WorldWideScience

Sample records for admission control policy

  1. Affirmative action policy in medical school admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Ricardo A

    2005-02-01

    Legal challenges to affirmative action are growing, a trend suggesting that a proactive stance is needed to maintain a policy that still has viability, legitimacy, and utility. Medical schools admissions offices in the United States emphasize the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT), even though many studies have found that grade point averages are better single predictors of future academic achievement, regardless of the student's socioeconomic or racial category. The current essay suggests there is an overreliance on the MCAT in medical school admissions. Medical colleges should encourage the development of additional applicant selection criteria, while continuing to use affirmative action programs, in part to address the need for increased community-oriented health care.

  2. Allocation and Admission Policies for Service Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzucco, Michele; Fisher, Mike; McKee, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A service provisioning system is examined, where a number of servers are used to offer different types of services to paying customers. A customer is charged for the execution of a stream of jobs; the number of jobs in the stream and the rate of their submission is specified. On the other hand, the provider promises a certain quality of service (QoS), measured by the average waiting time of the jobs in the stream. A penalty is paid if the agreed QoS requirement is not met. The objective is to maximize the total average revenue per unit time. Dynamic policies for making server allocation and stream admission decisions are introduced and evaluated. The results of several simulations are described.

  3. UCT's Admissions Policies: Is the Playing Field Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favish, J.; Hendry, J.

    2010-01-01

    The article outlines how UCT's commitment to redress and diversity has officially guided the university's approach to admissions planning. In 2009 the Senate requested the Vice Chancellor to conduct a review of the admissions policy particularly to determine whether race continued to be an adequate proxy for disadvantage. This article analyses…

  4. Institutional Admissions Policies in Higher Education: A Widening Participation Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbank, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article analyses how higher education institutions (HEIs) have responded to government policy to increase the participation rates of students from lower social classes through their admissions policies. Design/methodology/approach: The article uses documentary evidence and interviews with institutional policy makers to examine HEI…

  5. The association of tobacco control policies and the risk of acute myocardial infarction using hospital admissions data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Jan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of a nationwide comprehensive smoking ban (CSB and tobacco tax increase (TTI on the risk of acute myocardial infarctions (AMI in Panama for the period of 2006 - 2010 using hospital admissions data. METHODS: Data of AMI cases was gathered from public and private hospitals in the country for the period of January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2010. The number of AMI cases was calculated on a monthly basis. The risk of AMI was estimated for the pre-CSB period (January 2006 to April 2008 and was used as a reference point. Three post-intervention periods were examined: (1 post-CSB from May 2008 to April 2009 (12 months; (2 post-CSB from May 2009 to November 2009 (7 months; and (3 post-TTI from December 2009 to December 2010 (13 months. Relative risks (RR of AMI were estimated for each post intervention periods by using a Poisson regression model. Mortality registries for the country attributed to myocardial infarction (MI were obtained from January 2001 to December 2012. The annual percentage change (APC of the number of deaths from MI was calculated using Joinpoint regression analysis. RESULTS: A total sample size of 2191 AMI cases was selected (monthly mean number of cases 36.52 ± 8.24 SD. Using the pre-CSB as a reference point (RR = 1.00, the relative risk of AMI during the first CSB period, the second CSB period and post-TTI were 0.982, 1.049, and 0.985, respectively. The APC of deaths from MI from January 2001 to April 2008 was 0.5%. From January 2001 to June 2010 the APC trend was 0.47% and from July 2010 to December 2012 the APC was -0.3%. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of a CSB and TTI in Panama were associated with a decrease in tobacco consumption and a reduction of the RR of AMI.

  6. Call Admission Control in Mobile Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Sanchita

    2013-01-01

    Call Admission Control (CAC) and Dynamic Channel Assignments (DCA) are important decision-making problems in mobile cellular communication systems. Current research in mobile communication considers them as two independent problems, although the former greatly depends on the resulting free channels obtained as the outcome of the latter. This book provides a solution to the CAC problem, considering DCA as an integral part of decision-making for call admission. Further, current technical resources ignore movement issues of mobile stations and fluctuation in network load (incoming calls) in the control strategy used for call admission. In addition, the present techniques on call admission offers solution globally for the entire network, instead of considering the cells independently.      CAC here has been formulated by two alternative approaches. The first approach aimed at handling the uncertainty in the CAC problem by employing fuzzy comparators.  The second approach is concerned with formulation of CAC ...

  7. A Novel Admission Control Algorithm Based on Negotiation and Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Deng-yin; ZHANG Li; TANG Zhi-yun

    2005-01-01

    Admission control algorithm is a key component of a media server which supports Quality of Service(QoS).In this paper we present an admission control algorithm that exploits the elastic properties of the user requirements and the changing properties of system conditions.The characteristic of the algorithm can be expounded from these aspects:First,it provides multiple services to satisfy the different users' requirements regarding QoS and price.Second,it uses a worth function to select from media services with different QoS characteristics in the negotiation process.Finally,it employs a novel price policy to compute the charge for the service,which has a great effect on restricting the greediness of the users and therefore increase the overall user benefit.In the end of the paper,we compare the user benefit attained by our algorithm with that of other method.

  8. 28 CFR 541.47 - Admission to control unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the inmate's confinement in a control unit; (b) Notice of the type of personal property which is... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Admission to control unit. 541.47 Section... INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Control Unit Programs § 541.47 Admission to control...

  9. Admissions Policies as a Mechanism for Social Engineering: The Case of the Bulgarian Communist Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyadjieva, Pepka Alexandrova

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses admissions policies to higher education during the Communist regime in Bulgaria (1946-89). It argues that under the conditions of the Bulgarian Communist regime, admissions policies were not only a component of the higher education system--viewed as an institution--but part and parcel of the process through which power was…

  10. Hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction before and after implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free policy in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebrié, Ernesto Marcelo; Sandoya, Edgardo; Hyland, Andrew; Bianco, Eduardo; Glantz, Stanton A; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Stimulated by the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, many countries in Latin America adopted comprehensive smoke-free policies. In March 2006, Uruguay became the first Latin American country to adopt 100% smoke-free national legislation, which ended smoking in all indoor public places and workplaces, including restaurants and bars. The objective of this study was to evaluate trends in hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease 2 years before and 2 years after the policy was implemented in Uruguay. Methods Reports of hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (International Classification of Disease-10 I21) from 37 hospitals (79% of all hospital admissions in the country), representing the period 2 years before and 2 years after the adoption of a nationwide smoke-free policy in Uruguay (between 1 March 2004 and 29 February 2008), were reviewed. A time series analysis was undertaken to compare the average monthly number of events of hospital admission for AMI before and after the smoke-free law. Results A total of 7949 hospital admissions for AMI were identified during the 4-year study period. Two years after the smoke-free policy was enacted, hospital admissions for AMI fell by 22%. The same pattern and roughly the same magnitude of reduction in AMI admissions were observed for patients seen in public and private hospitals, men, women and people aged 40–65 years and older than 65 years. Conclusions The national smoke-free policy implemented in Uruguay in 2006 was associated with a significant reduction in hospital admissions for AMI. PMID:22337557

  11. Admission Control and Interference Management in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Martinez-Bauset

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study two important aspects to make dynamic spectrum access work in practice: the admission policy of secondary users (SUs to achieve a certain degree of quality of service and the management of the interference caused by SUs to primary users (PUs. In order to limit the forced termination probability of SUs, we evaluate the Fractional Guard Channel reservation scheme to give priority to spectrum handovers over new arrivals. We show that, contrary to what has been proposed, the throughput of SUs cannot be maximized by configuring the reservation parameter. We also study the interference caused by SUs to PUs. We propose and evaluate different mechanisms to reduce the interference, which are based on simple spectrum access algorithms for both PUs and SUs and channel repacking algorithms for SUs. Numerical results show that the reduction can be of one order of magnitude or more with respect to the random access case. Finally, we propose an adaptive admission control scheme that is able to limit simultaneously the forced termination probability of SUs and what we define as the probability of interference. Our scheme does not require any configuration parameters beyond the probability objectives. Besides, it is simple to implement and it can operate with any arrival process and distribution of the session duration.

  12. A scalable admission control scheme based on time label

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨松岸; 杨华; 杨宇航

    2004-01-01

    Resource reservation protocols allow communicating hosts to reserve resources such as bandwidth to offer guaranteed service. However, current resource reservation architectures do not scale well for a large number of flows. In this paper, we present a simple reservation protocol and a scalable admission control algorithm, which can provide QoS guarantees to individual flows without per-flow management in the network core. By mapping each flow to a definite time, this scheme addresses the problems that limit the effectiveness of current endpoint admission control schemes. The overall admission control process is described. Analysis is used to explain the reasonability of our scheme and simulation validates its performance.

  13. Contextual Admissions and Affirmative Action: Developments in Higher Education Policy in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Laura; Birds, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the value of explaining contextual admissions policy directives through the conceptual lenses of meritocracy and social reproduction. It is suggested that examining these concepts can assist in highlighting some of the ideological and practical complexities associated with contextual admissions whilst providing opportunities to…

  14. A NEW ADMISSION CONTROL APPROACH BASED ON PREDICTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Kaining; Jin Zhigang; Zou Jun

    2002-01-01

    Admission control plays an important role in providing QoS to network users. Motivated by the measurement-based admission control algorithm, this letter proposed a new admission control approach for integrated service packet network based on traffic prediction. In the letter, FARIMA(p, d, q) models in the admission control algorithm is deployed. A method to simplify the FARIMA model fitting procedure and hence to reduce the time of traffic modeling and prediction is suggested. The feasibility-study experiments show that FARIMA models which have less number of parameters can be used to model and predict actual traffic on quite a large time scale. Simulation results validate the promising approach.

  15. MINORITY HIGHER EDUCATION PIPLINE: CONSEQUNCES OF CHANGES IN COLLEGE ADMISSIONS POLICY IN TEXAS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Angel L.; Tienda, Marta

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses administrative data for the two most selective Texas public institutions to examine the application, admission and enrollment consequences of rescinding affirmative action and implementing the top 10% admission regime. We simulate the gains and losses associated with each policy regime and also those from assigning minorities the application, admission and enrollment rates for white students. Challenging popular claims that the top 10% law restored diversification of Texas’s public flagships, our analyses that consider both changes in the size of high school graduation cohorts and institutional carrying capacity show that the uniform admission regime did not restore Hispanic and black representation at UT and TAMU even after four years. Simulations of gains and losses at each stage of the college pipeline across admission regimes for Hispanics and blacks confirm that affirmative action is the most efficient policy to diversify college campuses, even in highly segregated states like Texas. PMID:23077374

  16. MINORITY HIGHER EDUCATION PIPLINE: CONSEQUNCES OF CHANGES IN COLLEGE ADMISSIONS POLICY IN TEXAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Angel L; Tienda, Marta

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses administrative data for the two most selective Texas public institutions to examine the application, admission and enrollment consequences of rescinding affirmative action and implementing the top 10% admission regime. We simulate the gains and losses associated with each policy regime and also those from assigning minorities the application, admission and enrollment rates for white students. Challenging popular claims that the top 10% law restored diversification of Texas's public flagships, our analyses that consider both changes in the size of high school graduation cohorts and institutional carrying capacity show that the uniform admission regime did not restore Hispanic and black representation at UT and TAMU even after four years. Simulations of gains and losses at each stage of the college pipeline across admission regimes for Hispanics and blacks confirm that affirmative action is the most efficient policy to diversify college campuses, even in highly segregated states like Texas.

  17. An Intelligent Call Admission Control Decision Mechanism for Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    S., Ramesh Babu H; S, Satyanarayana P

    2010-01-01

    The Call admission control (CAC) is one of the Radio Resource Management (RRM) techniques plays instrumental role in ensuring the desired Quality of Service (QoS) to the users working on different applications which have diversified nature of QoS requirements. This paper proposes a fuzzy neural approach for call admission control in a multi class traffic based Next Generation Wireless Networks (NGWN). The proposed Fuzzy Neural Call Admission Control (FNCAC) scheme is an integrated CAC module that combines the linguistic control capabilities of the fuzzy logic controller and the learning capabilities of the neural networks .The model is based on Recurrent Radial Basis Function Networks (RRBFN) which have better learning and adaptability that can be used to develop the intelligent system to handle the incoming traffic in the heterogeneous network environment. The proposed FNCAC can achieve reduced call blocking probability keeping the resource utilisation at an optimal level. In the proposed algorithm we have c...

  18. Power Admission Control with Predictive Thermal Management in Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Jianguo; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Zhu, Guchuan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a control scheme for thermal management in smart buildings based on predictive power admission control. This approach combines model predictive control with budget-schedulability analysis in order to reduce peak power consumption as well as ensure thermal comfort. First...

  19. Advanced Fuzzy Logic Based Admission Control for UMTS System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kejik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access systems is interference limited. Therefore radio resources management (RRM functions are used. They are responsible for supplying optimum coverage, ensuring efficient use of physical resources, and providing the maximum planned capacity. This paper deals with admission control techniques for UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System. A UMTS system model and four fuzzy logic based admission control algorithms are presented in this paper. Two new versions of fuzzy logic based admission control algorithms are presented there. All algorithms are mutually compared via simulations. Simulations show that the novel advanced fuzzy algorithm outperforms the other simulated algorithms (in terms of blocking probability, dropping probability and the number of active UEs in cell.

  20. A scalable admission control scheme based on time label

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨松岸; 杨华; 杨宇航

    2004-01-01

    Resource reservation protocols allow communicating hosts to reserve resources such as bandwidth to offer guaranteed service. However,current resource reservation architectures do not scale well for a large number of flows. In this paper,we present a simple reservation protocol and a scalable admission control algorithm,which can provide QoS guarantees to individual flows without per-flow management in the network core. By mapping each flow to a definite time,this scheme addresses the problems that limit the effectiveness of current endpoint admission control schemes. The overall admission control process is described. Analysis is used to explain the reasonability of our scheme and simulation validates its performance.

  1. Admission Control Algorithm for Guaranteeing Real-Time Anycast Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijia Jia; Zhang Chuanlin

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we study admission control algorithm for anycast flow with real-time constraints. With the given time requirement, when the result of this algorithm give succeed information, we find route for the anycast flow requesting. Therefore, what we need to do is testing if the corresponding path rj has enough bandwidth for coming anycast flow requirement at source S with end-to-end deadline D. This admission control is scalable in terms of the number of flows can be admitted through local information of the routes.

  2. A lexicographic approach to constrained MDP admission control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfili, Martina; Pietrabissa, Antonio; Oddi, Guido; Suraci, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes a reinforcement learning-based lexicographic approach to the call admission control problem in communication networks. The admission control problem is modelled as a multi-constrained Markov decision process. To overcome the problems of the standard approaches to the solution of constrained Markov decision processes, based on the linear programming formulation or on a Lagrangian approach, a multi-constraint lexicographic approach is defined, and an online implementation based on reinforcement learning techniques is proposed. Simulations validate the proposed approach.

  3. University Admissions Policy in a Developing Country: Evidence from the University of the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Sudhanshu; Gordon, Peter-John

    1999-01-01

    Critically analyzes the University of West Indies' admissions policy of increasing the share of undergraduate part-time students. Data on student grades in first-year social-science courses shows that part-time students are significantly more likely to fail these courses, due to lower motivation and greater time constraints. (10 references) (MLH)

  4. BARTER: Behavior Profile Exchange for Behavior-Based Admission and Access Control in MANETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias-Martinez, Vanessa; Stolfo, Salvatore J.; Keromytis, Angelos D.

    Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are very dynamic networks with devices continuously entering and leaving the group. The highly dynamic nature of MANETs renders the manual creation and update of policies associated with the initial incorporation of devices to the MANET (admission control) as well as with anomaly detection during communications among members (access control) a very difficult task. In this paper, we present BARTER, a mechanism that automatically creates and updates admission and access control policies for MANETs based on behavior profiles. BARTER is an adaptation for fully distributed environments of our previously introduced BB-NAC mechanism for NAC technologies. Rather than relying on a centralized NAC enforcer, MANET members initially exchange their behavior profiles and compute individual local definitions of normal network behavior. During admission or access control, each member issues an individual decision based on its definition of normalcy. Individual decisions are then aggregated via a threshold cryptographic infrastructure that requires an agreement among a fixed amount of MANET members to change the status of the network. We present experimental results using content and volumetric behavior profiles computed from the ENRON dataset. In particular, we show that the mechanism achieves true rejection rates of 95% with false rejection rates of 9%.

  5. A structural comparison of measurement-based admission control algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Yi-ran; WANG Suo-ping; WU Hai-ya

    2006-01-01

    Measurement-based admission control (MBAC)algorithm is designed for the relaxed real-time service. In contrast to traditional connection admission control mechanisms,the most attractive feature of MBAC algorithm is that it does not require a prior traffic model and that is very difficult for the user to come up with a tight traffic model before establishing a flow.Other advantages of MBAC include that it can achieve higher network utilization and offer quality service to users. In this article, the study of the equations in the MBAC shows that they can all be expressed in the same form. Based on the same form,some MBAC algorithms can achieve same performance only if they satisfy some conditions.

  6. Admission Control of VL in AFDX Under HRT Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qiang; QU Zhenliang; LIN Hengqing

    2011-01-01

    Avionics full duplex switched ethernet (AFDX) is a switched interconnection technology developed to provide reliable data exchange with strong data transmission time guarantees in internal communication of the spacecraft or aircraft. Virtual link (VL) is an important concept of AFDX to meet quality of service (QoS) requirements in terms of end-to-end message deadlines. A VL admission control algorithm in AFDX network under hard real-time (HRT) constraints is studied. Based on the scheduling principle of AFDX protocol, a packet scheduling scheme under HRT constraints is proposed, and after that an efficient VL admission control algorithm is presented. Analytical proof that the algorithm can effectively determine whether VL should be admitted is given. Finally simulative examples are presented to promote the conclusion.

  7. Intelligent Joint Admission Control for Next Generation Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen, Abdulqader M.; Al-Akwaa, Fadhl M.; Mohammed M. Alkhawlani

    2012-01-01

    The Heterogeneous Wireless Network (HWN) integrates different wireless networks into one common network. The integrated networks often overlap coverage in the same wireless service areas, leading to the availability of a great variety of innovative services based on user demands in a cost-efficient manner. Joint Admission Control (JAC) handles all new or handoff service requests in the HWN. It checks whether the incoming service request to the selected Radio Access Network (RAN) by the initia...

  8. Admission control with long-range dependence traffic input

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Yun-hua; ZOU Xue-cheng

    2005-01-01

    The admission control scheme is investigated for a FIFO self-similar queuing system with Quality of Service (QoS) performance guarantees. Since the self-similar queuing system performance analysis is often carried out under the condition of infinite buffer, it is difficult to deduce the upper boundary of buffer overflow probability. To overcome this shortcoming, a simple overflow condition is proposed, which defines a buffer overflow occurrence whenever the arrival rate exceeds the service rate. The analytic formula for the buffer overflow probability upper boundary is easily obtained under this condition. The required bandwidth upper boundary with long-range dependence input and determined overflow probability is then derived from this formula. Based on the above analytic formulas, the upper boundaries of the admission control regions for homogeneous and heterogeneous long-range dependence traffic sources are separately obtained. Finally, an effective admission control scheme for long-range dependence input is proposed. Simulation studies with real traffic have confirmed the validity of these results.

  9. New degradation call admission control for increasing WCDMA system capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ningqing; Lu Zhi; Gu Xuemai

    2006-01-01

    Propose a new degradation call admission control(DCAC)scheme, which can be used in wideband code division multiple access communication system. So-called degradation is that non-real time call has the characteristic of variable bit rate, so decreasing its bit rate can reduce the load of the system, consequently the system can admit new call which should be blocked when the system is close to full load, therefore new call's access probability increases. This paper brings forward design project and does system simulation, simulation proves that DCAC can effectively decrease calls' blocking probability and increase the total number of the on-line users.

  10. TCP-Call Admission Control Interaction in Multiplatform Space Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Theodoridis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of efficient call admission control (CAC algorithms is useful to prevent congestion and guarantee target quality of service (QoS. When TCP protocol is adopted, some inefficiencies can arise due to the peculiar evolution of the congestion window. The development of cross-layer techniques can greatly help to improve efficiency and flexibility for wireless networks. In this frame, the present paper addresses the introduction of TCP feedback into the CAC procedures in different nonterrestrial wireless architectures. CAC performance improvement is shown for different space-based architectures, including both satellites and high altitude platform (HAP systems.

  11. Optimizing Voip Using A Cross Layer Call Admission Control Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz AL-Mukhtar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Deployingwireless campus network becomes popular in many world universities for the services that areprovided.However, it suffers from different issues such as low VoIP network capacity, network congestioneffect on VoIP QoS and WLAN multi rate issue due to linkadaptation technique. In this paper a cross layercall admission control (CCAC scheme is proposed to reduce the effects of these problems on VoWLANbased on monitoring RTCPRR(RealTime Control Protocol ReceiverReportthat provides the QoS levelfor VoIP and monitoring the MAC layer for any change in the data rate. If the QoS level degrades due toone of the aforementioned reasons, a considerable change in the packet size or the codec type will be thesolution. A wireless campus network issimulatedusing OPNET 14.5 modeler and many scenarios aremodeled to improve this proposed scheme.

  12. Excellence and diversity: The Emergence of Selective Admission Policies in Dutch Higher Education - A Case Study on Amsterdam University College

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reumer, Christoffel; Wende, van der Marijk

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the emergence of selective admission policies in Dutch university education. Such policies are being developed to promote excellence in a higher education system that is generally known to be “egalitarian” and increasingly criticized for a lack of differentiation. The changing po

  13. Power Control Technique for Efficient Call Admission Control in Advanced Wirless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Sreenivasa Rao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In 4G networks, call admission control techniques have been proposed to provide Quality of Service (QoS in a network by restricting the access to network resources. Power control is essential in call admission control in order to provide fair access to all users, improve battery lifetime and system performance. But the existing call admission control algorithms rarely consider the power controlling techniques in the handoff process for different traffic classes. In this paper, we propose to develop a power controlled call admission control scheme for handoff in the advanced wireless networks. The incoming call measures the initial interference on it and then the base station starts transmitting the packets to the new call. The new call is rejected when the interference reaches a threshold value.Whenever an existing call meets the power constraint, the transmit power is decremented based on thetraffic class and incoming call obtains this information by monitoring the interference received on it. Theconvergence of the power control algorithm is checked and the power levels of all incoming calls areadjusted. From our simulation results we prove that this power control technique provides efficienthandoff in the 4G networks by increasing the throughput and reducing the delay of the existing users.

  14. International Drug Control Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-24

    cannabis resin, coca leaf, cocaine, heroin, and opium. Psychotropic substances include ecstasy ,2 LSD,3 amphetamine, and methamphetamine. Examples of other...replaces CRS Report RL33582, International Drug Trade and U.S. Foreign Policy, by Raphael F. Perl. 2 Ecstasy is the street name for MDMA (3,4... mechanisms to monitor treaty adherence— through the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB)—and for the collection of data related to the illicit

  15. Combined Admission Control and Scheduling for QoS Differentiation in LTE Uplink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anas, Mohmmad; Rosa, Claudio; Calabrese, Francesco Davide

    2008-01-01

    Long term evolution (LTE) architecture shall support end-to-end quality of service (QoS). For the QoS support and service differentiation it is important that the admission control and packet scheduling functionalities are QoS-aware. In this paper a combined admission control and a decoupled time...

