento de la nutrición parenteral con altas concentraciones de electrolitos es un problema corrriente debido a la menor estabilidad de las emulsiones lipídicas en preparados de nutrición provocada por cationes bivalentes. Métodos: Se prepararon mezclas preliminares en bolsas de etilenvinilacetato de dos cámaras: se combinó amino ácidos, glucosa y electrolitos en una cámara y en la segunda cámara se puso por separado emulsiones lipídicas 20% (w/w) (SMOFlipid®, Intralipid® o ClinOleic®). Se utilizaron sales orgánicas de calcio y fosfatos. Se almacenaron pre-mezclas a +4ºC durante 21 días después de la preparación. Cada composición de mezcla fue preparada dos veces, dado que el contentido de las dos cámaras se combinó en t=0 o después de 21 días después del almacenamiento a +4ºC. Se realizaron observaciones visuales, distribución del tamaño globular (empleando métodos de microscopía óptica, difracción por láser y espectroscopía de correlación fotónica), análisis de pH, potencial zeta y tensión superficial después de combinar todos los componentes a la vez con vitaminas. Resultados: De los 48 preparados investigados solo dos resultaron problemáticos y el resto se pudo almacenar durante al menos 21 días a 4°C y las mezclas completadas presentaron estabilidad durante al menos 24 h a temperatura ambiente. Conclusión: Fue posible obtener preparados estables a pesar de la alta concentración de electrolitos.

  15. The importance of time scale and multiple refugia: incipient speciation and admixture of lineages in the butterfly Erebia triaria (Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Marta; Vidal-Romaní, Juan R; Björklund, Mats

    2005-08-01

    Evidence of four different Quaternary glacial stages has been found in NW Iberia. The different magnitude of these episodes probably conditioned the distribution of currently montane species. We examined if the population history of NW Iberian Erebia triaria butterflies reflected such an influence of different glacial stages. We also investigated whether these populations were post-glacially colonised from a single refugial area or several sources. For this, we performed phylogenetic analyses and coalescence simulations on mitochondrial DNA sequences of individuals from five NW Iberian locations. We analysed three additional populations as reference, i.e., Central Spain, the Pyrenees, and the Alps. One of the NW Iberian populations, a subspecies endemic to a particular mountain range (Xistral), showed a high level of genetic divergence from all other populations, regardless of their geographic distance. Isolation after an ancient glacial stage, and followed by allopatric differentiation, may account for such high differentiation. The genetic pattern shown by the rest of the NW Iberian population samples consisted of two lineages, likely reflecting that the ancestors of these populations sought for refuge in at least two different areas during a subsequent glacial stage. We showed evidence of both temporal and spatial divisions in the phylogeography of these butterflies. The congruence of this pattern with the geological history suggests that the Iberian Peninsula hosted several refugial areas that differed in area and location depending on the glacial stage.

  16. Corona discharge experiments in admixtures of N2 and CH4: a laboratory simulation of Titan's atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, G.; Skalny, J. D.; Mason, N.J.; Klas, M.; Zahoran, M.; Vladoiu, R.; Manole, M.

    2009-01-01

    A positive corona discharge fed by a N2:CH4 mixture (98:2) at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature has been studied as a laboratory mimic of the chemical processes occurring in the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. In-situ measurements of UV and IR transmission spectra within the discharge have shown that the main chemical product is C2H2, produced by dissociation of CH4, with small but significant traces of ethane and HCN, all species that have been detected in Titan's atmo...

  17. High level of male-biased Scandinavian admixture in Greenlandic Inuit shown by Y-chromosomal analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosch, Elena; Calafell, Francesc; Rosser, Zoë H;

    2003-01-01

    that precedes the split between European and Native American populations, it is possible to assign chromosomes in an admixed population to either continental source. On this basis, 58+/-6% of these Y chromosomes have been assigned to a European origin. The high proportion of European Y chromosomes contrasts...

  18. Structural Investigations of Portland Cement Components, Hydration, and Effects of Admixtures by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Jørgen Bengaard; Andersen, Morten D.; Jakobsen, Hans Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    for the C-S-H phase formed during hydration. It will be demonstrated that Al3+ and flouride guest-ions in the anhydrous and hydrated calcium silicates can be studied in detail by 27Al and 19F MAS NMR, thereby providing information on the local structure and the mechanisms for incorporation of these ions...... in the cement phases. The role of flouride ions is of special interest for mineralized Portland cements and it demonstrated that the location of these anions in anhydrous and hydrated Portland cements can be clarified using 19F MAS or 29Si{19F} CP/MAS NMR despite these cements contain only about 0.2 wt...

  19. GWAS in an Amerindian ancestry population reveals novel systemic lupus erythematosus risk loci and the role of European admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Ziegler, Julie T.; Molineros, Julio; Howard, Timothy D.; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Elena; Ainsworth, Hannah C.; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Comeau, Mary E.; Rasmussen, Astrid; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Adler, Adam; Acevedo-Vázquez, Eduardo; Cucho, Jorge Mariano; García-De la Torre, Ignacio; Cardiel, Mario H.; Miranda, Pedro; Catoggio, Luis; Maradiaga-Ceceña, Marco; Gaffney, Patrick; Vyse, Timothy; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Tsao, Betty P.; Sivils, Kathy L.; Bae, Sang-Cheol; James, Judith A.; Kimberly, Robert; Kaufman, Ken; Harley, John B.; Esquivel-Valerio, Jorge; Moctezuma, José F.; García, Mercedes A.; Berbotto, Guillermo; Babini, Alejandra; Scherbarth, Hugo; Toloza, Sergio; Baca, Vicente; Nath, Swapan K.; Salinas, Carlos Aguilar; Orozco, Lorena; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Zidovetzki, Raphael; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Jacob, Chaim O.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component. Our aim was to perform the first genome-wide association study on individuals from the Americas enriched for Native American heritage. MATERIALS and METHODS We analyzed 3,710 individuals from four countries of Latin America and the Unites States diagnosed with SLE and healthy controls. Samples were genotyped with the HumanOmni1 BeadChip. Data of out-of-study controls was obtained for the HumanOmni2.5. Statistical analyses were performed using SNPTEST and SNPGWA. Data was adjusted for genomic control and FDR. Imputation was done using IMPUTE2, and HiBAG for classical HLA alleles. RESULTS The IRF5-TNPO3 region showed the strongest association and largest odds ratio (OR) (rs10488631, Pgcadj = 2.61×10−29, OR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.88–2.39) followed by the HLA class II on the DQA2-DQB1 loci (rs9275572, Pgcadj = 1.11 × 10−16, OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.46–1.80; rs9271366, Pgcadj=6.46 × 10−12, OR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.71–2.50). Other known SLE loci associated were ITGAM, STAT4, TNIP1, NCF2 and IRAK1. We identified a novel locus on 10q24.33 (rs4917385, Pgcadj =1.4×10−8) with a eQTL effect (Peqtl=8.0 × 10−37 at USMG5/miR1307), and describe novel loci. We corroborate SLE-risk loci previously identified in European and Asians. Local ancestry estimation showed that HLA allele risk contribution is of European ancestral origin. Imputation of HLA alleles suggested that autochthonous Native American haplotypes provide protection. CONCLUSIONS Our results show the insight gained by studying admixed populations to delineate the genetic architecture that underlies autoimmune and complex diseases. PMID:26606652

  20. CO2 Reaction with Hydrated Class H Well Cement under Geologic Sequestration Conditions: Effects of Flyash Admixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchko, Barbara G. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Strazisar, Brian R. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Huerta, Nicolas [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Lowry, Gregory V. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Dzombak, David A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Thaulow, Niels [RJ Lee Group, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2009-05-15

    The rate and mechanism of reaction of pozzolan-amended Class H cement exposed to both supercritical CO2 and CO2-saturated brine were determined under geologic sequestration conditions to assess the potential impact of cement degradation in existing wells on CO2 storage integrity. The pozzolan additive chosen, Type F flyash, is the most common additive used in cements for well sealing in oil-gas field operations. The 35:65 and 65:35 (v/v) pozzolancement blends were exposed to supercritical CO2 and CO2-saturated brine and underwent cement carbonation. Extrapolation of the carbonation rate for the 35:65 case suggests a penetration depth of 170-180 mm far both the CO2-saturated brine and supercritical CO2 after 30 years. Despite alteration in both pozzolan systems, the reacted cement remained relatively impermeable to fluid flow after exposure to brine solution saturated with CO2, with values well below the American Petroleum Institute recommended maximum well cement permeability of 200 mu D. Analyses of 50:50 pozzolan-cement cores from a production well in a sandstone reservoir exhibited carbonation and low permeability to brine solution saturated with CO2, which are consistent with our laboratory findings.

  1. CO{sub 2} reaction with hydrated class H well cement under geologic sequestration conditions: effects of flyash admixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbara G. Kutchko; Brian R. Strazisar; Nicolas Huerta; Gregory V. Lowry; David A. Dzombak; Niels Thaulow [United States Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2009-05-15

    The rate and mechanism of reaction of pozzolan-amended Class H cement exposed to both supercritical CO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}-saturated brine were determined under geologic sequestration conditions to assess the potential impact of cement degradation in existing wells on CO{sub 2} storage integrity. The pozzolan additive chosen, Type F flyash, a by-product of coal combustion, is the most common additive used in cements for well sealing in oil-gas field operations. The 35:65 and 65:35 (v/v) pozzolan-cement blends were exposed to supercritical CO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}-saturated brine and underwent cement carbonation. Extrapolation of the carbonation rate for the 35:65 case suggests a penetration depth of 170-180 mm for both the CO{sub 2}-saturated brine and supercritical CO{sub 2} after 30 years. Despite alteration in both pozzolan systems, the reacted cement remained relatively impermeable to fluid flow after exposure to brine solution saturated with CO{sub 2}, with values well below the American Petroleum Institute recommended maximum well cement permeability of 200 {mu}D. Analyses of 50:50 pozzolan-cement cores from a production well in a sandstone reservoir exhibited carbonation and low permeability to brine solution saturated with CO{sub 2}, which are consistent with our laboratory findings. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. CO2 reaction with hydrated class H well cement under geologic sequestration conditions: effects of flyash admixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchko, Barbara G; Strazisar, Brian R; Huerta, Nicolas; Lowry, Gregory V; Dzombak, David A; Thaulow, Niels

    2009-05-15

    The rate and mechanism of reaction of pozzolan-amended Class H cement exposed to both supercritical CO2 and CO2-saturated brine were determined under geologic sequestration conditions to assess the potential impact of cement degradation in existing, wells on CO2 storage integrity. The pozzolan additive chosen, Type F flyash, is the most common additive used in cements for well sealing in oil-gas field operations. The 35:65 and 65:35 (v/v) pozzolan-cement blends were exposed to supercritical CO2 and CO2-saturated brine and underwent cement carbonation. Extrapolation of the carbonation rate for the 35:65 case suggests a penetration depth of 170-180 mm for both the CO2-saturated brine and supercritical CO2 after 30 years. Despite alteration in both pozzolan systems, the reacted cement remained relatively impermeable to fluid flow after exposure to brine solution saturated with CO2, with values well below the American Petroleum Institute recommended maximum well cement permeability of 200 microD. Analyses of 50: 50 pozzolan-cement cores from a production well in a sandstone reservoir exhibited carbonation and low permeability to brine solution saturated with CO2, which are consistent with our laboratory findings.

