WorldWideScience

Sample records for admixed population lived

  1. Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Quanchao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tarim Basin, located on the ancient Silk Road, played a very important role in the history of human migration and cultural communications between the West and the East. However, both the exact period at which the relevant events occurred and the origins of the people in the area remain very obscure. In this paper, we present data from the analyses of both Y chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA derived from human remains excavated from the Xiaohe cemetery, the oldest archeological site with human remains discovered in the Tarim Basin thus far. Results Mitochondrial DNA analysis showed that the Xiaohe people carried both the East Eurasian haplogroup (C and the West Eurasian haplogroups (H and K, whereas Y chromosomal DNA analysis revealed only the West Eurasian haplogroup R1a1a in the male individuals. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that the Xiaohe people were an admixture from populations originating from both the West and the East, implying that the Tarim Basin had been occupied by an admixed population since the early Bronze Age. To our knowledge, this is the earliest genetic evidence of an admixed population settled in the Tarim Basin.

  2. A population genetics model of linkage disequilibrium in admixed populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Understanding linkage disequilibrium (LD) created in admixed population and the rate of decay in the disequilibrium over evolution is an important subject in population genetics theory and in disease gene mapping in human populations. The present study represents the theoretical investigation of effects of gene frequencies, levels of LD and admixture proportions of donor populations on the evolutionary dynamics of the LD of the admixed population. We examined the conditions under which the admixed population reached linkage equilibrium or the peak level of the LD. The study reveals the inappropriateness in approximating the dynamics of the LD generated by population admixture by the commonly used formula in literature. An appropriate equation for the dynamics is proposed. The distinct feature of the newly suggested formula is that the value of the nonlinear component of the LD remains constant in the first generation of the population evolution. Comparison between the predicted disequilibrium dynamics shows that the error will be caused by using the old formula, and thus resulting in a misguidance in using the evolutionary information of the admixed population in gene mapping.

  3. Mapping asthma-associated variants in admixed populations

    OpenAIRE

    Mersha, Tesfaye B.

    2015-01-01

    Admixed populations arise when two or more previously isolated populations interbreed. Mapping asthma susceptibility loci in an admixed population using admixture mapping (AM) involves screening the genome of individuals of mixed ancestry for chromosomal regions that have a higher frequency of alleles from a parental population with higher asthma risk as compared with parental population with lower asthma risk. AM takes advantage of the admixture created in populations of mixed ancestry to id...

  4. Mapping asthma-associated variants in admixed populations

    OpenAIRE

    Mersha, Tesfaye B.

    2015-01-01

    Admixed populations arise when two or more previously isolated populations start interbreeding. Mapping asthma susceptibility loci in an admixed population using admixture mapping (AM) involves screening the genome of individuals of mixed ancestry for chromosomal regions that have a higher frequency of alleles compared to the parental population with higher asthma risk. AM takes advantage of the admixture created in populations of mixed ancestry by searching for association between the ancest...

  5. Impact of Population Stratification on Family-Based Association in an Admixed Population

    OpenAIRE

    Mersha, T. B.; Ding, L; He, H; Alexander, E. S.; Zhang, X.; B. G. Kurowski; Pilipenko, V.; Kottyan, L.; Martin, L. J.; Fardo, D. W.

    2015-01-01

    Population substructure is a well-known confounder in population-based case-control genetic studies, but its impact in family-based studies is unclear. We performed population substructure analysis using extended families of admixed population to evaluate power and Type I error in an association study framework. Our analysis shows that power was improved by 1.5% after principal components adjustment. Type I error was also reduced by 2.2% after adjusting for family substratification. The prese...

  6. Impact of Population Stratification on Family-Based Association in an Admixed Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. B. Mersha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Population substructure is a well-known confounder in population-based case-control genetic studies, but its impact in family-based studies is unclear. We performed population substructure analysis using extended families of admixed population to evaluate power and Type I error in an association study framework. Our analysis shows that power was improved by 1.5% after principal components adjustment. Type I error was also reduced by 2.2% after adjusting for family substratification. The presence of population substructure was underscored by discriminant analysis, in which over 92% of individuals were correctly assigned to their actual family using only 100 principal components. This study demonstrates the importance of adjusting for population substructure in family-based studies of admixed populations.

  7. Impact of Population Stratification on Family-Based Association in an Admixed Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersha, T B; Ding, L; He, H; Alexander, E S; Zhang, X; Kurowski, B G; Pilipenko, V; Kottyan, L; Martin, L J; Fardo, D W

    2015-01-01

    Population substructure is a well-known confounder in population-based case-control genetic studies, but its impact in family-based studies is unclear. We performed population substructure analysis using extended families of admixed population to evaluate power and Type I error in an association study framework. Our analysis shows that power was improved by 1.5% after principal components adjustment. Type I error was also reduced by 2.2% after adjusting for family substratification. The presence of population substructure was underscored by discriminant analysis, in which over 92% of individuals were correctly assigned to their actual family using only 100 principal components. This study demonstrates the importance of adjusting for population substructure in family-based studies of admixed populations. PMID:26064873

  8. Enhanced Statistical Tests for GWAS in Admixed Populations: Assessment using African Americans from CARe and a Breast Cancer Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Zaitlen, Noah; Lettre, Guillaume; Chen, Gary K.; Tandon, Arti; Kao, W. H. Linda; Ruczinski, Ingo; Fornage, Myriam; Siscovick, David S; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Larkin, Emma; Lange, Leslie A.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Yang, Qiong; Akylbekova, Ermeg L.

    2011-01-01

    While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have primarily examined populations of European ancestry, more recent studies often involve additional populations, including admixed populations such as African Americans and Latinos. In admixed populations, linkage disequilibrium (LD) exists both at a fine scale in ancestral populations and at a coarse scale (admixture-LD) due to chromosomal segments of distinct ancestry. Disease association statistics in admixed populations have previously consi...

  9. Enhanced statistical tests for GWAS in admixed populations: assessment using African Americans from CARe and a Breast Cancer Consortium.

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Pasaniuc; Noah Zaitlen; Guillaume Lettre; Chen, Gary K.; Arti Tandon; Linda Kao, W H; Ingo Ruczinski; Myriam Fornage; Siscovick, David S; Xiaofeng Zhu; Emma Larkin; Lange, Leslie A.; L Adrienne Cupples; Qiong Yang; Akylbekova, Ermeg L.

    2011-01-01

    While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have primarily examined populations of European ancestry, more recent studies often involve additional populations, including admixed populations such as African Americans and Latinos. In admixed populations, linkage disequilibrium (LD) exists both at a fine scale in ancestral populations and at a coarse scale (admixture-LD) due to chromosomal segments of distinct ancestry. Disease association statistics in admixed populations have previously consi...

  10. Mitochondrial DNA evidence for admixed origins of central Siberian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakendorf, Brigitte; Wiebe, Victor; Tarskaia, Larissa A; Spitsyn, Victor A; Soodyall, Himla; Rodewald, Alexander; Stoneking, Mark

    2003-03-01

    The Yakuts of northeastern Siberia are a Turkic-speaking population of horse- and cattle-breeders surrounded by Tungusic-speaking reindeer-herders and hunter-gatherers. Archaeological and ethnohistorical data suggest that Yakuts stem from a common ancestral population with the Buryats living near Lake Baikal. To address this hypothesis, we obtained sequences of the first hypervariable segment (HV1) of the mitochondrial DNA control region from Yakuts and Buryats and compared these with sequences from other Eurasian populations. The mtDNA results show that the Buryats have close affinities with both Central Asian Turkic groups and Mongols, while the Yakuts have close affinities with northeastern Siberian, Tungusic-speaking Evenks and south Siberian, Turkic-speaking Tuvans. This different ancestry of the Yakuts and the Tuvans (compared with other Turkic-speaking groups) most likely reflects extensive admixture that occurred between Turkic-speaking steppe groups and Evenks as the former migrated into Siberia. Moreover, the Yakuts are unique among Siberian populations in having a high number of haplotypes shared exclusively with Europeans, suggesting, contrary to the historical record, that occasionally Yakut men took Russian women as wives. PMID:12567375

  11. RelateAdmix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltke, Ida; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Pairwise relatedness plays an important role in a range of genetic research fields. However, currently only few estimators exist for individuals that are admixed, i.e. have ancestry from more than one population, and these estimators fail in some situations.......Pairwise relatedness plays an important role in a range of genetic research fields. However, currently only few estimators exist for individuals that are admixed, i.e. have ancestry from more than one population, and these estimators fail in some situations....

  12. Enhanced statistical tests for GWAS in admixed populations: assessment using African Americans from CARe and a Breast Cancer Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Pasaniuc

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available While genome-wide association studies (GWAS have primarily examined populations of European ancestry, more recent studies often involve additional populations, including admixed populations such as African Americans and Latinos. In admixed populations, linkage disequilibrium (LD exists both at a fine scale in ancestral populations and at a coarse scale (admixture-LD due to chromosomal segments of distinct ancestry. Disease association statistics in admixed populations have previously considered SNP association (LD mapping or admixture association (mapping by admixture-LD, but not both. Here, we introduce a new statistical framework for combining SNP and admixture association in case-control studies, as well as methods for local ancestry-aware imputation. We illustrate the gain in statistical power achieved by these methods by analyzing data of 6,209 unrelated African Americans from the CARe project genotyped on the Affymetrix 6.0 chip, in conjunction with both simulated and real phenotypes, as well as by analyzing the FGFR2 locus using breast cancer GWAS data from 5,761 African-American women. We show that, at typed SNPs, our method yields an 8% increase in statistical power for finding disease risk loci compared to the power achieved by standard methods in case-control studies. At imputed SNPs, we observe an 11% increase in statistical power for mapping disease loci when our local ancestry-aware imputation framework and the new scoring statistic are jointly employed. Finally, we show that our method increases statistical power in regions harboring the causal SNP in the case when the causal SNP is untyped and cannot be imputed. Our methods and our publicly available software are broadly applicable to GWAS in admixed populations.

  13. Exome sequencing in an admixed isolated population indicates NFXL1 variants confer a risk for specific language impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pía Villanueva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Children affected by Specific Language Impairment (SLI fail to acquire age appropriate language skills despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. SLI is highly heritable, but the understanding of underlying genetic mechanisms has proved challenging. In this study, we use molecular genetic techniques to investigate an admixed isolated founder population from the Robinson Crusoe Island (Chile, who are affected by a high incidence of SLI, increasing the power to discover contributory genetic factors. We utilize exome sequencing in selected individuals from this population to identify eight coding variants that are of putative significance. We then apply association analyses across the wider population to highlight a single rare coding variant (rs144169475, Minor Allele Frequency of 4.1% in admixed South American populations in the NFXL1 gene that confers a nonsynonymous change (N150K and is significantly associated with language impairment in the Robinson Crusoe population (p = 2.04 × 10-4, 8 variants tested. Subsequent sequencing of NFXL1 in 117 UK SLI cases identified four individuals with heterozygous variants predicted to be of functional consequence. We conclude that coding variants within NFXL1 confer an increased risk of SLI within a complex genetic model.

  14. Becoming pure: identifying generational classes of admixed individuals within lesser and greater scaup populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavretsky, Philip; Peters, Jeffrey L; Winker, Kevin; Bahn, Volker; Kulikova, Irina; Zhuravlev, Yuri N; Wilson, Robert E; Barger, Chris; Gurney, Kirsty; McCracken, Kevin G

    2016-02-01

    Estimating the frequency of hybridization is important to understand its evolutionary consequences and its effects on conservation efforts. In this study, we examined the extent of hybridization in two sister species of ducks that hybridize. We used mitochondrial control region sequences and 3589 double-digest restriction-associated DNA sequences (ddRADseq) to identify admixture between wild lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and greater scaup (A. marila). Among 111 individuals, we found one introgressed mitochondrial DNA haplotype in lesser scaup and four in greater scaup. Likewise, based on the site-frequency spectrum from autosomal DNA, gene flow was asymmetrical, with higher rates from lesser into greater scaup. However, using ddRADseq nuclear DNA, all individuals were assigned to their respective species with >0.95 posterior assignment probability. To examine the power for detecting admixture, we simulated a breeding experiment in which empirical data were used to create F1 hybrids and nine generations (F2-F10) of backcrossing. F1 hybrids and F2, F3 and most F4 backcrosses were clearly distinguishable from pure individuals, but evidence of admixed histories was effectively lost after the fourth generation. Thus, we conclude that low interspecific assignment probabilities (0.011-0.043) for two lesser and nineteen greater scaup were consistent with admixed histories beyond the F3 generation. These results indicate that the propensity of these species to hybridize in the wild is low and largely asymmetric. When applied to species-specific cases, our approach offers powerful utility for examining concerns of hybridization in conservation efforts, especially for determining the generational time until admixed histories are effectively lost through backcrossing. PMID:26833858

  15. Socioeconomic and nutritional factors account for the association of gastric cancer with Amerindian ancestry in a Latin American admixed population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latife Pereira

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer and its incidence varies worldwide, with the Andean region of South America showing high incidence rates. We evaluated the genetic structure of the population from Lima (Peru and performed a case-control genetic association study to test the contribution of African, European, or Native American ancestry to risk for gastric cancer, controlling for the effect of non-genetic factors. A wide set of socioeconomic, dietary, and clinic information was collected for each participant in the study and ancestry was estimated based on 103 ancestry informative markers. Although the urban population from Lima is usually considered as mestizo (i.e., admixed from Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans, we observed a high fraction of Native American ancestry (78.4% for the cases and 74.6% for the controls and a very low African ancestry (<5%. We determined that higher Native American individual ancestry is associated with gastric cancer, but socioeconomic factors associated both with gastric cancer and Native American ethnicity account for this association. Therefore, the high incidence of gastric cancer in Peru does not seem to be related to susceptibility alleles common in this population. Instead, our result suggests a predominant role for ethnic-associated socioeconomic factors and disparities in access to health services. Since Native Americans are a neglected group in genomic studies, we suggest that the population from Lima and other large cities from Western South America with high Native American ancestry background may be convenient targets for epidemiological studies focused on this ethnic group.

  16. Comparison of Genome-Wide Association Methods in Analyses of Admixed Populations with Complex Familial Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadri, Naveen; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Sørensen, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    Population structure is known to cause false-positive detection in association studies. We compared the power, precision, and type-I error rates of various association models in analyses of a simulated dataset with structure at the population (admixture from two populations; P) and family (K......) levels. We also compared type-I error rates among models in analyses of publicly available human and dog datasets. The models corrected for none, one, or both structure levels. Correction for K was performed with linear mixed models incorporating familial relationships estimated from pedigrees or genetic...... markers. Linear models that ignored K were also tested. Correction for P was performed using principal component or structured association analysis. In analyses of simulated and real data, linear mixed models that corrected for K were able to control for type-I error, regardless of whether they also...

  17. The admixed population structure in Danish Jersey dairy cattle challenges accurate genomic predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Su, Guosheng; Madsen, Per; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the population structure in Danish Jersey known from the history of the breed also is reflected in the markers. This is done by comparing the linkage disequilibrium and persistence of phase for subgroups of Jersey animals with high proportions...... structure incorporated 1,730 genotyped Jersey animals. In total 39,542 SNP markers were included in the analysis. The 1,079 genotyped bulls with de-regressed proof for udder health were used in the analysis for the predictions of the genomic breeding values. A range of random regressions models that...... included the breed origin were analyzed and compared to a basic genomic model that assumes a homogeneous breed structure. The main finding in this study is that the importation of germ plasma from the US Jersey population is readily reflected in the genomes of modern Danish Jersey animals. Firstly, linkage...

  18. Detection of Ancestry Informative HLA Alleles Confirms the Admixed Origins of Japanese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Hirofumi Nakaoka; Shigeki Mitsunaga; Kazuyoshi Hosomichi; Liou Shyh-Yuh; Taiji Sawamoto; Tsutomu Fujiwara; Naohisa Tsutsui; Koji Suematsu; Akira Shinagawa; Hidetoshi Inoko; Ituro Inoue

    2013-01-01

    The polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region are powerful tool for studying human evolutionary processes. We investigated genetic structure of Japanese by using five-locus HLA genotypes (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DPB1) of 2,005 individuals from 10 regions of Japan. We found a significant level of population substructure in Japanese; particularly the differentiation between Okinawa Island and mainland Japanese. By using a plot of the principal component scores, we identified ...

  19. Haplotype diversity of 17 Y-str loci in an admixed population from the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francez, Pablo Abdon da Costa; Ramos, Luiz Patrick Vidal; de Jesus Brabo Ferreira Palha, Teresinha; dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista

    2012-01-01

    The allelic and haplotype frequencies of 17 Y-STR loci most commonly used in forensic testing were estimated in a sample of 138 unrelated healthy males from Macapá, in the northern Amazon region of Brazil. The average gene diversity was 0.6554 ± 0.3315. 134 haplotypes of the 17 loci were observed, 130 of them unique and four present in two individuals each. The haplotype diversity index was 0.9996 + 0.0009, with the most frequent haplogroups being R1b (52.2%), E1b1b (11.6%), J2 (10.1%) and Q (7.2%). Most haplogroups of this population belonged to European male lineages (89.2%), followed by Amerindian (7.2%) and African (3.6%) lineages. PMID:22481873

  20. Detection of ancestry informative HLA alleles confirms the admixed origins of Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Mitsunaga, Shigeki; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Shyh-Yuh, Liou; Sawamoto, Taiji; Fujiwara, Tsutomu; Tsutsui, Naohisa; Suematsu, Koji; Shinagawa, Akira; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Ituro

    2013-01-01

    The polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region are powerful tool for studying human evolutionary processes. We investigated genetic structure of Japanese by using five-locus HLA genotypes (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DPB1) of 2,005 individuals from 10 regions of Japan. We found a significant level of population substructure in Japanese; particularly the differentiation between Okinawa Island and mainland Japanese. By using a plot of the principal component scores, we identified ancestry informative alleles associated with the underlying population substructure. We examined extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between pairs of HLA alleles on the haplotypes that were differentiated among regions. The LDs were strong and weak for pairs of HLA alleles characterized by low and high frequencies in Okinawa Island, respectively. The five-locus haplotypes whose alleles exhibit strong LD were unique to Japanese and South Korean, suggesting that these haplotypes had been recently derived from the Korean Peninsula. The alleles characterized by high frequency in Japanese compared to South Korean formed segmented three-locus haplotype that was commonly found in Aleuts, Eskimos, and North- and Meso-Americans but not observed in Korean and Chinese. The serologically equivalent haplotype was found in Orchid Island in Taiwan, Mongol, Siberia, and Arctic regions. It suggests that early Japanese who existed prior to the migration wave from the Korean Peninsula shared ancestry with northern Asian who moved to the New World via the Bering Strait land bridge. These results may support the admixture model for peopling of Japanese Archipelago. PMID:23577161

  1. Detection of ancestry informative HLA alleles confirms the admixed origins of Japanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Nakaoka

    Full Text Available The polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA region are powerful tool for studying human evolutionary processes. We investigated genetic structure of Japanese by using five-locus HLA genotypes (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DPB1 of 2,005 individuals from 10 regions of Japan. We found a significant level of population substructure in Japanese; particularly the differentiation between Okinawa Island and mainland Japanese. By using a plot of the principal component scores, we identified ancestry informative alleles associated with the underlying population substructure. We examined extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD between pairs of HLA alleles on the haplotypes that were differentiated among regions. The LDs were strong and weak for pairs of HLA alleles characterized by low and high frequencies in Okinawa Island, respectively. The five-locus haplotypes whose alleles exhibit strong LD were unique to Japanese and South Korean, suggesting that these haplotypes had been recently derived from the Korean Peninsula. The alleles characterized by high frequency in Japanese compared to South Korean formed segmented three-locus haplotype that was commonly found in Aleuts, Eskimos, and North- and Meso-Americans but not observed in Korean and Chinese. The serologically equivalent haplotype was found in Orchid Island in Taiwan, Mongol, Siberia, and Arctic regions. It suggests that early Japanese who existed prior to the migration wave from the Korean Peninsula shared ancestry with northern Asian who moved to the New World via the Bering Strait land bridge. These results may support the admixture model for peopling of Japanese Archipelago.

  2. Allelic frequencies and statistical data obtained from 12 codis STR loci in an admixed population of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Abdon da Costa Francez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The allelic frequencies of 12 short tandem repeat loci were obtained from a sample of 307 unrelated individuals living in Macapá, a city in the northern Amazon region, Brazil. These loci are the most commonly used in forensics and paternity testing. Based on the allele frequency obtained for the population of Macapá, we estimated an interethnic admixture for the three parental groups (European, Native American and African of, respectively, 46%, 35% and 19%. Comparing these allele frequencies with those of other Brazilian populations and of the Iberian Peninsula population, no significant distances were observed. The interpopulation genetic distances (F ST coefficients to the present database ranged from F ST = 0.0016 between Macapá and Belém to F ST = 0.0036 between Macapá and the Iberian Peninsula.

  3. Allelic frequencies and statistical data obtained from 12 codis STR loci in an admixed population of the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Francez, Pablo Abdon; Rodrigues, Elzemar Martins Ribeiro; Frazão, Gleycianne Furtado; dos Reis Borges, Nathalia Danielly; dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista

    2011-01-01

    The allelic frequencies of 12 short tandem repeat loci were obtained from a sample of 307 unrelated individuals living in Macapá, a city in the northern Amazon region, Brazil. These loci are the most commonly used in forensics and paternity testing. Based on the allele frequency obtained for the population of Macapá, we estimated an interethnic admixture for the three parental groups (European, Native American and African) of, respectively, 46%, 35% and 19%. Comparing these allele frequencies with those of other Brazilian populations and of the Iberian Peninsula population, no significant distances were observed. The interpopulation genetic distances (FST coefficients) to the present database ranged from FST = 0.0016 between Macapá and Belém to FST = 0.0036 between Macapá and the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:21637540

  4. High frequency of the CCR5delta32 variant among individuals from an admixed Brazilian population with sickle cell anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.B. Chies

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Homozygous sickle cell disease (SCD has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. In Brazil, the main cause of death of individuals with SCD is recurrent infection. The CCR5delta32 allele, which confers relative resistance to macrophage-tropic HIV virus infection, probably has reached its frequency and world distribution due to other pathogens that target macrophage in European populations. In the present investigation a relatively higher prevalence (5.1% of the CCR5delta32 allele was identified, by PCR amplification using specific primers, in 79 SCD patients when compared to healthy controls (1.3% with the same ethnic background (Afro-Brazilians. Based on a hypothesis that considers SCD as a chronic inflammatory condition, and since the CCR5 chemokine receptor is involved in directing a Th1-type immune response, we suggest that a Th1/Th2 balance can influence the morbidity of SCD. If the presence of the null CCR5delta32 allele results in a reduction of the chronic inflammation state present in SCD patients, this could lead to differential survival of SCD individuals who are carriers of the CCR5delta32 allele. This differential survival could be due to the development of less severe infections and consequently reduced or less severe vaso-occlusive crises.

  5. Cancer in populations living near nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the results of a survey of the incidence of cancer in populations living near nuclear facilities in the USA. In addition to benign and unspecified neoplasms, fifteen kinds of cancer were studied, and the numbers of deaths resulting from them in counties containing nuclear facilities were compared with the corresponding figures from the same counties before start-up of the facilities or from counties that do not contain nuclear facilities. The results showed no increase in cancer deaths in populations living near nuclear facilities. 30 refs

  6. Rural population growth and living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N; Zhu, C

    1991-01-01

    The problem of the effect of population growth on subsistence conditions is addressed by developing generalized premises, principles, and methods for quantifying standards or conditions for growth. This method is applied to 1989 data for Nanzheng Country, China. Background information is provided on an experiment made public in 1985 and implemented in 1986 by the Family Planning (FP) Department of Nanzheng County of Shaanxi Province in Hongmiao District in which the following conditions were placed on bearing a second child: 1) income must be 20% higher than the average village income level, and breeders must have an average income of not 400 yuan/year, crop planters not 300 yuan/year, textile weavers not 200 yuan/year, and industrial and subsidiary production workers not 400 yuan/year (generally 4 pigs or 100 chickens or ducks) or 2) 100 income-producing trees must be planted around he residential area/family plot or stony fields must be transformed into arable land under the contract responsibility system, or groves, orchards, or tea plantations must be planted. These conditions must be met one year prior to proposing to have a second child. The approval rate in 1986-88 was 88.7%, and the second parity rate was 78.4%. Deteriorated conditions had not yet occurred in this country when this proposal was made. The premises considered important in preparing assistance conditions were determined. 1) Conditions for population growth should be resolved within the area. 2) Subsistence conditions should be taken care of by the family. 3) There should be a centralized standard, not a family standard, such that living conditions/capita should not decrease because of population growth. Quantification is made expressing the relationship between subsistence and growth. The application of these conditions for households in Hongmiao District is that the average subsistence conditions need to be higher than other households by 12.3% for new population growth. The assumption is

  7. Capabilities of nitrogen admixed cryogenic deuterium pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharov, Igor; Sergeev, Vladimir [SPU, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lang, Peter; Ploeckl, Bernhard; Cavedon, Marco [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Kocsis, Gabor; Szepesi, Tamas [Wigner RCP RMI, Budapest (Hungary); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2015-05-01

    Operation at high core density with high energy confinement - as foreseen in a future fusion reactor like DEMO - is being investigated at ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The efficiency of pellet fuelling from the high-field side usually increases with increasing injection speed. Due to the fragile nature of the deuterium ice, however, the increment of pellet mass losses and subsequent pellet fragmentations take place when the speed is increased. Studies show, that admixing of a small amount of nitrogen (N{sub 2}) into D{sub 2} gas can be favorable for the mechanical stability of pellets. This might be helpful for deeper pellet penetration. Besides, seeding by N{sub 2} can enhance plasma performance due to both increasing the energy confinement time and reducing the divertor heat load in the envisaged ELMy H-mode plasma scenario. Fuelling efficiency of N{sub 2}-admixed solid D{sub 2} pellets and their nitrogen seeding capabilities were investigated. It was found that both the overall plasma density increase and the measured averaged pellet penetration depth were smaller in case of the admixed (1% mol. in the gas resulting in about 0.8% in the ice) pellet fuelling. Possibility of the N{sub 2}-seeding by admixed pellets was confirmed by CXRS measurements of N{sup 7+} content in plasma.

  8. The Health Care Institution, Population Health and Black Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christopher J; Redwood, Yanique

    2016-05-01

    The ongoing existence of institutionalized racism and discriminatory practices in various systems (education, criminal justice, housing, employment) serve as root causes of poor health in Blacks Lives. Furthermore, these unjust social structures and their complex interplay result in inefficient utilization of health services and reactive or futile interactions with medical providers. Collectively, these factors contribute to racial disparities in health and treatment represents a significant portion of the nation's health care expenditures. In order for health care systems to optimize population health goals, racism must be recognized as a determinant of health. As anchor institutions in their respective communities, we offer hospitals and health systems a conceptual framework to address the issue within internal and external constructs. PMID:27372475

  9. Study of populations living near nuclear facilities. Etude des populations habitant pres des installations nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, D. (Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France). Comite de Radioprotection); Hill, C. (Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France))

    1994-01-01

    After the observation in 1983 of a leukaemia cluster among children living near the Sellafield nuclear waste reprocessing plant (United Kingdom), numerous epidemiologic studies have been conducted on the risk of cancer or leukaemia in populations in the vicinity of nuclear installations. The methodology of these cohort and case-control studies of mortality or of incidence is reviewed. Some cohort studies have shown an excess of childhood leukaemia, but only in the UK; French, US, Canadian and German studies were negative. In 1990, a first case-control study found a relationship between the risk of leukaemia in children living around Sellafield and the professional exposure of their father to ionizing radiation before conception, but all further studies were negative. A viral infection, facilitated by large influxes of people into isolated areas, has also been suggested as a possible cause of the excess leukaemias. (authors). 26 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma with admixed gangliocytoma and ganglioglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukes, Alistair; Allan, Rodney; Rawson, Robert; Buckland, Michael E

    2016-09-01

    Pituitary adenomas are the most common tumours found in the sellar region and, when both functioning and non-functioning adenomas are combined, account for 7-15% of primary brain tumours in adults. Rarely, admixed or discrete groups of cells comprising two or more tumour subtypes are seen; the so-called 'collision tumour'. We present a case of a 54-year-old-woman with a growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma admixed with both ganglioglioma and gangliocytoma. The possible mechanisms by which this may occur include a pre-existing gangliocytoma promoting the development of pituitary adenoma by hypersecretion of releasing hormones or aberrant migration of hypothalamic neurons in early embryogenesis. PMID:27068013

  11. Population, Migration, Living Standard and Social Pressure: A Modeling Approach from Thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Chen

    2013-01-01

    Human societies are complex thermodynamic systems. It is natural to ask to what extent results obtained from simple thermodynamic systems can be extended to provide insights into more complex thermodynamic systems. We apply some simple results from thermodynamics to examine relations among population size, migration patterns, living standard, space, social pressure, and cost to raise children. The result shows that at low levels of living standard, increasing living standard will increase the...

  12. Population Aging, Productivity, and Growth in Living Standards

    OpenAIRE

    William Scarth

    2003-01-01

    Population aging creates both a problem (higher taxes on a small group of workers to finance higher public pension and health care costs) and automatic adjustments that help to address that problem. The prospect of longer retirement involves an increased incentive to invest in physical capital, and labour scarcity leads to higher pre-tax wages and an increased incentive to invest in human capital. Thus, productivity growth can be favourably affected by aging. The likely empirical magnitude of...

  13. Radobiologic effects in the population living near Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eightly citizens of the former Soviet Union were examined after immigrating to the U.S. from 1989-91. During the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, they were residents of four cities (Kiev, Gomel, Bobrujsk and Mozyr) all located 100-200 km from the plant. Examination of each individual included one - four whole-body radiation counts and a cytogenetic analysis of mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes for micronuclei as a biomarker of chromosome damage. In addition, 19 of the subjects heterozygous for the MN blood group were further tested using the glycophorin-A (GPA) specific locus mutation assay on erythrocytes. Results showed 48 immigrants including persons from all four cities had detectable levels of radiocesium contamination. The highest body burdens were found in a family who had lived in Mozyr, about 100 km northwest of Chernobyl. The observed decline in radiocesium of these subjects was consistent with the published biological half-life of 137Cs. Adults showed the highest body burdens of radiocesium and the adult males from all four cities consistently showed higher levels than adult females. Age was found to account for much of the variation of lymphocyte micronuclei, however, a significant correlation was also demonstrated with radiocesium body burden and the absorbed dose for 20 subjects. Consistent with earlier studies, the frequency of simple allele loss (N/O) variants at the autosomal GPA locus was significantly higher than age- and sex-matched contemporaneous controls. Nine of the 19 MN heterozygotes showed variant frequencies 4-fold higher than mean frequency of matched controls. The allele loss mutations also showed a significant positive correlation with the radiocesium body burden. Results from this study indicate individuals living as far as 100-200 km from Chernobyl received radiation exposure from fallout sufficient to induce both cytogenetic abnormalities and specific locus mutations in hematopoietic tissues

  14. [The population of India and the standard of living].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, G

    1983-01-01

    In 1951 the Indian population arrived at the end of its period of slow growth associated with British colonial rule. The mortality rate was still high at 27-31/1000; with a birth rate of 41-43/1000, the annual rate of growth was 1.2-1.3%. In the following decade, mortality declined appreciably due to progress in medicine and public health, but after 1961 the mortality decline slowed. Fertility began to decline, but much more slowly than hoped. The rate of urbanization was more moderate than in many developing countries, and the sex ratio for reasons not well understood continued to favor males. The rate of increase in several states slowed between 1961-71, and it appeared plausible that declining natality was a factor. The proportion literate increased from 24.03% in 1961 to 36.17% in 1981. In 1981, 46.74% of men and 24.88% of women were literate. Between 1951-81, mortality declined from 27-31/1000 to 13/1000 while fertility declined from 41-43/1000 to 34/1000. The effects of the future fertility decline will be partially offset by declining mortality. Although India has had some kind of family planning program since the 5-Year Plan of 1951-56, progress has been slow and uneven. Concern about overpopulation is increasing among the population, but available methods of contraception are imperfect, many programs are poorly administered, and skilled personnel are in short supply. The age at marriage has increased somewhat but not enough to have a major impact on fertility. Despite the extreme difficulty of establishing the caloric intake and real incomes of the poorest classes, it is known that wide disparities of income existed before independence and that population growth began to outpace increases in agricultural production long ago in some regions. However, after independence food production in the country as a whole increased by 114.3% while population increased by 93.7%. Growth of agricultural productivity has subsequently slowed. Improvements have been unevenly

  15. An electrochemical and microstructural characterization of steel-mortar admixed with corrosion inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuan; Anh; Nguyen; Recep; AVCI

    2009-01-01

    The present research brings new insights on the role of admixed corrosion inhibitors in the processes of cement hydration and rebar corrosion. The admixing of NaCl and the corrosion inhibitors in fresh mortar was found to alter the morphology and microstructure of the hardened mortar at the steel-mortar interfacial region. The admixing of the inhibitors increased the risk of carbonation of cement hydrates at the steel-mortar interfacial region, but partially displaced chloride ions. Chloride and the admixed inhibitors facilitated the formation of different cement hydrates and affected chloride binding at the steel-mortar interfacial region. The admixing of all three inhibitors was found to increase the polarization resistance of steel, indicating reduced corrosion rate of the steel over 48-day exposures to salt ponding.

  16. Cancer risks in populations living near landfill sites in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Jarup, L; Briggs, D.; de Hoogh, C; Morris, S.; Hurt, C.; Lewin, A; Maitland, I; Richardson, S; Wakefield, J; Elliott , P.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have raised concerns about possible excess risks of bladder, brain and hepatobiliary cancers and leukaemias near landfill sites. Several cancers have been implicated, but no consistent pattern has emerged. We present a large nationwide analysis of selected cancers near landfill sites in Great Britain. The base population comprised people living within 2 km of 9565 (from a total of 19 196) landfill sites that were operational at some time from 1982 to 1997, with populations li...

  17. Living alone and antidepressant medication use: a prospective study in a working-age population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulkki-Råback Laura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing proportion of the population lives in one-person households. The authors examined whether living alone predicts the use of antidepressant medication and whether socioeconomic, psychosocial, or behavioral factors explain this association. Methods The participants were a nationally representative sample of working-age Finns from the Health 2000 Study, totaling 1695 men and 1776 women with a mean age of 44.6 years. In the baseline survey in 2000, living arrangements (living alone vs. not and potential explanatory factors, including psychosocial factors (social support, work climate, hostility, sociodemographic factors (occupational grade, education, income, unemployment, urbanicity, rental living, housing conditions, and health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, obesity, were measured. Antidepressant medication use was followed up from 2000 to 2008 through linkage to national prescription registers. Results Participants living alone had a 1.81-fold (CI = 1.46-2.23 higher purchase rate of antidepressants during the follow-up period than those who did not live alone. Adjustment for sociodemographic factors attenuated this association by 21% (adjusted OR = 1.64, CI = 1.32-2.05. The corresponding attenuation was 12% after adjustment for psychosocial factors (adjusted OR = 1.71, CI = 1.38-2.11 and 9% after adjustment for health behaviors (adjusted OR = 1.74, CI = 1.41-2.14. Gender-stratified analyses showed that in women the greatest attenuation was related to sociodemographic factors and in men to psychosocial factors. Conclusions These data suggest that people living alone may be at increased risk of developing mental health problems. The public health value is in recognizing that people who live alone are more likely to have material and psychosocial problems that may contribute to excess mental health problems in this population group.

  18. The standard of living of the population and its diversity in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the comparison standard of living for Poland and other European Union countries (based on specific diagnostic features that describe different groups of the population's needs. In the study of the spatial diversity of life taxonomic methods were used – classical TOPSIS method.

  19. THE MAIN DIRECTIONS OF PROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY OF POPULATION LIVING AROUND THE SEMIPALATINSK NUCLEAR TEST SITE

    OpenAIRE

    ZHUNUSSOVA T.; Grosche, B; Apsalikov, K.; BELIKHINA T.; Pivina, L.; Muldagaliev, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the paper we have presented the possibilities of prospective cohort study of health status in the radiation exposed population living around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. It was substantiated the necessity of international cooperation of scientists from Kazakhstan, Europe, Japan and the United States for long-term study of radiation effects for the people and the environment.

  20. Updating Poverty Maps of Vietnam using Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey 2002 and Population Census 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Viet, Cuong; Van der Weide, Roy; Tran, Ngoc Truong

    2007-01-01

    Poverty map is an important for poverty targeting in developing countries. In this study, we combine the Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey (VHLSS) in 2002 and the Population Census in 1999 to estimate poverty and inequality indexes of all provinces and districts of Vietnam in the year 2002.

  1. Recent and historical recombination in the admixed Norwegian Red cattle breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grove Harald

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparison of recent patterns of recombination derived from linkage maps to historical patterns of recombination from linkage disequilibrium (LD could help identify genomic regions affected by strong artificial selection, appearing as reduced recent recombination. Norwegian Red cattle (NRF make an interesting case study for investigating these patterns as it is an admixed breed with an extensively recorded pedigree. NRF have been under strong artificial selection for traits such as milk and meat production, fertility and health. While measures of LD is also crucial for determining the number of markers required for association mapping studies, estimates of recombination rate can be used to assess quality of genomic assemblies. Results A dataset containing more than 17,000 genome-wide distributed SNPs and 2600 animals was used to assess recombination rates and LD in NRF. Although low LD measured by r2 was observed in NRF relative to some of the breeds from which this breed originates, reports from breeds other than those assessed in this study have described more rapid decline in r2 at short distances than what was found in NRF. Rate of decline in r2 for NRF suggested that to obtain an expected r2 between markers and a causal polymorphism of at least 0.5 for genome-wide association studies, approximately one SNP every 15 kb or a total of 200,000 SNPs would be required. For well known quantitative trait loci (QTLs for milk production traits on Bos Taurus chromosomes 1, 6 and 20, map length based on historic recombination was greater than map length based on recent recombination in NRF. Further, positions for 130 previously unpositioned contigs from assembly of the bovine genome sequence (Btau_4.0 found using comparative sequence analysis were validated by linkage analysis, and 28% of these positions corresponded to extreme values of population recombination rate. Conclusion While LD is reduced in NRF compared to some of the

  2. Cancer mortality in a rural population living in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last period, some minor incidents at the Kozlodui Nuclear Power Plant, placed on the left bank of the Danube, have been notified. The mass media and the population living on the romanian Danube's bank closed to Kozlodui - having still in mind the Chernobyl disaster - became more concerned about the possible health effects as a consequence of these events. On the other hand from the 1995 the cancer mortality in our country has an ascendant evolution. In this context the public health authority considered as a duty to pay attention to the possible influence of the Kozlodui Nuclear Power Plant on the local population health

  3. Community structure, population structure and topographical specialisation of Gyrodactylus (Monogenea) ectoparasites living on sympatric stickleback species

    OpenAIRE

    Raeymaekers, Joost; Huyse, Tine; Maelfait, Hannelore; Hellemans, Bart; Volckaert, Filip

    2008-01-01

    In order to disentangle the contribution of host and parasite biology to host specificity, we compared the structure and population dynamics of the Gyrodactylus (von Nordmann, 1832) flatworm community living oil sympatric three-spined Gasterosteus aculeatus L. and nine-spined Pungitins pungitius (L.) stickleback. Between April 2002 and March 2003, a small lowland creek was sampled monthly. Species identity of about 75% of the worms per host was determined with a genetic nuclear marker (ITSI)....

  4. Living bacteria rheology: population growth, aggregation patterns and cooperative behaviour under different shear flows

    CERN Document Server

    Patricio, P; Portela, R; Sobral, R G; Grilo, I R; Cidade, T; Leal, C R

    2014-01-01

    The activity of growing living bacteria was investigated using real-time and in situ rheology -- in stationary and oscillatory shear. Two different strains of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus -- strain COL and its isogenic cell wall autolysis mutant -- were considered in this work. For low bacteria density, strain COL forms small clusters, while the mutant, presenting deficient cell separation, forms irregular larger aggregates. In the early stages of growth, when subjected to a stationary shear, the viscosity of both strains increases with the population of cells. As the bacteria reach the exponential phase of growth, the viscosity of the two strains follow different and rich behaviours, with no counterpart in the optical density or in the population's colony forming units measurements. While the viscosity of strain COL keeps increasing during the exponential phase and returns close to its initial value for the late phase of growth, where the population stabilizes, the viscosity of the mutant strain ...

  5. Minisatellite mutations and retrospective biodosimetry of population living close to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period between 1949 and 1989 nuclear weapon testing carried out at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (STS) resulted in local fallout affecting the residents of Semipalatinsk, East Kazakhstan and Pavlodar districts of Kazakhstan and Altai region of Russia. The Semipalatinsk nuclear polygon in Kazakhstan has been the site for 470 nuclear tests, including 26 tests performed on the ground and 87 in the atmosphere. More than 1.5 million people living in the vicinity of the test site were repeatedly exposed to ionizing radiation. The paper reviews the study where the main objectives are: (1) to establish a biosample database of blood samples of families in three generations living close to the STS and control families in three generations from clean areas, (2) to determine the minisatellite mutation rates in the three generations of exposed people and the control families of the same ethinic origin living in non-contaminated areas, and (3) to determine the chromosomal translocation frequencies by FISH chromosome painting in the lymphocytes of the exposed and the control people in order to determine the radiation exposure. The aim of the study was to select the population living near to the STS and subjected to the greatest radiation exposure. Of particular interest was the first test of 29th of August 1949, as this was reported to have caused heavy fallout along a narrow trajectory extending north-east from Polygon, also covering parts of the Altai region of Russia and parts of Pavlodar and Karaganda regions in Kazakhstan

  6. Live and Non-Live Pregnancy Outcomes among Women with Depression and Anxiety: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ban, Lu; Tata, Laila J.; West, Joe; Fiaschi, Linda; Gibson, Jack E

    2012-01-01

    Background Women taking antidepressant or anti-anxiety medications during early pregnancy have high risks of non-live pregnancy outcomes, although the contribution of the underlying illnesses to these risks remains unclear. We examined the impacts of antenatal depression and anxiety and of commonly prescribed treatments on the risks of non-live pregnancy outcomes. Methods We identified all pregnancies and their outcome (live birth, perinatal death, miscarriage or termination) among women aged...

  7. Current radiological simulation and dose assessment on the population living in the Techa Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the beginning of the fifties, planned releases of liquid radioactive wastes were performed from the radiochemical enterprise Mayak to the riverbed of the Techa river flowing in the area of the Chelyabinsk region. These releases caused high contamination of the riverbed and water meadows of the Techa river especially by 90Sr and 137Cs. After the termination of intensive releases, a part of the population living in the riverside settlements (15 settlements with total population of 72000 persons) was resettled from 1954-1962. Within the Chelyabinsk region, four inhabited settlements remained on the river: Muslyumovo, Brodokalmak, Russkaya Techa and Nizhnepetropavlovskoye with a total population of 9229 persons according to the census of 1989. The second, but much less significant, source of contamination to this environment was the dispersion and transport of contaminated sediments from Lake Karachay in 1967 [Romanov et al. 1995; Kryshev et al. 1998; Kravtsova et al. 1998]. The overall purpose of this work was determination of ways and estimation of current levels of exposure to population of two settlements, Muslyumovo and Brodokalmak, which is necessary for development of measures on radiation and social protection of population

  8. Self-help countermeasure strategies for populations living within contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Countermeasures have been effectively employed within intensive agricultural systems in areas of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) affected by the Chernobyl accident. However, ingestion doses continue to be elevated in some areas as a result of few foodstuffs which are collected from the wild or produced by the household. Forest fungi and berries, and milk from privately owned cattle are the most notable contributors to 137Cs intakes amongst these foodstuffs. In this paper we consider advice which would help affected populations to both understand the importance of these exposure routes and to reduce their exposure. In addition to the potential radiological benefits, self-help schemes are highly cost-effective and likely to have a positive psychological influence on populations living within contaminated areas of the FSU. Evidence to suggest that the transfer of radiocaesium to cow milk is considerably higher in the FSU than within western Europe and North America is discussed

  9. Population Pressure, Global Living Standards, and the Promise of Space Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, John K., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    What many sincere environmentalists advocate: (severe restrictions on energy use, to reduce global warming), may actually end up being very harmful to the environment. Since 85 percent of the global energy use is derived from carbon based fossil fuels, this may seem to be a reasonable position. However, the proponents of energy use restrictions are ignoring some very important relationships. The greatest damage to the environment, in terms of species loss, is loss and/or human modification of habitat. The two greatest threats to habitat seem to be (1) population pressure and (2) logging. Logging does not necessarily permanently occupy the land, while either default squatter occupation or "colonization by policy" is often permanent. Increased population degrades the land by causing over- farming, and also creates an ever greater demand for raw materials and food resources. Poor people have no time nor money to think about or help save the environment. Therefore the greatest threat to species survival is human population growth and its frequent companion: poverty. There is an existing way to reduce population growth, and thus to reduce pressure on habitats, called "raising the standard of living". Wherever it succeeds, population growth slows rapidly. In many European countries, there would be a negative population growth if not for immigration. Personal energy use is closely correlated with living standards, and it is impossible to have a higher living standard without a higher degree of personal energy use. It would seem, however, that extending high living standards to the developing world would create an even greater demand for the use of fossil fuels. The solution to this dilemma can only be found in the use of very high capacity sources of non- fossil energy that do not significantly damage the environment. Are there sources of clean, economical energy with a large enough combined capacity to provide high living standards for the whole world, including those

  10. Problems of safety of living and nature use of the population from districts of the Brest region contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of radiological investigation, taking into account nature peculiarities of Belarusian Polesse, concrete conditions of living, nutrition traditions and population behavior stereotype they have revealed the dominant factors of radio ecological unfortune, main directions of safe living provision were pointed. (Authors)

  11. Influence of contact heterogeneity on TB reproduction ratio R$_0$ in a free-living brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula population

    OpenAIRE

    Porphyre, Thibaud; Stevenson, Mark; Jackson, Ron; McKenzie, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Social network analyses were used to investigate contact patterns in a free-living possum Trichosurus vulpecula population and to estimate the influence of contact on $R_0$ for bovine tuberculosis (TB). Using data collected during a five-year capture-mark-recapture study of a free-living possum population, observed estimates of $R_0$ were computed and compared with $R_0$ computed from random networks of similar size that approximated a random mixing process. All networks displayed a heterogen...

  12. Population-based evaluation of the 'LiveLighter' healthy weight and lifestyle mass media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, B; Niven, P; Dixon, H; Swanson, M; Szybiak, M; Shilton, T; Pratt, I S; Slevin, T; Hill, D; Wakefield, M

    2016-04-01

    The Western Australian (WA) 'LiveLighter' (LL) mass media campaign ran during June-August and September-October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual ('why' change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier ('how' to change message). Cross-sectional surveys among population samples aged 25-49 were undertaken pre-campaign (N= 2012) and following the two media waves (N= 2005 and N= 2009) in the intervention (WA) and comparison state (Victoria) to estimate the population impact of LL. Campaign awareness was 54% after the first media wave and overweight adults were more likely to recall LL and perceive it as personally relevant. Recall was also higher among parents, but equal between socio-economic groups. The 'why' message about health-harms of overweight rated higher than 'how' messages about lifestyle change, on perceived message effectiveness which is predictive of health-related intention and behaviour change. State-by-time interactions showed population-level increases in self-referent thoughts about the health-harms of overweight (P < 0.05) and physical activity intentions (P < 0.05). Endorsement of stereotypes of overweight individuals did not increase after LL aired. LL was associated with some population-level improvements in proximal and intermediate markers of campaign impact. However, sustained campaign activity will be needed to impact behaviour. PMID:26956039

  13. Demographic and genetic status of an isolated population of bog turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii): Implications for managing small populations of long-lived animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Shannon E.; King, T.L.; Faurby, S.; Dorcas, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we sought to determine the population stability and genetic diversity of one isolated population of the federally-threatened bog turtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) in North Carolina. Using capture-recapture data, we estimated adult survival and population growth rate from 1992 to 2007. We found that the population decreased from an estimated 36 adult turtles in 1994 to approximately 11 adult turtles in 2007. We found a constant adult survival of 0. 893 (SE = 0. 018, 95% confidence interval, 0. 853-0. 924) between 1992 and 2007. Using 18 microsatellite markers, we compared the genetic status of this population with five other bog turtle populations. The target population displayed allelic richness (4. 8 ?? 0. 5) and observed heterozygosity (0. 619 ?? 0. 064) within the range of the other bog turtle populations. Coalescent analysis of population growth rate, effective population size, and timing of population structuring event also indicated the genetics of the target population were comparable to the other populations studied. Estimates of effective population size were a proportion of the census size in all populations except the target population, in which the effective population size was larger than the census size (30 turtles vs. 11 turtles). We attribute the high genetic diversity in the target population to the presence of multiple generations of old turtles. This study illustrates that the demographic status of populations of long-lived species may not be reflected genetically if a decline occurred recently. Consequently, the genetic integrity of populations of long-lived animals experiencing rapid demographic bottlenecks may be preserved through conservation efforts effective in addressing demographic problems. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  14. Noise perception of the population living in the neighbourhood of the bay of Pasaia (Gipuzkoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Mª Ibarluzea Maurolagoitia

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noise is an environmental pollution agent to which a high percentage of the urban population, as well as residents living around important sources of noise, are exposed.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out to measure the perception of noise of the residents living in the area of the bay of Pasaia (Guipuzkoa, Spain. 351 dwellings were randomly selected. A structured questionnaire was used to gather information about the respondent self-perception of annoyance and sensitivity to noise. The sound pressure levels were estimated using a model that took into account the main characteristics of the different sources of noise.Results: 37.5% of the sample reported to be annoyed by noise. The interviewees declared that the main sourceof annoyance was the traffic (60% followed by the activity in the harbour (24%. The annoyance attributed tonoise was not correlated with the estimated sound level, but with the level of sensitivity to this physical agent(r=0.36; p<0.01. The percentage of the population that showed that the noise levels interfered with activities like getting to sleep was not high (9.5%. Nevertheless, half of the interviewees had already installed in their houses some kind of protection against noise.Conclusions: The relationship among the degree of annoyance caused by noise, the sensitivity to noise, the sound levels and other social and demographic variables show a very interrelated and complex phenomenon. The fact that half of the population had taken any measure to protect them from noise could have mitigated the percentage of people that declare to be annoyed by noise.

  15. Effect of Admixed Micelles on the Microstructure Alterations of Reinforced Mortar Subjected to Chloride Induced Corrosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, J.; Koleva, D.A.; Van Breugel, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the main results from the influence of the initially admixed nano-aggregates (0.5 g/l PEO113-b-PS70 micelles previously dissolved in demi-water) on microstructural alterations of the reinforced mortar subjected to chloride induced corrosion. The morphology of hydration/corrosion p

  16. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of a new organic admixed powder lubricant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper discusses the Thermo-gravimetric Analysis(TGA) of a New Organic Admixed Powder Lubricant used in pelletization of Uranium Oxide (UO2) powder at Nuclear Fuel Complex(NFC). The several advantages of this new lubricant over regularly used zinc stearate is discussed. Also, comparison of Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) of these two lubricants is seen. (author)

  17. New neutron-shielding material SBR admixed with B4C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) admixed with similar quantity of B4C powder has been developed for shielding of thermal neutrons. The material has both high flexibility and good workability. It is successfully used as part of the shielding for a neutron spectrometer. (auth.)

  18. Community structure, population structure and topographical specialisation of Gyrodactylus (monogenea) ectoparasites living on sympatric stickleback species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeymaekers, Joost A M; Huyse, Tine; Maelfait, Hannelore; Hellemans, Bart; Volckaert, Filip A M

    2008-09-01

    In order to disentangle the contribution of host and parasite biology to host specificity, we compared the structure and population dynamics of the Gyrodactylus (von Nordmann, 1832) flatworm community living on sympatric three-spined Gasterosteus aculeatus L. and nine-spined Pungitius pungitius (L.) stickleback. Between April 2002 and March 2003, a small lowland creek was sampled monthly. Species identity of about 75% of the worms per host was determined with a genetic nuclear marker (ITS1). Each stickleback species hosted a characteristic gill- and fin-parasitic Gyrodactylus: G. arcuatus Bychowsky, 1933 and G. gasterostei Gläser, 1974 respectively infecting the three-spined stickleback, with G. rarus Wegener, 1910 and G. pungitii Malmberg, 1964 infecting the nine-spined stickleback. Host size and seasonal dynamics were strong determinants of parasite abundance. A strong interaction between host and parasite species determined infection levels and affected three levels of parasite organisation: community structure, population structure and topographical specialisation. Community and population structure were shaped by asymmetric cross-infections, resulting in a net transmission of the Gyro-dactylus species typical of the nine-spined stickleback towards the three-spined stickleback. Host density was not a major determinant of parasite exchange. Aggregation and topographical specialisation of the Gyrodactylus species of the three-spined stickleback were more pronounced than that of the nine-spined stickleback. PMID:19202677

  19. Comparative costs of programmes to conserve chicken genetic variation based on maintaining living populations or storing cryopreserved material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolidations in the poultry breeding industry and academic poultry departments have resulted in the loss of avian populations. The cost of maintaining living populations is high, but ex-situ alternatives are now available. Semen can be cryopreserved and lines can be recovered by backcrossing, or...