  16. Joint Resource Allocation and Admission Control Mechanism for an OFDMA-Based System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meucci, Filippo; Mihovska, Albena D.; Anggorojati, Bayu;

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a Call Admission Control (CAC) mechanism that adapts the type of admitted users based on a proposed resource allocation strategy that responds to changes in the channel conditions. The admission control decides to admit new services according to the load of the cell and based...

  17. Intelligent Joint Admission Control for Next Generation Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulqader M. Mohsen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Heterogeneous Wireless Network (HWN integrates different wireless networks into one common network. The integrated networks often overlap coverage in the same wireless service areas, leading to the availability of a great variety of innovative services based on user demands in a cost-efficient manner. Joint Admission Control (JAC handles all new or handoff service requests in the HWN. It checks whether the incoming service request to the selected Radio Access Network (RAN by the initial access network selection or the vertical handover module can be admitted and allocated the suitable resources. In this paper, a decision support system is developed to address the JAC problem in the modern HWN networks. This system combines fuzzy logic and the PROMETHEE II multiple criteria decision making system algorithm, to the problem of JAC. This combination decreases the influence of the dissimilar, imprecise, and contradictory measurements for the JAC criteria coming from different sources. A performance analysis is done and the results are compared with traditional algorithms for JAC. These results demonstrate a significant improvement with our developed algorithm.

  18. A Survey of PCN-Based Admission Control and Flow Termination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menth, Michael; Lehrieder, Frank; Briscoe, Bob; Eardley, Philip; Moncaster, Tony; Babiarz, Jozef; Charny, Anna; Zhang, Xinyang (Joy); Taylor, Tom; Chan, Kwok-Ho; Satoh, Daisuke; Geib, Ruediger; Karagiannis, Georgios

    2010-01-01

    Pre-congestion notification (PCN) provides feedback about load conditions in a network to its boundary nodes. The PCN working group of the IETF discusses the use of PCN to implement admission control (AC) and flow termination (FT) for prioritized realtime traffic in a DiffServ domain. Admission cont

  19. Formulating Recruitment and Retention Policies at the University of Delaware: From Affirmative Action to Diversity in Financial Aid and Admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Johnie A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, the United States Supreme Court decided on two cases that involved affirmative action policies for admission to the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor Law School and the College of Literature, Science and the Arts. Those cases, "Gratz v. Bollinger" (2003) and "Grutter v. Bollinger" (2003) had implications for the…

  20. A Novel Effective Bandwidth Based Call Admission Control for Multimedia CDMA Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Su; FENG Guang-zheng; ZHU Qi

    2004-01-01

    A novel Call Admission Control (CAC) scheme is proposed for multimedia CDMA systems. The effective bandwidth of real time calls is reserved in the CAC with the consideration of active factors. The admission of non-real time calls is controlled by the system according to the residual effective bandwidth left from real time calls. Simulation results have shown that the novel CAC has greatly enlarged the admission region for real time calls and make the transmission delay of non-real time calls under an acceptable level.

  1. Patient-controlled hospital admission for patients with severe mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christoffer Torgaard; Benros, Michael Eriksen; Hastrup, Lene Halling

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patient-controlled hospital admission for individuals with severe mental disorders is a novel approach in mental healthcare. Patients can admit themselves to a hospital unit for a short stay without being assessed by a psychiatrist or contacting the emergency department. Previous...... studies assessing the outcomes of patient-controlled hospital admission found trends towards reduction in the use of coercive measures and length of hospital stay; however, these studies have methodological shortcomings and small sample sizes. Larger studies are needed to estimate the effect of patient......-controlled hospital admission on the use of coercion and of healthcare services. DESIGN AND METHODS: We aim to recruit at least 315 patients who are offered a contract for patient-controlled hospital admissions in eight different hospitals in Denmark. Patients will be followed-up for at least 1 year to compare...

  2. Loss Performance Modeling for Hierarchical Heterogeneous Wireless Networks With Speed-Sensitive Call Admission Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Huang, Yue-Cai; Ko, King-Tim;

    2011-01-01

    dimensioning and planning. This paper investigates the computationally efficient loss performance modeling for multiservice in hierarchical heterogeneous wireless networks. A speed-sensitive call admission control (CAC) scheme is considered in our model to assign overflowed calls to appropriate tiers...

  3. Multi-Stage Admission Control for Load Balancing in Next Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Anggorojati, Bayu; Luo, Jijun;

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a load-dependent multi-stage admission control suitable for next generation systems. The concept uses decision polling in entities located at different levels of the architecture hierarchy and based on the load to activate a sequence of actions related to the admission...... of a user to the network, i.e., the ranking of the intermediate decisions is dynamic. The decision is controlled by passing a token between the base station (BS) and the gateway (GW), thereby considering the load status of the BS and the backhaul network. A token is assigned to the entity with the highest...... load. Each admission request will issue a flag whose colour will reflect the load level in this entity and will determine the correct sequence of the required admission control actions....

  4. A COMBINED ADMISSION CONTROL ALGORITHM WITH DA PROTOCOL FOR SATELLITE ATM NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Rong; Cao Zhigang

    2006-01-01

    Admission control is an important strategy for Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning in Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks. Based on a control-theory model of resources on-Demand Allocation (DA) protocol, the paper studies the effect of the protocol on the statistical characteristics of network traffic,and proposes a combined connection admission control algorithm with the DA protocol to achieve full utilization of link resources in satellite communication systems. The proposed algorithm is based on the cross-layer-design approach. Theoretical analysis and system simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can admit more connections within certain admission thresholds than one that does not take into account the DA protocol. Thus, the proposed algorithm can increase admission ratio of traffic sources for satellite ATM networks and improve satellite link utilization.

  5. A self-learning call admission control scheme for CDMA cellular networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Derong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Huaguang

    2005-09-01

    In the present paper, a call admission control scheme that can learn from the network environment and user behavior is developed for code division multiple access (CDMA) cellular networks that handle both voice and data services. The idea is built upon a novel learning control architecture with only a single module instead of two or three modules in adaptive critic designs (ACDs). The use of adaptive critic approach for call admission control in wireless cellular networks is new. The call admission controller can perform learning in real-time as well as in offline environments and the controller improves its performance as it gains more experience. Another important contribution in the present work is the choice of utility function for the present self-learning control approach which makes the present learning process much more efficient than existing learning control methods. The performance of our algorithm will be shown through computer simulation and compared with existing algorithms.

  6. A BATCH ARRIVAL RETRIAL QUEUE WITH STARTING FAILURES, FEEDBACK AND ADMISSION CONTROL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinting WANG; Peng-Feng ZHOU

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the analysis of a feedback M[X]/G/1 retrial queue with starting failures and general retrial times.In a batch,each individual customer is subject to a control admission policy upon arrival.If the server is idle,one of the customers admitted to the system may start its service and the rest joins the retrial group,whereas all the admitted customers go to the retrial group when the server is unavailable upon arrival.An arriving customer(primary or retrial)must turn-on the server,which takes negligible time.If the server is started successfully(with a certain probability),the customer gets service immediately.Otherwise,the repair for the server commences immediately and the customer must leave for the orbit and make a retrial at a later time.It is assumed that the customers who find the server unavailable are queued in the orbit in accordance with an FCFS discipline and only the customer at the head of the queue is allowed for access to the server.The Markov chain underlying the considered queueing system is studied and the necessary and sufficient condition for the system to be stable is presented.Explicit formulae for the stationary distribution and some performance measures of the system in steady-state are obtained.Finally,some numerical examples are presented to illustrate the influence of the parameters on several performance characteristics.

  7. SERVICE-AWARE BASED FUZZY ADMISSION CONTROL SCHEME IN MULTI-SERVICE NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Gongan; Zhang Shunyi; Liu Shidong

    2007-01-01

    Multi-service aggregated transmission is the direction of IP network. Providing different Quality of Service (QoS) assurance for different services has become a crucial problem in future network.Admission control is a vital function for multi-service IP network. This paper proposes a novel fuzzy admission control scheme based on coarse granularity service-aware technique. Different service has discriminative sensitivity to the same QoS characteristic parameter in general. The traffic class can be perceived by the service request parameter and the proposed QoS function. And requirements of different applications can be met by maintaining the life parameter. From simulation results, the proposed scheme shows a better QoS provisioning than those traditional fuzzy logic based methods under the same admission probability.

  8. Z-Score Demystified: A Critical Analysis of the Sri Lankan University Admission Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnapala, Yajni; Silva, Karishma

    2011-01-01

    In the year 2001, the University Grants Commission of Sri Lanka successfully appealed to change the method of determining the cut-off scores for university admissions from raw scores to standardized z-scores. This standardization allegedly eliminated the discrepancy caused due to the assumption of equal difficulty levels across all subjects. This…

  9. Merit and Admissions Policy: Case Studies from Pakistan. Discussion Paper Series No. 59 D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitgaard, Robert E.; And Others

    Studies were conducted to determine whether measures of intellectual merit that are used as criteria for admission to the University of Karachi in Pakistan have predictive validity. The predictive validity of the intermediate examination score was studied with recent graduates of the pharmacy, medicine, and engineering schools. Additional studies…

  10. Self-optimisation of admission control and handover parameters in LTE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sas, B.; Spaey, K.; Balan, I.; Zetterberg, K.; Litjens, R.

    2011-01-01

    In mobile cellular networks the handover (HO) algorithm is responsible for determining when calls of users that are moving from one cell to another are handed over from the former to the latter. The admission control (AC) algorithm, which is the algorithm that decides whether new (fresh or HO) calls

  11. Reduced Admissions for Acute Myocardial Infarction Associated with a Public Smoking Ban: Matched Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    2007-01-01

    There has been no research linking implementation of a public smoking ban and reduced incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among nonsmoking patients. An ex post facto matched control group study was conducted to determine whether there was a change in hospital admissions for AMI among nonsmoking patients after a public smoking ban was…

  12. Cognitive interference modeling with applications in power and admission control

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda

    2012-10-01

    One of the key design challenges in a cognitive radio network is controlling the interference generated at coexisting primary receivers. In order to design efficient cognitive radio systems and to minimize their unwanted consequences, it is therefore necessary to effectively control the secondary interference at the primary receivers. In this paper, a generalized framework for the interference analysis of a cognitive radio network where the different secondary transmitters may transmit with different powers and transmission probabilities, is presented and various applications of this interference model are demonstrated. The findings of the analytical performance analyses are confirmed through selected computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Smart packet access and call admission control for efficient resource management in advanced wireless networks

    OpenAIRE

    Phan, V. V. (Vinh V.)

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Efficient management of rather limited resources, including radio spectrum and mobile-terminal battery power, has been the fundamental design challenge of wireless networks and one of the most widespread research problems over the years. MAC (Medium Access Control) for packet access and CAC (Call Admission Control) for connection-oriented service domains are commonly used as effective tools to manage radio resources, capacity and performance of wireless networks while providing ad...

  14. Unsteady flow and load in 50% partial admission control stage with different admitting arc distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Ke-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Full three-dimensional unsteady numerical investigation on an axial air turbine in 50% partial admission is conducted. The partial admission turbines are under different unsteady loading and unloading process, as well as flow parameters, respectively. The loss coefficient and static pressure distributions at the key position are presented in detail to analyze the nonuniformity originated from partial admission. The results show that the nonuniformity decreases along flow direction and the efficiency of control stage also decreases but with the uniformity improved downstream of the rotors with increasing admitting numbers in equal partial admission degree. The reasons for efficiency decreasing are reasonably explained with windage and sector end losses presented by static entropy distributions. The periodic changes of unsteady forces in amplitude and direction are also compared and transformed in the frequency domain by FFT method. The largest circumferential exciting force factor which is remarkably larger than the corresponding axial exciting force factor decreases by 13.2% with the increase of admitting arc number. Compared with the common distribution of two symmetric admitting arcs, the maximum exciting force factor of triangle admitting arc distribution drops 11.3% with the mere efficiency decrease of 1.32%. The multiple admitting arc turbines are more conducive to be applied to submarines which concerns more about exciting force other than efficiency. Efficiency and unsteady forces are both worth being taken into consideration in the practical applications.

  15. Performance Analysis of Prioritized Call Admission Control Schemes for Integrated Traffic in Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless/mobile communication systems are becoming increasingly popular in recent years. As the wireless resources are scarce, it is important to allocate resources efficiently and carefully, in order to achieve maximum output. The call admission control schemes play a significant role in providing the desired quality of service (QoS by judiciously assigning the radio channels that are available in a micro cell. In this paper, we present two call admission control (CAC schemes for wireless mobile network, (i Prioritized call admission control (PCAC scheme (S1 and (ii Prioritized call admission control scheme with releasing function (S2. Both schemes support integrated traffic i.e. data and voice for both new and handoff attempts. Guard channel concept is used to give the priority to the handoff attempts. To admit more handoff attempts in the cellular system, buffering process is used for the handoff attempts. The concept of balking and reneging is also incorporated for both the schemes. The calls arrive in poisson fashion whereas channel holding time and cell residence times are exponentially distributed. The arrival rate of handoff attempts is computed by using iterative algorithm. Various performance metrics such as blocking probability of new call, blocking probability of handoff data/voice attempts, time out probability of handoff data/voice attempts, force termination probability of handoff data/voice attempts, waiting time of handoff data/voice attempts, carried load, etc. are determined. The sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to facilitate the insights of controllable parameters for real time systems

  16. Entrance Exam Admission Policies on Ethnic Minorities and Equal Educational Rights for Minorities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiwei, Lang

    2010-01-01

    In 1977, the Chinese government reinstated the national unified college entrance exam enrollment system. As a part of this system, the government also implemented preferential policies on the enrollment of minorities that authorized the increase or decrease of exam scores and enrollment cutoff points; the policies were therefore seen as…

  17. A NOVEL CALL ADMISSION CONTROL SCHEME IN CELLULAR/WLAN INTEGRATION AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Weiwei; Shen Lianfeng

    2009-01-01

    In order to achieve the Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning and efficient resource utilization in cellular network and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) integration, an Integrated Service-Based Call Admission Control (ISB-CAC) scheme is proposed in this paper. The integrated network is modeled by using multi-dimensional Markov chains. The numerical analysis is presented to evaluate the important performance measures such as the blocking probability of originating calls, the dropping probability, and the average transfer time, etc. The steady-state probabilities of the multi-dimensional Markov chains are obtained by using an iterative approach, and the CAC parameters are optimally designed. The analytical model is validated by the computer simulation. It is shown that compared with the conventional WLAN-First Call Admission Control (WF-CAC) scheme, the proposed ISB-CAC scheme not only provides better QoS for mobile users but also utilizes the bandwidth resources more efficiently.

  18. Vertical Handoff and Admission Control Strategy in 4G Wireless Network Using Centrality Graph Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ferdinand Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertical Handoff (VHO is a crucial mechanism for the architecture of the Fourth Generation (4G Heterogeneous Wireless Networks (HWN, because the users of 4G-HWN are capable of switching to any network in a seamless manner. These algorithms need to be practical and true to a wide range of applications hence utilization of an application layer parameter is important to decide the handoff and admission control. As a noticeable number of OSN users increased among smart phones, this study proposes a deployment of social context incorporated with vertical handoff and admission control algorithms called VHO-AC for the 4G-HWN environment. Admission of a node is decided based on the Graph Centrality Theory, which is contributing their measures to design an application layer parameter called Social Centrality Measure (SCM. The simulation results show that social network traffic flowing out of 2G and 3G base stations is much reduced than the existing SCVH method.

  19. Routing and admission control in general topology networks with poisson arrivals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, A.; Palmon, O.; Plotkin, S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Emerging high speed networks will carry traffic for services such as video-on-demand and video teleconferencing - that require resource reservation along the path on which the traffic is sent. High bandwidth-delay product of these networks prevents circuit rerouting, i.e. once it is routed on a certain path, the bandwidth a circuit taken by this circuit remains unavailable for the duration (holding time) of this circuit. As a result, such networks will need effective routing and admission control strategies. Recently developed online routing and admission control strategies have logarithmic competitive ratios with respect to the admission ratio (the fraction of admitted circuits). Such guarantees on performance are rather weak in the most interesting case where the rejection ratio of the optimum algorithm is very small or even 0. Unfortunately, these guarantees can not be improved in the context of the considered models, making it impossible to use these models to identify algorithms that are going to perform well in practice.

  20. Decisive Routing and Admission Control According to Quality of Service Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    in pn sn1 tn1 sn2 tn2 sny tny ⎞ ⎟⎟⎟⎟⎟⎟⎠ Where the each row in the matrix corresponds to the following i1...n = input file size of...Preemptive Congestion Control Code Snippet The Decisive Routing and Admission Control According to Quality of Service Constraints code snippet of reaction to...simulation snippet of reaction to forecasted state of the network. The Kalman filter queue has reached a stated level of 45% of its capacity and

  1. Recent Changes in UC Admissions Policies. Parent/Student Guide = Unos cambios recientes en los reglamentos de ingreso de la universidad de California. Guia de padres/estudiantes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EdSource, Inc., Palo Alto, CA.

    This parent/student guide describes recent changes in admissions policies at the University of California (UC). Traditionally, UC admitted the top 12.5% of high school graduating seniors, but beginning in 2001, the top 4% of students in the graduating class of every high school are eligible if they have completed 11 specific "a-f"…

  2. Effect of air pollution control on mortality and hospital admissions in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Douglas W; Rich, David Q; Goodman, Patrick G; Clancy, Luke; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; George, Prethibha; Kotlov, Tania

    2013-07-01

    and 1998 bans, adjusting for influenza epidemics, weekly mean temperature, and local admissions for digestive diagnoses. Mean BS concentrations fell in all affected population centers post-ban compared with the pre-ban period, with decreases ranging from 4 to 35 microg/m3 (corresponding to reductions of 45% to 70%, respectively), but we observed no clear pattern in SO2 measured as total gaseous acidity associated with the bans. In comparisons with the pre-ban periods, no significant reduction was found in total death rates associated with the 1990 (1% reduction), 1995 (4% reduction), or 1998 (0% reduction) bans, nor for cardiovascular mortality (0%, 4%, and 1% reductions for the 1990, 1995, and 1998 bans, respectively). Respiratory mortality was reduced in association with the bans (17%, 9%, and 3%, respectively). We found a 4% decrease in hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease associated with the 1995 ban and a 3% decrease with the 1998 ban. Admissions for respiratory disease were not consistently lower after the bans; admissions for pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma were reduced. However, underreporting of hospital admissions data and lack of control and comparison series tempered our confidence in these results. The successive coal bans resulted in immediate and sustained decreases in particulate concentrations in each city or town; with the largest decreases in winter and during the heating season. The bans were associated with reductions in respiratory mortality but no detectable improvement in cardiovascular mortality. The changes in hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular disease were supportive of these findings but cannot be considered confirming. Detecting changes in public health indicators associated even with clear improvements in air quality, as in this case, remains difficult when there are simultaneous secular improvements in the same health indicators.

  3. Tobacco control policies of oncology nursing organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Linda; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga

    2004-05-01

    Nurses, the largest group of health care professionals, and the policies of nursing organizations, have tremendous potential to promote health and tobacco control. Policies addressing tobacco use have been implemented by a variety of national and international nursing organizations. This article reviews existing tobacco control policies in oncology nursing organizations.

  4. Output Feedback Based Admissible Control of Switched Linear Singular Systems%切换线性奇异系统输出反馈容许控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟斌; 张纪峰

    2006-01-01

    The admissibility analysis and robust admissible control problem of the uncertain discretetime switched linear singular (SLS) systems for arbitrary switching laws are investigated. Based on linear matrix inequalities, some sufficient conditions are given for: A) the existence of generalized common Lyapunov solution and the admissibility of the SLS systems for arbitrary switching laws,B) the existence of static output feedback control laws ensuring the admissibility of the closed-loop SLS systems for arbitrary switching laws and norm-bounded uncertainties.

  5. Call Admission Control performance model for Beyond 3G Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Babu H.S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Next Generation Wireless Networks (NGWN will be heterogeneous in nature where the different Radio Access Technologies (RATs operate together .The mobile terminals operating in this heterogeneous environment will have different QoS requirements to be handled by the system. These QoS requirements are determined by a set of QoS parameters. The radio resource management is one of the key challenges in NGWN.Call admission control is one of the radio resource management technique plays instrumental role in ensure the desired QoS to the users working on different applications which have diversified QoS requirements from the wireless networks . The call blocking probability is one such QoS parameter for the wireless network. For better QoS it is desirable to reduce the call blocking probability. In this customary scenario it is highly desirable to obtain analytic Performance model. In this paper we propose a higher order Markov chain based performance model for call admission control in a heterogeneous wireless network environment. In the proposed algorithm we have considered three classes of traffic having different QoS requirements and we have considered the heterogeneous network environment which includes the RATs that can effectively handle applications like voice calls, Web browsing and file transfer applications which are with varied QoS parameters. The paper presents the call blocking probabilities for all the three types of traffic both for fixed and varied traffic scenario.Keywords: Radio Access Technologies; Call admission control; Call blocking probability; Markov model; Heterogeneous wireless Networks.

  6. Admission Control Scheme for Multi-class Services in QoS-based Mobile Cellular Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YINZhiming; XIEJianying

    2004-01-01

    Call admission control (CAC) is one of the key schemes to guarantee Quality of service (QoS) in mobile cellular networks. In this paper, we propose an optimal CAC scheme based on Semi-Markov decision processes (SMDP) theory to support multi-class services for QoS wireless networks. Linear programming formulation is used to find the optimal solution, which maximizes the channel utilization while meeting the requirements of QoS constraints. The numerical results show that the performance of our scheme outperforms DCAC scheme.

  7. Adaptive Call Admission Control Based on Reward-Penalty Model in Wireless/Mobile Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Hui Huang; De-Pei Qian; Sheng-Ling Wang

    2007-01-01

    A dynamic threshold-based Call Admission Control (CAC) scheme used in wireless/mobile network for multi- class services is proposed. In the scheme, each class's CAC thresholds are solved through establishing a reward-penalty model which strives to maximize network's revenue. In order to lower Handoff Dropping Probability (HDP), the scheme joints packet and connection levels Quality of Service constraints, designing a bandwidth degradation algorithm to accept handoff calls by degrading existing calls' bandwidth during network congestion. Analyses show that the CAC thresholds change adaptively with the average call arrival rate. The performance comparison shows that the proposed scheme outperforms the Mobile IP Reservation scheme.

  8. Singular formalism and admissible control of spacecraft with rotating flexible solar array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Dongning

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the attitude control of a three-axis-stabilized spacecraft which consists of a central rigid body and a flexible sun-tracking solar array driven by a solar array drive assembly. Based on the linearization of the dynamics of the spacecraft and the modal identities about the flexible and rigid coupling matrices, the spacecraft attitude dynamics is reduced to a formally singular system with periodically varying parameters, which is quite different from a spacecraft with fixed appendages. In the framework of the singular control theory, the regularity and impulse-freeness of the singular system is analyzed and then admissible attitude controllers are designed by Lyapunov’s method. To improve the robustness against system uncertainties, an H∞ optimal control is designed by optimizing the H∞ norm of the system transfer function matrix. Comparative numerical experiments are performed to verify the theoretical results.