  3. The Asymptotical Analysis for the Problem of Modeling the Gas Admixture in the Surface Layer of the Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Davydova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the model boundary value problem for a stationary singularly perturbed reaction-diffusion-advection equation arising at the description of gas impurity transfer processes in an ecosystem ”forest – swamp” is considered. Application of a boundary functions method and an asymptotic method of differential inequalities allow to construct an asymptotics of the boundary layer type solution, to prove the existence of the solution with such an asymptotics and its asymptotic stability by Lyapunov as the stationary solution of the corresponding parabolic problem with the definition of local area of boundary layer type solution formation. The latter has a certain importance for applications, since it allows to reveal the solution describing one of the most probable conditions of the ecosystem. In the final part of the work sufficient conditions for existence of solutions with interior transitional layers (contrast structures are discussed.

  4. CO2 reaction with hydrated class H well cement under geologic sequestration conditions: effects of flyash admixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchko, Barbara G; Strazisar, Brian R; Huerta, Nicolas; Lowry, Gregory V; Dzombak, David A; Thaulow, Niels

    2009-05-15

    The rate and mechanism of reaction of pozzolan-amended Class H cement exposed to both supercritical CO2 and CO2-saturated brine were determined under geologic sequestration conditions to assess the potential impact of cement degradation in existing, wells on CO2 storage integrity. The pozzolan additive chosen, Type F flyash, is the most common additive used in cements for well sealing in oil-gas field operations. The 35:65 and 65:35 (v/v) pozzolan-cement blends were exposed to supercritical CO2 and CO2-saturated brine and underwent cement carbonation. Extrapolation of the carbonation rate for the 35:65 case suggests a penetration depth of 170-180 mm for both the CO2-saturated brine and supercritical CO2 after 30 years. Despite alteration in both pozzolan systems, the reacted cement remained relatively impermeable to fluid flow after exposure to brine solution saturated with CO2, with values well below the American Petroleum Institute recommended maximum well cement permeability of 200 microD. Analyses of 50: 50 pozzolan-cement cores from a production well in a sandstone reservoir exhibited carbonation and low permeability to brine solution saturated with CO2, which are consistent with our laboratory findings. PMID:19544912

  5. Unexpected patterns of admixture in German populations of Aedes Japonicus Japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) underscore the importance of human intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Zielke, Dorothee E; Werner, Doreen; Schaffner, Francis; Kampen, Helge; Dina M Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus, originally restricted to temperate East Asia, is now widespread in North America and more recently has become established in Europe. To ascertain the putative number of separate introductions to Europe and examine patterns of expansion we analyzed the genetic makeup of Ae. j. japonicus populations from five cemeteries in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, two western German federal states, as well as of specimens from populations in Belgiu...

  6. Unexpected Patterns of Admixture in German Populations of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) Underscore the Importance of Human Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Zielke, Dorothee E; Doreen Werner; Francis Schaffner; Helge Kampen; Dina M Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus, originally restricted to temperate East Asia, is now widespread in North America and more recently has become established in Europe. To ascertain the putative number of separate introductions to Europe and examine patterns of expansion we analyzed the genetic makeup of Ae. j. japonicus populations from five cemeteries in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, two western German federal states, as well as of specimens from populations in Belgiu...

  7. Ancient wolf genome reveals an early divergence of domestic dog ancestors and admixture into high-latitude breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, Pontus; Ersmark, Erik; Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Dalén, Love

    2015-06-01

    The origin of domestic dogs is poorly understood [1-15], with suggested evidence of dog-like features in fossils that predate the Last Glacial Maximum [6, 9, 10, 14, 16] conflicting with genetic estimates of a more recent divergence between dogs and worldwide wolf populations [13, 15, 17-19]. Here, we present a draft genome sequence from a 35,000-year-old wolf from the Taimyr Peninsula in northern Siberia. We find that this individual belonged to a population that diverged from the common ancestor of present-day wolves and dogs very close in time to the appearance of the domestic dog lineage. We use the directly dated ancient wolf genome to recalibrate the molecular timescale of wolves and dogs and find that the mutation rate is substantially slower than assumed by most previous studies, suggesting that the ancestors of dogs were separated from present-day wolves before the Last Glacial Maximum. We also find evidence of introgression from the archaic Taimyr wolf lineage into present-day dog breeds from northeast Siberia and Greenland, contributing between 1.4% and 27.3% of their ancestry. This demonstrates that the ancestry of present-day dogs is derived from multiple regional wolf populations.

  8. Effect of several additives and their admixtures on the physico-chemical properties of a calcium phosphate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohner, M; Merkle, H P; Landuyt, P V; Trophardy, G; Lemaitre, J

    2000-02-01

    Combinations of citrate (C6H5O(7)3-), pyrophosphate (P2O(7)4-) and sulfate (SO(4)2-) ions were used to modify the physico-chemical properties of a calcium phosphate cement (CPC) composed of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and phosphoric acid (PA) solution. The results obtained with only one additive at a time are similar to those previously published. New facts are: the positive effect of C6H5O(7)3- ions on cement failure strain and their negative effect on cement pH. The position of the setting time maximum measured at an SO(4)2- concentration of 0.09 M was not displaced by the addition of C6H5O(7)3- and P2O(7)4- ions. However, the effect of SO(4)2- ions on the setting time was depressed by C6H5O(7)3- ions. Moreover, no increase in tensile strength was observed when increasing amounts of SO(4)2- were added into a C6H5O(7)3--containing cement. The latter results suggest a competitive effect of C6H5O(7)3- and SO(4)2- on setting time and tensile strength. Anhydrous dicalcium phosphate (DCP; CaHPO4) appeared in cement samples dried just after setting, but not in cement samples incubated for 24 h in deionized water before the drying step. It is believed that the setting reaction is stopped by the drying step, leaving a low internal pH in the sample, hence providing favorable conditions for the transformation of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) into DCP. Interestingly, even though C6H5O(7)3- ions dramatically lowered the equilibrium pH of the cement with 5 ml of deionized water, they still prevented the occurrence of the transformation of DCPD into DCP.

  9. Comparative sequence analysis of Toxoplasma gondii reveals local genomic admixture drives concerted expansion and diversification of secreted pathogenesis determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is among the most prevalent parasites worldwide, infecting many wild and domestic animals and causing zoonotic infections in humans. T. gondii differs substantially in its broad distribution from closely related parasites that typically have narrow, specialized host ranges. To un...

  10. Comparative genomic sequence variation of Toxoplasma gondii reveals local admixture drives concerted expansion and diversification of secreted pathogenesis determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is among the most abundant parasites world-wide, infecting many wild and domestic animals and causing zoonotic infections in humans. T. gondii differs substantially in its distribution from closely related parasites that typically have narrow, specialized host ranges. We undertook...

  11. Understanding geographic origins and history of admixture among chimpanzees in European zoos, with implications for future breeding programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Christina; Frandsen, Peter; Børsting, Claus;

    2013-01-01

    the European zoos could be assigned to one of the recognized subspecies. The majority being of West African origin (40%) will help consolidate the current breeding programme for this subspecies and the identification of individuals belonging to the two other subspecies so far found in European zoos can form...... the range of the species in Africa, and 20% of the European zoo population. We applied the knowledge about subspecies differentiation throughout equatorial Africa to assign origin to chimpanzees in the largest conservation management programme globally. A total of 63% of the genotyped chimpanzees from...... the basis for breeding programmes for these. Individuals of various degree of mixed ancestry made up 37% of the genotyped European zoo population and thus highlight the need for appropriate management programmes guided by genetic analysis to preserve maximum genetic diversity and reduce hybridization among...

  12. Influence of The Activated Qatari Attapulgite Clay Admixture on The Mechanical Properties and Hydration Kinetics of Ordinary Portland Cement

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Noaimi, Kawkab Kh. [كوكب النعيمي

    2001-01-01

    Blended cements are types of cements containing additives other than those used m Portland cement, which have considerable technological interest, because such addition increases the chemical resistance to sulfate and chloride attack. The present investigation represents a laboratory study, which provides a unique opportunity to introduce an effective practical attempt to deal with the problem of concrete deterioration m Qatar and the Arabian Gulf region, and to provide a solution to the prob...

  13. Analysis Technique on Water Permeability in Concrete with Cold Joint considering Micro Pore Structure and Mineral Admixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Jin Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold joint in concrete due to delayed concrete placing may cause a reduced shear resistance and increased water permeation. This study presents an analytical model based on the concept of REV (Representative Element Volume to assess the effect of water permeability in cold joint concrete. Here, OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement concrete samples with cold joint are prepared and WPT (Water Permeability Test is performed on the samples cured for 91 days. In order to account for the effect of GGBFS (Granulated Ground Blast Furnace Slag on water permeability, concrete samples with the same W/B (Water to Binder ratio and 40% replacement ratio of GGBFS are tested as well. Utilizing the previous models handling porosity and saturation, the analysis technique for equivalent water permeability with effective cold joint width is proposed. Water permeability in cold joint increases to 140.7% in control case but it decreases to 120.7% through GGBFS replacement. Simulation results agree reasonably well with experimental data gathered for sound and cold joint concrete.

  14. Admixture analysis of stocked brown trout populations using mapped microsatellite DNA markers: indigenous trout persist in introgressed populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    2009-01-01

    , but resolution is low if genetic differentiation is weak. Here, we analyse stocked brown trout populations represented by historical (1943-1956) and contemporary (2000s) samples, where genetic differentiation between wild populations and stocked trout is weak (pair-wise F-ST of 0.047 and 0.053). By...