  20. System-Level Reform in Healthcare Delivery for Patients and Populations Living with Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedge, Richard; Currie, Douglas W

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare in Canada has generally not kept pace with the evolving needs of patients since the creation of medicare in the 1960s. Budgets for hospitals, physicians and prescription drugs make up the bulk of spending in health, despite the need for better prevention and management of chronic disease, the needed expansion of home-based care services and the call for reform of front-line primary care. Over the past decade, a number of Canadian health authorities have adopted the US-based Institute for Healthcare Improvement Triple Aim philosophy (better population health, better patient experience and better per capita cost of care) in order to build system-level change. The Atlantic Healthcare Collaboration was one attempt to initiate system-level reform in healthcare delivery for patients living with chronic disease. PMID:27009641

  1. Profile of the Older Population Living in Miami-Dade County, Florida: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevallos, Juan C; Wilcox, Meredith L; Jean, Naomie; Acuña, Juan M

    2016-05-01

    Florida has the greatest proportion (19%) of older population (65 years or older) in the United States. The age distribution of its residents, in conjunction with a major shift in the leading cause of death within all age groups from acute illnesses to chronic disease, creates unprecedented health care challenges for the state. The objective of this study is to profile the older population living in Miami-Dade County (MDC) using 3 population-based, household-based surveys conducted over the past 5 years.This study examined cross-sectional data (demographics, health outcomes, risk factors, health assess, and utilization) collected from probability-sampled, household-based surveys conducted in 3 areas of MDC: north Miami-Dade, Little Haiti, and South Miami. The questionnaire was administered face-to-face by trained interviewers in English, Spanish, French, or Creole. Analyses were restricted to households containing at least 1 member aged 65 years or older (n = 935). One consenting adult answered the questionnaire on behalf of household members.The mean age of the respondent (60% females) was 60 years. Overall, respondents were predominantly African-Americans, Hispanics, and blacks of Haitian origin. One-third of all households fell below the US poverty thresholds. One-quarter of all households had at least 1 member who was uninsured within the year before the survey. Twenty percent of households had at least 1 member with an acute myocardial infarction or stroke during the year before the survey. Bone density tests and blood stool tests were strikingly underutilized. The health outcomes most prevalent within household members were cardiovascular diseases followed by cancer, anxiety/depression, obesity, asthma, and bone fractures. Twenty percent of households reported having at least 1 current smoker. Overall, emergency rooms were the most commonly used places of care after doctor's offices.Findings of 3 household-based surveys show a predominantly elderly

  2. Minisatellite mutations and retrospective biodosimetry of population living close to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, C.; Bersimbacv, R. I.; Dubrova, Y. E.; Hulten, M.; Bigbee, W. I.; Murphy, B. P.; Koivistoinen, A.; Tankimonova, M.; Mamyrbaeva, Z.; Djansugarova, L.; Mustonen, R.; Salomaa, S.

    2004-07-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine minisatellite mutation rates in families in three generations and to perform retrospective biodosimetry of individuals in these families living close to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan. The oldes generation (Po) lived in the area at the time of the first Soviet nuclear test in 1949 whereas the younger generations (F1,F2) were exposed to smaller doses from the residual fallout and later tests. Matched control families in three generations living in non-contamianted areas were analysed in parallel. The retrospective biodosimetry comprehended two endpoints; chromosomal translocations determined by FISH chromosome painting and the glycophorin A (GPA) somatic mutation assay. The minisatellite mutation rate in the cohort of P0 parents was 1-8-fold higher than in the control non-exposed population. Moreover, the minisatellite mutatin rate in the cohort of f1 parents from the exposed area showed a significant negative correlation with with the year of birth, fully consistent with the decay of radioisotopes after the cessation of surface and atmospheric nuclear tests. The results from the FISH painting analysis showed similar translocation frequencies in the Semipalatinsk cohort and the control group. Based on the FISH results it can be concluded that the P0 generation has received a cumulative mean dose of less than 0.5 Gy. The GPA assay did not reveal significant diffrences in the variant cell frequencies for all subjects from the Semipalatinsk area compared with the matched controls. However, a significant increase (P<0.05) of the mean allele-loss {phi}N variant frequency was observed among the exposed P0 generation in comparison to controls. Considering the sensitivity of the GPA assay, the results suggest that the mean dose to the P0 generation of the affected villages was relatively low and in accordance to the results obtained using FISH. (Author) 17 refs.

  3. Internal exposure of populations to long-lived radionuclides released into the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discusses the events that led to the contamination of environments with the long-lived radionuclides of caesium, strontium and other elements, and to the internal exposure of populations living in contaminated areas. Among these events are radioactive releases into the river Techa from the Soviet nuclear weapons facility Mayak in 1949-1956, thermonuclear weapons test in the 1950s and 1960s, the Kyshtim and Windscale accidents in 1957, and the Chernobyl and Tomsk-7 accidents in 1986 and 1993, respectively. Methods of environmental monitoring and individual internal dose monitoring of inhabitants are described. These are based on measuring the content of radionuclides not only in the air, drinking water and local food products, but also in humans using whole-body counters and analysing excreta and autopsy samples. The dynamics of internal exposure of people of different ages to radionuclides of caesium, strontium and plutonium from the environment are considered. Examples of radionuclide distributions in the environment, and of individual/collective internal doses and related medical effects are presented. (Author)

  4. The Living Astronomy and People of the Mayan World Today: Engaging Hispanic Populations in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, I.; Tapia, F.

    2008-06-01

    From long ago, the Maya civilizations of Mesoamerica have been keenly attuned to the cycles of nature. The Maya have always been careful observers, and more than a thousand years ago, they recorded the motion of the planets, the Sun, and the Moon, and predicted eclipses. These observations were used to create a complex calendar to organize the events of their world. The Maya built great cities containing buildings aligned with the Sun, Moon, and the stars to mark important times of the year. Many astronomical traditions are still practiced today by the Maya of the Yucatán peninsula, Southern states in México, and other areas in Mesoamerica. Traditional farming communities time the cultivation of corn by observing the sky. The living culture of the Mayan people in the Yucatan integrates science and astronomy with every other aspect of their culture. Yucatec Maya, the language spoken by more than 1 million people in the Yucatán today, still carries through oral histories the ancient knowledge of nature. Our hope is that you'll increase your interest and knowledge of the Mayan people and of the enduring wisdom reflected in the daily lives of Mayan families. We present the results of education and public outreach efforts that position astronomy within its cultural context as an effective means of capturing the interest and enabling authentic participation of under-represented populations in science.

  5. Live and non-live pregnancy outcomes among women with depression and anxiety: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Ban

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Women taking antidepressant or anti-anxiety medications during early pregnancy have high risks of non-live pregnancy outcomes, although the contribution of the underlying illnesses to these risks remains unclear. We examined the impacts of antenatal depression and anxiety and of commonly prescribed treatments on the risks of non-live pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: We identified all pregnancies and their outcome (live birth, perinatal death, miscarriage or termination among women aged 15-45 years between 1990 and 2009 from a large primary care database in the United Kingdom. Women were grouped according to whether they had no history of depression and anxiety, a diagnosis of such illness prior to pregnancy, illness during pregnancy and illness during pregnancy with use of medication (stratified by medication type. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to compare risks of non-live outcomes among these groups, adjusting for major socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics. RESULTS: Among 512,574 pregnancies in 331,414 women, those with antenatal drug exposure showed the greatest increased risks for all non-live pregnancy outcomes, relative to those with no history of depression or anxiety, although women with prior (but not currently medicated illness also showed modest increased risks. Compared with un-medicated antenatal morbidity, there was weak evidence of an excess risk in women taking tricyclic antidepressants, and stronger evidence for other medications. CONCLUSIONS: Women with depression or anxiety have higher risks of miscarriage, perinatal death and decisions to terminate a pregnancy if prescribed psychotropic medication during early pregnancy than if not. Although underlying disease severity could also play a role, avoiding or reducing use of these drugs during early pregnancy may be advisable.

  6. Living bacteria rheology: Population growth, aggregation patterns, and collective behavior under different shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrício, P.; Almeida, P. L.; Portela, R.; Sobral, R. G.; Grilo, I. R.; Cidade, T.; Leal, C. R.

    2014-08-01

    The activity of growing living bacteria was investigated using real-time and in situ rheology—in stationary and oscillatory shear. Two different strains of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus—strain COL and its isogenic cell wall autolysis mutant, RUSAL9—were considered in this work. For low bacteria density, strain COL forms small clusters, while the mutant, presenting deficient cell separation, forms irregular larger aggregates. In the early stages of growth, when subjected to a stationary shear, the viscosity of the cultures of both strains increases with the population of cells. As the bacteria reach the exponential phase of growth, the viscosity of the cultures of the two strains follows different and rich behaviors, with no counterpart in the optical density or in the population's colony-forming units measurements. While the viscosity of strain COL culture keeps increasing during the exponential phase and returns close to its initial value for the late phase of growth, where the population stabilizes, the viscosity of the mutant strain culture decreases steeply, still in the exponential phase, remains constant for some time, and increases again, reaching a constant plateau at a maximum value for the late phase of growth. These complex viscoelastic behaviors, which were observed to be shear-stress-dependent, are a consequence of two coupled effects: the cell density continuous increase and its changing interacting properties. The viscous and elastic moduli of strain COL culture, obtained with oscillatory shear, exhibit power-law behaviors whose exponents are dependent on the bacteria growth stage. The viscous and elastic moduli of the mutant culture have complex behaviors, emerging from the different relaxation times that are associated with the large molecules of the medium and the self-organized structures of bacteria. Nevertheless, these behaviors reflect the bacteria growth stage.

  7. Rising population cost for treating people living with HIV in the UK, 1997-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundhiya Mandalia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The number of people living with HIV (PLHIV is increasing in the UK. This study estimated the annual population cost of providing HIV services in the UK, 1997-2006 and projected them 2007-2013. METHODS: Annual cost of HIV treatment for PLHIV by stage of HIV infection and type of ART was calculated (UK pounds, 2006 prices. Population costs were derived by multiplying the number of PLHIV by their annual cost for 1997-2006 and projected 2007-2013. RESULTS: Average annual treatment costs across all stages of HIV infection ranged from £17,034 in 1997 to £18,087 in 2006 for PLHIV on mono-therapy and from £27,649 in 1997 to £32,322 in 2006 for those on quadruple-or-more ART. The number of PLHIV using NHS services rose from 16,075 to 52,083 in 2006 and was projected to increase to 78,370 by 2013. Annual population cost rose from £104 million in 1997 to £483 million in 2006, with a projected annual cost between £721 and £758 million by 2013. When including community care costs, costs increased from £164 million in 1997, to £683 million in 2006 and between £1,019 and £1,065 million in 2013. CONCLUSIONS: Increased number of PLHIV using NHS services resulted in rising UK population costs. Population costs are expected to continue to increase, partly due to PLHIV's longer survival on ART and the relative lack of success of HIV preventing programs. Where possible, the cost of HIV treatment and care needs to be reduced without reducing the quality of services, and prevention programs need to become more effective. While high income countries are struggling to meet these increasing costs, middle- and lower-income countries with larger epidemics are likely to find it even more difficult to meet these increasing demands, given that they have fewer resources.

  8. Genetic Study of Population Mixture and Its Role in Human History

    OpenAIRE

    Moorjani, Priya

    2013-01-01

    Mixture between populations is an evolutionary process that shapes genetic variation. Intermixing between groups of distinct ancestries creates mosaics of chromosomal segments inherited from multiple ancestral populations. Studying populations of mixed ancestry (admixed populations) is of special interest in population genetics as it not only provides insights into the history of admixed groups but also affords an opportunity to reconstruct the history of the ancestral populations, some of wh...

  9. Rehabilitation needs for older adults with stroke living at home: perceptions of four populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viscogliosi Chantal

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people who have suffered a stroke require rehabilitation to help them resume their previous activities and roles in their own environment, but only some of them receive inpatient or even outpatient rehabilitation services. Partial and unmet rehabilitation needs may ultimately lead to a loss of functional autonomy, which increases utilization of health services, number of hospitalizations and early institutionalization, leading to a significant psychological and financial burden on the patients, their families and the health care system. The aim of this study was to explore partially met and unmet rehabilitation needs of older adults who had suffered a stroke and who live in the community. The emphasis was put on needs that act as obstacles to social participation in terms of personal factors, environmental factors and life habits, from the point of view of four target populations. Methods Using the focus group technique, we met four types of experts living in three geographic areas of the province of Québec (Canada: older people with stroke, caregivers, health professionals and health care managers, for a total of 12 groups and 72 participants. The audio recordings of the meetings were transcribed and NVivo software was used to manage the data. The process of reducing, categorizing and analyzing the data was conducted using themes from the Disability Creation Process model. Results Rehabilitation needs persist for nine capabilities (e.g. related to behaviour or motor activities, nine factors related to the environment (e.g. type of teaching, adaptation and rehabilitation and 11 life habits (e.g. nutrition, interpersonal relationships. The caregivers and health professionals identified more unmet needs and insisted on an individualized rehabilitation. Older people with stroke and the health care managers had a more global view of rehabilitation needs and emphasized the availability of resources. Conclusion Better

  10. Gastric choriocarcinoma admixed with an α-fetoprotein-producing adenocarcinoma and separated adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bang Wool Eom; So-Youn Jung; Hongman Yoon; Myeong-Cherl Kook; Keun Won Ryu; Jun Ho Lee; Young-Woo Kim

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of gastric choriocarcinoma admixed with an α-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing adenocarcinoma .A 70-year-old man was hospitalized for gastric cancer that was detected during screening by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). Initial laboratory data showed the increased serum level of AFP and EGD revealed a 5-cm ulcerofungating mass in the greater curvature of the gastric antrum.The patient underwent radical subtotal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection and Billroth Ⅱ gastrojejunostomy. Histopathological evaluation confirmed double primary gastric cancer: gastric choriocarcinoma admixed with an AFP-producing adenocarcinoma and separated adenocarcinoma. At 2 wk postoperatively, his human chorionic gonadotropin and AFP levels had reduced and six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy were initiated. No recurrence or distant metastasis was observed at 4 years postoperatively.

  11. Effects of Admixed Titanium on Densification of 316L Stainless Steel Powder during Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslam Muhammad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of admixed titanium on powder water atomized (PWA and powder gas atomized (PGA 316L stainless steel (SS have been investigated in terms of densification. PGA and PWA powders, having different shapes and sizes, were cold pressed and sintered in argon atmosphere at 1300°C. The admixed titanium compacts of PGA and PWA have shown significant effect on densification through formation of intermetallic compound and reducing porosity during sintering process. PWA, having particle size 8 μm, blended with 1wt% titanium has exhibited higher sintered density and shrinkage as compared to gas atomized powder compacts. Improved densification of titanium blended PGA and PWA 316L SS at sintering temperature 1300°C is probably due to enhanced diffusion kinetics resulting from stresses induced by concentration gradient in powder compacts.

  12. Living alone and alcohol-related mortality: a population-based cohort study from Finland.

    OpenAIRE

    Kimmo Herttua; Pekka Martikainen; Jussi Vahtera; Mika Kivimäki

    2011-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Throughout most of human history, people have lived in tight-knit communities where there was likely to be someone to turn to for help, advice, or company. But the modern way of life in industrialized countries is greatly reducing the quantity and quality of social relationships. Instead of living in extended families, many people now live miles away from their relatives, often living and working alone. Others commute long distances to work, which leaves little tim...

  13. Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices. - Trophic structure and sex ratio of soil nematode population are sensitive tools for monitoring industrial pollution

  14. Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pen-Mouratov, Stanislav [The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Shukurov, Nosir [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Academy of Sciences, Tashkent 700041 (Uzbekistan); Steinberger, Yosef [The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)], E-mail: steinby@mail.biu.ac.il

    2008-03-15

    The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices. - Trophic structure and sex ratio of soil nematode population are sensitive tools for monitoring industrial pollution.

  15. Epidemiology of viral haemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis in a free-living population of wild rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Villafuerte, R; Osácar, J J; Lucientes, J

    2002-06-22

    From January 1993 to June 1996, the epidemiology of myxomatosis and viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD) was studied in a free-living population of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Spain by means of serological surveys and radiotracking. Myxomatosis was endemic and associated with the breeding period. Its serological pattern was characterised by a 100 per cent prevalence of antibodies in adult rabbits and a rapid increase in antibodies in young rabbits in their first year. No mortality from myxomatosis was detected in adults, and mortality in young rabbits could not be estimated because of interference by predators and scavengers and the deaths of many radiotagged rabbits inside their burrows. VHD was also an endemic disease associated with the breeding period. Adults had a higher prevalence of antibodies against VHD than young rabbits, reaching values of 80 to 90 per cent. During the study, there was an increase in rabbit numbers as a result of a decrease in mortality from predation which was associated with an increase in mortality due to VHD and in the prevalence of antibodies to VHD. Mortality from VHD was lower in rabbits with VHD antibodies than in seronegative rabbits, but some mortality from the disease was also detected in seropositive rabbits. The annual mean mortality rate due to VHD in adult rabbits was estimated to be 21.8 per cent. PMID:12135072

  16. Complex radiation ecological estimation of the environment, working and living places of the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of researches is determination of dynamics, the forecasting of radiation conditions and studying of radionuclides behaviour in objects of an environment and on this basis to receive data for construction of the maps of radiation conditions, zoning of radioactive contaminated territories, development of the practical recommendations for rational and safe nature use, as well as to estimate influence of radiation conditions on a live of organisms. The factors influencing on radionuclides migration in various ecosystems are determined. It has allowed to use a part of natural resources on radioactive contaminated territories and due to this partially to keep economic potential of the having suffered regions or to exclude them from use. The recommendations for preservation and use of flora and fauna objects, including game animals, fish resources, food, medicinal and fodder plants, mushrooms and others are published. The new data on action of real radioecological conditions on organisms have given a scientific basis for understanding, estimation and decrease of medical biological consequences of radioactive accidents. For increase of the organism stability to action of irradiations the biologically active substances of a natural origin are offered. Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1997 on the following directions: study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological monitoring in the republic and scientific methodical ways of it fulfilling; study of effects of low doze irradiation and combined influences, search of ways for correction of the diseases

  17. Determination of mercury and selenium in hair samples of Brazilian Indian populations living in the Amazonic region by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomonitoring of mercury contamination of Brazilian Indian population groups living in the Xingu Park, a reservation situated in the Amazonic region, has revealed very high levels of mercury in hair samples as compared to controls. Total mercury was determined by INAA in most of the tribes living in the Park and methylmercury was determined by CVAAS in samples with total mercury above 10 mg/kg. Due to the fact that selenium seems to protect animals against the toxic effects of methylmercury, it was considered also of interest to determine its concentrations in the hair samples with very high mercury levels. Selenium was determined by INAA via the short-lived radionuclide 77mSe (T1/2 = 17.45 s). The correlations between selenium and mercury concentrations in Brazilian controls and in the Indian population groups are discussed. (author)

  18. cytogenetic effects in populations of amphibians Rana arvalis living on the radio-contaminated area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yushkova, E.; Bodnar, I.; Zainullin, V. [Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The study of the features reactions of the animals a differing complicated individual development (metamorphosis) and living in conditions of radioactive contamination is an important trend in the modern radio-ecology. This information is of interest not only from the point of view of detection the mechanisms of radiobiological effects (hyper-radiosensitivity, hormesis, radio-adaptation, etc.) but also viewpoint of predicting delayed radiation effects that is necessary at account the normalization of technogeneous loading on natural ecosystems. An assessment of the level of cytogenetic damages (single-strand and double-strand DNA breaks) in the blood cells of tadpoles of Rana arvalis living in areas contaminated of wastes radium production (Russia, Komi Republic, Ukhta district) was conducted. Using this biological matter as a bioindicator due to the fact that development amphibian is carried out by metamorphosis and includes larval stage. At this stage post-embryonic development of an individual are the most sensitive to anthropogenic impact. To exclude the effects of other factors (temperature, age-specific peculiarities, overpopulation, etc.) on the formation of DNA damages from the studied reservoirs were taken laying eggs of amphibians (12-15 egg laying from the area) which afterwards are contain in strictly controlled laboratory conditions using water, belt silt, plants of native pond. The reaction of amphibians on the contamination was assessed by the level of DNA damage by method Comet assay was determined. With each egg laying were selected for 7 even-aged individuals. Total for cytogenetic analysis was used 189 individuals. It is shown that in animals that develop on the radio-contaminated area the level of single-strand DNA (alkaline pH version of the Comet assay) was higher than in the control area. According an estimate to the level of double-strand DNA (neutral pH version of the Comet assay) significant differences not was found. The high variability

  19. cytogenetic effects in populations of amphibians Rana arvalis living on the radio-contaminated area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the features reactions of the animals a differing complicated individual development (metamorphosis) and living in conditions of radioactive contamination is an important trend in the modern radio-ecology. This information is of interest not only from the point of view of detection the mechanisms of radiobiological effects (hyper-radiosensitivity, hormesis, radio-adaptation, etc.) but also viewpoint of predicting delayed radiation effects that is necessary at account the normalization of technogeneous loading on natural ecosystems. An assessment of the level of cytogenetic damages (single-strand and double-strand DNA breaks) in the blood cells of tadpoles of Rana arvalis living in areas contaminated of wastes radium production (Russia, Komi Republic, Ukhta district) was conducted. Using this biological matter as a bioindicator due to the fact that development amphibian is carried out by metamorphosis and includes larval stage. At this stage post-embryonic development of an individual are the most sensitive to anthropogenic impact. To exclude the effects of other factors (temperature, age-specific peculiarities, overpopulation, etc.) on the formation of DNA damages from the studied reservoirs were taken laying eggs of amphibians (12-15 egg laying from the area) which afterwards are contain in strictly controlled laboratory conditions using water, belt silt, plants of native pond. The reaction of amphibians on the contamination was assessed by the level of DNA damage by method Comet assay was determined. With each egg laying were selected for 7 even-aged individuals. Total for cytogenetic analysis was used 189 individuals. It is shown that in animals that develop on the radio-contaminated area the level of single-strand DNA (alkaline pH version of the Comet assay) was higher than in the control area. According an estimate to the level of double-strand DNA (neutral pH version of the Comet assay) significant differences not was found. The high variability

  20. THE DYNAMICS OF FOOD RATIONS OF BRYANSK REGION POPULATION LIVING IN THE TERRITORIESCONTAMINATED AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Travnikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the years passed after the Chernobyl accident we are carrying out monitoring of the radiation situation in the Sough-Western territories of the Bryansk region, contaminated with the long-living radionuclides which includes 137Сs concentration measurements in agricultural and natural foodstuffs, surveys of local populations on the structure and composition of the diet accompanied with 137Сs content measurements in the human body. In the article the obtained data is systematized on the food rations of the adult population of theBryansk region, on food rations dynamics in the first and following years after the accident, which is necessary for the correct estimation of internal exposure doses of the population living on the contaminated territories.

  1. Thyroid gland status among population living around the semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1949-1962, regions of Kazakstan near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) were contaminated with high levels of radioactive fallout from atomic bomb tests carried out at the SNTS. The effective-dose is a principal criterion for the evaluation of the effect of radioactive fallout upon population. Thyroid disease prevalence may be ascertained, as a biomarker of radiation exposure and because it is of interest in itself. Some features from three studies of thyroid gland status among population living around SNTS will be reported. The first study is a case review of pathological findings of 7,271 patients from three regions adjacent to the SNTS, who were surgically treated during 1966-96; the second is a thyroid screening study of a cohort of 3000 village residents who were <20 years of age at the time of major fallout events in the Semipalatinsk region; the third is a complex molecular, morphological investigation and some approaches to rehabilitation of patients with thyroid abnormalities. Our first study revealed that there is a significant trend for the proportion of thyroid cancer to increase over time in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakstan 20-29 years after onset of testing in 1949, which might be related to radiation exposure. There are many ethnic groups in this region. Our research among two main ethnic groups (native Kazakh and European extraction) detected that the initial level of thyroid abnormalities and thyroid cancer was higher among residents of European extraction. The total number of surgical cases increased among both ethnic groups over the years, but the numbers of cases with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer increased dramatically among ethnic Kazakhs. Overall, papillary and follicular cancers predominated, but it should be noted the relatively high percentage of follicular cancers after 1982 in the Semipalatinsk region. The primary screening outcome measure was the prevaleance of thyroid nodules as determined by ultrasound

  2. Population-level consequences of herbivory, changing climate, and source-sink dynamics on a long-lived invasive shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Klinken, R D; Pichancourt, J B

    2015-12-01

    Long-lived plant species are highly valued environmentally, economically, and socially, but can also cause substantial harm as invaders. Realistic demographic predictions can guide management decisions, and are particularly valuable for long-lived species where population response times can be long. Long-lived species are also challenging, given population dynamics can be affected by factors as diverse as herbivory, climate, and dispersal. We developed a matrix model to evaluate the effects of herbivory by a leaf-feeding biological control agent released in Australia against a long-lived invasive shrub (mesquite, Leguminoseae: Prosopis spp.). The stage-structured, density-dependent model used an annual time step and 10 climatically diverse years of field data. Mesquite population demography is sensitive to source-sink dynamics as most seeds are consumed and redistributed spatially by livestock. In addition, individual mesquite plants, because they are long lived, experience natural climate variation that cycles over decadal scales, as well as anthropogenic climate change. The model therefore explicitly considered the effects of both net dispersal and climate variation. Herbivory strongly regulated mesquite populations through reduced growth and fertility, but additional mortality of older plants will be required to reach management goals within a reasonable time frame. Growth and survival of seeds and seedlings were correlated with daily soil moisture. As a result, population dynamics were sensitive to rainfall scenario, but population response times were typically slow (20-800 years to reach equilibrium or extinction) due to adult longevity. Equilibrium population densities were expected to remain 5% higher, and be more dynamic, if historical multi-decadal climate patterns persist, the effect being dampened by herbivory suppressing seed production irrespective of preceding rainfall. Dense infestations were unlikely to form under a drier climate, and required net

  3. Exploring the applicability of analysing X chromosome STRs in Brazilian admixed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auler-Bittencourt, Eloisa; Iwamura, Edna Sadayo Miazato; Lima, Maria Jenny Mitraud; da Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro; dos Santos, Sidney Emannuel Batista

    2015-09-01

    Kinship and parentage analyses always involve one sample being compared to another sample or a few samples with a specific relationship question in mind. In most cases, the analysis of autosomal STR markers is sufficient to determine the genetic kinship. However, when genetic profiles are reconstructed from supposed relatives, for whom the family configuration available for analysis is deficient, the examination may be inconclusive. This study reports practical examples of actual cases analysing the efficiency of the chromosome X STR (STR-ChrX) markers. Three cases with different degrees of efficiency and impact were selected as follows: the identification of two charred bodies in a traffic accident, in which the family setting available was not complete, and one filiation analysis resulting from rape. This is the first paper reporting the use of the multiplex STR 12 ChrX in actual cases using the software Familias 1.8 and Brazilian regional frequency data. Our study clarifies the complex analysis using this powerful tool for professionals in the forensic science community, for both civil and criminal justice. We also discuss state-of-the-art ChrX STR markers and its implications and applications for legal procedures. The data presented here should be used in other studies of complex cases to improve the progress of the current justice system. PMID:26385714

  4. The estimation of the dose from cosmic radiation received by the population living at mainland of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of ionization distribution caused by the cosmic ray ionizing components in the air, the survey of population distribution in geography and the investigation of total passengers taking air liners at the mainland of China have been completed. By taking the data from the census of the year 1986 and the population distribution of the mainland, considering the cosmic ray distribution with the height and referring the distribution of neutron flux density in cosmic ray, the population-weighted mean annual effective dose equivalent, which is obtained from 2017 counties and 353 cities, for inhabitants living in every provinces and municipalities directly under Central Government has been calculated. The collective dose equivalent produced by the external exposure of cosmic ray is also estimated when people are taking air liners. The results which are effected by the population distribution show that the annual effective dose equivalant received by the population of China from the cosmic ray is 28% lower than the population of the world. The most of Chinese people are living at the north hemisphere area having lower elevation and geomagnetic latitude, and 53.6% among them is in the area of elevation below 100 m and 91% is in the area of geomagnetic latitude below 30 deg N

  5. The estimation of the dose from cosmic radiation received by the population living at mainland of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hua; Yue, Qingyu

    1989-11-01

    The measurement of ionization distribution caused by the cosmic ray ionizing components in the air, the survey of population distribution in geography and the investigation of total passengers taking air liners at the mainland of China have been completed. By taking the data from the census of the year 1986 and the population distribution of the mainland, considering the cosmic ray distribution with the height and referring the distribution of neutron flux density in cosmic rays, the population-weighted mean annual effective dose equivalent, which is obtained from 2017 counties and 353 cities, for inhabitants living in every provinces and municipalities directly under Central Government has been calculated. The collective dose equivalent produced by the external exposure of cosmic rays is also estimated when people are taking air liners. The results which are effected by the population distribution show that the annual effective dose equivalant received by the population of China from cosmic rays is 28 lower lower than the population of the world. Most of Chinese people are living in the Northern Hemisphere area that has a lower elevation and geomagnetic latitude, and 53.6 percent of them are in the area of elevation below 100 m and 91 percent are in the area of geomagnetic latitude below 30 deg N.

  6. Admixture analysis of stocked brown trout populations using mapped microsatellite DNA markers: indigenous trout persist in introgressed populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael M; Mensberg, Karen-Lise D

    2009-10-23

    Admixture between wild and captive populations is an increasing concern in conservation biology. Understanding the extent of admixture and the processes involved requires identification of admixed and non-admixed individuals. This can be achieved by statistical methods employing Bayesian clustering, but resolution is low if genetic differentiation is weak. Here, we analyse stocked brown trout populations represented by historical (1943-1956) and contemporary (2000s) samples, where genetic differentiation between wild populations and stocked trout is weak (pairwise F(ST) of 0.047 and 0.053). By analysing a high number of microsatellite DNA markers (50) and making use of linkage map information, we achieve clear identification of admixed and non-admixed trout. Moreover, despite strong population-level admixture by hatchery strain trout in one of the populations (70.8%), non-admixed individuals nevertheless persist (7 out of 53 individuals). These remnants of the indigenous population are characterized by later spawning time than the majority of the admixed individuals. We hypothesize that isolation by time mediated by spawning time differences between wild and hatchery strain trout is a major factor rescuing a part of the indigenous population from introgression. PMID:19515653

  7. Admixture analysis of stocked brown trout populations using mapped microsatellite DNA markers: indigenous trout persist in introgressed populations

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Michael M; Mensberg, Karen-Lise D.

    2009-01-01

    Admixture between wild and captive populations is an increasing concern in conservation biology. Understanding the extent of admixture and the processes involved requires identification of admixed and non-admixed individuals. This can be achieved by statistical methods employing Bayesian clustering, but resolution is low if genetic differentiation is weak. Here, we analyse stocked brown trout populations represented by historical (1943–1956) and contemporary (2000s) samples, where genetic dif...

  8. [Tularemia seroprevalence in the risky population living in both rural and urban areas of Erzurum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazgı, Halil; Uyanık, M Hamidullah; Ertek, Mustafa; Kılıç, Selçuk; Kireçci, Ekrem; Ozden, Kemalettin; Ayyıldız, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Tularemia which is a zoonotic infection, caused by Francisella tularensis, has become a re-emerging disease in Turkey. Infection is often transmitted to human by handling animal tissues and products, but it is also possible to acquire the disease from contaminated water or food. Recently several cases and epidemics of tularemia have been reported in the northwest areas of Turkey, particularly in Marmara and West Black Sea regions. Erzurum is a city in Eastern Anatolia Region, Turkey and animal husbandry is the main agricultural activity in that area. However, neither tularemia cases were reported from this province nor seroprevalence studies were performed. In this study we aimed to determine F.tularensis antibody seropositivity in the risky population living at both rural and urban area of Erzurum. Blood samples from 240 volunteer subjects (134 male with mean age: 36.2, age range: 17-75 years and 106 female with mean age: 39.1, age range: 16-77 years) whose occupations were farming and animal husbandry, were included in the study. Serum samples were screened for the presence of F.tularensis antibodies by slide agglutination method (BD, USA) and Serazym ELISA kit (anti-F.tularensis IgG/IgA/IgM, Seramun, Germany). The positive samples with those tests were also retested by microagglutination test (MAT) in National Tularemia Reference Laboratory of Refik Saydam Hygiene Center, using antigen prepared in the same laboratory from the local strain. The serum samples were also searched for the presence of Brucella and Salmonella antibodies in terms of cross-reactivity. Seropositivity was detected in 71 (29.6%) out of 240 subjects by slide agglutination test (SAT), whereas only 5 (2.1%) gave positive result for total antibody by ELISA. Twenty-five of the 71 SAT positive samples yielded F.tularensis antibodies by MAT, of which 21 were between 1/20-1/40 and four were between 1/80-1/160 titers. However, all of the MAT positive samples (n= 25) were found reactive in Brucella

  9. Epidemiology of cancer in population living in contaminated territories of Ukraine, Belarus, Russia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical data of oncology service of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia on the number of new patients with cancer and leukemia in 1980-1994 in 12 regions adjacent to the Chernobyl NPP are generalized. Spatio-temporal for incidence of malignant diseases in population are developed. The analysis of possible connections between the effective dose and incidence of cancer in population living in the area contaminated by radionuclides is performed. Spatio-temporal models for the incidence of cancer including leukemias and lymphomas are found to be the same in the pre- and post-accidental periods. Nine years after the Chernobyl accident there are no scientific evidence for the excess of incidence of malignant tumors, except thyroid cancer, attributed to radiation factor, even in the most contaminated areas. Appearance of previously unregistered thyroid cancer cases in children living in the territory, where considerable amount of radioactive iodine was deposited, can indicate stochastic radiation effects in thyroid

  10. Health Related Quality of Life in Elderly People Living in Bandar Abbas, Iran: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Teamur Aghamolaei; Sedigheh Sadat Tavafian; Shahram Zare

    2010-01-01

    "nMeasuring health related quality of life of old people has become an important public health issue with the aging of population in developing countries. The aim of this study was to examine the health related quality of life of old people living in Bandar Abbas, Iran. This was a population-based study in which a random sample of 1000 individuals of the community aged over 60 years were interviewed using SF-36 questionnaire. Overall health related quality of life and relative difference...

  11. A cross-sectional, population-based study measuring comorbidity among people living with HIV in Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Kendall, Claire E.; Wong, Jenna; Taljaard, Monica; Glazier, Richard H.; Hogg, William; Younger, Jaime; Manuel, Douglas G.

    2014-01-01

    Background As people diagnosed with HIV and receiving combination antiretroviral therapy are now living longer, they are likely to acquire chronic conditions related to normal ageing and the effects of HIV and its treatment. Comordidities for people with HIV have not previously been described from a representative population perspective. Methods We used linked health administrative data from Ontario, Canada. We applied a validated algorithm to identify people with HIV among all residents aged...

  12. Determinants of environmental domain of quality of life in economically active population living in Silesian agglomeration, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Kowalska; Felix Danso; Maria Humeniuk; Elżbieta Kułak; Hubert Arasiewicz

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this paper is to identify the factors that determine the environmental domain of quality of life in economically active adults living in the industrial agglomeration in Poland. Materials and Methods: During the crosssectional epidemiological study conducted among the economically active population aged 45–60, we used a short version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Respondents were recruited randomly from selected factories located in the Silesian Agglomeration. The st...

  13. Community structure, population structure and topographical specialisation of Gyrodactylus (Monogenea) ectoparasites living on sympatric stickleback species

    OpenAIRE

    Raeymaekers, J. A. M.; Huyse, T.; Maelfait, H.; Hellemans, B.; Volckaert, F.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In order to disentangle the contribution of host and parasite biology to host specificity, we compared the structure and population dynamics of the Gyrodactylus (von Nordmann, 1832) flatworm community living on sympatric three-spined Gasterosteus aculeatus L. and nine-spined Pungitius pungitius (L.) stickleback. Between April 2002 and March 2003, a small lowland creek was sampled monthly. Species identity of about 75% of the worms per host was determined with a genetic nuclear marker (ITS1). ...

  14. Gravel admix, vegetation, and soil water interactions in protective barriers: Experimental design, construction, and initial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to measure the interactive effects of gravel admix and greater precipitation on soil water storage and plant abundance. The study is one of many tasks in the Protective Barrier Development Program for the disposal of Hanford defense waste. A factorial field-plot experiment was set up at the site selected as the borrow area for barrier topsoil. Gravel admix, vegetation, and enhanced precipitation treatments were randomly assigned to the plots using a split-split plot design structure. Changes in soil water storage and plant cover were monitored using neutron probe and point intercept methods, respectively. The first-year results suggest that water extraction by plants will offset gravel-caused increases in soil water storage. Near-surface soil water contents were much lower in graveled plots with plants than in nongraveled plots without plants. Large inherent variability in deep soil water storage masked any effects gravel may have had on water content below the root zone. In the future, this source of variation will be removed by differencing monthly data series and testing for changes in soil water storage. Tests of the effects of greater precipitation on soil water storage were inconclusive. A telling test will be possible in the spring of 1988, following the first wet season during which normal precipitation is doubled. 26 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  15. Physical stability of asphalt emulsion admix seal radon barrier for uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is investigating the use of an asphalt emulsion admix seal to reduce the release of radon from uranium mill tailings. A key requirement of any cover system is its long-term stability; the cover must withstand failure over very long periods of time. An important determinant of overall cover system stability is the integrity of the 6.35-cm (2.5-in.) thick asphalt admix seal. Therefore, the physical stability of this seal was examined. The investigation considered the mechanical interaction between the tailings pile and cover. The potential effect of differential settlement of the tailings pile on the integrity of the seal system was also examined. Results indicate that the minimum span length the seal could withstand without failing is 0.34 m (1.1 ft). This assumes a differential settlement of 4.92 cm (1.94 in.) at the center resulting from the application of a 0.76-m (2.5-ft) cover. At spans greater than 0.60 m (1.97 ft), no tensile strain would develop

  16. Gravel admix, vegetation, and soil water interactions in protective barriers: Experimental design, construction, and initial conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W.J.

    1989-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the interactive effects of gravel admix and greater precipitation on soil water storage and plant abundance. The study is one of many tasks in the Protective Barrier Development Program for the disposal of Hanford defense waste. A factorial field-plot experiment was set up at the site selected as the borrow area for barrier topsoil. Gravel admix, vegetation, and enhanced precipitation treatments were randomly assigned to the plots using a split-split plot design structure. Changes in soil water storage and plant cover were monitored using neutron probe and point intercept methods, respectively. The first-year results suggest that water extraction by plants will offset gravel-caused increases in soil water storage. Near-surface soil water contents were much lower in graveled plots with plants than in nongraveled plots without plants. Large inherent variability in deep soil water storage masked any effects gravel may have had on water content below the root zone. In the future, this source of variation will be removed by differencing monthly data series and testing for changes in soil water storage. Tests of the effects of greater precipitation on soil water storage were inconclusive. A telling test will be possible in the spring of 1988, following the first wet season during which normal precipitation is doubled. 26 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Trace element levels in hair of a population group living in a small coastal town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury and other trace elements were measured in hair samples collected from subjects of a population group having an average annual fish consumption significantly higher than that for the italian population. The determination of the trace elements was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results show that the levels of trace elements in the hair of this population group are higher than those reported for italian population. In particular the high values of mercury concentration found samples indicate that some subjects may exceed the mercury PTWI (Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake)

  18. Effects of climate change and variability on population dynamics in a long-lived shorebird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Martijn; Vindenes, Yngvild; Saether, Bernt-Erik; Engen, Steinar; Ens, Bruno J.; Oosterbeek, Kees; Tinbergen, Joost M.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change affects both the mean and variability of climatic variables, but their relative impact on the dynamics of populations is still largely unexplored. Based on a long-term study of the demography of a declining Eurasian Oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus) population, we quantify the eff

  19. Bacterial populations and adaptations in the mucus layers on living corals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducklow, H.W.; Mitchell, R.

    1979-07-01

    The external mucus layers of the stony coral Porites astreoides and the soft corals Palythoa sp. and Heteroxenia fuscesens are inhabited by communities of marine heterotrophic bacteria. Population levels of bacteria in coral mucus may be regulated by the self-cleaning behavior of the host. Bacterial populations in coral mucus respond to stresses applied to the host coral by growing to higher population levels in the mucus, indicating that these are populations of viable organisms closely attuned to host metabolism. Members of these microbial populations utilize the mucus compounds and may play a role in processing coral mucus for reef detritus feeders. One such species, Vibrio alginolyticus, grows rapidly on Heteroxenia mucus, is attracted to dissolved mucus, and possesses a mechanism to maintain itself on the coral surface.

  20. Biochemical polymorphism of Dreyssena polimorpha populations living in a cooler reservoir of an atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of three Dr.polimorpha populations, residing in a NPP cooling pond, comprising hot and cold parts, from where samples of two populations are taken, is presentes. Samples of the third population are taken from the river to the basin of which the cooling pond belongs. It is shown that the studied Dr. polimorpha population differentiation by LAP-2 and EST-D loci is linked with the temperature factor effect. Continuous (over 10 years) effect of increased temperature has led to a sufficient shift of allelic frequencies by the loci indicated, while the radiation factor effect during 2 years has not led to the population effects revealed. Populatiion differentiation is observed by the loci, demonstrating a divergence with theoretical frequenncies according to Hardy-Weiberg in all the investigated localities

  1. Gene expression and physiological changes of different populations of the long-lived bivalve Arctica islandica under low oxygen conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva E R Philipp

    Full Text Available The bivalve Arctica islandica is extremely long lived (>400 years and can tolerate long periods of hypoxia and anoxia. European populations differ in maximum life spans (MLSP from 40 years in the Baltic to >400 years around Iceland. Characteristic behavior of A. islandica involves phases of metabolic rate depression (MRD during which the animals burry into the sediment for several days. During these phases the shell water oxygen concentrations reaches hypoxic to anoxic levels, which possibly support the long life span of some populations. We investigated gene regulation in A. islandica from a long-lived (MLSP 150 years German Bight population and the short-lived Baltic Sea population, experimentally exposed to different oxygen levels. A new A. islandica transcriptome enabled the identification of genes important during hypoxia/anoxia events and, more generally, gene mining for putative stress response and (anti- aging genes. Expression changes of a antioxidant defense: Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase, manganese and copper-zinc Superoxide dismutase; b oxygen sensing and general stress response: Hypoxia inducible factor alpha, Prolyl hydroxylase and Heat-shock protein 70; and c anaerobic capacity: Malate dehydrogenase and Octopine dehydrogenase, related transcripts were investigated. Exposed to low oxygen, German Bight individuals suppressed transcription of all investigated genes, whereas Baltic Sea bivalves enhanced gene transcription under anoxic incubation (0 kPa and, further, decreased these transcription levels again during 6 h of re-oxygenation. Hypoxic and anoxic exposure and subsequent re-oxygenation in Baltic Sea animals did not lead to increased protein oxidation or induction of apoptosis, emphasizing considerable hypoxia/re-oxygenation tolerance in this species. The data suggest that the energy saving effect of MRD may not be an attribute of Baltic Sea A. islandica chronically exposed to high environmental variability (oxygenation

  2. Leisure-time physical activity in Canadians living with Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis: population-based estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Diane E; Wilson, Philip M; Gilmore, Jennica C; Gunnell, Katie E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide population-based estimates of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in Canadians diagnosed with Crohn disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). Data were derived from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 3.1 (2005). Those diagnosed with CD (n = 474; 61.60% female) or UC (n = 637; 65.10% female) were compared with those not reporting CD/UC (n = 113,685; 53.60% female). The most prevalent forms of LTPA reported were walking and gardening/yard work. Individuals with CD were more likely to be classified as "inactive" (OR = 1.34; 95% CI [1.12, 1.61]) and less likely to be "active" (OR = 0.69; 95% CI [0.55, 0.87]) than those not reporting CD/UC. These trends were mirrored for those living with UC, although statistical significance was not attained. Despite claims advocating the benefits of LTPA for ameliorating complications associated with CD/UC, prevalence estimates from a population-based sample of Canadians living with CD/UC suggest that the majority do not meet current public health guidelines. Results offer benchmarks for prevalence of LTPA in those diagnosed with CD/UC. Findings suggest that many living with this condition will not benefit from the protective role of LTPA on complications associated with CD/UC. PMID:21814062

  3. Future Estimation of Convenience Living Facilities Withdrawal due to Population Decline all Over Japan from 2010 TO 2040 - Focus on Supermarkets, Convenience Stores and Drugstores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Yuka; Akiyama, Yuki; Shibasaki, Ryosuke

    2016-06-01

    Population explosion is considered to be one of the most crucial problems in the world. However, in Japan, the opposite problem: population decline has become serious now. Japanese population is estimated to decrease by twenty millions in 2040. This negative situation will cause to increase areas where many residents cannot make a daily living all over Japan because many convenience living facilities such as supermarkets, convenience stores and drugstores will be difficult to maintain their market area population due to future population decline. In our research, we used point data of convenience living facilities developed by address geocoding of digital telephone directory and point data of future population projection developed by distribution of Japanese official population projection data proportionally among the building volume of digital residential map, which can monitor building volumes all over Japan. In conclusion, we estimated that various convenience living facilities in Japan will shrink and close by population decline in near future. In particular, it is cleared that approximately 14.7% of supermarkets will be possible to withdraw all over Japan by 2040. In addition, it is cleared that over 40% of supermarkets in some countryside prefectures will be possible to withdraw by 2040. Thus, we estimated future distributions of convenience living facilities that cannot maintain their market area population due to future population decline. Moreover, we estimated the number of people that they will become inconvenience in buying fresh foods.

  4. Population genetics at three spatial scales of a rare sponge living in fragmented habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriz Maria J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rare species have seldom been studied in marine habitats, mainly because it is difficult to formally assess the status of rare species, especially in patchy benthic organisms, for which samplings are often assumed to be incomplete and, thus, inappropriate for establishing the real abundance of the species. However, many marine benthic invertebrates can be considered rare, due to the fragmentation and rarity of suitable habitats. Consequently, studies on the genetic connectivity of rare species in fragmented habitats are basic for assessing their risk of extinction, especially in the context of increased habitat fragmentation by human activities. Sponges are suitable models for studying the intra- and inter-population genetic variation of rare invertebrates, as they produce lecitotrophic larvae and are often found in fragmented habitats. Results We investigated the genetic structure of a Mediterranean sponge, Scopalina lophyropoda (Schmidt, using the allelic size variation of seven specific microsatellite loci. The species can be classified as "rare" because of its strict habitat requirements, the low number of individuals per population, and the relatively small size of its distribution range. It also presents a strong patchy distribution, philopatric larval dispersal, and both sexual and asexual reproduction. Classical genetic-variance-based methods (AMOVA and differentiation statistics revealed that the genetic diversity of S. lophyropoda was structured at the three spatial scales studied: within populations, between populations of a geographic region, and between isolated geographic regions, although some stochastic gene flow might occur among populations within a region. The genetic structure followed an isolation-by-distance pattern according to the Mantel test. However, despite philopatric larval dispersal and fission events in the species, no single population showed inbreeding, and the contribution of clonality to the

  5. Social and genetic interactions drive fitness variation in a free-living dolphin population

    OpenAIRE

    Frère, C H; Krützen, M; J. Mann; Connor, R C; Bejder, L; Sherwin, W B

    2010-01-01

    The evolutionary forces that drive fitness variation in species are of considerable interest. Despite this, the relative importance and interactions of genetic and social factors involved in the evolution of fitness traits in wild mammalian populations are largely unknown. To date, a few studies have demonstrated that fitness might be influenced by either social factors or genes in natural populations, but none have explored how the combined effect of social and genetic parameters might inter...

  6. The decision-making process in dealing with populations living in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. The ETHOS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience from the Chernobyl accident revealed strong disturbance in social life and stress phenomenon in the population living in the contaminated territories. The ETHOS project (founded by the radiation protection research programme of the European Commission-DG XII) has initiated an alternative approach of the rehabilitation of living conditions in the contaminated territories of the CIS in the post-accident context of Chernobyl. This project started at the beginning of 1996 and is implemented in the Republic of Belarus. Its main goal is to create the conditions for the inhabitants of contaminated territories to reconstruct their global quality of life. The main features of the methodological approach of the ETHOS project in the village of Olmany in the district of Stolyn (Brest region) since March 1996 are presented, and its implementation and first results are discussed. (R.P.)

  7. Workshop on dosimetry of the population living in the proximity of the Semipalatinsk atomic weapons test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1949 nuclear weapons tests were conducted at the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan. Until the early 1960s many of these tests were conducted either on the ground or above ground. The radioactive fission products released in these explosions were deposited at substantial distances from the test site (Polygon) and may have exposed populations living in Semipalatinsk Region and the Altai region of the Russian Federation. A much larger number of tests has been conducted underground with only limited release of radioactive material to the atmosphere. A number of estimates have been made, by Kazak and Russian scientists, of the radiation doses to the populations living in the areas surrounding the test site but few of these are based on actual measurements of radioactivity on the ground and in vegetation. More recently, other international groups have predicted historical doses based on literature data and/or contemporary soil caesium measurements while others have used a variety of modern measurement techniques such as thermoluminescence in ceramic objects, EPR in teeth, and other types of biological dosimetry. A workshop addressing these issues was organised by the National Cancer Institute (NCI, USA), World Health Organisation (WHO) and Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK, Finland) in May 2001. The purpose of the workshop was to review all the available dosimetric data in order to make an assessment of the radiological impact and the associated uncertainties, on populations in the vicinity and identify populations that might be useful subjects of epidemiological study. Particular emphasis was given to assessing doses to members of the public, i.e., off-site populations. (orig.)

  8. [Living conditions and gastroenteritis in the low income population of Tijuana, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaiz Fernández, G; Barragán de Olaiz, C

    1989-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in the low income population of certain areas of the city of Tijuana, Mexico. Data collected showed that these suburban areas are inhabited by people from rural areas of Mexico, with minimum education, that basically work at the "maquiladoras". General hygienic conditions were poor and the services insufficient. The prevalence of diarrheas among the population was extremely high in the two weeks previous to the study, being highest for children less than one year old, in which the proportion with at least one episode of diarrhea was 47 per cent. PMID:2785292

  9. Silica Fume and Fly Ash Admixed Can Help to Improve the PRC Durability Combine Microscopic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li-guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica fume/Fly ash RPC can greatly improve durability. When Silica fume to replace the same amount of 8% of the proportion of cement, re-mixed 15min of mechanically activated Fly ash content of 10%, by chloride ion flux detector measuring, complex doped than the reference RPC impermeability improved significantly; In addition, by using static nitrogen adsorption method showed, RPC internal pore structure determination, the hole integral volume was lower than the reference admixed RPC integral pore volume significantly; And combined SEM microscopic experimental methods, mixed of RPC internal structure and the formation mechanism analysis showed that, SF/FA complex fully embodies the synergy doped composites “Synergistic” principle.

  10. Die wall lubricated warm compaction behavior of non-lubricant admixed iron powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Tu-ming; YI Jian-hong; CHEN Shi-jin; PENG Yuan-dong; LI Li-ya; XIA Qing-lin

    2005-01-01

    The phenomena of die wall lubricated warm compaction of non-lubricant admixed iron powders were researched, and its mechanism of densification was discussed. Water atomized powder obtained from the Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation was used. With compacting and sintering, compared with cold compaction, the density of warm compacted samples increases by 0.07-0.22 g/cm 3 at the same pressed pressure. The maximum achievable green density of warm compacted samples is 7.12 g/cm 3 at 120 ℃, and the maximum sintered density is 7.18 g/cm 3 at 80 ℃. Compared with cold compaction, the ejection force of warm compaction is smaller; the maximum discrepancy is about 7 kN. The warm compacted mechanism of densification of iron powders can be obtained: heating the powder contributes to improving plastic deformation of powder particles, and accelerating the mutual filling and rearrangement of powder particles.

  11. Cadmium exposure pathways in a population living near a battery plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to assess the relative impact of different pathways of environmental cadmium (Cd) exposure and to evaluate the contribution from locally produced vegetables and root crops to the total dietary intake of Cd. Methods: Cadmium in urine was determined for 492 individuals living near a closed down battery factory in Sweden. For each individual we created an environmental exposure-index based on Cd emissions to ambient air and number of years living at various distances from the plant. This information as well as dietary data were collected via questionnaires. Samples of soil, carrots and/or potatoes were collected from 37 gardens and analysed for Cd concentration. Results: Eating homegrown vegetables/potatoes, environmental Cd-exposure-index, female gender, age above 30 years and smoking more than one pack of cigarettes daily for at least 10 years were found to be significantly associated with increased urine concentrations of Cd (UCd > 1.0 nmol/mmol creatinine). We found a statistically significant relation between Cd in urine and environmental Cd-exposure-index in persons eating homegrown vegetables/potatoes regularly. Cd concentrations in homegrown carrots, potatoes and in garden soil were highest in the area closest to the factory. Daily consumption of potatoes and vegetables cultivated in the vicinity of the closed battery factory was estimated to increase Cd intake by 18-38%. Conclusion: The present study shows that consumption of locally grown vegetables and root crops was an important exposure pathway, in subjects living near a nickel-cadmium battery plant, whereas direct exposure via ambient air was less important

  12. Efficient and long-lived Zeeman-sublevel atomic population storage in an erbium-doped glass fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglamyurek, Erhan; Lutz, Thomas; Veissier, Lucile; Hedges, Morgan P.; Thiel, Charles W.; Cone, Rufus L.; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2015-12-01

    Long-lived population storage in optically pumped levels of rare-earth ions doped into solids, referred to as persistent spectral hole burning, is of significant fundamental and technological interest. However, the demonstration of deep and persistent holes in rare-earth ion doped amorphous hosts, e.g., glasses, has remained an open challenge for many decades—a fact that motivates our work towards a better understanding of the interaction between impurities and vibrational modes in glasses. Here we report the observation and detailed characterization of such holes in an erbium-doped silica glass fiber cooled to below 1 K. We demonstrate population storage in electronic Zeeman sublevels of the erbium ground state with lifetimes up to 30 seconds and 80% spin polarization. In addition to its fundamental aspect, our investigation reveals a potential technological application of rare-earth ion doped amorphous materials, including at telecommunication wavelength.

  13. Efficient and long-lived Zeeman-sublevel atomic population storage in an erbium-doped glass fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Saglamyurek, Erhan; Veissier, Lucile; Hedges, Morgan P; Thiel, Charles W; Cone, Rufus L; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Long-lived population storage in optically pumped levels of rare-earth ions doped into solids, referred to as persistent spectral hole burning, is of significant fundamental and technological interest. Despite numerous observations of deep and persistent holes in various cryogenically cooled rare-earth ion doped crystals, the demonstration of their existence in rare-earth ion doped amorphous hosts, e.g. glasses, has remained an open challenge since many decades. Here we report the first observation and detailed characterization of such holes in an erbium-doped silica glass fiber cooled to below 1 K. We demonstrate population storage in electronic Zeeman-sublevels of the erbium ground state with lifetimes up to 30 seconds and 80\\% spin polarization. Our investigation improves the understanding of the fundamental interaction between impurities and vibrational modes in glassy hosts, and reveals a potential technological application of rare-earth ion doped amorphous materials, including at telecommunication wavel...

  14. Modeling population response to anthropogenic threats for a long-lived reptile, the desert tortoise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods The decline in desert tortoise population densities and abundances since the 1970s has been attributed to numerous threats, leading scientists, land managers, and conservationists to describe the plight of the species as a “death by a thousand cuts.” ...