  9. Singular formalism and admissible control of spacecraft with rotating flexible solar array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Dongning; Liu Yiwu

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the attitude control of a three-axis-stabilized spacecraft which consists of a central rigid body and a flexible sun-tracking solar array driven by a solar array drive assembly. Based on the linearization of the dynamics of the spacecraft and the modal identi-ties about the flexible and rigid coupling matrices, the spacecraft attitude dynamics is reduced to a formally singular system with periodically varying parameters, which is quite different from a space-craft with fixed appendages. In the framework of the singular control theory, the regularity and impulse-freeness of the singular system is analyzed and then admissible attitude controllers are designed by Lyapunov’s method. To improve the robustness against system uncertainties, an H1 optimal control is designed by optimizing the H1 norm of the system transfer function matrix. Comparative numerical experiments are performed to verify the theoretical results.

  10. Calculating effective gun control policies

    CERN Document Server

    Wodarz, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Following recent shootings in the USA, a debate has erupted, one side favoring stricter gun control, the other promoting protection through more weapons. We provide a scientific foundation to inform this debate, based on population dynamic models that quantify the dependence of firearm-related death rates of people on gun policies. We assume a shooter attacking a single individual or a crowd. Two strategies can minimize deaths in the model, depending on parameters: either a ban of private firearms possession, or a policy allowing the general population to carry guns. In particular, the outcome depends on the fraction of offenders that illegally possess a gun, on the degree of protection provided by gun ownership, and on the fraction of the population who take up their right to own a gun and carry it with them when attacked, parameters that can be estimated from statistical data. With the measured parameters, the model suggests that if the gun law is enforced at a level similar to that in the United Kingdom, g...

  11. An Efficient Admission Control Algorithm for Load Balancing In Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Harini, Prof P

    2009-01-01

    In hierarchical Mobile IPv6 networks, Mobility Anchor Point (MAP) may become a single point of bottleneck as it handles more and more mobile nodes (MNs). A number of schemes have been proposed to achieve load balancing among different MAPs. However, signaling reduction is still imperfect because these schemes also avoid the effect of the number of CNs. Also only the balancing of MN is performed, but not the balancing of the actual traffic load, since CN of each MN may be different. This paper proposes an efficient admission control algorithm along with a replacement mechanism for HMIPv6 networks. The admission control algorithm is based on the number of serving CNs and achieves actual load balancing among MAPs. Moreover, a replacement mechanism is introduced to decrease the new MN blocking probability and the handoff MN dropping probability. By simulation results, we show that, the handoff delay and packet loss are reduced in our scheme, when compared with the standard HMIPv6 based handoff.

  12. Call Admission Control performance model for Beyond 3G Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, H S Ramesh; Satyanarayana, P S

    2010-01-01

    The Next Generation Wireless Networks (NGWN) will be heterogeneous in nature where the different Radio Access Technologies (RATs) operate together .The mobile terminals operating in this heterogeneous environment will have different QoS requirements to be handled by the system. These QoS requirements are determined by a set of QoS parameters. The radio resource management is one of the key challenges in NGWN. Call admission control is one of the radio resource management technique plays instrumental role in ensure the desired QoS to the users working on different applications which have diversified QoS requirements from the wireless networks . The call blocking probability is one such QoS parameter for the wireless network. For better QoS it is desirable to reduce the call blocking probability. In this customary scenario it is highly desirable to obtain analytic Performance model. In this paper we propose a higher order Markov chain based performance model for call admission control in a heterogeneous wireles...

  13. Performance of a Two-Level Call Admission Control Scheme for DS-CDMA Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham O. Fapojuwo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a two-level call admission control (CAC scheme for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA wireless networks supporting multimedia traffic and evaluate its performance. The first-level admission control assigns higher priority to real-time calls (also referred to as class 0 calls in gaining access to the system resources. The second level admits nonreal-time calls (or class 1 calls based on the resources remaining after meeting the resource needs for real-time calls. However, to ensure some minimum level of performance for nonreal-time calls, the scheme reserves some resources for such calls. The proposed two-level CAC scheme utilizes the delay-tolerant characteristic of non-real-time calls by incorporating a queue to temporarily store those that cannot be assigned resources at the time of initial access. We analyze and evaluate the call blocking, outage probability, throughput, and average queuing delay performance of the proposed two-level CAC scheme using Markov chain theory. The analytic results are validated by simulation results. The numerical results show that the proposed two-level CAC scheme provides better performance than the single-level CAC scheme. Based on these results, it is concluded that the proposed two-level CAC scheme serves as a good solution for supporting multimedia applications in DS-CDMA wireless communication systems.

  14. Performance of a Two-Level Call Admission Control Scheme for DS-CDMA Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fapojuwo Abraham O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a two-level call admission control (CAC scheme for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA wireless networks supporting multimedia traffic and evaluate its performance. The first-level admission control assigns higher priority to real-time calls (also referred to as class 0 calls in gaining access to the system resources. The second level admits nonreal-time calls (or class 1 calls based on the resources remaining after meeting the resource needs for real-time calls. However, to ensure some minimum level of performance for nonreal-time calls, the scheme reserves some resources for such calls. The proposed two-level CAC scheme utilizes the delay-tolerant characteristic of non-real-time calls by incorporating a queue to temporarily store those that cannot be assigned resources at the time of initial access. We analyze and evaluate the call blocking, outage probability, throughput, and average queuing delay performance of the proposed two-level CAC scheme using Markov chain theory. The analytic results are validated by simulation results. The numerical results show that the proposed two-level CAC scheme provides better performance than the single-level CAC scheme. Based on these results, it is concluded that the proposed two-level CAC scheme serves as a good solution for supporting multimedia applications in DS-CDMA wireless communication systems.

  15. Admission Control for Multiservices Traffic in Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 Networks by Using Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Shyr Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available CAC (Call Admission Control plays a significant role in providing QoS (Quality of Service in mobile wireless networks. In addition to much research that focuses on modified Mobile IP to get better efficient handover performance, CAC should be introduced to Mobile IP-based network to guarantee the QoS for users. In this paper, we propose a CAC scheme which incorporates multiple traffic types and adjusts the admission threshold dynamically using fuzzy control logic to achieve better usage of resources. The method can provide QoS in Mobile IPv6 networks with few modifications on MAP (Mobility Anchor Point functionality and slight change in BU (Binding Update message formats. According to the simulation results, the proposed scheme presents good performance of voice and video traffic at the expenses of poor performance on data traffic. It is evident that these CAC schemes can reduce the probability of the handoff dropping and the cell overload and limit the probability of the new call blocking.

  16. A QoS Provisioning Recurrent Neural Network based Call Admission Control for beyond 3G Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Babu H. S.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Call admission control (CAC is one of the Radio Resource Management (RRM techniques that plays influential role in ensuring the desired Quality of Service (QoS to the users and applications in next generation networks. This paper proposes a fuzzy neural approach for making the call admission control decision in multi class traffic based Next Generation Wireless Networks (NGWN. The proposed Fuzzy Neural call admission control (FNCAC scheme is an integrated CAC module that combines the linguistic control capabilities of the fuzzy logic controller and the learning capabilities of the neural networks. The model is based on recurrent radial basis function networks which have better learning and adaptability that can be used to develop intelligent system to handle the incoming traffic in an heterogeneous network environment. The simulation results are optimistic and indicates that the proposed FNCAC algorithm performs better than the other two methods and the call blocking probability is minimal when compared to other two methods.

  17. A QoS Provisioning Recurrent Neural Network based Call Admission Control for beyond 3G Networks

    CERN Document Server

    S., Ramesh Babu H; S, Satyanarayana P

    2010-01-01

    The Call admission control (CAC) is one of the Radio Resource Management (RRM) techniques that plays influential role in ensuring the desired Quality of Service (QoS) to the users and applications in next generation networks. This paper proposes a fuzzy neural approach for making the call admission control decision in multi class traffic based Next Generation Wireless Networks (NGWN). The proposed Fuzzy Neural call admission control (FNCAC) scheme is an integrated CAC module that combines the linguistic control capabilities of the fuzzy logic controller and the learning capabilities of the neural networks. The model is based on recurrent radial basis function networks which have better learning and adaptability that can be used to develop intelligent system to handle the incoming traffic in an heterogeneous network environment. The simulation results are optimistic and indicates that the proposed FNCAC algorithm performs better than the other two methods and the call blocking probability is minimal when compa...

  18. Novel Stochastic Model for Call Admission Control in Broadband Wireless Multimedia Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUGan; ZHUGuangxi; RUANYoulin; HUZhenping; WUWeimin; WANGDesheng

    2005-01-01

    As the increasing demand of the capacity of cellular networks, the cell sizes have become smaller than ever, which increases the probability of handoff one may experience during a service. To ensure the calls, QoS and high channel utilization, an effective call admission control is needed urgently. The well-known Guard channel method (GCM) which works with static fashion cannotadapt to the changes in traffic pattern, whereas, SDCA mechanism proposed by S. Wu can overcome that shortcoming due to its dynamic nature. Unfortunately, it is only suitable for single-service. In this paper, we establish a novel stochastic model to study the actual system so as to avoid coping with the complex multiple dimensions stochastic problem. Two wonderful features of the model make it competent for this role. On one hand, it can turnthe multiple steps of state transition into single step ofstate transition, which is a necessary condition for ideal birth-death processes. On the other hand, it can providea simple method to compute the approximation of the call dropping probabilities for multiple services, which facilitate our estimation for the acceptance ratio vector subject to QoS requirement. As a result, we get a multi-services dynamic call admission scheme to adapt for multiple types of services in mobile wireless networks. Numerical results show that our scheme steadily satisfies the constraint on call dropping probability of multi-services while maintaining a high channel throughput.

  19. Mitigating Handoff Call Dropping in Wireless Cellular Networks: A Call Admission Control Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpenyong, Moses Effiong; Udoh, Victoria Idia; Bassey, Udoma James

    2016-06-01

    Handoff management has been an important but challenging issue in the field of wireless communication. It seeks to maintain seamless connectivity of mobile users changing their points of attachment from one base station to another. This paper derives a call admission control model and establishes an optimal step-size coefficient (k) that regulates the admission probability of handoff calls. An operational CDMA network carrier was investigated through the analysis of empirical data collected over a period of 1 month, to verify the performance of the network. Our findings revealed that approximately 23 % of calls in the existing system were lost, while 40 % of the calls (on the average) were successfully admitted. A simulation of the proposed model was then carried out under ideal network conditions to study the relationship between the various network parameters and validate our claim. Simulation results showed that increasing the step-size coefficient degrades the network performance. Even at optimum step-size (k), the network could still be compromised in the presence of severe network crises, but our model was able to recover from these problems and still functions normally.

  20. Algorithms for Deterministic Call Admission Control of Pre-stored VBR Video Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Tryfonas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We examine the problem of accepting a new request for a pre-stored VBR video stream that has been smoothed using any of the smoothing algorithms found in the literature. The output of these algorithms is a piecewise constant-rate schedule for a Variable Bit-Rate (VBR stream. The schedule guarantees that the decoder buffer does not overflow or underflow. The problem addressed in this paper is the determination of the minimal time displacement of each new requested VBR stream so that it can be accommodated by the network and/or the video server without overbooking the committed traffic. We prove that this call-admission control problem for multiple requested VBR streams is NP-complete and inapproximable within a constant factor, by reducing it from the VERTEX COLOR problem. We also present a deterministic morphology-sensitive algorithm that calculates the minimal time displacement of a VBR stream request. The complexity of the proposed algorithm along with the experimental results we provide indicate that the proposed algorithm is suitable for real-time determination of the time displacement parameter during the call admission phase.

  1. Adaptive call admission control and resource allocation in multi server wireless/cellular network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Madhu; Mittal, Ragini

    2016-11-01

    The ever increasing demand of the subscribers has put pressure on the capacity of wireless networks around the world. To utilize the scare resources, in the present paper we propose an optimal allocation scheme for an integrated wireless/cellular model with handoff priority and handoff guarantee services. The suggested algorithm optimally allocates the resources in each cell and dynamically adjust threshold to control the admission. To give the priority to handoff calls over the new calls, the provision of guard channels and subrating scheme is taken into consideration. The handoff voice call may balk and renege from the system while waiting in the buffer. An iterative algorithm is implemented to generate the arrival rate of the handoff calls in each cell. Various performance indices are established in term of steady state probabilities. The sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to examine the tractability of algorithms and to explore the effects of system descriptors on the performance indices.

  2. AN Enhanced SINR-Based Call Admission Control in 3G Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Ekpenyong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (SINR-based call admission control (CAC as an effective technique that guarantees signal quality for admitted users. We propose a CAC model that admits users as long as the SINR exceeds a threshold (th SINR . To reduce blocking, we ensure that the threshold level is maintained at a lower bound (lb thSINR −, convenient to keep the blocking probability ( Pb below a maximum value ( Pb−max. We simulate the CAC model with the Java programming language and evaluate the performance of the model. Simulation results show that our CAC scheme produce the expected performance that improves the network quality.

  3. An Interference-Aware Admission Control Design for Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikantan Shila Devu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present IAC, an interference aware admission control algorithm for use in wireless mesh networks. The core concept of IAC is to use a low overhead dual threshold based approach to share the bandwidth information with its neighbors in the interfering range. As a result, IAC guarantees that the shared wireless bandwidth is not overutilized and the quality of all existing flows are preserved. Moreover, IAC takes into account the intraflow interference effect to estimate the bandwidth consumption of the flow in a multihop path. We have further proposed two approaches of bandwidth allocation, FCFS and MCU, and demonstrated that proper tuning of thresholds can lead to high performance of both schemes. Simulation results illustrate that IAC effectively limits the overutilization of channel resources which in turn results in high throughput, low delay and low packet loss rate for all admitted flows.

  4. Voice Communications over 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks: Modeling, Optimization and Call Admission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changchun; Xu, Yanyi; Liu, Gan; Liu, Kezhong

    Supporting quality-of-service (QoS) of multimedia communications over IEEE 802.11 based ad hoc networks is a challenging task. This paper develops a simple 3-D Markov chain model for queuing analysis of IEEE 802.11 MAC layer. The model is applied for performance analysis of voice communications over IEEE 802.11 single-hop ad hoc networks. By using the model, we finish the performance optimization of IEEE MAC layer and obtain the maximum number of voice calls in IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks as well as the statistical performance bounds. Furthermore, we design a fully distributed call admission control (CAC) algorithm which can provide strict statistical QoS guarantee for voice communications over IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks. Extensive simulations indicate the accuracy of the analytical model and the CAC scheme.

  5. A Priority and SDB based Admission Control in IEEE 802.16 Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-ying Sun

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In IEEE 802.16 systems, the algorithm of admission control (AC is very important in guaranteeing the Quality of Service (QoS and managing service flows. However, the IEEE 802.16 standards do not specify any related strategies or algorithms on AC. In order to improve the system performance and satisfy the QoS of stations to the max, we propose a new AC strategy, which includes a weighted blocking rate based priority strategy and a satisfaction-degree based bandwidth-borrowing strategy named SDB in this paper. The simulation results show that the proposed strategy improves the overall performance of system in terms of weighted blocking rate. Furthermore, our strategy enhances the QoS in comparison with the strategy adopting conventional bandwidth-borrowing algorithm.

  6. FUZZY-LOGIC BASED CALL ADMISSION CONTROL FOR A HETEROGENEOUS RADIO ENVIRONMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramkumar, Venkata; Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Neeli R.;

    Dette dokument foreslår et nyt opkald Admission Control (CAC) algoritme, der finder forskellige typer af applikationer med forskellige QoS parametre, som en bruger og giver de nødvendige QoS til nyankomne brugere uden en forringelse af de QoS at der allerede er optaget dem. Den foreslåede CAC er...... evalueret for en heterogen radio access-teknologier (rotter) scenario. Den QoS parametre varierer afhængigt af den type af ansøgninger, og aftalen mellem udbyderen og brugeren. Den foreslåede CAC er baseret på en fuzzy logik mekanisme, der består af to etaper, i første omgang den bedste celle i hver RAT er...

  7. Admission Control of Integrated Voice and Data CDMA/TDD System Considering Asymmetric Traffic and Power Limit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAOYanbo; ZHOUBin; LIChengshu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we research an admission control scheme of integrated voice and data CDMA/TDD (Code division multiple access/Time division duplex) system considering asymmetric traffic and power limit. A new user can access the system only if the outage probabilities it experiences on the uplink and downlink time slots are below a threshold value. Based on the power limit the results show the voice and data blocking probabilities under different cell coverage~ arrival rates and various uplink/downlink time slot allocation patterns. Furthermore, multicode and multislot schemes are also evaluated under the presented admission control scheme.

  8. An edge-to-edge Deployment Model for Pre-Congestion Notification: Admission Control over a DiffServ Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briscoe, B.; Eardley, P.; Songhurst, D.; Le Faucheur, F.; Charny, A.; Liatsos, V.; Babiarz, J.; Chan, K.; Dudley, S.; Karagiannis, G.; Bader, A.; Westberg, L.; Briscoe, B.; Eardley, P.; Songhurst, D.; Le Faucheur, F.; Charny, A.; Liatsos, V.; Babiarz, J.; Chan, K.; Dudley, S.; Karagiannis, G.; Bader, A.; Westberg, L.

    2006-01-01

    This document describes a deployment model for pre-congestion notification (PCN) operating in a large DiffServ-based region of the Internet. PCN-based admission control protects the quality of service of existing flows in normal circumstances, whilst if necessary (eg after a large failure) pre-empti

  9. Study on the Class-Based Admission Control Scheme for DiffServ in MPLS Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李震宇; 张中兆

    2003-01-01

    Differentiated services (DiffServ) and MPLS are two major building blocks for providing multi-class services over IP networks. In order to respond to the need for relatively simple, coarse methods of providing different levels of service for Internet traffic, to support various types of applications and specific business requirements, the MPLS network infrastructure and the DiffServ traffic model will work together. Meanwhile, in today's environment of multiple service networks, it is necessary for the node in the networks to perform the control mechanism to guarantee various QoS. In this paper, we propose a class-based admission control scheme that is suitable for DiffServ in MPLS networks. This scheme can achieve twofold objects: reliable QoS provisioning and high resource utilization. We evaluate the proposed scheme by numerical analysis of its performance in terms of throughput, delay, and reject probability. By performing simulation, we can ensure that the proposed scheme can work efficiently to provide strict QoS guarantees.

  10. Signalling, wage controls and monetary disinflation policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.; Persson, T.

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on wage control and monetary disinflation policy. How the crucial variable to control is the money supply and wage and price controls should be avoided because of their macroeconomic costs; The two types of government as being low-inflation governments and high-inflation governments; How wag

  11. MODELING MULTI-TRAFFIC ADMISSION CONTROL IN OFDMA SYSTEM USING COLORED PETRI NET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Yuanyuan; Lu Yanhui; Yang Shouyi

    2012-01-01

    Call Admission Control (CAC) is one of the key traffic management mechanisms that must be deployed in order to meet the strict requirements for dependability imposed on the services provided by modern wireless networks.In this paper,we develop an executable top-down hierarchical Colored Petri Net (CPN) model for multi-traffic CAC in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) system.By theoretic analysis and CPN simulation,it is demonstrated that the CPN model is isomorphic to Markov Chain (MC) assuming that each data stream follows Poisson distribution and the corresponding arrival time interval is an exponential random variable,and it breaks through MC's explicit limitation,which includes MC's memoryless property and proneness to state space explosion in evaluating CAC process.Moreover,we present four CAC schemes based on CPN model taking into account call-level and packet-level Quality of Service (QoS).The simulation results show that CPN offers significant advantages over MC in modeling CAC strategies and evaluating their performance with less computational complexity in addition to its flexibility and adaptability to different scenarios.

  12. Performance Analysis and Optimization of an Adaptive Admission Control Scheme in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunfu Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In cognitive radio networks, if all the secondary user (SU packets join the system without any restrictions, the average latency of the SU packets will be greater, especially when the traffic load of the system is higher. For this, we propose an adaptive admission control scheme with a system access probability for the SU packets in this paper. We suppose the system access probability is inversely proportional to the total number of packets in the system and introduce an Adaptive Factor to adjust the system access probability. Accordingly, we build a discrete-time preemptive queueing model with adjustable joining rate. In order to obtain the steady-state distribution of the queueing model exactly, we construct a two-dimensional Markov chain. Moreover, we derive the formulas for the blocking rate, the throughput, and the average latency of the SU packets. Afterwards, we provide numerical results to investigate the influence of the Adaptive Factor on different performance measures. We also give the individually optimal strategy and the socially optimal strategy from the standpoints of the SU packets. Finally, we provide a pricing mechanism to coordinate the two optimal strategies.

  13. Admission Control Over Internet of Vehicles Attached With Medical Sensors for Ubiquitous Healthcare Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Di; Labeau, Fabrice; Yao, Yuanzhe; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Tang, Yu

    2016-07-01

    Wireless technologies and vehicle-mounted or wearable medical sensors are pervasive to support ubiquitous healthcare applications. However, a critical issue of using wireless communications under a healthcare scenario rests at the electromagnetic interference (EMI) caused by radio frequency transmission. A high level of EMI may lead to a critical malfunction of medical sensors, and in such a scenario, a few users who are not transmitting emergency data could be required to reduce their transmit power or even temporarily disconnect from the network in order to guarantee the normal operation of medical sensors as well as the transmission of emergency data. In this paper, we propose a joint power and admission control algorithm to schedule the users' transmission of medical data. The objective of this algorithm is to minimize the number of users who are forced to disconnect from the network while keeping the EMI on medical sensors at an acceptable level. We show that a fixed point of proposed algorithm always exists, and at the fixed point, our proposed algorithm can minimize the number of low-priority users who are required to disconnect from the network. Numerical results illustrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve robust performance against the variations of mobile hospital environments.

  14. Call Admission Control Algorithm for pre-stored VBR video streams

    CERN Document Server

    Tryfonas, Christos; Mehler, Andrew; Skiena, Steven

    2008-01-01

    We examine the problem of accepting a new request for a pre-stored VBR video stream that has been smoothed using any of the smoothing algorithms found in the literature. The output of these algorithms is a piecewise constant-rate schedule for a Variable Bit-Rate (VBR) stream. The schedule guarantees that the decoder buffer does not overflow or underflow. The problem addressed in this paper is the determination of the minimal time displacement of each new requested VBR stream so that it can be accomodated by the network and/or the video server without overbooking the committed traffic. We prove that this call-admission control problem for multiple requested VBR streams is NP-complete and inapproximable within a constant factor, by reducing it from the VERTEX COLOR problem. We also present a deterministic morphology-sensitive algorithm that calculates the minimal time displacement of a VBR stream request. The complexity of the proposed algorithm make it suitable for real-time determination of the time displacem...