  15. Strong genetic admixture in the Altai at the Middle Bronze Age revealed by uniparental and ancestry informative markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollard, Clémence; Keyser, Christine; Giscard, Pierre-Henri; Tsagaan, Turbat; Bayarkhuu, Noost; Bemmann, Jan; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2014-09-01

    The Altai Mountains have been a long-term boundary zone between the Eurasian Steppe populations and South and East Asian populations. To disentangle some of the historical population movements in this area, 14 ancient human specimens excavated in the westernmost part of the Mongolian Altai were studied. Thirteen of them were dated from the Middle to the End of the Bronze Age and one of them to the Eneolithic period. The environmental conditions encountered in this region led to the good preservation of DNA in the human remains. Therefore, a multi-markers approach was adopted for the genetic analysis of identity, ancestry and phenotype markers. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that the ancient Altaians studied carried both Western (H, U, T) and Eastern (A, C, D) Eurasian lineages. In the same way, the patrilineal gene pool revealed the presence of different haplogroups (Q1a2a1-L54, R1a1a1b2-Z93 and C), probably marking different origins for the male paternal lineages. To go further in the search of the origin of these ancient specimens, phenotypical characters (i.e. hair and eye color) were determined. For this purpose, we adapted the HIrisPlex assay recently described to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. In addition, some ancestry informative markers were analyzed with this assay. The results revealed mixed phenotypes among this group confirming the probable admixed ancestry of the studied Altaian population at the Middle Bronze Age. The good results obtained from ancient DNA samples suggest that this approach might be relevant for forensic casework too. PMID:25016250

  16. Route to enhance the efficiency of organic photovoltaic solar cells - by adding ferroelectric nanoparticles to P3HT/PCBM admixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black David

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that by adding ferroelectric nanoparticles to poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM photovoltaic devices the relative efficiency can be increased compared to the same blend without these nanoparticles. In this work samples of 20 mg/ml concentrations of P3HT and PCBM were prepared in a 1:1 ratio and the samples prepared using ferroelectric barium titanate (BT and strontium titanate (ST nanoparticles in a 1:1:0.5 ratio. The samples were spin coated onto ITO coated glass with a layer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophenepoly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS. A top electrode of aluminium 1 cm2 was deposited. The current-voltage characteristics of the devices were determined using a solar simulator and the absorption characteristics by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The samples with BT and ST exhibited increased absorption around 490 nm and increased open circuit voltage and short circuit current compared to the control P3HT/PCBM sample. The possible mechanism that helps to understand the increase in open circuit voltage and short circuit current is also proposed in this work.

  17. Investigation on ASR of Geopolymer Mortar and Cement Mortar with Mineral Admixtures%土壤聚合物和水泥砂浆的碱-硅反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克亮; 黄国泓; 徐辉; 王冬; 张奎

    2005-01-01

    为了比较分析土壤聚合物和含有矿物掺合料的水泥砂浆的碱-硅反应(ASR)问题.参照我国水工混凝土标准DL/T5151-2001和ASTM C 441-97进行了抑制骨料碱活性效能的试验.试验结果表明:掺加矿物掺合料能够有效地抑制ASR.当5%硅粉、20%粉煤灰和40%磨细矿渣共同掺入砂浆时,90d的膨胀率仅有0.13%,即降低了81.9%.对加压挤出的硬化水泥浆体孔溶液进行化学分析,发现矿物掺合料的加入降低了孔溶液中钾、钠离子和氢氧根离子的浓度,这是减少ASR危害的根本原因.土壤聚合物是一种无定形的无机材料,由偏高岭土、硅粉在高碱条件下制得.土壤聚合物的碱含量很高,达到12.1%,但土壤聚合物砂浆没有产生任何膨胀,其原因是土壤聚合物中没有充足的游离碱与活性骨料反应,因此不会产生危害性ASR.

  18. 活性掺合料再生混凝土抗冻性能试验%Experiment on the frost resistance of active admixture recycled concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈爱玖; 孙晓培; 张敏; 王静

    2014-01-01

    The concrete engineering is worst affected by frost damage in north area of China.analysis of five factors (slag powder,fly ash,air-entraining agent,polypropylene fiber and recycled coarse aggregate) on the influence law of recycled concrete frost resistance by orthogonal test.Find out the most important influence factors on relative loss modulus and compressive strength of recycled concrete ,by compare the recycled concrete freeze-thaw cycle 0 times and 200 times,loss modulus and compressive strength,then analysis of the mech-anism of recycled concrete.%我国北方地区的混凝土工程是受冻害最严重的地区。采用正交试验法分析矿渣粉、粉煤灰、引气剂、聚丙烯纤维和再生粗骨料对再生混凝土抗冻性的影响规律,即:对比再生混凝土冻融循环次数0、200次的质量损失、相对动弹模量、抗压强度,找出对再生混凝土的相对动弹模量和抗压强度影响最大的因素,并对影响机理进行分析。

  19. Effect of different concrete admixtures on the solidification of incinerated sludge ash%污泥焚烧灰固化处理技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭丽园; 金艳; 袁海平; 朱南文

    2012-01-01

    The effects of four solidifying agents (Portland cement, aluminate cement, Kaolin and p-naphthalene superplasticizer) on the solidification of incinerated sludge ash were studied in this paper. The compressive strength and the heavy metals leaching toxicity of obtained incinerated sludge ash solidification blocks was measured, and the composition and microstructure of the solidification blocks was detected by XRD and SEM. The results showed that all the four solidifying agents could improve the compressive strength of the solidification blocks. The optimum mixing amount of portland cement, aluminate cement, Kaolin and β-naphthalene superplasticizer were 10, 30, 20 and 1. 0 g respectively. The XRD and SEM analysis showed that the structure of the solidification blocks was dense; Quartz, CaAl2Si2Os, Ca2 Al2SiO7 and other materials could be found in solidification blocks, they were presumed to be beneficial to improve the compressive strength of the solidification blocks.%研究了硅酸盐水泥、高铝水泥、高岭土和β-萘系减水剂在污泥焚烧灰固化技术中的应用效果.考察了污泥焚烧灰固化块(以下简称固化块)的抗压强度,测定了固化块的重金属浸出毒性,并采用X射线衍射(XRD)和扫描电镜(SEM)分析固化块组成和微观结构.结果表明,4种物质对提高固化块的抗压强度均具有较好的效果,硅酸盐水泥、高铝水泥、高岭土和β-萘系减水剂的适宜掺量分别为10、30、20、1.0 g(以100 g污泥焚烧灰中掺加的质量计).XRD和SEM分析结果显示,经固化处理后制得的固化块结构密实,存在石英( SiO2)、水化硅铝酸钙(CaAl2 Si2 O8)和水化硅酸铝钙(Ca2 Al2 SiO7)等物质,其中水化硅铝酸钙等凝胶物质有利于提高固化块的抗压强度.

  20. Genetic admixture, social-behavioral factors, and body composition are associated with blood pressure differently by racial-ethnic group among children.

    OpenAIRE

    Klimentidis, Yann C.; Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Casazza, Krista; Willig, Amanda L.; Allison, David B.; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease has a progressively earlier age of onset, and disproportionately affects African Americans in the US. It has been difficult to establish the extent to which group differences are due to physiological, genetic, social, or behavioral factors. In this study, we examined the association between blood pressure and these factors among a sample of 294 children, identified as African-, European-, or Hispanic-American. We use body composition, behavioral (diet and physical activ...

  1. Testing models of speciation from genome sequences: divergence and asymmetric admixture in Island Southeast Asian Sus species during the Plio-Pleistocene climatic fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantz, L.A.F.; Madsen, O.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Groenen, M.; Lohse, H.

    2014-01-01

    In many temperate regions, ice ages promoted range contractions into refugia resulting in divergence (and potentially speciation), while warmer periods led to range expansions and hybridization. However, the impact these climatic oscillations had in many parts of the tropics remains elusive. Here, w

  2. Formulación de mezclas intratecales para el tratamiento del dolor Compounding of drug admixtures for intrathecal treatment of pain

    OpenAIRE

    M. P. Ortega-García; A. Mínguez-Martí; M. D. López Alarcón; J. de Andrés-Ibáñez; GARCÍA-LÓPEZ, M.

    2012-01-01

    Las mezclas de fármacos en analgesia intratecal están recomendadas en documentos de consenso internacionales, sin embargo pocos datos existen sobre su estabilidad y seguridad. El objetivo de esta revisión es evaluar los requerimientos específicos a tener en cuenta en la preparación de mezclas intratecales y revisar los estudios de estabilidad publicados de las mezclas de fármacos recomendadas en terapia analgésica. Las mezclas intratecales tienen unas particularidades especiales a la hora de ...

  3. HLA polymorphism in a Guarani-Indian population from Paraguay and its usefulness for the Hispano-Indian admixture study in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, O; Busson, M; Charron, D; Loiseau, P

    2011-02-01

    In this study we investigated the human leucocyte antigen-A (HLA-A), -B and DRB1 polymorphism of Native American population of Paraguay, the Guarani Indians. We found that the HLA variability consisted of 5 HLA-A, 7 HLA-B and 6 HLA-DRB1 groups of alleles and of several specific alleles (B*1504, B*3505, B*3912, B*4004, B*5104, DRB1*0411, DRB1*1413) common in other Native American populations. The comparison of the HLA polymorphism of the Guaranis from Paraguay with the «Mestizos» of Paraguay and the Spaniards showed that the «Mestizos» of Paraguay are genetically very distant from the Guarani Indians of Paraguay but much more close to the Spaniards. This can be explained, at least in part, by the history of the country. Our results are of importance in transplantation, in particular in the search for an unrelated donor for a Paraguayan patient requiring hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  4. New method to assess the pozzolanic reactivity of mineral admixtures by means of pH and electrical conductivity measurements in lime:pozzolan suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashima, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A very simple method based on electrical conductivity and pH measurements was proposed for assessing reactivity of pozzolans. Calcium hydroxide:pozzolan water suspensions were monitored by means of measurements of electrical conductivity and pH values. In these suspensions, Ca(OH2 in solid state was initially present, being them, thus, saturated in this reagent. Three testing temperatures were selected (40, 50 and 60 °C. In the experiments carried out, calcium hydroxide was suspended in deionized water for yielding a lime saturated suspension. The addition of siliceous pozzolan (two types of rice husk ash RHA and two types of densified silica fume DSF were tested to the saturated lime suspension can produce the unsaturation of the system, depending on the testing time, testing temperature and reactivity of pozzolan. When unsaturation was reached, the loss of electrical conductivity was higher than 30% and the variation of pH was higher than 0.15 units. These threshold values were selected for characterizing the reactivity of pozzolans by means of a proposed template, classifying the pozzolan in three different reactivity levels.En este trabajo se propone un método simple basado en medidas de conductividad eléctrica y pH. Se determinaron los valores de conductividad eléctrica y pH de suspensiones acuosas de hidróxido cálcico:puzolana. En las suspensiones, había inicialmente Ca(OH2 en estado sólido, de manera que dichas suspensiones estaban, por tanto, saturadas respecto a ese reactivo. Se seleccionaron tres temperaturas de trabajo (40, 50 and 60 °C. En las experiencias, el hidróxido cálcico fue mezclado con agua desionizada, generando una suspensión saturada en cal. La adición de puzolana silícea (se ensayaron dos tipos de ceniza de cáscara de arroz y dos tipos de humo de sílice densificado a la suspensión saturada de cal puede producir la insaturación del sistema, dependiendo del tiempo, temperatura y reactividad de la puzolana. Cuando se alcanza la insaturación, la pérdida de conductividad eléctrica fue mayor a 30% y la variación de pH fue mayor que 0.15 unidades. Estos valores umbral fueron seleccionados para caracterizar la reactividad de las puzolanas por medio de una plantilla propuesta al efecto, clasificando la puzolana en tres niveles de reactividad diferentes.