  15. Sampling 'hard-to-reach' populations in health research: yield from a study targeting Americans living in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noseworthy Tom W

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some populations targeted in survey research can be hard to reach, either because of lack of contact information, or non-existent databases to inform sampling. Here, we present a methodological "case-report" of the yield of a multi-step survey study assessing views on health care among American emigres to Canada, a hard-to-reach population. Methods To sample this hard-to-reach population, we held a live media conference, supplemented by a nation-wide media release announcing the study. We prepared an 'op-ed' piece describing the study and how to participate. We paid for advertisements in 6 newspapers. We sent the survey information to targeted organizations. And lastly, we asked those who completed the web survey to send the information to others. We use descriptive statistics to document the method's yield. Results The combined media strategies led to 4 television news interviews, 10 newspaper stories, 1 editorial and 2 radio interviews. 458 unique individuals accessed the on-line survey, among whom 310 eligible subjects provided responses to the key study questions. Fifty-six percent reported that they became aware of the survey via media outlets, 26% by word of mouth, and 9% through both the media and word of mouth. Conclusion Our multi-step communication method yielded a sufficient sample of Americans living in Canada. This combination of paid and unpaid media exposure can be considered by others as a unique methodological approach to identifying and sampling hard-to-reach populations.

  16. Population-based evaluation of the ‘LiveLighter’ healthy weight and lifestyle mass media campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, B.; Niven, P.; Dixon, H.; Swanson, M.; Szybiak, M.; Shilton, T.; Pratt, I. S.; Slevin, T.; Hill, D.; Wakefield, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Western Australian (WA) ‘LiveLighter’ (LL) mass media campaign ran during June–August and September–October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual (‘why’ change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier (‘how’ to change message). Cross-sectional surveys among population samples aged 25–49 were undertaken pre-campaign (N = 2012) and following the two media waves (N = 2005 and N = 2009) in the intervention (WA) and comparison state (Victoria) to estimate the population impact of LL. Campaign awareness was 54% after the first media wave and overweight adults were more likely to recall LL and perceive it as personally relevant. Recall was also higher among parents, but equal between socio-economic groups. The ‘why’ message about health-harms of overweight rated higher than ‘how’ messages about lifestyle change, on perceived message effectiveness which is predictive of health-related intention and behaviour change. State-by-time interactions showed population-level increases in self-referent thoughts about the health-harms of overweight (P < 0.05) and physical activity intentions (P < 0.05). Endorsement of stereotypes of overweight individuals did not increase after LL aired. LL was associated with some population-level improvements in proximal and intermediate markers of campaign impact. However, sustained campaign activity will be needed to impact behaviour. PMID:26956039

  17. Radon and reproductive health of populations living in the regions of uranium miners on nord caucasus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimation of the combined influence of technogenically increased natural background made by human activities and radon on the health in current and future generations of people is of great importance. A particular interest is the investigation of population exposure fraught with medical effects in the areas where the constructed houses were build with materials containing the higher doses of natural radionuclides emanating radon and its daughter products of disintegration. (author)

  18. Living in highly dynamic polluted river floodplains, do contaminants contribute to population and community effects?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klok, Chris [Department of Ecology and Environment, ALTERRA, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: chris.klok@wur.nl; Kraak, Michiel H.S. [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to collect evidence for the effects of contaminants on biota in a highly dynamic river Rhine floodplain. To this purpose we reviewed the results of circa 10 studies performed in this floodplain. The floodplain was contaminated with elevated levels of cadmium, copper, PAHs, and PCBs and high levels of zinc which were at some sites above legislative values. The results showed that the present contaminants were accumulated by the floodplain inhabiting organisms, but meanwhile population and community effects were ambiguous. Only for the mayfly Ephoron virgo clear effects were detected at the level of the single floodplain. The absence of clear population and community effects is puzzling since at lower contaminant concentrations adverse effects were detected in other environments. Factors that may mask toxic effects include flooding and food quality and quantity. We conclude that given the site specific conditions, being an open, eutrophic system with a highly dynamic flooding pattern, assessment of the contribution of toxicants to observed population density or biomass and community composition requires 1] an increase in number of replicates; 2] a larger scale of investigation and 3] comparison to stable systems with comparable contamination levels.

  19. Diversity in the standard of living among populations in European post-comunist countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to present the general situation of populations of European post-communist countries 25 years after the collapse of communism in Europe. The study consists of two parts. The first one briefly discusses the processes that led to a significant diversification in the social, economic and political situations of the populations of the studied countries. In the second part the diversity of this situation is shown (using: the Legatum Prosperity Index, the Social Progress Index, and the Human Development Index. It was found that the best situations exist in the countries which quickly and effectively implemented reforms, and whether they were independent states, or parts of larger states, under communism is of secondary importance. It is symptomatic that these are countries situated in the north-western part of the area under consideration, which corresponds to the current situation in the EU-15, where the countries located in the south (the so-called PIGS have poor economic and partly social situations than those in the north. Furthermore, it was found that the situation with the population of Russia is worse than in many countries which were previously under the occupation of the USSR or were dependent on the authorities in Moscow.

  20. Living in highly dynamic polluted river floodplains, do contaminants contribute to population and community effects?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper was to collect evidence for the effects of contaminants on biota in a highly dynamic river Rhine floodplain. To this purpose we reviewed the results of circa 10 studies performed in this floodplain. The floodplain was contaminated with elevated levels of cadmium, copper, PAHs, and PCBs and high levels of zinc which were at some sites above legislative values. The results showed that the present contaminants were accumulated by the floodplain inhabiting organisms, but meanwhile population and community effects were ambiguous. Only for the mayfly Ephoron virgo clear effects were detected at the level of the single floodplain. The absence of clear population and community effects is puzzling since at lower contaminant concentrations adverse effects were detected in other environments. Factors that may mask toxic effects include flooding and food quality and quantity. We conclude that given the site specific conditions, being an open, eutrophic system with a highly dynamic flooding pattern, assessment of the contribution of toxicants to observed population density or biomass and community composition requires 1] an increase in number of replicates; 2] a larger scale of investigation and 3] comparison to stable systems with comparable contamination levels

  1. Radiation risk and cancer mortality in exposed populations living near the Techa River in Southern Urals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossenko, M.M.; Degteva, M.O.

    1992-06-01

    The appropriateness of applying risk coefficients calculated from short-term exposures at high doses for the assessment of radiation effects at low doses is currently much debated. The problem can be resolved on the basis of the data obtained from a long-term follow-up of the population exposed in the early 1950s when discharges of radioactive wastes from a radiochemical plant into the Techa River (southern Urals) occurred. This paper discusses the results of an analysis of cancer mortality during the period 1950-82. 10 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Population monitoring: three generation study of residents living in the vicinity of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this work are as follows: to establish a Blood Bio-sample Database of three generations families living close to the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) and control families in three generation from clean areas; to determine the mini-satellite mutations rates in the three generation of radiation exposed people and control families of the same ethnic origin; to definition the chromosomal translocation frequencies by FISH chromosome painting in the lymphocytes of the exposed and control people in order to determine the radiation exposure. The following criteria for select to examined groups were used: the people from control group should be permanently living at clean area (far from STS or any places where the nuclear tests occur and far from any chemical industrial plants), e.g. they should not been exposed to radiation during their life (including a radiotherapy and cytostatics); the people of both examined groups should be matched regard to structure of families, age, ethnic background, parental age of P0 and F1 to the moment children birth, smoking habit, lifestyle and occupation. The maximum of available families by appropriate criteria in villages were chosen. As exposed inhabitation serves residents of following villages: Dolon, Mostik, Bodene, Cheremushki, Kanonerka, Karamyrza (all these villages are situated in Beskargai district). The inhabitants of Dzerzhinsk, Zhanatalap and Ushtobe villages of former Taldy-Kurgan oblast were included for study as a control group. The Bio-sample Bank consists of the frozen EDTA blood (at - 20 deg C), and isolated whole blood DNA (at - 70 deg C), the fixated erythrocytes (at - 70 deg C), isolated lymphocytes (in liquid nitrogen container) and lymphocyte cultures (at - 20 deg C). The Bio-sample Bank is supplement with a computerized database identifying the samples and number of vial stored, and information on individuals studied (all questionnaire data) and family tree. Results from the translocation FISH

  3. Extending physical chemistry to populations of living organisms. First step: measuring coupling strength

    CERN Document Server

    Di, Zengru

    2013-01-01

    For any system, whether physical or non-physical, knowledge of the form and strength of inter-individual interactions is a key-information. In an approach based on statistical physics one needs to know the interaction Hamiltonian. For non-physical systems, based on qualitative arguments similar to those used in physical chemistry, interaction strength gives useful clues about the macroscopic properties of the system. Even though our ultimate objective is the understanding of social phenomena, we found that systems composed of insects (or other living organisms) are of great convenience for investigating group effects. In this paper we show how to design experiments that enable us to estimate the strength of interaction in groups of insects. By repeating the same experiments with increasing numbers of insects, ranging from less than 10 to several hundreds, one is able to explore key-properties of the interaction. The data turn out to be consistent with a global correlation that is independent of distance (at l...

  4. Diversity and Dynamics of Soil Free-Living Nematode Populations in a Mediterranean Agroecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Wen-Ju; I.LAVIAN; S.PEN-MOURATOV; Y.STEINBERGER

    2005-01-01

    To determine the effect of agricultural management on the dynamics and functional diversity of soil nematode communities in a carrot field at Kibbutz Ramat Hakovesh, Israel, soil samples from 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depths were collected during the growing season of carrot. Indices were used to compare and assess the response of soil free-living nematode communities to agricultural management. Eighteen nematode families and 20 genera were observed during the growing period, with Cephalobus, Rhabditidae, Aphelenchus, Tylenchus, and Dorylaimus being the dominant genera/families.During the planting, mid-season and post-harvest periods the total number of nematodes at both depths was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in the carrot treatment than in the control plots, while during the harvest period at both depths total nematodes and bacterivores were significantly higher in the treatment plots (P < 0.01). The values of the maturity index (MI) at both depths were found to be significantly lower in the treatment plots than in the control plots during the pre-planting period (P < 0.05). Overall, WI, MI and PPI were found to be more sensitive indicators than other ecological indices for assessing the response of nematode communities to agricultural management in a Mediterranean agroecosystem.

  5. Cytogenetic investigation in a population living in the high background radiation area in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deqing, C.

    1980-04-01

    On the basis of the previous investigation, 24,000 metaphases of the lymphocytes of 120 inhabitants from Tongyou region, where the highest individual cummulative exposure per year of 372 mR in weighted average was recorded in the high background radiation area selected, have been analysed with the method recommended by WHO in 1973, in order to determine the extent of human chromosome aberrations induced by the high background radiation of various levels. The results show that the difference between the total number of chromosome breakages in the individuals living in the high background radiation area and that in the control area (0.32x10/sup -2/ and 0.27x10/sup -2/ per cell respectively) is not significant whereas that between the numbers of two-hite aberrations (mainly dicentric) in the same two groups (0.042x10/sup -2/ and 0.0048x10/sup -2/ per cell) is significant (X/sup 2/ = 6.1475, P<0.05). In addition, the normal value of the chromosome aberrations of human lymphocytes was analyzed.

  6. Testing life history predictions in a long-lived seabird: a population matrix approach with improved parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, P.F., Jr.; Schreiber, E.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Link, W.A.; Schenk, G.A.; Schreiber, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    Life history theory and associated empirical generalizations predict that population growth rate (lambda) in long-lived animals should be most sensitive to adult survival; the rates to which lambda is most sensitive should be those with the smallest temporal variances; and stochastic environmental events should most affect the rates to which lambda is least sensitive. To date, most analyses attempting to examine these predictions have been inadequate, their validity being called into question by problems in estimating parameters, problems in estimating the variability of parameters, and problems in measuring population sensitivities to parameters. We use improved methodologies in these three areas and test these life-history predictions in a population of red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda). We support our first prediction that lambda is most sensitive to survival rates. However the support for the second prediction that these rates have the smallest temporal variance was equivocal. Previous support for the second prediction may be an artifact of a high survival estimate near the upper boundary of 1 and not a result of natural selection canalizing variances alone. We did not support our third prediction that effects of environmental stochasticity (El Ni?o) would most likely be detected in vital rates to which lambda was least sensitive and which are thought to have high temporal variances. Comparative data-sets on other seabirds, within and among orders, and in other locations, are needed to understand these environmental effects.

  7. Limited genetic exchanges between populations of an insect pest living on uncultivated and related cultivated host plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialatte, Aude; Dedryver, Charles-Antoine; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Galman, Marina; Plantegenest, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Habitats in agroecosystems are ephemeral, and are characterized by frequent disturbances forcing pest species to successively colonize various hosts belonging either to the cultivated or to the uncultivated part of the agricultural landscape. The role of wild habitats as reservoirs or refuges for the aphid Sitobion avenae that colonize cultivated fields was assessed by investigating the genetic structure of populations collected on both cereal crops (wheat, barley and oat) and uncultivated hosts (Yorkshire fog, cocksfoot, bulbous oatgrass and tall oatgrass) in western France. Classical genetic analyses and Bayesian clustering algorithms indicate that genetic differentiation is high between populations collected on uncultivated hosts and on crops, revealing a relatively limited gene flow between the uncultivated margins and the cultivated part of the agroecosystem. A closer genetic relatedness was observed between populations living on plants belonging to the same tribe (Triticeae, Poeae and Aveneae tribes) where aphid genotypes appeared not to be specialized on a single host, but rather using a group of related plant species. Causes of this ecological differentiation and its implications for integrated pest management of S. avenae as cereals pest are discussed. PMID:16024367

  8. Obesity and Malnutrition: Impact of Habitat and Living Conditions in Adult Urban Population in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Temporelli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: malnutrition refers to imbalances (either deficit or excess in energy intake, protein and / or nutrients including underweight and obesity. The aim of this work is identify the contribution of individual factors, habits and life conditions in nutritional status. Material and methods: estimates of relative risk ratios are obtained from a multinomial logistic model using microdata from the National Survey of Risk Factors conducted in 2005 and 2009 in Argentinean‘ cities among adult population. Results: malnutrition is associated with constitutive and socioeconomic variables, while habits are also important in the obesity case. Discussion: both types of problems coexist in Argentine due to high heterogeneity in life styles, turning difficult the design of public interventions aimed to solve them. This complexity highlights the importance of a careful and specific multidimensional approach (medical, social, economical.

  9. Water intake in an Asian population living in arsenic-contaminated area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure evaluation is an indispensable step for the risk assessment of chronic arsenic toxicity. The amount of water intake, which consists of the base of exposure calculation, has been lacking for the arsenic-affected populations in the developing countries. Thus, the purposes of the present study were (1) to estimate the water intake in such population, and (2) to estimate the relative importance of water versus food as the source of arsenic exposure. Adult males and females (n = 19 for each) were selected from two rural Bangladeshi communities that entirely depended on tubewells for their water supply. Their water intake was measured by two methods, a 24-h self-report and an interview with frequent visits. Results of the two methods generally agreed with each other in terms of correlation and the absolute intakes. Mean water intake obtained by the self-report method was found to be around 3 l/day with substantial individual variation (the maximum = 6 l/day), no sex difference, and a significant between-community difference. The calculation for total arsenic exposure demonstrated that there was no sex difference in arsenic exposure except when the exposure was mainly from food and thus relatively low. Although these results need to be further confirmed under various environmental settings, these results suggested that (1) the sex difference in the manifestation of arsenic toxicity previously observed in this area should be related with factors other than exposure level and that (2) the risks associated with low arsenic concentrations of groundwater should be carefully interpreted because food may be providing additional burden of arsenic

  10. Results of genetic examination of populations living in radiative polluted regions of Sibera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than twenty thousand inhabitants of Siberia and the Urals, subjected to a radiating effect a result of explosions on the Semipalatinsk nuclear range and after failures at the enterprises making elements of nuclear weapons (Tomsk-7- a Siberian chemical combine and Cheliabinsk - the industrial association open-quotes Majakclose quotes) were investigated by genetic methods (chromosomatic, micronuclear and DNA-repair tests). Scientists from the Netherlands (A.T. Natarajam), Russia (I.Suskov and N.Ilyinskikh) have established, that high accumulated doses of radiation are observed in people, living near to Siberian chemical combine (Tomsk-7). It has been established, that the effective equivalent dose of radiation much exceeded the level which the person can receive for life from natural sources of radiation in more than 50% of the cases. In some people this dose was much higher 1 Gy. A high level of cells with cytogenetic breaks were predominantly observed in the people born in periods when there were radiating failures or open-quotes dirtyclose quotes nuclear tests on Semipalatinsk nuclear range. We assume that the long preservation in the body of the person of genetic instability is stipulated by occurrence of genetically defective cells in the person in the prenatal period of life. It has been established, that in the long term effects of radiation, the following changes are observed in the people: the number erythrocytes with micronuclei. T-lymphocytes with micronuclei and chromosomic breaks is increased, thus the activity excessive DNA-repair is reduced. Ring and dicentric chromosomes prevailed among other types of cytogenetic breaks in lymphocytes. Genetic instability was accompanied by essential haematologic and immunologic changes. Reduced ability of lumphoid of cells to product interferon and DNA-repair was observed in the people with high cytogenetic instability

  11. Live cell imaging of SOS and prophage dynamics in isogenic bacterial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfrich, Stefan; Pfeifer, Eugen; Krämer, Christina; Sachs, Christian Carsten; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Kohlheyer, Dietrich; Nöh, Katharina; Frunzke, Julia

    2015-11-01

    Almost all bacterial genomes contain DNA of viral origin, including functional prophages or degenerated phage elements. A frequent but often unnoted phenomenon is the spontaneous induction of prophage elements (SPI) even in the absence of an external stimulus. In this study, we have analyzed SPI of the large, degenerated prophage CGP3 (187 kbp), which is integrated into the genome of the Gram-positive Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032. Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of fluorescent reporter strains grown in microfluidic chips revealed the sporadic induction of the SOS response as a prominent trigger of CGP3 SPI but also displayed a considerable fraction (∼30%) of RecA-independent SPI. Whereas approx. 20% of SOS-induced cells recovered from this stress and resumed growth, the spontaneous induction of CGP3 always led to a stop of growth and likely cell death. A carbon source starvation experiment clearly emphasized that SPI only occurs in actively proliferating cells, whereas sporadic SOS induction was still observed in resting cells. These data highlight the impact of sporadic DNA damage on the activity of prophage elements and provide a time-resolved, quantitative description of SPI as general phenomenon of bacterial populations. PMID:26235130

  12. Clinical disease, immunity and protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria in populations living in endemic areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, L

    1998-01-01

    and mortality in an endemic setting (malaria is regularly found) is concentrated in children below the age of five years, and the increasing resistance to infection and disease with age is conventionally thought to reflect a slow and gradual acquisition of protective immunity. Many recent and...... comprehensive reviews of malarial immunity exist; rather than attempting to add another, this review summarises some of the recent evidence on how protective immunity is acquired in humans and what precipitates clinical disease, specifically as it relates to populations living in areas where the disease is...... endemic. It is becoming increasingly clear that naturally acquired protective immunity depends largely on responses directed against highly variable parasite antigens. This implies that a successful blood-stage vaccine against this disease must be able to either induce protective responses against many of...

  13. Breastfeeding practices in relation to country of origin among women living in Denmark: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busck-Rasmussen, Marianne; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Mortensen, Laust; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe breastfeeding practices and to compare the risk of suboptimal breastfeeding of women living in Denmark according to country of origin, and further to examine how socio-economic position and duration of stay in the country affected this risk. Information on breastfeeding of 42,420 infants born 2002-2009 and living in eighteen selected Danish municipalities was collected from the Danish Health Visitor's Child Health Database. The data was linked with data on maternal socio-demographic information from Danish population-covering registries. Suboptimal breastfeeding was defined as Pakistan, adjustment for socio-demographic indicators (age, parity, education, attachment to labour market, and income) eliminated the increased risk of suboptimal breastfeeding. There was no evidence for differences in the breastfeeding support provided at hospital level according to migrant status. Suboptimal breastfeeding was more frequent among women who were non-Nordic migrants and descendants of migrants than among women with Danish origin. PMID:24748214

  14. Cytogenetic screening of population living in ecologically unfavourable region of Semipalatinsk region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytogenetic examination of groups of people from ecologically unfavourable region of 4 settlements located at different distance from the center of nuclear explosions was conducted. For purpose of conducting biological indication and dosimetry, the radio sensibility of cells peripheral blood was determined with the account for the sex and age of the individuals from examined groups of people. Correlation analysis of frequency of chromosome aberration (CA) was implement taking into account the sex, age and absorbed dose of radiation. It was established that the frequency of chromosome aberration in examined groups exceed the control level 3,5 times (1,63±0,26). It was shown that total frequency of CA from people constituted: the Dolon settlement (zone of extreme risk) - 6,16±1,23 per 100 analyzed metaphases; the Kononerka settlement (zone of maximum risk) - 4,4 ±0,84; the Ramadan settlement (zone of maximum risk) - 5,97±1,08. Frequency of radiation induction chromosome markets within the region constituted 0,41±0,16 per 100 cells as average, - this exceeds control level (0,67±0,002) 6 times. Considerable factions (0,5-17,7 %) of exit of chromosome aberrations were discovered among different individuals. It was established that the frequency of stable and unstable CA increases due to the age of the people examined. Using the method of biological dosimetry based of registration of frequency of stable and unstable CA it was established that the population of examined regions has probably absorbed the following doses: the Dolon settlement - 0,14 Gy, the Kanonerka settlement - 0,13 Gy, the Buras settlement - 0,06 Gy, the Ramadan - 0,095 Gy. (author)

  15. Properties of thermal air plasma with admixing of copper and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with investigations of air plasma with admixing of copper and carbon. Model plasma source unit with real breaking arc was used for the simulation of real discharges, which can be occurred during sliding of Cu-C composite electrodes on copper wire at electromotive vehicles. The complex technique of plasma property studies is developed. From one hand, the radial profiles of temperature and electron density in plasma of electric arc discharge in air between Cu-C composite and copper electrodes in air flow were measured by optical spectroscopy techniques. From another hand, the radial profiles of electric conductivity of plasma mixture were calculated by solution of energy balance equation. It was assumed that the thermal conductivity of air plasma is not depending on copper or carbon vapor admixtures. The electron density is obtained from electric conductivity profiles by calculation in assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium in plasma. Computed in such way radial profiles of electron density in plasma of electric arc discharge in air between copper electrodes were compared with experimentally measured profiles. It is concluded that developed techniques of plasma diagnostics can be reasonably used in investigations of thermal plasma with copper and carbon vapors

  16. We Happy Few: Using Structured Population Models to Identify the Decisive Events in the Lives of Exceptional Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robin E; Ellner, Stephen P

    2016-08-01

    In any population, some individuals make it big: they are among the few that produce many offspring, grow to large size, and so on. What distinguishes the lives of these happy few? We present three approaches for identifying what factors distinguish those "lucky" individuals who come to dominate reproduction in a population without fixed differences between individuals (genotype, site quality, etc.): comparing life-history trajectories for lucky and unlucky individuals and calculating the elasticity of the probability of becoming lucky to perturbations in demographic rates at a given size or a given age. As examples we consider published size-structured integral projection models for the tropical tree Dacrydium elatum and the semiarid shrub Artemisia ordosica and an age-size-structured matrix model for the tropical tree Cedrela ordosica. We find that good fortune (e.g., rapid growth) when small and young matters much more than good fortune when older and larger. Becoming lucky is primarily a matter of surviving while others die. For species with more variable growth (such as Cedrela and Ordosica), it is also a matter of growing fast. We focus on reproductive skew, but our methods are broadly applicable and can be used to investigate how individuals come to be exceptional in any aspect. PMID:27420793

  17. Association between the Hygiene Index Values of Live Fresh Aquatic Products and Food-Borne Diarrhea in the Population of the Ningbo Area in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lijun Zhang; Lu Lu; Liye Shu; Jianjun Chen; Baobo Zou; Qi Zhou; Yuanliang Gu; Jinshun Zhao; Xialu Lin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association of the hygiene index values of live fresh aquatic products and food-borne diarrhea in the population of the Ningbo area in China. Volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), histamine (HIS), indole, tetrodotoxin (TTX), and paralytic, neurotoxic, amnesic and diarrhetic shellfish poisons (PSP, NSP, ASP, and DSP, respectively) in the samples of live fresh aquatic products and food-borne diarrhea cases in six studied districts were analyzed. Results indicate that the incidence r...

  18. Traditionally living populations in East Africa have a mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of 115 nmol/l.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxwolda, Martine F; Kuipers, Remko S; Kema, Ido P; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2012-11-14

    Cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D by exposure to UVB is the principal source of vitamin D in the human body. Our current clothing habits and reduced time spent outdoors put us at risk of many insufficiency-related diseases that are associated with calcaemic and non-calcaemic functions of vitamin D. Populations with traditional lifestyles having lifelong, year-round exposure to tropical sunlight might provide us with information on optimal vitamin D status from an evolutionary perspective. We measured the sum of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D₂ and D₃ (25(OH)D) concentrations of thirty-five pastoral Maasai (34 (SD 10) years, 43 % male) and twenty-five Hadzabe hunter-gatherers (35 (SD 12) years, 84 % male) living in Tanzania. They have skin type VI, have a moderate degree of clothing, spend the major part of the day outdoors, but avoid direct exposure to sunlight when possible. Their 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-MS/MS. The mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations of Maasai and Hadzabe were 119 (range 58-167) and 109 (range 71-171) nmol/l, respectively. These concentrations were not related to age, sex or BMI. People with traditional lifestyles, living in the cradle of mankind, have a mean circulating 25(OH)D concentration of 115 nmol/l. Whether this concentration is optimal under the conditions of the current Western lifestyle is uncertain, and should as a possible target be investigated with concomitant appreciation of other important factors in Ca homeostasis that we have changed since the agricultural revolution. PMID:22264449

  19. Cancer in populations living near nuclear facilities. A survey of mortality nationwide and incidence in two states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reports from the United Kingdom have described increases in leukemia and lymphoma among young persons living near certain nuclear installations. Because of concerns raised by these reports, a mortality survey was conducted in populations living near nuclear facilities in the United States. All facilities began service before 1982. Over 900,000 cancer deaths occurred from 1950 through 1984 in 107 counties with or near nuclear installations. Each study county was matched for comparison to three control counties in the same region. There were 1.8 million cancer deaths in the 292 control counties during the 35 years studied. Deaths due to leukemia or other cancers were not more frequent in the study counties than in the control counties. For childhood leukemia mortality, the relative risk comparing the study counties with their controls before plant start-up was 1.08, while after start-up it was 1.03. For leukemia mortality at all ages, the relative risks were 1.02 before start-up and 0.98 after. For counties in two states, cancer incidence data were also available. For one facility, the standardized registration ratio for childhood leukemia was increased significantly after start-up. However, the increase also antedated the operation of this facility. The study is limited by the correlational approach and the large size of the geographic areas (counties) used. It does not prove the absence of any effect. If, however, any excess cancer risk was present in US counties with nuclear facilities, it was too small to be detected with the methods employed

  20. Dose assessment for the Metlino and Muslyumovo populations who lived along the Techa river from 1949 to 1954.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrov, Yuri G

    2004-09-01

    In the period from 1949 to 1956, liquid radioactive waste was routinely and accidentally discharged by the Mayak Production Association, Southern Urals, Russia, into the Techa river. Based on a novel approach, the contamination of the Techa river water, the bottom sediments and the adjacent flood plains was modelled, and internal and external doses were estimated for two villages located downstream of the site of liquid radioactive waste release. Altogether, 11 radionuclides that occurred in the liquid radioactive waste were included in the calculations. The results suggest significantly higher doses than previously assumed, with the major contribution in the year 1951. Radionuclides with half-lives of less than 1 year, such as 89Sr, 131I, 95Zr+95Nb, 103Ru+103mRh, 140Ba+140La, and 144Ce+144Pr, represent the major sources and, in contrast, long-lived radionuclides, such as 90Sr and 137Cs that have so far been assumed to be most important, did not dominate the doses. For adults from the village Metlino, located 7 km downstream of the site of liquid radioactive waste discharge, the committed effective doses due to intake of radionuclides were calculated to be about 2.3 Sv, while the external doses were between about 1.2 Sv and 6.9 Sv. On the other hand, for adults from Muslyumovo, located 75 km downstream, the committed effective doses due to intake of radionuclides were calculated to be about 0.5 Sv, while the external doses were between 0.5 Sv and 2.0 Sv. The values for the skin doses to the Metlino and Muslyumovo populations were about 7.1 Sv and 1.3 Sv, respectively. It is concluded that the current dose estimates for the residents of the Techa river need, therefore, reevaluation. PMID:15378312

  1. Adequate vitamin D levels in a Swedish population living above latitude 63°N : The 2009 Northern Sweden MONICA study

    OpenAIRE

    Ramnemark, Anna; Norberg, Margareta; Petterson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Eliasson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Background. Even though vitamin D is mainly produced by exposure to sunlight, little is known regarding vitamin D levels in populations living in sub-Arctic areas with little or no daylight during winter.Objective. We describe distributions of vitamin D3 and the prevalence of adequate levels in a population living above 63°N.Design. We sampled 1,622 randomly selected subjects, aged 25–74 years, between January and May, 2009, as part of the Northern Sweden MONICA study (69.2% participation rat...

  2. Community patterns of stigma towards persons living with HIV: A population-based latent class analysis from rural Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugha Ruairí

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The negative effects of stigma on persons living with HIV (PLHIV have been documented in many settings and it is thought that stigma against PLHIV leads to more difficulties for those who need to access HIV testing, treatment and care, as well as to limited community uptake of HIV prevention and testing messages. In order to understand and prevent stigma towards PLHIV, it is important to be able to measure stigma within communities and to understand which factors are associated with higher stigma. Methods To analyze patterns of community stigma and determinants to stigma toward PLHIV, we performed an exploratory population-based survey with 1874 randomly sampled adults within a demographic surveillance site (DSS in rural Vietnam. Participants were interviewed regarding knowledge of HIV and attitudes towards persons living with HIV. Data were linked to socioeconomic and migration data from the DSS and latent class analysis and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to examine stigma group sub-types and factors associated with stigma group membership. Results We found unexpectedly high and complex patterns of stigma against PLHIV in this rural setting. Women had the greatest odds of belong to the highest stigma group (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.42-2.37, while those with more education had lower odds of highest stigma group membership (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.32-0.62 for secondary education; OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.35 for tertiary education. Long-term migration out of the district (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.4-0.91, feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27-0.66, having heard of HIV from more sources (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.3-0.66, and knowing someone with HIV (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58-0.99 were all associated with lower odds of highest stigma group membership. Nearly 20% of the population was highly unsure of their attitudes towards PLHIV and persons in this group had significantly lower odds of feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.90 or

  3. Community patterns of stigma towards persons living with HIV: A population-based latent class analysis from rural Vietnam

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pharris, Anastasia

    2011-09-18

    Abstract Background The negative effects of stigma on persons living with HIV (PLHIV) have been documented in many settings and it is thought that stigma against PLHIV leads to more difficulties for those who need to access HIV testing, treatment and care, as well as to limited community uptake of HIV prevention and testing messages. In order to understand and prevent stigma towards PLHIV, it is important to be able to measure stigma within communities and to understand which factors are associated with higher stigma. Methods To analyze patterns of community stigma and determinants to stigma toward PLHIV, we performed an exploratory population-based survey with 1874 randomly sampled adults within a demographic surveillance site (DSS) in rural Vietnam. Participants were interviewed regarding knowledge of HIV and attitudes towards persons living with HIV. Data were linked to socioeconomic and migration data from the DSS and latent class analysis and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to examine stigma group sub-types and factors associated with stigma group membership. Results We found unexpectedly high and complex patterns of stigma against PLHIV in this rural setting. Women had the greatest odds of belong to the highest stigma group (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.42-2.37), while those with more education had lower odds of highest stigma group membership (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.32-0.62 for secondary education; OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.35 for tertiary education). Long-term migration out of the district (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.4-0.91), feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27-0.66), having heard of HIV from more sources (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.3-0.66), and knowing someone with HIV (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58-0.99) were all associated with lower odds of highest stigma group membership. Nearly 20% of the population was highly unsure of their attitudes towards PLHIV and persons in this group had significantly lower odds of feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.90) or of knowing

  4. Modeling of microwave discharges of H2 admixed with CH4 for diamond deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microwave discharges of H2 admixed with CH4 in a moderate-pressure quartz bell jar reactor used for diamond deposition are studied numerically. Special attention was devoted to high-power densities which provide the most effective way for producing high-quality diamond films. First, a one-dimensional radial model describing the coupled phenomena of chemistry, energy transfer, as well as species and energy transport along the reactor's radial coordinate was developed. Species densities predicted with the model were compared with measurements with infrared tunable diode laser spectroscopy, resulting in validation of the model. Second, a one-dimensional axial model was used to describe the plasma flow along the reactor axis in a region between the reactor end wall and the substrate surface. This model was particularly useful for studying the plasma behavior in the vicinity of the substrate surface, where thermal and composition gradients are large. Both the radial and axial transport models are based on the same discharge model in which the plasma is described as a thermochemically nonequilibrium flow with different energy distributions for heavy species and electrons. The chemistry was described with a model containing 28 species and 131 reactions. The electron temperature, the gas temperature, and the species concentration were determined by solving a coupled set of equations. A wide range of experimental conditions used for diamond deposition was simulated, from low microwave power density (9 W cm-3, i.e., 600 W, 2500 Pa, and Tg∼2200 K) to high-power density (30 W cm-3, i.e., 2 kW, 12 000 Pa, and Tg∼3200 K). The main chemical paths were identified, and the major species, transport effects, and reaction pathways that govern diamond deposition plasmas are discussed

  5. Determination of a new uniform thorax density representative of the living population from 3D external body shape modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Celia; Choisne, Julie; Nérot, Agathe; Pillet, Hélène; Skalli, Wafa

    2016-05-01

    Body segment parameters (BSP) for each body׳s segment are needed for biomechanical analysis. To provide population-specific BSP, precise estimation of body׳s segments volume and density are needed. Widely used uniform densities, provided by cadavers׳ studies, did not consider the air present in the lungs when determining the thorax density. The purpose of this study was to propose a new uniform thorax density representative of the living population from 3D external body shape modeling. Bi-planar X-ray radiographies were acquired on 58 participants allowing 3D reconstructions of the spine, rib cage and human body shape. Three methods of computing the thorax mass were compared for 48 subjects: (1) the Dempster Uniform Density Method, currently in use for BSPs calculation, using Dempster density data, (2) the Personalized Method using full-description of the thorax based on 3D reconstruction of the rib cage and spine and (3) the Improved Uniform Density Method using a uniform thorax density resulting from the Personalized Method. For 10 participants, comparison was made between the body mass obtained from a force-plate and the body mass computed with each of the three methods. The Dempster Uniform Density Method presented a mean error of 4.8% in the total body mass compared to the force-plate vs 0.2% for the Personalized Method and 0.4% for the Improved Uniform Density Method. The adjusted thorax density found from the 3D reconstruction was 0.74g/cm(3) for men and 0.73g/cm(3) for women instead of the one provided by Dempster (0.92g/cm(3)), leading to a better estimate of the thorax mass and body mass. PMID:26976227

  6. Impact of socioeconomic status and living condition on latent tuberculosis diagnosis among the tribal population of Melghat: A cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Rajpal S; Nayak, Amit R; Husain, Aliabbas A; Shekhawat, Seema D; Satav, Ashish R; Jain, Ruchika K; Raje, Dhananjay V; Daginawala, Hatim F; Taori, Girdhar M

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To study socioeconomic status (SES) and living conditions (LC) as risk factors for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and their impact on QuantiFERON-TB gold (QFT-G) and tuberculin skin test (TST) outcome for determining a better diagnostic test for LTBI in the malnourished tribal population of Melghat. Settings and Design: Six hundred sixty nine participants matching the inclusion criteria were recruited from 10 tribal villages of Melghat region, India. Subjects and Methods: Complete information related to various risk factors and test outcome was obtained on 398 participants, which was analyzed as per predefined conceptual framework. Factors were classified based on their relevance either at individual or household level, and subsequently based on the possibility of intervention. Data were partitioned into concordant and discordant sets depending on test agreement. Results: In concordant set, the two tests revealed that LTBI was significantly associated with smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.64 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–6.79]), tobacco usage (aOR: 2.74 [95% CI: 1.50–4.99]), and malnourishment (aOR: 1.97 [95% CI: 1.12–3.48]) after basic adjustment. Inclusion of latent variable SES and LC in the model has mediating effect on the association of above factors with LTBI. Further, the association of SES and LC with LTBI in concordant set was unaltered in presence of other cofactors. From discordant set, results of QFT-G corroborated with that of concordant set. Conclusions: Poor SES and LC can be considered as strong risk factors linked with LTBI as compared to malnourishment, which is often targeted in such communities. Further, our study showed QFT-G test as a reliable tool in screening of LTBI in the tribal population of Melghat, India.

  7. Evaluation of properties of the Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (Brazilian version in an elderly population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Ricci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (VADL is considered an important subjective assessment to evaluate patients suffering from dizziness and imbalance. Although frequently used, its metric characteristics still require further investigation. Objective: This paper aims to analyze the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the VADL in an elderly population. Method: The sample comprises patients (≥65 years old with chronic dizziness resulting from vestibular disorders. For discriminant analysis, patients were compared to healthy subjects. All subjects answered the VADL-Brazil by interview. To examine the VADL validity, patients filled out the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI and the ABC scale and were tested on the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI. To evaluate the VADL responsiveness, 20 patients were submitted to rehabilitation. Results: Patients (n=140 had a VADL total score of 4.1±1.6 points. Healthy subjects scored significantly less than patients in all the subscales and in the VADL total score. The VADL-Brazil was weakly correlated with the DHI and moderately to the ABC scale and the DGI. Instead of the original 3 subscales, factor analysis resulted in 6 factors. The VADL was capable of detecting changes after rehabilitation, which means that the instrument has responsiveness. Conclusions: This study provided more data about the psychometric properties and usefulness of the VADL-Brazil. The use of such a reliable and valid instrument increases the knowledge about disability in patients with vestibular disorders.

  8. Living with a Red Dwarf: Rotation and X-ray and Ultraviolet Properties of the Halo Population Kapteyn's Star

    CERN Document Server

    Guinan, Edward F; Durbin, Allyn

    2016-01-01

    As part of Villanova's Living with a Red Dwarf program, we have obtained UV, X-ray and optical data of the Population II red dwarf -- Kapteyn's Star. Kapteyn's Star is noteworthy for its large proper motions and high RV of ~+245 km s^-1. As the nearest Pop II red dwarf, it serves as an old age anchor for calibrating Activity/Irradiance-Rotation-Age relations, and an important test bed for stellar dynamos and the resulting X-ray -- UV emissions of slowly rotating, near-fully convective red dwarf stars. Adding to the notoriety, Kapteyn's Star has recently been reported to host two super-Earth candidates, one of which (Kapteyn b) is orbiting within the habitable zone (Anglada-Escude et al. 2014a, 2015). However, Robertson et al. (2015) questioned the planet's existence since its orbital period may be an artifact of activity, related to the star's rotation period. Because of its large Doppler-shift, measures of the important, chromospheric H I Lyman-alpha 1215.67A emission line can be reliably made, because it is...

  9. Influence of pH on the survival of Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides populations living in aquatic environments highly contaminated with chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, María; Bartolomé, M Carmen; Sánchez-Fortún, Sebastián

    2013-12-01

    The accommodation of photosynthetic organisms to adverse conditions, such as pH changes in the aquatic environment, and their response to aquatic pollutants is essential to develop future biosensors. The present study reports the ability of both Cr(VI)-sensitive and tolerant Dyctiosphaerium chlorelloides strains to live in aqueous solutions highly contaminated with hexavalent chromium under varying ranges of pH, by the determination of chromium toxic effects on these strains. Studies of cell growth, photosynthetic quantum yield and gross photosynthesis rate show that both D. chlorelloides strains are able to survive in alkaline and moderately acidified (pH 4.25) aquatic environments. Below this pH value cell populations from both strains exposed for short periods of time to Cr(VI) showed alterations in the three parameters studied. There were no significant differences comparing the response of both strains at pH change in the culture medium. However, Cr(VI)-tolerant strain exhibits a better fit to maintain cell growth than Cr(VI)-sensitive strain when both were subjected to pH 4.25 in the culture medium. The absence of significant differences in photosynthetic activity results for both strains suggests that the lower sensitivity exhibited by Cr(VI)-tolerant strain would be due to cellular morphological changes rather than changes in cellular activity. PMID:24125866

  10. Efficacy of amitraz collars on white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) against free-living populations of Lone Star Ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collars containing the acaricide amitraz were fitted around necks of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) confined in a 38.8 ha deer-fenced, densely vegetated plot in south Texas to determine efficacy in controlling free-living populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (...

  11. Retrospective estimation of contamination with short-lived nuclides of belarus territory and modeling of doses to the thyroid gland of population after accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observed in Belarus a growth of thyroid pathology in population attracted attention of the specialists to the problem of reconstruction of radiation situation and doses from short-lived radionuclides particularly iodine isotopes. However, available data regarding radiation situation and obtained dose estimates to thyroid could not explain this fact. (authors)

  12. Uncovering the secret lives of sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus): Movements, distribution and population dynamics revealed by a capture-mark-recapture study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Sluydts, Vincent; Leirs, Herwig E.l.

    2012-01-01

    behaviour of these populations. Aims.: The study aimed to uncover the population dynamics, movements and distribution of rats in populations living in sewers. Methods.: We studied rats in a capture–mark–recapture study in two adjacent but separate sewer systems in suburban Copenhagen, Denmark, covering a...... surface area of 30 Ha. Multiple-capture live traps were placed in manholes in public sewers; animals were marked individually and data were collected every fourth week for a period of almost 3 years. Key results.: In total, 332 individual rats were trapped. Approximately one-third were only caught once...... dimensions. Juvenile rats were captured more in the smaller and drier sewer sections. Activity areas of rats of both sexes overlapped partially, and observations of bite wounds were rare, suggesting a high degree of tolerance. The average maximal distance covered by rats was ~200 m for both sexes. Day...

  13. Malnutrition and mortality patterns among internally displaced and non-displaced population living in a camp, a village or a town in Eastern Chad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Guerrier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Certain population groups have been rendered vulnerable in Chad because of displacement of more than 200,000 people over the last three years as a result of mass violence against civilians in the east of the country. The objective of the study was to assess mortality and nutritional patterns among displaced and non-displaced population living in camps, villages and a town in the Ouddaï and Salamat regions of Chad. METHODOLOGY: Between May and October 2007, two stage, 30-cluster household surveys were conducted among 43,900 internally displaced persons (IDPs living in camps in Ouaddai region (n = 898 households, among 19,400 non-displaced persons (NDPs living in 42 villages in Ouaddai region (n = 900 households and among 17,000 NDPs living in a small town in Salamat region (n = 901 households. Data collection included anthropometric measurements, measles vaccination rates and retrospective mortality. Crude mortality rate (CMR, mortality rate among children younger than 5 years (U5MR, causes of death and the prevalence of wasting (weight-for-height z score <-2 among children aged 6 to 59 months were the main outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS: The CMR among the 4902 IDPs in Gozbeida camps, 4477 NDPs living in a village and 4073 NDPs living in a town surveyed was 1.8 (95% CI, 1.2-2.8, 0.3 (95% CI, 0.2-0.4, 0.3 (95% CI, 0.2-0.5 per 10,000 per day, respectively. The U5MR in a camp (n = 904, a village (n = 956 and a town (n = 901 was 4.1 (95% CI, 2.1-7.7, 0.5 (95% CI, 0.3-0.9 and 0.7 (95% CI, 0.4-1.4 per 10,000 per day, respectively. Diarrhoea was reported to be the main cause of death. Acute malnutrition rates (according to the WHO definition among 904 IDP children, 956 NDPs children living in a village, 901 NDP children living in a town aged 6 to 59 months were 20.6% (95% CI, 17.9%-23.3%, 16.4% (95% CI, 14.0%-18.8% and 10.1% (95% CI, 8.1%-12.2% respectively. The study found a high mortality rate among IDPs and an elevated prevalence of

  14. People living with HIV travel farther to access healthcare: a population-based geographic analysis from rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam N Akullian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The availability of specialized HIV services is limited in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa where the need is the greatest. Where HIV services are available, people living with HIV (PLHIV must overcome large geographic, economic and social barriers to access healthcare. The objective of this study was to understand the unique barriers PLHIV face when accessing healthcare compared with those not living with HIV in a rural area of sub-Saharan Africa with limited availability of healthcare infrastructure. Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of 447 heads of household on Bugala Island, Uganda. Multiple linear regression models were used to compare travel time, cost and distance to access healthcare, and log binomial models were used to test for associations between HIV status and access to nearby health services. Results: PLHIV travelled an additional 1.9 km (95% CI (0.6, 3.2 km, p=0.004 to access healthcare compared with those not living with HIV, and they were 56% less likely to access healthcare at the nearest health facility to their residence, so long as that facility lacked antiretroviral therapy (ART services (aRR=0.44, 95% CI (0.24 to 0.83, p=0.011. We found no evidence that PLHIV travelled further for care if the nearest facility supplies ART services (aRR=0.95, 95% CI (0.86 to 1.05, p=0.328. Among those who reported uptake of care at one of two facilities on the island that provides ART (81% of PLHIV and 68% of HIV-negative individuals, PLHIV tended to seek care at a higher tiered facility that provides ART, even when this facility was not their closest facility (30% of PLHIV travelled further than the closest ART facility compared with 16% of HIV-negative individuals, and travelled an additional 2.2 km (p=0.001 to access that facility, relative to HIV-negative individuals (aRR=1.91, 95% CI (1.00 to 3.65, p=0.05. Among PLHIV, residential distance was associated with access to facilities providing

  15. Frequency, risk factors and preventive approach to fall among aged population living in a nursing home in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Kibar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Increase in aged population in number brings along the risk of falls and fall-related injuries among elderly. It has been reported that almost 60% of falls occur in nursing homes and majority of admissions to emergency departments due to falls consist of elderly. The purpose of this study conducted in a nursing home in Ankara was to determine the frequency of falls and risk factors, and to clear out the opinions and views of the participants on planning and promoting interventions for prevention. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 60 years of age and older residents who lived in a nursing home. Data of the study was collected via face to face interviewing technique. The questionnaire consisted of four sections including socio-demographic characteristics, health status of the participants, healthy/risky behavior and fall related characteristics. RESULTS: Mean age of the 75 female and 59 male participants involved in the study was 73.99+/-7.18. Females were found to fall more in frequency than males (p>0.05. It was found that nearly half of the males (47.5% and more than half of the females (56.0% fell at least once within the previous year. Number of falls were higher among 75 years of age and older participants compared to the other age groups (p=0.003. Compared to the participants with fall background, aged people without fall background gave more correct answers in number to the questions which were asked to assess the knowledge on falls. Six out of 20 answers were statistically significantly correct (p <0.05. CONCLUSION: Individual and environmental interventions to be continued both inside and outside the institutions in order to prevent falls. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(1.000: 23-32

  16. Evaluation of a digital method to assess evening meal intake in a free-living adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dahl Lassen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years new applications of technologies, including digital images, to capture dietary behaviour in real time have been explored. Objectives: To validate a digital method for estimating evening meal intake in a free-living adult population, and to examine the feasibility of the method for recording evening meal intake over a prolonged period of time. Design: The digital method was compared against weighed records of 19 participants’ usual evening meals for five consecutive days. Two trained image analysts independently estimated the weight of individual foods within the meals into major food categories, and the nutrient content was calculated. A second study included interviews with 28 participants recording their evening meals on weekdays for three consecutive weeks to get their perspective on the feasibility of the method. Results: High correlation coefficients between the digital method and weighed records were found for all measured food categories and nutrients. Comparable means and acceptable limits of agreement (mean difference +/− 2 SD were found with regard to macronutrient distribution (e.g. fat content −5 to 6 E%, energy density (−75 to 91 kJ/100 g, and energy-adjusted foods (e.g. fruit and vegetable content −241 to 236 g/10 MJ. The majority of the participants expressed satisfaction with the method and were willing to record their evening meals for 1 month or more using the digital method. Conclusion: The digital method is valid and feasible for evening meal estimation in real-time where a prolonged recording period of participants’ meals is needed.

  17. Partial replacement of fossil fuel in a cement plant: risk assessment for the population living in the neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Joaquim; Mari, Montse; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2010-10-15

    In cement plants, the substitution of traditional fossil fuels not only allows a reduction of CO(2), but it also means to check-out residual materials, such as sewage sludge or municipal solid wastes (MSW), which should otherwise be disposed somehow/somewhere. In recent months, a cement plant placed in Alcanar (Catalonia, Spain) has been conducting tests to replace fossil fuel by refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from MSW. In July 2009, an operational test was progressively initiated by reaching a maximum of partial substitution of 20% of the required energy. In order to study the influence of the new process, environmental monitoring surveys were performed before and after the RDF implementation. Metals and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in soil, herbage, and air samples collected around the facility. In soils, significant decreases of PCDD/F levels, as well as in some metal concentrations were found, while no significant increases in the concentrations of these pollutants were observed. In turn, PM(10) levels remained constant, with a value of 16μgm(-3). In both surveys, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks derived from exposure to metals and PCDD/Fs for the population living in the vicinity of the facility were within the ranges considered as acceptable according to national and international standards. This means that RDF may be a successful choice in front of classical fossil fuels, being in accordance with the new EU environmental policies, which entail the reduction of CO(2) emissions and the energetic valorization of MSW. However, further long-term environmental studies are necessary to corroborate the harmlessness of RDF, in terms of human health risks. PMID:20709362

  18. Populism

    OpenAIRE

    Abts, Koenraad; van Kessel, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    Populism is a concept applied to a wide range of political movements and actors across the globe. There is, at the same time, considerable confusion about the attributes and manifestation of populism, as well as its impact on democracy. This contribution identifies the defining elements of the populist ideology and discusses the varieties in which populism manifests itself, for instance as a component of certain party families. We finally discuss various normative interpretations of populism,...

  19. Malnutrition and Mortality Patterns among Internally Displaced and Non-Displaced Population Living in a Camp, a Village or a Town in Eastern Chad

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles Guerrier; Malaïka Zounoun; Olimpia Delarosa; Isabelle Defourny; Michelo Lacharite; Vincent Brown; Biagio Pedalino

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Certain population groups have been rendered vulnerable in Chad because of displacement of more than 200,000 people over the last three years as a result of mass violence against civilians in the east of the country. The objective of the study was to assess mortality and nutritional patterns among displaced and non-displaced population living in camps, villages and a town in the Ouddaï and Salamat regions of Chad. METHODOLOGY: Between May and October 2007, two stage, 30-cluster ho...

  20. Breastfeeding Practices in Relation to Country of Origin Among Women Living in Denmark: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Busck-Rasmussen, Marianne; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Mortensen, Laust; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe breastfeeding practices and to compare the risk of suboptimal breastfeeding of women living in Denmark according to country of origin, and further to examine how socio-economic position and duration of stay in the country affected this risk. Information on breastfeeding of 42,420 infants born 2002–2009 and living in eighteen selected Danish municipalities was collected from the Danish Health Visitor’s Child Health Database. The data was linked with ...

  1. HLA-DRB1*14 is a protective allele for multiple sclerosis in an admixed Colombian population

    OpenAIRE

    Toro, Jaime; Cuellar-Giraldo, David; Díaz-Cruz, Camilo; Burbano, Lisseth-Estefania; Guío, Claudia-Marcela; Reyes, Saúl; Cortes, Fabián; Cárdenas-Robledo, Simón; Diana M. Narváez; Cárdenas, Wilmer; Porras, Alexandra; Lattig, María-Claudia; Groot de Restrepo, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine ancestry informative markers, mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, and the association between HLA-DRB1 alleles and multiple sclerosis (MS) in a group of patients from Bogotá, Colombia. Methods: In this case-control study, genomic DNA was isolated and purified from blood samples. HLA-DRB1 allele genotyping was done using PCR. Mitochondrial hypervariable region 1 was amplified and haplogroups were determined using HaploGrep software. Genomic ancestry...