  15. Changes in admission rates for spreading odontogenic infection resulting from changes in government policy about the dental schedule and remunerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Richard; Bhandari, Rishi; Bridle, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The government changed the system of payment to general dental practitioners on 1 April 2005 from a fee/item to a banding system. The figures collected have shown that there has been a 62% increase in the number of patients who require admission for surgical treatment of spreading odontogenic infections compared with the 3-year period before this date.

  16. Further Studies on Equivalence of Structure and Its Relevance to Performance of Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUIZhibo; ZHOULichao

    2005-01-01

    The advantage of Measurement-based admission control algorithms (MBACs) is that they are able to improve network utilization for the controlled-load service. Most researchers have focused primarily on designs of the Admission control equations (ACEs) of MBACs using a variety of principled and ad hoc motivations. In this paper, six typical MBACs, namely MS, HB, TP, TO, TE and MC algorithms, are discussed. First, we have proven analytically that the ACEs of TE and MC have the same structural form as the ACEs of the other four MBACs above. Second, through formal analysis we have theoretically proven that the ACEs of TE and MC, even though they are derived and motivated in quite different ways, are equivalent to the other four MBACs by tuning the adjustable parameters of MBACs. Finally, we have used also simulations to confirm our work.

  17. Exponential Admissibility and Dynamic Output Feedback Control of Switched Singular Systems with Interval Time-Varying Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problems of exponential admissibility and dynamic output feedback (DOF control for a class of continuous-time switched singular systems with interval time-varying delay. A full-order, dynamic, synchronously switched DOF controller is considered. First, by using the average dwell time approach, a delay-range-dependent exponential admissibility criterion for the unforced switched singular time-delay system is established in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. Then, based on this criterion, a sufficient condition on the existence of a desired DOF controller, which guarantees that the closed-loop system is regular, impulse free and exponentially stable, is proposed by employing the LMI technique. Finally, some illustrative examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  18. Gun Control: The Debate and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview and background information on the debate over gun control, as well as several teaching ideas. Handouts include a list of related topics drawn from various disciplines (economics, U.S. history), seven arguments for and against gun control, and a set of policy evaluation guidelines. (MJP)

  19. A NEW DYNAMIC QUOTA-BASED ADMISSION CONTROL WITH SUB NEGOTIATION FOR SOFTSWITCH-BASED CLUSTERED MEDIA SERVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Naixing; Liao Jianxin; Zhu Xiaomin

    2006-01-01

    Based on the demand of the admission control of softswitch-based clustered media server, this paper proposed a new dynamic quota-based admission control algorithm that has a sub-negotiation process. The strongpoint of quota-based algorithm had been inherited in the algorithm and at the same time some new ideas had also been introduced into it. Simulations of the algorithm had been conducted on the Petri net model and the results show that this algorithm has excellent performance. In order to find the optimal resource quota setting in real time, the paper proposed two approximation analysis methods. It can be seen from analysis results that these two methods can be used to get sub-optimal quota values quickly and effectively. These two approximation analysis methods will play important roles in implementation of the algorithm in system.

  20. Patient-controlled hospital admission for patients with severe mental disorders: study protocol for a nationwide prospective multicentre study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Christoffer Torgaard; Benros, Michael Eriksen; Hastrup, Lene Halling; Andersen, Per Kragh; Giacco, Domenico; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patient-controlled hospital admission for individuals with severe mental disorders is a novel approach in mental healthcare. Patients can admit themselves to a hospital unit for a short stay without being assessed by a psychiatrist or contacting the emergency department. Previous studies assessing the outcomes of patient-controlled hospital admission found trends towards reduction in the use of coercive measures and length of hospital stay; however, these studies have methodological shortcomings and small sample sizes. Larger studies are needed to estimate the effect of patient-controlled hospital admission on the use of coercion and of healthcare services. Design and methods We aim to recruit at least 315 patients who are offered a contract for patient-controlled hospital admissions in eight different hospitals in Denmark. Patients will be followed-up for at least 1 year to compare the use of coercive measures and of healthcare services, the use of medications and suicidal behaviour. Descriptive statistics will be used to investigate hospitalisations, global assessment of functioning (GAF) and patient satisfaction with treatment. To minimise selection bias, we will match individuals using patient-controlled hospital admission and controls with a 1:5 ratio via a propensity score based on the following factors: sex, age group, primary diagnosis, substance abuse as secondary diagnosis, coercion, number of psychiatric bed days, psychiatric history, urbanity and suicidal behaviour. Additionally, a historical control study will be undertaken in which patients serve as their own control group prior to index date. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by The Danish Health and Medicines Authority (j.nr.: 3-3013-934/1/) and by The Danish Data Protection Agency (j.nr.: 2012-58-0004). The study was categorised as a register study by The Danish Health Research Ethics Committee and therefore no further approval was needed (j.nr.: H-2-2014-FSP70

  1. Admissions Testing & Institutional Admissions Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossler, Don; Kalsbeek, David

    2009-01-01

    The array of admissions models and the underlying, and sometimes conflicting goals people have for college admissions, create the dynamics and the tensions that define the contemporary context for enrollment management. The senior enrollment officer must ask, for example, how does an institution try to assure transparency, equality of access,…

  2. An experimental study on load-peak shaving in smart homes by means of online admission control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Zhu, Guchuan

    2012-01-01

    and appliances' operation is modeled as a finite state machine, which enables an efficient load control using scheduling techniques borrowed from real-time computing systems. In this study the Admission Control, which is the bottom layer of the presented architecture interacting in real-time with physical......This paper presents the design, implementation, and experimental results of an architecture for autonomous demand-side load management (ADSM) system for Smart Buildings in view of influencing the energy demand in the Smart Grid. In such an architecture, the management system has a layered structure...

  3. Call Admission Control with Bandwidth Reallocation for Adaptive Multimedia in High-Rate Short-Range Wireless Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAIXuping; BIGuangguo; XUPingping

    2005-01-01

    In high-rate short-range wireless networks,CAC (Call admission control) scheme plays an important role in quality of service provisioning for adaptive multimedia services. Three functions, namely bandwidth satisfaction function, revenue rate function and bandwidth reallocation cost function, are firstly introduced. Based on these functions, an efficient CAC scheme, the Rev-RT-BRA (Reservation-based and Revenue test with Bandwidth reallocation) CAC scheme is proposed. The main idea is that it reserves some bandwidth for service classes with higher admission priority. The performance of the Rev-RT-BRA CAC scheme is analyzed by solving a multidimension Markov process. Both the numerical and simulation results are given. The advantages of the proposedRev-RT-BRA CAC scheme are as follows. (1) It maximizes the overall bandwidth satisfaction function at any system state. (2) It solves the unfairness problem in admitting multiple classes of services with different bandwidth requirenlents. (3) The required admission priority level can be guaranteed for various classes of services.

  4. Media violence, gun control, and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, D M

    1996-07-01

    Public concern with the national level of violence is discussed, and the complexity of the issue delineated. Research findings in two key areas of the topic, media violence and availability of firearms, are examined, as is their applicability to public policy efforts and recommendations for the prevention of violence. An approach that combines efforts to counteract media violence with those aimed at effective gun control is outlined in terms of bringing about changes in attitudes toward violence and firearm possession.

  5. QoS awared power and admission controls based on non-cooperative game theory in wireless networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to better accommodate heterogeneous quality of service (QoS) in wireless networks, an algorithm called QeS-aware power and admission controls (QAPAC) is proposed. The system is modeled as u non- cooperative game where the users adjust their transmit powers to maximize the utility, thus restraining the interferences. By using adaptive utility functions and tunable pricing parameters according to QoS levels, this algorithm can well meet different QoS reqniremcnts and improve system capacity compared with those that ignore the QoS differ- ences.

  6. QoS awared power and admission controls based on non-cooperative game theory in wireless networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to better accommodate heterogeneous quality of service (QoS) in wireless networks, an algorithm called QoS-aware power and admission controls (QAPAC) is proposed. The system is modeled as a non-cooperative game where the users adjust their transmit powers to maximize the utility, thus restraining the interferences. By using adaptive utility functions and tunable pricing parameters according to QoS levels, this algorithm can well meet different QoS requirements and improve system capacity compared w...

  7. Two-Level Cross-Talked Admission Control Mechanism for QoS Guarantee in 802.11e EDCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Zhisheng; LIU Jing

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a two-level cross-talked admission control mechanism that guarantees qual-ity of service (QoS) requirements for multimedia applications over wireless local area networks (WLANs). An enhanced distributed channel access analytical model is used to compute the maximum number of admitted users according to the QoS requirements and the packet arrival characters. Then, some channel resources are reserved for handoff calls based on the maximum number of admitted users and the call-level traffic model. The channel utilization ratio is also measured to reflect the current system traffic load. The maximum number of admitted users and the channel utilization ratio are used for admission control for applications with QoS requirements in the call level and for rate control of best effort applications in the packet level using the p-nonacknowledgement scheme. Thus, the QoS requirements are statistically guaranteed while the system is efficiently utilized. Simulations validate the effectiveness of this mechanism to guarantee the QoS and bandwidth utilization.

  8. Efficacy versus Equity: What Happens When States Tinker With College Admissions in a Race-Blind Era?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra E.; Cortes, Kalena E.; Lincove, Jane Arnold

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the efficacy and equity of college admissions criteria by estimating the effect of multiple measures of college readiness on college performance in the context of race-blind automatic admissions policies. We take advantage of a unique institutional feature of the Texas higher education system to control for selection into…

  9. A Cross-Entropy-Based Admission Control Optimization Approach for Heterogeneous Virtual Machine Placement in Public Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Pan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Virtualization technologies make it possible for cloud providers to consolidate multiple IaaS provisions into a single server in the form of virtual machines (VMs. Additionally, in order to fulfill the divergent service requirements from multiple users, a cloud provider needs to offer several types of VM instances, which are associated with varying configurations and performance, as well as different prices. In such a heterogeneous virtual machine placement process, one significant problem faced by a cloud provider is how to optimally accept and place multiple VM service requests into its cloud data centers to achieve revenue maximization. To address this issue, in this paper, we first formulate such a revenue maximization problem during VM admission control as a multiple-dimensional knapsack problem, which is known to be NP-hard to solve. Then, we propose to use a cross-entropy-based optimization approach to address this revenue maximization problem, by obtaining a near-optimal eligible set for the provider to accept into its data centers, from the waiting VM service requests in the system. Finally, through extensive experiments and measurements in a simulated environment with the settings of VM instance classes derived from real-world cloud systems, we show that our proposed cross-entropy-based admission control optimization algorithm is efficient and effective in maximizing cloud providers’ revenue in a public cloud computing environment.

  10. Relationship between glycated hemoglobin, Intensive Care Unit admission blood sugar and glucose control with ICU mortality in critically ill patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Hamishehkar, Hadi; Shadvar, Kamran; Beigmohammadi, Mohammadtaghi; Iranpour, Afshin; Sanaie, Sarvin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The association between hyperglycemia and mortality is believed to be influenced by the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM). In this study, we evaluated the effect of preexisting hyperglycemia on the association between acute blood glucose management and mortality in critically ill patients. The primary objective of the study was the relationship between HbA1c and mortality in critically ill patients. Secondary objectives of the study were relationship between Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission blood glucose and glucose control during ICU stay with mortality in critically ill patients. Materials and Methods: Five hundred patients admitted to two ICUs were enrolled. Blood sugar and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) concentrations on ICU admission were measured. Age, sex, history of DM, comorbidities, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, sequential organ failure assessment score, hypoglycemic episodes, drug history, mortality, and development of acute kidney injury and liver failure were noted for all patients. Results: Without considering the history of diabetes, nonsurvivors had significantly higher HbA1c values compared to survivors (7.25 ± 1.87 vs. 6.05 ± 1.22, respectively, P < 0.001). Blood glucose levels in ICU admission showed a significant correlation with risk of death (P < 0.006, confidence interval [CI]: 1.004–1.02, relative risk [RR]: 1.01). Logistic regression analysis revealed that HbA1c increased the risk of death; with each increase in HbA1c level, the risk of death doubled. However, this relationship was not statistically significant (P: 0.161, CI: 0.933–1.58, RR: 1.2). Conclusions: Acute hyperglycemia significantly affects mortality in the critically ill patients; this relation is also influenced by chronic hyperglycemia. PMID:27076705

  11. Relationship between glycated hemoglobin, Intensive Care Unit admission blood sugar and glucose control with ICU mortality in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata Mahmoodpoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The association between hyperglycemia and mortality is believed to be influenced by the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM. In this study, we evaluated the effect of preexisting hyperglycemia on the association between acute blood glucose management and mortality in critically ill patients. The primary objective of the study was the relationship between HbA1c and mortality in critically ill patients. Secondary objectives of the study were relationship between Intensive Care Unit (ICU admission blood glucose and glucose control during ICU stay with mortality in critically ill patients. Materials and Methods: Five hundred patients admitted to two ICUs were enrolled. Blood sugar and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c concentrations on ICU admission were measured. Age, sex, history of DM, comorbidities, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, sequential organ failure assessment score, hypoglycemic episodes, drug history, mortality, and development of acute kidney injury and liver failure were noted for all patients. Results: Without considering the history of diabetes, nonsurvivors had significantly higher HbA1c values compared to survivors (7.25 ± 1.87 vs. 6.05 ± 1.22, respectively, P < 0.001. Blood glucose levels in ICU admission showed a significant correlation with risk of death (P < 0.006, confidence interval [CI]: 1.004–1.02, relative risk [RR]: 1.01. Logistic regression analysis revealed that HbA1c increased the risk of death; with each increase in HbA1c level, the risk of death doubled. However, this relationship was not statistically significant (P: 0.161, CI: 0.933–1.58, RR: 1.2. Conclusions: Acute hyperglycemia significantly affects mortality in the critically ill patients; this relation is also influenced by chronic hyperglycemia.

  12. A new LP formulation of the admission control problem modelled as an MDP under average reward criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrabissa, Antonio

    2011-12-01

    The admission control problem can be modelled as a Markov decision process (MDP) under the average cost criterion and formulated as a linear programming (LP) problem. The LP formulation is attractive in the present and future communication networks, which support an increasing number of classes of service, since it can be used to explicitly control class-level requirements, such as class blocking probabilities. On the other hand, the LP formulation suffers from scalability problems as the number C of classes increases. This article proposes a new LP formulation, which, even if it does not introduce any approximation, is much more scalable: the problem size reduction with respect to the standard LP formulation is O((C + 1)2/2 C ). Theoretical and numerical simulation results prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  13. The "Admissions" Side of BCCAT: An Update. Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2008

    2008-01-01

    To spearhead increased emphasis on admissions, the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) formed an Admissions Committee in Fall 2003. The committee recognized the importance of institutional autonomy in determining admissions policies and processes at each institution. Following initiation of the Student Transitions Project…

  14. Privacy Enhanced Access Control by Means of Policy Blinding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedghi, Saeed; Hartel, Pieter; Jonker, Willem; Nikova, Svetla; Bao, Feng; Weng, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Traditional techniques of enforcing an access control policy rely on an honest reference monitor to enforce the policy. However, for applications where the resources are sensitive, the access control policy might also be sensitive. As a result, an honest-but-curious reference monitor would glean som

  15. Distributed Stable-Group Differentiated Admission Control Algorithm in Mobile Peer-to-Peer Media Streaming System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUEGuangtao; SHIHua; YOUJinyuan; YAOWensheng

    2003-01-01

    Mobile peer-to-peer media streaming systems are expected to become as popular as the peer-to-peer file sharing systems. In this paper, we study two key problems arising from mobile peer-to-peer media streaming: the stability of interconnection between supplying peers and requesting peers in mobile peer-to-peer streaming system; and fast capacity amplification of the entire mobile peer-to-peer streaming system. We use the Stable group algorithm to characterize user mobility in mobile ad hoc networks. Based on the stable group, we then propose a distributed Stable-group differentiated admission control algorithm (SGDACp2p), which leads to fast amplifying the system's total streaming capacity using its self-growing. At last, the extensive simulation results are presented to compare between the SGDACp2p and traditional methods to prove the superiority of the algorithm.

  16. Optimal threshold policies in a two-class preemptive priority queue with admission and termination control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, G.A.J.F.; van der Wal, J.

    2006-01-01

    We consider a two-class M-lambda 1,M-lambda 2\\M-mu\\1 preemptive priority queue in which there are two essential, on-line decisions that have to be taken. The first is the decision to either accept or reject new type-1 or type-2 jobs. The second is the decision to abort jobs, i.e., to remove any type

  17. Quality of service policy control in virtual private networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yiqing; Wang, Hongbin; Zhou, Zhi; Zhou, Dongru

    2004-04-01

    This paper studies the QoS of VPN in an environment where the public network prices connection-oriented services based on source, destination and grade of service, and advertises these prices to its VPN customers (users). As different QoS technologies can produce different QoS, there are according different traffic classification rules and priority rules. The internet service provider (ISP) may need to build complex mechanisms separately for each node. In order to reduce the burden of network configuration, we need to design policy control technologies. We considers mainly directory server, policy server, policy manager and policy enforcers. Policy decision point (PDP) decide its control according to policy rules. In network, policy enforce point (PEP) decide its network controlled unit. For InterServ and DiffServ, we will adopt different policy control methods as following: (1) In InterServ, traffic uses resource reservation protocol (RSVP) to guarantee the network resource. (2) In DiffServ, policy server controls the DiffServ code points and per hop behavior (PHB), its PDP distributes information to each network node. Policy server will function as following: information searching; decision mechanism; decision delivering; auto-configuration. In order to prove the effectiveness of QoS policy control, we make the corrective simulation.

  18. Air pollution control policy in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutert, G. [Forests and Landscape, Berne (Switzerland). Federal Office of Environment

    1995-12-31

    The legal basis of the Swiss air pollution control policy is set by the Federal Law on the Protection of the Environment, which came into force in 1985. It aims to protect human beings, animals and plants, their biological communities and habitats against harmful effects or nuisances and to maintain the fertility of the soil. The law is source-oriented (by emission standards) as well as effect-oriented (by ambient air quality standards). To link both elements a two-stage approach is applied. In the first stage preventive measures are taken at the emitting sources, irrespective of existing air pollution levels. Emissions have to be limited by early preventive measures as much as technical and operational conditions allow and as far as economically acceptable (prevention principle). By this, air pollution shall be kept as low as possible as a matter of principle, without the environment having to be in danger first. In a second stage the measures are strengthened or backed up by additional measures if ambient air quality standards laid down in the Ordinance on Air Pollution Control are exceeded. At this second stage, protection of man and his environment has priority over economic considerations. (author)

  19. Airport Casualties: Non-Admission and Return Risks at Times of Internalized/Externalized Border Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maybritt Jill Alpes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes what can happen to forced returnees upon arrival in their country of nationality. Subjective configurations of state agents in the Global South have created return risks, which in turn transform subjectivities of post-colonial citizens. The article contributes to this Special Issue by tracing repercussions of the externalization and internalization of border controls. In the case of Cameroon, these connections have resulted in the criminalization of emigration. Aspiring migrants are prosecuted if their departure projects fail to respect the entry requirements of countries in the Global North. The article is based on research conducted in Douala, Cameroon, in the form of discussions with control agents at the international airport, investigations at a prison, a review of related case law, police registers and interviews with Cameroonians returnees (November 2013–January 2014. Border controls and connected anti-fraud programs suppress family-based forms of solidarity and allow only for subjectivities rooted in state-managed forms of national identity. The article illustrates how efforts to combat fraud fuel corruption in returnees’ social networks, whereby, instead of receiving remittances, families in emigration countries have to mobilize financial resources in order to liberate returnees from police stations or prison complexes. Migration related detention of nationals in the Global South highlights the growing significance of exit controls in migration management.

  20. Technology of Endpoint Admission Control in Computer Networks%计算机网络终端准入控制技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周超; 周城; 丁晨路

    2011-01-01

    终端准入控制根据预定安全策略,对接入网络的终端进行身份认证和安全性检查,确保可信、安全的终端访问网络,拒绝或限制不安全终端的接入,体现了终端安全与准入控制的结合,可以有效提高网络对安全威胁的主动防御能力.现行部署的解决方案在身份认证、安全状态检查中存在缺陷,容易受到中间人攻击、会话劫持攻击等,并且对虚拟化应用适应性不足.可考虑通过完善认证过程、改善交互机制等方法加以改进.%Endpoint Admission Control technology takes authentication and security state checking on endpoints accessing to network on the basis of pre-determinate security policies. It makes sure that only the trustworthy and secure endpoints could access to networks while rejects or limits the accessing of insecure endpoints. It' s exemplification of the combination of Endpoint Security and Access Control, which can efficiently improve the active defense ability against security threaten of networks. However, the existing solution has shortages in authentication and security state checking that it could easily attacked by Man-in-the-Middle Attack and Session Hijack. What's more, it also has limitation in Virtualization appliance as well. It's considerable to consummate the mechanism of authentication and communication processes for improvement.

  1. Investment policy, guidelines help providers control risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidner, A G

    1989-03-01

    Because the financial markets are volatile, every healthcare organization should establish its own investment policy and guidelines. An investment policy reflects the views of a hospital's board of trustees, and helps the trustees avoid conflict of interest situations. Investment guidelines spell out management's approach to three critical investing components: safety of principal, liquidity, and yield.

  2. Admissibility of Linear Systems in Banach Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Fa-ming

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, infinite-time p-admissibility of unbounded operators is introduced and the Co-semigroup characterization of the infinite-time p-admissibility of unbounded observation operators is given. Moreover, the analogous result for the infinite-time p-admissibility of unbounded control operators is presented.

  3. Singular formalism and admissible control of spacecraft with rotating flexible solar array

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Dongning; Liu Yiwu

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the attitude control of a three-axis-stabilized spacecraft which consists of a central rigid body and a flexible sun-tracking solar array driven by a solar array drive assembly. Based on the linearization of the dynamics of the spacecraft and the modal identities about the flexible and rigid coupling matrices, the spacecraft attitude dynamics is reduced to a formally singular system with periodically varying parameters, which is quite different from a spacecraft w...

  4. Online least-squares policy iteration for reinforcement learning control

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Reinforcement learning is a promising paradigm for learning optimal control. We consider policy iteration (PI) algorithms for reinforcement learning, which iteratively evaluate and improve control policies. State-of-the-art, least-squares techniques for policy evaluation are sample-efficient and have relaxed convergence requirements. However, they are typically used in offline PI, whereas a central goal of reinforcement learning is to develop online algorithms. Therefore, we propose an online...

  5. Determinants of parental support for governmental alcohol control policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van Joris J.; Gosselt, Jordy F.; Jong, de Menno D.T.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To explore determinants that predict parental support for governmental alcohol control policies in the Netherlands. Method: A questionnaire was administered among 1550 parents, containing six possible predictors to explain support for alcohol control policies. Results: Parental support can be e

  6. Nonimmigrant Admissions - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Nonimmigrants are foreign nationals granted temporary admission into the United States. The major purposes for which nonimmigrant admission may be authorized include...

  7. Student incentives and preferential treatment in college admissions

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We consider a framework in which the optimal admissions policy of a purely academicquality oriented college implements preferential treatment in favor of the student from the deprived socioeconomic background which maximizes the competition between candidates. We find that the exact form of the preferential treatment admissions policy matters for student incentives and hence for student-body diversity in equilibrium. Preferential treatment policy in college admissions often tak...