  5. Fluid Mechanics Prize-Otto Laporte Lecture: The Art of Mixing with an Admixture of Art: Fluids, Solids, and Visual Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottino, Julio Mario

    2008-11-01

    Arguably, fluid dynamics is intimately linked with visual imagination more than any other branch of physical sciences. A particular example is mixing. Fluid mixing, and under more limited circumstances, granular mixing, can be placed in the framework of dynamical systems and a geometric viewpoint. On the fluid mixing side, the physical connection can be traced back to the stretching and folding of fluid elements and possibility of representation motions in terms of transformations. This opens a wealth of possibilities --- the mathematical machinery of dynamical systems on the theory side, and the possibility of inventing devices on the practical side. There are notable differences as well: granular materials un-mix or segregate, often spectacularly so, and some aspects of segregation can also be incorporated in the mathematical framework. A technical review will highlight key points in both areas -- experiments, applications, and the many branches that have taken root since the mid-1980s. However, much of this could have taken place sooner. The basic mechanisms and key experimental results in both areas were identified early: the stretching and folding mechanism of mixing was pointed out by Osborne Reynolds in 1893-1895, and a key segregation mechanism of granular mixtures was noted by Yositisi Oyama in 1939. In what may appear surprising on a first viewing, these leads were not followed. Ideas, in order to be embraced, need to fit with the canonical knowledge of the times.

  6. Influence of Waste Ceramic Admixture on Ceramic Sintering Properties%废瓷掺量料对陶瓷烧成性能影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王群; 程小苏; 曾令可; 王慧

    2013-01-01

    陶瓷行业的快速发展带来了废瓷污染问题,其危害日趋严重,亟待解决.充分利用废瓷的特性,将其变废为宝,能提高产品的质量,同时也是缓解环境压力和实现节能降耗的一条重要途径,具有广阔的应用前景.

  7. The Influence of CO2 Admixtures on the Product Composition in a Nitrogen-Methane Atmospheric Glow Discharge Used as a Prebiotic Atmosphere Mimic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazankova, V.; Torokova, L.; Krcma, F.; Mason, N. J.; Matejcik, S.

    2016-11-01

    This work extends our previous experimental studies of the chemistry of Titan's atmosphere by atmospheric glow discharge. The Titan's atmosphere seems to be similarly to early Earth atmospheric composition. The exploration of Titan atmosphere was initiated by the exciting results of the Cassini-Huygens mission and obtained results increased the interest about prebiotic atmospheres. Present work is devoted to the role of CO2 in the prebiotic atmosphere chemistry. Most of the laboratory studies of such atmosphere were focused on the chemistry of N2 + CH4 mixtures. The present work is devoted to the study of the oxygenated volatile species in prebiotic atmosphere, specifically CO2 reactivity. CO2 was introduced to the standard N2 + CH4 mixture at different mixing ratio up to 5 % CH4 and 3 % CO2. The reaction products were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. This work shows that CO2 modifies the composition of the gas phase with the detection of oxygenated compounds: CO and others oxides. There is a strong influence of CO2 on increasing concentration other products as cyanide (HCN) and ammonia (NH3).

  8. The Influence of CO2 Admixtures on the Product Composition in a Nitrogen-Methane Atmospheric Glow Discharge Used as a Prebiotic Atmosphere Mimic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazankova, V.; Torokova, L.; Krcma, F.; Mason, N. J.; Matejcik, S.

    2016-04-01

    This work extends our previous experimental studies of the chemistry of Titan's atmosphere by atmospheric glow discharge. The Titan's atmosphere seems to be similarly to early Earth atmospheric composition. The exploration of Titan atmosphere was initiated by the exciting results of the Cassini-Huygens mission and obtained results increased the interest about prebiotic atmospheres. Present work is devoted to the role of CO2 in the prebiotic atmosphere chemistry. Most of the laboratory studies of such atmosphere were focused on the chemistry of N2 + CH4 mixtures. The present work is devoted to the study of the oxygenated volatile species in prebiotic atmosphere, specifically CO2 reactivity. CO2 was introduced to the standard N2 + CH4 mixture at different mixing ratio up to 5 % CH4 and 3 % CO2. The reaction products were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. This work shows that CO2 modifies the composition of the gas phase with the detection of oxygenated compounds: CO and others oxides. There is a strong influence of CO2 on increasing concentration other products as cyanide (HCN) and ammonia (NH3).

  9. 矿物掺合料对珊瑚砂混凝土性能的影响%Effect of Mineral Admixtures on Coral Sand Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈友治; 马章强; 孙涛; 程书凯

    2016-01-01

    该文以珊瑚砂作为细骨料来配制C30珊瑚砂混凝土,研究了粉煤灰、矿粉、偏高岭土对珊瑚砂混凝土的力学性能、氯离子扩散系数影响规律,并通过 XRD、TG对其微观机理进行初步分析。研究结果表明,掺加粉煤灰会降低珊瑚砂混凝土的强度,矿粉对于珊瑚砂混凝土的强度影响较小,而掺加偏高岭土会明显提高珊瑚砂混凝土的抗压强度和降低氯离子扩散系数,减少Ca(OH)2的含量,使珊瑚砂混凝土的渗透性能得到优化。%The coral sand was used as fine aggregate to formulate C30 coral sand concrete.And the influence of fly ash,slag,metakaolin ws studied on the mechanical properties and chloride ion diffusion coefficient of coral sand con-crete,and then using XRD,TG their preliminary microscopic mechanism was analyzed.The results showed that,fly ash will reduce the strength of coral sand concrete,slag has little influence for the coral sand concrete,while metakaolin will significantly improve the compressive strength of coral sand concrete and reduce the chloride ion diffusion coefficient, reduce Ca(OH)2 content of concrete,and the permeability of concrete are optimized.

  10. Analysis of irrational medical order in pharmacy intravenous admixture services%静脉用药调配中心不合理医嘱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亚鹏; 雷伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the irrationality prescription, to provide reference for promoting clinical rational drug use.Meth-ods:Collected in our hospital from January 2014 to August 2014 in the center of the trial with the static record of irrational prescribing pharmacists side, inductive analysis.Results:Solvent improper selection, concentration problems, frequency and joint improper of drug use, wrong copy of medical order were included in unreasonable medical order.Conclution:The safety and rationality of intravenous thera-py were improved by the pharmacist review of prescription through the platform of PIVAS, Which provided references for clinical rational drug use.%目的:分析静脉用药调配中心常见审方实例,促进临床合理用药。方法:收集我院2014年1月~2014年8月静配中心审方药师记录的不合理处方,归纳分析。结果:不合理医嘱存在问题主要有存在配伍禁忌、溶媒选择不当、给药剂量药浓度不当、给药频次不适宜等问题。结论:通过对静脉用药调配中心处方医嘱的审核、分析与干预,提高了我院静脉药物治疗的安全性、有效性、合理性,促进了临床合理用药,提高了患者满意度。

  11. Material and Structural Performance Evaluations of Hwangtoh Admixtures and Recycled PET Fiber-Added Eco-Friendly Concrete for CO2 Emission Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Bon-Min Koo; Jang-Ho Jay Kim; Sung-Bae Kim; Sungho Mun

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and produce an eco-friendly construction material, a type of concrete that uses a minimal amount of cement, yet still retains equivalent properties to ordinary cement concrete, has been developed and studied all over the world. Hwangtoh, a type of red clay broadly deposited around the world, has traditionally been considered an eco-friendly construction material, with bonus advantages of having health and cost benefits. Presently, Hwangtoh is ...

  12. Odpornost betona z dodatkom reciklirane gume proti zmrzovanju in tajanju: Freeze-thaw durability of concrete with recycle tire rubber and chemical admixtures:

    OpenAIRE

    Jelušič, Primož; Lubej, Samo; Ivanič, Andrej

    2013-01-01

    Scrap tires and fly ash are being generated and accumulated in large volumes causing an increasing threat to the environment. There are mechanical, environmental and economic reasons to include recycled rubber and fly ash in concrete mixture. The concrete mixture with recycled rubber and fly ash is presented. Concrete used in foundations of non-load bearing structures should be a minimum strength classification of C12/15. In the paper, the freeze-thaw resistance of rubber included concrete wi...

  13. New-generation Polycarboxylate Admixture Technology and Applications%新一代聚羧酸盐外加剂技术及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭景强; 齐广华

    2010-01-01

    西卡ViscoCrete新一代聚羧酸盐外加剂属第三代高性能外加剂,是生产高强混凝土的重要原材料.本文主要介绍聚羧酸外加剂的发展及在高强自密实混凝土、耐久性混凝土、清水混凝土、预应力预制梁、高层泵送及长距离泵送混凝土等不同混凝土领域的工程应用情况.

  14. 保坍型聚羧酸减水剂的吸附-分散机理%Adsorption-dispersion mechanism of polycarboxylate admixture for slump retention (PCA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵越; 蒋亚清; 张敏杰

    2016-01-01

    分析了保坍型聚羧酸减水剂(PCA)的等温吸附特性,利用XRD研究了PCA在C3A水化产物中的插层行为,基于TGDSC定量了掺与不掺减水剂的水泥浆体中的钙矾石(AFt)和单硫型水化硫铝酸钙(AFm).结果表明,PCA可在水化铝酸钙中插层,形成的有机金属矿物相在水泥水化体系中逐步转化为AFm,加之PCA促进了水泥水化初期AFt和AFm形成,使1h吸附量降低.促进水化硫铝酸钙形成及提高溶液经时平衡浓度是保坍型聚羧酸减水剂的主要作用机制.

  15. RHEOPLUS:新改良聚羧酸醚类外加剂%RHEOPLUS:A new modified polycarboxylate-based admixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨健英; Sven M.F.Asmus

    2004-01-01

    新一代聚羧酸醚类(PCE)减水剂RHEOPLUS已成功开发.研究发现,REOPLUS与多种水泥兼容性良好,主要表现在掺量的高效性和良好的坍落度保持能力.其卓越的性能也同样体现在高流动混凝土的应用中,即良好的泵送性、和易性、抗离析和坍落度/流动度保持能力等.此外,RHEOPLUS对早期强度的改善也为其在预制构件中的应用带来了优势.相关研究正在进行,并已取得了一些阶段性成果.