  2. The use of TLD method for the estimation of the accidental external dose for the population living on the radioactive contaminated territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for calculating annual efficient external irradiation doses for different population groups living on territories contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident is suggested. The method is based on utilization of the data on integral doses of external gamma irradiation on the territories under consideration obtained by means of the thermoluminescent dosimetry technique. The method discussed gives an opportunity to take into account the heterogeneity in the territory radioactive contamination

  3. Risk of Respiratory Health Impairment among Sus¬ceptible Population Living near Petrochemical Indus¬try- A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Ashikin SOPIAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Petrochemical industry emits air pollutants in abundance, which may harm human health, especially the population living near the industry. Children are reported to be the population group of main concern since this susceptible population spends the majority of their time outdoors and their active lifestyle can increase their breathing rate, which then leads to a greater inhalation dose of air pollutants and greater risk of health effects.Method: The materials for this review were obtained from several on-line databases such as PubMed, Proquest, Scopus and Science Direct (year 1990-2015. In this review, we highlighted several relevant studies on respiratory health effects from petrochemical air pollutant exposure among children living in the neighborhood and highlighted the factors, which contributed to the severity of the health outcomes.Results: Short term petrochemical air pollutant exposure increases respiratory symptom, reduces lung function and incidence of asthma especially for those who living within 5 km radius from the industry.Conclusion: This review will provide a compilation of potential respiratory health outcomes that arises from the inhalation of petrochemical air pollutants among children. Keywords: Petrochemical industry, Respiratory health effects, Children

  4. Assessing the impact of removal scenarios on population viability of a threatened, long-lived avian scavenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalida, Antoni; Colomer, Ma Àngels; Oro, Daniel; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Donázar, José A

    2015-01-01

    The removal of eggs or chicks from wild populations to create captive populations, reinforce free-ranging populations or reintroduce species into the wild is a restoration tool that requires an assessment of potential detrimental effects upon the donor population. This is an absolute prerequisite when wild donor populations are scarce and small. Here, we forecast the population trend of the largest European population of the bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) over the next 30 years under different demographic and management scenarios (removal of eggs, chicks or fledglings). Projections derived from the combination of a PDP model (Population Dynamic P-system) and a Box-Behnken design would lead to a decline in 77% of all 57 scenarios analysed. Among the 13 scenarios predicting a population increase, only 4 seem realistic in terms of growth rate (0.04%-1.01%), at least if current age at first breeding and productivity would remain constant over time. Our simulations thus suggest that most extraction scenarios would have detrimental effects on the demography of the donor population. Release of captive-born young or removal of only the second hatched chick for subsequent captive rearing and translocation into the wild appear to represent much better supplementation and reintroduction options in this threatened species. PMID:26593059

  5. Adequate vitamin D levels in a Swedish population living above latitude 63°N: The 2009 Northern Sweden MONICA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ramnemark

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Even though vitamin D is mainly produced by exposure to sunlight, little is known regarding vitamin D levels in populations living in sub-Arctic areas with little or no daylight during winter. Objective: We describe distributions of vitamin D3 and the prevalence of adequate levels in a population living above 63°N. Design: We sampled 1,622 randomly selected subjects, aged 25–74 years, between January and May, 2009, as part of the Northern Sweden MONICA study (69.2% participation rate. By using HPLC, 25(OH vitamin D3 was analysed. Levels used for definitions were deficient, D3<25 nmol/l (<10 ng/ml; insufficient, D3 25–49.9 nmol/l (10–20 ng/ml; and adequate, D3≥50 nmol/l (20 ng/ml. Results: Mean (median level of vitamin D3 was 65.2 (63.6 nmol/l in men and 71.0 (67.7 nmol/l in women. Adequate levels were found in 79.2%, more often in women (82.7% than in men (75.6%. Only 0.7% of the population were vitamin D3–deficient but 23.1% of men and 17.1% of women had insufficient levels. Levels of vitamin D3 increased with age and insufficient status was most common among those aged 25–34 years, 41.0% in men and 22.3% in women.If subjects using vitamin D-supplementation are excluded, the population level of D3 is 1–2 nmol/l lower than in the general population across sex- and age groups. There were no differences between the northern or the southern parts, between urban or rural living or according to educational attainment. Those subjects born outside of Sweden or Finland had lower levels. Conclusion: The large majority living close to the Arctic Circle in Sweden have adequate D3 levels even during the second half of the dark winter. Subjects with D3 deficiency were uncommon but insufficient levels were often found among young men.

  6. The genetic population structure of wild western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) living in continuous rain forest

    OpenAIRE

    Fünfstück, Tillmann; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Morgan, David B.; Sanz, Crickette; Breuer, Thomas; Stokes, Emma J.; Reed, Patricia; Olson, Sarah H.; Cameron, Ken; Ondzie, Alain; Peeters, Martine; Kühl, Hjalmar S.; CIPOLLETTA, CHLOE; Todd, Angelique; Masi, Shelly

    2014-01-01

    To understand the evolutionary histories and conservation potential of wild animal species it is useful to assess whether taxa are genetically structured into different populations and identify the underlying factors responsible for any clustering. Landscape features such as rivers may influence genetic population structure, and analysis of structure by sex can further reveal effects of sex-specific dispersal. Using microsatellite genotypes obtained from noninvasively collected fecal samples ...

  7. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer in children and adult population, living in contaminated territories after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the analysis of own and literature data on the occurrence and development of radiation-induced thyroid cancer are presented. Analysis involved distribution of the thyroid cancer incidence among 1 million children and 3 millions adults, living in the radioactively contaminated territories of Russia by age and sex. The main attention was paid to the understanding of latency period of spontaneous and radiation-induced cancer, comparison of oncological pathology features in children and adults, and the role of screening in the increase of incidence rate parameters. Analysis permitted to offer new interpretation of several previously known facts and to make new statements on the induction and development of radiogenic thyroid cancer, in particularly, on far more significant increase of the thyroid cancer incidence in adults, living in the contaminated territories, than it was considered earlier

  8. Mass and Density Measurements of Live and Dead Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacterial Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Christina L.; Craig, Caelli C.; Senecal, Andre G.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring cell growth and measuring physical features of food-borne pathogenic bacteria are important for better understanding the conditions under which these organisms survive and proliferate. To address this challenge, buoyant masses of live and dead Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria innocua were measured using Archimedes, a commercially available suspended microchannel resonator (SMR). Cell growth was monitored with Archimedes by observing increased cell concentration and buoyant mas...

  9. First results from dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the population from Madeira Island, Portugal. Part 1. Biomonitoring in blood of the general population living near to a solid waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Fatima Reis; J. Pereira Miguel; Sampaio, C. [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Lisbon (Portugal); J. Mauricio Melim [Public Health Regional Dept., Funchal (Portugal); Aguiar, P. [National School of Public Health, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2004-09-15

    The present study is one of a series of papers describing selected results of the ongoing projects, designed to ultimately evaluate the potential impact on public health of the updated solid waste incinerator. Addressing dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, specific aims of this study were: (i) to determine whether living in the vicinity of the Meia Serra incinerator increases the dioxin body burden of the general population; (ii) to investigate other potential determinants of dioxin exposure in this population for prevention priorities; (iii) to provide data on the extent and pattern of exposure of the general population to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds by determining respective toxicity levels and congeners profile in blood samples.

  10. Multiple estimates of effective population size for monitoring a long-lived vertebrate: an application to Yellowstone grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Pauline L; Haroldson, Mark A; Luikart, Gordon; Paetkau, David; Whitman, Craig; van Manen, Frank T

    2015-11-01

    Effective population size (N(e)) is a key parameter for monitoring the genetic health of threatened populations because it reflects a population's evolutionary potential and risk of extinction due to genetic stochasticity. However, its application to wildlife monitoring has been limited because it is difficult to measure in natural populations. The isolated and well-studied population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem provides a rare opportunity to examine the usefulness of different N(e) estimators for monitoring. We genotyped 729 Yellowstone grizzly bears using 20 microsatellites and applied three single-sample estimators to examine contemporary trends in generation interval (GI), effective number of breeders (N(b)) and N(e) during 1982-2007. We also used multisample methods to estimate variance (N(eV)) and inbreeding N(e) (N(eI)). Single-sample estimates revealed positive trajectories, with over a fourfold increase in N(e) (≈100 to 450) and near doubling of the GI (≈8 to 14) from the 1980s to 2000s. N(eV) (240-319) and N(eI) (256) were comparable with the harmonic mean single-sample N(e) (213) over the time period. Reanalysing historical data, we found N(eV) increased from ≈80 in the 1910s-1960s to ≈280 in the contemporary population. The estimated ratio of effective to total census size (N(e) /N(c)) was stable and high (0.42-0.66) compared to previous brown bear studies. These results support independent demographic evidence for Yellowstone grizzly bear population growth since the 1980s. They further demonstrate how genetic monitoring of N(e) can complement demographic-based monitoring of N(c) and vital rates, providing a valuable tool for wildlife managers. PMID:26510936

  11. Stress-induced tradeoffs in a free-living lizard across a variable landscape: consequences for individuals and populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Leilani D; French, Susannah S

    2012-01-01

    Current life history theory suggests that the allocation of energetic resources between competing physiological needs should be dictated by an individual's longevity and pace of life. One key physiological pathway likely to contribute to the partitioning of resources is the vertebrate stress response. By increasing circulating glucocorticoids the stress response can exert a suite of physiological effects, such as altering immune function. We investigated the effects of stress physiology on individual immunity, reproduction and oxidative stress, across an urban landscape. We sampled populations in and around St. George, Utah, examining corticosterone in response to restraint stress, two innate immune measures, reproductive output, and the presence of both reactive oxygen metabolites and antioxidant binding capacity, in populations of common side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) experiencing variable levels of environmental stress. Additionally, using capture-mark-recapture techniques, we examined the relationships between these physiological parameters and population-level differences. Our results reveal elevated physiological stress corresponds with suppressed immunity and increased oxidative stress. Interestingly, urban populations experiencing the most physiological stress also exhibited greater reproductive output and decreased survival relative to rural populations experiencing less physiological stress, demonstrating a tradeoff between reproduction and life maintenance processes. Our results suggest that environmental stress may augment life history strategy in this fast-paced species, and that shifts in life history strategy can in turn affect the population at large. Finally, the urban environment poses definite challenges for organisms, and while it appears that side-blotched lizards are adjusting physiologically, it is unknown what fitness costs these physiological adjustments accrue. PMID:23185478

  12. Living Planet Report 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, J; Wackernagel, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Living Planet Report is WWF's periodic update on the state of the world's ecosystems. This is measured using 2 main indicators. The first indicator is the fact that the Living Planet Index is derived from trends over the past 30 years in populations of hundreds of species of birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians and fish. The Living Planet Index (LPI) is an indicator of the state of the world's biodiversity: it measures trends in populations of vertebrate species living in terrestrial, fre...

  13. Genetic restoration of a stocked brown trout Salmo trutta population using microsatellite DNA analysis of historical and contemporary samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Bekkevold, Dorte; Jensen, L.F.; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons; Eg Nielsen, Einar

    2006-01-01

    1. Gene flow from domesticated to wild populations is a major threat to wild salmonid fish. However, few studies have addressed how populations could be restored after admixture has occurred. We analysed the prospects for restoring the previously intensively stocked brown trout population of the...... neighbouring Stora River and were presumably derived from unidentified spawning sites in the river system. 4. All but one non-admixed anadromous Skjern River trout were females, which we ascribed to sampling bias. Moreover, all non-admixed fish were late-spawning (January-February) whereas the majority of all...... trout caught for the study were ripe by November-December. The difference in spawning time could be an important factor delaying complete admixture of domesticated and indigenous trout. 5. Synthesis and applications. This study demonstrates the feasibility of restoring populations that have been admixed...

  14. Selenium and glutathione peroxidase reference values in whole blood and plasma of a reference population living in Valencia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría, A; Barberá, R; Clemente, G; Farré, R; García, M J; Lagarda, M J

    1996-12-01

    In order to assess the reference values for selenium nutritional status, adequate indicators (selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity) were determined in whole blood and blood derivates of a healthy population (n = 287) from the province of Valencia, Spain. The reference population was selected by applying preestablished criteria. Selenium in whole blood and plasma was measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), with a deuterium correction, after addition of Pd/Mg(NO3)2 as the matrix modifier and appropriate dilution. Accuracy was checked by means of a reference material (Seronorm Trace Metals serum and whole blood). The population's reference intervals for selenium content at a 95% confidence level were: 53.03-108.96 and 66.71-119.4 mg/L for plasma and whole blood selenium concentration respectively. GPX activity was measured using a modification of the Paglia and Valentine method, and the reference intervals obtained ranged from 196 to 477 U/L in plasma, from 49 to 93 U/gHb in erythrocytes and from 52 to 96 U/gHb in whole blood. The only statistically significant differences detected between men and women are for to the GPX activity in whole blood. The results obtained are in the range of values found by others authors in healthy populations residing in different European countries. PMID:9021673

  15. A programme for exposure and epidemiological surveillance of populations living in the vicinity of industrial waste dumps in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the environmental contamination at the industrial waste site of Montchain, the government of France has resolved to sponsor a programme for monitoring the impact of industrial waste dumps on the environment and on the health of neighbouring populations. The epidemiological approach is generally limited in its power to quantify risks and even to identify hazards because of: 1. the usual lack of information on the identify and level of toxic substances in the dump itself, on the exposures of individuals in the vicinity and therefore on the diseases and symptoms to be studied; 2. the relatively small size of the populations 'at risk' of exposure. The proposed solution is to carry out a systematic - prospective - surveillance of specific exposures in, and around, every industrial waste site in activity in France. The surveillance will be tailored to each dump. This will yield much needed information on the distribution and temporal pattern of exposures in the population. Risk projection models can then be applied and ranges of risk estimates derived in order that public authorities can make decisions on the operation of the dump. A health risk information campaign will be set up. A prospective epidemiologic study of dump workers, involving exposure monitoring, and biological and clinical follow-up, will also be set up. Subsequently, and depending on the agents and levels of exposure identified at individual dumps, epidemiologic surveillance of high risk groups (pregnant women, children) and biological monitoring of a subsample of the population may be set up

  16. Population admixture, biological invasions and the balance between local adaptation and inbreeding depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Macel, M.; Wolfe, L.M.; Biere, A.

    2011-01-01

    When previously isolated populations meet and mix, the resulting admixed population can benefit from several genetic advantages, including increased genetic variation, the creation of novel genotypes and the masking of deleterious mutations. These admixture benefits are thought to play an important

  17. Health indices of the rural population living in the area affected by the Krasnoyarsk mining and chemical combine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive contamination of the floodplain of the Yenisei River with the wastes dumped by the Krasnoyarsk Mining, and Chemical Combine (MCC) might cause external and internal irradiation of a large part of rural population inhabiting the banks of the Yenisei. Due the lack of comprehensive data on the dose status and doses received by the population, the health parameters of the population were studied by comparing the recorded incidences of diseases and mortality in the areas located at different distances from the MCC, in the periods before and after the MCC was put into operation, and in different age groups. Also studied were territorial differences in the immunologic and immunogenetic statuses of some groups of population. It has been found out that in the district subjected to radioactive contamination (RAC-districts) there are characteristic shifts in the pathologies that are the main markers of the radiation factor. With possible accumulation of radiation doses the shifts become more distinct, and with the distance from the MCC less distinct. Time and space gradients of the cancer morbidity and mortality rate in the RAC-area have been found. In the riverside settlements of the RAC-area the mortality from malignant neoplasms (MN) of blood, blood-forming organs, and lymphatic system is higher than in the settlements located farther from the Yenisei. As the distance from the MCC down the Yenisei gets longer, the mortality of children due to congenital developmental defects and leukaemia decreases. The space gradient has been also found for most somatic disorders originating from stressogenic (psycho-emotional strain) and immunodeficient states. Besides increased incidence of cancer, in the RAC-area there is a higher incidence of pathological states determined to a large extent genetically - complicated pregnancies and their outcome, mortinatality, and congenital developmental defects. Investigations of immunologic and immunogenetic statuses of the RAC

  18. What are the living conditions and health status of those who don’t report their migration status? a population-based study in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabieses Baltica

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undocumented immigrants are likely to be missing from population databases, making it impossible to identify an accurate sampling frame in migration research. No population-based data has been collected in Chile regarding the living conditions and health status of undocumented immigrants. However, the CASEN survey (Caracterizacion Socio- Economica Nacional asked about migration status in Chile for the first time in 2006 and provides an opportunity to set the base for future analysis of available migration data. We explored the living conditions and health of self-reported immigrants and respondents who preferred not to report their migration status in this survey. Methods Cross-sectional secondary analysis of CASEN survey in Chile in 2006. Outcomes: any disability, illness/accident, hospitalization/surgery, cancer/chronic condition (all binary variables; and the number of medical/emergency attentions received (count variables. Covariates: Demographics (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (education level, employment status and household income, and material standard of living (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality. Weighted regression models were estimated for each health outcome, crude and adjusted by sets of covariates, in STATA 10.0. Results About 1% of the total sample reported being immigrants and 0.7% preferred not to report their migration status (Migration Status - Missing Values; MS-MV. The MS-MV lived in more deprived conditions and reported a higher rate of health problems than immigrants. Some gender differences were observed by health status among immigrants and the MS-MV but they were not statistically significant. Regressions indicated that age, sex, SES and material factors consistently affected MS-MVs’ chance of presenting poor health and these patterns were different to those found among immigrants. Great heterogeneity in both the MS-MV and the immigrants, as

  19. Association between the Hygiene Index Values of Live Fresh Aquatic Products and Food-Borne Diarrhea in the Population of the Ningbo Area in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijun; Lu, Lu; Shu, Liye; Chen, Jianjun; Zou, Baobo; Zhou, Qi; Gu, Yuanliang; Zhao, Jinshun; Lin, Xialu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association of the hygiene index values of live fresh aquatic products and food-borne diarrhea in the population of the Ningbo area in China. Volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), histamine (HIS), indole, tetrodotoxin (TTX), and paralytic, neurotoxic, amnesic and diarrhetic shellfish poisons (PSP, NSP, ASP, and DSP, respectively) in the samples of live fresh aquatic products and food-borne diarrhea cases in six studied districts were analyzed. Results indicate that the incidence rate of food-borne diarrhea is related to the hygiene index values. Aside from VBN, the main risk factors related to food-borne diarrhea in edible aquatic products include DSP (in marine fish, shrimp, and other shellfishes), NSP, and ASP (in marine shrimp and crab). Hygiene index values among different species were significantly different. No significant difference in the monitoring index values was found among the six different studied districts. The reported cases of food-borne diarrhea were positively associated with VBN and DSP in aquatic products in Haishu, Jiangbei, Zhenhai, and Beilun, as well as VBN and NSP in aquatic products in Jiangdong and Yinzhou. In conclusion, VBN, DSP, NSP, and ASP are important risk factors for the occurring of food-borne diarrhea in the population of the Ningbo area in China. PMID:26258783

  20. Living with uncertainty: genetic imprints of climate shifts in east Pacific Anchovy (Engraulis mordax) and sardine (Sardinops sagax) population

    OpenAIRE

    Lecomte, Frederic; W. Stewart Grant; Dodson, J.J.; Rodríguez Sánchez, Rubén; Bowen, B W

    2004-01-01

    In the upwelling zone of the northeastern Pacific, cold nutrient-rich conditions alternate with warm nutrient-poor intervals on timescales ranging from months to millennia. In this setting, the abundances of Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) and northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) fluctuate by several orders of magnitude, with sardine dominating during warm conditions and anchovy dominating during cool conditions. Two population models can explain the response of these fishes to adverse condi...

  1. Reconstruction of radiation dose distribution of the village population living in territories contaminated after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correct assessment and prediction of doses in population is one of the most actual and complex problems of radiation medicine. Apparently great amount of models has been developed so far to evaluate average doses. But for the actual (real) doses estimation within a settlement this is not enough: it is necessary to estimate distribution on the whole, as the accuracy of these models is insufficient and the application of the above models does not answer the designed tasks. At the same time decision support strategies of countermeasures application are always based on the prediction of doses received in the areas affected by contamination. The original method for estimation of the external and, than, the total doses distributions on the known internal dose distribution is presented. This method is based on the hypothesis of the genetic relationship between the external and internal doses, received in rural inhabitants, because the representatives of the separate population groups demonstrate similar 'behaviour' in the radiation field. Algorithm of the task is to recognize the population groups of similarity in the settlement on the basis of the informative factors (method of classification). The method proves that the close relationship between external and internal doses exists, but only - within classes of similarity. The external dose distribution in the inhabitants of Kirov town was reconstructed. The comparison of this distribution with the distribution, received using TLD, shows that they are very close in terms of statistical parameters. The total dose distribution was received for inhabitants of the Kirov settlement using measured internal doses and predicted external doses with the following evaluation of its parameters. Proposed method allows to optimize and to increase the correctness (the error does not exceed 30% ) of the evaluation of doses in the rural population. (authors)

  2. A Research On The Aspect Of The Social-Economics Characteristics Of The Turkish Population Living In London

    OpenAIRE

    ERDOĞAN, Özcan

    2015-01-01

    This study is a summary of an extensive research carried out on behalf of Turkish Republic in uncovering difficulties being experienced by the Turkish population in the UK. After the resarch has been presented to a variety of Ministers and Prime Minister,the new institutions such as Presidency of Immigrant Turks and Relative Communities have been formed, consequently the realization of the Turkish people abroad has been significantly increased.Although figures display some differences, still ...

  3. Limited genetic exchanges between populations of an insect pest living on uncultivated and related cultivated host plants

    OpenAIRE

    Vialatte, Aude; Dedryver, Charles-Antoine; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Galman, Marina; Plantegenest, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Habitats in agroecosystems are ephemeral, and are characterized by frequent disturbances forcing pest species to successively colonize various hosts belonging either to the cultivated or to the uncultivated part of the agricultural landscape. The role of wild habitats as reservoirs or refuges for the aphid Sitobion avenae that colonize cultivated fields was assessed by investigating the genetic structure of populations collected on both cereal crops (wheat, barley and oat) and uncultivated ho...

  4. The genetic population structure of wild western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) living in continuous rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fünfstück, Tillmann; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Morgan, David B; Sanz, Crickette; Breuer, Thomas; Stokes, Emma J; Reed, Patricia; Olson, Sarah H; Cameron, Ken; Ondzie, Alain; Peeters, Martine; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Cipolletta, Chloe; Todd, Angelique; Masi, Shelly; Doran-Sheehy, Diane M; Bradley, Brenda J; Vigilant, Linda

    2014-09-01

    To understand the evolutionary histories and conservation potential of wild animal species it is useful to assess whether taxa are genetically structured into different populations and identify the underlying factors responsible for any clustering. Landscape features such as rivers may influence genetic population structure, and analysis of structure by sex can further reveal effects of sex-specific dispersal. Using microsatellite genotypes obtained from noninvasively collected fecal samples we investigated the population structure of 261 western lowland gorillas (WLGs) (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) from seven locations spanning an approximately 37,000 km(2) region of mainly continuous rain forest within Central African Republic (CAR), Republic of Congo and Cameroon. We found our sample to consist of two or three significantly differentiated clusters. The boundaries of the clusters coincided with courses of major rivers. Moreover, geographic distance detoured around rivers better-explained variation in genetic distance than straight line distance. Together these results suggest that major rivers in our study area play an important role in directing WLG gene flow. The number of clusters did not change when males and females were analyzed separately, indicating a lack of greater philopatry in WLG females than males at this scale. PMID:24700547

  5. Autologous glioma cell vaccine admixed with interleukin-4 gene transfected fibroblasts in the treatment of patients with malignant gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Trejo Alejandro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognosis for malignant gliomas remains dismal. We addressed the safety, feasibility and preliminary clinical activity of the vaccinations using autologous glioma cells and interleukin (IL-4 gene transfected fibroblasts. Methods In University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI protocol 95-033, adult participants with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM or anaplastic astrocytoma (AA received gross total resection (GTR of the recurrent tumors, followed by two vaccinations with autologous fibroblasts retrovirally transfected with TFG-IL4-Neo-TK vector admixed with irradiated autologous glioma cells. In UPCI 99-111, adult participants with newly diagnosed GBM or AA, following GTR and radiation therapy, received two intradermal vaccinations with the TFG-IL4-Neo-TK-transfected fibroblasts admixed with type-1 dendritic cells (DC loaded with autologous tumor lysate. The participants were evaluated for occurrence of adverse events, immune response, and clinical response by radiological imaging. Results and Discussion In UPCI 95-033, only 2 of 6 participants received the vaccinations. Four other participants were withdrawn from the trial because of tumor progression prior to production of the cellular vaccine. However, both participants who received two vaccinations demonstrated encouraging immunological and clinical responses. Biopsies from the local vaccine sites from one participant displayed IL-4 dose-dependent infiltration of CD4+ as well as CD8+ T cells. Interferon (IFN-γ Enzyme-Linked Immuno-SPOT (ELISPOT assay in another human leukocyte antigen (HLA-A2+ participant demonstrated systemic T-cell responses against an HLA-A2-restricted glioma-associated antigen (GAA epitope EphA2883–891. Moreover, both participants demonstrated clinical and radiological improvement with no evidence of allergic encephalitis, although both participants eventually succumbed with the tumor recurrence. In 99-111, 5 of 6 enrolled participants

  6. Thyroid nodules in the population living around semipalatinsk nuclear test site. Possible implications for dose-response relationships study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of radiation-induced nodules is higher than the risk for radiation-induced cancer. Risk factors and specific modifiers of the dose-response relationship may vary among different populations and not be well recognized. Many thyroid studies have considered thyroid nodularity itself, but not specific morphological types of thyroid nodules. There are many specific types of thyroid nodules which follow a morphological classification of thyroid lesions, including some congenital and tumor-like conditions. Modern equipment and technique can help us to identify particular specific types of thyroid nodules. In this study we report some results of a clinically applicable approach to materials derived from three studies. From 1999 through 2002, we have screened 571 current residents from 4 exposed and 1 control village near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site area, who were of similar ages (<20) at the time of major radiation fallout events at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS). Prevalent nodules were identified by ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy, cytopathology results. Analysis of ultrasound images and cytopathology of thyroid lesions among exposed and non-exposed population allowed us to distinguish some interesting ultrasound features for specific types of thyroid nodules. We believe that it would be interesting and possibly more informative for thyroid dosimetry studies to consider specific morphological types of thyroid nodules. We need more detailed research to clarify the feasibility of applying these findings for study of the dose-response relationship. (author)

  7. Label-free detection of neuronal differentiation in cell populations using high-throughput live-cell imaging of PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Weber

    Full Text Available Detection of neuronal cell differentiation is essential to study cell fate decisions under various stimuli and/or environmental conditions. Many tools exist that quantify differentiation by neurite length measurements of single cells. However, quantification of differentiation in whole cell populations remains elusive so far. Because such populations can consist of both proliferating and differentiating cells, the task to assess the overall differentiation status is not trivial and requires a high-throughput, fully automated approach to analyze sufficient data for a statistically significant discrimination to determine cell differentiation. We address the problem of detecting differentiation in a mixed population of proliferating and differentiating cells over time by supervised classification. Using nerve growth factor induced differentiation of PC12 cells, we monitor the changes in cell morphology over 6 days by phase-contrast live-cell imaging. For general applicability, the classification procedure starts out with many features to identify those that maximize discrimination of differentiated and undifferentiated cells and to eliminate features sensitive to systematic measurement artifacts. The resulting image analysis determines the optimal post treatment day for training and achieves a near perfect classification of differentiation, which we confirmed in technically and biologically independent as well as differently designed experiments. Our approach allows to monitor neuronal cell populations repeatedly over days without any interference. It requires only an initial calibration and training step and is thereafter capable to discriminate further experiments. In conclusion, this enables long-term, large-scale studies of cell populations with minimized costs and efforts for detecting effects of external manipulation of neuronal cell differentiation.

  8. [The perception of the radiation situation and assessment of their own health status by the population living in an area under strict radiation control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferents, V P; Prilipko, V A; Blizniuk, I D

    1991-01-01

    Studies of subjective perception of the radiation situation, self-estimation of the health status by the population, the attitude of the population to the formal information available were carried out in the strong radiation control areas and in the regions not polluted by radioactive fallout. Before the accident 71.6% of the population were not aware of real danger of radiation for health. During the accident and after it, mass media were the main source of information on the consequences of the accident and the effect of radiation (71.1%). 38% of the information was provided by scientists and specialists. 89.6% of the persons interviewed experience anxiety whatever the intelligence available. Only 13.4% of those who live in the areas polluted by radionuclides feel well. The low self-estimation of the health status, the high level of anxiety together with the deficiency of radiation and hygienic intelligence favour the forcing of the social and psychological tension and reduce the effectiveness of the whole complex of measures carried out in the areas polluted with radionuclides. PMID:1666225

  9. [Haplotypes of mtDNA-HV1/HV2 in non-related individuals of Caucasian population living in the Slovak Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repiská, V; Lehocký, I; Galatová, J; Böhmer, D

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of the frequency index for mtDNA particular sequences in the Caucasian population is crucial for forensic practice. There are two hypervariable regions in the mtDNA D-loop, HV1 and HV2. Both of them, 610 bp altogether, were sequenced, 342 bp from the hypervariable region HV1 (16024-16365) and 268 bp from the hypervariable region HV2 (73-340). We have analyzed 374 randomly selected non-related individuals of th e Caucasian population and 192 individuals of the Roma subpopulation living in Slovakia. The main goals of the work were to introduce and standardize methods of analysis of variability of the HV1 and HV2 regions of mtDNA for forensic use; to characterize the variability of mtDNA in the Slovakian population taking into account the subpopulations; classification of mtDNA profiles into haplotype groups, and comparison with other haplotype groups in Europe in the frame of phylogenetic studies. PMID:21287808

  10. Correlations of urinary cadmium with hypertension and diabetes in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk for hypertension and diabetes has not been conclusively found to be a result of cadmium exposure. A population-based study was conducted in 2009 to examine the correlations of urinary cadmium, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, with hypertension and diabetes in persons aged 35 years and older who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated rural villages in northwestern Thailand. A total of 5273 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium, hypertension, and diabetes. The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium for women (2.4±2.3 μg/g creatinine) was significantly greater than that for men (2.0±2.2 μg/g creatinine). Hypertension was presented in 29.8% of the study population and diabetes was detected in 6.6%. The prevalence of hypertension significantly increased from 25.0% among persons in the lowest tertile of urinary cadmium to 35.0% in the highest tertile. In women, the rate of hypertension significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both ever and never smokers, after adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and diabetes. In men, such association was less significantly found in never smokers. The study revealed no significant association between urinary cadmium and diabetes in either gender. Our study supports the hypothesis that environmental exposure to cadmium may increase the risk of hypertension. Risk for diabetes in relation to cadmium exposure remains uncertain in this exposed population.

  11. Risk factors of arterial hypertension prevalence and incidence in the population living in the radionuclide contaminated territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higher prevalence of hypertension among population in the radionuclide contaminated zones was positively associated with body mass index (P2 (P<0.001), alcohol abuse (P<0.01), gustatory sensitivity to sodium chloride (P<0.001), heart rate (P<0.001), smoking (P<0.01), sex (P<0.01), profession (P<0.05), total cholesterol (P<0.05). The hypertension incidence from associated risk factors was positively interacted with age (P<0.001), family history of premature cardiovascular disease (P<0.001), body mass index (P<0.001), alcohol abuse (P<0.001), heart rate (P<0.001), Cs 137 deposition density (P<0.05), gustatory sensitivity to sodium chloride (P<0.05), total cholesterol (P<0.05). The residence of people in the radionuclide contaminated zones is an independent risk factor of arterial hypertension

  12. Growth and dynamics in populations of echinocardium cordatum living in the North Sea off the Dutch North coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukema, J. J.

    Numerical densities and size distributions in populations of the spatangoid Echinocardium cordatum were followed at 19 fixed sampling stations with sandy sediments at depths of 6 to 18 m off the west-Frisian islands of Texel and Terschelling. Recruitment was irregular with some recruitment occurring during half of the years and successful year classes developing during only 3 of the years in the 10 year period of observation (1972-1982). Annual mortality of the strong year class born in 1972 was rather regular in the ages of 1 to 7 years, averaging ˜27% in the 2 areas, but was followed by catastrophic mortality at most stations during the severe winter 1979. Growth was rapid. A mean length of 2 to 2.5 cm was reached after 2 growing seasons and 4 cm after 4 or 5 growing seasons.

  13. Determinants of Treatment Access in a Population-based Cohort of HIV-positive Men and Women Living in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zala Carlos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To report emerging data on the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in Argentina by assessing patterns of HAART access and late vs early treatment initiation in a population-based cohort of adults infected with HIV type-1. Design The Prospective Study on the Use and Monitoring of Antiretroviral Therapy (PUMA is a study of 883 HIV-positive individuals enrolled in the Argentinean drug treatment program. Individuals were 16 years of age and older and were recruited from 10 clinics across Argentina. Methods Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were examined using contingency tables (Pearson chi-square test and Fisher exact test for categoric variables and Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables. To analyze time to initiation of HAART we used Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression. Results Patients who initiated HAART were more likely to be older, have an AIDS-defining illness, be an injection drug user (IDU, have a lower median CD4 cell count, have a higher median viral load, and be less likely to be men who have sex with men (MSM. In multivariate analysis, AIDS-defining illness and plasma viral load were significantly associated with time to starting therapy. Patients who received late access were more likely to be diagnosed with AIDS and have higher median plasma viral loads than those receiving early access. Conclusion Our results indicate that despite free availability of treatment, monitoring, and care in Argentina, a significant proportion of men and women are accessing HAART late in the course of HIV disease. Further characterization of the HIV-positive population will allow for a more comprehensive evaluation of the impact of HAART within the Argentinean drug treatment program.

  14. Comparison of blood serum selenium concentrations from elderly population living in Sao Paulo city and literature data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selenium is an essential nutrient of fundamental importance to human biology. This element is a component of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase that avoids the formation of free radicals protecting the organism against the oxidative damage. The Se concentrations in serum vary from one part of the world to another and this fact has been satisfactorily explained as a consequence of different Se intakes of the population. The main objective of this paper was the determination of serum Se concentrations in healthy elderly population included in a program for 'Successful Ageing' of the Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo University Medical School. The blood samples were collected after a 12 h fast from 32 subjects aged 60 to 87 years. The blood was centrifuged after completely clotted and 4.0 mL of serum were freeze.dried for Se determination using neutron activation analysis. The serum samples and Se standard were irradiated for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of de 5 x 1012 n cm-'2 s-1 at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. Se was determined by measuring the gamma activity of 75Se using an HGe detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. The mean value of (0.92±0.07) μmol L-1 was obtained for serum Se concentration. This value is within the data used as reference values in clinical laboratories and those published in literature. Results obtained for certified reference materials NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 1577b Bovine Liver showed good precision and agreed with the certified values. The relative standard deviation of the results was lower than 4.8 % and relative error lower than 0.97 %. Detection limit value obtained for serum Se determination was 0.003 μmol L-1. (author)

  15. Does arsenic in soil contribute to arsenic urinary concentrations in a French population living in a naturally arsenic contaminated area?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillol, Clemence, E-mail: c.fillol@invs.sante.fr [Universite Paris Descartes, Laboratoire Sante Publique et Environnement, EA 4064, Paris (France); Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Departement Sante Environnement, Saint-Maurice (France); Dor, Frederic [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Departement Sante Environnement, Saint-Maurice (France); Clozel, Blandine [BRGM French Geological Survey, Service Geologique Regional Lorraine, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Goria, Sarah [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Departement Sante Environnement, Saint-Maurice (France); Seta, Nathalie [Universite Paris Descartes, Laboratoire Sante Publique et Environnement, EA 4064, Paris (France); AP-HP, Hopital Bichat-Claude Bernard, Biochimie, Paris (France)

    2010-11-01

    A cross sectional study using environmental and biological samples was implemented to assess the association between arsenic (As) concentrations in the environment and urinary As levels of residents living in an area where the soil is naturally As rich. As was measured in drinking water, atmospheric particulate matter, and soil and a geographic information system was used to assign environmental concentrations closest to the participants' dwellings and the sum of inorganic As and metabolites in urine samples. The only potential source of As environmental contamination was from soil with a range of 13-131 mg As/kg of dry matter. As(V) was the only species present among As extracted from the analyzed soil samples. The chemical extraction showed a poor mobility of As soil. There was no difference between child and teenager, and adult urinary As concentrations, though men had higher urinary As concentrations than women (p < 0.001). Given the important differences in lifestyle between 7-18 year olds, men, and women, these groups were analyzed separately. Whilst we were unable to find a stable model for the 7-18 year old group, for the adult men group we found that seafood consumption in the 3 days prior to the investigation (p = 0.02), and beer (p = 0.03) and wine consumption in the 4 days before the study, were associated with As urinary levels ({mu}g/L). In adult women, creatinine was the only variable significantly associated with As urinary concentration ({mu}g/L). The concentrations we measured in soils were variable and although high, only moderately so and no link between As concentrations in the soil and urinary As concentrations could be found for either men or women. Some individual factors explained half of the variability of adult men urinary As levels. The unexplained part of the variability should be searched notably in As mobility in soil and uncharacterized human behavior.

  16. Does arsenic in soil contribute to arsenic urinary concentrations in a French population living in a naturally arsenic contaminated area?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cross sectional study using environmental and biological samples was implemented to assess the association between arsenic (As) concentrations in the environment and urinary As levels of residents living in an area where the soil is naturally As rich. As was measured in drinking water, atmospheric particulate matter, and soil and a geographic information system was used to assign environmental concentrations closest to the participants' dwellings and the sum of inorganic As and metabolites in urine samples. The only potential source of As environmental contamination was from soil with a range of 13-131 mg As/kg of dry matter. As(V) was the only species present among As extracted from the analyzed soil samples. The chemical extraction showed a poor mobility of As soil. There was no difference between child and teenager, and adult urinary As concentrations, though men had higher urinary As concentrations than women (p < 0.001). Given the important differences in lifestyle between 7-18 year olds, men, and women, these groups were analyzed separately. Whilst we were unable to find a stable model for the 7-18 year old group, for the adult men group we found that seafood consumption in the 3 days prior to the investigation (p = 0.02), and beer (p = 0.03) and wine consumption in the 4 days before the study, were associated with As urinary levels (μg/L). In adult women, creatinine was the only variable significantly associated with As urinary concentration (μg/L). The concentrations we measured in soils were variable and although high, only moderately so and no link between As concentrations in the soil and urinary As concentrations could be found for either men or women. Some individual factors explained half of the variability of adult men urinary As levels. The unexplained part of the variability should be searched notably in As mobility in soil and uncharacterized human behavior.

  17. Metal-induced stress in bivalves living along a gradient of Cd contamination: relating sub-cellular metal distribution to population-level responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of biomarkers to assess the impacts of contaminants on aquatic ecosystems has noticeably increased over the past few years. Few of these studies, however, have contributed to the prediction of ecologically significant effects (i.e., at the population or community levels). The present field study was designed to evaluate the potential of metallothionein (MT) and sub-cellular metal partitioning measurements for predicting toxic effects at higher levels of the biological organization in freshwater bivalves (Pyganodon grandis) chronically exposed to Cd. For that purpose, we quantitatively sampled P. grandis populations in the littoral zone of nine lakes on the Precambrian Canadian Shield during two consecutive summers (1998 and 1999); lakes were characterized by contrasting Cd levels but similar trophic status. We tested relationships between the population status of P. grandis (i.e., growth parameters, density, biomass, secondary production, turnover ratio and cumulative fecundity) and (i) ambient Cd concentrations, (ii) sub-organismal responses (MT concentrations in the gill cytosol of individuals and Cd concentrations in three metal-ligand pools identified as M-HMW, the high molecular weight pool, M-MT, the metallothionein-like pool and M-LMW, the low molecular weight pool) and (iii) ecological confounding factors (food resources, presence of host fishes for the obligatory parasitic larval stage of P. grandis). Our results show that littoral density, live weight, dry viscera biomass, production and cumulative fecundity decreased with increasing concentrations of the free-cadmium ion in the environment (Pearson's r ranging from -0.63 to -0.78). On the other hand, theoretical maximum shell lengths (L∞) in our populations were related to both the dissolved Ca concentration and food quality (sestonic C and N concentrations). Overall, Cd concentrations in the gill cytosolic HMW pool of the individual molluscs were the biomarker response that was most frequently

  18. Peculiarities of treatment for medical help of population living in condition of high concentration of free radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-hygiene studies of 848 flats and houses of Akchatau village of Dzhezkazgan region were carried out. The ferro-concrete from local industrial wastes was widely used in early stage of the village development during construction of dwelling houses. There were wastes of tungsten and molybdenum industry and its are powerful source of radon. Among houses with radon concentration exceeding maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in 5 and higher times there are houses built from local materials: saman (65.9 %), stone (60.5 %) and ferro- concrete (52.0 %). The largest radon concentration with exceeding of MPC in to 20 times were registered indoor constructed from ferro-concrete with mean value of natural gamma-background - 63.7 μR/h under established norm 22 μR/h. During period from 1986 up to 1990 the morbidity of inhabitants make up 19927.9 on 10 thousand of population (that higher than analogous index by region in to 1.8 times). It was defined, that among different kinds illness the greatest specific gravity take respiratory system diseases - 62.2 %, nervous system - 9,3 % and blood circulation system - 7,1 %

  19. HLA class I and class II haplotypes in admixed families from several regions of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquera, Rodrigo; Zúñiga, Joaquín; Hernández-Díaz, Raquel; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Montoya-Gama, Karla; Moscoso, Juan; Torres-García, Diana; García-Salas, Claudia; Silva, Beatriz; Cruz-Robles, David; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Granados, Julio

    2008-02-01

    We studied HLA class I and class II alleles in 191 Mexican families (381 non-related individuals) to directly obtain the HLA-A/B/DRB1/DQB1 haplotypes and their linkage disequilibrium (LD). The most frequent HLA haplotypes observed were: A*02-B*39-DRB1*04-DQB1*0302, A*02-B*35-DRB1*04-DQB1*0302, A*68-B*39-DRB1*04-DQB1*0302, A*02-B*35-DRB1*08-DQB1*04, A*33-B*1402-DRB1*01-DQB1*05, and A*24-B*35-DRB1*04-DQB1*0302. The four most common haplotypes found by our study involve those previously reported in Amerindian populations. LD analysis of HLA-A-B and HLA-B-DRB1 loci showed significant associations between A29(19)-B44(12), A33(19)-B65(14), A1-B8, A26(19)-B44(12), A24(9)-B61(40), B65(14)-DR1, B8-DR17(3), B44(12)-DR7, B7-DR15(2), and B39(16)-DR4. Also, all DRB1-DQB1 associations showed significant LD values. Admixture estimations using a trihybrid model showed that Mexicans from the State of Sinaloa (Northern Mexico) have a greater proportion of European genetic component compared with Mexicans from the Central area of Mexico, who have a greater percentage of Amerindian genes. Our results are important for future comparative genetic studies of different Mexican ethnic groups with special relevance to disease association and transplantation studies. PMID:17904223

  20. Investigation on possible transmission of monkeys' Plasmodium to human in a populations living in the equatorial rainforest of the Democratic republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieudonné Makaba Mvumbi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodiums are protozoa that may infect various hosts. Only five species are now recognized as naturally parasitizing humans: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium knowlesi. This fifth species, P. knowlesi, previously identified as naturally parasitizing the monkey Macaca fascicularis, has been microscopically confused for a long time with P. malariae or P. falciparum and it was not possible to correctly differentiate them until the advent of molecular biology. To date, natural human infections with P. knowlesi only occur in Southeast Asia and a similar phenomenon of natural transmission of simian plasmodium to humans has not been reported elsewhere. This study was conducted to investigate a possible transmission of African small monkey's plasmodium to humans in populations living near the rainforest of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC where several species of non-human primates are living. Two successive real-time PCRs were identified in the literature and used in combination for purpose. Only P. falciparum was found in this study. However, studies with larger samples and with more advanced techniques should be conducted.

  1. Investigation on possible transmission of monkeys' Plasmodium to human in a populations living in the equatorial rainforest of the Democratic republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvumbi, Dieudonné Makaba; Lengu Bobanga, Thierry; Umesumbu, Solange Efundu; Kunyu, Billy Shako; Ntumba Kayembe, Jean-Marie; Situakibanza, Nani-Tuma H; Mvumbi, Georges Lelo; Melin, Pierrette; De Mol, Patrick; Hayette, Marie-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Plasmodiums are protozoa that may infect various hosts. Only five species are now recognized as naturally parasitizing humans: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium knowlesi. This fifth species, P. knowlesi, previously identified as naturally parasitizing the monkey Macaca fascicularis, has been microscopically confused for a long time with P. malariae or P. falciparum and it was not possible to correctly differentiate them until the advent of molecular biology. To date, natural human infections with P. knowlesi only occur in Southeast Asia and a similar phenomenon of natural transmission of simian plasmodium to humans has not been reported elsewhere. This study was conducted to investigate a possible transmission of African small monkey's plasmodium to humans in populations living near the rainforest of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) where several species of non-human primates are living. Two successive real-time PCRs were identified in the literature and used in combination for purpose. Only P. falciparum was found in this study. However, studies with larger samples and with more advanced techniques should be conducted. PMID:27141437

  2. CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms in a Brazilian population living in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rossini

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 (CYP is a superfamily of enzymes involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. CYP2A6 catalyzes the oxidation of nicotine and the activation of carcinogens such as aflatoxin B1 and nitrosamines. CYP2E1 metabolizes ethanol and other low-molecular weight compounds and can also activate nitrosamines. The CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 genes are polymorphic, altering their catalytic activities and susceptibility to cancer and other diseases. A number of polymorphisms described are ethnic-dependent. In the present study, we determined the genotype and allele frequencies of the main CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms in a group of 289 volunteers recruited at the Central Laboratory of Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto. They had been residing in the city of Rio de Janeiro for at least 6 months and were divided into two groups according to skin color (white and non-white. The alleles were determined by allele specific PCR (CYP2A6 or by PCR-RFLP (CYP2E1. The frequencies of the CYP2A6*1B and CYP2A6*2 alleles were 0.29 and 0.02 for white individuals and 0.24 and 0.01 for non-white individuals, respectively. The CYP2A6*5 allele was not found in the population studied. Regarding the CYP2E1*5B allele, we found a frequency of 0.07 in white individuals, which was statistically different (P < 0.05 from that present in non-white individuals (0.03. CYP2E1*6 allele frequency was the same (0.08 in both groups. The frequencies of CYP2A6*1B, CYP2A6*2 and CYP2E1*6 alleles in Brazilians are similar to those found in Caucasians and African-Americans, but the frequency of the CYP2E1*5B allele is higher in Brazilians.

  3. CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms in a Brazilian population living in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossini A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 (CYP is a superfamily of enzymes involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. CYP2A6 catalyzes the oxidation of nicotine and the activation of carcinogens such as aflatoxin B1 and nitrosamines. CYP2E1 metabolizes ethanol and other low-molecular weight compounds and can also activate nitrosamines. The CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 genes are polymorphic, altering their catalytic activities and susceptibility to cancer and other diseases. A number of polymorphisms described are ethnic-dependent. In the present study, we determined the genotype and allele frequencies of the main CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms in a group of 289 volunteers recruited at the Central Laboratory of Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto. They had been residing in the city of Rio de Janeiro for at least 6 months and were divided into two groups according to skin color (white and non-white. The alleles were determined by allele specific PCR (CYP2A6 or by PCR-RFLP (CYP2E1. The frequencies of the CYP2A6*1B and CYP2A6*2 alleles were 0.29 and 0.02 for white individuals and 0.24 and 0.01 for non-white individuals, respectively. The CYP2A6*5 allele was not found in the population studied. Regarding the CYP2E1*5B allele, we found a frequency of 0.07 in white individuals, which was statistically different (P < 0.05 from that present in non-white individuals (0.03. CYP2E1*6 allele frequency was the same (0.08 in both groups. The frequencies of CYP2A6*1B, CYP2A6*2 and CYP2E1*6 alleles in Brazilians are similar to those found in Caucasians and African-Americans, but the frequency of the CYP2E1*5B allele is higher in Brazilians.

  4. Treatment surfaces with atomic oxygen excited in dielectric barrier discharge plasma of O2 admixed to N2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Shun'ko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the increase in surface energy of substrates by their treatment with gas composition generated in plasmas of DBD (Dielectric Barrier Discharge in O2 admixed with N2. Operating gas dissociation and excitation was occurred in plasmas developed in two types of reactors of capacitively-coupled dielectric barrier configurations: coaxial cylindrical, and flat rectangular. The coaxial cylindrical type comprised an inner cylindrical electrode encapsulated in a ceramic sheath installed coaxially inside a cylindrical ceramic (quartz tube passing through an annular outer electrode. Components of the flat rectangular type were a flat ceramic tube of a narrow rectangular cross section supplied with two flat electrodes mounted against one another outside of the long parallel walls of this tube. The operating gas, mixture of N2 and O2, was flowing in a completely insulated discharge gap formed between insulated electrodes of the devices with an average velocity of gas inlet of about 7 to 9 m/s. Dielectric barrier discharge plasma was excited in the operating gaps with a bipolar pulse voltage of about 6 kV for 2 ms at 50 kHz repetition rate applied to the electrodes of the coaxial device, and of about 14 kV for 7 ms at 30 kHz repetition rate for the flat linear device. A lifetime of excited to the 2s22p4(1S0 state in DBD plasma and streaming to the surfaces with a gas flow atomic oxygen, responsible presumably for treating surfaces, exceeded 10 ms in certain cases, that simplified its separation from DBD plasma and delivery to substrates. As it was found in particular, surfaces of glass and some of polymers revealed significant enhancement in wettability after treatment.

  5. Issues on Living Condition for Aging Population in Sustainable Development City%城市可持续发展中的老年人口生存环境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅桦; 吴雁华

    2000-01-01

    分析可持续发展城市主要特点及与老龄人口的关系,论述城市老年人口的生存环境组成.为了保证城市的持续发展,应当充分考虑老年人的多种需求,发挥城市信息流的作用,建立适应老龄化的可持续发展行动方案,强化社区养老职能,提高老年人口在经济发展中的贡献率,建立城市老年金融机构等.%This paper states the main properties of sustainable city and its relation with aging population.The living condition for the aging includes society,spirit,nature,economy,resource,nutrition,and nonaging population.In order to maintain the development of sustainable city,it is necessary to meet the various needs of every aging people,value the role of exchanging information,take proper action for sake of the aging,consolidate the serving function in community,pay attention to the aging contribution in economical development,and construct finance institution for the aging.

  6. Research on the health state of the Sicilian population living in areas at environmental or natural risk: the experience of the Regional Department of Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achille Cernigliaro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: In Sicily, people live near areas characterized by the presence of environmental polluting substances derived from urbanization and industrialization. In the areas of Augusta-Priolo (SR,Gela (CL and Milazzo (ME, the increase of number of pathologies could be linked with environmental pollution. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the available data and studies to underline the importance of these sources to conduct epidemiological survey in Sicily, besides to the analysis of mortality and morbidity.

    Methods: An evaluation of the health status of the residential population was done comparing the mortality and morbidity of the local population with the mortality and morbidity of a reference population. Data was obtained from the Italian national office of statistics and Hospital Discharge Records. Standardized Mortality Ratios and Standardized Hospitalization Ratios were calculated.

    Results: In the area of Augusta-Priolo we observed, in for men, a significative increase in mortality and hospital admissions for colon-rectal, trachea, bronchus, lung and pleura cancers. In Biancavilla, we observed an increase in mortality for pleura cancer in men and women and an increase in morbidity in women only. In Gela, a significant increase in mortality in males and females was observed only for tumoral diseases. In Milazzo, we only found a significant increase in the incidence of larynx cancer and cardiovascular disease for men and in women of pulmonary disease for women.

    Conclusions: This first review allowed us to update previous analyses of mortality data conducted in the same areas. The results, even taking into account the differences between the areas,, highlights changes in health status related to some diagnostic groups. These could be linked with pollution. Now that the available health data has been revised and updated new studies must

  7. Identifying footprints of selection in stocked brown trout populations: a spatio-temporal approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Meier, Kristian; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    2010-01-01

    Studies of interactions between farmed and wild salmonid fishes have suggested reduced fitness of farmed strains in the wild, but evidence for selection at the genic level is lacking. We studied three brown trout populations in Denmark which have been significantly admixed with stocked hatchery...

  8. High-level activities of daily living and disease-specific mortality during a 12-year follow-up of an octogenarian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takata Y

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Yutaka Takata,1 Toshihiro Ansai,2 Inho Soh,2 Shuji Awano,2 Ikuo Nakamichi,1 Sumio Akifusa,3 Kenichi Goto,1 Akihiro Yoshida,2 Hiroki Fujii,1 Ritsuko Fujisawa,1 Kazuo Sonoki31Division of General Internal Medicine, 2Division of Community Oral Health Science, 3Department of Oral Health and Environment, School of Oral Health Science, Kyushu Dental University, Kitakyushu, JapanBackground: Little is known about the relationship between disease-specific mortality and high-level activities of daily living in the elderly. We examined whether mortality is associated with high-level activities of daily living in an octogenarian population.Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional and prospective cohort study in 693 older persons aged 80 years and living in Japan’s Fukuoka Prefecture. We then evaluated the association between 12-year disease-specific mortality and high-level functional capacity as measured by the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence, which is a standardized multidimensional 13-item instrument; items 1 through 5 are classified as instrumental self-maintenance activity, items 6 through 9 as intellectual activity, items 10 through 13 as social roles activity, and all 13 items together yield total functional capacity.Results: By the 12-year follow-up of the 693 participants, 413 had died, 242 survived, and 38 were unable to be located. Of the 413 who died, 105 died of cardiovascular disease, 73 of respiratory tract disease, 71 of cancer, and 39 of senility. Of the other 125 deaths, 59 were due to other diseases, and the cause of death for 66 participants is not known. The hazard ratio (HR for all-cause mortality, adjusted for confounding factors with multivariate Cox analyses, fell by 6% (HR 0.937, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.899–0.978, P = 0.003 with each one-point increase in participants’ scores on the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of total functional capacity. With one

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls, glycaemia and diabetes in a population living in a highly polychlorinated biphenyls-polluted area in northern Italy: a cross-sectional and cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been found to be associated with diabetes in some, but not all, studies performed so far. The aim of this study was to assess the association between PCB serum levels and glycaemia and diabetes in people living in Brescia, a highly industrialised PCB-polluted town in Northern Italy. Design and Methods. 527 subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional population-based study: they were interviewed face-to-face in 2003 and also provided a blood sample under fasting conditions. The concentration of 24 PCB congeners was determined using gas-chromatography (GC/MS. Subsequently, all subjects were included in a follow-up (cohort study. According to the Local Health Authority health-care database, subjects were considered to be diabetic if they had diabetes at interview time (prevalent cases or during a 7-year follow-up (incident cases. Results. A total of 53 subjects (10.0% were diabetics: 28 had dia- betes at enrolment and other 25 developed the disease subsequently. Diabetes frequency increased according to the serum concentrations of total PCBs and single PCB congeners, but no association was found when estimates were adjusted for education, body mass index, age and gender by logistic regression analysis. Accordingly, glycaemia increased with PCB serum levels, but no association was observed when multiple regression analysis, including confounding factors, was performed. Conclusions. This study does not support the hypothesis that PCB environmental exposure is strictly associated with diabetes or glycaemia.