  8. China's Total Emission Control Policy: a Critical Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Chazhong; Chen Ji; Wang Jinnan; Long Feng

    2009-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive environmental management system, many countries establish emission control targets for mass emissions of a pollutant.Such targets are often the key objective of an environmental policy, such as an emission trading program.In China, however, it is more than just an objective of one particular policy; it has become a concept that has influenced many national environmental policies and activities.The objective of this article is to review the implementation of the total emission control policy in the past 10 years and explore emerging issues in its implementa-tion.The article has three sections: a summary of the implementa-tion experience, issues with the design and implementation of the policy, and policy recommendations.

  9. Tobacco control, global health policy and development: towards policy coherence in global governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Jeff

    2012-03-01

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed 'tobacco exceptionalism'. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference.

  10. New Policies to Control the Aluminium Industry Expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Information from China Nonferrous Metals Industry Association (CNIA) shows that new government policies on China’s aluminium industry will be released soon in order to control the rapid expansion of the aluminium industry which consumes large amount of power resources. Based on the new policies, investors of

  11. Early Admissions at Selective Colleges. NBER Working Paper No. 14844

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Christopher; Levin, Jonathan D.

    2009-01-01

    Early admissions is widely used by selective colleges and universities. We identify some basic facts about early admissions policies, including the admissions advantage enjoyed by early applicants and patterns in application behavior, and propose a game-theoretic model that matches these facts. The key feature of the model is that colleges want to…

  12. Analysis of Quality of Service Performances of Connection Admission Control Mechanisms in OFDMA IEEE 802.16 Network using BMAP Queuing

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchti, Abdelali El; Kafhali, Said El

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a single-cell IEEE 802.16 environment in which the base station allocates subchannels to the subscriber stations in its coverage area. The subchannels allocated to a subscriber station are shared by multiple connections at that subscriber station. To ensure the Quality of Service (QoS) performances, two Connection Admission Control (CAC) mechanisms, namely, threshold-based and queue-aware CAC mechanisms are considered at a subscriber station. A queuing analytical framework for these admission control mechanisms is presented considering Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) based transmission at the physical layer. Then, based on the queuing model, both the connection-level and the packet-level performances are studied and compared with their analogues in the case without CAC. The connection arrival is modeled by a Poisson process and the packet arrival for a connection by Batch Markov Arrival Process (BMAP). We determine analytically and numerically different QoS per...

  13. Mathematics Admission Test Remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ideon Erge

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2014, there have been admission tests in mathematics for applicants to the Estonian University of Life Sciences for Geodesy, Land Management and Real Estate Planning; Civil Engineering; Hydraulic Engineering and Water Pollution Control; Engineering and Technetronics curricula. According to admission criteria, the test must be taken by students who have not passed the specific mathematics course state exam or when the score was less than 20 points. The admission test may also be taken by those who wish to improve their state exam score. In 2016, there were 126 such applicants of whom 63 took the test. In 2015, the numbers were 129 and 89 and in 2014 150 and 47 accordingly. The test was scored on scale of 100. The arithmetic average of the score was 30.6 points in 2016, 29.03 in 2015 and 18.84 in 2014. The test was considered to be passed with 1 point in 2014 and 20 points in 2015 and 2016. We analyzed test results and gave examples of problems which were solved exceptionally well or not at all.

  14. Effect of artemether-lumefantrine policy and improved vector control on malaria burden in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen I Barnes

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Between 1995 and 2000, KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa, experienced a marked increase in Plasmodium falciparum malaria, fuelled by pyrethroid and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance. In response, vector control was strengthened and artemether-lumefantrine (AL was deployed in the first Ministry of Health artemisinin-based combination treatment policy in Africa. In South Africa, effective vector and parasite control had historically ensured low-intensity malaria transmission. Malaria is diagnosed definitively and treatment is provided free of charge in reasonably accessible public-sector health-care facilities. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We reviewed four years of malaria morbidity and mortality data at four sentinel health-care facilities within KwaZulu-Natal's malaria-endemic area. In the year following improved vector control and implementation of AL treatment, malaria-related admissions and deaths both declined by 89%, and outpatient visits decreased by 85% at the sentinel facilities. By 2003, malaria-related outpatient cases and admissions had fallen by 99%, and malaria-related deaths had decreased by 97%. There was a concomitant marked and sustained decline in notified malaria throughout the province. No serious adverse events were associated causally with AL treatment in an active sentinel pharmacovigilance survey. In a prospective study with 42 d follow up, AL cured 97/98 (99% and prevented gametocyte developing in all patients. Consistent with the findings of focus group discussions, a household survey found self-reported adherence to the six-dose AL regimen was 96%. CONCLUSION: Together with concurrent strengthening of vector control measures, the antimalarial treatment policy change to AL in KwaZulu-Natal contributed to a marked and sustained decrease in malaria cases, admissions, and deaths, by greatly improving clinical and parasitological cure rates and reducing gametocyte carriage.

  15. Tobacco control in Nigeria- policy recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agaku Israel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Major strides towards national tobacco control have been made since Nigeria became signatory to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC in June 2004. The Nigerian senate passed a bill on March 15, 2011 which is expected to be signed into law shortly, to regulate and control production, manufacture, sale, advertising, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco or tobacco products. This paper highlights how the proposed tobacco control law provides a unique opportunity to domesticate the WHO FCTC, expand on smokeless tobacco regulation and develop a science base to improve tobacco control measures in Nigeria.

  16. Why have tobacco control policies stalled? Using genetic moderation to examine policy impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Fletcher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research has shown that tobacco control policies have helped produce the dramatic decline in use over the decades following the 1964 surgeon general's report. However, prevalence rates have stagnated during the past two decades in the US, even with large tobacco taxes and expansions of clean air laws. The observed differences in tobacco control policy effectiveness and why policies do not help all smokers are largely unexplained. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the importance of genetics in explaining response to tobacco taxation policy by testing the potential of gene-policy interaction in determining adult tobacco use. METHODS: A moderated regression analysis framework was used to test interactive effects between genotype and tobacco policy in predicting tobacco use. Cross sectional data of US adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES linked with genotype and geocodes were used to identify tobacco use phenotypes, state-level taxation rates, and variation in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRNA6 genotype. Tobacco use phenotypes included current use, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and blood serum cotinine measurements. RESULTS: Variation in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor was found to moderate the influence of tobacco taxation on multiple measures of tobacco use. Individuals with the protective G/G polymorphism (51% of the sample responded to taxation while others had no response. The estimated differences in response by genotype were C/C genotype: b = -0.016 se = 0.018; G/C genotype: b = 0.014 se = 0.017; G/G genotype: b = -0.071 se 0.029. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel evidence of "gene-policy" interaction and suggests a genetic mechanism for the large differences in response to tobacco policies. The inability for these policies to reduce use for individuals with specific genotypes suggests alternative methods may be needed to further reduce use.

  17. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Jin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With China’s significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China’s air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1 The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2 During 2006–2012, new instruments which interact with political incentives were introduced in the 11th Five-Year Plan, and the national goal of reducing total sulfur dioxide (SO2 emissions by 10% was achieved. However, regional compound air pollution problems dominated by fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and ground level ozone (O3 emerged and worsened; (3 After the winter-long PM2.5 episode in eastern China in 2013, air pollution control policies have been experiencing significant changes on multiple fronts. In this work we analyze the different policy changes, the drivers of changes and key factors influencing the effectiveness of policies in these three stages. Lessons derived from the policy evolution have implications for future studies, as well as further reforming the management scheme towards air quality and health risk oriented directions.

  18. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yana; Andersson, Henrik; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2016-12-09

    With China's significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China's air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1) The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2) During 2006-2012, new instruments which interact with political incentives were introduced in the 11th Five-Year Plan, and the national goal of reducing total sulfur dioxide (SO₂) emissions by 10% was achieved. However, regional compound air pollution problems dominated by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground level ozone (O₃) emerged and worsened; (3) After the winter-long PM2.5 episode in eastern China in 2013, air pollution control policies have been experiencing significant changes on multiple fronts. In this work we analyze the different policy changes, the drivers of changes and key factors influencing the effectiveness of policies in these three stages. Lessons derived from the policy evolution have implications for future studies, as well as further reforming the management scheme towards air quality and health risk oriented directions.

  19. Hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction before and after implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free policy in Uruguay: experience through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebrié, Ernesto Marcelo; Sandoya, Edgardo; Bianco, Eduardo; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K Michael; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-01-01

    Background Comprehensive smoke-free laws have been followed by drops in hospitalisations for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), including in a study with 2 years follow-up for such a law in Uruguay. Methods Multiple linear and negative binomial regressions for AMI admissions (ICD-10 code 121) from 37 hospitals for 2 years before and 4 years after Uruguay implemented a 100% nationwide smoke-free law. Results Based on 11 135 cases, there was a significant drop of −30.9 AMI admissions/month (95% CI −49.8 to −11.8, p=0.002) following implementation of the smoke-free law. The effect of the law did not increase or decrease over time following implementation (p=0.234). This drop represented a 17% drop in AMI admissions following the law (IRR=0.829, 95% CI 0.743 to 0.925, p=0.001). Conclusions Adding two more years of follow-up data confirmed that Uruguay’s smoke-free law was followed by a substantial and sustained reduction in AMI hospitalisations. PMID:25324157

  20. Adaptive Control with Approximated Policy Search Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Naba

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of existing adaptive control schemes are designed to minimize error between plant state and goal state despite the fact that executing actions that are predicted to result in smaller errors only can mislead to non-goal states. We develop an adaptive control scheme that involves manipulating a controller of a general type to improve its performance as measured by an evaluation function. The developed method is closely related to a theory of Reinforcement Learning (RL but imposes a practical assumption made for faster learning. We assume that a value function of RL can be approximated by a function of Euclidean distance from a goal state and an action executed at the state. And, we propose to use it for the gradient search as an evaluation function. Simulation results provided through application of the proposed scheme to a pole-balancing problem using a linear state feedback controller and fuzzy controller verify the scheme’s efficacy.

  1. Impact of Scheduling Policies on Control System Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Ravn, Anders Peter; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    It is well known that jitter has an impact on control system performance, and this is often used as an argument for static scheduling policies, e.g. a time triggered architecture. However, it is only completion jitter that seriously disturbs standard linear control algorithms in a way similar...... to the delay inherent in a time triggered architecture. Thus we propose that standard control algorithms are scheduled dynamically, but without preemption. Analysis of this policy is contrasted with a corresponding time triggered architecture and is shown to have better impulse response performance both...

  2. Impact of Scheduling Policies on Control System Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Ravn, Anders Peter; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that jitter has an impact on control system performance, and this is often used as an argument for static scheduling policies, e.g. a time triggered architecture. However, it is only completion jitter that seriously disturbs standard linear control algorithms in a way similar to ...

  3. Analysis of Access Control Policies in Operating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Operating systems rely heavily on access control mechanisms to achieve security goals and defend against remote and local attacks. The complexities of modern access control mechanisms and the scale of policy configurations are often overwhelming to system administrators and software developers. Therefore, mis-configurations are common, and the…

  4. Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

  5. Beyond Declines in Student Body Diversity: How Campus-Level Administrators Understand a Prohibition on Race-Conscious Postsecondary Admissions Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Liliana M.; Cogburn, Courtney D.

    2015-01-01

    Guided by a bottom-up policy implementation framework, this study draws from semi-structured interviews of 14 campus-level administrators charged with implementing diversity policy at the University of Michigan to investigate how an affirmative action ban (Proposal 2) influenced their efforts in support of racial/ethnic diversity at the…

  6. Towards a Usage Control Policy Specification with Petri Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katt, Basel; Zhang, Xinwen; Hafner, Michael

    Access control aims at restricting access to resources instantly. However, in collaborative computing environments with shared resources and distributed right management systems more advanced controlling mechanisms are required. For example, the control of the usage of a resource may need to be continuous, obligations is required, and concurrency is an important aspect when different users use a shared resource. To overcome these shortcomings of traditional access control, usage control has been proposed and investigated recently. In this paper we introduce a new usage control policy specification. Beyond existing approaches, the novelty of our policy is threefold: first, the ability to integrate the functional and security aspects of the system, thus lending support to control system behavior continuously. Second, post obligation is supported in a way that a violation of any rule during the current usage session, or after it ends, can affect the decisions of future usages. Finally, concurrency rules are embodied in the policy model, thus concurrent usages by different users to shared resources are controlled.

  7. CSchema: A Downgrading Policy Language for XML Access Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Xi Liu

    2007-01-01

    The problem of regulating access to XML documents has attracted much attention from both academic and industry communities.In existing approaches, the XML elements specified by access policies are either accessible or inac-cessible according to their sensitivity.However, in some cases, the original XML elements are sensitive and inaccessible, but after being processed in some appropriate ways, the results become insensitive and thus accessible.This paper proposes a policy language to accommodate such cases, which can express the downgrading operations on sensitive data in XML documents through explicit calculations on them.The proposed policy language is called calculation-embedded schema (CSchema), which extends the ordinary schema languages with protection type for protecting sensitive data and specifying downgrading operations.CSchema language has a type system to guarantee the type correctness of the embedded calcula-tion expressions and moreover this type system also generates a security view after type checking a CSchema policy.Access policies specified by CSchema are enforced by a validation procedure, which produces the released documents containing only the accessible data by validating the protected documents against CSchema policies.These released documents are then ready tobe accessed by, for instance, XML query engines.By incorporating this validation procedure, other XML processing technologies can use CSchema as the access control module.

  8. Why Preferences in College Admissions May Yield a More-Able Student Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Weisman, Dennis L.

    2011-01-01

    Critics of affirmative action policies contend that the elimination of racial preferences in college admissions would lead to a "more-able" student body. We develop a simple model comprised of three classes of college admissions--merit, race and legacy--to show that it is possible that a change in admissions policy that reduces racial preferences…

  9. Ubiquitous access control and policy management in personal networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Stassinopoulos, George I.; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the authors present the challenges for enabling Security Policies Management and subsequent Ubiquitous Access Control on the Personal Network (PN) environment. A solution based on Security Profiles is proposed, supporting both partially distributed architectures-having in this case...

  10. Smoking inequalities and tobacco control policies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, M.A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is the worlds’ leading avoidable cause of mortality and kills 6 million people each year. Individuals of lower socioeconomic status are more likely to initiate smoking and less likely to quit smoking. Tobacco control policies have been implemented in the last decades, but although smoking pr

  11. Off-policy reinforcement learning for H∞ control design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Biao; Wu, Huai-Ning; Huang, Tingwen

    2015-01-01

    The H∞ control design problem is considered for nonlinear systems with unknown internal system model. It is known that the nonlinear H∞ control problem can be transformed into solving the so-called Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs (HJI) equation, which is a nonlinear partial differential equation that is generally impossible to be solved analytically. Even worse, model-based approaches cannot be used for approximately solving HJI equation, when the accurate system model is unavailable or costly to obtain in practice. To overcome these difficulties, an off-policy reinforcement leaning (RL) method is introduced to learn the solution of HJI equation from real system data instead of mathematical system model, and its convergence is proved. In the off-policy RL method, the system data can be generated with arbitrary policies rather than the evaluating policy, which is extremely important and promising for practical systems. For implementation purpose, a neural network (NN)-based actor-critic structure is employed and a least-square NN weight update algorithm is derived based on the method of weighted residuals. Finally, the developed NN-based off-policy RL method is tested on a linear F16 aircraft plant, and further applied to a rotational/translational actuator system.

  12. 基于接纳控制的智能电网需求响应%Demand response based on admission control in smart grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马锴; 姚婷; 关新平

    2015-01-01

    Utility functions are used to denote the satisfaction of consumers and formulate demand response as a convex optimization problem. For the case that the power supply can not meet the minimum power consumption of the consumers, two admission control algorithms are designed, combining with distributed power consumption scheduling and real-time pricing. Simulation results show that the admission control makes the consumers meet the minimum power consumption, ensure the power quality of the consumers, and balance the supply and the demand in smart grid.%采用效用函数刻画用户的用电满意度,将需求响应问题建模为一类凸优化问题。针对电力供应商的供电量不能满足用户最小用电需求的问题,结合分布式用电量调度和实时定价,设计两类接纳控制算法。仿真结果表明,通过接纳控制,满足了购电用户的最小用电需求,保证了用户的用电质量,能够实现电网的供需平衡。

  13. The admission control algorithm based on the heterogeneous network environment%基于异构网络环境中的接纳控制算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄存东; 王胜

    2012-01-01

    Admission control system which can effectively deal with network congestion can provide dependable Qos for VoIP application. Taking the advantages and universality of Random Early Detection (RED) in implementing fair queue management for VolP application, we proposed a delay analyzing and computing method of RED queues in this paper and achieved a RED--based admission control algorithm whose effectiveness is proved through simulation.%接纳控制机制可以有效控制网络拥塞程度,为VoIP应用提供服务质量保证。RED算法可以为VoIP应用提供公平的队列管理机制,鉴于RED队列的优越性和普遍性,提出了RED队列的延迟分析计算方法,并基于该计算方法设计实现了基于RED的接纳控制算法,仿真结果表明该算法是有效的。

  14. Using policy management for optical VPN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkaoui, Omar; Chen, Ken; Serhouchni, Ahmed

    2001-10-01

    This paper presents a Policy-based Control Plane, which allows Carrier Optical Network to dynamically configure and deploy Optical Virtual Private Networks (Optical VPNs) over multiple administration domains. A configurable policy-based control mechanism is required to regulate and control the information propagation across both UNI and NNI interfaces and the actions allowed on behalf of the users. The proposed framework extend the ITU Control Plane by adding based IP-centric policy mechanisms like admission control protocol COPS (Common Open Policy Service).

  15. Comparison of CATs, CURB-65 and PMEWS as triage tools in pandemic influenza admissions to UK hospitals: case control analysis using retrospective data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Puja R; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S; Lim, Wei Shen; Nicholson, Karl G; Brett, Stephen J; Enstone, Joanne E; McMenamin, James; Openshaw, Peter J M; Read, Robert C; Taylor, Bruce L; Bannister, Barbara; Semple, Malcolm G

    2012-01-01

    Triage tools have an important role in pandemics to identify those most likely to benefit from higher levels of care. We compared Community Assessment Tools (CATs), the CURB-65 score, and the Pandemic Medical Early Warning Score (PMEWS); to predict higher levels of care (high dependency--Level 2 or intensive care--Level 3) and/or death in patients at or shortly after admission to hospital with A/H1N1 2009 pandemic influenza. This was a case-control analysis using retrospectively collected data from the FLU-CIN cohort (1040 adults, 480 children) with PCR-confirmed A/H1N1 2009 influenza. Area under receiver operator curves (AUROC), sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values and negative predictive values were calculated. CATs best predicted Level 2/3 admissions in both adults [AUROC (95% CI): CATs 0.77 (0.73, 0.80); CURB-65 0.68 (0.64, 0.72); PMEWS 0.68 (0.64, 0.73), ptools for predicting need for higher levels of care and/or mortality in patients of all ages.

  16. Re-evaluating Russia's biological weapons policy, as reflected in the Criminal Code and Official Admissions: insubordination leading to a president's subordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoph, Jan T; Westerdahl, Kristina S

    2006-01-01

    Half-heartedly acknowledged by the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union ran the world's largest offensive program for biological weapons, breaching the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. Russia criminalized biological weapons in 1993 only to decriminalize them in 1996, but in 2003 president Putin partly recriminalized them. None of these changes were declared within the Convention. Several well-known official statements, when reviewed in their context, turned out to admit to neither an offensive program nor a breach of the Convention. Thus, the Russian biological weapons policy is more ambiguous than usually depicted, and various policy shapers can be discerned.

  17. Pareto Efficient Policy for Supervisory Power Management Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    n this paper we address the problem of online optimization of the supervisory power management control in parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). We model HEV opera- tion as a controlled Markov chain using the long-run expected average cost per unit time criterion, and we show that the control policy yielding the Pareto optimal solution minimizes the average cost criterion online. The effectiveness of the proposed solution is validated through simulation and compared to the solution derived with dynamic programming using the average cost criterion.

  18. Predictors of Canadian legislators' support for tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joanna E; de Guia, Nicole A; Ashley, Mary Jane; Ferrence, Roberta; Northrup, David A; Studlar, Donley T

    2002-09-01

    It is clear that regulatory strategies can be effective in reducing tobacco use. Because legislators ultimately determine whether many of these policies are enacted, they are a key focus for tobacco policy research. This study identifies political and personal predictors of Canadian legislators' support for tobacco control policies. Data are from a 1996-97 survey of federal, provincial and territorial legislators. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess relationships between five groups of variables (political factors including political ideology, personal characteristics, tobacco experiences, tobacco knowledge, interest group saliency) and support for tobacco control based on an 11-item scale. Support for tobacco control varied by political party. Support was higher among legislators who thought government had a duty to promote healthy lifestyles, knew second-hand smoke could cause lung cancer, knew tobacco caused more deaths than alcohol, and said they wanted more contact with medical associations about tobacco issues. Support was lower among current smokers and those with tobacco industry jobs in their ridings. The findings indicate that political party membership cannot be ignored in enlisting legislator support for tobacco control. It also appears that legislators who oppose tobacco control measures may not be opposed to tobacco control per se, but are more generally opposed to a government role in health promotion. Thus, public health professionals and tobacco control advocates need to be more attentive to the way tobacco control issues are framed for particular legislators. Further, meetings with health groups about tobacco issues would be welcomed by many legislators; non-governmental organizations and other health advocates could work to increase tobacco knowledge among legislators.

  19. Virtual Control Policy for Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Rovetto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Prevention and avoidance of deadlocks in sensor networks that use the wormhole routing algorithm is an active research domain. There are diverse control policies that will address this problem being our approach a new method. In this paper we present a virtual control policy for the new specialized Petri net subclass called Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net (BORPN. Essentially, it is an ordinary class constructed from various state machines that share unitary resources in a complex form, which allows branching and joining of processes. The reduced structure of this new class gives advantages that allow analysis of the entire system’s behavior, which is a prohibitive task for large systems because of the complexity and routing algorithms.

  20. Distributive Disturbance and Optimai Policy in Stochastic Control Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hongchu; Hu Shigeng; Zhang Xueqing

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the equilibrium relationships between the volatility of capital and income, taxation, and macroeconomic performance in a stochastic control model, the uniqueness of the solution to this model was proved by using the method of dynamic programming under the introduction of distributive disturbance and elastic labor supply. Furthermore, the effects of two types of shocks on labor-leisure choice, economic growth rate and welfare were numerically analyzed, and then the optimal tax policy was derived.

  1. Control of mercury emissions: policies, technologies, and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2015-01-01

    Seung-Whee Rhee Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Owing to the Minamata Convention on Mercury and the Global Mercury Partnership, policies and regulations on mercury management in advanced countries were intensified by a mercury phaseout program in the mercury control strategy. In developing countries, the legislative or regulatory frameworks on mercury emissions are not established specifically, but mercury management is designed...

  2. 32 CFR 242.5 - Admission procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Attn: Assistant Dean for Academic Support. The School of Medicine shall not process a military person's...) MISCELLANEOUS ADMISSION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR THE SCHOOL OF MEDICINE, UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE... to the School of Medicine shall make direct application following instructions published in...