  16. 聚羧酸系外加剂与水泥的适应性研究%Study on Compatibility Between Polycarboxylic Admixtures and Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于涛

    2011-01-01

    本文针对混凝土中聚羧酸系外加剂与水泥的适应性进行系统的试验,研究了水泥中碱含量、水泥的细度和掺量对聚羧酸系外加剂适应性的影响.通过混凝土配合比的设计及试验,确定水泥对聚羧酸系外加剂适应性的影响规律,并通过试验指导实际生产,保证混凝土的各项性能满足施工及技术要求.试验结果表明,在本实验范围内,随着水泥中碱含量的增加和水泥细度的增加,混凝土拌和物的坍落度损失也随之增大,满足工作性时聚羧酸系外加剂的掺量也需相应增大;混凝土早期抗压强度随水泥中碱含量的增加而略有增大,但后期28d抗压强度变化不明显;水泥中碱含量一定时,随着水泥用量的增加,混凝土中总碱量也相应增加,但对聚羧酸系外加剂的适应性并未产生明显的影响.

  17. Influence regularities of chemical admixtures on creep%化学外加剂对混凝土徐变的影响规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张异; 钱春香; 赵飞; 何智海; 曲军; 郭景强; Michael Danzinger

    2013-01-01

    The influence law of naphthalene based plasticizer,polycarboxylic superplasticizer,retarding component and shrinkage reducing component on creep characteristics of concrete with same mix proportion were studied by the self-made creep loading device and the influence mechamism were analyzed by testing non-evaporable water of paste with same water-binder ratio with concrete and internal relative humidity of loaded concrete specimens.The results indicate that:compared with naphthalene based plasticizer,polycarboxylic superplasticizers could significantly reducing creep of concrete,and this effect of early-strength polycarboxylic superplasticizer is the best; shrinkage reducing components could also reduce creep,the incorporation of retarding component have an adverse effect on creep; polycarboxylic superplasticizers and shrinkage reducing component reduce creep by decreasing the internal moisture transmission and diffusion to external environment; early-strength polycarboxylic superplasticizer make concrete have more hydration products,which have certain advantages on increasing strength and lower creep; incorporation of retarding component slows hydration and reduce the total hydration product contents,therefore strength reduced and creep increased.%采用自制的徐变加载装置,研究了萘系减水剂、聚羧酸减水剂以缓凝组分、减缩组分对等配合比混凝土徐变的影响规律,结合与混凝土同水灰比浆体非可蒸发水含量及混凝土内部相对湿度演化分析了其影响机理.结果表明,相比萘系减水剂,聚羧酸减水剂能显著降低混凝土的徐变,其中以早强型聚羧酸减水剂的效果最好;减缩剂对混凝土的徐变有降低作用,缓凝组分的掺入对徐变有不利影响;聚羧酸减水剂和减缩组分能通过降低混凝土内部水分传输和向外界扩散来降低徐变;早强型聚羧酸使浆体具有较多的水化产物数量,对强度的增加和徐变的降低有一定好处,缓凝组分的掺入会延缓水化并减少总水化产物数量,降低强度,使徐变增加.

  18. The Application of Polycarboxylates Admixture in Pre-Mixed Concrete%聚羧酸系外加剂在预拌混凝土中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐广华

    2006-01-01

    聚羧酸系外加剂在高强高性能混凝土中的应用已被业界人士所熟知,但是在预拌混凝土企业中,在全部等级的混凝土中的应用,在国内目前只此一家.瑞科尔建筑材料(天津)有限公司在试验和生产过程中很好的解决了聚羧酸系外加剂在普通混凝土尤其是在低强度、低坍落度混凝土中应用存在的技术和经济方面的问题.本文介绍了聚羧酸类外加剂对水泥适应性及混凝土性能的影响并对聚羧酸系外加剂的减水机理和在混凝土中所体现出的优势,以及存在的问题进行了详细的论述.

  19. 新型聚羧酸系保坍剂的合成与性能研究%Research on Synthesis and Performance of Polycarboxylic Slump Retaining Admixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖国胜; 何正恋; 刘佩

    2013-01-01

    根据减水剂的“吸附-分散”作用机理,通过一步法使改性聚醚与不饱和羧酸共聚,在引入阴离子表面活性基团的条件下,制备出一种具有羧基、羟基、磺酸基等阴离子活性基团的高性能聚羧酸保坍剂.通过对掺加该聚羧酸保坍剂进行水泥净浆流动度试验、水泥适应性试验、混凝土应用性能试验以及对其进行红外光谱分析,测试聚羧酸保坍剂的性能.

  20. Experimental researches on the compatibility of polycarboxylic admixtures with cements%聚羧酸外加剂与水泥适应性试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安同富; 刘建江; 王永芳; 李岩; 史红玉

    2006-01-01

    本文选择目前市场上3种较具代表性的聚羧酸外加剂,针对12个不同厂家品种的水泥样品,进行水泥净浆流动度和有关混凝土性能试验,比较聚羧酸外加剂与不同水泥的相容性;同时,在水泥不同熟化时间和不同温度状态条件下,对掺用聚羧酸外加剂的水泥净浆和混凝土性能变化进行了试验研究.根据试验结果,聚羧酸外加剂在拌制水泥浆尤其是混凝土的性能表现,受所用水泥品质和使用时水泥的温度影响.

  1. 新型聚羧酸系保塑剂的性能研究%Study on performance of neotype polycarboxylate-plastic retaining admixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚英; 段国荣; 黄国泓

    2010-01-01

    针对混凝土坍落度损失较快问题,研制了一种梯形结构聚羧酸系保塑剂,对该保塑剂的性能研究结果表明,在低掺量时具有高坍落度保持能力,其混凝土工作性好,与水泥适应性良好,与减水剂复配后效果明显优于单掺.掺入保塑剂后,可明显减缓水泥早期水化放热速率,有利于提高混凝土的抗裂性.

  2. Study on adaptability of polycarboxylic admixture and clay in sand%聚羧酸外加剂与砂含泥量的适应性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于涛; 张亮; 周钰沦; 魏振; 房桂明; 赵俊

    2012-01-01

    针对混凝土中聚羧酸外加剂与砂含泥量之间的适应性进行了相关试验,研究了砂含泥量对聚羧酸外加剂性能的影响.通过生产用混凝土配合比的试验,并用人工添加含混量的方法,找出砂含混量影响聚羧酸外加剂适应性的程度,并根据试验结果指导实际生产,对细骨料进厂严格控制,从而保证混凝土的各项性能满足施工及技术要求.试验结果表明,随着砂泥含量增加,混凝土拌合物的性能逐渐下降,砂含泥量在3.25%及以下时较好,在6.25%及以下时初始状态较好,1h后的状态一般,大于6.25%时,初始状态较差;砂含泥量在1.25%~6.25%范 围内时,混凝土抗压强度下降不明显,当泥含量大于6.25%时,混凝土抗压强度下降较大.

  3. 医院静脉用药调配中心的临床意义%Clinical significance of hospital pharmacy intravenous admixture center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓永忠

    2015-01-01

    本文对静脉用药调配中心的临床作用进行总结,从提高临床护理工作效率、预防职业暴露,加强职业防护、安全用药、提升医院药师综合素质、搭建药护协作平台、经济社会效益等方面进行阐述。%Summary the clinical effect of intravenous drug allocation center, in order to improve the clinical nursing work efficiency, prevent the occupation exposure, strengthening occupation protection, safety, enhance the comprehensive quality of hospital pharmacists, build of medicine and nursing cooperation platform, economic and social benefit are expounded.

  4. THE UP-TO-DATE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCRETE CHEMICAL ADMIXTURE%混凝土化学外加剂的最新发展与动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王栋民; 金欣; 何丹; 姚燕

    2001-01-01

    本文综合介绍了国外混凝土化学外加剂的最新发展与动态。并结合作者自身的研究工作和我国国内目前的市场状况和研究开发水平,进行了系统的分析与评价,指出了我国混凝土化学外加剂的出路与发展方向。

  5. Testing models of speciation from genome sequences: divergence and asymmetric admixture in Island South-East Asian Sus species during the Plio-Pleistocene climatic fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Frantz, Laurent A F; Madsen, Ole; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Martien A M Groenen; Lohse, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    In many temperate regions, ice ages promoted range contractions into refugia resulting in divergence (and potentially speciation), while warmer periods led to range expansions and hybridization. However, the impact these climatic oscillations had in many parts of the tropics remains elusive. Here, we investigate this issue using genome sequences of three pig (Sus) species, two of which are found on islands of the Sunda-shelf shallow seas in Island South-East Asia (ISEA). A previous study reve...

  6. Performance of organic and inorganic substances as inhibitors for chloride-induced corrosion in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Oezlem [Gedik University Vocational High School, Istanbul (Turkey); Cizmeciglu, Zeki [Istanbul Commerce University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-02-01

    Studies have been carried out to investigate the concrete corrosion inhibitor performance of silica fume admixture and an admixture of amino alcohols containing organic and inorganic substances. The concrete specimens with and without admixtures were subjected to accelerated corrosion tests to determine the time to corrosion initiation. The results showed that the specimens admixtured with nitrogen containing organic and inorganic inhibitors performed slightly better than concrete specimens with silica fume admixture.

  7. The Physicochemical Evaluation and Applicability of Landolphia owariensis latex as a Release Modulating Agent in its Admixture with Carbosil® in Ibuprofen-loaded Self-Emulsifying Oil Formulations

    OpenAIRE

    N C Obitte; A Chukwu; V I Onyishi; BC N Obitte

    2009-01-01

    Summary: The need to address the problematic gastric irritation side effects and inconsistent bioavailability of most poorly soluble drugs has drawn the attention of researchers to self emulsifying drug delivery system as one of the possible solutions to these problems. Secondly self emulsifying oil formulations good as they may be could be associated with leakage from their hard gelatin capsules. This further motivated the introduction of gelling agents to address this problem. The objective...

  8. Experimental study on retarding cement setting time with admixture of sucrose and superphosphate%蔗糖和过磷酸钙作外加剂延缓水泥凝结时间的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯云; 周胜波

    2006-01-01

    用蔗糖和过磷酸钙分别作外加剂延缓水泥凝结时间的试验研究得出结论:蔗糖和过磷酸钙作为外加剂均可起到较好的缓凝效果,同时对水泥的后期强度也有一定的促进作用.

  9. Study of Appliance Performance of High Admixture Fly-ash Concrete Pavement%高掺量粉煤灰混凝土路面应用性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄学文; 梁昌保

    2000-01-01

    介绍承担交通部九五联合攻关课题--高掺量粉煤灰混凝土在高等级公路路面应用研究的过程和初步成果,提出粉煤灰在路面混凝土中应用前景广阔,具有减少水泥、增加强度、延长寿命、提高使用品质并降低污染等效果.