  10. Investigation of health effects of current levels of environmental sanitation and hygienic living conditions of rural population in the municipality of Zenica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandir, Salih; Huseinagic, Senad; Sivic, Suad

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate and identify all the relevant ways of epidemiology significance for transmitting infectious diseases in the existing unsatisfactory hygienic and sanitary conditions in rural areas of the municipality of Zenica, which are positively correlated with occurrence and spread of infectious intestinal diseases. The study was conducted in seven rural localities of Zenica municipality where the dominant livestock are sheep and cows, and the population is mostly dealing with individual production of cheese and milk. This research aimed to examine and identify the conditions favoring life as the primary issues that affect the increase in the risk of and maintenance of intestinal infectious diseases such as: the level of environmental sanitation in investigated villages, sanitary and hygiene habits of families living in the villages studied, ratio of population to personal hygiene, health safety of water supply, hygienic disposal of fecal waste and waste generated in the breeding of animals. The study included the monitoring and statistical analysis of the epidemiological situation in the values of average prevalence rates of the intestinal infectious diseases in the 1000 inhabitants of each village studied. The study identified five major negative epidemiological indicators that have a major impact on the appearance and maintenance of intestinal infectious diseases. The leading indicator is a negative relationship and personal hygiene attitude in the broader sense, the pending state of water supply, sanitary toilets and unresolved rubbish dump with a negative attitude and stance toward general hygiene. Identified are all the relevant ways of epidemiology importance that are positively correlated with occurrence and spread of infectious intestinal disease. Investigations of the epidemiological situation regarding the occurrence of intestinal infectious disease in the study population showed that intestinal infectious diseases in the

  11. Association of Cytomegalovirus End-Organ Disease with Stroke in People Living with HIV/AIDS: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Feng Yen

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV infection might increase the risk of cardiovascular event. However, data on the link between incident stroke and co-infections of CMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are limited and inconsistent. This nationwide population-based cohort study analyzed the association of CMV end-organ disease and stroke among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA.From January 1, 1998, this study identified adult HIV individuals with and without CMV end-organ disease in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. All patients were observed for incident stroke and were followed until December 31, 2012. Time-dependent analysis was used to evaluate associations of CMV end-organ disease with stroke.Of the 22,581 PLWHA identified (439 with CMV end-organ disease and 22,142 without CMV end-organ disease, 228 (1.01% had all-cause stroke during a mean follow-up period of 4.85 years, including 169 (0.75% with ischemic stroke and 59 (0.26% with hemorrhagic stroke. After adjusting for age, sex, comorbidities, opportunistic infections after HIV diagnosis, and antiretroviral treatment, CMV end-organ disease was found to be an independent risk factor for incident all-cause stroke (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 3.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.70 to 5.55. When stroke type was considered, CMV end-organ disease was significantly positively associated with the risk of ischemic stroke (AHR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.49 to 6.62 but not hemorrhagic stroke (AHR, 2.52; 95% CI, 0.64 to 9.91.This study suggested that CMV end-organ disease was an independent predictor of ischemic stroke among PLWHA.

  12. Living with a Red Dwarf: Rotation and X-Ray and Ultraviolet Properties of the Halo Population Kapteyn’s Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.; Durbin, Allyn

    2016-04-01

    As part of Villanova’s Living with a Red Dwarf program, we have obtained UV, X-ray, and optical data of the Population II red dwarf—Kapteyn’s Star. Kapteyn’s Star is noteworthy for its large proper motions and high radial velocity of ∼+245 km s‑1. As the nearest Pop II red dwarf, it serves as an old age anchor for calibrating activity/irradiance–rotation–age relations, and an important test bed for stellar dynamos and the resulting X-ray–UV emissions of slowly rotating, near-fully convective red dwarf stars. Adding to the notoriety, Kapteyn’s Star has recently been reported to host two super-Earth candidates, one of which (Kapteyn b) is orbiting within the habitable zone. However, Robertson et al. questioned the planet’s existence since its orbital period may be an artifact of activity, related to the star’s rotation period. Because of its large Doppler-shift, measures of the important, chromospheric H i Lyα 1215.67 Å emission line can be reliably made, because it is mostly displaced from ISM and geo-coronal sources. Lyα emission dominates the FUV region of cool stars. Our measures can help determine the X-ray–UV effects on planets hosted by Kapteyn’s Star, and planets hosted by other old red dwarfs. Stellar X-ray and Lyα emissions have strong influences on the heating and ionization of upper planetary atmospheres and can (with stellar winds and flares) erode or even eliminate planetary atmospheres. Using our program stars, we have reconstructed the past exposures of Kapteyn’s Star's planets to coronal—chromospheric XUV emissions over time. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program #13020. This work is also based on observations obtained with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, a NASA science

  13. Excess lifetime cancer risk projections for populations who lives in high background radiation areas as a useful risk communication to the Brazilian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report aims to demonstrate how lifetime risk projections for residents in HBRAs can be used as a risk communication tool, on the basis of an experience of Monte Alegre, a small city in north of Brazil, which has been economically and socially affected due to rumors of environmental contamination and increased radiation related diseases. A comprehensive radiological characterization have been conducted in Monte Alegre and neighborhood cities Alenquer and Prainha which includes indoor radon concentration, indoor and outdoor external gamma radiation, and natural radionuclides concentration in water and crops. Cumulative dose to specific organs were estimated taking into account the environment exposure pathways. Using the NCI radioepidemiological program (NCJ Rad-Risk), which is based mainly on BEIR VII models, we estimated overall and site-specific lifetime cancer risk (LCR) for males and females based on estimated mean dose of all exposure other than radon. For radon, model from BEIR VI was used to estimate the lifetime lung cancer risk and uncertainties was estimated using Monte Carlo simulation. Adjustment for Brazilian expected survival and baseline cancer risk was considered. We aim to discuss in this report how risk projections can he used as a useful risk communication tool. To provide a sound evaluation, comparisons of the estimated lifetime cancer risk due to the enhanced natural radiation to that estimated for population who lives in normal background cities and also to the general baseline lifetime cancer risk were carried on. The use of risk projections are particularly important given the effects of relatively low doses and hence the quantification of a priori relatively small risk. In conclusion, the Brazilian experience in conducting such small epidemiological studies in residents of HBRAs has demonstrated that these studies have been driven just to attend public expectation and/or regulatory agencies request and were most useful for risk

  14. Associations of quality of life with physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity in a free living, multiethnic population in Hawaii: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Horwath Caroline; Motl Robert W; Pagano Ian S; Nigg Claudio R; Chai Weiwen; Dishman Rod K

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction High intake of fruit and vegetables and being physically active are associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. In the current study, we examined the associations of physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and TV/video watching (indicator for physical inactivity) with perceived quality of life (QOL) in a sample of free living adults. Methods A cohort (N = 139) from a random, multi-ethnic sample of 700 adults living in Hawaii was evaluated at 3-month int...

  15. Improving Population Health Measurement in National Household Surveys: A Simulation Study of the Sample Design of the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions of the People on Health and Welfare in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Nayu; Shibuya, Kenji; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    Background The Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions of the People on Health and Welfare (CSLC) is a major source of health data in Japan. The CSLC is not strictly based on probabilistic sampling, but instead uses an equal allocation of sample clusters to yield equal standard errors of estimates across prefectures. This study compared the performance of this sample design in measuring population health with that of an alternative probabilistic sampling approach. Methods A simulation analy...

  16. Birth weight differences between preterm stillbirths and live births: analysis of population-based studies from the U.S. and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many stillbirths show evidence of fetal growth restriction, and most occur at preterm gestational age. The objective of this study is to compare birth weights at preterm gestational ages between live births and stillbirths, and between those occurring before or during labour. Methods Based on singleton births from the United States (U.S. 2003–2005 (n=902,491 and Sweden 1992–2001 (n=946,343, we compared birth weights between singleton live births and stillbirths at 24–36 completed weeks of gestation from the U.S. and at 28–42 completed weeks from Sweden. Results In both the U.S. and Sweden, stillbirth weight-for-gestational-age z-scores were at least one standard deviation lower than live birth z-scores at all preterm gestational ages (GA. In Sweden, no birth weight difference was observed between antepartum and intrapartum stillbirths at preterm GAs, whereas birth weights among intrapartum stillbirths were similar to those among live births at 37–42 weeks. Conclusions Birth weights observed at preterm gestation are abnormal, but preterm stillbirths appear to be more growth-restricted than preterm live birth. Similar birth weights among ante- and intrapartum preterm stillbirths suggest serious fetal compromise before the onset of labor.

  17. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... overwhelming majority of residents are female. Assisted Living Philosophy The philosophy of assisted living is to provide personalized, resident ... loved ones to learn about the care provider philosophy . Freedom of Choice The most progressive state regulations ...

  18. The role of sink to source re-colonisation in the population dynamics of insects living in unstable habitats: an example of terrestrial chironomids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Kindlmann, Pavel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 93, - (2001), s. 50-58. ISSN 0030-1299 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/98/P156 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911; CEZ:MSM 123100004 Keywords : population dynamic * metapopulations * source-sink population Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.499, year: 2001

  19. Relationship between Different Species of Helminths and Atopy: A Study in a Population Living in Helminth-Endemic Area in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Supali; Y. Djuardi; H. Wibowo; R. van Ree; M. Yazdanbakhsh; E. Sartono

    2010-01-01

    Background: The association between allergen skin sensitization and helminth infection has been debated for years. Here, we sought to estimate the prevalence of atopic sensitization of residents living in area endemic for lymphatic filariasis and intestinal helminths and to investigate the associati

  20. Biological dosimetric studies in the Chernobyl radiation accident, on populations living in the contaminated areas (Gomel regions) and in Estonian clean-up workers, using FISH technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to perform retrospective estimations of radiation doses seven years after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl, the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals living in contaminated areas around Chernobyl and the Estonian clean-up workers were determined. The first study group composed of 45 individuals living in four areas (i.e. Rechitsa, Komsomolski, Choiniki and Zaspa) in the vicinity (80-125 km) of Chernobyl and 20 individuals living in Minsk (control group - 340 km from Chernobyl). The second study group (Estonian clean-up workers) composed of 26 individuals involved in cleaning up the Chernobyl for a different period of time (up to 7 months) and a matched control group consisting of 9 probands. Unstable aberrations (dicentrics and rings) were scored in Giemsa stained preparations and stable aberrations (translocations) were analyzed using chromosome specific DNA libraries and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. For both study groups the estimated average dose is between 0,1-0,4 Gy. Among the people living in the contaminated areas in the vicinity of Chernobyl, a higher frequency of numerical aberrations (i.e. trisomy, hyper diploidy) was evident

  1. Heterotypic Dengue Infection with Live Attenuated Monotypic Dengue Virus Vaccines: Implications for Vaccination of Populations in Areas Where Dengue Is Endemic

    OpenAIRE

    Durbin, Anna P.; Schmidt, Alexander; Elwood, Dan; Wanionek, Kimberli A.; Lovchik, Janece; Thumar, Bhavin; Murphy, Brian R.; Whitehead, Stephen S.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Because infection with any of the 4 Dengue virus serotypes may elicit both protective neutralizing antibodies and nonneutralizing antibodies capable of enhancing subsequent heterotypic Dengue virus infections, the greatest risk for severe dengue occurs during a second, heterotypic Dengue virus infection. It remains unclear whether the replication of live attenuated vaccine viruses will be similarly enhanced when administered to Dengue-immune individuals.

  2. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birčiaková Naďa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.

  3. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  4. Health state of the population living at eastern border of the European Union and its conditioning (based on the example of the south-eastern borderland of Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantylej, Wiktoria

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses modern health problems of population at the eastern border of the European Union and the factors that condition the health state of the population in this area. Spatial-temporal reasoning was conducted with regard to such indicators reflecting the health state of population as death rates due to basic reasons: circulatory system diseases, malignant neoplasm, respiratory system diseases, external causes and infant mortality rate. The above-mentioned elements were analysed with division into counties in Podkarpackie and Lubelskie voivodeships in 2002-2009. The article also analyses selected conditions of health state, such as population wealth and healthcare quality. It was noticed that some parameters of health state in the region deteriorated, especially in Lubelskie voivodeship, which results from synergy effects of socio-economic, medical and organizational nature.

  5. Living Will Interest and Preferred End-of-life Care and Death Locations among Japanese Adults 50 and over: A Population-based Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Nishie, Hiroyuki; Mizobuchi, Satoshi; Suzuki, Etsuji; Sato, Kenji; TODA, YUICHIRO; Matsuoka, Junji; Morimatsu, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between Japanese individualsʼ interest in living wills and their preferred end-of-life care and death locations. Questionnaires were mailed to 1,000 individuals aged ァ50 to measure these 2 factors. We examined the associations between the respondentsʼ characteristics and their preferred care and death locations by using multinomial logistic regression models. The response rate was 74%. Home was the most frequently preferred pla...

  6. Using Concept Mapping to Develop a Strategy for Self-Management Support for Underserved Populations Living With Chronic Conditions, British Columbia, August 2013–June 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Kim; Pérez, Guillermina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Self-management support (SMS) is an essential component of public health approaches to chronic conditions. Given increasing concerns about health equity, the needs of diverse populations must be considered. This study examined potential solutions for addressing the gaps in self-management support initiatives for underserved populations. Methods Stakeholders representing government, nongovernment organizations, Aboriginal communities, health authorities, medical practices, and research institutions generated, sorted, and rated ideas on what could be done to improve self-management support for underserved populations. Concept mapping was used to facilitate the collection and organization of the data and to generate conceptual maps. Results Participants generated 92 ideas that were sorted into 11 clusters (foster partnerships, promote integrated community care, enhance health care provider training, shift government policy, support community development, increase community education, enable client engagement, incorporate client support systems, recognize client capacity, tailor self-management support programs, and develop client skills, training, and tools) and grouped into system, community, and individual levels within a partnership framework. Conclusion The strategy can stimulate public health dialogue and be a roadmap for developing SMS initiatives. It has the potential to address SMS and chronic condition inequities in underserved populations in several ways: 1) by targeting populations that have greater inequities, 2) by advocating for shifts in government policies that create and perpetuate inequities, 3) by promoting partnerships that may increase the number of SMS initiatives for underserved groups, and 4) by promoting training and engagement that increase the relevance, uptake, and overall effectiveness of SMS. PMID:26447550

  7. Cardiovascular disease, risk factors and heart rate variability in the elderly general population: Design and objectives of the CARdiovascular disease, Living and Ageing in Halle (CARLA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuss Oliver

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD in the ageing population of industrialized nations requires an intensive search for means of reducing this epidemic. In order to improve prevention, detection, therapy and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases on the population level in Eastern Germany, it is necessary to examine reasons for the East-West gradient of CVD morbidity and mortality, potential causal mechanisms and prognostic factors in the elderly. Psychosocial and nutritional factors have previously been discussed as possible causes for the unexplained part of the East-West gradient. A reduced heart rate variability appears to be associated with cardiovascular disease as well as with psychosocial and other cardiovascular risk factors and decreases with age. Nevertheless, there is a lack of population-based data to examine the role of heart rate variability and its interaction with psychosocial and nutritional factors regarding the effect on cardiovascular disease in the ageing population. There also is a paucity of epidemiological data describing the health situation in Eastern Germany. Therefore, we conduct a population-based study to examine the distribution of CVD, heart rate variability and CVD risk factors and their associations in an elderly East German population. This paper describes the design and objectives of the CARLA Study. Methods/design For this study, a random sample of 45–80 year-old inhabitants of the city of Halle (Saale in Eastern Germany was drawn from the population registry. By the end of the baseline examination (2002–2005, 1750 study participants will have been examined. A multi-step recruitment strategy aims at achieving a 70 % response rate. Detailed information is collected on own and family medical history, socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioural and biomedical factors. Medical examinations include anthropometric measures, blood pressure of arm and ankle, a 10-second and a 20

  8. Living in the past: phylogeography and population histories of Indo-Pacific wrasses (genus Halichoeres in shallow lagoons versus outer reef slopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Ludt

    Full Text Available Sea level fluctuations during glacial cycles affect the distribution of shallow marine biota, exposing the continental shelf on a global scale, and displacing coral reef habitat to steep slopes on oceanic islands. In these circumstances we expect that species inhabiting lagoons should show shallow genetic architecture relative to species inhabiting more stable outer reefs. Here we test this expectation on an ocean-basin scale with four wrasses (genus Halichoeres: H. claudia (N = 194, with ocean-wide distribution and H. ornatissimus (N = 346, a Hawaiian endemic inhabit seaward reef slopes, whereas H. trimaculatus (N = 239 and H. margaritaceus (N = 118 inhabit lagoons and shallow habitats throughout the Pacific. Two mitochondrial markers (cytochrome oxidase I and control region were sequenced to resolve population structure and history of each species. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity were similar among all four species. The outer reef species showed significantly less population structure, consistent with longer pelagic larval durations. Mismatch distributions and significant negative Fu's F values indicate Pleistocene population expansion for all species, and (contrary to expectations shallower histories in the outer slope species. We conclude that lagoonal wrasses may persist through glacial habitat disruptions, but are restricted to refugia during lower sea level stands. In contrast, outer reef slope species have homogeneous and well-connected populations through their entire ranges regardless of sea level fluctuations. These findings contradict the hypothesis that shallow species are less genetically diverse as a consequence of glacial cycles.

  9. Living in the past: phylogeography and population histories of Indo-Pacific wrasses (genus Halichoeres) in shallow lagoons versus outer reef slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludt, William B; Bernal, Moisés A; Bowen, Brian W; Rocha, Luiz A

    2012-01-01

    Sea level fluctuations during glacial cycles affect the distribution of shallow marine biota, exposing the continental shelf on a global scale, and displacing coral reef habitat to steep slopes on oceanic islands. In these circumstances we expect that species inhabiting lagoons should show shallow genetic architecture relative to species inhabiting more stable outer reefs. Here we test this expectation on an ocean-basin scale with four wrasses (genus Halichoeres): H. claudia (N = 194, with ocean-wide distribution) and H. ornatissimus (N = 346, a Hawaiian endemic) inhabit seaward reef slopes, whereas H. trimaculatus (N = 239) and H. margaritaceus (N = 118) inhabit lagoons and shallow habitats throughout the Pacific. Two mitochondrial markers (cytochrome oxidase I and control region) were sequenced to resolve population structure and history of each species. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity were similar among all four species. The outer reef species showed significantly less population structure, consistent with longer pelagic larval durations. Mismatch distributions and significant negative Fu's F values indicate Pleistocene population expansion for all species, and (contrary to expectations) shallower histories in the outer slope species. We conclude that lagoonal wrasses may persist through glacial habitat disruptions, but are restricted to refugia during lower sea level stands. In contrast, outer reef slope species have homogeneous and well-connected populations through their entire ranges regardless of sea level fluctuations. These findings contradict the hypothesis that shallow species are less genetically diverse as a consequence of glacial cycles. PMID:22701597

  10. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may also be higher than in other supported-living environments. Adult Foster Care Foster care homes generally provide ... board, and some help with activities of daily living. This is provided by ... more home-like environment. Regulations for foster care vary by state, and ...

  11. Levels od PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in the blood of the non-occupationally exposed residents living in the vicinity of a chemical plant, comparison with a background level for the Czech population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerna, M.; Kratenova, J.; Maly, M.; Volf, J.; Smid, J.; Zejglicova, K. [National Inst. of Public Health, Prague (Czech Republic); Bajgar, L.; Kozak, J. [Regional Inst. of Public Health, Central Bohemia (Czech Republic); Crhova, S.; Grabic, R. [Inst. of Public Health, Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2004-09-15

    The Czech Republic ranks among to the countries with a relatively high body burden of PCBs that used to be produced in former Czechoslovakia, more precisely in Slovakia, until 1984 when the production was abolished. In 1994, nation-wide Environmental Health Monitoring System was implemented in the Czech Republic. Indicator PCB congeners and selected chlorinated pesticides started to be monitored in human body fluids and tissues of the Czech population. The indicator PCB levels in breast milk samples showed a significant downward trend in time with regional inter- and intra-individual variability. However, to measure the population body burden of dioxins, blood is considered to be more appropriate than other body fluids. Little has been known about body burden of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs in the Czech population. Sporadic data are only available on level of dioxins in the breast milk, or for several pooled blood samples analyzed within the Environmental Health Monitoring System. More than 35 years ago, approximately 80 Czech workers were occupationally exposed to 2,3,7,8- TCDD in a chemical factory producing chlorinated herbicides and pesticides in Central Bohemia. Still in 1996, they showed a mean 2,3,7,8-TCDD plasma level of 256 pg/g fat. It was supposed that also the residents living surrounding the plant might be at increased exposure risk. The objective of this study was (a) to investigate concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs/PCBs in blood samples from non-occupationally exposed residents living in the vicinity of a chemical plant and (b) to compare the results with the background concentrations available for PCDDs/PCDFs/PCBs in blood samples from the evidently non-exposed Czech population.

  12. Associations of quality of life with physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity in a free living, multiethnic population in Hawaii: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horwath Caroline

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction High intake of fruit and vegetables and being physically active are associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. In the current study, we examined the associations of physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and TV/video watching (indicator for physical inactivity with perceived quality of life (QOL in a sample of free living adults. Methods A cohort (N = 139 from a random, multi-ethnic sample of 700 adults living in Hawaii was evaluated at 3-month intervals for the first year and 6-month intervals for the second year. QOL was assessed from self-reports of mental or physical health at the end of the study. Results Overall, the cohort participants appeared to maintain relatively constant levels of physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, and TV/video watching. Physical activity was positively related to mental health (p-values Conclusion Our study supports that physical activity is positively associated with mental health. Fruit and vegetable consumption and TV/video watching may be too specific to represent an individual's overall nutritional status and physical inactivity, respectively.

  13. Distribution of HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 genes and haplotypes in the Tujia population living in the Wufeng Region of Hubei Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The distribution of HLA alleles and haplotypes varies widely between different ethnic populations and geographic areas. Before any genetic marker can be used in a disease-associated study it is therefore essential to investigate allelic frequencies and establish a genetic database. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This is the first report of HLA typing in the Tujia group using the Luminex HLA-SSO method HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 allelic distributions were determined in 124 unrelated healthy Tujia individuals, and haplotypic frequencies and linkage disequilibrium parameters were estimated using the maximum-likelihood method. In total 10 alleles were detected at the HLA-A locus, 21 alleles at the HLA-B locus and 14 alleles at the HLA-DRB1 locus. The most frequently observed alleles in the HLA-I group were HLA-A*02 (35.48%, A*11 (28.23%, A*24 (15.73%; HLA-B*40 (25.00%, B*46 (16.13%, and B*15 (15.73%. Among HLA-DRB1 alleles, high frequencies of HLA-DRB1*09 (25.81% were observed, followed by HLA-DRB1*15 (12.9%, and DRB1*12 (10.89%. The two-locus haplotypes at the highest frequency were A*02-B*46A (8.47%, followed by A*11-B*40 (7.66%, A*02-B*40 (8.87%, A*11-B*15 (6.45%, A*02-B*15 (6.05%, B*40-DRB1*09 (9.27% and B*46-DRB1*09 (6.45%. The most common three-locus haplotypes found in the Tujia population were A*02-B*46-DRB1*09 (4.84% and A*02-B*40-DRB1*09 (4.03%. Fourteen two-loci haplotypes had significant linkage disequilibrium. Construction of a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree and principal component analysis using the allelic frequencies at HLA-A was performed to compare the Tujia group and twelve other previously reported populations. The Tujia population in the Wufeng of Hubei Province had the closest genetic relationship with the central Han population, and then to the Shui, the Miao, the southern Han and the northern Han ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results will become a valuable source of data for tracing population

  14. Health-related quality of life and health behaviors in a population-based sample of older, foreign-born, Chinese American adults living in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Laura C; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Islam, Nadia S; Kwon, Simona C

    2014-10-01

    Although the New York City Chinese population aged ≥ 65 years increased by 50% between 2000 and 2010, the health needs of this population are poorly understood. Approximately 3,001 Chinese individuals from high-density Asian American New York City areas were included in the REACH U.S. Risk Factor Survey; 805 (26.8%) were aged ≥ 65 years and foreign-born. Four health-related quality of life and three behavioral risk factor outcome variables were examined. Descriptive statistics were conducted by gender, and logistic regression models assessed sociodemographic and health factors associated with each outcome. Few women were current smokers (1.3% vs. 14.8% of men), 19% of respondents ate fruits and vegetables more than or equal to five times daily, and one-third of individuals received sufficient weekly physical activity. Days of poor health were similar to the national population aged ≥ 65 years, while self-reported fair or poor health was much greater among our Chinese sample; over 60% of respondents rated their health as fair or poor. Lower education and lower obesity were significantly associated with cigarette smoking among men, and older age was significantly associated with insufficient physical activity overall. Female gender was significantly associated with all poor health days; older age was significantly associated with poor days of physical health, and lower income was significantly associated with poor days of physical health and fair or poor self-reported health. This study provides important health-related information on a rapidly growing older population and highlights future research areas to inform culturally appropriate health promotion and disease prevention strategies and policies within community-based settings. PMID:25274716

  15. Solo Living - the meaning of home for persons living alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    Like in other countries, the number of people living in one-person households is growing in Denmark. Within the last three decades, the share of the Danish population living alone has increased from 16.1% in 1981 to 22.9% in 2006. The increase has been particularly marked for the young adults aged...

  16. Reconstruction of the absorbed external doses to the population living in areas of the Russian Federation contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For epidemiological studies aimed at understanding how the radiation factor affected the people living in the areas contaminated following the Chernobyl accident, knowledge is required of radiation loads for human organs and tissues from external and internal exposure. In this respect of great importance are data about absorbed doses received in the first year after the accident. Methods and assessments available in the literature are based on a simple approximation of one time entrance of radionuclides into the environment. Space-time characteristics of depositions have been reconstructed with varying accuracy, primarily for 137Cs and 131I. Therefore, now 8 years after the accident, it seems important to reconstruct the complete dynamic picture of the radioactive contamination of the Russian Federation with consideration of newly published data about the source term. 5 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab

  17. Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environment Kids Health Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The ... the Label, Mabel Easy Steps to Better Health! Skin Wise All about an important part of your ...

  18. Lupus, still a mystery: A comparison of clinical features of Pakistani population living in suburbs of Karachi with other Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the presenting features of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus at a private hospital in Karachi, and to compare the features with those of other Asian populations. Methods: The retrospective study comprised records of all lupus cases meeting the revised American Rheumatism Association criteria at the time of presentation at Jinnah Medical College Hospital, Karachi, from May 2008 to June 2011. Demographic and clinical data was analysed using SPSS 11.5. Results: Of the 105 cases in the study, there were 6 (5.7%) males and 99 (94.3%) females, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:16 and a mean age of 31.6+-10.5 years. Clinical manifestations included: constitutional symptoms in (n=69; 65.7%), arthropathy (n=81; 77%), cutaneous involvement (n=39; 37%), lupus nephritis (n=24; 22.8%), pleurisy (n=9; 8.6%), Raynaud's phenomenon (n=24; 22.8%), and vasculitis (n=18; 17%). One (0.95%) patient presented with mononeuritis multiplex, and 1 (0.95%) with acute pancreatitis. Conclusion: The diversity in clinical presentation appeared to be a reflection of the great variability that exists among Asian countries with regards to their genetic, environmental and socio-demographic backgrounds. The differences also existed in our own population, suggesting some unknown etiology. (author)

  19. Sustainability of programs to reach high risk and marginalized populations living with HIV in resource limited settings: implications for HIV treatment and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buvé Anne

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The experiences of the past 10 years have shown that it is feasible to treat HIV infected patients with ART even in severely resource constrained settings. Achieving the levels of antiretroviral coverage necessary to impact the course of the HIV epidemic remains a challenge and antiretroviral therapy coverage in most nations remains short of even current recommendations. Though treatment as prevention and seek, test, treat and retain strategies are attractive, realization of the benefits of these strategies will require the ability to successfully engage key hard to reach populations such as sex workers. The successes engaging these populations in research settings as seen in the article by Huet et al are encouraging, however key questions remain regarding the sustainability of these efforts as patients are transitioned back to national HIV control programs, many of which are struggling even to maintain the current panels in care in the face declining external funding for HIV care. To achieve the critical goals of increasing treatment uptake and retention and thereby curtail the epidemic of HIV, advocacy from both medicine and public health providers will be critical to generate the support and political will necessary to sustain and enhance the necessary HIV care programs worldwide.

  20. 'Sunless lives': district nurses' and journalists' co-construction of the 'sick poor' as a vulnerable population in early twentieth-century New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Pamela J; Arcus, Kerri

    2012-10-01

    Portrayals of vulnerable groups in public media, government reports and professional accounts tend, by definition, to focus on their deficits in order to identify need and shape appropriate health care responses. This article within the cultural history of nursing considers a different construction of one vulnerable group in the past, the 'sick poor' in early 20th-century New Zealand. The research analysed primary historical sources that offered rich descriptions of the sick poor, drawn from one major daily newspaper and the country's professional nursing journal, 1900-1920. The article argues that in co-constructing the sick poor as a vulnerable group, district nurses and journalists primarily used the trope of 'sunless lives'. However, they also constructed them as resourceful, resilient and determined. This article offers the construction of the sick poor by district nurses and journalists in early 20th-century New Zealand as an example of a more nuanced construction that goes beyond a one-dimensional portrayal of vulnerability. PMID:23181367

  1. Retrospective dose assessment for the population living in areas of local fallout from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. Part 2: International exposure to thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology to assess internal exposure to thyroid from radioiodines for the residents living in settlements located in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site is described that is the result of many years of research, primarily at the Moscow Institute of Biophysics. This methodology introduces two important concepts. First, the biologically active fraction, is defined as the fraction of the total activity on fallout particles with diameter less than 50 microns. That fraction is retained by vegetation and will ultimately result in contamination of dairy products. Second, the relative distance is derived as a dimensionless quantity from information on test yield, maximum height of cloud, and average wind velocity and describes how the biologically active fraction is distributed with distance from the site of the explosion. The parameter is derived in such a way that at locations with equal values of relative distance, the biologically active fraction will be the same for any test. The estimates of internal exposure to thyroid for the residents of Dolon and Kanonerka villages, for which the external exposure were assessed and given in a companion paper (Gordeev et al. 2006) in this conference, are presented. The main sources of uncertainty in the estimates are identified. (author)

  2. Retrospective dose assessment for the population living in areas of local fallout from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. Part 1: external exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short analysis of all 111 atmospheric events conducted at the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) in 1949-1962 with regard to significant off-site exposure (more than 5 mSv of the effective dose during the first year after the explosion) has been made. The analytical method used to assess external exposure to the residents living in settlements near the STS is described. This method makes used of the archival data on the radiological conditions, including the measurements of exposure rate. Special attention was given to the residents of Dolon and Kanonerka villages exposed mainly as a result of the first test, detonated on August 29, 1949. For the residents of those settlements born in 1935, the dose estimates calculated according to the analytical method, are compared to those derived from the thermoluminescence measurements in bricks and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements in teeth. The methods described in this paper were used for external dose assessment for the cohort members at an initial stage of an ongoing epidemiological study conducted by the U.S. National Cancer Institute in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Recently revised methods and estimates of external exposure for that cohort are given in another paper (Simon et al.) in this conference. (author)

  3. Role of the diet in ontogenesis and induction of chromosomal aberrations in population living in the area exposed to radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to investigate a role of diet in oncogenesis and induction of chromosomal aberrations in fragility sites in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of people in some areas exposed to radionuclides as a result of an accident in the Siberian Chemical Combine (SCP). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the level of aberrations at fragile sites of chromosomes in peripheral blood lymphocytes of population residing area contaminated with radionuclides following an accident at the Siberian Chemical Plant (SCP). We carried out micronucleus test to screen people with radiation-related cytogenetic effects. Of 1246 examined inhabitants of Samus settlement, 148 showed significantly increased frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes and were selected for chromosome analysis as a radiation-exposed group. Additional analysis was carried out for 40 patients with gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis with stage II-III epithelial dysplasia. Eighty six individuals from non-contaminated area were used as a control group. Chromosomal breaks and exchanges occurred preferentially in chromosomes 3 and 6 among radiation-exposed persons and patients. The regions 3pl4-3p25 and 6p23 were damaged most often. There was a tendency towards preferential involvement at q21-q25 of chromosome 6 in patients with gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis. Specific damage at certain chromosome sites was observed in radiation-exposed population as well as in patients with gastric cancer. Most often this damage was located near oncogene loci which could imply that chromosome damage induced by radiation is likely to be a predisposing factor to the expression of oncogenes and malignant transformation of cells in exposed individuals. (author)

  4. Ancestral informative marker selection and population structure visualization using sparse Laplacian eigenfunctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    Full Text Available Identification of a small panel of population structure informative markers can reduce genotyping cost and is useful in various applications, such as ancestry inference in association mapping, forensics and evolutionary theory in population genetics. Traditional methods to ascertain ancestral informative markers usually require the prior knowledge of individual ancestry and have difficulty for admixed populations. Recently Principal Components Analysis (PCA has been employed with success to select SNPs which are highly correlated with top significant principal components (PCs without use of individual ancestral information. The approach is also applicable to admixed populations. Here we propose a novel approach based on our recent result on summarizing population structure by graph laplacian eigenfunctions, which differs from PCA in that it is geometric and robust to outliers. Our approach also takes advantage of the priori sparseness of informative markers in the genome. Through simulation of a ring population and the real global population sample HGDP of 650K SNPs genotyped in 940 unrelated individuals, we validate the proposed algorithm at selecting most informative markers, a small fraction of which can recover the similar underlying population structure efficiently. Employing a standard Support Vector Machine (SVM to predict individuals' continental memberships on HGDP dataset of seven continents, we demonstrate that the selected SNPs by our method are more informative but less redundant than those selected by PCA. Our algorithm is a promising tool in genome-wide association studies and population genetics, facilitating the selection of structure informative markers, efficient detection of population substructure and ancestral inference.

  5. Temporal variation of blood and hair mercury levels in pregnancy in relation to fish consumption history in a population living along the St. Lawrence River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish consumption from the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River has been decreasing over the last years due to advisories and increased awareness of the presence of several contaminants. Methylmercury (MeHg), a well-established neurotoxicant even at low levels of exposure, bioaccumulates to differing degrees in various fish species and can have serious adverse effects on the development and functioning of the human central nervous system, especially during prenatal exposure. Most studies on MeHg exposure have focussed on high-level consumers from local fish sources, although mercury (Hg) is also present in fresh, frozen, and canned market fish. Moreover, little information exists on the temporal variation of blood and hair Hg in pregnant women, particularly in populations with low levels of Hg. The aim of the present study was to characterize the temporal variation of Hg during pregnancy and to investigate the relation between fish consumption from various sources prior to and during pregnancy and maternal cord blood and mother's hair Hg levels. We recruited 159 pregnant women from Southwest Quebec through two prenatal clinics of the Quebec Public Health System. All women completed two detailed questionnaires concerning their fish consumption (species and frequency) prior to and during pregnancy. The women also provided blood samples for all three trimesters of pregnancy and hair samples after delivery of up to 9 cm in length. Blood and hair Hg levels were analyzed by cold-vapor atomic-absorption and -fluorescence spectrometry methods, respectively. Results showed that maternal blood and hair Hg levels decreased significantly between the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, cord blood Hg was significantly higher than maternal blood at birth. Maternal hair was correlated with Hg blood concentration and was highly predictive of the organic fraction in cord blood. A strong dose relation was observed between the frequency of fish consumption before and

  6. The influence of non-living mulch, mechanical and thermal treatments on weed population and yield of rainfed fresh-market tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fontanelli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Weed control is often a major limitation for vegetable crops, since compared to arable crops fewer herbicides are available and the crops are more sensitive to weeds. Field experiments were carried out in the province of Pisa (Central Italy to determine the effect of two different mulches (black biodegradable plastic film and wheat straw and mechanical and thermal treatments on weed population and yield of rain-fed fresh market tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.. Rolling harrow, flaming machine and precision hoe for weed control, which were either built, enhanced or modified by the University of Pisa were used separately (mechanical-thermal strategy or in combination with a straw mulch (mechanical-thermal-straw strategy. These two innovative strategies were compared with the traditional farming system, which uses a biodegradable plastic mulch film. The strategies were compared in terms of machine performance, weed density, total labour requirement, weed dry biomass, and crop fresh yield at harvest. The total operative time for weed control was on average ~25 h ha-1 for the two systems, which included mulching, and over 30 h ha-1 for the mechanical-thermal strategy. The three strategies controlled weeds effectively, with only 30 g m-2 in each treatment. Tomato yield, however, was 35% higher for strategies that included mulching (both biodegradable film and straw.

  7. Development of screening technique for the plutonium burden determination of the Ukrainian population living in the territories affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha emitting transuranic radionuclides comprised a significant part of the radioactive release of the Chernobyl accident. In the first years after the accident the highest priority was given to mapping the density of plutonium fallout of affected territories. The assignment of radiobiological status to localities in Ukraine has been based on measured values of soil contamination. With regard to plutonium the dose estimates are calculated indirectly and not based on human measurements (autopsy, biopsy, urine etc.). Direct data on actual levels of Pu in the human would allow correct substantiation of dosimetric models for internal irradiation. So that radiological status could be assigned on a more accurate basis. It is proposed a new instrumental method for measurement of ultra-low levels of plutonium in autopsy and urine. The method presumes first a standard radiochemical extraction of plutonium from a sample. Then a stainless steel disc with plated out plutonium is measured by solid-state nuclear track (SSNT) alpha spectroscopy. As a result the best lower limit of detection is achieved. In its turn it makes feasible detection of low levels of plutonium contents in the population

  8. Evaluation inquiry of the provision of iodine tablets to the populations living in the vicinity of the nuclear center of electric production at Bugey, september 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    50 % of households in the area of the particular plan of intervention (P.P.I.) of Bugey N.P.P. had removed the iodine tablets. This cover is insufficient, when the Ministry circular considered an availability of tablets in every household. The inquiry highlighted a relationship with between the removal of tablets and knowledge about iodine, but the results suggest that this information campaign was not enough efficient. This situation is worrying, because of the expiry date of the tablets, new campaigns are to be done regularly. In order to improve the results of future campaigns, it is important to take into account feedbacks of the first distribution. The information sources must be diversified. Health professionals should be involved. The Institutions in charge of health in children (Service of maternal and infants protection and service for the promotion of health for students) should also be involved. Simplification and clarity of messages must be improved, especially towards priority populations such young parents, pregnant women. (N.C.)

  9. Living language

    CERN Document Server

    Shuttleworth, John

    2008-01-01

    Living Language 3rd edition' has been devised to meet all the new specifications for AS and A level English Language. The best-selling previous edition has been comprehensively revised to ensure full assessment objectives coverage and fulfilment, and delivery of the new four-unit courses from 2008 onwards. 'Living Language 3rd edition' provides linguistic theory, information and ideas which are easily accessed via supported activities and investigations. The text will actively develop students' skills in reading, listening and responding to an extensive range of text genres and data. Building

  10. Genetic structure and demographic history of brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) populations from the southern Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apostolidis, A.P.; Madeira, M.J.; Hansen, Michael Møller;

    2008-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to characterize the genetic structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations from the southern Balkans and to assess the spread of non-native strains and their introgression into native trout gene pools. We analysed polymorphism at nine microsatellite loci in...... seven supposedly non-admixed and three stocked brown trout populations. 2. The analyses confirmed the absence of immigration and extraordinarily strong genetic differentiation among the seven non-introgressed populations in parallel with low levels of intrapopulation genetic variability. In contrast...

  11. Retrospective estimation of strontium-90 intake dynamics and doses for the population living in the territories affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt has been made to find parallels in 137Cs and 90Sr transfer from the fallout of these radionuclides after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (ChNPP) into humans for the inhabitants of the contaminated territories of the Zhytomir region in Ukraine. A model of the retrospective reconstruction of 90Sr intake levels in 1986-1998 has been developed. The model's major parameters for the period 1986-1994 are: (1) 90Sr and 137Cs fallout density in the territory of the settlement; (2) the value of the 137Cs annual intake, obtained on the basis of dynamics of 137Cs intake; (3) the value of 90Sr relative accessibility coefficient; (4) the coefficient of the countermeasure efficiency. Numerical values of the parameters have been obtained. The model's major parameters for the period 1995-1998 are: (1) 90Sr and 137Cs fallout density on the territory of the settlement; (2) value of 90Sr transfer factor from soil to milk and potato; (3) diet structure for the rural population in Ukraine. Using the proposed model it has been found that the total annual 90Sr intake in 1986 constituted 37.8, 22.7 and 18.9 Bq per (kBq.m-2) for the inhabitants of the uncontrolled and controlled territories and for Naradichi residents, respectively. 90Sr intake in 1986-1994 constituted 280 and 99 Bq per (kBq.m-2) for the inhabitants of the uncontrolled and controlled territories, respectively. The average rate of the 90Sr intake for the adult inhabitants for the 1995-1998 period was 0.19 ± 0.03 Bq.day-1 per (kBq.m-2). The model verification relies on the radionuclide content examination in autopsy samples and daily urine samples taken from residents of the contaminated area. It demonstrates the adequacy of the retrospective evaluation model for 90Sr intake levels and the possibilities for its use in dose calculations. The values have been obtained with respect to radiation doses received and expected by the population residing in controlled and uncontrolled areas. The

  12. Incidence of mammary tumors in the canine population living in the Veneto region (Northeastern Italy): Risk factors and similarities to human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vascellari, Marta; Capello, Katia; Carminato, Antonio; Zanardello, Claudia; Baioni, Elisa; Mutinelli, Franco

    2016-04-01

    Although mammary gland tumors (MT) are the most-common type of tumor in intact female dogs, there is little information about their incidence in dog population. Data on MT in female dogs was retrieved from the Animal Tumor registry of dogs and cats of Venice and Vicenza provinces during 2005-2013 and was analyzed to visualize crude incidence rates by breed and across age categories. Overall, 2744 mammary tumors were reported accounting for 54% of all tumors in female dogs. The annual incidence rate (IR) was 250 cases per 100,000 dogs. The most frequent malignant tumors were complex carcinomas, consisting of both epithelial and myoepithelial tissues (IR=71.89), and simple carcinomas (IR=62.59). The MT incidence rate increased through the study period; particularly in the last 4 years, and malignant neoplasms occurred more frequently (70%) than the benign counterparts (30%). Seventy-four percent of tumors were diagnosed in intact females, and the mean age at diagnosis was significantly higher for spayed dogs than for intact ones. MT were less frequent in dogs younger than 6 years and increased up to approximately 60% for ages between 8 and 13 years. The purebred dogs had a higher probability to have a malignant neoplasm than mixed-breed dogs, particularly in dogs younger than 7 years, and the Samoyed, Dobermann, Schnauzer and Yorkshire Terrier breeds were more inclined to develop malignant MT. The incidence of MT in dogs is increasing, and IRs are comparable to that in women. The epidemiological similarities between dogs and women support the validity of canine MT as a model for human breast cancer. PMID:26948297

  13. Eutrophication and Living Beings

    OpenAIRE

    Smriti Khare; Devdutt Chaturvedi

    2016-01-01

    The earth's freshwater resources are limited about 99% of the earth's water is saline (and becoming more so by the actions and activities of man), and only 0.3% of the world's freshwater is usable. Driven by rapid industrialisation in the developing world, food production, energy demand, population growth, climate change and the environment, it is estimated that 50% of the world's people will live with chronic water stress by the year 2025 [1]. Water pollution is the contamination of water bo...

  14. Assessment at the 66. day of projected external doses for populations living in the North-West fallout zone of the Fukushima nuclear accident. Impact of population evacuation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports a dose assessment study performed by the IRSN (the French Radioprotection and Safety Nuclear Institute) 66 days after the Fukushima nuclear accident. A new dose assessment was carried out by IRSN to estimate projected doses due to external exposure from radioactive deposits, for exposure durations of 3 months, 1 year and 4 years before evacuation. The purpose of this report is to provide insight on all radiological assessments performed to the knowledge of the IRSN (the French Radioprotection and Safety Nuclear Institute) to date and the impact of population evacuation measures to be taken to minimize the medium and long-term risks of developing leukaemia or other radiation-induced cancers. This report only considers the external doses already received as well as the doses that may be received in the future from fallout deposits, regardless of doses received previously from the radioactive plume

  15. Living on the edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, D

    1989-01-01

    A brief update on the destruction of the environment is given. The concern is for the coastal waters and rivers which are polluted daily by raw sewage, industrial waste, and sedimentation, e.g., the Juru in Malaysia, the Pasig in the Philippines, and the Chao Phraya in Thailand are open sewers by the time the rivers reach the sea or bay. Metropolitan Manila's river is said to be biologically dead from pollution, and the bays of Manila and Jakarta suffer from oxygen depletion. Unfortunately, the coastal area maintains population as well as the wealth of marine life. In the US in 1990, 75% of the population will live within 50 miles of a shore including the Great Lakes. 30 southeast Asia's 50 largest cities are located on or near a coast. Over fishing, over population, over developing, and over exploitation are unacceptable; the alternative is for man to correct his mistakes. PMID:12285899

  16. Population genetics of GYPB and association study between GYPB*S/s polymorphism and susceptibility to P. falciparum infection in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tarazona-Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Merozoites of Plasmodium falciparum invade through several pathways using different RBC receptors. Field isolates appear to use a greater variability of these receptors than laboratory isolates. Brazilian field isolates were shown to mostly utilize glycophorin A-independent invasion pathways via glycophorin B (GPB and/or other receptors. The Brazilian population exhibits extensive polymorphism in blood group antigens, however, no studies have been done to relate the prevalence of the antigens that function as receptors for P. falciparum and the ability of the parasite to invade. Our study aimed to establish whether variation in the GYPB*S/s alleles influences susceptibility to infection with P. falciparum in the admixed population of Brazil. METHODS: Two groups of Brazilian Amazonians from Porto Velho were studied: P. falciparum infected individuals (cases; and uninfected individuals who were born and/or have lived in the same endemic region for over ten years, were exposed to infection but have not had malaria over the study period (controls. The GPB Ss phenotype and GYPB*S/s alleles were determined by standard methods. Sixty two Ancestry Informative Markers were genotyped on each individual to estimate admixture and control its potential effect on the association between frequency of GYPB*S and malaria infection. RESULTS: GYPB*S is associated with host susceptibility to infection with P. falciparum; GYPB*S/GYPB*S and GYPB*S/GYPB*s were significantly more prevalent in the in the P. falciparum infected individuals than in the controls (69.87% vs. 49.75%; P<0.02. Moreover, population genetics tests applied on the GYPB exon sequencing data suggest that natural selection shaped the observed pattern of nucleotide diversity. CONCLUSION: Epidemiological and evolutionary approaches suggest an important role for the GPB receptor in RBC invasion by P. falciparum in Brazilian Amazons. Moreover, an increased susceptibility to infection by this

  17. A genomewide admixture mapping panel for Hispanic/Latino populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xianyun; Bigham, Abigail W; Mei, Rui; Gutierrez, Gerardo; Weiss, Ken M; Brutsaert, Tom D; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Moore, Lorna G; Vargas, Enrique; McKeigue, Paul M; Shriver, Mark D; Parra, Esteban J

    2007-06-01

    Admixture mapping (AM) is a promising method for the identification of genetic risk factors for complex traits and diseases showing prevalence differences among populations. Efficient application of this method requires the use of a genomewide panel of ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) to infer the population of origin of chromosomal regions in admixed individuals. Genomewide AM panels with markers showing high frequency differences between West African and European populations are already available for disease-gene discovery in African Americans. However, no such a map is yet available for Hispanic/Latino populations, which are the result of two-way admixture between Native American and European populations or of three-way admixture of Native American, European, and West African populations. Here, we report a genomewide AM panel with 2,120 AIMs showing high frequency differences between Native American and European populations. The average intermarker genetic distance is ~1.7 cM. The panel was identified by genotyping, with the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping 500K array, a population sample with European ancestry, a Mesoamerican sample comprising Maya and Nahua from Mexico, and a South American sample comprising Aymara/Quechua from Bolivia and Quechua from Peru. The main criteria for marker selection were both high information content for Native American/European ancestry (measured as the standardized variance of the allele frequencies, also known as "f value") and small frequency differences between the Mesoamerican and South American samples. This genomewide AM panel will make it possible to apply AM approaches in many admixed populations throughout the Americas. PMID:17503334

  18. Intentional genetic introgression influences survival of adults and subadults in a small, inbred felid population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, John F; Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Onorato, David P; Johnson, Warren E; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K

    2011-09-01

    1. Inbreeding and low genetic diversity can cause reductions in individual fitness and increase extinction risk in animal populations. Intentional introgression, achieved by releasing genetically diverse individuals into inbred populations, has been used as a conservation tool to improve demographic performance in endangered populations. 2. By the 1980s, Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi) had been reduced to a small, inbred population that appeared to be on the brink of extinction. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana) were released in occupied panther range as part of an intentional introgression programme to restore genetic variability and improve demographic performance of panthers. 3. We used 25 years (1981-2006) of continuous radiotelemetry and genetic data to estimate and model subadult and adult panther survival and cause-specific mortality to provide rigorous sex and age class-specific survival estimates and evaluate the effect of the introgression programme on these parameters. 4. Genetic ancestry influenced annual survival of subadults and adults after introgression, as F(1) generation admixed panthers ( = 0·98) survived better than pre-introgression type panthers ( = 0·77) and other admixed individuals ( = 0·82). Furthermore, heterozygosity was higher for admixed panthers relative to pre-introgression type panthers and positively influenced survival. 5. Our results are consistent with hybrid vigour; however, extrinsic factors such as low density of males in some areas of panther range may also have contributed to higher survival of F(1) panthers. Regardless, improved survival of F(1) subadults and adults likely contributed to the numerical increase in panthers following introgression, and our results indicate that intentional admixture, achieved here by releasing individuals from another population, appears to have been successful in improving demographic performance in this highly endangered population. PMID:21338353

  19. Insufficient Living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Trine Bernholdt; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Moons, Philip;

    2015-01-01

    a persisting weakness and felt frustrated about the prolonged recovery phase. In "the road to recovery," support from relatives and healthcare professionals, as well as one's own actions, was emphasized as important in facilitating recovery. CONCLUSIONS:: Recovery after IE is perceived as "Insufficient Living...... AND METHODS:: Within a phenomenological-hermeneutical framework, a qualitative interview study was conducted that included 6 men and 5 women (aged 29-86 years). Patients were interviewed 3 to 6 months after discharge. Analysis consisted of 3 levels: naive reading, structured analysis, and critical...

  20. First results from dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the population from Madeira Island, Portugal. Part 2. Biomonitoring in breast milk of women living near to a solid waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Fatima Reis; Sampaio, C.; J. Pereira Miguel [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Lisbon (Portugal); J. Mauricio Melim [Public Health Regional Dept., Funchal (Portugal)

    2004-09-15

    Although breast-feeding women cannot be representative of the general population, for biomonitoring programs carried out to ultimately assist in policy design to improve public health and safety, it is important to monitor dioxin exposure of this demographic segment through breast milk due to several reasons: 1) breast milk reflects the maternal body burden of lipophilic chemicals and thus it is a measure of prenatal exposure to those compounds; 2) being a human food and the first and main foodstuff for most newborn babies during first lifetime-period, breast milk can be a very significant pathway for infant exposure to dioxins; 3) because large volumes can be collected non-invasively, breast milk is also a convenient sampling specimen for biomonitoring purposes if it is collected taking into consideration all the relevant factors influencing fat content and thus levels of lipophilic compounds, namely the time of sampling during lactation, breastfeeding patterns and maternal characteristics. As part of an Environmental Health Survey Program, relative to an updated incinerator at Meia Serra, Madeira Island, Portugal, dioxin breast milk levels have been determined to provide indicative data on the extent and pattern of exposure of the general population to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and to investigate potential determinants of dioxin exposure in age reproductive women for prevention priorities. The ultimate objective was to determine whether living in the vicinity of the incinerator increases the maternal dioxin exposure and accordingly their breast-fed infants. Data will also be collected longitudinally in order to provide information on temporal trends in breast milk dioxin levels, which will indicate whether controls on sources of these pollutants are effective.

  1. Reconstructing the Population Genetic History of the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gravel, Simon; Zakharia, Fouad; McCauley, Jacob L.; Byrnes, Jake K.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia A.; Martínez, Ricardo J.; Hedges, Dale J.; Morris, Richard W.; Eng, Celeste; Sandoval, Karla; Acevedo-Acevedo, Suehelay; Norman, Paul J.; Layrisse, Zulay; Parham, Peter; Martínez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; Burchard, Esteban González; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Martin, Eden R.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2013-01-01

    The Caribbean basin is home to some of the most complex interactions in recent history among previously diverged human populations. Here, we investigate the population genetic history of this region by characterizing patterns of genome-wide variation among 330 individuals from three of the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola), two mainland (Honduras, Colombia), and three Native South American (Yukpa, Bari, and Warao) populations. We combine these data with a unique database of genomic variation in over 3,000 individuals from diverse European, African, and Native American populations. We use local ancestry inference and tract length distributions to test different demographic scenarios for the pre- and post-colonial history of the region. We develop a novel ancestry-specific PCA (ASPCA) method to reconstruct the sub-continental origin of Native American, European, and African haplotypes from admixed genomes. We find that the most likely source of the indigenous ancestry in Caribbean islanders is a Native South American component shared among inland Amazonian tribes, Central America, and the Yucatan peninsula, suggesting extensive gene flow across the Caribbean in pre-Columbian times. We find evidence of two pulses of African migration. The first pulse—which today is reflected by shorter, older ancestry tracts—consists of a genetic component more similar to coastal West African regions involved in early stages of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. The second pulse—reflected by longer, younger tracts—is more similar to present-day West-Central African populations, supporting historical records of later transatlantic deportation. Surprisingly, we also identify a Latino-specific European component that has significantly diverged from its parental Iberian source populations, presumably as a result of small European founder population size. We demonstrate that the ancestral components in admixed genomes can be traced back to distinct sub

  2. Living Lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Suna Møller

    2014-01-01

    , hunters attended to questions like safe-journeying on ice or the role of natural surroundings in children’s education, in ways revealing a relational perception of ‘nature’ and dissolving culture-nature dualisms. Hunters’ experiences in living the land afforded children a dwelling position from which to...... grow with the features of the land. Framed this way, ‘nature’ was regarded as part of the social world. I suggest that learning among Arctic hunters is social and twofold. First, we can learn how human-environment relations influence individual life trajectories. Secondly, ‘nature’ as part of the...... social world pushes questions about education and life, disregarding being educated as human control of nature....

  3. Serviced Living

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU BO

    2006-01-01

    @@ As recently as ten years ago,the term serviced apartment made no sense to most people living in Beijing and residing in hotels was the only options for foreign visitors. But since then, serviced apartments have begun to appear in big cities all around China. In Beijing alone, it is estimated that there are more than 30,000service apartments spread across dozens of properties occupying a space of more than I million square meters. Concentrating in the Financial Street, the Central Business District and Zhongguancun, also known as China's Silicon Valley, the explosion in service apartments in the city continues to be fueled by the influx of overseas and domestic business people.