  3. The Control of Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Policy Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence William Gill

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  4. The control of environmental tobacco smoke: a policy review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNabola, Aonghus

    2009-02-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  5. Delay-bound Admission Control for Real-time Traffic in Fourth Generation IMT-Advanced Networks based on 802.16m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POUDYAL, N.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel schedulability criteria is developed to provide Quality of Service (QoS guarantees in terms of both minimum available bandwidth and maximum tolerated packet delay as required by the real-time traffic class. The contribution makes use of a measurement based admission control scheme at the base station of the 802.16m based 4G IMT�advanced network by considering the effects of various kinds of delays including the channel access delay, queuing delay and MAC layer transmission delay on the system's end to end delay. The paper also provides a way for the mobile station to proactively increase the chances of success of bandwidth grants by predicting in advance whether its bandwidth request will be approved by the base station, and then modifying or suspending its bandwidth request in case the chances of success is not favorable at that instant.

  6. LTE-A中基于准入控制的切换决策算法%Handoff Decision Algorithm Based on Admission Control in LTE-A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 李鲁群; 王力

    2011-01-01

    在E-UTRAN架构下,提出一种基于目标小区准入控制的切换决策算法.通过eNB之间的X2接口来交互网络的负载信息、资源信息和服务速率等,以此获得对目标小区准入控制的预测.构建曼哈顿模型场景,仿真结果证明,该切换算法有较高的切换成功率和较小的切换时延;并可将用户终端切换到负载比较轻的小区,使相邻小区的负载得到均衡,提高了无线资源的利用率.%This paper provides a handoff decision algorithm based on admission control of target cell in the E-UTRAN architecture.In order to predict the admission control of target cell, it uses the X2 interface between eNBs to exchange the load information load network, resource information, and services rate of network.It constructs the Manhattan model.Simulation results indicate that the algorithm has higher successful handoff rate and smaller delay of handoff.It can switch the user terminal to the cell with lighter load, to make sure balancing the neighboring load and improving utilization of wireless resources.

  7. MACHINE LEARNING APPROACHES IN IMPROVING SERVICE LEVEL AGREEMENT-BASED ADMISSION CONTROL FOR A SOFTWARE-AS-A-SERVICE PROVIDER IN CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Mohana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Software as a Service (SaaS offers reliable access to software applications to the end users over the Internet without direct investment in infrastructure and software. SaaS providers utilize resources of internal data centres or rent resources from a public Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS provider in order to serve their customers. Internal hosting can ample cost of administration and maintenance whereas hiring from an IaaS provider can impact the service quality due to its variable performance. To surmount these drawbacks, we propose pioneering admission control and scheduling algorithms for SaaS providers to effectively utilize public Cloud resources to maximize profit by minimizing cost and improving customer satisfaction level. There is a drawback in this method is strength of the algorithms by handling errors in dynamic scenario of cloud environment, also there is a need of machine learning method to predict the strategies and produce the according resources. The admission control provided by trust model that is based on SLA uses different strategies to decide upon accepting user requests so that there is minimal performance impact, avoiding SLA penalties that are giving higher profit. Machine learning method aims at building a distributed system for cloud resource monitoring and prediction that includes learning-based methodologies for modelling and optimization of resource prediction models. The learning methods are Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Support Vector Machine (SVM are two typical machine learning strategies in the category of regression computation. These two methods can be employed for modelling resource state prediction. In addition, we conduct a widespread evaluation study to analyze which solution matches best in which scenario to maximize SaaS provider’s profit. Results obtained through our extensive simulation shows that our proposed algorithms provide significant improvement (up to 40% cost saving over

  8. Modeling Access Control Policy of a Social Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaimaa Belbergui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Social networks bring together users in a virtual platform and offer them the ability to share -within the Community- personal and professional information’s, photos, etc. which are sometimes sensitive. Although, the majority of these networks provide access control mechanisms to their users (to manage who accesses to which information, privacy settings are limited and do not respond to all users' needs. Hence, the published information remain all vulnerable to illegal access. In this paper, the access control policy of the social network "Facebook" is analyzed in a profound way by starting with its modeling with "Organization Role Based Access Control" model, and moving to the simulation of the policy with an appropriate simulator to test the coherence aspect, and ending with a discussion of analysis results which shows the gap between access control management options offered by Facebook and the real requirements of users in the same context. Extracted conclusions prove the need of developing a new access control model that meets most of these requirements, which will be the subject of a forthcoming work.

  9. Nonimmigrant Admissions: Fiscal Year 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Nonimmigrants are foreign nationals granted temporary admission into the United States. The major purposes for which nonimmigrant admission may be authorized include...

  10. Nonimmigrant Admissions: Fiscal Year 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Nonimmigrants are foreign nationals granted temporary admission into the United States. The major purposes for which nonimmigrant admission may be authorized include...

  11. Nonimmigrant Admission: Fiscal Year 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Nonimmigrants are foreign nationals granted temporary admission into the United States. The major purposes for which nonimmigrant admission may be authorized include...

  12. Nonimmigrant Admissions: Fiscal Year 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Nonimmigrants are foreign nationals granted temporary admission into the United States. The major purposes for which nonimmigrant admission may be authorized include...

  13. Nonimmigrant Admissions: Fiscal Year 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Nonimmigrants are foreign nationals granted temporary admission into the United States. The major purposes for which nonimmigrant admission may be authorized include...

  14. Nonimmigrant Admissions: Fiscal Year 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Nonimmigrants are foreign nationals granted temporary admission into the United States. The major purposes for which nonimmigrant admission may be authorized include...

  15. Nonimmigrant Admissions: Fiscal Year 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Nonimmigrants are foreign nationals granted temporary admission into the United States. The major purposes for which nonimmigrant admission may be authorized include...

  16. Nonimmigrant Admissions - Fiscal Year 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Nonimmigrants are foreign nationals granted temporary admission into the United States. The major purposes for which nonimmigrant admission may be authorized include...

  17. Nonimmigrant Admissions: Fiscal Year 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Nonimmigrants are foreign nationals granted temporary admission into the United States. The major purposes for which nonimmigrant admission may be authorized include...

  18. 3 CFR 101.6 - Office of National Drug Control Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... THE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES ACT § 101.6 Office of National Drug Control Policy. Freedom of Information regulations for the Office of National Drug Control Policy appear at 21 CFR parts 1400-1499. ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of National Drug Control Policy....

  19. Historical Analysis of SO2 Pollution Control Policies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cailing; Yin, Huaqiang; Ai, Nanshan; Huang, Zhengwen

    2009-03-01

    Coal is not only an important energy source in China but also a major source of air pollution. Because of this, China’s national sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have been the highest in the world for many years, and since the 1990s, the territory of China’s south and southwest has become the third largest acid-rain-prone region in the world. In order to control SO2 emissions, the Chinese government has formulated and promulgated a series of policies and regulations, but it faces great difficulties in putting them into practice. In this retrospective look at the history of SO2 control in China, we found that Chinese SO2 control policies have become increasingly strict and rigid. We also found that the environmental policies and regulations are more effective when central officials consistently give environmental protection top priority. Achieving China’s environmental goals, however, has been made difficult by China’s economic growth. Part of this is due to the practice of environmental protection appearing in the form of an ideological “campaign” or “storm” that lacks effective economic measures. More recently, better enforcement of environmental laws and regulations has been achieved by adding environmental quality to the performance assessment metrics for leaders at all levels. To continue making advances, China needs to reinforce the economic and environmental assessments for pollution control projects and work harder to integrate economic measures into environmental protection. Nonetheless, China has a long way to go before economic growth and environmental protection are balanced.

  20. Comparison of CATs, CURB-65 and PMEWS as triage tools in pandemic influenza admissions to UK hospitals: case control analysis using retrospective data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja R Myles

    Full Text Available Triage tools have an important role in pandemics to identify those most likely to benefit from higher levels of care. We compared Community Assessment Tools (CATs, the CURB-65 score, and the Pandemic Medical Early Warning Score (PMEWS; to predict higher levels of care (high dependency--Level 2 or intensive care--Level 3 and/or death in patients at or shortly after admission to hospital with A/H1N1 2009 pandemic influenza. This was a case-control analysis using retrospectively collected data from the FLU-CIN cohort (1040 adults, 480 children with PCR-confirmed A/H1N1 2009 influenza. Area under receiver operator curves (AUROC, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values and negative predictive values were calculated. CATs best predicted Level 2/3 admissions in both adults [AUROC (95% CI: CATs 0.77 (0.73, 0.80; CURB-65 0.68 (0.64, 0.72; PMEWS 0.68 (0.64, 0.73, p<0.001] and children [AUROC: CATs 0.74 (0.68, 0.80; CURB-65 0.52 (0.46, 0.59; PMEWS 0.69 (0.62, 0.75, p<0.001]. CURB-65 and CATs were similar in predicting death in adults with both performing better than PMEWS; and CATs best predicted death in children. CATs were the best predictor of Level 2/3 care and/or death for both adults and children. CATs are potentially useful triage tools for predicting need for higher levels of care and/or mortality in patients of all ages.

  1. Controlling Elements In The Distribution Policy Of A Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelau Corina

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In a permanent changing environment, the measurement and monitorisation of the performance of a company has become one of the key issues for its success. This fact increases the capacity of each company to adapt to the conditions of the environment, because only by a permanent monitorisation of the performance, a company can discover both its strenghts and its weaknesses and in time, it can react according to these. This paper concentrates on the controlling and performance measurement of the distribution policy of a company. It analyses both the efficacity and efficency of the distribution channels as well as the succes of the logistics activity.

  2. 高速网中最小阻塞率的接入控制研究%Call Admission Control with Optimal Block Probability in High-Speed Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵尔敦; 石冰心; 郭喻茹; 黄川

    2001-01-01

    A call admission control scheme with optimal block probability in high-speed network is given. Under the environment of multi-class calls ,the acceptance area with minimum call block probability is obtained. Numerical results show that the maximum call number decreases with the stay-time of the call and increases with the load of the call.

  3. Admissible and Restrained Revision

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, R; 10.1613/jair.1874

    2011-01-01

    As partial justification of their framework for iterated belief revision Darwiche and Pearl convincingly argued against Boutiliers natural revision and provided a prototypical revision operator that fits into their scheme. We show that the Darwiche-Pearl arguments lead naturally to the acceptance of a smaller class of operators which we refer to as admissible. Admissible revision ensures that the penultimate input is not ignored completely, thereby eliminating natural revision, but includes the Darwiche-Pearl operator, Nayaks lexicographic revision operator, and a newly introduced operator called restrained revision. We demonstrate that restrained revision is the most conservative of admissible revision operators, effecting as few changes as possible, while lexicographic revision is the least conservative, and point out that restrained revision can also be viewed as a composite operator, consisting of natural revision preceded by an application of a "backwards revision" operator previously studied by Papini. ...

  4. 论免费开放后基层博物馆的展陈策划——以江苏省县级博物馆考察调研为例%On the Exhibition Arrangement in Local Museums after the Free Admission Policy ——A Survey Study Report of County Museums in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈尚荣

    2011-01-01

    本文通过对江苏省县级博物馆的考察调研,论述分析了免费开放后江苏基层博物馆在展陈策划方面所取得的一些创新经验和存在的问题,并在此基础上对免费开放后的基层博物馆如何提升展陈策划能力和水平提出了相关的建议和对策。%Based on a survey study of county museums in Jiangsu Province,this paper analyzes the innovative experiences and corresponding problems in exhibition arrangement in local museums after the free admission policy.Suggestions and measures are put forward concerning how to improve exhibition arrangement ability and standard in local museums after the free admission policy.

  5. Emerging policies to control nonpoint source pollution of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Water quality impairment is among the highest ranking public issues of concern in the developed world. While, in Europe and North America, many water quality programs have been put in place over the past half century, regulators difficulties tackling the geographically most widespread water quality degradation in these regions: pollution of groundwater (as opposed to surface water) from diffuse sources (as opposed to point sources), including contamination with nitrate (affecting drinking water supplies in rural areas and at the rural-urban interface) and salinity (affecting irrigation water quality). Other diffuse pollution contaminants include pesticides and emerging contaminants (e.g., antibiotics and pathogens from animal farming). The geographic and hydrologic characteristics of nonpoint source pollution of groundwater are distinctly different from other types of water pollution: individually liable sources are contiguous across the landscape, and internally heterogeneous in space and time. On annually aggregated time scales (most relevant to groundwater), sources are continuously emitting pollution, while pollution levels typically do not exceed MCLs by less than a factor 2. An analysis of key elements of existing water pollution policies to control groundwater pollution from diffuse sources demonstrates the lack of both, science and institutional capacity, while existing point-source approaches cannot be applied toward the control of diffuse pollution to groundwater. For the latter, a key to a successful policy is a tiered, three-way monitoring program based on proxy compliance metrics instead of direct measurement of pollutant discharge, research linking actual pollutant discharges to proxy metrics, and long-term regional groundwater monitoring to establish large scale, long-term trends. Several examples of emerging regulations from California and the EU are given to demonstrate these principles.

  6. The Admissions Equity Struggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Eric

    2012-01-01

    It has been a long, litigious road from Heman Sweatt, an African-American mail carrier who wanted to attend the prestigious, all-White law school at the University of Texas at Austin in 1946, to Abigail Fisher, a White high school student who failed to win undergraduate admission to the same university a half-century later. Depending on what the…

  7. Impact of Republic of Private Universities Admissions Policies to the Quality of Students%民国私立大学招生政策对生源质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管茜莉; 赵倩韵

    2014-01-01

    在中国民国时期的高等教育发展中,私立大学谱写了新的篇章。私立大学的兴起,使得民国时期招生制度不断地改革,这也对选拔人才提供了重要契机。同期公立大学相比,私立大学自主招生具有选拔方式灵活、题型多变、大量采用推荐制等特点。正是各个私立大学招生政策的不同,对生源质量也造成了不同的影响,采取广泛收取学生,考试门槛较低的方法,生源质量偏差;采取限制名额,提高考试难度,提高师资力量,生源质量呈中高水平。%In the development of higher education in China during the Republic of China, private and write a new chapter. The rise of private universities makes the Republic continuous enrollment system reform, which also provides an important opportunity for selection of talents. Compared to the same period of public universities, private universities have a selection of flexible and independent recruitment, questions varied, extensive use of the recommended system characteristics. It is dif-ferent for each private university admissions policies, the quality of the students also caused different effects, taking the me-thods of broad charge students a lower threshold test, the quality of students' deviation;take restrictive quota, increase the difficulty of the exam to improve faculty, quality of students showed a high level.

  8. Growing old at home – A randomized controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of preventive home visits to reduce nursing home admissions: study protocol [NCT00644826

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riedel-Heller Steffi G

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regarding demographic changes in Germany it can be assumed that the number of elderly and the resulting need for long term care is increasing in the near future. It is not only an individual's interest but also of public concern to avoid a nursing home admission. Current evidence indicates that preventive home visits can be an effective way to reduce the admission rate in this way making it possible for elderly people to stay longer at home than without home visits. As the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of preventive home visits strongly depends on existing services in the social and health system existing international results cannot be merely transferred to Germany. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of such an intervention in Germany by a randomized controlled trial. Methods The trial is designed as a prospective multi-center randomized controlled trial in the cities of Halle and Leipzig. The trial includes an intervention and a control group. The control group receives usual care. The intervention group receives three additional home visits by non-physician health professionals (1 geriatric assessment, (2 consultation, (3 booster session. The nursing home admission rate after 18 months will be defined as the primary outcome. An absolute risk reduction from a 20% in the control-group to a 7% admission rate in the intervention group including an assumed drop out rate of 30% resulted in a required sample size of N = 320 (n = 160 vs. n = 160. Parallel to the clinical outcome measurement the intervention will be evaluated economically. The economic evaluation will be performed from a society perspective. Discussion To the authors' knowledge for the first time a trial will investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of preventive home visits for people aged 80 and over in Germany using the design of a randomized controlled trial. Thus, the trial will contribute to

  9. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  10. Art for a Few: Exclusions and Misrecognitions in Higher Education Admissions Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Penny Jane; McManus, Jackie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine the policy and practice of admissions to art and design courses in the context of the UK widening participation (WP) agenda. We draw on our qualitative study of admissions practices funded by the National Arts Learning Network (NALN). To provide context and background, we outline and critique WP policy discourses,…

  11. 76 FR 51049 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Public Housing Admissions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... following information: Title of Proposal: Public Housing Admissions/Occupancy Policies. OMB Approval Number... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Public Housing Admissions/Occupancy Policies AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice....

  12. 76 FR 45281 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Public Housing Admissions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ...: Public Housing Admissions/Occupancy Policies. OMB Approval Number: 2577-0220. Form Numbers: None... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Public Housing Admissions/Occupancy Policies AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice....

  13. Call Admission Control Method Based on AHP and MMTD%基于AHP和MMTD的呼叫接纳控制方法AM-CAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪梅; 张登银

    2013-01-01

    提出一种统一的呼叫接纳控制方法。应用层次分析过程(AHP)实现系统建模,根据网络运营目标,对于决策所依据的诸多准则之间的重要性关系进行定性分析和定量描述,从而确定各准则在决策中的影响力;应用中介真值程度度量(MMTD)方法统一量化各影响因素相对各准则的真值程度,通过配置合理参数,来适应异构网络在技术特性、性能目标上的差异。仿真结果表明,文中所提方法对于网络的运营目标和偏好具有很好的适应能力。%An unified call admission control method was proposed,which adopted the Analytic Hierarchy Process ( AHP) to achieve sys-tem modeling. According to the targets of network operators,the pairwise relationship of importance among criterions associated with de-cison-making is analyzed qualitatively and described quantitatively,to determine influence of each criterion on decision-making;moreo-ver,the method of Measureing of Medium Truth Degree ( MMTD) is employed to quantify the truth degree of each factor relative to cri-terion,and reasonable parameters are configured to adapt to difference in technical characteristics and performance goals among heteroge-neous network. Simulation results show that the proposed method has a better ability to adapt to goals and preferences of network opera-tors.

  14. The application of Quality Control Circle in the nursing admission assessment list on writing%品管圈活动在护理入院评估单书写中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何凤益; 李艳

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the application effect of Quality Control Circle in the nursing admission assessment list on writing.Methods:Set up Quality Control Circle activity groups ,Investigate the status quo, analyzes the reason of the defects on Liver and gallbladder surgery nursing admission assessment single writing,Find out the main reason,Formulate corresponding countermeasures and implementation. Results:Quality Control Circle Make the nursing admission assessment sheet writing qualified rate increased from 88.08%to 94.6%. Conclusion:The effect of Quality Control Circle in raising the quality of nursing admission assessment list writing is remarkable,and it is worth popularization and application.%目的:探讨品管圈活动在提高护理入院评估单书写质量中的应用效果。方法:成立品管圈活动小组,进行现况调查,分析导致肝胆外科护理入院评估单书写缺陷的原因,通过筛选,找出主要原因,制定相应的对策并实施。结果:品管圈活动使护理入院评估单书写合格率从88.08%提高到94.6%。结论:品管圈活动在提高护理入院评估单书写质量方面效果显著,值得推广应用。

  15. Traditional vs. Contemporary Management Control Practices for Developing Public Health Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo-Gil, David; Sánchez-Expósito, María Jesús; Gómez-Ruiz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Public health policies must address multiple goals and complex community health needs. Recently, management control practices have emerged to provide a broader type of information for evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare policies, and relate activities and processes to multiple strategic outcomes. This study compares the effect of traditional and contemporary management control practices on the achievement of public health policies. It is also analyzed how two different uses of such practices (enabling vs. coercive) facilitate the achievement of public health policies. Relationships are explored using data collected from managers from public health agencies and public hospitals in Spain. The findings show that contemporary management control practices are more suitable than traditional practices to achieve public health policies. Furthermore, results show that public health policies are better achieved when managers use management control practices in an enabling way rather than in a coercive way. PMID:27428985

  16. Traditional vs. Contemporary Management Control Practices for Developing Public Health Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo-Gil, David; Sánchez-Expósito, María Jesús; Gómez-Ruiz, Laura

    2016-07-14

    Public health policies must address multiple goals and complex community health needs. Recently, management control practices have emerged to provide a broader type of information for evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare policies, and relate activities and processes to multiple strategic outcomes. This study compares the effect of traditional and contemporary management control practices on the achievement of public health policies. It is also analyzed how two different uses of such practices (enabling vs. coercive) facilitate the achievement of public health policies. Relationships are explored using data collected from managers from public health agencies and public hospitals in Spain. The findings show that contemporary management control practices are more suitable than traditional practices to achieve public health policies. Furthermore, results show that public health policies are better achieved when managers use management control practices in an enabling way rather than in a coercive way.

  17. The path to impact of operational research on tuberculosis control policies and practices in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Probandari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Operational research is currently one of the pillars of the global strategy to control tuberculosis. Indonesia initiated capacity building for operational research on tuberculosis over the last decade. Although publication of the research in peer-reviewed journals is an important indicator for measuring the success of this endeavor, the influence of operational research on policy and practices is considered even more important. However, little is known about the process by which operational research influences tuberculosis control policy and practices. Objective: We aimed to investigate the influence of operational research on tuberculosis control policy and practice in Indonesia between 2004 and 2014. Design: Using a qualitative study design, we conducted in-depth interviews of 50 researchers and 30 policy makers/program managers and performed document reviews. Transcripts of these interviews were evaluated while applying content analysis. Results: Operational research contributed to tuberculosis control policy and practice improvements, including development of new policies, introduction of new practices, and reinforcement of current program policies and practices. However, most of these developments had limited sustainability. The path from the dissemination of research results and recommendations to policy and practice changes was long and complex. The skills, interests, and political power of researchers and policy makers, as well as health system response, could influence the process. Conclusions: Operational research contributed to improving tuberculosis control policy and practices. A systematic approach to improve the sustainability of the impact of operational research should be explored.

  18. Residuals Charges for Pollution Control: A Policy Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, A. Myrick, III; Haveman, Robert H.

    1972-01-01

    Contrasts the effects of a policy of regulation of pollutant discharge by enforcement of a permit system with the likely consequences of a policy of charging for effluents, thus increasing the cost of discharge. The charge for residuals is favored, and it is suggested that trials of the system be conducted, perhaps with a federal tax on emission…

  19. Loneliness and nursing home admission among rural older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, D W; Cutrona, C E; de la Mora, A; Wallace, R B

    1997-12-01

    In this study, the authors tested the relation between loneliness and subsequent admission to a nursing home over a 4-year time period in a sample of approximately 3,000 rural older Iowans. Higher levels of loneliness were found to increase the likelihood of nursing home admission and to decrease the time until nursing home admission. The influence of extremely high loneliness on nursing home admission remained statistically significant after controlling for other variables, such as age, education, income, mental status, physical health, morale, and social contact, that were also predictive of nursing home admission. Several mechanisms are proposed to explain the link between extreme loneliness and nursing home admission. These include loneliness as a precipitant of declines in mental and physical health and nursing home placement as a strategy to gain social contact with others. Implications for preventative interventions are discussed.