  10. 矿物掺合料对水泥砂浆TSA侵蚀的影响%Effects of Mineral Admixtures on Thaumasite Form of Sulfate Attack of Cement Mortars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马保国; 高小建; 罗忠涛

    2006-01-01

    研究了硅灰、粉煤灰、矿渣对水泥砂浆TSA侵蚀的影响,采用掺30%石灰石填料的砂浆件,测试各砂浆在5±1℃的2%MgSO4溶液中浸泡1年后的外观、强度及矿物成分变化.结果表明:掺石灰石粉使水泥砂浆受侵蚀后表面呈软泥状,主要腐蚀产物为硅灰石膏和石膏,表现为典型的TSA破坏特征,其强度损失率大于纯水泥砂浆.矿物掺合料的加入降低了水泥石中CH晶体含量,从而在一定程度上提高了水泥砂浆的抗TSA侵蚀能力.矿物掺合料对水泥石中CH晶体的减少与对抗TSA侵蚀性的改善效果具有相同的规律,其优劣次序为:60%矿渣粉>5%硅灰+25%矿渣粉>8%硅灰>30%矿渣粉>20%粉煤灰>无掺合料.

  11. Experimental study on the basic properties of cement admixture containing waste mortar powder%废砂浆粉作为水泥混合材的基本性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The article studies the basic properties of the waste mortar powder and the influence of it as a cement ad⁃mixture on the main properties of cement mortar, including grinding performance, water amount of normal consisten⁃cy, mobility and strength. Results show that waste mortar powder of fluidity of cement mortar is decreased and water amount of normal consistency is increased. And the fineness and content of waste mortar powder will affect the strength of cement mortar, bend-press ratio is increased, the material ductility is better.%研究了废砂浆粉基本性能及作为水泥混合材对水泥胶砂主要性能的影响,包括粉磨性能、标准稠度需水量、流动性和强度。结果表明,掺入废砂浆粉的混合水泥胶砂流动度有所下降,标准稠度需水量增加。而且废砂浆粉的细度和掺量都会影响强度,混合水泥折压比有所增长,材料延性较好。

  12. 煅烧磷石膏对含掺和料混凝土耐久性的影响%Effect of Calcined Phosphogypsum on Durability of Mineral Admixture Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马保国; 白建飞; 许永和; 朱洪波

    2006-01-01

    磷石膏经高温煅烧改性后与高钙灰、钢渣二元矿物复合水泥配制混凝土及胶砂.研究了煅烧磷石膏对混凝土抗冻、抗渗性能及胶砂抗硫酸盐侵蚀和抑制体积收缩的影响,用扫描电镜分析了煅烧磷石膏对混凝土耐久性影响的原因.结果表明:在以50%(质量分数)的高钙灰和钢渣为矿物掺和料的复合水泥中加入煅烧磷石膏后,混凝土抗硫酸盐性能没有明显改善,但抗冻、抗渗及抗体积收缩有明显改善,氯离子扩散系数降至142.2×10-14m2/s,100次冻融循环动弹性模量损失率降至19%,90 d体积收缩率减至1.50×10-4.

  13. The analysis of common irrational medical orders by pharmacy intravenous admixture services in our hospital%我院静脉用药集中调配中心常见不合理医嘱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾卫平; 时银萍; 郑丽媛; 程永波

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyse the irrational medical orders of the inpatients with venous transfusion in our hospi-tal,and provide reference for clinical rational use of drugs. Methods 4 263 irrational medical orders out of total 2 613 267 vein orders from the year 2012 to 2013 were retrospectively analyzed to intravenous drug use in our hospital. Results The unreasonable medical types mainly involved:computer entry error,improper selectiong of solution,the improper amount of solvent,incompatibility,improper frequency of use,improper dosage etc. Conclusion With the intervention of the pharma-cists in clinical medical orders,the incidence of the unreasonable medical orders decreased,which not only promoted the clinical rational use of drug but also improved the quality of pharmaceutical care.%目的:分析我院住院患者静脉输液不合理医嘱情况,为临床合理用药提供参考。方法对我院静脉用药集中调配中心2012~2013年2613267条静脉医嘱中的4263条不合理医嘱进行回顾性统计分析。结果不合理医嘱类型主要涉及:电脑录入错误、溶媒选择不当、溶媒用量不当、配伍禁忌、用药频次不当、用药剂量不当等情况。结论通过药师对临床医嘱的干预,不合理医嘱发生率逐渐降低,促进了临床合理用药,提高了药学服务的质量。

  14. 铸造水玻璃废砂作水泥混合材的试验研究%Study on different waste foundry sand used for cement admixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明玲; 夏宝林; 万新军; 谢宗华

    2009-01-01

    为了解决铸造企业水玻璃废砂大量排放而带来的堆场困难和环境污染的问题,拓宽水玻璃废砂资源化再利用范围,研究了利用水玻璃废砂作为混合材生产水泥的可行性.试验结果表明,当白砂(处于铸模内侧,经受过高温,溃散性差)或混合砂(铸模内、外侧砂同比例混合)掺量小于10%时,可生产42.5普通硅酸盐水泥,而且该水泥的其他各项性能指标均符合水泥的国家标准要求.

  15. Mechanical properties and fast freezing-thawing characteristics of double admixture high performance concrete%双掺高性能混凝土力学性能及快速冻融特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚志雄; 吴波

    2015-01-01

    研究了矿物质对水泥砂浆及混凝土基本力学性能的影响规律,并通过快速冻融试验探讨快速冻融、腐蚀介质双重因素共同作用下混凝土力学性能劣化情况。结果表明,掺矿物质混凝土前期强度低于素混凝土,但龄期达到28 d时其活性得到发挥,到60 d时甚至超过素混凝土,弥补前期强度不足的缺陷。在快速冻融及盐水腐蚀双重因素共同作用下,掺矿物质混凝土的强度及相对动弹性模量出现不同程度降低,质量出现轻微波动,但降低或波动幅度均明显小于素混凝土,表明掺矿物质对改善混凝土结构,提升耐久性有益,而双掺的效果更佳,并给出矿物质较优掺量。%Experiments were carried out to study the effect of mineral on the basic mechanical performance of cement mortar and con-crete.Then the fast freezing-thawing tests were carried out to investigate the mechanics performance degradation of concrete under the double actions of quick freezing-thawing and corrosion medium. The results show the early strength of mixed minerals concrete is low-er than the plain concrete,but the age to 28 d when the active works,to 60d even more than the plain concrete,and it makes up the de-fects of the insufficient early strength. Under the action of fast freezing-thawing and salt water corrosion,the concrete strength,relative dynamic elastic modulus reduced in a certain degree,and concrete mass fluctuates slightly,but the reduction and fluctuation amplitude is significantly less than the plain concrete. The results show that adding minerals is beneficial to improve the microstructure and promote the durability of concrete,and the double mixing effect is better,and the optimal dosage of mineral is given.

  16. Applied Research on Ground Dried Furnace Bottom Slag as Admixture of Concrete%磨细炉底干渣作为混凝土掺合料的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈燕华; 朱春江; 贾谊

    2010-01-01

    分析了宝钢自备电厂炉底干渣的产生和品质情况,对宝钢磨细炉底干渣粉作为混凝土掺合料的综合利用情况进行了简要介绍,提出宝钢炉底干渣利用过程中遇到的主要问题及建议.

  17. Investigation into Incineration Bottom Ash of Municipal Solid Waste Used as Cement Admixture%生活垃圾焚烧炉渣用作水泥混合材的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢燕; 吴笑梅; 樊粤明; 余其俊; 黄健; 邝焯荣

    2009-01-01

    研究了生活垃圾焚烧炉渣(简称炉渣)用作混合材对水泥性能的影响,同时考察了相应制品的环境安全性.结果表明:炉渣不具有放射性,为非活性混合材,其掺入对水泥的安定性、标准稠度用水量及凝结时间影响不大,但随掺量的增加,强度下降;水洗炉渣对强度的影响较小;掺量为7.5%时,能满足P·O42.5水泥的生产要求;炉渣对水泥的外加剂相容性影响不大,能降低干缩率,不会引起钢筋锈蚀;掺15%~40%炉渣时,水泥制品的重金属极限溶出达到Ⅲ类地下水的要求,掺80%时达到Ⅳ类要求;掺15%炉渣时的重金属表面浸渍溶出达到Ⅲ类地下水的要求.说明掺入炉渣作混合材,不会对环境及人类健康带来危害.

  18. The Sour Tail Admixture of Virtuous Copper Mine of Dexing Transports the Craft Research%德兴铜矿酸尾混合输送工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董镇

    2005-01-01

    德兴铜矿是采矿规模最大的露天开采矿山,年产生酸性废水约750-1000万t,其中约40%的酸性水排放,是造成大坞河、乐安河(德兴段)水质酸化的原因.通过对酸尾混合输送工艺的研究,得出酸尾混合输送工艺可以达到以废治废的目的,具有显著的社会、环境和经济效益.

  19. Circulating Endocannabinoids and the Polymorphism 385C>A in Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH Gene May Identify the Obesity Phenotype Related to Cardiometabolic Risk: A Study Conducted in a Brazilian Population of Complex Interethnic Admixture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyro José de Moraes Martins

    Full Text Available The dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system is associated with cardiometabolic complications of obesity. Allelic variants in coding genes for this system components may contribute to differences in the susceptibility to obesity and related health hazards. These data have mostly been shown in Caucasian populations and in severely obese individuals. We investigated a multiethnic Brazilian population to study the relationships among the polymorphism 385C>A in an endocannabinoid degrading enzyme gene (FAAH, endocannabinoid levels and markers of cardiometabolic risk. Fasting plasma levels of endocannabinoids and congeners (anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, N-oleoylethanolamide and N-palmitoylethanolamide were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in 200 apparently healthy individuals of both genders with body mass indices from 22.5 ± 1.8 to 35.9 ± 5.5 kg/m2 (mean ± 1 SD and ages between 18 and 60 years. All were evaluated for anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, metabolic variables, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein, and genotyping. The endocannabinoid levels increased as a function of obesity and insulin resistance. The homozygous genotype AA was associated with higher levels of anandamide and lower levels of adiponectin versus wild homozygous CC and heterozygotes combined. The levels of anandamide were independent and positively associated with the genotype AA position 385 of FAAH, C-reactive protein levels and body mass index. Our findings provide evidence for an endocannabinoid-related phenotype that may be identified by the combination of circulating anandamide levels with genotyping of the FAAH 385C>A; this phenotype is not exclusive to mono-ethnoracial populations nor to individuals with severe obesity.