  4. Lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA do joelho em população indígena do estado do Amazonas, Brasil Anterior cruciate ligament injury among brazilian indian population living in Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Telles de Menezes Stewien

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Em agosto de 2003, foram estudados 151 indígenas (88 homens e 63 mulheres da etnia Ticuna, que se localiza nas proximidades da cidade de Tabatinga, Amazonas. Foi determinada a ocorrência de lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA, mediante um protocolo de exame físico baseado no "International Knee Documentation Committee" - IKDC 2000. Cerca de 14% dos homens sofreu lesão do LCA, contra 3% das mulheres, e 88% da população examinada apresentou alinhamento dos joelhos em varo. O expressivo índice de lesão encontrado se deve a questões culturais, provavelmente à prática do futebol, sendo o isolamento geográfico o fator decisivo para a falta de diagnóstico e tratamento dos indígenas.In August 2003, 151 Ticuna Indians (88 males and 63 females living in the surroundings of Tabatinga city in Amazonas state (Brazil were examined for anterior cruciate ligament ( ACL injury using the International Knee Documentation Committee -IKDC2000 method. About 14% of males presented ACL injury, against 3% of female, and 88% of the population studied presented varus knee alignment. The authors believe that the expressive rate of ACL injury in male Brazilian Indians was determined by cultural issues, probably because of soccer playing, with the isolation of the Ticuna village being critical for the lack of diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Analysis of genetic structure and relationship among nine indigenous Chinese chicken populations by the Structure program

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H. F. Li; W. Han; Y. F. Zhu; J. T. Shu; X. Y. Zhang; K. W. Chen

    2009-08-01

    The multi-locus model-based clustering method Structure program was used to infer the genetic structure of nine indigenous Chinese chicken (Gallus gallus) populations based on 16 microsatellite markers. Twenty runs were carried out at each chosen value of predefined cluster numbers $(K)$ under admixture model. The Structure program properly inferred the presence of genetic structure with 0.999 probabilities. The genetic structure not only indicated that the nine kinds of chicken populations were defined actually by their locations, phenotypes or culture, but also reflected the underlying genetic variations. At $K = 2$, nine chicken populations were divided into two main clusters, one light-body type, including Chahua chicken (CHA), Tibet chicken (TIB), Xianju chicken (XIA), Gushi chicken (GUS) and Baier chicken (BAI); and the other heavy-body type, including Beijing You chicken (YOU), Xiaoshan chicken (XIA), Luyuan chicken (LUY) and Dagu chicken (DAG). GUS and DAG were divided into independent clusters respectively when equaled 4, 5, or 6. XIA and BIA chicken, XIA and LUY chicken, TIB and CHA chicken still clustered together when equaled 6, 7, and 8, respectively. These clustering results were consistent with the breeding directions of the nine chicken populations. The Structure program also identified migrants or admixed individuals. The admixed individuals were distributed in all the nine chicken populations, while migrants were only distributed in TIB, XIA and LUY populations. These results indicated that the clustering analysis using the Structure program might provide an accurate representation of the genetic relationship among the breeds.

  6. Populated Places of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage contains points that represent populated places, ie. cities, towns, villages or any other named place where people live. The coverage was developed...

  7. ISS Live!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jennifer; Harris, Philip; Hochstetler, Bruce; Guerra, Mark; Mendez, Israel; Healy, Matthew; Khan, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    International Space Station Live! (ISSLive!) is a Web application that uses a proprietary commercial technology called Lightstreamer to push data across the Internet using the standard http port (port 80). ISSLive! uses the push technology to display real-time telemetry and mission timeline data from the space station in any common Web browser or Internet- enabled mobile device. ISSLive! is designed to fill a unique niche in the education and outreach areas by providing access to real-time space station data without a physical presence in the mission control center. The technology conforms to Internet standards, supports the throughput needed for real-time space station data, and is flexible enough to work on a large number of Internet-enabled devices. ISSLive! consists of two custom components: (1) a series of data adapters that resides server-side in the mission control center at Johnson Space Center, and (2) a set of public html that renders the data pushed from the data adapters. A third component, the Lightstreamer server, is commercially available from a third party and acts as an intermediary between custom components (1) and (2). Lightstreamer also provides proprietary software libraries that are required to use the custom components. At the time of this reporting, this is the first usage of Web-based, push streaming technology in the aerospace industry.

  8. Noise annoyances from wind power: Survey of the population living close to a wind power plant. Final report: Part 3 Main study; Stoerningar fraan vindkraft: undersoekning bland maenniskor boende i naerheten av vindkraftverk. Slutrapport: Del 3 Huvudstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Eja [Halmstad Univ., Halmstad (Sweden). School of Business and Engineering; Persson-Waye, K. [Goeteborg Univ., Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Medicine

    2002-02-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of annoyance from wind turbines, a study was performed in Laholm in May 2000. The aim was to obtain dose response relationships between calculated sound levels and noise annoyance and appropriate sound description as well as analysing the influence of other variables on noise annoyance. A questionnaire survey was performed in 6 areas comprising 16 wind turbines, of which 14 had an effect of 600 kW. The purpose of the study was masked. Among questions on living conditions in the countryside, questions directly related to wind turbines were included. The study population (n=518) comprised one randomly selected subject between the ages of 18 to 75 years in each household living within a calculated wind turbine sound level of 25 to 40 dBA. The response rate was 68.7% (n=356). Calculated distributions of A-weighted sound level were performed for each area and plotted on geographical maps in 2.5 dBA steps. Each dwelling could thus be given a sound level within an interval of 2.5 dBA. The most frequently occurring source of noise annoyance was noise from rotor blades. The proportions of respondents annoyed by noise increased with calculated sound level. Among respondents exposed to sound levels of 35.0-37.5 dBA, 43% responded themselves to be rather or much annoyed. A-weighted sound level was only one variable explaining annoyance. Annoyance was correlated to a larger extent by the intrusiveness of the sound character swishing. Noise annoyance was interrelated to the respondents' opinion of the visual impact of wind turbines, while attitude towards wind power in general had no greater influence. Disturbance of spoilt view was reported to a similar degree as noise disturbance. Further investigations are needed to clarify factors of importance for the disturbance of view. All the wind turbines in the study had constant rotation speed. The greater wind turbines that are now erected often have variable speed, which may lead to a sound

  9. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A - Z Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live ... it cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine ...

  10. Live-donor nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Juan P; Davis, Eric; Edye, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Six decades after its first implementation, kidney transplantation remains the optimal therapy for end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis. Despite the incontrovertible mortality reduction and cost-effectiveness of kidney transplantation, the greatest remaining barrier to treatment of end-stage renal disease is organ availability. Although the waiting list of patients who stand to benefit from kidney transplantation grows at a rate proportional to the overall population and proliferation of diabetes and hypertension, the pool of deceased-donor organs available for transplantation experiences minimal to no growth. Because the kidney is uniquely suited as a paired organ, the transplant community's answer to this shortage is living donation of a healthy volunteer's kidney to a recipient with end-stage renal disease. This review details the history and evolution of living-donor kidney transplantation in the United States as well as advances the next decade promises. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has overcome many of the obstacles to living donation in terms of donor morbidity and volunteerism. Known donor risks in terms of surgical and medical morbidity are reviewed, as well as the ongoing efforts to delineate and mitigate donor risk in the context of accumulating recipient morbidity while on the waiting list. PMID:22678857

  11. Mitochondrial DNA control region diversity in a population from Espirito Santo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Naiara M; Paneto, Greiciane G; Figueiredo, Raquel F; de Mello, Aline O; Cicarelli, Regina M B

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis has proved to be useful for forensic identification, especially in cases which nuclear DNA markers fail, as in degraded samples or in cases where the biological material has few traces or no nuclear DNA. Moreover, it can be applied in population genetics, inferring the origin of a population. In this work, the entire mtDNA control region of 97 individuals from the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, was analyzed. We have found 94 different haplotypes yielding a high haplotype diversity of 0.9994 ± 0.0016. The probability of a random match calculated was 1.09. Haplogroup distribution analysis confirmed a highly admixed Latin American population: African lineages (43.3 %), European lineages (32.0 %), Native American lineages (23.7 %) and Asian lineages (1.0 %). We have concluded that this type of tool can be used both in forensic genetics to the study of different human populations, such as highly admixed populations, and in the study of migration's history and colonization of different states and countries of the world. PMID:24996288

  12. Identifying footprints of selection in stocked brown trout populations: a spatio-temporal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael M; Meier, Kristian; Mensberg, Karen-Lise D

    2010-05-01

    Studies of interactions between farmed and wild salmonid fishes have suggested reduced fitness of farmed strains in the wild, but evidence for selection at the genic level is lacking. We studied three brown trout populations in Denmark which have been significantly admixed with stocked hatchery trout (19-64%), along with two hatchery strains used for stocking. The wild populations were represented by contemporary samples (2000-2006) and two of them by historical samples (1943-1956). We analysed 61 microsatellite loci, nine of which showed putative functional relationships [expressed sequence tag (EST)-linked or quantitative trait loci]. F(ST)-based outlier tests provided support for diversifying selection at chromosome regions marked by three loci, two anonymous and one EST-linked. Patterns of differentiation suggested that the loci were candidates for being under diversifying hitch-hiking selection in hatchery vs. wild environments. Analysis of hatchery strain admixture proportions showed that in one wild population, two of the loci showed significantly lower admixture proportions than the putatively neutral loci, implying contemporary selection against alleles introduced by hatchery strain trout. In the most strongly admixed population, however, there was no evidence for selection, possibly because of immigration by stocked trout overcoming selection against hatchery-derived alleles or supportive breeding practices allowing hatchery strain trout to escape natural selection. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating footprints of selection in wild salmonid populations subject to spawning intrusion by farmed fish. PMID:20345684

  13. Developing living cities from analysis to action

    CERN Document Server

    Scientific, World

    2010-01-01

    With more and more of the world's population projected to live in urban areas, the life and death of cities has become a key factor in urban development considerations. This book attempts to bring an original contribution on the analysis of creating living cities. It advances the concept and framework of a ""living city"" and also explicates the key attributes of a ""living city"" that are increasingly critical to the reinvigoration and sustainable growth of cities.The book also seeks to document and compare Singapore's development as a ""living city"" with other cities around the world. Contr

  14. Living Nanomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, M.-F.; Helfer, E.; Wade, R.; Haraux, F.

    The living cell is a kind of factory on the microscopic scale, in which an assembly of modular machines carries out, in a spatially and temporally coordinated way, a whole range of activities internal to the cell, including the synthesis of substances essential to its survival, intracellular traffic, waste disposal, and cell division, but also activities related to intercellular communication and exchanges with the outside world, i.e., the ability of the cell to change shape, to move within a tissue, or to organise its own defence against attack by pathogens, injury, and so on. These nanomachines are made up of macromolecular assemblies with varying degrees of complexity, forged by evolution, within which work is done as a result of changes in interactions between proteins, or between proteins and nucleic acids, or between proteins and membrane components. All these cell components measure a few nanometers across, so the mechanical activity of these nanomachines all happens on the nanometric scale. The directional nature of the work carried out by biological nanomachines is associated with a dissipation of energy. As examples of protein assemblies, one could mention the proteasome, which is responsible for the degradation of proteins, and linear molecular motors such as actomyosin, responsible for muscle contraction, the dynein-microtubule system, responsible for flagellar motility, and the kinesin-microtubule system, responsible for transport of vesicles, which transform chemical energy into motion. Nucleic acid-protein assemblies include the ribosome, responsible for synthesising proteins, polymerases, helicases, elongation factors, and the machinery of DNA replication and repair; the mitotic spindle is an integrated system involving several of these activities which drive chromosome segregation. The machinery coupling membranes and proteins includes systems involved in the energy metabolism, such as the ATP synthase rotary motor, signalling cascades, endocytosis

  15. Imaginary populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Martínez–Abraín

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A few years ago, Camus & Lima (2002 wrote an essay to stimulate ecologists to think about how we define and use a fundamental concept in ecology: the population. They concluded, concurring with Berryman (2002, that a population is "a group of individuals of the same species that live together in an area of sufficient size to permit normal dispersal and/or migration behaviour and in which population changes are largely the results of birth and death processes". They pointed out that ecologists often forget "to acknowledge that many study units are neither natural nor even units in terms of constituting a population system", and hence claimed that we "require much more accuracy than in past decades in order to be more effective to characterize populations and predict their behaviour". They stated that this is especially necessary "in disciplines such as conservation biology or resource pest management, to avoid reaching wrong conclusions or making inappropriate decisions". As a population ecologist and conservation biologist I totally agree with these authors and, like them, I be¬lieve that greater precision and care is needed in the use and definition of ecological terms. The point I wish to stress here is that we ecologists tend to forget that when we use statistical tools to infer results from our sample to a population we work with what statisticians term "imaginary", "hypothetical" or "potential" popula¬tions. As Zar (1999 states, if our sample data consist of 40 measurements of growth rate in guinea pigs "the population about which conclusions might be drawn is the growth rates of all the guinea pigs that conceivably might have been administered the same food supplement under identical conditions". Such a population does not really exist, and hence it is considered a hypothetical or imaginary population. Compare that definition with the population concept that would be in our minds when performing such measurements. We would probably

  16. Recent admixture in an Indian population of African ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Ankita; Jha, Pankaj; Rawat, Vimal; Mukhopadhyay, Arijit; Mukhopadhayay, Arijit; Dash, Debasis; Basu, Analabha; Mukerji, Mitali

    2011-07-15

    Identification and study of genetic variation in recently admixed populations not only provides insight into historical population events but also is a powerful approach for mapping disease loci. We studied a population (OG-W-IP) that is of African-Indian origin and has resided in the western part of India for 500 years; members of this population are believed to be descendants of the Bantu-speaking population of Africa. We have carried out this study by using a set of 18,534 autosomal markers common between Indian, CEPH-HGDP, and HapMap populations. Principal-components analysis clearly revealed that the African-Indian population derives its ancestry from Bantu-speaking west-African as well as Indo-European-speaking north and northwest Indian population(s). STRUCTURE and ADMIXTURE analyses show that, overall, the OG-W-IPs derive 58.7% of their genomic ancestry from their African past and have very little inter-individual ancestry variation (8.4%). The extent of linkage disequilibrium also reveals that the admixture event has been recent. Functional annotation of genes encompassing the ancestry-informative markers that are closer in allele frequency to the Indian ancestral population revealed significant enrichment of biological processes, such as ion-channel activity, and cadherins. We briefly examine the implications of determining the genetic diversity of this population, which could provide opportunities for studies involving admixture mapping. PMID:21737057

  17. Analysis of elderly population living in nursing homes in relation with their independence in dayling living Valoración de la institucionalización de los sujetos ancianos en relación a su dependencia, en función de la capacidad para las actividades de la vida diaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ponce

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The increasing number of elderly people who live in nursing homes drove us to consider the possibility of a particular form of growing old in these institutions. Analyzing the results obtained with a functional scale to assess the activities of daily living (A.D.L., allowed us to know the functional abilities of this elderly population, the community dwellers and the nursing homes residents. The dependency profile for A.D.L. was obtained for each group, and also the correlation coeficients. We obtained the the regresion lines to interpret and discuss graphic and statistically the apparently low functional capacity of nursing homes residents. We conclude that the dependency is high when increasing the age, being higher in the females than in the males. The health status and type of residency were correlated with lower dependency. And even being lower the number of nursing home residents than the community dwellers, when these are healthy, the dependency is higher in the nursing home residents, than in the community dwellers. We could not observe any statistical correlation with the previous kind of job.
    KEY WORDS: Aged. Nursing homes. Activities of daily living. Questionnaires.

    El incremento del número de personas de edad avanzada que viven en residencias para ancianos nos indujo a considerar la posible existencia de una forma particular de envejecimiento en este tipo de instituciones. El análisis de los resultados obtenidos con una escala de valoración funcional de las actividades de la vida diaria (A.V.D., permitió conocer la capacidad funcional de los ancianos tanto institucionalizados, como no-institucionalizados. En cada grupo se obtuvo el perfil de dependencia para las A.V.D., así como sus coeficientes de correlación. Se obtuvieron las rectas de regresión lineal para poder interpretar y discutir gráfica y estadísticamente la aparentemente baja capacidad funcional de la población institucionalizada. Se

  18. Highly discrepant proportions of female and male Scandinavian and British Isles ancestry within the isolated population of the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Thomas D; Jorgensen, Tove H; Børglum, Anders D;

    2006-01-01

    frequency-based admixture approach taking private haplotypes into account by the use of phylogenetic information. While previous studies have suggested an excess of Scandinavian ancestry among the male settlers of the Faroe Islands, the current study indicates an excess of British Isles ancestry among the...... female settlers of the Faroe Islands. Compared to other admixed populations of the North Atlantic region, the population of the Faroe Islands appears to have the highest level of asymmetry in Scandinavian vs British Isles ancestry proportions among female and male settlers of the archipelago....

  19. Y chromosome comparative analysis of Rondônia with other Brazilian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Adriana C S; Silva, Dayse A; Teixeira, Marco A D; Nunes, Dorisvalder D; Lopes, Claudia M S; Netto, Ovídio R Tucunduva; Gusmão, Leonor; Carvalho, Elizeu F; Moura, Maria Manuela F

    2011-05-01

    In the present study, a Brazilian population, located in the Rondônia state, was genetically characterized for a set of Y chromosome specific STRs included in the Applied Biosystems kit (AmpFℓSTR®Yfiler™), which allows the simultaneous amplification of 16 markers: DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385a/b, DYS438, DYS439, DYS437, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and GATA H4. The studied population from Rondônia state, in the North of Brazil, included individuals with admixed Native American, African and European ancestry. When comparing Rondônia with other Brazilian populations no significant genetic distances were found. In the comparison with other worldwide populations, although a predominant male European influence could be detected, there were significant differences with some populations from Central and South America and Africa. PMID:21269865

  20. Living Gluten Free

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Celiac Disease Living Gluten Free Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of Contents ... Learning to Live Well with Celiac Disease / Living Gluten-Free Spring 2015 Issue: Volume 10 Number 1 ...

  1. Dignity for all: affordable assisted living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeski, James F; Pruchnicki, Alec

    2006-01-01

    In 2026, the first of the baby boomers, including Presidents Clinton and Bush, will reach the age of 80, the average age of residents currently in assisted living facilities. In her book The Denial of Aging: Perpetual Youth, Eternal Life, and Other Dangerous Fantasies, Muriel Gillick proposes that the baby boomers will seek assisted living as an alternative to nursing home care. But what about that portion of the population not able to afford the high cost of private assisted living? What option will be available to the low-asset/low-income population in lieu of nursing home care? PMID:17214248

  2. Energy - quality of living

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop the new potentials in life - short working hours, ample leisure time, high quantity of production - logically a tremendous multiplication of labour productivity is necessary. It was the 'industrial revolution' which created our present world by blending the powers of the mind with the powers of nature. Without the current means of energy release our mode of life is unthinkable. The Conservation Commission of the World Energy Conference comes to the conclusion that under the premisses of a doupling of the world population by the year 2020 the demand for primary energy will increase 3.6 fold to 34 billion SKE (units of mineral coal). The outlook on world energy supply shows that even providing for all means of energy saving and application of alternative sources of energy the energy demand can not be satisfied without nuclear power. Without sufficient supply of energy securing a living of a certain quality for the increasing world population is not possible. Every progress, however, has its dangers. There is no technology without risk. (orig.)

  3. Allergy, living and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; Dahl, R;

    2012-01-01

    Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care.......Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care....

  4. Population success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    "The commitment to population programs is now widespread," says Rafael Salas, Executive Director of the UNFPA, in its report "State of World Population." About 80% of the total population of the developing world live in countries which consider their fertility levels too high and would like them reduced. An important impetus came from the World Conference of 1974. The Plan of Action from the conference projected population growth rates in developing countries of 2.0% by 1985. Today it looks as though this projection will be realized. While in 1969, for example, only 26 developing countries had programs aimed at lowering or maintaining fertility levels, by 1980 there were 59. The International Population Conference, recently announced by the UN for 1984, will, it is hoped, help sustain that momentum. Cuba is the country which has shown the greatest decline in birth rate so far. The birth rate fell 47% between 1965-1970 and 1975-1980. Next came China with a 34% decline in the same period. After these came a group of countries--each with populations of over 10 million--with declines of between 15 and 25%: Chile, Colombia, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. Though birth rates have been dropping significantly the decline in mortality rates over recent years has been less than was hoped for. The 1974 conference set 74 years as the target for the world's average expectation of life, to be reached by the year 2000. But the UN now predicts that the developing countries will have only reached 63 or 64 years by then. High infant and child mortality rates, particularly in Africa, are among the major causes. The report identifies the status of women as an important determinant of family size. Evidence from the UNFPA-sponsored World Fertility Survey shows that in general the fertility of women decreases as their income increases. It also indicates that women who have been educated and who work outside the home are likely to have smaller families

  5. Comparing genetic ancestry and self-reported race/ethnicity in a multiethnic population in New York City

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yin Leng Lee; Susan Teitelbaum; Mary S. Wolff; James G. Wetmur; Jia Chen

    2010-12-01

    Self-reported race/ethnicity is frequently used in epidemiological studies to assess an individual’s background origin. However, in admixed populations such as Hispanic, self-reported race/ethnicity may not accurately represent them genetically because they are admixed with European, African and Native American ancestry. We estimated the proportions of genetic admixture in an ethnically diverse population of 396 mothers and 188 of their children with 35 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) using the STRUCTURE version 2.2 program. The majority of the markers showed significant deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in our study population. In mothers self-identified as Black and White, the imputed ancestry proportions were 77.6% African and 75.1% European respectively, while the racial composition among self-identified Hispanics was 29.2% European, 26.0% African, and 44.8% Native American.We also investigated the utility of AIMs by showing the improved fitness of models in paraoxanase-1 genotype–phenotype associations after incorporating AIMs; however, the improvement was moderate at best. In summary, a minimal set of 35 AIMs is sufficient to detect population stratification and estimate the proportion of individual genetic admixture; however, the utility of these markers remains questionable.

  6. Women's lives, mothers' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauliac, M; Masse-raimbault, A M

    1985-01-01

    This document dealing with women's lives and the health of mothers identifies factors conditioning the health and nutritional status of women and girls (life expectancy at birth, maternal mortality rate, and the birthrate); considers nutritional requirements of pregnant and lactating women, weight gain during preganncy, mothers' age and number of children and interbirth interval, maternal nutritional status and breastfeeding, anemia, work and women's health, pregnancy in adolescents, abortion, the growth of small girls and its effect on future pregnancies, and sexual mutilations; and reports on actions aimed at improving the health of women as well as health problems facing rural women. The 3 key concepts of this reflection on women's lives are: women's health should be taken into account as well as children's health; the development of the whole human being should be respected, implying ongoing surveillance of the health status of women and of their children; and the overall living conditions of women within the family and society must be analyzed at the different phases of their life, so as to encourage integrated actions rather than various uncoordinated efforts. Women's health status, like the health status of everyone, depends on a multitude of socioeconomic and sanitational factors. A figure illustrates several of the many interrelations between the various factors which influence the nutritional status of all individuals. Women of childbearing age are at greater risk than other population groups, due to their reproductive function and their ability to nurse children: pregnancy, like lactation, generates metabolic changes and increases nutritional needs. Delivery itself presents a series of risks for the woman's health, and only regular surveillance of pregnancy may prevent many of these. A woman's health status and, most of all her nutritional status during pregnancy and delivery, condition her future health and ability to assume her many tasks as well as

  7. Analysis of Population Substructure in Two Sympatric Populations of Gran Chaco, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevini, Federica; Yao, Daniele Yang; Lomartire, Laura; Barbieri, Annalaura; Vianello, Dario; Ferri, Gianmarco; Moretti, Edgardo; Dasso, Maria Cristina; Garagnani, Paolo; Pettener, Davide; Franceschi, Claudio; Luiselli, Donata; Franceschi, Zelda Alice

    2013-01-01

    Sub-population structure and intricate kinship dynamics might introduce biases in molecular anthropology studies and could invalidate the efforts to understand diseases in highly admixed populations. In order to clarify the previously observed distribution pattern and morbidity of Chagas disease in Gran Chaco, Argentina, we studied two populations (Wichí and Criollos) recruited following an innovative bio-cultural model considering their complex cultural interactions. By reconstructing the genetic background and the structure of these two culturally different populations, the pattern of admixture, the correspondence between genealogical and genetic relationships, this integrated perspective had the power to validate data and to link the gap usually relying on a singular discipline. Although Wichí and Criollos share the same area, these sympatric populations are differentiated from the genetic point of view as revealed by Non Recombinant Y Chromosome genotyping resulting in significantly high Fst values and in a lower genetic variability in the Wichí population. Surprisingly, the Amerindian and the European components emerged with comparable amounts (20%) among Criollos and Wichí respectively. The detailed analysis of mitochondrial DNA showed that the two populations have as much as 87% of private haplotypes. Moreover, from the maternal perspective, despite a common Amerindian origin, an Andean and an Amazonian component emerged in Criollos and in Wichí respectively. Our approach allowed us to highlight that quite frequently there is a discrepancy between self-reported and genetic kinship. Indeed, if self-reported identity and kinship are usually utilized in population genetics as a reliable proxy for genetic identity and parental relationship, in our model populations appear to be the result not only and not simply of the genetic background but also of complex cultural determinants. This integrated approach paves the way to a rigorous reconstruction of

  8. Analysis of population substructure in two sympatric populations of Gran Chaco, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevini, Federica; Yao, Daniele Yang; Lomartire, Laura; Barbieri, Annalaura; Vianello, Dario; Ferri, Gianmarco; Moretti, Edgardo; Dasso, Maria Cristina; Garagnani, Paolo; Pettener, Davide; Franceschi, Claudio; Luiselli, Donata; Franceschi, Zelda Alice

    2013-01-01

    Sub-population structure and intricate kinship dynamics might introduce biases in molecular anthropology studies and could invalidate the efforts to understand diseases in highly admixed populations. In order to clarify the previously observed distribution pattern and morbidity of Chagas disease in Gran Chaco, Argentina, we studied two populations (Wichí and Criollos) recruited following an innovative bio-cultural model considering their complex cultural interactions. By reconstructing the genetic background and the structure of these two culturally different populations, the pattern of admixture, the correspondence between genealogical and genetic relationships, this integrated perspective had the power to validate data and to link the gap usually relying on a singular discipline. Although Wichí and Criollos share the same area, these sympatric populations are differentiated from the genetic point of view as revealed by Non Recombinant Y Chromosome genotyping resulting in significantly high Fst values and in a lower genetic variability in the Wichí population. Surprisingly, the Amerindian and the European components emerged with comparable amounts (20%) among Criollos and Wichí respectively. The detailed analysis of mitochondrial DNA showed that the two populations have as much as 87% of private haplotypes. Moreover, from the maternal perspective, despite a common Amerindian origin, an Andean and an Amazonian component emerged in Criollos and in Wichí respectively. Our approach allowed us to highlight that quite frequently there is a discrepancy between self-reported and genetic kinship. Indeed, if self-reported identity and kinship are usually utilized in population genetics as a reliable proxy for genetic identity and parental relationship, in our model populations appear to be the result not only and not simply of the genetic background but also of complex cultural determinants. This integrated approach paves the way to a rigorous reconstruction of

  9. Patterns of cis regulatory variation in diverse human populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara E Stranger

    Full Text Available The genetic basis of gene expression variation has long been studied with the aim to understand the landscape of regulatory variants, but also more recently to assist in the interpretation and elucidation of disease signals. To date, many studies have looked in specific tissues and population-based samples, but there has been limited assessment of the degree of inter-population variability in regulatory variation. We analyzed genome-wide gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines from a total of 726 individuals from 8 global populations from the HapMap3 project and correlated gene expression levels with HapMap3 SNPs located in cis to the genes. We describe the influence of ancestry on gene expression levels within and between these diverse human populations and uncover a non-negligible impact on global patterns of gene expression. We further dissect the specific functional pathways differentiated between populations. We also identify 5,691 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs after controlling for both non-genetic factors and population admixture and observe that half of the cis-eQTLs are replicated in one or more of the populations. We highlight patterns of eQTL-sharing between populations, which are partially determined by population genetic relatedness, and discover significant sharing of eQTL effects between Asians, European-admixed, and African subpopulations. Specifically, we observe that both the effect size and the direction of effect for eQTLs are highly conserved across populations. We observe an increasing proximity of eQTLs toward the transcription start site as sharing of eQTLs among populations increases, highlighting that variants close to TSS have stronger effects and therefore are more likely to be detected across a wider panel of populations. Together these results offer a unique picture and resource of the degree of differentiation among human populations in functional regulatory variation and provide an estimate for

  10. Research on Living Inclination of the Aged Migrants in Cities from the Perspective of Population Migration%人口迁移视角下的随迁老人城市居留意愿研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈盛淦

    2016-01-01

    Based on the survey data of living situation of the aged migrants from Fujian Province, this paper makes an analysis on their living inclination and the influencing factors.The results show that their overall willingness of living in cities is not high, but women, the elderly, people with poor self-care ability and people with strong language communication ability have higher residence intention. Binary Logistic regression analysis indicates that family is one of the most significant factors, city adaptation degree and rural expected income also have significant impacts.The rational choice by the aged migrants depends on balancing urban and rural living conditions and the demands of all other family members.%以福建省农村随迁老人城市生活状况的调查数据为基础,对随迁老人城市居留意愿及其影响因素进行分析。研究发现,随迁老人的总体城市居留意愿不高,其中女性、高龄者、生活自理能力差、语言沟通较强的老人居留意愿较高。通过二元Logistic回归分析研究表明,家庭因素是最显著影响因素,城市适应程度、农村预期收入对随迁老人城市居留意愿有明显的影响。随迁老人城市居留决策是在充分权衡城市和乡村生活状况,综合平衡家庭其他成员需求基础上做出的理性选择。

  11. Children’s Healthy Living (CHL) Program for remote underserved minority populations in the Pacific region: rationale and design of a community randomized trial to prevent early childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilken, Lynne R; Novotny, Rachel; Fialkowski, Marie K; Boushey, Carol J.; Nigg, Claudio; Paulino, Yvette; Leon Guerrero, Rachael; Bersamin, Andrea; Vargo, Don; Kim, Jang; Deenik, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Background Although surveillance data are limited in the US Affiliated Pacific, Alaska, and Hawaii, existing data suggest that the prevalence of childhood obesity is similar to or in excess of other minority groups in the contiguous US. Strategies for addressing the childhood obesity epidemic in the region support the use of community-based, environmentally targeted interventions. The Children’s Healthy Living Program is a partnership formed across institutions in the US Affiliated Pacific, A...

  12. Rangewide genetic analysis of Lesser Prairie-Chicken reveals population structure, range expansion, and possible introgression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; DeYoung, Randall W; Fike, Jennifer; Hagen, Christian A.; Johnson, Jeff A.; Larsson, Lena C; Patten, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has been markedly reduced due to loss and fragmentation of habitat. Portions of the historical range, however, have been recolonized and even expanded due to planting of conservation reserve program (CRP) fields that provide favorable vegetation structure for Lesser Prairie-Chickens. The source population(s) feeding the range expansion is unknown, yet has resulted in overlap between Lesser and Greater Prairie-Chickens (T. cupido) increasing the potential for hybridization. Our objectives were to characterize connectivity and genetic diversity among populations, identify source population(s) of recent range expansion, and examine hybridization with the Greater Prairie-Chicken. We analyzed 640 samples from across the range using 13 microsatellites. We identified three to four populations corresponding largely to ecoregions. The Shinnery Oak Prairie and Sand Sagebrush Prairie represented genetically distinct populations (F ST > 0.034 and F ST > 0.023 respectively). The Shortgrass/CRP Mosaic and Mixed Grass ecoregions appeared admixed (F ST = 0.009). Genetic diversity was similar among ecoregions and N e ranged from 142 (95 % CI 99–236) for the Shortgrass/CRP Mosaic to 296 (95 % CI 233–396) in the Mixed Grass Prairie. No recent migration was detected among ecoregions, except asymmetric dispersal from both the Mixed Grass Prairie and to a lesser extent the Sand Sagebrush Prairie north into adjacent Shortgrass/CRP Mosaic (m = 0.207, 95 % CI 0.116–0.298, m = 0.097, 95 % CI 0.010–0.183, respectively). Indices investigating potential hybridization in the Shortgrass/CRP Mosaic revealed that six of the 13 individuals with hybrid phenotypes were significantly admixed suggesting hybridization. Continued monitoring of diversity within and among ecoregions is warranted as are actions promoting genetic connectivity and range expansion.

  13. TIMP2 gene polymorphism as a potential tool to infer Brazilian population origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva RA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rodrigo Augusto da Silva,1 André Luis Shinohara,2 Denise Carleto Andia,1 Ariadne Letra,3 Regina Célia Peres,1 Ana Paula de Souza11Department of Morphology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, 2Oral Biology Program, Bauru Dental School, State University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Department of Endodontics and Center for Craniofacial Research, School of Dentistry, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Single nucleotide polymorphisms are genome variations that can be used as population-specific markers to infer genetic background and population origin. The Brazilian population is highly admixed due to immigration from several other populations. In particular, the state of São Paulo is recognized for the presence of Japanese individuals who seem likely to have contributed to a substantial proportion of ancestry in the modern Brazilian population. In the present study, we analyzed allele and genotype frequencies and associations of the –418G>C (rs8179090 single nucleotide polymorphism in the TIMP2 gene promoter in Brazilian and Japanese subjects, as well as in Japanese descendants from southeastern Brazil. The allele and genotype frequency analyses among groups demonstrated statistical significance (PC single nucleotide polymorphism of the TIMP2 gene, have a high probability of being Japanese or Japanese descendants. In addition to other genetic polymorphisms, the −418G>C TIMP2 polymorphism could be a population marker to assist in predicting Japanese ancestry, both in Japanese individuals and in admixed populations.Keywords: Brazilian, Japanese, polymorphism, allele, TIMP2

  14. Assisted Living Community Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Seniors Housing & Care Industry, reflects NCAL's philosophy of assisted living. 2 Data also from the ... Assisted Living Studies Clinical Practice Guidelines Health Information Technology In-Service Training Tools Periodicals State Regulatory Review ...

  15. Living with Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Living With Spina Bifida Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the website provides information about living with spina bifida at different ages. Spina bifida affects the entire ...

  16. Living with Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics » Atrial Fibrillation » Living With Atrial Fibrillation Explore Atrial Fibrillation What Is... Types Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Arrhythmia ...

  17. Population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooch, E. G.

    2004-06-01

    focused on estimation of survival rate (arguably, use of data from marked individuals has been used for estimation of survival more than any other parameter, save perhaps abundance, it is only one of many transitions in the life cycle. Others discussed include transitions between age or size classes, breeding states, and physical locations. The demographic consequences of these transitions can be captured by matrix population models, and such models provide a natural link connecting multi–stage mark–recapture methods and population dynamics. The utility of the matrix approach for both prospective, and retrospective, analysis of variation in the dynamics of populations is well–known; such comparisons of results of prospective and retrospective analysis is fundamental to considerations of conservation management (sensu Caswell, 2000. What is intriguing is the degree to which these methods can be combined, or contrasted, with more direct estimation of one or more measures of the trajectory of a population (e.g., Sandercock & Beissinger, 2002. The five additional papers presented in the population dynamics session clearly reflected these considerations. In particular, the three papers submitted for this volume indicate the various ways in which complex empirical data can be analyzed, and often combined with more classical modeling approaches, to provide more robust insights to the dynamics of the study population. The paper by Francis & Saurola (2004 is an example of rigorous analysis and modeling applied to a large, carefully collected dataset from a long–term study of the biology of the Tawny Owl. Using a combination of live encounters and dead recoveries, the authors were able to separate the relative contributions of various processes (emigration, mortality on variation in survival rates. These analyses were combined with periodic matrix models to explore comparisons of direct estimation of changes in population size (based on both census and mark

  18. I Live with Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Living with Psoriasis I Live with Psoriasis Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of ... courtesy of Stephen Voss/ National Psoriasis Foundation "I live with the disease," she says, cautious about being treated with narrow band ultraviolet light (UVB) for ...

  19. Biometric Fingerprint Liveness Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Váňa, T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with biometric fingerprint liveness detection. A software-based liveness detection approach using neural network is proposed. To distinguish between live and fake samples, three image quality features extracted from one image are used. The algorithm is tested on LivDet database comprising real and fake images acquired with three sensors.

  20. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident (IPHECA). 'Epidemiological registry' Pilot project. Reconstruction of absorbed doses from external exposure of the population living in areas of Russia contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to carry out epidemiological research on the influence of radiation factors on the health of people living in centres of population areas contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident, a knowledge of the amount of external and internal exposure to the thyroid gland and the whole body is crucial. After seven years of the Chernobyl accident, an attempt was made to reconstruct the complete dynamic picture of radioactive contamination of Russian territory, taking into consideration current data on the temporal behavior of the source of accidental radionuclide emissions from the reactor where the accident occurred, meteorological conditions at the time, detailed measurements of cesium 137 fall-out density on CIS territory, air exposure dose rate measurements. Such an approach will enable to determine absorbed doses in centers of population, where radiation parameters were not measured at all. 17 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs, 1 map

  1. Population dose calculation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An original method is suggested for calculating the population doses from gas and aerosol radioactive releases. The method is based on the assumption of uniform population and arable land distribution. The validity of this assumption has been proved for a rather large condition range. Though, some modified formulae are given to take into account the non-uniformity of population distribution, connected with large cities, on the one hand, and with woods, shores, regional borders, on the other hand. Employment of the suggested method results in an apriciable calculation accuracy rise for the long-living slowly precipitating radionuclides as compared with the existing methods

  2. Predation and caribou populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale R. Seip

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Predation, especially wolf (Canis lupus predation, limits many North American caribou (Rangifer tarandus populations below the density that food resources could sustain. The impact of predation depends on the parameters for the functional and numerical response of the wolves, relative to the potential annual increment of the caribou population. Differences in predator-avoidance strategies largely explain the major differences in caribou densities that occur naturally in North America. Caribou migrations that spatially separate caribou from wolves allow relatively high densities of caribou to survive. Non-migratory caribou that live in areas where wolf populations are sustained by alternate prey can be eliminated by wolf predation.

  3. Highly efficient synthesis of dimethyl ether from syngas over the admixed catalyst of CuO-ZnO-Al2O3 and antimony oxide modified HZSM-5 zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of HZSM-5 zeolites modified with various contents of antimony oxide (0-30 wt.%) were prepared by solid state ion reaction at 500 deg. C, and the acidities of the resulted materials were characterized by temperature-programmed desorption of NH3. The direct synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas was carried out over the admixed catalysts of an industrial CuO-ZnO-Al2O3 methanol synthesis catalyst and the parent and antimony oxide modified HZSM-5 zeolites under pressurized fixed-bed continuous flow conditions. The results indicated that modification of HZSM-5 with suitable amount of antimony oxide significantly decreased the selectivity for undesired byproducts like hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide from 9.3% and 32.4% to less than 1% and 28%, respectively, so the selectivity for DME was enhanced greatly from 55% to 69% under temperature of 260 deg. C, pressure of 4 MPa and gas hourly space velocity of 1500 mL h-1 gcat-1. The decrease in the formation of hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide can be attributed to the significant decline in the amount of strong acid sites of the HZSM-5 zeolite induced by antimony oxide modification. Additionally, the influences of the operating parameters on the performance of the most efficient catalyst were also investigated. The results showed that high reaction temperature and high gas hourly space velocity resulted in both lower carbon monoxide conversion and lower dimethyl ether selectivity, so they should be no higher than 280 deg. C and 3000 mL h-1 gcat-1, respectively.

  4. Things to Consider Before Selling Your Home and Moving into a Rental Unit or Assisted Living - 23RD ANNUAL JOHN K. FRIESEN CONFERENCE "Housing Alternatives for an Aging Population" May 28-29, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Martha Jane; Emmerton, Jim; Jina, Al

    2014-01-01

    This video comprises an address to the attendees of the 23rd Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Housing Alternatives for an Aging Population" held May 28-29, 2014, Vancouver, BC. The Simon Fraser University Gerontology Research Centre (GRC) and associated Gerontology Department are pleased to welcome you to the 23rd John K. Friesen Conference. This year’s conference, organized and hosted in cooperation with the Lifelong Learning Adults 55+ Program, explores a range of tenure arrangements,...

  5. Ageing populations: the challenges ahead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Doblhammer, Gabriele; Rau, Roland;

    2009-01-01

    birthdays. Although trends differ between countries, populations of nearly all such countries are ageing as a result of low fertility, low immigration, and long lives. A key question is: are increases in life expectancy accompanied by a concurrent postponement of functional limitations and disability? The...... populations....

  6. Writing lives in sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    Writing lives in sport is a book of stories about sports-persons. The people concerned include sports stars, sports people who are not quite so famous, and relatively unknown physical education teachers and sports scientists.Writing lives in sport raises questions about writing biographies...... in the academis world of sport studies. It does not set out to be a methodological treatise but through the writing of lives in sports does raise questions of method. Each essay in this collection deals with problems of writing sports-people's lives. These essays could be said to fall along a spectrum from those...

  7. [Support in living].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, H

    1993-06-01

    "Lebenshilfe" (help in living) is of crucial importance for the organization of live of persons with a handicap. This help in living, training and social integration, however, requires an image of the handicapped person that unrestrictedly recognizes her right to live and to be a human being with a handicap. But todays hedonistic and preference-utilitarian social trends make other, selecting value judgements. This article comments on these dubious ethical positions critically and develops a paradigmatic, positive point of view. This statement is partly based on the principles of 2 self-help organizations of the same name ("Lebenshilfe für geistig Behinderte") in Germany and in Austria. PMID:8374501

  8. Improving kidney and live donation rates in Asia: living donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, S A H; Naqvi, S A A; Hashmi, A; Akhtar, F; Hussain, M; Ahmed, E; Zafar, M N; Abbas, Z; Jawad, F; Sultan, S; Hasan, S M

    2004-09-01

    Organ transplantation started with organs donated by living subjects. Increasing demands brought cadaveric organ donation. The brain-death law, mandatory for this procedure, is prevalent in all countries involved in organ transplantation except Pakistan. Spain is the leading country in cadaveric organ donation (32.5 pmp). Despite the sources of living and cadaveric organs, both heart-beating and non-heart-beating, the gap between the demand and supply has widened. An example is the United States, where the numbers of patients on the waiting list for kidney transplantation have risen from 30,000 in 1988 to more than 116,000 in 2001. This has caused a resurgence in living donors all over the world. These can be related, unrelated, spousal, marginal, or ABO-incompatible donors. Family apprehensions, medical care costs, and nonexistent social security can be barriers to this form of organ donation. Unrelated organ donation can open the doors to commercialism. To make this process more successful, transplantation should be made reachable by all sectors of the population. This is possible when transplantation is taken to the public sector institutions and financed jointly by the government and community. To increase living organ donation especially in Asian countries, which face barriers of low literacy rates, ignorance, and cultural and religious beliefs, more efforts are needed. Public awareness and education play an important role. Appreciation and supporting the donors is necessary and justified. It is a noble act and should be recognized by offering job security, health insurance, and free education for the donor's children. PMID:15518688

  9. Assessment at the 66. day of projected external doses for populations living in the North-West fallout zone of the Fukushima nuclear accident. Impact of population evacuation measures; Evaluation au 66. jour des doses externes projetees pour les populations vivant dans la zone de retombee Nord-Ouest de l'accident nucleaire de Fukushima. Impact des mesures d'evacuation des populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This document reports a dose assessment study performed by the IRSN (the French Radioprotection and Safety Nuclear Institute) 66 days after the Fukushima nuclear accident. A new dose assessment was carried out by IRSN to estimate projected doses due to external exposure from radioactive deposits, for exposure durations of 3 months, 1 year and 4 years before evacuation. The purpose of this report is to provide insight on all radiological assessments performed to the knowledge of the IRSN (the French Radioprotection and Safety Nuclear Institute) to date and the impact of population evacuation measures to be taken to minimize the medium and long-term risks of developing leukaemia or other radiation-induced cancers. This report only considers the external doses already received as well as the doses that may be received in the future from fallout deposits, regardless of doses received previously from the radioactive plume

  10. Animals that Live Longest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶扬志

    2000-01-01

    Reptiles(爬行类) are animals that live longest. The turtle's(海龟)long life is legendary(传奇的), no one has ever been able to calculate the exact age of the turtle, and for good reason, tortoises live a lot longer than humans do.

  11. Interventions in everyday lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of psychotherapy is to help clients address and overcome problems troubling them in their everyday lives. Therapy can therefore only work if clients include it in their ongoing lives to deal with their problems. Detailed, systematic research is needed on how clients do so in their...

  12. Is It Living?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    The word "living" is commonly used throughout elementary science lessons that focus on the biological world. It is a word teachers often take for granted when teaching life science concepts. How similar the constructed meaning of a common word like "living" is to the meaning intended by the teacher or instructional materials depends on how a…

  13. Living the Utopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, John; Warring, Anette Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This article examines experiments in communal living in Britain and Denmark in the early 1970s, using life-story interviews from seventeen members of two British and two Danish communes. It examines communal living as a fusion of radical political principles with the practice of experimental coll...

  14. Living with Worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoni, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The thesis explores what living together can offer in rethinking political theory and in creating a space in which "politics" is not just a matter between people, but also with nature. These lessons about living together emerge from fieldwork around practices in which worms are central. Thus, the...

  15. Live and Dead Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehman; Jackson, A. D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the consequences of a distinction between `live' and `dead' network nodes; `live' nodes are able to acquire new links whereas `dead' nodes are static. We develop an analytically soluble growing network model incorporating this distinction and show that it can provide a q...

  16. Quark stars admixed with dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Payel; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Compact stars consisting of massless quark matter and fermionic dark matter are studied by solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations for two fluids separately. Dark matter is further investigated by incorporating interfermionic interactions among the dark matter particles. The properties of stars made of quark matter particles and self-interacting and free dark matter particles are explored by obtaining their mass-radius relations. The regions of stability for such a compact star are determined, and it is demonstrated that the maximum stable total mass of such a star decreases approximately linearly with an increasing dark matter fraction.

  17. Dark Matter Admixed Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, S -C; Lin, L -M

    2015-01-01

    We perform two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations for the thermonuclear explosion of Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs with dark matter (DM) cores in Newtonian gravity. We include a 19-isotope nuclear reaction network and make use of the pure turbulent deflagration model as the explosion mechanism in our simulations. Our numerical results show that the general properties of the explosion depend quite sensitively on the mass of the DM core M$_{{\\rm DM}}$: a larger M$_{{\\rm DM}}$ generally leads to a weaker explosion and a lower mass of synthesized iron-peaked elements. In particular, the total mass of $^{56}$Ni produced can drop from about 0.3 to 0.03 $M_{\\odot}$ as M$_{{\\rm DM}}$ increases from 0.01 to 0.03 $M_{\\odot}$. We have also constructed the bolometric light curves obtained from our simulations and found that our results match well with the observational data of sub-luminous Type-Ia supernovae.

  18. Admix Compatibility in Carbon Black Loaded Toners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul C. Julien

    2004-01-01

    In a xerographic system where the charge on the toner is controlled by the electrical nature of the carbon black used as a pigment, it is found that the speed with which added toner is charged to the proper level depends on the relative electrical negativity of the carbon black in the original and added toner. This is due to the fact that the incumbent toner typically shares its charge with the new toner through charge exchange among the conductive carbon black particles. If the carbon blacks are electrically dissimilar, this charge sharing may fail.Thus, a toner may work well by itself in a machine, but the same toner may fail when added to a machine already running with a toner from a different vendor or even a different lot of toner from the same vendor. Thus the electrical nature of the carbon black needs to be controlled. This can be done by controlling the oxidation of the carbon black.

  19. Rural Active Living: A Call to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umstattd Meyer, M Renée; Moore, Justin B; Abildso, Christiaan; Edwards, Michael B; Gamble, Abigail; Baskin, Monica L

    2016-01-01

    Rural residents are less physically active than their urban counterparts and disproportionately affected by chronic diseases and conditions associated with insufficient activity. While the ecological model has been successful in promoting and translating active living research in urban settings, relatively little research has been conducted in rural settings. The resulting research gap prohibits a comprehensive understanding and application of solutions for active living in rural America. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to assess the evidence base for an ecological model of active living for rural populations and outline key scientific gaps that inhibit the development and application of solutions. Specifically, we reexamined the 4 domains conceptualized by the model and suggest that there is a dearth of research specific to rural communities across all areas of the framework. Considering the limited rural-specific efforts, we propose areas that need addressing to mobilize rural active living researchers and practitioners into action. PMID:26327514

  20. Frequency of CCR5delta32 in Brazilian populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Vargas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 103 randomly chosen healthy individuals from Alegrete, RS, Brazil, was tested for the CCR5delta32 allele, which is known to influence susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. The CCR5delta32 allele was identified by PCR amplification using specific primers flanking the region of deletion, followed by electrophoresis on a 3% agarose gel. The data obtained were compared to those reported for other populations and interpreted in terms of Brazilian history. The individuals studied came from a highly admixed population. Most of them were identified as white (N = 59, while blacks and browns (mulattoes were N = 13 and N = 31, respectively. The observed frequencies, considering the white, black and brown samples (6.8, 3.8, and 6.4%, respectively, suggest an important European parental contribution, even in populations identified as black and brown. However, in Brazil as a whole, this allele shows gradients indicating a relatively good correlation with the classification based on skin color and other physical traits, used here to define major Brazilian population groups.

  1. Digital Living at Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pernille Viktoria Kathja; Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2013-01-01

    Does living with digital technology inevitably lead to digital living? Users talking about a digital home control system, they have had in their homes for eight years, indicate that there is more to living with digital technology than a functional-operational grip on regulation. Our analysis of...... these user voices has directed us towards a ‘home-keeping’ design discourse, which opens new horizons for design of digital home control systems by allowing users to perform as self-determined controllers and groomers of their habitat. The paper concludes by outlining the implications of a ‘home...

  2. The governmentalization of living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo; Rose, Nikolas

    2015-01-01

    ‘modified life tables’ made up of disability weightings, health state valuations, quality of life scores, disease burden estimates, etc. The problem of morbid death gives way to that of morbid living, made calculable through a metrics of ‘severity’, ‘disability’ and ‘impairment’. A series of new indices and...... scales (e.g. the QALY and DALY) has contributed to a governmentalization of living, in the course of which the social and personal consequences of living with disease come to be an object of political concern, and made knowable, calculable and thereby amenable to various strategies of intervention. We...

  3. Living Phenomena and Living Information : Centered on Living Structure and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizuno, Tomofumi

    The term ‘living’ has manifold meanings. The author interprets it in three reasonable ways : 1) sustaining one's life, 2) surviving under economic surroundings, 3) existing socially. Centered on ‘living structure’ which grasps static aspects of living and ‘living design’ which does dynamic aspects of living he investigates living phenomena and discusses their relationship to living information. The author also catches living phenomena from viewpoints as follows : 1) people, 2) corporation, 3) researcher, 4) administration, and investigates living information from the four viewpoints as above. The examples of classification for living itself as well as for living information are shown.

  4. Lets Talk About the Elephant in the Living Room

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, John

    2009-01-01

    Overpopulation is the _elephant in the living room _ the issue everyone sees but no one will address. Exponential population growth on a finite planet is neither sustainable nor desirable; however, politicians refuse to discuss population control with constituents. They may believe that economic growth is linked to perpetual population growth or they fear alienating their audience. However, the fact is Earth s human population has more than doubled within the last 86 years and some projectio...

  5. Administration for Community Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 04/30/2016) New CDC Autism Data Highlights Importance of Long-term Services and Supports, Cultural Competency ( ... STAY CONNECTED Facebook Twitter YouTube E-mail Updates Administration for Community Living • Washington, DC 20201 Last Modified: ...

  6. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lives: Patient Admission Video This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points ... importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind ...

  7. Living Well with Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can lupus affect my friendships? Can lupus cause depression? How will lupus affect my family? How does lupus affect memory? 1 2 3 Next Share This Page Facebook Twitter Email Print Popular Topics living well nutrition ...

  8. Living Beyond Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthesis Complementary Therapy Types of Complementary Therapy Acupuncture Art Therapy Diet, Nutrition and Exercise Expressive Writing Guided ... SIGN UP FOR OUR MAILING LIST SIGN UP Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Living Beyond Breast Cancer Conference ...

  9. Living with Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Anemia Often, you can treat and control anemia. If ... by an inherited or chronic disease or trauma. Anemia and Children/Teens Infants and young children have ...

  10. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls TOPIC ONLY cancel submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z ...

  11. Living With Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Follow Us Health Information > Health Communication Programs > National Diabetes Education Program > Living With Diabetes | Share External Link Disclaimer National Diabetes Education Program NDEP Health Information A-Z Expand By ...

  12. Living with Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment of chronic hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis B (HBV) infections. Back to top Living With Hepatitis C In past years, many individuals learned that they have HCV from a blood test during a routine physical or because they attempted ...

  13. Living with Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.lung.org > Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Pulmonary Fibrosis Living With Pulmonary Fibrosis What to Expect ... while processing XML file."); } }); } } --> Blank Section Header Lung Disease Lookup Pulmonary Fibrosis Learn About Pulmonary Fibrosis Pulmonary Fibrosis Symptoms, ...

  14. [Promoting Living Kidney Transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiu-Chu

    2016-04-01

    Kidney transplantation is the best approach for treating patients with end stage renal disease, offering patients the best chance of returning to normal health. While the techniques used in kidney transplantation surgery are mature and highly successful, there is a severe shortage of donor organs. Statistics show a serious imbalance between organ donations and patients on the waiting list for organ transplantation. Moreover, evidence from empirical studies has shown a better transplantation outcome for patients who receive living donor transplantation than for those who receive organs from cadavers. Although using relatives as donors offers an effective way to reduce the problem of organ shortage, this strategy faces many challenges and many other factors affect the promotion of living donor transplantation. This article elaborates how cultural and psychological factors, kidney transplantation awareness, and ethics and laws impact upon living kidney donations and then proposes coping strategies for promoting living kidney transplantation. PMID:27026555

  15. Old men living alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Frausing; Munk, Karen Pallesgaard

    2014-01-01

    Background: Even in the Danish welfare state inequality in health proves hard to overcome. According to the literature elderly men living alone seem to be a vulnerable group in several respects: they lead shorter lives; are at increased risk of committing suicide; and some are found to have....... 1. An electronic survey is distributed nationwide to municipal preventive home visitors in order to obtain information about their views on the men’s particular needs and the suitability of current health care services. 2. A group of elderly men living alone is interviewed about their own opinions...... and views on the matters. Results: It is expected that the study will contribute to a nuanced basis of knowledge for the public health care services for elderly men living alone. Also importantly, we wish to focus health care professionals’ attention to the question of realistic and meaningful goals...