  20. Tobacco control policies and perinatal and child health: A systematic review and meta-analysis protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.V. Been (Jasper V.); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); C. Millett (Christopher); S. Basu (Sanjay); A. Sheikh (Aziz)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Children experience considerable morbidity and mortality due to tobacco smoke exposure. Tobacco control policies may benefit child health by reducing this exposure. We aim to comprehensively assess the effects of the range of tobacco control policies advocated by the WHO on

  1. Toward Effective Water Pipe Tobacco Control Policy in the United States: Synthesis of Federal, State, and Local Policy Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Jason B; Ton, Jessica N; James, A Everette; Primack, Brian A

    2016-01-05

    Purpose . Water pipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is growing in popularity among U.S. young adults and is associated with health risks similar to those of cigarette smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine existing tobacco control policies (TCPs) in order to investigate how they engage WTS. Approach . A systematic synthesis of content and legal interactions among federal, state, and local TCP documents. Setting . Pennsylvania, which represents a politically and demographically diverse microcosm of the United States. Participants . No human subjects. Method . Federal and state TCPs were retrieved via public legal repositories. Local policy searches were conducted via county/municipal Web sites, inclusive of 13 localities that had autonomous health departments or existing TCPs based on a National Cancer Institute report. Full-text TCPs were double coded within a grounded theory framework for health policy analysis. Emergent codes were used to compare and contrast policy texts and to examine legal interactions among TCPs. Results . Examination of policy categories including youth access, use restrictions, and taxation revealed WTS as largely omitted from current TCPs. WTS was sometimes addressed as an "other" tobacco product under older TCPs, though ambiguities in language led to questionable enforceability. State preemptions have rolled back or prevented well-tailored reforms at the local level. Federal preemptions have likewise constrained state TCPs. Conclusion . Outdated, preempted, and unclear policies limit the extent to which TCPs engage WTS. Health advocates might target these aspects of TCP reform.

  2. 77 FR 55183 - Effects of Foreign Policy-Based Export Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... systems (Sec. 742.14); Encryption items (Sec. 742.15); Crime control and detection items (Sec. 742.7.... The likelihood that such controls will achieve their intended foreign policy purposes, in light...

  3. Status of infection control policies and organisation in European hospitals, 2001: the ARPAC study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struelens, M.J.; Wagner, D.; Bruce, J.; MacKenzie, F.M.; Cookson, B.; Voss, A.; Broek, P.J.J.A. van den; Gould, I.

    2006-01-01

    Patient safety in hospital care depends on effective infection control (IC) programmes. The Antimicrobial Resistance Prevention and Control (ARPAC) study assessed the organisation, components and human resources of IC programmes in European hospitals. A questionnaire survey of policies and procedure

  4. Modeling admissible behavior using event signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, Luz; Jafari, Mohsen A; Hanisch, Hans-Michael; Zhao, Peng

    2004-06-01

    We describe here how to obtain a model for the admissible behavior of a discrete event system that is represented by a safe Petri net (PN) model. The transitions of this PN model may be controllable or uncontrollable. Also given is a sequential specification which is modeled with a special state machine. Then, using the condition and event arcs of net condition/event systems, a combined model of plant and specification is obtained. We use only the structure of this combined model to develop a method which gives the admissible behavior of the system. Thus, we avoid the complexity of a complete state enumeration.

  5. Policy of multiculturalism: Protection or control of ethnic identities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bašić Goran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Policies of multiculturalism are not an inheritance of modern and liberal state, although it is often concluded in the public. Historical empires states of ′old′ democracy, colonial and immigrant societies, as well as eastern European countries after the experiment with communism confronted with a problem of ′control′ of multiculturalism. Models of the multicultural policy are numerous and dependable on political, social and cultural circumstances in different parts of the world, and often culturally similar states develop different multicultural policies. Historical and contemporary experiences related to the multicultural policies are discussed in the paper and the last part deals conditions in which contemporary Serbia responds on requirements and challenges of its own multiculturalism.

  6. The politics of 'branding' in policy transfer: the case of DOTS for tuberculosis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Jessica; Walt, Gill; Lush, Louisiana

    2003-07-01

    How and why policies are transferred between countries has attracted considerable interest from scholars of public policy over the last decade. This paper, based on a larger study, sets out to explore the processes involved in policy transfer between international and national levels. These processes are illustrated by looking at a particular public health policy--DOTS for the control and treatment of tuberculosis. The paper demonstrates how, after a long period of neglect, resources were mobilised to put tuberculosis back on international and national public policy agendas, and then how the policy was 'branded' and marketed as DOTS, and transferred to low and middle income countries. It focuses specifically on international agenda setting and policy formulation, and the role played by international organisations in those processes. It shows that policy communities, and particular individuals within them, may take political rather than technical positions in these processes, which can result in considerable contestation. The paper ends by suggesting that while it is possible to raise the profile of a policy dramatically through branding and marketing, success also depends on external events providing windows of opportunity for action. Second, it warns that simplifying policy approaches to 'one-size-fits-all' carries inherent risks, and can be perceived to harm locally appropriate programmes. Third, top-down internationally driven policy changes may lead to apparent policy transfer, but not necessarily to successfully implemented programmes.

  7. Optimal Control Policy for Environment withScience and Technology Stochastic Occur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MinggaoXue; ChulinLi; PuGong

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the control policy for environment with two kinds of irreversibility, which work in opposite directions and uncertainty of cost is regarded as an investment decision. By using real-option theory, the paper presents the model of the optimal control policy for environment under the science and technology that can reduce environment pollution stochastic occur. The paper has discussed the effects of changes in the various parameters on the critical value at which the policy should be adopted. The results show thatthe optimal control policy is quite sensitive to the science and technology which can reduce environment pollution stochastic occur, pointing to the importance of carefully accounting for its impact in determining the control policy for environment.

  8. Post Admission Cognitive Therapy (PACT) for the Inpatient Treatment of Military Personnel with Suicidal Behaviors: A Multi-Site Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    for suicide . In Comprehensive Guide to Post - Traumatic Stress Disorders . London: Springer. 7. Tucker, J., Neely, L. L., Colborn, V., Tylor, S., Pak, K...research. New York: Nova Publications. 6. Ghahramanlou-Holloway, M., Tucker, J. & Neely, L. L. (in press). Post Traumatic Stress Disorder as a risk...Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0106 TITLE: Post Admission Cognitive Therapy (PACT) for the Inpatient Treatment of Military Personnel with Suicidal

  9. The economics of tobacco control: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviours, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximise the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes.

  10. Addressing the Proximal Causes of Obesity: The Relevance of Alcohol Control Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Deborah; Rabinovich, Lila

    2012-01-01

    Many policy measures to control the obesity epidemic assume that people consciously and rationally choose what and how much they eat and therefore focus on providing information and more access to healthier foods. In contrast, many regulations that do not assume people make rational choices have been successfully applied to control alcohol, a substance — like food — of which immoderate consumption leads to serious health problems. Alcohol-use control policies restrict where, when, and by whom...

  11. Admissions for personality disorders in Italy from 1988 to 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbui Corrado

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personality disorders affect a substantial proportion of the population. It is unclear, however, whether the burden of personality disorders on modern mental health services has been increasing. To fill this gap, we analyzed trends in admissions for personality disorders in Italy from 1988 to 1998. Methods We used the yearly data from the Italian Central Institute of Statistics to analyse trends in the total number of admissions for personality disorders and in the total number of first admissions for personality disorders. Results The absolute number of admissions for personality disorders almost trebled from 1988 to 1998, as well as the proportion of all psychiatric admissions that were for personality disorders. Whilst there has been a marked increase in the absolute number of first admissions, the proportion of all first psychiatric admissions that were for personality disorders showed a steady but modest increase, from 5.7% to 7.6%. Conclusion In Italy, the burden of personality disorders on modern mental health services has been increasing. In terms of public health, these findings highlight the urgent need of developing policies to tackle the increasing demand of care of this difficult-to-treat patient population.

  12. Controle social e políticas de saúde Social control over health policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldaíza Sposati

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Na história de democratização das políticas de saúde, um dos campos que construiu visibilidade aos movimentos de saúde, quer pela denúncia das "ausências e omissões" dos serviços instalados, quer pela luta no sentido de construir um espaço regular para o exercício do controle nos serviços e nas burocracias da gestão da saúde, foi o controle social da coisa pública. No início da década de 80, a experiência marcante na região leste da cidade de São Paulo foi a de criar os conselhos de saúde como representação popular no controle do Estado. Nesta reflexão, as autoras não pretendem discutir a composição da representação, mas sim avançar para novos problemas. Na conjuntura pós Constituição de 1988, vivemos um novo momento democrático. As leis, a princípio, amparam a participação da população nas políticas de saúde e são defensoras dos direitos sociais. Como, então, é entendido o campo do controle social? Este restringe-se aos serviços de saúde ou é mais ampliado, englobando a política de saúde? Como é que as leis passam da sua formulação para a sua aplicação? Busca-se, no texto, mapear questões que se colocam quando o controle social se orienta para constituir uma pressão pela mudança/alteração da situação.As the democratization of health policies develops, social control over public interests has been of help in providing health movements with prominence, not only by denouncing cases of "negligence and omission" by established services, but also by struggling to create regular, favourable conditions by which to exercise control over services and governmental management of public health policies. In the early 1980s, a remarkable experience occurred in the "Zona Leste" or eastern burrough of the city of São Paulo, consisting of the emergence of Health Councils as a means of popular representation in the control over the state. Through their analysis of these issues, the authors' intent is

  13. Hospital admissions before and after shipyard closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, M; Fagin, L

    1990-03-01

    "To determine the effect of job loss on health an investigation was made of admissions to hospitals in 887 men five years before and three years after the closure of a Danish shipyard. The control group comprised 441 men from another shipyard. The information on hospital admissions was obtained from the Danish national register of patients. The relative risk of admission in the control group dropped significantly in terms of the number of men admitted from the study group from 1.29 four to five years before closure to 0.74 in the three years after closure. This was especially true of admissions due to accidents (1.33 to 0.46) and diseases of the digestive system (4.53 to 1.03). For diseases of the circulatory system, particularly cardiovascular diseases, the relative risk increased from 0.8 to 1.60, and from 1.0 to 2.6 respectively. These changes in risk of illness after redundancy are probably a consequence of a change from the effects of a high risk work environment to the effects of psychosocial stresses such as job insecurity and unemployment."

  14. Static Enforcement of Static Separation-of-Duty Policies in Usage Control Authorization Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianfeng; Li, Ruixuan; Hu, Jinwei; Xu, Dewu

    Separation-of-Duty (SoD) is a fundamental security principle for prevention of fraud and errors in computer security. It has been studied extensively in traditional access control models. However, the research of SoD policy in the recently proposed usage control (UCON) model has not been well studied. This paper formulates and studies the fundamental problem of static enforcement of static SoD (SSoD) policies in the context of UCONA, a sub-model of UCON only considering authorizations. Firstly, we define a set-based specification of SSoD policies, and the safety checking problem for SSoD in UCONA. Secondly, we study the problem of determining whether an SSoD policy is enforceable. Thirdly, we show that it is intractable (coNP-complete) to direct statically enforce SSoD policies in UCONA, while checking whether a UCONA state satisfies a set of static mutually exclusive attribute (SMEA) constraints is efficient, which provides a justification for using SMEA constraints to enforce SSoD policies. Finally, we introduce a indirect static enforcement for SSoD policies in UCONA. We show how to generate the least restrictive SMEA constraints for enforcing SSoD policies in UCONA, by using the attribute-level SSoD requirement as an intermediate step. The results are fundamental to understanding SSoD policies in UCON.

  15. 21 CFR 1404.135 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy....135 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1404.135 May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is...

  16. Optimal admission to higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    that documents the relevance of theory and illustrates how to apply optimal admission procedures. Indirect gains from optimal admission procedures include the potential for increasing entire cohorts of students' probability of graduating with a higher education degree, thereby increasing the skill level...

  17. Optimal Admission to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaek, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses admission decisions when students from different high school tracks apply for admission to university programmes. I derive a criterion that is optimal in the sense that it maximizes the graduation rates of the university programmes. The paper contains an empirical analysis that documents the relevance of theory and illustrates…

  18. A dynamic model for crime control and policy evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed N. U.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the development of a rigorous mathematical model describing the dynamics of criminal population subject to sentencing policies of any penal (legal system. The model enables evaluation of the impact of preventive measures used in the society and correctional measures used by the penitentiaries. A performance index reflecting the effectiveness of such measures and the cost to the society for providing the same is introduced and the question of optimality discussed.

  19. Socioeconomic inequalities in the impact of tobacco control policies on adolescent smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Hublet, Anne; Schnohr, Christina Warrer;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are concerns that tobacco control policies may be less effective in reducing smoking among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups and thus may contribute to inequalities in adolescent smoking. This study examines how the association between tobacco control policies and smoking of ...... weekly smoking across European countries. Only tobacco price seemed to be adequate decreasing smoking prevalence among boys, irrespective of their socioeconomic status.......INTRODUCTION: There are concerns that tobacco control policies may be less effective in reducing smoking among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups and thus may contribute to inequalities in adolescent smoking. This study examines how the association between tobacco control policies and smoking of 15......-year-old boys and girls among 29 European countries varies according to socioeconomic group. METHODS: Data were used from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study conducted in 2005/2006 comprising 50,338 adolescents aged 15 years from 29 European countries. Multilevel logistic...

  20. "Control of Finance as a Prerequisite for Successful Monetary Policy: A Reinterpretation of Henry Simons's Rules versus Authorities in Monetary Policy"

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, Thorvald Grung

    2012-01-01

    Henry Simons's 1936 article 'Rules versus Authorities in Monetary Policy' is a classical reference in the literature on central bank independence and rule-based policy. A closer reading of the article reveals a more nuanced policy prescription, with significant emphasis on the need to control short-term borrowing; bank credit is seen as highly unstable, and price level controls, in Simons's view, are not be possible without limiting banks' ability to create money by extending loans. These ele...

  1. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Saarland, Germany: a statewide admission prevalence screening study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Herrmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The screening of hospital admission patients for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is of undisputed value in controlling and reducing the overall MRSA burden; yet, a concerted parallel universal screening intervention throughout all hospitals of an entire German Federal State has not yet been performed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: During a four-week period, all 24 acute care hospitals of the State of Saarland participated in admission prevalence screening. Overall, 436/20,027 screened patients revealed MRSA carrier status (prevalence, 2.2/100 patients with geriatrics and intensive care departments associated with highest prevalence (7.6/100 and 6.3/100, respectively. Risk factor analysis among 17,975 admission patients yielded MRSA history (OR, 4.3; CI₉₅ 2.7-6.8, a skin condition (OR, 3.2; CI₉₅ 2.1-5.0, and/or an indwelling catheter (OR, 2.2; CI₉₅ 1.4-3.5 among the leading risks. Hierarchical risk factor ascertainment of the six risk factors associated with highest odd's ratios would require 31% of patients to be laboratory screened to allow for detection of 67% of all MRSA positive admission patients in the State. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: State-wide admission prevalence screening in conjunction with risk factor ascertainment yields important information on the distribution of the MRSA burden for hospitals, and allows for data-based decisions on local or institutional MRSA screening policies considering risk factor prevalence and expected MRSA identification rates.

  2. Supreme Court Hearing in Texas Admissions Case Exposes Gaps in Affirmative-Action Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The author reports on the U.S. Supreme Court hearing regarding the Texas admissions case that exposes gaps in the affirmative-action law. As the Supreme Court heard oral arguments in a lawsuit challenging race-conscious admissions at the University of Texas at Austin, it became evident that the court's past rulings on such policies have failed to…

  3. Electricity Pricing Policy Should Serve Macro-Economic Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xiaoping

    2005-01-01

    The National Development and Reform Commission beefed up its efforts to promote the work of electricity price reform in 2004. It took measures in aspects of easing price contradictions, tentatively implementing discriminated price and time-of-use price and issuing a policy on the linkage of coal and electricity prices and price administration. In 2005 the basic thinking of the Commission's electricity price reform is to actively advance the pilot work of price reform,carry out the reform of transmission and distribution price, enlarge the scope of pilot work of large consumer's direct purchase, simplify sales price structure and bring about the linkage of coal and electricity prices.

  4. The role of evidence-based media advocacy in the promotion of tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Ch'uyasonqo H; Carter, Marina I

    2012-06-01

    This article discusses the role of evidence-based media advocacy in the promotion of tobacco control policies. Evidence is a driving force for campaigns seeking to implement a tobacco control policy. An effective campaign is based in evidence that demonstrates why a policy should be implemented, and what the potential benefits are. Media advocacy is the process of disseminating information through the communications media where the aim is to effect action, such as a change of policy, or to alter the public's view of an issue. Discussion focuses on: 1) the importance of, and methods for, collecting and communicating evidence and information to make it clear and usable for legislators, the media, and the public; and 2) the role of earned and paid media in advancing tobacco control issues. The discussion is made within the context of a specific advocacy example; in this case the 2010 campaign to increase the tobacco tax in Mexico.

  5. Integrated vector management for malaria control in Uganda: knowledge, perceptions and policy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutero Clifford M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrated vector management (IVM is increasingly being recommended as an option for sustainable malaria control. However, many malaria-endemic countries lack a policy framework to guide and promote the approach. The objective of the study was to assess knowledge and perceptions in relation to current malaria vector control policy and IVM in Uganda, and to make recommendations for consideration during future development of a specific IVM policy. Methods The study used a structured questionnaire to interview 34 individuals working at technical or policy-making levels in health, environment, agriculture and fisheries sectors. Specific questions on IVM focused on the following key elements of the approach: integration of chemical and non-chemical interventions of vector control; evidence-based decision making; inter-sectoral collaboration; capacity building; legislation; advocacy and community mobilization. Results All participants were familiar with the term IVM and knew various conventional malaria vector control (MVC methods. Only 75% thought that Uganda had a MVC policy. Eighty percent (80% felt there was inter-sectoral collaboration towards IVM, but that it was poor due to financial constraints, difficulties in involving all possible sectors and political differences. The health, environment and agricultural sectors were cited as key areas requiring cooperation in order for IVM to succeed. Sixty-seven percent (67% of participants responded that communities were actively being involved in MVC, while 48% felt that the use of research results for evidence-based decision making was inadequate or poor. A majority of the participants felt that malaria research in Uganda was rarely used to facilitate policy changes. Suggestions by participants for formulation of specific and effective IVM policy included: revising the MVC policy and IVM-related policies in other sectors into a single, unified IVM policy and, using legislation to

  6. Economic Affirmative Action in College Admissions: A Progressive Alternative to Racial Preferences and Class Rank Admissions Plans. Issue Brief Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Richard

    This brief explores the pros and cons of three alternative approaches to college admissions policies: race-based preferences, which are backed by most Democrats; class-rank plans (admitting the top students in each high school), which is backed by the Bush administration; and economic affirmative action for the disadvantaged of all races, which…

  7. General Practitioners and Involuntary Admission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Britta; Lomborg, Kirsten; Engberg, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    in involuntary admissions. Setting: General practice, Aarhus, Denmark. Method: One focus group interview and six individual interviews were conducted with 13 Danish GPs, who had recently sectioned one of their own patients. Results: GPs experienced stress and found the admission procedure time consuming....... They felt that sectioning patients was unpleasant, and felt nervous, but experienced relief and professional satisfaction if things went well. The GPs experienced the doctor-patient relationship to be at risk, but also reported that it could be improved. GPs felt that they were not taken seriously...... by the psychiatric system. Conclusion: The unpleasant experiences and induced feelings resulting from involuntary admissions reflect an undesirable and stressful working environment....

  8. Admissibility of logical inference rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rybakov, VV

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present the fundamental theoretical results concerning inference rules in deductive formal systems. Primary attention is focused on: admissible or permissible inference rules the derivability of the admissible inference rules the structural completeness of logics the bases for admissible and valid inference rules. There is particular emphasis on propositional non-standard logics (primary, superintuitionistic and modal logics) but general logical consequence relations and classical first-order theories are also considered. The book is basically self-contained and

  9. Influence of export control policy on the competitiveness of machine tool producing organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrstrom, Jeffrey D.

    The possible influence of export control policies on producers of export controlled machine tools is examined in this quantitative study. International market competitiveness theories hold that market controlling policies such as export control regulations may influence an organization's ability to compete (Burris, 2010). Differences in domestic application of export control policy on machine tool exports may impose throttling effects on the competitiveness of participating firms (Freedenberg, 2010). Commodity shipments from Japan, Germany, and the United States to the Russian market will be examined using descriptive statistics; gravity modeling of these specific markets provides a foundation for comparison to actual shipment data; and industry participant responses to a user developed survey will provide additional data for analysis using a Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. There is scarce academic research data on the topic of export control effects within the machine tool industry. Research results may be of interest to industry leadership in market participation decisions, advocacy arguments, and strategic planning. Industry advocates and export policy decision makers could find data of interest in supporting positions for or against modifications of export control policies.

  10. Policy Innovation and Policy Pathways: Tuberculosis Control in Sri Lanka, 1948-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Margaret

    2016-10-01

    This paper, based on World Health Organization and Sri Lankan sources, examines the attempts to control tuberculosis in Sri Lanka from independence in 1948. It focuses particularly on the attempt in 1966 to implement a World Health Organization model of community-orientated tuberculosis control that sought to establish a horizontally structured programme through the integration of control into the general health services. The objective was to create a cost- effective method of control that relied on a simple bacteriological test for case finding and for treatment at the nearest health facility that would take case detection and treatment to the rural periphery where specialist services were lacking. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, Sri Lanka had already established a specialist control programme composed of chest clinics, mass X-ray, inpatient and domiciliary treatment, and social assistance for sufferers. This programme had both reduced mortality and enhanced awareness of the disease. This paper exposes the obstacles presented in trying to impose the World Health Organization's internationally devised model onto the existing structure of tuberculosis control already operating in Sri Lanka. One significant hindrance to the WHO approach was lack of resources but, equally important, was the existing medical culture that militated against its acceptance.

  11. A review of existing models and methods to estimate employment effects of pollution control policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwin, R.F.; Nesse, R.J.

    1988-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information about existing models and methods used to estimate coal mining employment impacts of pollution control policies. The EPA is currently assessing the consequences of various alternative policies to reduce air pollution. One important potential consequence of these policies is that coal mining employment may decline or shift from low-sulfur to high-sulfur coal producing regions. The EPA requires models that can estimate the magnitude and cost of these employment changes at the local level. This paper contains descriptions and evaluations of three models and methods currently used to estimate the size and cost of coal mining employment changes. The first model reviewed is the Coal and Electric Utilities Model (CEUM), a well established, general purpose model that has been used by the EPA and other groups to simulate air pollution control policies. The second model reviewed is the Advanced Utility Simulation Model (AUSM), which was developed for the EPA specifically to analyze the impacts of air pollution control policies. Finally, the methodology used by Arthur D. Little, Inc. to estimate the costs of alternative air pollution control policies for the Consolidated Coal Company is discussed. These descriptions and evaluations are based on information obtained from published reports and from draft documentation of the models provided by the EPA. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Feedback control policies employed by people using intracortical brain-computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Francis R.; Pandarinath, Chethan; Jarosiewicz, Beata; Murphy, Brian A.; Memberg, William D.; Blabe, Christine H.; Saab, Jad; Walter, Benjamin L.; Sweet, Jennifer A.; Miller, Jonathan P.; Henderson, Jaimie M.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Simeral, John D.; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Kirsch, Robert F.; Bolu Ajiboye, A.