  20. 非合成蛋白类石膏缓凝剂的复配研究%Compounding investigation on a non-synthesis protein building gypsum retarding admixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹晓梅; 钱中秋; 吴开胜

    2013-01-01

    研究了六偏磷酸钠、多聚磷酸钠和三聚磷酸钠及蛋白类PT对建筑石膏凝结时间及强度的影响,并进一步将三聚磷酸钠与PT复合,结果表明:磷酸盐类主要影响石膏的终凝,高掺量时(>0.3%)终凝可达1~2 d,强度降低50%以上;PT影响石膏的初凝,0.3%掺量时初凝达14h以上,对强度影响较小;三聚磷酸钠与PT复合对石膏的缓凝效果显著,PT掺量0.05%,三聚磷酸钠掺量0.12%时,缓凝时间达5h以上,抗折、抗压强度分别降低26%和5%.%The effects of sodium hexametaphosphate,Sodium Tripolyphosphate and sodium polyphosphate protein PT on the setting time and compressive strength of building gypsum were investigated and the compounding of Sodium Tripolyphosphate and protein PT was further studied.The results show that the phosphate mainly affect the final setting time,the final setting time can be 1~2 d and the compressive strength decreased more than 50% when the volume of phosphate is high (>0.3%).PT mainly affect the initial setting time,the initial setting time can be more than 14h and have a little effect on compressive strength,the effects of the compounding of Sodium Tripolyphosphate and protein PT on retarding time of building gypsum is notable.The retarding time can be more than 5 h and compressive strength and flexural strength decrease 26% and 5% respectively when the PT is 0.05%and the Sodium Tripolyphosphate is 0.12%.

  1. Reducing Dispensing Errors in Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Service by Using Six Sigma DMAIC Method%利用六西格玛改进方法减少静脉药物配置中心排药差错

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史文秀; 张久星; 隋颖; 李娜; 赵春芝

    2009-01-01

    目的:寻找减少静脉用药集中配置各环节差错的有效途径.方法:利用六西格玛改进方法分5个阶段评价静脉药物配置中心原有排药流程,去除原有的标签分篮环节和复核环节,将原有的排药品、贴输液标签环节分成"粗排"和"细排"2个步骤,并增加了统计单控制单个病区用药数量.结果与结论:干预后静脉药物配置中心的排药差错率由2.21次/日降到0.49次/日,比目标值(1次/日)低约50%.新流程更简单、省时,可操作性更好,在差错的预防和监控方面较之原流程有很大的优势,从而提高了静脉用药的准确性和安全性.

  2. The application and effectiveness of six sigma in pharmacy intravenous admixture service%六西格玛管理原理在输液配置中心的运用及成效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方芳

    2004-01-01

    目的提高输液配置中心的工作效率和工作质量,保证药液及时、准确送至病区.方法通过持续性质量改进体系和六西格玛五步法即定义、测量、分析、改进、控制对输液配置中心进行管理,定义项目问题为药物无法及时、准确地派送至病区;测量并分析该问题存在的原因包括影响配药准确性因素及影响送药及时性因素;制订质量改进方案,改进排班的合理性,降低冲配步骤的复杂性,采取减少各类操作错误的措施;将改进措施形成常规工作制度并进行控制.结果保证药液能在9:30之前准确、及时地送至病区.结论合理、有效地运用定量管理与定性管理协调发展的管理理念,可以达到提高工作质量和工作效率的目的.

  3. 矿物掺合料细度对水泥胶砂力学性能的火山灰效应%The Pozzolanic Effect of the Fineness of Mineral Admixture on the Cement Mortar s Mechanical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔宏霞; 王永亮; 余红发; 何忠茂

    2010-01-01

    通过分析单掺矿粉、单掺不同磨细程度的粉煤灰及复掺粉煤灰和矿粉的胶砂早期强度的变化规律,得出粉煤灰的磨细程度及粉煤灰与矿粉的复掺比例会影响胶砂的早期强度.粉煤灰越细,越有利于提高胶砂早期强度,复合掺合料之间各成分的最佳配合比可以充分发挥各自的活性,从而提高胶砂早期力学性能.

  4. 利用SO3基准法测定火山灰质混合材的含量%Detecting the content of pozzolanic admixture by SO3 datum method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广军; 朱战涛

    2005-01-01

    GB/T12960—1996((水泥组分的定量测定》中,水泥中火山灰质组分或粉煤灰组分的质量分数测定是利用火山灰质组分或粉煤灰组分不易被冷盐酸溶解。而水泥熟料、石膏基本溶于盐酸的原理进行的。GB176—1996((水泥化学分析方法》中硫酸盐一三氧化硫的测定(基准法),是将水泥试样用盐酸加热溶解后。

  5. A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF POST-COMBUSTION AMMONIA INJECTION ON FLY ASH QUALITY: CHARACTERIZATION OF AMMONIA RELEASE FROM CONCRETE AND MORTARS CONTAINING FLY ASH AS A POZZOLANIC ADMIXTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert F. Rathbone; Thomas L. Robl

    2002-04-11

    Work completed in this reporting period focused primarily on continuing measurements of the rate of ammonia loss from concrete, and the measurement of ammonia gas in the air above concrete and flowable fill immediately after placement. Concrete slabs were prepared to monitor the loss of ammonia during mixing, the concentration in the airspace above the slabs soon after placement, and the total quantity of ammonia evolved over a longer time period. Variables tested include temperature, ventilation rate, water:cementitious (W:C) ratio, and fly ash source. Short-term data indicate that for concrete placed in areas with poor air ventilation the fly ash NH{sub 3} concentration should not exceed about 90 to 145 mg/kg ash, depending on the water:cement ratio and the fly ash replacement rate, if a concentration of 10 ppm NH{sub 3} in the air is assumed to be the maximum acceptable level. Longer-term experiments showed that the ammonia loss rate is dependent on ammonia source (that is ammoniated ash vs. non-ammoniated ash with ammonia added to the water), and is also dependent on W:C ratio and temperature. Experiments were also conducted to study the loss of ammonia from fresh concrete during mixing. It was found that a high water:cementitious mix lost a greater percentage of ammonia than a low W:C mix, with a medium W:C mix losing an amount intermediate between these two. However, a larger batch size resulted in a smaller percentage of ammonia lost. The data suggest that a significant quantity of ammonia could be lost from Ready Mix concrete during transit, depending on the transit time, batch size, and mix proportions.

  6. Relationship Between Electrical Property and Microstructure of Mineral Admixtures-Cement Paste%矿物掺和料-水泥浆体电学特性与其微结构的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李化建; 万广培; 谢永江; 黄佳木

    2013-01-01

    The electrical properties of fly ash ,slag and limestone powder-cement paste were studied by the methods of Cyclic Voltammetry and AC Impedance Spectroscopy .The results of electrical test were fitted by equivalent circuit . The correlations between electrical parameters of paste and unevaporable water content ,pore structure by mercury porosimetry were compared .The results show that there is a positive relation between the unevaporable water content and the electrical resistivity of paste .If the unevaporable water content is higher ,the hydration degree is higher and the electrical resistivity of paste is higher .The electrical resistivity of paste is increased with fly ash and slag ,and it is unaffected with limestone powder of 5% dosage .The resistance Rs of pore solution of paste is increased with the prolongation of hydration ,and the changes of resistance Rs and the electrical resistivity are unanimous .The resistance Rp and electrical capacitance C of gel are related to C -S-H content ,and there is a negative relation between the resistance Rp and electrical capacitance C of gel . The complexity of pore structure of paste is increased with the prolongation of hydration . T he constant phase angle exponent P by AC Impedance Spectroscopy is decreased and the value of fractal dimension by mercury porosimetry is increased .%采用循环伏安法和交流阻抗法系统研究了粉煤灰、矿渣粉和石灰石粉水泥浆体的电学特性,通过等效电路对电学测试结果进行拟合,并将拟合所得浆体电学参数与浆体化学结合水和压汞所测孔结构之间的相关性进行比较。结果表明:浆体的化学结合水与其电阻率具有较好的正相关性,即化学结合水越多,水化程度越大,浆体电阻率越高;粉煤灰和矿渣粉可以提高浆体电阻率,而石灰石粉在5%掺量下对浆体电阻率无影响;随着水化龄期的延长,浆体孔溶液电阻增大,其变化规律与浆体电阻率一致;浆体凝胶电容和凝胶电阻与C -S -H凝胶含量有关,二者有很好的负相关性;随着水化龄期的延长,浆体孔结构曲折程度提高,交流阻抗法所测得常相角指数减小,压汞测得的分形维数增大。

  7. Analysis of Errors in Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Service of Our Hospital and Preventive Measures%我院静脉用药调配中心差错分析及防范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓雪娥

    2011-01-01

    本文收集了北京友谊医院静脉用药调配中心2011年1至6月期间出现的各类差错,并对此进行分析,其中内差错发生率为1.44‰,出门差错发生率为0.105‰.,主要发生在调剂、配置和成品输液核对等多个环节,针对这些问题提出了具体防范措施,以减少PIVAS差错,保障患者用药安全.%The article collected various errors in PIVAS of Beijing Friendship Hospital from January 2011 to June 2011, and analyzed the occurrence of the errors according to drug package inserts, Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Clinical Medication Information, Pharmaceutical incompatibility in intravenous infusion and clinical drug consulting system. The external ratio of errors in PIVAS was 0.105%o, and the internal ratio of errors was 1.44%o. The errors occurred mainly were errors of making up prescriptions, dispensing errors and errors of checking finished products. Meanwhile, PIVAS adopted the targeted preventive measures according to the reasons and to cut down the mistakes in order to guarantee safe drug of patients.

  8. Effect of cholera toxoid-proinsulin conjugate and cholera toxin B subunit admixtures on spontaneous autoimmune diabetes%霍乱毒素B亚单位-胰岛素原融合蛋白抗糖尿病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玲; 张大兵; 任宏; 欧阳凤秀; 姜庆五

    2005-01-01

    目的观察雌性非肥胖糖尿病(NOD)小鼠口服胰岛素和霍乱毒素B亚单位-胰岛素原融合蛋白(CTB-proinsulin)+霍乱毒素B亚单位五聚体(CTB五聚体)对糖尿病发生的影响,为社区非肥胖性糖尿病干预提供参考依据.方法40只雌性3~4周龄NOD小鼠随机分为4组:分别给予磷酸缓冲液(PBS)500μl,胰岛素(insulin)1 mg,CTB-proinsulin 100μg+CTG五聚体1μg,CTB-proinsulin 300μg+CTG五聚体3μg.每周灌胃2次至12周龄;从12周龄起,动态监测小鼠尿糖、血糖至26周龄,观察糖尿病的发生,比较不同抗原诱导免疫耐受的作用.结果与PBS组比较,CTB-proinsulin+CTG五聚体与胰岛素均能延缓、减少NOD小鼠糖尿病的发生,26周龄时小鼠糖尿病的累积发病率:PBS组100%,CTB-proinsulin100μg+CTG五聚体1μg组、CTGproinsulin 300μg+CTG五聚体3μg组和胰岛素组分别为40%,40%和50%(P<0.010).各组生存时间分布有差别.结论不同剂量组的CTB-proinsulin+CTG五聚体与胰岛素能够提高NOD鼠生存率,并可达到与胰岛素相同保护作用而所需抗原剂量较小.