  16. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. ... than those who don't. In the following video, you'll see how easy it is to ...

  17. Living with Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Tuberculosis Living With Tuberculosis What to Expect You will need regular checkups ... Blank Section Header Lung Disease Lookup Learn About Tuberculosis Tuberculosis Symptoms, Causes & Risk Factors Diagnosing and Treating ...

  18. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... think about CDC podcasts >> Listen/Watch Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient ... objects or surfaces in the hospital room, before eating, and after using the restroom. It is important ...

  19. Living with Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Chronic Bronchitis If you have chronic bronchitis, you can take steps to control your symptoms. ... and a pneumonia vaccine. If you have chronic bronchitis, you may benefit from pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). PR ...

  20. Living liquid crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Shuang; Sokolov, Andrey; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; Aranson, Igor S.

    2014-01-01

    Collective motion of self-propelled organisms or synthetic particles often termed active fluid has attracted enormous attention in broad scientific community because of it fundamentally non-equilibrium nature. Energy input and interactions among the moving units and the medium lead to complex dynamics. Here we introduce a new class of active matter, living liquid crystals (LLCs) that combine living swimming bacteria with a lyotropic liquid crystal. The physical properties of LLCs can be contr...

  1. Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Waleed A; Al-Akraa, Mahmoud M

    2005-07-01

    With the number of patients presently awaiting renal transplantation exceeding the number of cadaveric organs available, there is an increasing reliance on live renal donation. Of the 11,869 renal transplants performed in 2002 in the US, 52.6% were living donors from the United Network for Organ Sharing Registry. Renal allografts from living donors provide: superior immediate long-term function; require less waiting time and are more cost-effective than those from cadaveric donors. However, anticipation of postoperative pain and temporary occupational disability may dissuade many potential donors. Additionally, some recipients hesitate to accept a living donor kidney due to suffering that would be endured by the donor. It is a unique medical situation when a young, completely healthy donor undergoes a major surgical procedure to provide an organ for transplantation. It is mandatory to offer a surgical technique, which is safe and with minimal complications. It is also obvious for any organ transplantation, that the integrity of the organ remain intact, thus, enabling its successful transplantation into the recipient. An acceptably short ischemia time and adequate lengths of ureter and renal vasculature are favored. Many centers are performing laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy in an effort to ease convalescence of renal donors. This may encourage the consideration of live donation by recipients and potential donors. PMID:16047050

  2. Choosing a Senior Living Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that be an independent living community, assisted living community or nursing home. However, there are numerous signs that a ... Download the Guide to Choosing an Assisted Living Community checklist. ... living, assisted living, nursing homes, etc.-it's important to assess your or ...

  3. Medicaid expenditures for children living with smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Douglas E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with increased morbidity. We estimated Medicaid expenditures for children living with smokers compared to those living with no smokers in the United States. Methods Data were overall and service-specific (i.e., inpatient, ambulatory, emergency department, prescription drug, and dental annual Medicaid expenditures for children 0-11 years old from the 2000-2007 Medical Expenditures Panel Surveys. Smokers' presence in households was determined by adult respondents' self reports. There were 25,835 person-years of observation. We used multivariate analyses to adjust for child, parent, and geographic characteristics. Results Children with Medicaid expenditures were nearly twice as likely to live with a smoker as other children in the U.S. population. Adjusted analyses revealed no detectable differences in children's overall Medicaid expenditures by presence of smokers in the household. Medicaid children who lived with smokers on average had $10 (95% CI $3, $18 higher emergency department expenditures per year than those living with no smokers. Conclusions Living with at least one smoker (a proxy for secondhand smoke exposure is unrelated to children's overall short-term Medicaid expenditures, but has a modest impact on emergency department expenditures. Additional research is necessary to understand the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure and long-term health and economic outcomes.

  4. 75 FR 13521 - Centers for Independent Living Program-Training and Technical Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ..., and leadership of individuals with disabilities and integrate these individuals into the mainstream of... populations may not be supportive of interventions by ``outsiders'' to provide independent living...

  5. Genetic structure and hierarchical population divergence history of Acer mono var. mono in South and Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Liu

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the genetic structure and evolutionary history of tree species across their ranges is essential for the development of effective conservation and forest management strategies. Acer mono var. mono, an economically and ecologically important maple species, is extensively distributed in Northeast China (NE, whereas it has a scattered and patchy distribution in South China (SC. In this study, the genetic structure and demographic history of 56 natural populations of A. mono var. mono were evaluated using seven nuclear microsatellite markers. Neighbor-joining tree and STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated populations into NE and SC groups with two admixed-like populations. Allelic richness significantly decreased with increasing latitude within the NE group while both allelic richness and expected heterozygosity showed significant positive correlation with latitude within the SC group. Especially in the NE region, previous studies in Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus mandshurica have also detected reductions in genetic diversity with increases in latitude, suggesting this pattern may be common for tree species in this region, probably due to expansion from single refugium following the last glacial maximum (LGM. Approximate Bayesian Computation-based analysis revealed two major features of hierarchical population divergence in the species' evolutionary history. Recent divergence between the NE group and the admixed-like group corresponded to the LGM period and ancient divergence of SC groups took place during mid-late Pleistocene period. The level of genetic differentiation was moderate (FST  = 0.073; G'ST  = 0.278 among all populations, but significantly higher in the SC group than the NE group, mirroring the species' more scattered distribution in SC. Conservation measures for this species are proposed, taking into account the genetic structure and past demographic history identified in this study.

  6. What is living PSA?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the pioneering work into living probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) within Nuclear Electric plc as part of its strategic development programme. This programme is targeted to provide risk management tools to assist in optimizing the testing and maintenance arrangements for the essential safety systems within the company's nuclear power plants. Three broad categories of living PSA development are described with their advantages. The first is a Stage 1 living PSA which is an off-line PSA which can be upgraded on a regular basis. Then a Stage 2 living PSA which is an on-line time-independent PSA, in which standby component failure probabilities are modelled at the end of their inspection period, and is updated by the plant operator as and when changes in plant configuration (i.e. opening/closing sectioning valves) or plant availability occur. Finally a Stage 3 living PSA which is an on-line dynamic PSA, in which all standby components are modelled with respect to their last inspection time, and is updated by the plant operator as and when changes in plant configuration and plant availability occur and when testing takes place. (author)

  7. Intestinal transplantation: living related.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, S G

    1997-01-01

    The use of live donors in intestinal transplantation could potentially both reduce the severity of rejection responses against this highly immunogenic organ by better tissue matching and also reduce cold ischaemia times. These two advantages over cadaveric grafts could preserve mucosal integrity and reduce the risk of systemic sepsis from bacterial translocation. The disadvantages of live donation are the inherent risk to the donor and the compromise of using a shorter graft. Although only a handful of such cases have been performed, the success rate has been high and this is a therapeutic modality which should be explored further. PMID:9536535

  8. More Years Better Lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine

    2014-01-01

    and active but not in the workforce. Demographic change is caused by three factors: rising life expectancy, an upward trend which has been consistent for over a century; low fertility rates, which vary between countries, but are overall below replacement rate; and migration, within Europe itself and between...... and assistive technologies are enabling people to live longer and healthier lives, but sometimes at a substantial cost. Communication technologies are transforming how people interact, how business is done and how public services are delivered. These changes have positive and negative dimensions and can present...

  9. The Lewis Histo-Blood Group System: Molecular Analysis of the 59T>G, 508G>A, and 1067T>A Polymorphisms in an Amazonian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Corvelo, Tereza Cristina de Oliveira; de Loiola, Rosane do Socorro Pompeu; Aguiar, Délia Cristina Figueira; de Matos, Gyselly de Cássia Bastos; de Brito, Danielle Calado

    2013-01-01

    Background The Lewis (FUT3) gene is responsible for the expression of the Lea and Leb blood group antigens. The individuals, who not synthesize these antigens have the phenotype Lewis negative, due to the presence of some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), such as 59T>G, 508G>A and 1067T>A, whose distribution is different in various ethnic groups. Our aim was to verify the frequencies of these SNPs in an admixed population of Belém-Pará-Brazil. Materials and Methods Polymerase chain reac...

  10. The Genomic Signature of Population Reconnection Following Isolation: From Theory to HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Alcala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ease of worldwide travel provides increased opportunities for organisms not only to colonize new environments but also to encounter related but diverged populations. Such events of reconnection and secondary contact of previously isolated populations are widely observed at different time scales. For example, during the quaternary glaciation, sea water level fluctuations caused temporal isolation of populations, often to be followed by secondary contact. At shorter time scales, population isolation and reconnection of viruses are commonly observed, and such events are often associated with epidemics and pandemics. Here, using coalescent theory and simulations, we describe the temporal impact of population reconnection after isolation on nucleotide differences and the site frequency spectrum, as well as common summary statistics of DNA variation. We identify robust genomic signatures of population reconnection after isolation. We utilize our development to infer the recent evolutionary history of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1 in Asia and South America, successfully retrieving the successive HIV subtype colonization events in these regions. Our analysis reveals that divergent HIV-1 subtype populations are currently admixing in these regions, suggesting that HIV-1 may be undergoing a process of homogenization, contrary to popular belief.

  11. Readiness for living technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Péronard, Jean-Paul de Cros

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a comparative analysis between workers in healthcare with high and low degree of readiness for living technology such as robotics. To explore the differences among workers’ readiness for robotics in healthcare, statistical analysis was conducted in the data set obtained from 200...

  12. Living with Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Disease If you have coronary heart disease (CHD), you can take steps to control its ... the section of this article titled "How Is Heart Disease Treated?" You also can visit the Health Topics ...

  13. Test Pattern For Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas

    The lives of Americans today are ruled by interlocking corporations. These corporations together present only one kind of life as viable: the consumer's life. Television is their main means of presenting this view. One cannot choose something he does not know about, and many Americans are not sufficiently informed of the alternatives to make an…

  14. Teachers Transform Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Delia

    2001-01-01

    Teachers transform lives, and the ripple effect goes on for years. Three pertinent questions are asked in this paper: Where does this power come from? What is its source? and What makes teachers so special? Two aspects of these questions are the multiplicity of identities that coexist within each teacher and the passion inside teachers that…

  15. The Living Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  16. Loneliness and Living Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancliffe, Roger J.; Lakin, K. Charlie; Doljanac, Robert; Byun, Soo-Yong; Taub, Sarah; Chiri, Giuseppina

    2007-01-01

    Adults with ID/DD live in increasingly small community settings, where the risk of loneliness may be greater. We examined self-reported loneliness among 1,002 individuals with ID/DD from 5 states in relation to community residence size, personal characteristics, social contact, and social climate. One third reported being lonely sometimes and one…

  17. Living Systems Energy Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

  18. Living with Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips from the Health Care Team Finding Resources Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Educational Materials Do you want ... resources & more. Order Free Materials Today Living with Parkinson’s “Parkinson’s is a part of my life, but ...

  19. A "Living" Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.R.Bogatyrev

    2004-01-01

    Biomimetics (or bionics) is the engineering discipline that constructs artificial systems using biological principles. The ideal final result in biomimetics is to create a living machine. But what are the desirable and non-desirable properties of biomimetic product? Where can natural prototypes be found? How can technical solutions be transferred from nature to technology? Can we use living nature like LEGO bricks for construction our machines? How can biology help us? What is a living machine? In biomimetic practice only some "part" (organ, part of organ, tissue) of the observed whole organism is utilized. A possible template for future super-organism extension for biomimetic methods might be drawn from experiments in holistic ecological agriculture (ecological design, permaculture, ecological engineering, etc. ). The necessary translation of these rules to practical action can be achieved with the Russian Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), specifically adjusted to biology. Thus, permaculture, reinforced by a TRIZ conceptual framework, might provide the basis for Super-Organismic Bionics, which is hypothesized as necessary for effective ecological engineering. This hypothesis is supported by a case study-the design of a sustainable artificial nature reserve for wild pollinators as a living machine.

  20. Living in history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Norman R.; Lee, Peter J.; Krslak, Mirna;

    2009-01-01

    Foreslår et paradigme - "Living in history" - til undersøgelse af forholdet mellem samtidshistorie og selvbiografisk hukommelse. Metoden spørger ikke direkte og altså ikke til den anknytning, man bevidst ville vælge at fremhæve, men undersøger indirekte, om der spontant associeres til samtidsbegi...

  1. Design for Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Bringing a newborn home from the hospital can come with stress for any parent. Coming home with twins can be double the stress. This article shares the story of a couple faced with this situation 12 years ago with the birth of twins, one was born with complications. They lived in a Colonial until the twins were almost five years old, at which time…

  2. Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are Some Benefits of a Living-donor Liver Transplant? In the U.S., more than 17,500 patients ... 1,700 patients die each year while waiting. Liver transplants are given to patients on the basis of ...

  3. Living with Crohn's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Crohn's Disease Living with Crohn's Disease Past Issues / Winter 2016 Table of Contents Photo ... Why have you chosen to speak out about Crohn's disease? For many years I really didn't talk ...

  4. Population Aging and Inventive Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Irmen, Andreas; Litina, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    This research empirically establishes and theoretically motivates the hypothesis that population aging has a hump-shaped effect on inventive activity. We estimate this hump-shaped relationship in a panel of 33 OECD countries over the period 1960-2012. The increasing part of the hump captures the awareness that population aging requires inventive activity to guarantee current and future standards of living. The decreasing part reflects the tendency of aging societies to lose dynamism and the w...

  5. Polymorphisms at 17 Y-STR loci in Botswana populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tau, Tiroyamodimo; Davison, Sean; D'Amato, María Eugenia

    2015-07-01

    Seventeen Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (YSTRs)-DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS385a/b, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, and Y-GATA-H4-were analyzed in 252 unrelated male individuals from Botswana. A total of 238 unique haplotypes were identified. The discrimination capacity (DC) was 0.9444 whereas the haplotype diversity (HD) was 0.9990. A database search of the 238 unique haplotypes in the Y chromosome haplogroup database (YHRD) yielded three African American, six Sub-Saharan African, and two admixed South American matches. Five additional African-American matches were detected in the Applied Biosystems Y-STR database. RST, multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) and AMOVA were used to investigate population differentiation in Sub-Saharan Africa and in Botswana. The populations in Sub-Saharan Africa were found to be heterogeneous, with Botswana showing significant differences from its neighbors. No geographic regional or ethnic differentiation was observed within Botswana. Regional and ethnic variation can be useful in forensic working hypotheses. PMID:25817844

  6. Population: Census Bureau Total Estimates (2010-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Total population estimates are estimates of the total number of residents living in an area on July 1 of each year. The Census Bureau’s Population Division produces...

  7. Estimates of the Legal Permanent Resident Population: 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report presents estimates of the legal permanent resident (LPR) population living in the United States on January 1, 2011. The LPR population includes persons...

  8. Estimates of the Legal Permanent Resident Population: 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report presents estimates of the legal permanent resident (LPR) population living in the United States on January 1, 2012. The LPR population includes persons...

  9. Estimates of the Legal Permanent Resident Population: 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report presents estimates of the legal permanent resident (LPR) population living in the United States on January 1, 2009. The LPR population includes persons...

  10. FastStats: Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NCHS Home Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... U.S. Live births for Asian or Pacific Islander population Number of births: 282,723 Births per 1, ...

  11. Dispersal and gene flow in free-living marine nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Derycke Sofie; Backeljau Thierry; Moens Tom

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Dispersal and gene flow determine connectivity among populations, and can be studied through population genetics and phylogeography. We here review the results of such a framework for free-living marine nematodes. Although field experiments have illustrated substantial dispersal in nematodes at ecological time scales, analysis of the genetic diversity illustrated the importance of priority effects, founder effects and genetic bottlenecks for population structuring between patches

  12. Dispersal and gene flow in free-living marine nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derycke Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dispersal and gene flow determine connectivity among populations, and can be studied through population genetics and phylogeography. We here review the results of such a framework for free-living marine nematodes. Although field experiments have illustrated substantial dispersal in nematodes at ecological time scales, analysis of the genetic diversity illustrated the importance of priority effects, founder effects and genetic bottlenecks for population structuring between patches

  13. The Living Standards of Russia's Population in 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Misikhina

    2014-01-01

    Over 2013, the population’s real disposable income rose by 3.3%. The salary level in the budget-funded sphere was being raised at a high rate – which, however, proved to be insufficient to meet the targets set in the President of the Russian Federation's Executive Order of 7 May 2012, No. 597 'On Measures Aimed at the Implementation of Government Social Policy'. The income inequality index over the period January–September 2013 somewhat increased. The poverty level over the first 9 months of ...

  14. Traffic indicator for population living near busy roads, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains values for a traffic exposure indicator designated by the State Environmental Health Indicators Collaborative, Council of State and...

  15. Food habits of a portuguese immigrant population living in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, Susana Margarida Moreira de

    2000-01-01

    Contém um relatório de estágio realizado no Departamento de Ciências Sociais da Faculdade de Nutrição e Economia Doméstica da Universidade de Justus-Liebig, Giessen, Alemanha e no Centro Social Paroquial de Alfena, no âmbito da licenciatura em Ciências da Nutrição pela Faculdade de Ciências da Nutrição e Alimentação da Universidade do Porto. O exemplar do relatório de estágio existe apenas em formato papel e está disponível para consulta na Biblioteca da FCNAUP

  16. Decision making in a human population living sustainably.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, John S; Burgman, Mark A; Marewski, Julian N; Fidler, Fiona; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2012-10-01

    The Tiwi people of northern Australia have managed natural resources continuously for 6000-8000 years. Tiwi management objectives and outcomes may reflect how they gather information about the environment. We qualitatively analyzed Tiwi documents and management techniques to examine the relation between the social and physical environment of decision makers and their decision-making strategies. We hypothesized that principles of bounded rationality, namely, the use of efficient rules to navigate complex decision problems, explain how Tiwi managers use simple decision strategies (i.e., heuristics) to make robust decisions. Tiwi natural resource managers reduced complexity in decision making through a process that gathers incomplete and uncertain information to quickly guide decisions toward effective outcomes. They used management feedback to validate decisions through an information loop that resulted in long-term sustainability of environmental use. We examined the Tiwi decision-making processes relative to management of barramundi (Lates calcarifer) fisheries and contrasted their management with the state government's management of barramundi. Decisions that enhanced the status of individual people and their attainment of aspiration levels resulted in reliable resource availability for Tiwi consumers. Different decision processes adopted by the state for management of barramundi may not secure similarly sustainable outcomes. PMID:22891858

  17. Factors affecting haematological indices in free-living fish populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lusková, Věra

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 4 (1998), s. 249-255. ISSN 0001-7213. [International ichthyohaematology conference /5./. Protivín, 30.11.1998-03.12.1998] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA514/95/0203; GA AV ČR IAA6087704 Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.288, year: 1998 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol67/249-98.htm

  18. Falls Reduction and Exercise Training in an Assisted Living Population

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Kimberly J.; Shannen Kirchner; Serena Chu; Sarah Smith; Wendy Winnick-Baskin; Mielenz, Thelma J.

    2015-01-01

    Multicomponent exercise programs are currently an efficacious fall prevention strategy among community dwelling older adults although research documents differential falls susceptibility among frail older adults. This study aimed to examine the association between the Boston FICSIT (Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques) exercise program (the original exercise program to demonstrate that nursing home residents can increase strength) and falls incidents in an ass...

  19. Promoting Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    THE world's population reached 5 billion in 1987,then 6 billion in 1999;now,in 2011,it is 7 billion.For a country with a set birth control policy,the way in which Chinese people and the media view this number has greatly changed.People are increasingly reflecting on the concept of population from a more scientific and rational perspective.This shift is a change from how people perceived population in the past.

  20. Incinerators and health. Exposure to dioxines of the population living near U.I.O.M. state of knowledge and protocol of an exposure study; Incinerateurs et sante. Exposition aux dioxines de la population vivant a proximite des UIOM. Etat des connaissances et protocole d'une etude d'exposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-15

    For several years, dioxines, very stable and ubiquitous pollutants that can be found in the food chain, have drawn continuous attention from actors implicated in waste management, from the general population and from scientists. Indeed, waste incineration is still a cause for concern for the general public in light of the significant emission of pollutants, specifically dioxines, emitted by certain waste incinerators that were recently shut down or brought up to standards. Between 1998 and 2003, the total number of incinerators in France decreased from 300 to 123, and their dioxin emissions were significantly reduced. Public health studies are nevertheless necessary because of the continued presence of dioxines in the environment. The Institut de veille sanitaire (National Institute of Public Health Surveillance) and the Agence francaise de securite sanitaire des aliments (French Food Safety Agency) convened a group of experts to better understand the dioxin exposure of people residing in close proximity to municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) as well as the determinants of this exposure, specifically the consumption of local products. This report gathers the existing data necessary for the production of a study protocol. It contains four parts dealing respectively with: - the contribution of MSWIs to dioxin exposure by air and food consumption while identifying relevant criteria to select MSWIs for the protocol and the method determining the area(s) of study; - the most adapted food study method to estimate dioxin exposure via food consumption, specifically the consumption of food commodities produced in the local atmospheric deposition area of a MSWI and the identification of the type of population most appropriate for the study; - a selection of the most relevant biological indicators of dioxin exposure and PCBs, their levels as recorded in various countries and their variation factors; - and a proposal for a multicenter study protocol. This study will be

  1. The experiment in living

    OpenAIRE

    Marres, Noortje

    2012-01-01

    This article engages with debates about widening participation in social research by examining a specific form of public action and knowledge, namely experiments in sustainable living. I propose that these experiments may be approached as forms of social research, and as such offer special opportunities for social research to insert itself into wider societal research arrangements. The article develops the notion of the multifarious instrument which highlights that genres of public action may...

  2. HEALTHY LIVING WITH NUTRACEUTICALS

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka Singh; Bina Rani; Chauhan, A. K.; Raaz Maheshwari

    2011-01-01

    Now a day every person wants to live the healthy life. Synthetic medicines are having some certain drawbacks. So nutraceuticals will definitely play promising and unique way of safer medicines. Nature is one of the most important resources of human foods and medicines. Rapidly increasing knowledge on nutrition, medicine, and plant has fortunately changed the concepts about food, health and, brought in a revolution on them. Nutritional therapy and phototherapy have emerged as new concepts of s...

  3. Active Travel - Healthy Lives

    OpenAIRE

    Institute of Public Health in Ireland

    2011-01-01

    Across Ireland, there is considerable scope to replace many short car journeys with walking and cycling which would bring about a range of benefits to health as well as saving money for individuals and society.'Active travel, healthy lives' presents a summary of international evidence on the health and economic benefits of active travel and makes recommendations on how active travel can become a viable, safe and attractive alternative to car use.

  4. Learning, Working and Living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke

    In the recent years, learning and knowing have emerged as key issues in understanding work organizations. Identifying ways in which learning can be supported in the workplace has been a long standing concern for organization studies and education. The book presents new ways of thinking about...... learning at work. Moreover it paves the way for the repositioning of learning, working and living in the context of organizationel complexity....

  5. Canada: Living with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadians are exposed daily to a variety of naturally occurring radiation. Heat and light from the sun, are familiar examples. Radium and uranium are naturally occurring materials which have been found to emit radiation and so have been called radioactive. There are also various types of artificially produced forms of radiation that are employed routinely in modern living, such as radio and television waves and microwaves. X-rays, another common type of radiation, are widely used in medicine as are some man-made radioactive substances. These emit radiation just like naturally occurring radioactive materials. Surveys have shown that many people have a poor understanding of the risks associated with the activities of modern living. Exposure to ionizing radiation from radioactive materials is also considered by many persons to have a high risk, This booklet attempts to inform the readers about ionizing radiation, its uses and the risks associated with it, and to put these risks in perspective with the risks of other activities and practices. A range of topics from medical uses of radiation to emergency planning, from biological effects of radiation to nuclear power, each topic is explained to relate radiation to our everyday lives. 44 figs

  6. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  7. Genomic reconstruction of the history of extant populations of India reveals five distinct ancestral components and a complex structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Analabha; Sarkar-Roy, Neeta; Majumder, Partha P

    2016-02-01

    India, occupying the center stage of Paleolithic and Neolithic migrations, has been underrepresented in genome-wide studies of variation. Systematic analysis of genome-wide data, using multiple robust statistical methods, on (i) 367 unrelated individuals drawn from 18 mainland and 2 island (Andaman and Nicobar Islands) populations selected to represent geographic, linguistic, and ethnic diversities, and (ii) individuals from populations represented in the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP), reveal four major ancestries in mainland India. This contrasts with an earlier inference of two ancestries based on limited population sampling. A distinct ancestry of the populations of Andaman archipelago was identified and found to be coancestral to Oceanic populations. Analysis of ancestral haplotype blocks revealed that extant mainland populations (i) admixed widely irrespective of ancestry, although admixtures between populations was not always symmetric, and (ii) this practice was rapidly replaced by endogamy about 70 generations ago, among upper castes and Indo-European speakers predominantly. This estimated time coincides with the historical period of formulation and adoption of sociocultural norms restricting intermarriage in large social strata. A similar replacement observed among tribal populations was temporally less uniform. PMID:26811443

  8. Population crises and population cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C; Russell, W M

    2000-01-01

    To prevent a population irretrievably depleting its resources, mammals have evolved a behavioural and physiological response to population crisis. When a mammalian population becomes dangerously dense, there is a reversal of behaviour. Co-operation and parental behaviour are replaced by competition, dominance and aggressive violence, leading to high mortality, especially of females and young, and a reduced population. The stress of overpopulation and the resulting violence impairs both the immune and the reproductive systems. Hence epidemics complete the crash of the population, and reproduction is slowed for three or four generations, giving the resources ample time to recover. In some mammal species, crisis and crisis response recur regularly, leading to cycles of population growth and relapse, oscillating about a fixed mean. Population crisis response and population cycles have been equally prominent in the history of human societies. But in man successive advances in food production have made possible growing populations, though with every such advance population soon outgrew resources again. Hence human cycles have been superimposed on a rising curve, producing a saw-tooth graph. Because advances in food production amounted to sudden disturbances in the relations between human populations and their environments, the crisis response in man has failed to avert famine and resource damage. In the large human societies evolved since the coming of settled agriculture and cities, the basic effects of violence, epidemics, famine and resource damage have been mediated by such specifically human disasters as inflation, unemployment, and political tyranny. An account of past crises, periods of relative relief from population pressure, and resulting cycles, is given for a number of regions: China, North Africa and Western Asia, the northern Mediterranean, and north-western Europe. The paper ends with an account of the present world-wide population crisis, and the solution

  9. Live from the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, W. K.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Warburton, J.; Sunwood, K.

    2003-12-01

    For reasons of geography and geophysics, the poles of our planet, the Arctic and Antarctica, are places where climate change appears first: they are global canaries in the mine shaft. But while Antarctica (its penguins and ozone hole, for example) has been relatively well-documented in recent books, TV programs and journalism, the far North has received somewhat less attention. This project builds on and advances what has been done to date to share the people, places, and stories of the North with all Americans through multiple media, over several years. In a collaborative project between the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) and PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE, Live from the Arctic will bring the Arctic environment to the public through a series of primetime broadcasts, live and taped programming, interactive virtual field trips, and webcasts. The five-year project will culminate during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year (IPY). Live from the Arctic will: A. Promote global understanding about the value and world -wide significance of the Arctic, B. Bring cutting-edge research to both non-formal and formal education communities, C. Provide opportunities for collaboration between arctic scientists, arctic communities, and the general public. Content will focus on the following four themes. 1. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts on Land (i.e. snow cover; permafrost; glaciers; hydrology; species composition, distribution, and abundance; subsistence harvesting) 2. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Sea (i.e. salinity, temperature, currents, nutrients, sea ice, marine ecosystems (including people, marine mammals and fisheries) 3. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Atmosphere (i.e. precipitation and evaporation; effects on humans and their communities) 4. Global Perspectives (i.e. effects on humans and communities, impacts to rest of the world) In The Earth is Faster Now, a recent collection of comments by members of indigenous arctic peoples, arctic

  10. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  11. Living with Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living With Deep Vein Thrombosis Explore Deep Vein Thrombosis What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics ...

  12. Consumer Coalition on Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to content Home Dementia Action Alliance Consumers Caregiving Info Consumer Empowerment Informed Consumer Contact Us Person-Centered Living Person-Centered Living Overview PCL Resources Home- and Community-Based Services Overview ...

  13. Temperature - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  14. KLA - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  15. Living with Lupus (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Living With Lupus KidsHealth > For Parents > Living With Lupus Print A ... disease for both doctors and their patients. About Lupus A healthy immune system produces proteins called antibodies ...

  16. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... need dialysis after the operation?” One of the advantages of living donation is that these kidneys essentially ... were removed from the donor. One of the advantages of living donor is that time is from ...

  17. Living with Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sickle cell disease, go to the Health Topics Sickle Cell Anemia article. Living With and Managing Sickle Cell Disease ( ... the most severe form of sickle cell disease, sickle cell anemia, Tiffany has lived with the symptoms and complications ...

  18. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... door to informed medical care. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Good evening, I’m Dr. ... door to informed medical care. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. 13

  19. On The Living Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Richards

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This text discusses the work The Living Room, directed by the author, and reflects on its meanings and functions. The article confronts problems performance raises in relation to contemporary social life, bringing forward the isolation of life today and the possibilities performance offers to fight it. We problematise the crisis experienced by the author and the consequent creation of the work as a mobile performative device in relation to the staging space. Finally, the work questions the forms of interaction and type of participation possible in performance.

  20. Healthy living after Chernobyl?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our food today is endangered not only through environmental poisons and the machinations of profit-hungry manufacturers but also, after the reactor disaster of Chernobyl, by radioactive materials. There is great uncertainty amongst consumers: Whan can I still eat? How can I best protect my children from food products contaminated by radioactivity or enriched with pollutants? Does it still make sense to buy organically produced foodstuffs? Which food products are low in pollutants? With this book the authors want to counteract general helplessness and help the reader with comprehensible and sound information as well as practical tips for eating and living healthily after Chernobyl. (orig.)

  1. Living olefin polymerization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  2. HTTP Live Streaming

    OpenAIRE

    Honkanen, Kalle

    2011-01-01

    Tässä työssä käsiteltävä HTTP Live Streaming -protokolla on nopeasti yleistyvä vakiintuneisiin Internet-standardeihin perustuva suoratoistoprotokolla, jonka avulla voidaan rakentaa esimerkiksi korkealaatuinen mobiililaajakaistaverkon kautta toimiva radio- tai televisiopalvelu, jonka sisältöä voidaan muokata käyttäjäkohtaisesti. Protokollan määrittävä standardi ei ole vielä aivan täysin valmis, mutta se on jo laajalti käytössä Applen päätelaitteille tuotetuissa palveluissa, heidän asettami...

  3. Live and let die

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2004-01-01

    article ?Living on a Lifeboat?. Below, Hardin`s ?Lifeboat ethic? is reviewed and critically discussed, focusing on the hidden premises embedded in Hardin`s position. In the final part of the paper, the environmental consequences of economic growth and increasing consumption levels in wealthy nations are...... globally solidary development appears to have declined significantly. Instead a cynicism or hostility against ?the Others? seems to gain momentum. Within the environmental discourse, such cynicism is rooted in particular in the writings of the influential American biologist Garrett Hardin, notably his 1974...

  4. Living in a Superposition

    CERN Document Server

    Hartle, James B

    2015-01-01

    This essay considers a model quantum universe consisting of a very large box containing a screen with two slits and an observer (us) that can pass though the slits. We apply the modern quantum mechanics of closed systems to calculate the probabilities for alternative histories of how we move through the universe and what we see. After passing through the screen with the slits, the quantum state of the universe is a superposition of classically distinguishable histories. We are then living in a superposition. Some frequently asked questions about such situations are answered using this model. The model's relationship to more realistic quantum cosmologies is briefly discussed.

  5. Child health and living at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niermeyer, S; Andrade Mollinedo, P; Huicho, L

    2009-10-01

    The health of children born and living at high altitude is shaped not only by the low-oxygen environment, but also by population ancestry and sociocultural determinants. High altitude and the corresponding reduction in oxygen delivery during pregnancy result in lower birth weight with higher elevation. Children living at high elevations are at special risk for hypoxaemia during infancy and during acute lower respiratory infection, symptomatic high-altitude pulmonary hypertension, persistence of fetal vascular connections, and re-entry high-altitude pulmonary oedema. However, child health varies from one population group to another due to genetic adaptation as well as factors such as nutrition, intercurrent infection, exposure to pollutants and toxins, socioeconomic status, and access to medical care. Awareness of the risks uniquely associated with living at high altitude and monitoring of key health indicators can help protect the health of children at high altitude. These considerations should be incorporated into the scaling-up of effective interventions for improving global child health and survival. PMID:19066173

  6. Intraspecific genetic admixture and the morphological diversification of an estuarine fish population complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Julian J; Bourret, Audrey; Barrette, Marie France; Turgeon, Julie; Daigle, Gaétan; Legault, Michel; Lecomte, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The North-east American Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) is composed of two glacial races first identified through the spatial distribution of two distinct mtDNA lineages. Contemporary breeding populations of smelt in the St. Lawrence estuary comprise contrasting mixtures of both lineages, suggesting that the two races came into secondary contact in this estuary. The overall objective of this study was to assess the role of intraspecific genetic admixture in the morphological diversification of the estuarine rainbow smelt population complex. The morphology of mixed-ancestry populations varied as a function of the relative contribution of the two races to estuarine populations, supporting the hypothesis of genetic admixture. Populations comprising both ancestral mtDNA races did not exhibit intermediate morphologies relative to pure populations but rather exhibited many traits that exceeded the parental trait values, consistent with the hypothesis of transgressive segregation. Evidence for genetic admixture at the level of the nuclear gene pool, however, provided only partial support for this hypothesis. Variation at nuclear AFLP markers revealed clear evidence of the two corresponding mtDNA glacial races. The admixture of the two races at the nuclear level is only pronounced in mixed-ancestry populations dominated by one of the mtDNA lineages, the same populations showing the greatest degree of morphological diversification and population structure. In contrast, mixed-ancestry populations dominated by the alternate mtDNA lineage showed little evidence of introgression of the nuclear genome, little morphological diversification and little contemporary population genetic structure. These results only partially support the hypothesis of transgressive segregation and may be the result of the differential effects of natural selection acting on admixed genomes from different sources. PMID:25856193

  7. Live weight and body measurement of Hungarian Thoroughbred broodmares

    OpenAIRE

    Szabolcs Bene; Anita Giczi; Zsuzsanna Nagy; Zsuzsanna Benedek; Ferenc Szabo; Peter Polgar

    2013-01-01

    Live weights and 21 body measurements of 110 adult brood mares from Thoroughbred breed were evaluated in Hungary. Body measurements and some body measure indices were determined. One way ANOVA was used to compare the studs. Regression equations were developed to estimate the live weight from body measurements. Population genetic parameters of the examined traits were estimated. Only few differences among studs, concerning evaluated body measurements, were presented - firstly: body measurement...

  8. Should humans interfere in the lives of elephants?

    OpenAIRE

    H.P.P. Lötter

    2005-01-01

    Culling seems to be a cruel method of human interference in the lives of elephants. Culling is generally used to control population numbers of highly developed mammals to protect vegetation and habitat for other species. Many people are against human interference in the lives of elephants. In this article aspects of this highly controversial issue are explored. Three fascinating characteristics of this ethical dilemma are discussed in the introductory part, and then the major arguments raised...

  9. CERN's live webcasts

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2012-01-01

    You may well have noticed when watching the seminar on 4 July that the CERN webcast site has had a makeover.   The new-look site went live on 26 June and provides a detailed schedule of upcoming webcasts as well as easy access to those of recent events.  It is fully compatible with Smartphones and tablets - which wasn't the case until now – and enables viewers to see both the speaker and the presentation, thanks to two separate video recordings. Another innovation: permanent webcasts. In a single click, you can access and view all the channels run by the ATLAS collaboration, including Public Outreach channel, Technical channel and Public Development channel.   And if you want to add your own event to the schedule and broadcast it live via the web,  just go to this address. You can also restrict access to your webcasts to a pre-defined audience. Behind the scenes, the webcast service has also been busy modernising its infrastructure:...

  10. Living liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuang; Sokolov, Andrey; Lavrentovich, Oleg D; Aranson, Igor S

    2014-01-28

    Collective motion of self-propelled organisms or synthetic particles, often termed "active fluid," has attracted enormous attention in the broad scientific community because of its fundamentally nonequilibrium nature. Energy input and interactions among the moving units and the medium lead to complex dynamics. Here, we introduce a class of active matter--living liquid crystals (LLCs)--that combines living swimming bacteria with a lyotropic liquid crystal. The physical properties of LLCs can be controlled by the amount of oxygen available to bacteria, by concentration of ingredients, or by temperature. Our studies reveal a wealth of intriguing dynamic phenomena, caused by the coupling between the activity-triggered flow and long-range orientational order of the medium. Among these are (i) nonlinear trajectories of bacterial motion guided by nonuniform director, (ii) local melting of the liquid crystal caused by the bacteria-produced shear flows, (iii) activity-triggered transition from a nonflowing uniform state into a flowing one-dimensional periodic pattern and its evolution into a turbulent array of topological defects, and (iv) birefringence-enabled visualization of microflow generated by the nanometers-thick bacterial flagella. Unlike their isotropic counterpart, the LLCs show collective dynamic effects at very low volume fraction of bacteria, on the order of 0.2%. Our work suggests an unorthodox design concept to control and manipulate the dynamic behavior of soft active matter and opens the door for potential biosensing and biomedical applications. PMID:24474746

  11. The lived experience of grieving for persons living with HIV who have used injection drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, W K

    2000-01-01

    Parse's research method was used to investigate the lived experience of grieving for 10 persons self-identified as HIV-positive injection drug users. These individuals compose an understudied and poorly understood population, and their grief experiences have rarely been documented. The losses grieved by persons living with HIV infection include the loss of life, friends, family members, employment, energy, and sex. The lived experience of grieving was found to be "overwhelming anguish that shapes hopes and intentions as a wretched aloneness is punctuated with cherished uplifting engagements, while gratitude inspires courage in the midst of ambiguity." This new conceptualization of the grieving process is discussed in light of Parse's human becoming theory of nursing. PMID:10826306

  12. [Population problem, comprehension problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallon, F

    1993-08-01

    Overpopulation of developing countries in general, and Rwanda in particular, is not just their problem but a problem for developed countries as well. Rapid population growth is a key factor in the increase of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. Population growth outstrips food production. Africa receives more and more foreign food, economic, and family planning aid each year. The Government of Rwanda encourages reduced population growth. Some people criticize it, but this criticism results in mortality and suffering. One must combat this ignorance, but attitudes change slowly. Some of these same people find the government's acceptance of family planning an invasion of their privacy. Others complain that rich countries do not have campaigns to reduce births, so why should Rwanda do so? The rate of schooling does not increase in Africa, even though the number of children in school increases, because of rapid population growth. Education is key to improvements in Africa's socioeconomic growth. Thus, Africa, is underpopulated in terms of potentiality but overpopulated in terms of reality, current conditions, and possibilities of overexploitation. Africa needs to invest in human resources. Families need to save, and to so, they must refrain from having many children. Africa should resist the temptation to waste, as rich countries do, and denounce it. Africa needs to become more independent of these countries, but structural adjustment plans, growing debt, and rapid population growth limit national independence. Food aid is a means for developed countries to dominate developing countries. Modernization through foreign aid has had some positive effects on developing countries (e.g., improved hygiene, mortality reduction), but these also sparked rapid population growth. Rwandan society is no longer traditional, but it is also not yet modern. A change in mentality to fewer births, better quality of life for living infants, better education, and less burden for women must occur

  13. Population and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlik, Z

    1995-01-01

    During the Paleolithic period, 10,000-100,000 people lived on the earth; their number exceeded 1 million at the beginning of the Neolithic period, reached 10 million during the Bronze Age, 100 million at the beginning of the Iron Age, 1 billion at the beginning of the 19th century, and 5.7 billion in 1995. The estimated global population will be 10 billion by the middle of the 21st century and is expected to stabilize at around 10-12 billion subsequently. Increased agricultural production helped bring about greater numbers of humanity and the advancement of society with a developing social hierarchy, although life expectancy was low at 22-28 years. In Europe, the Renaissance gradually evolved into the Industrial Revolution, and a demographic revolution accompanied this process. In some countries, population size increased more than five times. Eventually, mortality and fertility levels decreased and life expectancy increased. In Western civilization, increased individualism, secularization, compulsory school attendance, decreased agricultural population, emancipation of women, increased costs of raising children, and social and economic progress ensued. All this was preceded by 18th century conditions, when, in England, capital accumulation led to wealth on the one side and destitution on the other, giving rise to Malthus's famous theory. However, during the 19th century these social inequalities gradually evened out. After World War II, the question arose of whether the populations of other civilizations (Confucian, Japanese, Islamic, Hindu, Slavic-Orthodox, Latin American, and African) would also undergo a demographic transition and how soon. At any rate, developed country population size, as a percentage of global population, will drop from 22% to 13%, and that of Africa will increase from 12% to 26%, during the 21st century. PMID:12292830

  14. Regional quality of living in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Lagas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out the conceptual framework and results of Regional Quality of Living indicators that were developed in order to benchmark European NUTS2 regions. Nine non-business-related indicators are constructed to support the goal of policy makers to improve the attractiveness of regions and cities for people or companies to settle in, and by doing so create economic growth. Each of the constructed indicators represents a pillar of the Quality of Living. The highest indicator scores are found for regions within Switzerland, Sweden, Norway and the Netherlands. Some countries show a wide divergence between regional scores. The southern regions of Italy and Spain, for example, have significantly lower scores than those in the north. In addition, capital city regions have better RQI scores. A positive correlation was found between the average RQI scores and both GDP per capita and weighted population density. Compared to GDP per capita, weighted population density has a modest influence on the RQI score. The European regions are divided into 11 clusters, based upon GDP per capita and weighted population density in order to benchmark a region with its peers.

  15. eWall for Active Long Living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis; Prasad, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    Independent living of senior citizens is one of the main challenges linked to the ageing population, due to the impact on: (1) the life of the elderly people, (2) the national health systems, (3) the insurance companies, (4) the relatives and (5) the care-givers. Senior citizens may suffer from...... citizens may suffer from a decline of memory function, less ability to orientate and a declined ability to cope with complex situations. This paper describes work in progress and proposes a novel architecture design for eHealth services in support of independent living and compensating for prevailing age......- or disease-related physical and cognitive impairments for a significant prolongation of the primary end-user’s functional capacity, a delay in institutionalization, increased autonomy and, prolonged participation in the society...

  16. Heaven Palace? Learning from gated high-rise living

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Gated high-rise living has become the most popular housing for middle-class citizens in China re¬cently. The traditional definition of Chinese commu¬nity has been changed and merchandized by liberation of housing market in 1980s. Technology, urban popula-tion growth and high profits empowered the boom of high-rise living. Gated high-rise living stands out in the suburbs distinctively with its physical density and so¬cial implications, separating the suburban fabric. Why is gated high-rise liv...

  17. The Living Space of Migrant Women Workers in a Time of Population Mobility:A Case Study of City J%人口流动背景下的城市女性务工人员活动空间探究--以J市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王征

    2016-01-01

    Surveys show that migrant women workers mostly do low -paid jobs in services or labor -intensive companies.And most of them work in private -owned or individual enterprises rather than government institu-tes or state -owned companies.Many elements limit migrant women workers’ability to obtain or improve their work prospect.Distribution of their living spots is restricted by working distance,living cost or the popu-lation policy of the city.Those who have a spouse mostly rent,while single ones may get a living place from their employment.They enjoy less entertainment than others from the same age group and participate in less social activities which is affected by cultural elements.Their major means of finding a job is turning to ac-quaintances.Their health awareness is comparatively low.Only jobs they are offered are household service or nursing work.They are apparently powerless and lack the means to protect their rights.Their social status definitely needs improving.%调查分析发现,当前中国沿海城市女性流动务工人员大多在中低端服务行业和劳动密集型制造企业工作,在民营企业和个体工商户工作的比例大大高于机关事业单位、国有企业和外资企业。人力资本因素是阻碍女性外来务工人员职业获得和转换的重要因素。她们居住空间的分布受就业地点、生活成本、所在城市人口政策的影响较为明显。其居住方式以自己租房为主,其中无配偶者,用人单位提供住房的比例较大;有配偶者,绝大多数与配偶同住。其业余生活较之其他行业的同龄人更为单调,社交范围面窄而且群体同质性较强,文化因素限制了其社交圈子的扩大,她们寻找职业的途径主要是靠熟人介绍。其健康保健意识不是很强。当地提供给她们的就业门路,大多是家政、护理之类的非正规行业,在社会角色上明显处于弱势而且缺乏相应的维权手段,其社会地位亟待得到提升。

  18. Live and let die

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves Lundin, Ana Luisa

    , samples of active sludge were spiked with a biosensor that expresses GFP when in presence of IPTG, and irradiated at different radiation rates and doses. Amount of metabolic active bacteria after irradiation was measured by flow cytometry. This procedure showed the tremendous potential use of biosensors...... that it has for microbiological studies in general. An overview about stress in bacteria and its connection to bacterial heterogeneity is then outlined, followed by practical applications of flow cytometry based methods in the study of stress and heterogeneity in microbial populations. As a final point...... an innovative holistic approach to describe and study cell population heterogeneity in batch cultures based on experimental and theoretical methods, where the flow cytometer plays an important role in the gathering of experimental data for the construction of theoretical models that model heterogeneous...

  19. Noise perception of the population living in the neighbourhood of the bay of Pasaia (Gipuzkoa Percepción del ruido por la población residente en el entorno de la bahía de Pasaia (Guipúzcoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Aspuru Soloaga

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noise is an environmental pollution agent to which a high percentage of the urban population, as well as residents living around important sources of noise, are exposed.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out to measure the perception of noise of the residents living in the area of the bay of Pasaia (Guipuzkoa, Spain. 351 dwellings were randomly selected. A structured questionnaire was used to gather information about the respondent self-perception of annoyance and sensitivity to noise. The sound pressure levels were estimated using a model that took into account the main characteristics of the different sources of noise.Results: 37.5% of the sample reported to be annoyed by noise. The interviewees declared that the main sourceof annoyance was the traffic (60% followed by the activity in the harbour (24%. The annoyance attributed tonoise was not correlated with the estimated sound level, but with the level of sensitivity to this physical agent(r=0.36; pConclusions: The relationship among the degree of annoyance caused by noise, the sensitivity to noise, the sound levels and other social and demographic variables show a very interrelated and complex phenomenon. The fact that half of the population had taken any measure to protect them from noise could have mitigated the percentage of people that declare to be annoyed by noise.Fundamento: El ruido es un agente de contaminación ambiental al que esta expuesto un porcentaje elevado de la población urbana, así como la residente en el entorno de focos emisores importantes. La bahía de Pasaia es un entorno industrial y urbano degradado ambientalmente con importantes focos de ruido.Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal de percepción al ruido en el entorno de la bahía de Pasaia, en 351 viviendas seleccionadas al azar, utilizando un cuestionario estructurado que recogía información sobre la autopercepción de la molestia y sensibilidad al ruido. La medida de la exposici

  20. 广西区肝癌高发家庭人群乙肝发病情况及生活嗜好的调查分析%INVESTIGATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE HEPATITIS B INCIDENCE AND LIVING HABITS IN POPULATION OF HIGH-INCIDENCE HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA FAMILIES IN GUANGXI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂海明; 金群馨; 姜海行; 唐国都; 韦宗平; 韦忠亮

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨广西区肝癌高发家庭人群乙肝发病情况及不良生活嗜好是否与肝癌高发有关.方法:检测肝癌高发组176例与对照组115例的乙肝病毒标志物、肝细胞酶,并统计两组饮酒人数及饮酒量、吸烟人数及吸烟量,以及食鱼生的人数.结果:高发组HBsAg、HBeAg、抗-HBe、抗-HBc阳性率明显高于对照组,而两组的抗-HBs阳性率无明显差异.高发组AST、ALT升高的人数比例显著高于对照组.高发组饮酒人数比例稍高于对照组,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).而吸烟人数及食鱼生人数比例、饮酒及吸烟量,高发组均显著高于对照组.结论:HBV感染是广西区肝癌高发家庭人群肝癌高发的主要危险因素,饮酒、吸烟、食鱼生等不良生活嗜好使这些人群肝癌的发病危险显著增加.%Objective: To explore the relationship between hepatitis B incidence, unheathy living habits in population of high-incidence hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) families and high incidence of HCC in Guangxi. Methods:In 176 cases in high-incidence HCC group and in 115 cases in control group, the hepatitis B virus markers and liver cell enzymes were detected, and the number of drinking and alcohol consumption, the number of smokers and smoking, and the number of raw fish were counted. Results: In high incidence group, the positive rates of HbsAg, HBeAg, anti-Hbe and anti-HBc were significantly higher than those in the control group. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the positive rate of anti-HBs. The proportion of elevated AST, ALT in high incidence group was significantly higher than that in the control group. In the high incidence group the proportion of drinking was slightly higher than that in the control group, but the difference was not significant. However, the number of smokers, the number of raw fish, alcohol consumption and smoking in high incidence group were significantly higher than those in the control

  1. Living Related Liver Transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Living Related Liver Transplantation (LRLT)is a new strategy, which offers the option of a lifesaving procedure to patients suffering from end - stage liver disease, and the experience indicates that the results are better than cadaveric liver transplantation. It promises to decrease the waiting time for liver transplantation significantly and to reduce the number of patients dying on the waiting list. The selection of a suitable donor and the techniques of operation are of paramount importance for LRLT to minimize the risk for the recipient and the donor, and achieve better outcome for patient. 1 -year recipient survival rate of LRLT is over 90% and 5 -year recipient survival rate of LRLT is about 80%. LRLT has been becoming standard and normal operation in many western transplant centers.

  2. Living the (codesign) lab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas; Brandt, Eva; Halse, Joachim;

    2011-01-01

    Design research environments are becoming visible in many places, in universities, in design schools, in companies and in public organizations. What most of them have in common is a commitment to the exploration of the possible rather than the factual. In this paper we will discuss what define such...... design research environments. Looking back on how we have employed the concept of the design laboratory in the environment we have been part of, we will argue that a design research environment must adhere to programs and methodologies that reach beyond individual projects. Furthermore we suggest that...... the laboratories of design research must have a consistent portfolio yet design researchers still have to mobilize and join forces with the many “living labs” of the everyday....

  3. Living with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Kirsten Tarri

    2004-01-01

    Living with psoriasis is a considerable burden and quality of life in patients is deeply affected, yet compliance with therapy is a major problem. The literature is abundant in quantitative studies stating the incidence of decrease in quality of life and related, measurable terms, and in efforts...... directed at the improvement of therapies. However, it is sparse concerning the experiences of patients. This study aims to promote an understanding of the daily life of patients with psoriasis with particular regard to how they manage the disease, ultimately to improve nursing care to these patients. A...... qualitative, collective case study design was applied. The participants were 4 adult patients with a long and complicated psoriasis history. They were interviewed in depth focusing on their experiences related to psoriasis and its treatment. The patients suffered physically from itch and pain. However, the...

  4. Stellar Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletier, Reynier F.

    2013-10-01

    This is a summary of my lectures during the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School in Puerto de la Cruz. I give an introduction to the field of stellar populations in galaxies, and highlight some new results. Since the title of the Winter School is Secular Evolution in Galaxies I mostly concentrate on nearby galaxies, which are best suited to study this theme. Of course, the understanding of stellar populations is intimately connected to understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies, one of the great outstanding problems of astronomy. We are currently in a situation where very large observational advances have been made in recent years. Galaxies have been detected up to a redshift of ten. A huge effort has to be made so that stellar population theory can catch up with observations. Since most galaxies are far away, information about them has to come from stellar population synthesis of integrated light. Here I will discuss how stellar evolution theory, together with observations in our Milky Way and Local Group, are used as building blocks to analyse these integrated stellar populations.

  5. Live facial feature extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO JieYu

    2008-01-01

    Precise facial feature extraction is essential to the high-level face recognition and expression analysis. This paper presents a novel method for the real-time geomet-ric facial feature extraction from live video. In this paper, the input image is viewed as a weighted graph. The segmentation of the pixels corresponding to the edges of facial components of the mouth, eyes, brows, and nose is implemented by means of random walks on the weighted graph. The graph has an 8-connected lattice structure and the weight value associated with each edge reflects the likelihood that a random walker will cross that edge. The random walks simulate an anisot-ropic diffusion process that filters out the noise while preserving the facial expres-sion pixels. The seeds for the segmentation are obtained from a color and motion detector. The segmented facial pixels are represented with linked lists in the origi-nal geometric form and grouped into different parts corresponding to facial com-ponents. For the convenience of implementing high-level vision, the geometric description of facial component pixels is further decomposed into shape and reg-istration information. Shape is defined as the geometric information that is invari-ant under the registration transformation, such as translation, rotation, and iso-tropic scale. Statistical shape analysis is carried out to capture global facial fea-tures where the Procrustes shape distance measure is adopted. A Bayesian ap-proach is used to incorporate high-level prior knowledge of face structure. Ex-perimental results show that the proposed method is capable of real-time extraction of precise geometric facial features from live video. The feature extraction is robust against the illumination changes, scale variation, head rotations, and hand inter-ference.