  9. Dealkalization of calcium silicate slag and study of using it as cement admixture%硅钙渣脱碱处理及作水泥混合材的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘江; 张建波; 孙俊民; 王宏霞; 叶家元; 史迪

    2012-01-01

    Orthogonal experiment method is applied to research on dealkalization of calcium silicate slag, and properties of non-dealkalizated and dealkalizated calcium slag cement have been analyzed. Effects of temperature, holding time, content of lime milk and washing times were discussed, the results show that the optimum dealkalization combination of the four factors is as follows:content of lime milk is 10%,temperature 85 X. and holding time 3 hours,washing twice,then an alkali content of 0.83% will be acquired; compressive strength of non梔ealkalizated calcium slag cement is higher than dealkalizated calcium slag cement during the early hydration, the advantages of dealkalizated calcium slag cement will gradually appear as time goes and will be more significantly as calcium slag content increase; Microscopic analysis shows that non-dealkalizated calcium slag cement generates large amount of C-S-H gel during early hydration and its hydration products are more compact than dealkalizated calcium slag cement, little difference of the compactness has been found between them when the hydration time is 28 days.%采用正交试验法对硅钙渣进行脱碱处理,对脱碱前后的硅钙渣水泥性能进行了研究.通过调整温度、保温时间、石灰乳掺量和水洗次数,得出最佳脱碱组合为:石灰乳掺量10%,温度85℃,保温时间3h,水洗2次,处理后碱含量为0.83%:强度试验结果表明,水化早期未脱碱硅钙渣水泥抗压强度要高于脱碱硅钙渣水泥,但随着龄期逐渐增长,脱碱硅钙渣水泥优势逐渐显现,掺量越大优势越明显;微观形貌分析表明,未脱碱硅钙渣水泥水化早期生成大量C-S-H凝胶,水化产物较脱碱硅钙渣水泥更致密,水化28d时两者水化产物的致密性相当.

  10. Test of polycarboxylates high performance water reducing admixture confect Ultra High Performance Concrete and application%高性能减水剂配制超高性能混凝土的试验与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯科杰; 李伟中; 陶思佺; 李桂青; 黄仕阶; 庄建坤; 邬超友; 李天浪

    2008-01-01

    主要介绍聚羧酸KJ-JS高性能减水剂的主要性能,配制C50~C100超高性能混凝土(UHPC)的试验与应用.试验结果表明:选用质量优良的常规材料,用300kg/m3水泥(粤秀P·II 42.5R,下同)与50%左右的掺合料可配制C80~C90 HPC,28 d强度达102~110MPa;370kg/m3水泥与37%掺合料配制C90 HPC,坍落度与扩展度保持近4 h,28 d强度达104 Mpa;370~400 kg/m3水泥与35%~37%的掺合料配制C100HPC,28d强度达115MPa.现已在432m高的国内在建第二高楼广州西塔与世界最高(610m)的广州新电视塔,以及客运专线等重大工程150多万m3 C25~C100HPC工程中广泛应用.在广州西塔C70~C100HPC工程应用表明:用560(水泥410)~635(水泥430)kg/m3胶凝材料,可配制出28d平均强度达84~112.7MPa满足工程要求的高性能混凝土.目前主楼已达到200m以上,用量已超过2万m3.如此大批量超高性能混凝土的应用在国内尚属首次.

  11. 蒸养条件下不同种类外加剂对水泥水化进程的影响%Effect of Different Kinds of Admixture on Process of Cement Hydration under Steam-curing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖茜; 伍勇华; 南峰; 何廷树; 李论

    2013-01-01

    用直接测温法、X射线半定量分析方法,系统研究了蒸养条件下高效减水剂(聚羧酸高效减水剂、萘系高效减水剂)、早强剂(硫酸钠)和引气剂(十二烷基硫酸钠)对硅酸盐水泥的放热量和蒸养强度的影响.研究结果表明,聚羧酸高效减水剂延缓了水化放热温峰出现的时间,水化热和Ca(OH)2生成量明显减少;萘系高效减水剂和硫酸钠使水化热温峰出现的时间提前并随水化热量的增多蒸养强度提高,Ca(OH):生成量增加;十二烷基硫酸钠对水泥水化热几乎没有影响,蒸养强度随十二烷基硫酸钠掺量的增加而降低,Ca(OH)2生成量没有明显变化.%By using direct thermometry and X-ray diffraction technique,the influences of superplasticizer (such as polycarboxylate superplasticizer and naphthalene superplasticizer),early strength agent(such as Na2SO4)and air-entraining agent(such as sodium dodecyl sulfate)on cement hydration heat and strength under steam curing were investigated.The results showed that polycarboxylate superplasticizer could postpone the temperature peak,and reduce the hydration heat and the quantity of Ca (OH)2.Nfaphthalene superplasticizer and Na2SO4 used could obviously advance the temperature peak.With the increase of hydration heat,the strength under steam curing obviously was improved and the quantity of Ca (OH) 2 increased.The sodium dodecyl sulfate had little effect on the hydration heat of the cement.The strength under steam curing was reduced with the increase of dosage of Sodium dodecyl sulfate and the quantity of Ca(OH)2 had no clear change.

  12. STYDY ON PERFORMANCE OF POLYCARBOXYLATE COMPOUNDED WITH ANTI-FREEZING ADMIXTURE%聚羧酸高效减水剂与防冻组分复合研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子明; 孙俊

    2008-01-01

    采用正交设计方法对聚羧酸系高效减水剂与防冻外加剂复合性能进行了研究.掺入聚羧酸系减水剂与防冻组分的胶砂试件中在(-15±1)℃环境下冷冻7d,并测定其胶砂抗压抗折强度.然后通过正交极差分析确定出防冻组分最佳配比并进行优化试验.进而进行单组分优化试验,比较不同防冻组分掺量对胶砂试件抗冻性的影响.

  13. Research on the reuse of expired juice in polycarboxylic admixtures%过期果汁在聚羧酸外加剂中的再利用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛; 邓最亮; 陈健; 王亚妹; 杜维上; 李飞

    2012-01-01

    使用过期果汁作为混凝土外加剂的缓凝保塑剂,研究了过期果汁对混凝土状态和性能的影响,试验结果表明:过期果汁的加入并未影响混凝土的强度和状态,其所起保坍缓凝的效果与葡萄糖酸钠相当;在掺量较大时,对混凝土凝结时间的延长效果要优于葡萄糖酸钠,特别是对终凝时间的影响,且对混凝土的初始状态有一定的改善,而对抗压强度和外观不会造成负作用.

  14. 聚羧酸减水剂在水泥自流平砂浆中的应用%Application of the Polycarboxylate Water-reducing Admixture (PCA) in Self-leveling Cement Mortar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐景会; 顾军; 封孝信

    2008-01-01

    对聚羧酸减水剂在水泥自流平砂浆中的应用进行了研究,认为聚羧酸减水剂适用于水泥自流平砂浆并且具有较高的性价比,但在水泥自流平砂浆面层配方设计中应注意气泡问题.

  15. 聚羧酸减水剂对水泥浆体早期单碳铝酸钙形成的影响%Early calcium monocarboaluminate hydrate formation in cement paste: effect of polycarboxylate type admixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋亚清; 张思佳; 刘小艳; D.Damidot

    2010-01-01

    利用傅里叶红外光谱(FTIR)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、热重分析(DTG)和等温吸附,研究了合石灰石填料(LF)水泥在掺用聚羧酸减水剂(PCA)时,硬化浆体中单碳型水化碳铝酸钙(AFmc)的形成规律.研究发现,水泥在水化15 min的初始期就形成了AFmc,PCA通过促进早期C4AF水化使含铁的AFmc更易形成.以萘磺酸盐缩合物减水剂取代PCA时,未观察到相同现象.由于浆体中AFmc和钙矾石(AR)的共存,减少了水泥矿物对PCA的吸附量,从而改善了PCA与水泥的适应性.因此,当混凝土中掺用LF时,PCA应作为首选的高效减水剂.

  16. On the polycarboxylic acid admixture suitability in the high performance concrete%高性能混凝土中聚羧酸外加剂相适应性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛

    2009-01-01

    通过高性能混凝土配合比试验,发现聚羧酸类外加剂对原材料的适应性很敏感,结合实践对影响适应性的因素进行了简单的分析,以减小聚羧酸减水剂的不适应性,使其在高性能混凝土中发挥优势作用.

  17. 新型聚羧酸系超早强复合减水剂试验研究%EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ABOUT THE NEOTYPE POLYCARBOXYLATE-BASED HARDENING ACCELERATING AND WATER REDUCING ADMIXTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子明; 刘进强

    2008-01-01

    针对传统早强复合减水剂的缺点,根据功能需要进行设计,利用正交实验方法研究出了一种以聚羧酸系高效减水剂为主体并复合其他早强组分而成的超早强复合减水剂,该减水剂具有无氯离子、无硫酸根、碱含量低,掺量小,减水率高、早期强度发展迅速的特点.

  18. 浅谈《聚羧酸系高性能减水剂》标准与混凝土的质量控制%Polycarboxylates High Performance Water-Reducing Admixture and Concrete Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左彦峰; 郭延辉; 郭京育; 赵霄龙; 薛庆

    2009-01-01

    介绍了(JG/T223-2007)标准的编制背景和主要内容,对标准中的几个重要指标,如影响环境的指标、影响混凝土耐久性的指标、减水率、泌水率比、含气量、混凝土拌合物1h坍落度保留值、凝结时间差、抗压强度比、28d收缩率比及对钢筋的锈蚀作用等进行了较详细地说明和解释,并阐述了该标准的制定对混凝土质量控制的意义.

  19. The Research on Silt Content to the Workability of Polycarboxylate Admixture in Aggregates%骨料中含泥量对聚羧酸系外加剂工作性能影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽超

    2013-01-01

    由于混凝土中细骨料的含泥量对于掺有减水剂的混凝土工作性能以及强度都有一定影响,为了保证混凝土质量,开展了针对混凝土中的聚羧酸外加剂和细骨料中含泥量之间适应性的系列研究.先通过水泥净浆试验确定外加剂饱和掺量点,在此基础之上人为地改变细骨料中的含泥量,观察流动度的改变也就是其对于混凝土工作性能的影响.随后在混凝土的配合比中,在掺有外加剂的前提下,将含泥量的比重以5%的增量进行增长,制作了10组试件.通过试件的强度试验对比,研究含泥量与聚羧酸外加剂之间的相容性对混凝土强度的影响.研究发现当含泥量低于3%时只对混凝土的工作性能有影响,高于3%时,强度会伴随含泥量的增加而相对降低.

  20. 聚羧酸外加剂制备C30商品混凝土的试验研究%Experimental research of using polycarboxylic admixture to produce C30 ready-mixed concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文山; 孙燎燎

    2009-01-01

    通过调整C30商品混凝土的配合比设计思路,发挥聚羧酸外加剂的高减水作用,降低混凝土中胶凝材料用量及用水量,在保证力学性能的前提下,提高聚羧酸减水剂配制商品混凝土的经济性.