  6. The living company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Geus, A

    1997-01-01

    What can explain the longevity gap between a company that survives for centuries--the Swedish company Stora, for example, which is more than 700 years old--and the average corporation, which does not last 20 years? A team at Royal Dutch/Shell Group explored that question. Arie de Geus, a retired Shell executive, writes about the team's findings and describes what he calls living companies-organizations that have beaten the high mortality rate of the average corporation. Many companies die young, de Geus argues, because their policies and practices are based too heavily on the thinking and language of economics. Their managers focus on producing goods and services and forget that the organization is a community of human beings that is in business--any business--to stay alive. In contrast, managers of living companies consider themselves to be stewards of a long-standing enterprise. Their priorities reflect their commitment to the organization's long-term survival in an unpredictable world. Like careful gardeners, they encourage growth and renewal without endangering the plant they are tending. They value profits the same way most people value oxygen: as necessary for life but not the purpose of it. They scuttle assets when necessary to make a dramatic change in the business portfolio. And they constantly search for new ideas. These managers also focus on developing people. They create opportunities for employees to learn from one another. Such organizations are suited for survival in a world in which success depends on the ability to learn, to adapt, and to evolve. PMID:10165449

  7. Enfermedades transmisibles, salud mental y exposición a contaminantes ambientales en población aledaña al proyecto minero Las Bambas antes de la fase de explotación, Perú 2006 Comunicable diseases, mental health and exposure to environmental pollutants in population living near Las Bambas mining project before exploitation phase, Peru 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonh Astete

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia de enfermedades transmisibles, salud mental y exposición a contaminantes ambientales en la población aledaña al proyecto minero Las Bambas antes de la fase de explotación. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo transversal realizado en 453 personas (niños y adultos residentes en tres distritos de la región Apurímac: Haquira, Chalhuahuacho y Progreso. Se evaluó el desarrollo psicomotor, coeficiente intelectual y niveles de ansiedad y depresión, así como la presencia de enfermedades transmisibles (sífilis, VIH, hepatitis viral B, C y Delta, metales pesados (nivel de plomo en sangre, nivel de cadmio, arsénico y mercurio, en orina y colinesterasa sérica. Resultados. La edad promedio fue de 29,0 ± 17,3 años, 59,2% fueron mujeres y el tiempo de residencia fue de 6 a 15 años. No se encontraron casos de VIH, hepatitis C y Delta, 1,4% fueron positivos a sífilis y en relación con hepatitis B se encontró 1,7% positivos a anti HBc total y 0,5% positivos a HBs Ag. Se encontraron valores por encima de lo permitido de mercurio en 1,8% de la población, arsénico en 4,6%, plomo en 24,3% y cadmio en 43,9%. Además, el 29,1% de la población tuvo valores de colinesterasa inferiores al rango referencial. En la población infantil, 12,5% presentaba riesgo en su desarrollo psicomotor; 2,1% y 3,1% presentaba retardo mental leve y fronterizo, respectivamente; 34,3% de los mayores de 12 años sufrían de ansiedad y 17,5% de depresión. Conclusiones. Existen evidencias de contaminación ambiental por metales pesados y presencia de enfermedades transmisibles en esta población. Una futura explotación minera irresponsable podría agravar dicha situación epidemiológica.Objective. To determine the prevalence of communicable diseases, mental health and environmental pollutants exposure in population living near Las Bambas mining project before exploitation phase. Material and methods. Cross sectional study

  8. Extreme heterogeneity in parasitism despite low population genetic structure among monarch butterflies inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Amanda A; de Roode, Jacobus C; Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca A

    2014-01-01

    Host movement and spatial structure can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with limited host movement potentially leading to high spatial heterogeneity in infection. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a spectacular long-distance migration in eastern North America; however, they also form non-migratory populations that breed year-round in milder climates such as Hawaii and other tropical locations. Prior work showed an inverse relationship between monarch migratory propensity and the prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Here, we sampled monarchs from replicate sites within each of four Hawaiian Islands to ask whether these populations show consistently high prevalence of the protozoan parasite as seen for monarchs from several other non-migratory populations. Counter to our predictions, we observed striking spatial heterogeneity in parasite prevalence, with infection rates per site ranging from 4-85%. We next used microsatellite markers to ask whether the observed variation in infection might be explained by limited host movement and spatial sub-structuring among sites. Our results showed that monarchs across the Hawaiian Islands form one admixed population, supporting high gene flow among sites. Moreover, measures of individual-level genetic diversity did not predict host infection status, as might be expected if more inbred hosts harbored higher parasite loads. These results suggest that other factors such as landscape-level environmental variation or colonization-extinction processes might instead cause the extreme heterogeneity in monarch butterfly infection observed here. PMID:24926796

  9. Extreme heterogeneity in parasitism despite low population genetic structure among monarch butterflies inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda A Pierce

    Full Text Available Host movement and spatial structure can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with limited host movement potentially leading to high spatial heterogeneity in infection. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus are best known for undertaking a spectacular long-distance migration in eastern North America; however, they also form non-migratory populations that breed year-round in milder climates such as Hawaii and other tropical locations. Prior work showed an inverse relationship between monarch migratory propensity and the prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Here, we sampled monarchs from replicate sites within each of four Hawaiian Islands to ask whether these populations show consistently high prevalence of the protozoan parasite as seen for monarchs from several other non-migratory populations. Counter to our predictions, we observed striking spatial heterogeneity in parasite prevalence, with infection rates per site ranging from 4-85%. We next used microsatellite markers to ask whether the observed variation in infection might be explained by limited host movement and spatial sub-structuring among sites. Our results showed that monarchs across the Hawaiian Islands form one admixed population, supporting high gene flow among sites. Moreover, measures of individual-level genetic diversity did not predict host infection status, as might be expected if more inbred hosts harbored higher parasite loads. These results suggest that other factors such as landscape-level environmental variation or colonization-extinction processes might instead cause the extreme heterogeneity in monarch butterfly infection observed here.

  10. Black carbon, a short lived climate forcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black carbon, an indicator of urban pollution health effects, is at the heart of adaptation issues as benefits of its control can be felt both at the scale of climate phenomenon and air quality. This element has to do with several notions whose definitions need to be stated again. It sets urban policies at the crossing of climate, air pollution, population health and sustainable development stakes. The CITEPA has made available Mark Tuddenham's literature monitoring concerning black carbon, and, more widely, SLFC (Short lived climate forcers). (authors)

  11. Stellar Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, Reynier F.

    2013-01-01

    This is a summary of my lectures during the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School in Puerto de la Cruz. I give an introduction to the field of stellar populations in galaxies, and highlight some new results. Since the title of the Winter School is Secular Evolution in Galaxies I mostly concentrate on ne

  12. Populations games

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivan, Vlastimil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2015), s. 14-19. ISSN 2367-5233. [Featuring International Conferences Biomath 2015. Blagoevgrad, 14.06.2015-19.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : populations dynamics

  13. Stellar Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Peletier, Reynier

    2012-01-01

    This is a summary of my lectures during the 2011 IAC Winter School in Puerto de la Cruz. I give an introduction to the field of stellar populations in galaxies, and highlight some new results. Since the title of the Winter School was {\\it Secular Evolution of Galaxies} I mostly concentrate on nearby galaxies, which are best suited to study this theme. Of course, the understanding of stellar populations is intimately connected to understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies, one of the great outstanding problems of astronomy. We are currently in a situation where very large observational advances have been made in recent years. Galaxies have been detected up to a redshift of 10. A huge effort has to be made so that stellar population theory can catch up with observations. Since most galaxies are far away, information about them has to come from stellar population synthesis of integrated light. Here I will discuss how stellar evolution theory, together with observations in our Milky Way and Local Group...

  14. Population connectivity: dam migration mitigations and contemporary site fidelity in arctic char

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heggenes Jan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal feeding and spawning migrations may be limited by physical barriers and behavioral interactions. Dam constructions (e.g. hydropower commonly include gateways for fish migrations to sustain ecological connectivity. Relative genetic impacts of fish passage devices versus natural processes (e.g. hybrid inferiority are, however, rarely studied. We examined genetic (i.e. microsatellite population connectivity of highly migrating lake-dwelling Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus, introduced 20 generations ago, across and within two subalpine lakes separated by a dam with a subterranean tunnel and spill gates after 7 generations. Due to water flow regime, the time window for fish migration is highly restricted. Results Char populations, with similar genetic structuring and diversity observed across and within lakes, were admixed across the dam with fishways during feeding. For spawning, however, statistically significant, but very low population differentiation (θ; 0.002 - 0.013 was found in nine out of ten reproductive site comparisons, reflecting interactions between extensive migration (mean first generation (F0 = 10.8% and initial site fidelity. Simulations indicated that genetic drift among relatively small effective populations (mean Ne = 62 may have caused the observed contemporary differentiation. Novel Bayesian analyses indicated mean contributions of 71% F0 population hybrids in spawning populations, of which 76% had maternal or paternal native origin. Conclusions Ecological connectivity between lakes separated by a dam has been retained through construction of fishways for feeding migration. Considerable survival and homing to ancestral spawning sites in hybrid progeny was documented. Population differentiation despite preceding admixture is likely caused by contemporary reduced reproductive fitness of population hybrids. The study documents the beginning stages of population divergence among spatial aggregations with

  15. Having quality population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, F V

    1993-06-01

    This speech was delivered during Population and Development Week in the Philippines. Attention was drawn to population statistics: an annual growth rate of 2.3%, density of 202 persons/sq km, and an expected population of 75 million by the year 2000. Coupled with rapid population growth is the uneven distribution of wealth: the top 20% have over 50% of the total income and the lowest 20% have only 5% of the income. In such a social situation, it is women and children who are the most vulnerable. In cities, unemployment is high due to population growth and the migration of the rural poor. The rural poor living in areas of declining resources also move onto marginal uplands, which adds pressure to the already fragile ecology. Everyone must accept that the nation's problems are due to overpopulation. The government's development plans aim for sustainable growth, poverty alleviation, reduction in equality, generation of job opportunities, and achievement of social justice. People in government are determined to lead the Philippines toward a higher standard comparable with other dynamic Asian neighbors. The strategy is empowerment of the people. THe value is in the welfare of individuals and their families and the welfare of the nation. Couples have the right to manage their family size voluntarily and responsibly. The government's role is to provide adequate information on family planning in accordance with individual's religious convictions. Policies will also be directed to improved access to quality education, child survival, and maternal health, employment opportunities, and access and control over resources for people. There must be fuller participation of women in development. Support for the government's population program is sought from government officials, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations. All provincial governors, city and municipal mayors, and all local executives will be directed to formulate population plans and to provide family

  16. Changing living conditions, life style and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Tine; Kvernmo, Siv; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    . The aim of the paper is to illustrate the influence of environmental change on living conditions and life style and some of the mechanisms through which such changes affect physical and mental health. The interrelationship between environmental and societal change is illustrated by an example from a small...... community in Greenland, where changing environmental conditions have influenced fishing and employment opportunities to the extent that the size of the population has changed dramatically. The link between social change and health is shown with reference to studies on education, housing and occupation...... as well as life style changes. The paper further illustrates the relationship between the rapid socio-cultural and economic change and the health of the population. Psychosocial stress is reflected in problems such as alcohol abuse, violence and suicide, and these factors have been shown in studies...

  17. Experiencing Liveness in Contemporary Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    marker of ontological difference, a promotional slogan, or a mystical evocation of cultural value. Moving beyond debates about the relationship between the live and the mediated, this collection considers what we can know and say about liveness in terms of processes of experiencing and processes of...... making. Drawing together contributions from theatre, music, dance, and performance art, it takes an interdisciplinary approach in asking not what liveness is, but how it matters and to whom. The book invites readers to consider how liveness is produced through processes of audiencing - as spectators...... bring qualities of (a)liveness into being through the nature of their attention - and how it becomes materialized in acts of performance, acts of making, acts of archiving, and acts of remembering. Theoretical chapters and practice-based reflections explore liveness, eventness and nowness as key...

  18. Radiation protection for human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1996 on the following directions: study of features of formation of the population irradiation doze; definition of collective irradiation dozes of the population of Belarus for 10 years after the Chernobyl accident and forecast of risk of radiation induced diseases; study of influence of the radioactive contamination on agricultural ecosystems; development of technologies of manufacture on the contaminated soils of plant and cattle-breeding production and food products with the permissible contents of radionuclides in according to the requirements of radiation protection; development and perfection of complex technologies, ways and means of decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes; development and substantiation of actions for increase of radiation security of the population of Belarus; development of combined system of an estimation on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories

  19. Genetic affinities of the central Indian tribal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Sharma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The central Indian state Madhya Pradesh is often called as 'heart of India' and has always been an important region functioning as a trinexus belt for three major language families (Indo-European, Dravidian and Austroasiatic. There are less detailed genetic studies on the populations inhabited in this region. Therefore, this study is an attempt for extensive characterization of genetic ancestries of three tribal populations, namely; Bharia, Bhil and Sahariya, inhabiting this region using haploid and diploid DNA markers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mitochondrial DNA analysis showed high diversity, including some of the older sublineages of M haplogroup and prominent R lineages in all the three tribes. Y-chromosomal biallelic markers revealed high frequency of Austroasiatic-specific M95-O2a haplogroup in Bharia and Sahariya, M82-H1a in Bhil and M17-R1a in Bhil and Sahariya. The results obtained by haploid as well as diploid genetic markers revealed strong genetic affinity of Bharia (a Dravidian speaking tribe with the Austroasiatic (Munda group. The gene flow from Austroasiatic group is further confirmed by their Y-STRs haplotype sharing analysis, where we determined their founder haplotype from the North Munda speaking tribe, while, autosomal analysis was largely in concordant with the haploid DNA results. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Bhil exhibited largely Indo-European specific ancestry, while Sahariya and Bharia showed admixed genetic package of Indo-European and Austroasiatic populations. Hence, in a landscape like India, linguistic label doesn't unequivocally follow the genetic footprints.

  20. Living in a Sustainable World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many would argue that sustainable development is a very simple idea. It is about ensuring a better quality of life for everyone, now and for generations to come. Deeply embedded in the whole concept is the prudent use of natural resources and this very much includes consideration of renewable forms of energy. Historically, in the UK and some other parts of europe the emphasis on development has been towards large scale energy production facilities. This has been seen as a logical progression within an energy industry which has evolved around the centralised, 'big is beautiful' model. Such thinking has lead to renewables being disadvantaged in many ways. Renewables are a disparate resource and often at their peak in rural, isolated and environmentally sensitive areas. Harnessing them may more easily fit with a local community based approach. This airflow's the greater involvement of the local communities themselves, their local Government and industry. It also presents the best opportunity for the protection of the environment and for the change to focus on local agendas. In terms of 'living within a sustainable world' following Kyoto such a community based strategy for the future is more likely to yield success, turning as it must on achieving a fundamental change of attitude within the wider population to energy provision and use. Noteworthy in this respect is the recent White Paper from the European Commission (entitled 'Energy for the Future: Renewable Sources of Energy') which champions the idea of 100 communities in the EU which might be self sufficient in the use of renewable sources of energy. (author)

  1. Living-with Shakespeare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Broqua

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article studies three interpretations of Sonnet 130 by three American experimental poets. Rereading Bloom’s considerations on Shakespeare in The Anxiety of Influence and comparing them with Jacques Derrida’s Specters of Marx, this article shows that rather than thinking of Shakespeare as a cursing ghost, Harryette Mullen’s, Stephen Ratcliffe’s and Jen Bervin’s texts reveal Shakespeare as a ghost and a host. Their texts are attempts to live with Shakespeare in the present, thus prompting us to look back on the theory of the intertext.Cet article étudie trois réinterpretations du sonnet 130 de Shakespeare par trois poètes expérimentaux des Etats-Unis. Après avoir relu la théorie d’Harold Bloom telle qu’il l’applique à Shakespeare dans The Anxiety of Influence et l’avoir rapidement mise en contraste avec celle de Jacques Derrida dans Spectres de Marx, cet article montre que les textes de Harryette Mullen, Stephen Ratcliffe et Jen Bervin ne font pas de Shakespeare un fantôme de la malédiction. Ils tentent plutôt de vivre-avec Shakespeare dans le présent, nous amenant ainsi à reconsidérer la théorie de l’intertexte.

  2. HEALTHY LIVING WITH NUTRACEUTICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Singh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Now a day every person wants to live the healthy life. Synthetic medicines are having some certain drawbacks. So nutraceuticals will definitely play promising and unique way of safer medicines. Nature is one of the most important resources of human foods and medicines. Rapidly increasing knowledge on nutrition, medicine, and plant has fortunately changed the concepts about food, health and, brought in a revolution on them. Nutritional therapy and phototherapy have emerged as new concepts of safer medicine. These systems have quickly and widely spread in recent years. Strong recommendations for consumption of nutraceuticals, natural plant foods, and the use of nutritional therapy and phototherapy have become progressively popular to improve health, and to prevent and treat diseases. Nutraceuticals used in various diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, cardiovascular disease, obesity, cancer, eye cycle, diabetes. The use of the dietary fiber, omega 3 fatty acid, antioxidant, probiotic, for the better human life possible. This review attempts to display and remark on these aspects. It summarizes the progress made on nutraceuticals, utritional therapy, health benefits, regulation and their promising approach. It also covers development stages of nutraceuticals.

  3. Living in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    Exaugural presentation. A retrospect of my personal itinerary from literature, across translation studies to translation process research and a look ahead. In the retrospect, I range over diverse topics, all of which have sprung from my concern with the phenomenon of translation. I reflect on how...... of Danish for global communication purposes, and for improving research into translation, the phenomenon of translation and the world of translation in which we all live.......Exaugural presentation. A retrospect of my personal itinerary from literature, across translation studies to translation process research and a look ahead. In the retrospect, I range over diverse topics, all of which have sprung from my concern with the phenomenon of translation. I reflect on how......, as humans, we generate meaning, interpret meaning, and reformulate or translate meaning. I also reflect on the way computing has influenced research into these phenomena as seen e.g. in my creation of the Translog program and in projects I have been involved in, such as OFT (Translation of...

  4. Satisfied Men Live Longer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suzanne; Rostler; 尤北还

    2001-01-01

    作为上篇的一个姊妹篇,我们很乐意向读者推荐本文。古人云,知足常乐。读完本文,也许你会改其二字:知足长寿。文章告诉我们: Men who reported high levels of satisfaction with their lives were more likely to be alive 20 years later. 知足者竟然能在这个世界上多生活20年!你信否? 文章还提到了男女之别,颇发人深省: It seems to me that the coping abilities of women with distress and dissatisfaction may be better than in men. Men who feel dissatisfied might cope with their feelings by abusing alcohol, smoking and not exercising while women might talk to friends or seek professional help. 你若是男性读者,是否可以从中得到某种启迪? 文章最精彩的句子大概在文末: It is not enough for a human being to earn money and be in physically good condition. One should respect mental health as well.】

  5. Lives Worth Living: Religious Education and Social Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Jennifer R.

    2013-01-01

    When people of faith participate in movements for social change, how are their religious and moral identities formed, challenged, and transformed? Although they have explicit and tangible goals as they participate in advocacy, protest, and boycotts, religious social activists also, James Jasper argues, craft "lives worth living" (1997).…

  6. Radiations and living beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological effects of radiation were studied in irradiated individuals and their offspring. In irradiated individuals, the dose-effect relationship is linear only at very high dose rates corresponding to saturated recovery processes. At other dose rates, the relationship is described by a sigmoid deviating from linearity as the exposure duration is longer. The transition from a straight line to a sigmoid is expressed by mathematical formulas that show that continuous exposure of populations at the maximum permissible dose rate of 500mrem/y to the whole body (gonads excluded) should induce less than one leukemia per year in the world. The study of the effects on the offspring of irradiated individuals was based on the extrapolation of experimental results obtained with animals belonging to species at various evolution levels. Among the less evoluted species, insects are highly resistant to instantaneous exposure of several hundred thousand rems, but exposure of successive generations results in a progressive cumulation of mutated genes of chromosome aberrations, as shown by the appearance of still higher ratio of damages in the offspring. Conversely, at a higher degree of evolution, mice are less resistant to instantaneous exposure but the cumulation is much less appearent. This could be explained by the minimum number of mutated genes whose combined action is required to reveal the damage. It has been calculated that it should be two genes in the mouse, and only one in insects. If a higher degree of polygeny is taken for man, viz at least 4 genes, as evidenced by the late discoveries on hereditary diseases, then the exposure of successive generations of french population at the maximum permissible dose rate of 170mrem/y to gonads should bring about no damage before 600 year's time. Without assuming any threshold to the action of radiation, it is demonstrated that there must occur practically no damage provided the present radiation protection standards are

  7. Population Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Weil, David N.

    2006-01-01

    Population aging is primarily the result of past declines in fertility, which produced a decades long period in which the ratio of dependents to working age adults was reduced. Rising old-age dependency in many countries represents the inevitable passing of this %u201Cdemographic dividend.%u201D Societies use three methods to transfer resources to people in dependent age groups: government, family, and personal saving. In developed countries, families are predominant in supporting children, w...

  8. SIGNATURES OF LONG-LIVED SPIRAL PATTERNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Garcia, Eric E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A., E-mail: ericmartinez@inaoep.mx, E-mail: martinez@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: r.gonzalez@crya.unam.mx [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, UNAM, Campus Morelia, Michoacan, C.P. 58089 (Mexico)

    2013-03-10

    Azimuthal age/color gradients across spiral arms are a signature of long-lived spirals. From a sample of 19 normal (or weakly barred) spirals where we have previously found azimuthal age/color gradient candidates, 13 objects were further selected if a two-armed grand-design pattern survived in a surface density stellar mass map. Mass maps were obtained from optical and near-infrared imaging, by comparison with a Monte Carlo library of stellar population synthesis models that allowed us to obtain the mass-to-light ratio in the J band, (M/L){sub J}, as a function of (g - i) versus (i - J) color. The selected spirals were analyzed with Fourier methods in search of other signatures of long-lived modes related to the gradients, such as the gradient divergence toward corotation, and the behavior of the phase angle of the two-armed spiral in different wavebands, as expected from theory. The results show additional signatures of long-lived spirals in at least 50% of the objects.

  9. The living publication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the ICSTI Insights Series we offer three articles on the 'living publication' that is already available to practitioners in the important field of crystal structure determination and analysis. While the specific examples are drawn from this particular field, we invite readers to draw parallels in their own fields of interest. The first article describes the present state of the crystallographic living publication, already recognized by an ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers) Award for Publishing Innovation in 2006. The second article describes the potential impact on the record of science as greater post-publication analysis becomes more common within currently accepted data deposition practices, using processed diffraction data as the starting point. The third article outlines a vision for the further improvement of crystallographic structure reports within potentially achievable enhanced data deposition practices, based upon raw (unprocessed) diffraction data. The IUCr in its Commissions and Journals has for many years emphasized the importance of publications being accompanied by data and the interpretation of the data in terms of atomic models. This has been followed as policy by numerous other journals in the field and its cognate disciplines. This practice has been well served by databases and archiving institutions such as the Protein Data Bank (PDB), the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), and the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD). Normally the models that are archived are interpretations of the data, consisting of atomic coordinates with their displacement parameters, along with processed diffraction data from X-ray, neutron or electron diffraction studies. In our current online age, a reader can not only consult the printed word, but can display and explore the results with molecular graphics software of exceptional quality. Furthermore, the routine availability of processed diffraction data allows

  10. The living publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-04

    Within the ICSTI Insights Series we offer three articles on the 'living publication' that is already available to practitioners in the important field of crystal structure determination and analysis. While the specific examples are drawn from this particular field, we invite readers to draw parallels in their own fields of interest. The first article describes the present state of the crystallographic living publication, already recognized by an ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers) Award for Publishing Innovation in 2006. The second article describes the potential impact on the record of science as greater post-publication analysis becomes more common within currently accepted data deposition practices, using processed diffraction data as the starting point. The third article outlines a vision for the further improvement of crystallographic structure reports within potentially achievable enhanced data deposition practices, based upon raw (unprocessed) diffraction data. The IUCr in its Commissions and Journals has for many years emphasized the importance of publications being accompanied by data and the interpretation of the data in terms of atomic models. This has been followed as policy by numerous other journals in the field and its cognate disciplines. This practice has been well served by databases and archiving institutions such as the Protein Data Bank (PDB), the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), and the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD). Normally the models that are archived are interpretations of the data, consisting of atomic coordinates with their displacement parameters, along with processed diffraction data from X-ray, neutron or electron diffraction studies. In our current online age, a reader can not only consult the printed word, but can display and explore the results with molecular graphics software of exceptional quality. Furthermore, the routine availability of processed diffraction

  11. Exploring the Demographic Factors Affecting Passage of Living Wage Ordinances

    OpenAIRE

    Oren M. Levin-Waldman

    2004-01-01

    An analysis based on data from the Current Population Survey suggests that cities with certain demographics, particularly higher concentrations of immigrants from south of the American border, lower levels of educational attainment, more people in low wage industries, and higher rates of income inequality, appear to be more likely to pass living wage ordinances than those cities that do not have these demographics.

  12. Quality of Life of Older Malaysians Living Alone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, Nurizan; Abdullah, Siti Suhailah; Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan

    2010-01-01

    According to the 2000 census report, about 7% of the 1.4 million people 60 years and over in Malaysia live alone. This study investigated socioeconomic factors affecting the quality of life of this vulnerable population. Data from a subsample of the study on Mental Health and Quality of Life of Older Malaysians were used in this paper. About 10%…

  13. Community Context of Sober Living Houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcin, Douglas L; Henderson, Diane; Trocki, Karen; Evans, Kristy; Wittman, Fried

    2012-12-01

    The success or failure of programs designed to address alcohol and drug problems can be profoundly influenced by the communities where they are located. Support from the community is vital for long term stability and conflict with the community can harm a program's reputation or even result in closure. This study examined the community context of sober living houses (SLHs) in one Northern California community by interviewing key stakeholder groups. SLHs are alcohol and drug free living environments for individuals attempting to abstain from substance use. Previous research on residents of SLHs showed they make long-term improvements on measures of substance use, psychiatric symptoms, arrests, and employment. Interviews were completed with house managers, neighbors, and key informants from local government and community organizations. Overall, stakeholders felt SLHs were necessary and had a positive impact on the community. It was emphasized that SLHs needed to practice a "good neighbor" policy that prohibited substance use and encouraged community service. Size and density of SLHs appeared to influence neighbor perceptions. For small (six residents or less), sparsely populated houses, a strategy of blending in with the neighborhood seemed to work. However, it was clear that larger, densely populated houses need to actively manage relationships with community stakeholders. Strategies for improving relationships with immediate neighbors, decreasing stigma, and broadening the leadership structure are discussed. Implications for a broad array of community based programs are discussed. PMID:24478615

  14. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... screen and open the door to informed medical care. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Good evening, I’m Dr. John Colonna, the ... screen and open the door to informed medical care. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. 13

  15. Population structure and temporal maintenance of the multihost fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea: causes and implications for disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Anne-Sophie; Gladieux, Pierre; Decognet, Véronique; Fermaud, Marc; Confais, Johann; Roudet, Jean; Bardin, Marc; Bout, Alexandre; Nicot, Philippe C; Poncet, Christine; Fournier, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the causes of population subdivision is of fundamental importance, as studying barriers to gene flow between populations may reveal key aspects of the process of adaptive divergence and, for pathogens, may help forecasting disease emergence and implementing sound management strategies. Here, we investigated population subdivision in the multihost fungus Botrytis cinerea based on comprehensive multiyear sampling on different hosts in three French regions. Analyses revealed a weak association between population structure and geography, but a clear differentiation according to the host plant of origin. This was consistent with adaptation to hosts, but the distribution of inferred genetic clusters and the frequency of admixed individuals indicated a lack of strict host specificity. Differentiation between individuals collected in the greenhouse (on Solanum) and outdoor (on Vitis and Rubus) was stronger than that observed between individuals from the two outdoor hosts, probably reflecting an additional isolating effect associated with the cropping system. Three genetic clusters coexisted on Vitis but did not persist over time. Linkage disequilibrium analysis indicated that outdoor populations were regularly recombining, whereas clonality was predominant in the greenhouse. Our findings open up new perspectives for disease control by managing plant debris in outdoor conditions and reinforcing prophylactic measures indoor. PMID:25040694

  16. Indian populations

    CERN Multimedia

    Spahni,J

    1974-01-01

    Le Prof. J.C. Spahni qui a parcouru les Andes, Vénezuela etc. parle de ses expériences et connaissances qu'il a vécu au cours des 14 ans parmi les populations indiennes de la Cordillière des Andes. Il a ramené des objets artisanals indiens lesquels l'auditoire peut acquérir. L'introduction-conférence est suivi d'un film, commenté par lui-même; après l'entracte il y un débat-dialogue avec le public.

  17. Population geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, A

    1994-03-01

    Population geographers are involved in contemporary policy issues, the production of quality work, and successful communication of research findings. This article reviewed some contributions population geographers have made to the understanding of the geographic impact of aging and the consequences of migration. Geographers have come late to the study of aging and have focused primarily on four main policy issues: 1) fertility decline, 2) housing demography, 3) aged patterns of housing and migration, and 4) government policy. Fertility decline research has highlighted information diffusion theories for fertility decline by researchers such as Zelinsky, Skeldon, and Noin. Changes in attitudes and the removal on constraints has been examined by Woods. Residential mobility studies have been the focus of researchers such as Gober, Moore, and Clark, and Myers. Regional labor markets and the movement of the "baby boom" through the life course have been examined by Miron, Plane and Rogerson, and Clout, who studied the empty nesters and the movement out of suburbia. Private residential housing has increased for the elderly in England and Wales (Hamnett and Mullings), and seasonal migration of Minnesotans results in lost sales revenues and high health and social costs for those too ill to travel (Craig). Geographers have not accomplished a significant thrust into the literature on demographic aging. Contributions to the transnational and international literature have resulted in internal migration studies by Clout on "counterurbanization" in northwestern industrial Europe, while Fielding, Baltensperger, Marchand and Scott, and Jones have examined the continuing rural-urban migration. The loss of urban population has been associated with inner city problems, the impact of labor supply and market demand, and the revenue and health care consequences in the work of Champion, Gibson, and Champion and Illeris, and Craig. Impacts are felt differently by geographic location, and

  18. [Population policy: speeches and actions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Lopez, A

    1991-06-01

    Mexico's population policy was created almost 20 years ago in response to the need to regulate the country's population growth. Currently the policy stresses more balanced distribution of the population in accordance with realistic development possibilities. By 1986 it was recognized that population policy in Mexico had gone beyond mere control of fertility to encompass direct government intervention in more complex global problems. It was concluded that the possibility of achieving rational population distribution depended on balanced regional development. A strong family planning policy, efforts to integrate demographic programs into general development plans, employment policies, and measures to encourage harmonious spatial distribution were viewed as necessary, but it was also felt that greater speed was required and that the population policy should play a larger role in the development strategy. The National Population Program for 1989-94 has the objectives of promoting the integration of demographic objectives into economic and social planning and promoting a decline in the rate of population growth from 1.8% in 1995 to 1.5% in 2000 through fertility decline. It seeks a more rational population distribution in which the weight of large metropolitan zones would be reduced and growth of intermediate and small cities promoted. It seeks to encourage greater participation by women in the nation's life, and to contribute to integrated development and elevation in the living standards of indigenous groups. In presentation of the National Population Program it was noted that the economic crisis of the 1980s had reversed some previous demographic achievements. greater efforts are necessary to involve the rural and indigenous groups. In presentation of the National Population Program it was noted that the economic crisis of the 1980s had reversed some previous demographic achievements. Greater efforts are necessary to involve the rural and indigenous populations

  19. The Living Challenges of Ambient Assisted Living - A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygholm, Ann; Kanstrup, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    the field due to its complexity of people and practices challenging the technological development and use. This calls for methods that support research carried out in close co-operations with the living environment and facilitate the complexity of stakeholders within the use-domain in a constructive......Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) is a rapidly evolving research and development area propelled by scarcity of health resources caused by an aging workforce and increase of Citizens in need of health care and health assistance on a regular basis. This paper presents a literature review of the current...... an overview of the current status of AAL within the following categories: technology, users, application domains, rationales, successes and challenges of AAL. The paper concludes that the living part, i.e. the everyday practice of people living with Assistive Technology, is the primary challenge to...

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome sequencing reveals novel haplotypes in a Polynesian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles Benton

    Full Text Available The high risk of metabolic disease traits in Polynesians may be partly explained by elevated prevalence of genetic variants involved in energy metabolism. The genetics of Polynesian populations has been shaped by island hoping migration events which have possibly favoured thrifty genes. The aim of this study was to sequence the mitochondrial genome in a group of Maoris in an effort to characterise genome variation in this Polynesian population for use in future disease association studies. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of 20 non-admixed Maori subjects using Affymetrix technology. DNA diversity analyses showed the Maori group exhibited reduced mitochondrial genome diversity compared to other worldwide populations, which is consistent with historical bottleneck and founder effects. Global phylogenetic analysis positioned these Maori subjects specifically within mitochondrial haplogroup--B4a1a1. Interestingly, we identified several novel variants that collectively form new and unique Maori motifs--B4a1a1c, B4a1a1a3 and B4a1a1a5. Compared to ancestral populations we observed an increased frequency of non-synonymous coding variants of several mitochondrial genes in the Maori group, which may be a result of positive selection and/or genetic drift effects. In conclusion, this study reports the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence data for a Maori population. Overall, these new data reveal novel mitochondrial genome signatures in this Polynesian population and enhance the phylogenetic picture of maternal ancestry in Oceania. The increased frequency of several mitochondrial coding variants makes them good candidates for future studies aimed at assessment of metabolic disease risk in Polynesian populations.

  1. COMPREHENSIVE CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATION TEST IN THE POPULATION OF SEMEY REGION OF KAZAKHSTAN

    OpenAIRE

    MADIYEVA M.R.; CHAIZHUNUSSOVA N. ZH.; SAIMOVA A. ZH.; ABYLGAZINOVA A. ZH.

    2015-01-01

    The objects of the study was a population of Abay and Beskaragai regions of the East Kazakhstan region, living in the area covered by the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. Purpose a comprehensive cytogenetic analysis of the population living in radiation-contaminated areas. In the process, were selected group of persons who are descendants (second, third generation) of the population living in the period of atmospheric, surface and underground explosions at designated areas. They held t...

  2. Living at the edge: biogeographic patterns of habitat segregation conform to speciation by niche expansion in Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantini Carlo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ongoing lineage splitting within the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae is compatible with ecological speciation, the evolution of reproductive isolation by divergent natural selection acting on two populations exploiting alternative resources. Divergence between two molecular forms (M and S identified by fixed differences in rDNA, and characterized by marked, although incomplete, reproductive isolation is occurring in West and Central Africa. To elucidate the role that ecology and geography play in speciation, we carried out a countrywide analysis of An. gambiae M and S habitat requirements, and that of their chromosomal variants, across Burkina Faso. Results Maps of relative abundance by geostatistical interpolators produced a distinct pattern of distribution: the M-form dominated in the northernmost arid zones, the S-form in the more humid southern regions. Maps of habitat suitability, quantified by Ecological Niche Factor Analysis based on 15 eco-geographical variables revealed less contrast among forms. M was peculiar as it occurred proportionally more in habitat of marginal quality. Measures of ecological niche breadth and overlap confirmed the mismatch between the fundamental and realized patterns of habitat occupation: forms segregated more than expected from the extent of divergence of their environmental envelope – a signature of niche expansion. Classification of chromosomal arm 2R karyotypes by multilocus genetic clustering identified two clusters loosely corresponding to molecular forms, with 'mismatches' representing admixed individuals due to shared ancestral polymorphism and/or residual hybridization. In multivariate ordination space, these karyotypes plotted in habitat of more marginal quality compared to non-admixed, 'typical', karyotypes. The distribution of 'typical' karyotypes along the main eco-climatic gradient followed a consistent pattern within and between forms, indicating an adaptive role

  3. LiveCode mobile development

    CERN Document Server

    Lavieri, Edward D

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide written in a tutorial-style, ""LiveCode Mobile Development Hotshot"" walks you step-by-step through 10 individual projects. Every project is divided into sub tasks to make learning more organized and easy to follow along with explanations, diagrams, screenshots, and downloadable material.This book is great for anyone who wants to develop mobile applications using LiveCode. You should be familiar with LiveCode and have access to a smartphone. You are not expected to know how to create graphics or audio clips.

  4. Retroperitoneoscopic right living donor nephrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhen-li; WU Ji-tao; YANG Dian-dong; SHI Lei; MEN Chang-ping; WANG Lin

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the past, living donor nephrectomy required an open flank incision that results in postoperative morbidity and a prolonged hospital stay. Since its introduction in 1995, laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy has been shown to decrease postoperative pain and hospital stay,reduce blood loss, and improve cosmesis while hastening recovery of normal activities of donors.1 With decreased morbidity and favorable graft function, this procedure as a novel approach has been used to address the increasing disparity between organ need and availability.2 Better graft function and survival are noted in living-donor kidney transplantation than in cadaveric kidney transplantation. 1,2

  5. Solo Living - the meaning of home for persons living alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    Like in other countries, the number of people living in one-person households is growing in Denmark. The share of Danes living alone has increased from 9.1% in 1981 to 16.1% in 2006, and the increase is particularly marked for persons aged 30 to 60 years (the "middle-aged"). This raises the analy......Like in other countries, the number of people living in one-person households is growing in Denmark. The share of Danes living alone has increased from 9.1% in 1981 to 16.1% in 2006, and the increase is particularly marked for persons aged 30 to 60 years (the "middle-aged"). This raises...... the analytical question of how middle-aged persons who are living alone experience and shape their dwelling and integrate it into their everyday practices. This paper discusses this question on the basis of qualitative interviews with middle-aged Danes living alone. The preliminary results from the study show...

  6. Population Genetics with Fluctuating Population Sizes

    CERN Document Server

    Chotibut, Thiparat

    2016-01-01

    Standard neutral population genetics theory with a strictly fixed population size has important limitations. An alternative model that allows independently fluctuating population sizes and reproduces the standard neutral evolution is reviewed. We then study a situation such that the competing species are neutral at the equilibrium population size but population size fluctuations nevertheless favor fixation of one species over the other. In this case, a separation of timescales emerges naturally and allows adiabatic elimination of a fast population size variable to deduce the fluctuations-induced selection dynamics near the equilibrium population size. The results highlight the incompleteness of the standard population genetics with a strictly fixed population size.

  7. Análise das condições de saúde e de vida da população urbana de Botucatu, SP: I - Descrição do plano amostral e avaliação da amostra Analysis of standards of living and health in the urban population of Botucatu, S.Paulo State (Brazil: I - Description and evaluation of the sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Carandina

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se o processo de amostragem para o levantamento das condições de saúde e de vida da população urbana de Botucatu, SP (Brasil, pelo método de entrevistas domiciliárias. Analisa-se a representatividade da amostra, segundo a distribuição percentual da população por estrato e segundo as variáveis sexo e idade. Comparam-se os critérios externos de estratificação sócio-econômica com a renda familiar e per capita das famílias entrevistadas. Comenta-se as dificuldades de operacionalizar o conceito de classe social através de zonas sócio-espaciais, em investigações domiciliares e em estudos epidemiológicos que utilizam dados de registro rotineiros.The sampling methodology used in an evaluation of the standards of living and health in the urban population of Botucatu, SP, Brazil is discribed. Data were obtained through domiciliar interviews and the accuracy of sampling was evaluated for each different stratum and in accord with age and sex. External criteria for socio-economic stratification of the population such as family or "per capita" income were compared. It was found difficult to work with the concept of social classes when using socio-spacial zoning in domiciliar interviews or epidemiological studies based on the normal registers.

  8. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OR- Live” makes it easy for you to learn more. Just click on the “Request information” button on your webcast screen and open the door to informed medical care. “OR-Live,” ...

  9. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more than 100 caregiving sites, including seven acute care hospitals, four advanced imaging centers, seven nursing homes, ... screen and open the door to informed medical care. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Good ...

  10. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to make referrals, make appointments, or request more information. Just click on the buttons on your screen ... here. And there is quite a bit of information now coming out in studies that preemptive living ...

  11. Living with Coronary Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Coronary Heart Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) can cause serious complications. However, if you ... changes and medicines, go to "How Is Coronary Heart Disease Treated?" Work closely with your doctor to control ...

  12. Living with Diabetic Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Diabetic Heart Disease Diabetic heart disease (DHD) increases the likelihood of earlier and more ... also tend to have less success from certain heart disease treatments, such as coronary artery bypass grafting and ...

  13. Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives Note: Javascript is disabled or ... and what you can do if soap and clean, running water are not available. Whether you are ...

  14. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 800 kidneys have been transplanted, and 441 of these have been living donor transplants, and that will ... John Hopkins, and we have done hundreds of these since then. The procedure is beneficial to patients ...

  15. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a kidney is safe. It has an excellent safety record both here and nationwide. To ensure that, ... ve had a lot of talk about the safety for the living donors. The donor for that ...

  16. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with the donor that really was the main source. Otherwise these patients are screened very carefully medically ... here. And there is quite a bit of information now coming out in studies that preemptive living ...

  17. Radiation effects on living systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography includes papers and reports by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited scientists concerning radiation effects on living systems. It is divided into three sections: Radiobiology, Radiation Biochemistry and Radiation Chemistry. (auth)

  18. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and three assisted-living centers. During the program, it’s easy for you to make referrals, make appointments, ... about Sentara. This hospital is a wonderful hospital. It was designated as a magnet hospital for its ...

  19. Being a Living Donor: Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgical risks and long term complications: Long-Term Organ Specific Donor Complications Kidney Hypertension Kidney failure Proteinuria Lung Intra- ... Vancouver Forum on the care of the live organ donor: lung, liver, pancreas, and intestine data and medical ...

  20. Live Coding and Machine Listening

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Live coding control of machine listening processes, or more radically, machine listening control of live coding, provides an exciting area of crossover between two research frontiers in computer music. is article surveys the state of the art, and reports a number of experimental projects that point to potentially productive further directions.

  1. Three Passions I Live For

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英

    2005-01-01

    Looking back on my past twenty years full of passions and enthusiasm, I feel grateful and to live a healthy and happy life. There are a lot of qualities I have learnt from ordinary life that guided me through. If I am asked to list the first three, I will put health, happiness of my family and enough financial support as the passions I live for.

  2. Living antennas on communication satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholt, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Crises change the global pattern of communication. The communications problems occur because the satellites are optimized to cover specific geographic areas, and these areas cannot be altered once the satellites are in Earth orbit. An effective solution to the problem is to equip communication sa...... satellites with "living" antennas that can adjust their radiation coverage areas according to the new demands. The development of living antennas is, therefore, among the focus areas identified and supported by the European Space Agency, ESA....

  3. Lived modernism: when architecture transforms

    OpenAIRE

    le Roux, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Lived modernism explores the moments when architecture changes. Inspired by my first hand experience of the contemporary reuse, in Africa and beyond, of spaces constructed during modernism, specifically from 1945 to 1975, it works to extract approaches and concepts applicable to the contemporary practice of architecture. Modernist space, despite its deterministic intentions, becomes open at the moment of appropriation by emergent social practices. This lived modernism can find an analogy in d...

  4. Walking and Sensing Mobile Lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads; Meinhardt, Nina Dam

    In this position paper, we discuss how mindful walking with people allow us to explore sensory aspects of mobile lives that are typically absent from research. We present an app that aids researchers collect impressions from a walk.......In this position paper, we discuss how mindful walking with people allow us to explore sensory aspects of mobile lives that are typically absent from research. We present an app that aids researchers collect impressions from a walk....

  5. MARKKINOINTISUUNNITELMA : Kauneushoitola LivingRoom

    OpenAIRE

    Polso, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö tehtiin Kannuksessa sijaitsevaan kauneushoitola LivingRoomiin, jonka on perustanut Ritva Isohanni. Kauneushoitola tarjoaa asiakkailleen ammattitaitoista palvelua hemmottelevien hoitojen ja laadukkaiden tuotteidensa avulla. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli tehdä LivingRoomille markkinointisuunnitelma sekä selvittää, miten tuotteiden myyntiä saataisiin lisättyä. Teoriaosuudessa käsitellään markkinoinnin johtamista, myynnin johtamista, markkinointistrategiaa, markkinoinnin suunnitt...

  6. [Passive euthanasia and living will].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2014-07-01

    This article deals with the intentional distinction between murder of first degree and passive euthanasia. In Hungary, active euthanasia is considered to be a murder of first degree, whilst the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg and Switzerland have legalized the active form of mercy killing in Europe. The palliative terminal care, when e.g. giving pain-killer morphine to the patient, might result in decreasing the patient's life-span, and thus causing indirect euthanasia. However, the legal institution of living will exists in several counter-euthanasia countries. The living will allows future patients to express their decision in advance to refuse a life-sustaining treatment, e.g. in case of irreversible coma. The institution of living will exists in Germany and in Hungary too. Nevertheless, the formal criteria of living will make it hardly applicable. The patient ought to express his/her will before a notary public in advance, and he/she should hand it over when being hospitalized. If the patient is not able to present his/her living will to his/her doctor in the hospital, then his/her only hope remains that he/she has given a copy of the living will to the family doctor previously, and the family doctor will notify the hospital. PMID:24974840

  7. An optimum world population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, D

    2000-01-01

    The optimum population of the world is the one that is most likely to make the option of a good quality of life available to everyone everywhere, both now and in the future. Establishing a consensus about the size of such a population would be an important step towards achieving it. Estimates of an optimum involve three main steps. First, estimate the maximum (carrying capacity) assuming a specified lifestyle. The main criteria are the maintenance of biodiversity, the availability of freshwater, and the availability of land--for agriculture, forestry and artificial systems but above all for the conversion of energy. (In applying the criteria, there are always two questions to ask: 'What is the maximum amount of consumption that the biosphere can stand?' and 'What is an adequate share of such consumption per person?') Second, convert the maximum (two to three billion) into an optimum by applying a far wider range of criteria, including personal liberty, mobility, recreation and political representation. Third, consider just two criteria (economies of scale and technological innovation) in order to ensure that the optimum (one to two billion) has not fallen below the minimum (half to one billion). The estimates are so low because of the need for a huge increase in median per capita consumption if everyone is to have the option of an adequate material standard of living. Opinion-formers are likely not to take much notice of such estimates, but it is probable that minds will be concentrated by an energy shock some time during the next decade. Achieving an optimum world population will not solve the world's major problems, but it would make them solvable. PMID:10824524

  8. Population Aging : Is Latin America Ready?

    OpenAIRE

    Cotlear, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The past half-century has seen enormous changes in the demographic makeup of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). In the 1950s, LAC had a small population of about 160 million people, less than today's population of Brazil. Two-thirds of Latin Americans lived in rural areas. Families were large and women had one of the highest fertility rates in the world, low levels of education, and fe...

  9. Agrarian potential, population, and the tarascan state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, H P; Gorenstein, S

    1980-07-11

    Estimates based on potential maize crops and maize consumption patterns of the 15th-century Mesoamerican protohistoric Tarascan population living within its geopolitical core (Lake Páttzcuaro Basin) indicate that this population had not maintained itself through agricultural- and lacustrine-carrying capacity alone. It was through having to obtain basic resources such as maize from outside the basin that the Tarascans developed mechanisms that formed the particular character of their state. PMID:17807116

  10. Proinsulin and age in general population

    OpenAIRE

    Ateia, S; E. Rusu; Cristescu, V; Enache, G; Cheța, DM; Radulian, G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between fasting proinsulin (PI) and age in general population and to determine whether there are differences regarding this association in obese and non-obese persons. Methods. A random population-based sample (n=656) of Romanians (26–80 years) living in Bucharest, Romania was studied; 432 persons had diabetes and they were not analyzed in this paper. Circulating levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting plas...

  11. Book review: The population of the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Ludi

    2013-01-01

    "The Population of the UK." Daniel Dorling. Sage. November 2012. --- The Population of the UK explains the geographical differences in key socio-economic variables – like education, health, and work – that illustrate the UK’s stark social inequalities and how these affect everyone’s lives. Ludi Simpson thinks this book is commendably rich in quantitative evidence, although it has a subjective approach which emphasises human responsibility for maintaining or changing patterns of inequality....

  12. DYNAMICS OF UKRAINIAN POPULATION LEVEL IN THE CONDITIONS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND THE EMERGENCE OF THE MODERN MARKET RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Kovalchuk

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The system of indexes characterizing the standard of living is considered and analyzed: average monthly and minimum wages, living wage, indexes of consumption, housing and property position of population, amount of free social services given by the state. The trends of progress, features of the state and forming of living level of population of Ukraine are exposed.

  13. Genetic analysis of ancestry, admixture and selection in Bolivian and Totonac populations of the New World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watkins W

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Populations of the Americas were founded by early migrants from Asia, and some have experienced recent genetic admixture. To better characterize the native and non-native ancestry components in populations from the Americas, we analyzed 815,377 autosomal SNPs, mitochondrial hypervariable segments I and II, and 36 Y-chromosome STRs from 24 Mesoamerican Totonacs and 23 South American Bolivians. Results and Conclusions We analyzed common genomic regions from native Bolivian and Totonac populations to identify 324 highly predictive Native American ancestry informative markers (AIMs. As few as 40–50 of these AIMs perform nearly as well as large panels of random genome-wide SNPs for predicting and estimating Native American ancestry and admixture levels. These AIMs have greater New World vs. Old World specificity than previous AIMs sets. We identify highly-divergent New World SNPs that coincide with high-frequency haplotypes found at similar frequencies in all populations examined, including the HGDP Pima, Maya, Colombian, Karitiana, and Surui American populations. Some of these regions are potential candidates for positive selection. European admixture in the Bolivian sample is approximately 12%, though individual estimates range from 0–48%. We estimate that the admixture occurred ~360–384 years ago. Little evidence of European or African admixture was found in Totonac individuals. Bolivians with pre-Columbian mtDNA and Y-chromosome haplogroups had 5–30% autosomal European ancestry, demonstrating the limitations of Y-chromosome and mtDNA haplogroups and the need for autosomal ancestry informative markers for assessing ancestry in admixed populations.

  14. Population Genetics of Plasmodium vivax in Four Rural Communities in Central Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Van Hong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The burden of malaria in Vietnam has drastically reduced, prompting the National Malaria Control Program to officially engage in elimination efforts. Plasmodium vivax is becoming increasingly prevalent, remaining a major problem in the country's central and southern provinces. A better understanding of P. vivax genetic diversity and structure of local parasite populations will provide baseline data for the evaluation and improvement of current efforts for control and elimination. The aim of this study was to examine the population genetics and structure of P. vivax isolates from four communities in Tra Leng commune, Nam Tra My district in Quang Nam, Central Vietnam.P. vivax mono infections collected from 234 individuals between April 2009 and December 2010 were successfully analyzed using a panel of 14 microsatellite markers. Isolates displayed moderate genetic diversity (He = 0.68, with no significant differences between study communities. Polyclonal infections were frequent (71.4% with a mean multiplicity of infection of 1.91 isolates/person. Low but significant genetic differentiation (FST value from -0.05 to 0.18 was observed between the community across the river and the other communities. Strong linkage disequilibrium ([Formula: see text] = 0.113, p < 0.001 was detected across all communities, suggesting gene flow within and among them. Using multiple approaches, 101 haplotypes were grouped into two genetic clusters, while 60.4% of haplotypes were admixed.In this area of Central Vietnam, where malaria transmission has decreased significantly over the past decade, there was moderate genetic diversity and high occurrence of polyclonal infections. Local human populations have frequent social and economic interactions that facilitate gene flow and inbreeding among parasite populations, while decreasing population structure. Findings provide important information on parasites populations circulating in the study area and are relevant to current

  15. Population Genetics of Plasmodium vivax in Four Rural Communities in Central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Nguyen Van; Delgado-Ratto, Christopher; Thanh, Pham Vinh; Van den Eede, Peter; Guetens, Pieter; Binh, Nguyen Thi Huong; Phuc, Bui Quang; Duong, Tran Thanh; Van Geertruyden, Jean Pierre; D’Alessandro, Umberto; Erhart, Annette; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background The burden of malaria in Vietnam has drastically reduced, prompting the National Malaria Control Program to officially engage in elimination efforts. Plasmodium vivax is becoming increasingly prevalent, remaining a major problem in the country's central and southern provinces. A better understanding of P. vivax genetic diversity and structure of local parasite populations will provide baseline data for the evaluation and improvement of current efforts for control and elimination. The aim of this study was to examine the population genetics and structure of P. vivax isolates from four communities in Tra Leng commune, Nam Tra My district in Quang Nam, Central Vietnam. Methodology/Principal Findings P. vivax mono infections collected from 234 individuals between April 2009 and December 2010 were successfully analyzed using a panel of 14 microsatellite markers. Isolates displayed moderate genetic diversity (He = 0.68), with no significant differences between study communities. Polyclonal infections were frequent (71.4%) with a mean multiplicity of infection of 1.91 isolates/person. Low but significant genetic differentiation (FST value from -0.05 to 0.18) was observed between the community across the river and the other communities. Strong linkage disequilibrium (IAS = 0.113, p < 0.001) was detected across all communities, suggesting gene flow within and among them. Using multiple approaches, 101 haplotypes were grouped into two genetic clusters, while 60.4% of haplotypes were admixed. Conclusions/Significance In this area of Central Vietnam, where malaria transmission has decreased significantly over the past decade, there was moderate genetic diversity and high occurrence of polyclonal infections. Local human populations have frequent social and economic interactions that facilitate gene flow and inbreeding among parasite populations, while decreasing population structure. Findings provide important information on parasites populations circulating in the

  16. Population, Population Density, and Technological Change

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan; Nestmann, Thorsten

    2004-01-01

    In a model on population and endogenous technological change, Kremer combines a short-run Malthusian scenario where income determines the population that can be sustained, with the Boserupian insight that greater population spurs technological change and can therefore lift a country out of its Malthusian trap. We show that a more realistic version of the model, which combines population and population density, allows deeper insights into these processes. The incorporation of population densit...

  17. Disabilities among refugees and conflict-affected populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Reilly

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 the Women’s Refugee Commission launched a major research project to assess the situation for those living with disabilities among displaced and conflict-affected populations.

  18. Population Percentage Within A Quarter Mile Of Alcohol Outlets 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This table contains data on the percentage of the total population living within 1/4 mile of alcohol outlets (off-sale, on-sale, total) for California, its regions,...

  19. Estimates of the Lawful Permanent Resident Population in the United States: January 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report presents estimates of the lawful permanent resident (LPR) population living in the United States on January 1, 2013. The LPR population includes persons...

  20. Ambient Assisted Living : Italian forum 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Siciliano, Pietro; Germani, Michele; Monteriù, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the refereed proceedings of the Fourth Italian Forum on Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), held in Ancona, Italy, in October 2013. A wide range of issues are covered, and new technological developments are described which will support the autonomy and independence of individuals with special needs through an innovative and integrated approach, designed to respond to the socio-economic challenges of an aging population. Topics addressed include: health and well-being, prevention and rehabilitation, and support for care providers; active aging and its social implications; services for the frail elderly with health problems and their families; nutrition; ICT platforms/technologies for the benefit of the elderly; home automation and control technologies (autonomy, safety, and energy saving); smart cities and smart communities; telemedicine, telerehabilitation, and telecare; mobility, participation, and social inclusion; games and fun for the elderly; building design; social housing; interface desig...