    2017-02-01

    Objective. When using an intracortical BCI (iBCI), users modulate their neural population activity to move an effector towards a target, stop accurately, and correct for movement errors. We call the rules that govern this modulation a ‘feedback control policy’. A better understanding of these policies may inform the design of higher-performing neural decoders. Approach. We studied how three participants in the BrainGate2 pilot clinical trial used an iBCI to control a cursor in a 2D target acquisition task. Participants used a velocity decoder with exponential smoothing dynamics. Through offline analyses, we characterized the users’ feedback control policies by modeling their neural activity as a function of cursor state and target position. We also tested whether users could adapt their policy to different decoder dynamics by varying the gain (speed scaling) and temporal smoothing parameters of the iBCI. Main results. We demonstrate that control policy assumptions made in previous studies do not fully describe the policies of our participants. To account for these discrepancies, we propose a new model that captures (1) how the user’s neural population activity gradually declines as the cursor approaches the target from afar, then decreases more sharply as the cursor comes into contact with the target, (2) how the user makes constant feedback corrections even when the cursor is on top of the target, and (3) how the user actively accounts for the cursor’s current velocity to avoid overshooting the target. Further, we show that users can adapt their control policy to decoder dynamics by attenuating neural modulation when the cursor gain is high and by damping the cursor velocity more strongly when the smoothing dynamics are high. Significance. Our control policy model may help to build better decoders, understand how neural activity varies during active iBCI control, and produce better simulations of closed-loop iBCI movements.

  13. Managing ISR sharing policies at the network edge using Controlled English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Preece, Alun; Zerfos, Petros

    2013-05-01

    In domains such as emergency response and military operations the sharing of Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) assets among different coalition partners is regulated through policies. Traditionally, poli­ cies are created at the center of a coalitions network by high-level decision makers and expressed in low-level policy languages (e.g. Common Information Model SPL) by technical personnel, which makes them difficult to be understood by non-technical users at the edge of the network. Moreover, policies must often be modified by negotiation among coalition partners, typically in rapid response to the changing operational situation. Com­ monly, the users who must cope first with situational changes are those on the edge, so it would be very effective if they were able to create and negotiate policies themselves. We investigate the use of Controlled English (CE) as a means to define a policy representation that is both human-friendly and machine processable. We show how a CE model can capture a variety of policy types, including those based on a traditional asset ownership model, and those defining team-based asset sharing across a coalition. The use of CE is intended to benefit coalition networks by bridging the gap between technical and non-technical users in terms of policy creation and negoti­ ation, while at the same time being directly processable by a policy-checking system without transformation to any other technical representation.

  14. Unifying the Access Control Mechanism for the Enterprises Using XACML Policy Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Senthil Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available —Many enterprises have intended to promote their applications with stern access control mechanism and yield the stringent authorization deployment in their individual proprietary manner. The development of this build up will result in tight coupling of authorization mechanisms within the enterprise applications. In many enterprises setup, the implicit authorization processes are embedded within the application and promote error prone accessing of requested policies. This sort of embedded authorization will let the users to carry out the specific actions without knowing the access control policy as well as its embedded setup with the help of third party involvement. But this approach has some serious effects in controlling the issues such as skipping the trust based applications, violates the policy setups and pave the way to exploit the authorized data to the end users. Many enterprises had faced serious problem in controlling its sensitive data from this implicit authorization decisions and hence decided to develop a security mechanism which can be totally controlled by centralized way of access policy. Therefore, the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML provides a very simple and powerful remedy for authorization mechanism and for the access policy set ups.

  15. Optimal Control Policies of Pests for Hybrid Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baolin Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We improve the traditional integrated pest management (IPM control strategies and formulate three specific management strategies, which can be described by hybrid dynamical systems. These strategies can not only effectively control pests but also reduce the abuse of pesticides and protect the natural enemies. The aim of this work is to study how the factors, such as natural enemies optimum choice in the two kinds of different pests, timings of natural enemy releases, dosages and timings of insecticide applications, and instantaneous killing rates of pesticides on both pests and natural enemies, can affect the success of IPM control programmes. The results indicate that the pests outbreak period or frequency largely depends on the optimal selective feeding of the natural enemy between one of the pests and the control tactics. Ultimately, we obtain the only pest needs to be controlled below a certain threshold while not supervising pest .

  16. Context-Sensitive Access Control Policy Evaluation and Enforcement Using Vulnerability Exploitation Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rasheed

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Conventional approaches for adapting security enforcement in the face of attacks rely on administrators to make policy changes that will limit damage to the system. Paradigm shifts in the capabilities of attack tools demand supplementary strategies that can also adjust policy enforcement dynamically. We extend the current research by proposing an approach for integrating real-time security assessment data into access control systems. Critical application scenarios are tested to examine the impact of using risk data in policy evaluation and enforcement.

  17. Soviet declaratory policy regarding the controllability of escalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prewitt, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Three variables were examined for their affect on Soviet views regarding the controllability of escalation. The first was bureaucratic affiliation. It was hypothesized that individuals affiliated with groups which directly controlled weapons would be more likely to support the controllability of escalation than those who were members of groups which did not control weapons. This hypothesis could not be rejected. The second variable was a commentator's rank. It was hypothesized that rank would act in two ways: (1) ideas regarding controlled escalation would appear at lower ranks first; and (2) unique views would be produced by specialized ranks within groups. The rank hypothesis could not be rejected. Certain escalation themes appeared to be presented first by military and civilian writers before being presented by the political leadership. The third variable, image of the West, did not appear to function as theorized. It was hypothesized that hard images of the West would be associated with the rejection of controlled escalation, whereas soft images would be associated with positions suggesting that escalation was controlled through joint US-Soviet cooperation.

  18. CERN’s Computing rules updated to include policy for control systems

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    The use of CERN’s computing facilities is governed by rules defined in Operational Circular No. 5 and its subsidiary rules of use. These rules are available from the web site http://cern.ch/ComputingRules. Please note that the subsidiary rules for Internet/Network use have been updated to include a requirement that control systems comply with the CNIC(Computing and Network Infrastructure for Control) Security Policy. The security policy for control systems, which was approved earlier this year, can be accessed at https://edms.cern.ch/document/584092 IT Department

  19. Control on Housing Segregation:Housing Modes and Public Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>1. Housing segregation:advocating or controlling?The phenomenon of housing segregation has become more and more obvious in Chinese cities in recent years; however, there is no agreement on whether it should

  20. Impact of surveillance rounds on adherence to infection control policies and procedures at a children's hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Archana; Heybrock, Brenda; Plummer, Sharon; Eischen, Kay

    2004-09-01

    Adherence to written infection control policies and procedures was studied and on-site education was provided for 1 year at a children's hospital. There was significant improvement in sharp objects disposal, hazardous waste handling, availability of personal protective equipment, isolation precautions, and staff knowledge regarding location of the exposure control plan.

  1. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2003 and 2006 Data to Tobacco Control Policy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Gupta, Prakash C.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Prasad, Vinayak M.; Rahman, Khalilur; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Background: India made 2 important policy statements regarding tobacco control in the past decade. First, the India Tobacco Control Act (ITCA) was signed into law in 2003 with the goal to reduce tobacco consumption and protect citizens from exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Second, in 2005, India ratified the World Health Organization Framework…

  2. School Decentralization and Community Control: Policy in Search of a Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Harriet

    The relationship between research and educational policy in the areas of school system decentralization and community control is analyzed in this dissertation. The literature on decentraliztion and community control is reviewed. It is contended that existing empirical research on these subjects has not systematically tested the assumptions…

  3. More appropriate disease control policies for the developing world : policy and trade issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Mariner

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Investment in disease control should be targeted to critical points that provide the greatest benefit to the livelihoods of livestock-dependent stakeholders. Risk-based targeting should balance the impacts of diseases against the feasibility of their control. This requires sensitive and specific surveillance systems that provide representative overviews of the animal health situation for accurate assessment of disease impact and transmission patterns. Assessment of impact should include household and market effects. The key in surveillance is involving livestock owners using active methods that ensure their disease priorities are addressed. Epidemiological targeting of interventions to critical points in disease transmission cycles should be done to obtain maximal disease reduction. Interventions should be delivered in full partnership with both private and community-based stakeholders to assure high uptake and sustainability. In developing countries, approaches such as participatory disease surveillance and community-based animal health programs have been effective and comply with international animal health standards.

  4. Control-Theoretic Formulation of Operating Systems Resource Management Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    algorithm) controls the transfer of pages from virtual memory (disk or drum) to primary memory, and so on. - - - -- i nt roductlocn Pige 1-3 log in Rqet...the primary memory. Til : situation is called " pige fault". On a page fault, the demanded page is brought in to the core. Space for the incoming page

  5. Computing a constrained control policy for a single-server queueing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    We consider a single-server queueing system designed to serve homogeneous jobs. The jobs arrive to the system after a Poisson process and all processing times are deterministic. There is a set-up cost for starting up production and a holding cost rate is incurred for each job present. Also......, there is a service cost per job, which is a convex function of the service time. The control policy specifies when the server is on or off. It also specifies the state-dependent processing times. In order to avoid a very detailed control policy (which could be hard to implement) we will only allow the server to use...... control policy. Finally some numerical results are presented....

  6. The impact of tobacco control policies in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Zaloshnja, Eduard; Ross, Hana; Levy, David T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of a tobacco control law adopted in Albania in 2007 and to estimate the share of illicit cigarettes on the market. Design Comparative analysis of two waves of a nationally representative household survey, one conducted before the new law went into effect and the other after 2 years. Official sales data were contrasted with the consumption estimate based on the survey. Main outcome measures Smoking prevalence, quit attempts, exposure to cigarette advertising, exp...

  7. Off-policy integral reinforcement learning optimal tracking control for continuous-time chaotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qing-Lai; Song, Rui-Zhuo; Sun, Qiu-Ye; Xiao, Wen-Dong

    2015-09-01

    This paper estimates an off-policy integral reinforcement learning (IRL) algorithm to obtain the optimal tracking control of unknown chaotic systems. Off-policy IRL can learn the solution of the HJB equation from the system data generated by an arbitrary control. Moreover, off-policy IRL can be regarded as a direct learning method, which avoids the identification of system dynamics. In this paper, the performance index function is first given based on the system tracking error and control error. For solving the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation, an off-policy IRL algorithm is proposed. It is proven that the iterative control makes the tracking error system asymptotically stable, and the iterative performance index function is convergent. Simulation study demonstrates the effectiveness of the developed tracking control method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61304079 and 61374105), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant Nos. 4132078 and 4143065), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2013M530527), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. FRF-TP-14-119A2), and the Open Research Project from State Key Laboratory of Management and Control for Complex Systems, China (Grant No. 20150104).

  8. IMPACTS OF GROUP-BASED SIGNAL CONTROL POLICY ON DRIVER BEHAVIOR AND INTERSECTION SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshuang TANG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the typical stage-based policy commonly applied in Japan, the group-based control (often called movement-based in the traffic control industry in Japan refers to such a control pattern that the controller is capable of separately allocating time to each signal group instead of stage based on traffic demand. In order to investigate its applicability at signalized intersections in Japan, an intersection located in Yokkaichi City of Mie Prefecture was selected as an experimental application site by the Japan Universal Traffic Management Society (UTMS. Based on the data collected at the intersection before and after implementing the group-based control policy respectively, this study evaluated the impacts of such a policy on driver behavior and intersection safety. To specify those impacts, a few models utilizing cycle-based data were first developed to interpret the occurrence probability and rate of red-light-running (RLR. Furthermore, analyses were performed on the yellow-entry time (Ye of the last cleared vehicle and post encroachment time (PET during the phase switching. Conclusions supported that the group-based control policy, along with certain other factors, directly or indirectly influenced the RLR behavior of through and right-turn traffics. Meanwhile, it has potential safety benefits as well, indicated by the declined Ye and increased PET values.

  9. Fine-grained policy control in U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) multimodal signatures database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kelly; Grueneberg, Keith; Wood, David; Calo, Seraphin

    2014-06-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Multimodal Signatures Database (MMSDB) consists of a number of colocated relational databases representing a collection of data from various sensors. Role-based access to this data is granted to external organizations such as DoD contractors and other government agencies through a client Web portal. In the current MMSDB system, access control is only at the database and firewall level. In order to offer finer grained security, changes to existing user profile schemas and authentication mechanisms are usually needed. In this paper, we describe a software middleware architecture and implementation that allows fine-grained access control to the MMSDB at a dataset, table, and row level. Result sets from MMSDB queries issued in the client portal are filtered with the use of a policy enforcement proxy, with minimal changes to the existing client software and database. Before resulting data is returned to the client, policies are evaluated to determine if the user or role is authorized to access the data. Policies can be authored to filter data at the row, table or column level of a result set. The system uses various technologies developed in the International Technology Alliance in Network and Information Science (ITA) for policy-controlled information sharing and dissemination1. Use of the Policy Management Library provides a mechanism for the management and evaluation of policies to support finer grained access to the data in the MMSDB system. The GaianDB is a policy-enabled, federated database that acts as a proxy between the client application and the MMSDB system.

  10. The Network Policy Control Technology%网络策略控制技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂勇胜; 陶妍丹; 钟华

    2012-01-01

    With the the complexity of network system management and the conrtol technology, the network policy control technology causes the attention of people. Introduces the lastest research situation of network policy control technology of abroad, and describes it from the management based on policy and strategy oriented middleware. Introduces the research situation of domestic network policy control technology, and points out the deficiency of similar technology in our country. Points out that the digital policy description language based on the semantic, policy collision de- tection technology, examination and approval technology based on policy, and automatic deploy- ment and autonomous technology based on digital strategy, making them as the research direc- tion of this field.%随着网络系统管理和控制技术发展的复杂性,网络策略控制技术引起人们的关注。介绍国外网络策略控制技术的最新研究现状,从基于策略的管理、策略中间件两方面进行阐述。介绍国内网络策略控制技术的研究现状,并指出国内同类技术存在的不足之处:指出以基于语义的数字策略描述语言、策略冲突检测技术、基于策略审核批准技术、基于数字策略的自动部署和自治执行技术等四个方面作为该领域的研究方向。

  11. Telecommuting, Control, and Boundary Management: Correlates of Policy Use and Practice, Job Control, and Work-Family Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Lautsch, Brenda A.; Eaton, Susan C.

    2006-01-01

    We examine professionals' use of telecommuting, perceptions of psychological job control, and boundary management strategies. We contend that work-family research should distinguish between descriptions of flexibility use (formal telecommuting policy user, amount of telecommuting practiced) and how the individual psychologically experiences…

  12. Probabilistic Anonymity and Admissible Schedulers

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, Flavio D; Sokolova, Ana

    2007-01-01

    When studying safety properties of (formal) protocol models, it is customary to view the scheduler as an adversary: an entity trying to falsify the safety property. We show that in the context of security protocols, and in particular of anonymizing protocols, this gives the adversary too much power; for instance, the contents of encrypted messages and internal computations by the parties should be considered invisible to the adversary. We restrict the class of schedulers to a class of admissible schedulers which better model adversarial behaviour. These admissible schedulers base their decision solely on the past behaviour of the system that is visible to the adversary. Using this, we propose a definition of anonymity: for all admissible schedulers the identity of the users and the observations of the adversary are independent stochastic variables. We also develop a proof technique for typical cases that can be used to proof anonymity: a system is anonymous if it is possible to `exchange' the behaviour of two...

  13. Closed-Loop Learning of Visual Control Policies

    CERN Document Server

    Jodogne, S R; 10.1613/jair.2110

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a general, flexible framework for learning mappings from images to actions by interacting with the environment. The basic idea is to introduce a feature-based image classifier in front of a reinforcement learning algorithm. The classifier partitions the visual space according to the presence or absence of few highly informative local descriptors that are incrementally selected in a sequence of attempts to remove perceptual aliasing. We also address the problem of fighting overfitting in such a greedy algorithm. Finally, we show how high-level visual features can be generated when the power of local descriptors is insufficient for completely disambiguating the aliased states. This is done by building a hierarchy of composite features that consist of recursive spatial combinations of visual features. We demonstrate the efficacy of our algorithms by solving three visual navigation tasks and a visual version of the classical Car on the Hill control problem.

  14. Political economy of tobacco control policy on public health in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desapriya, E B R; Iwase, Nobutada; Shimizu, Shinji

    2003-02-01

    Tobacco use, particularly smoking, remains the number one cause of preventable disease and mortality in Japan. This review of the tobacco control policy and public health is the first to offer a composite review of the subject within Japan. This review attempts to evaluate the most important aspects of the current political economy of the tobacco control policy, and concludes that more effective control policies must be employed to minimize the impact of smoking on the public's health in Japan. Further the article attempts to place the approaches in the larger context of tobacco control, providing a vision for the future of tobacco prevention and control based on current knowledge. Tobacco use will remain the leading cause of preventable illness and death in Japan, until tobacco prevention and control efforts are commensurate with the harm caused by tobacco. Taken together, the results of various studies have clearly shown that control measures can influence tobacco smoking patterns, and in turn, the rate of tobacco-related problems. Government tobacco taxes have not kept pace with inflation for years. Availability of tobacco is virtually unlimited with easy access and the prices being very low due to the strong currency of Japan. Thus Japan must be one of the most tobacco accessible countries. It is important to ensure that people are not conditioned to smoke tobacco by an unduly favourable economic and commercial environment. For that reason, prevention advocates have called for substantial regulation of tobacco products and appeal for both tobacco tax increases and tobacco taxes to be indexed to inflation. In this review, present tobacco related public health policies in Japan are discussed with implication for prevention of tobacco related problems. Continued research in this area will be necessary to determine the most effective policies of reducing tobacco related problems in Japan.

  15. Survey of Admission Control and Scheduling Mechanisms for Software-as-a-Service in Cloud Computing Environments%云计算环境中SaaS的接入控制和调度策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 杨从有; 武浩; 裴以建

    2012-01-01

    SaaS是一种基于网络的软件应用模式,是服务提供商将应用软件统一部署在自己的服务器上,用户根据自己的实际需要,通过互联网向服务提供商订购并支付自己所需的服务.在未来,SaaS模式是占主导地位的云服务模型.文中阐 述SaaS的基本概念,介绍了SaaS的参考结构以及服务流程,分析概括了不同类型的服务要求的接入控制策略,总结了不同性能要求作业的调度策略,最后结合已有的云计算环境下的SaaS接人控制和调度策略研究成果,展望了未来的研究方向和亟待解决的关键问题.%SaaS is a kind of network-based software application paradigm that service providers deploy their application software on their servers. Users order and pay for their actual services via the internet. In the future, the SaaS model will be the dominant cloud service model. It introduces the concept of SaaS , its architecture and its service processes, and analyzes the types of admission control and scheduling algorithms for different service and performance requirements. It also presents a summary of the current state-of-the-art of the admission control and scheduling algorithms for SaaS in cloud computing environments, a discussion on the future work and some crucial problems should be solved pressingly.

  16. Do fertility control policies affect health in old age? Evidence from China's one-child experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Asadul; Smyth, Russell

    2015-05-01

    How do fertility control policies contribute to the welfare of women, and their husbands, particularly as they get older? We consider whether the reduction in fertility resulting from population control policies has had any effect on the health of elderly parents in China. In particular, we examine the influence of this fertility decline, experienced due to China's one-child policy, on several measures of the health of parents in middle and old age. Overall, our results suggest that having fewer children has a positive effect on self-reported parental health but generally no effect on other measures of health. The results also suggest that upstream financial transfers have a positive effect on several measures of parental health.

  17. Optimal Admission to Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten

    This paper constructs higher education admission rules that maximise graduation rates and thus increase the skill level of the work force. An application shows that students with a low level in mathematics in secondary school ought to find it easier to be admitted to an economics programme than...... to law or psychology programmes, even though economics is the most difficult programme from which to graduate without a strong background in mathematics. Indirect gains from optimal admission include the potential of making whole cohorts of students more able to graduate with a higher education degree....

  18. Health policymakers’ knowledge and opinions of physicians smoking and tobacco policy control in Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychareun Vanphanom

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2007, a regulation on smoke-free health facilities and institutions was adopted by the Lao government. Little is known about health policymakers’ knowledge and opinions regarding tobacco policy control, including physicians’ behaviour. This paper aims to describe the knowledge of Lao health policymakers and their opinions regarding physicians tobacco use and national smoking policy control. Methods In 2007, we made a qualitative explorative study with data from a purposive sample of 18 key informants through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. The key informants, who were heads of departments, directors of hospitals and directors of centres, mainly worked at the national level, and some provincial levels. Content analysis was used. Results Policymakers perceived the inadequate implementation of a smoke-free regulation and policy as being a barrier and that the general public may not accept physicians smoking, since they are regarded as role models. Most of the respondents mentioned that regulations or laws related to control of smoking in health institutions are available in Laos, but they lacked detailed knowledge of them probably because regulations as well as the smoke-free policy documents were not widely disseminated. The respondents agreed that anti-smoking education should be integrated in the training curricula, especially in the medical schools, and that the provision of counselling on health consequences from smoking and methods of smoking cessation was important. Conclusion This study contributes to tobacco policy evidence and to knowledge regarding factors related to the uptake of evidence into policymaking. Dissemination and implementation of a tobacco control policy nationally, and integration of tobacco cessation training programs in the curricula were found to be productive approaches for improvement.

  19. Economic policies for tobacco control in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, H; Chaloupka, F J

    2006-01-01

    Raising tobacco taxes can have an income distributional impact on the population. Since lower socio-economic groups usually smoke more, they also contribute more to total cigarette tax collection. Thus, those who can afford it least contribute the most in terms of tobacco taxes. This means that tobacco taxes are regressive. However, tobacco tax increases are likely to be progressive, decreasing the relative tax incidence on the poor, vis-à-vis the rich. This is based on the premise that the poor are likely to be more sensitive to price changes, and would thus reduce their cigarette consumption by a greater percentage than the rich in response to an excise tax-induced increase in cigarette prices. Recent empirical studies confirm this hypothesis by demonstrating that the price responsiveness of cigarette demand increases with income. Research in China confirmed that reducing cigarette expenditures could release household resources for spending on food, housing, and other goods that improve living standards. Therefore, in the long run, tobacco control measures will reduce social inequality.

  20. Effectiveness of hospital-wide methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection control policies differs by ward specialty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Sadsad

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a major cause of preventable nosocomial infections and is endemic in hospitals worldwide. The effectiveness of infection control policies varies significantly across hospital settings. The impact of the hospital context towards the rate of nosocomial MRSA infections and the success of infection control is understudied. We conducted a modelling study to evaluate several infection control policies in surgical, intensive care, and medical ward specialties, each with distinct ward conditions and policies, of a tertiary public hospital in Sydney, Australia. We reconfirm hand hygiene as the most successful policy and find it to be necessary for the success of other policies. Active screening for MRSA, patient isolation in single-bed rooms, and additional staffing were found to be less effective. Across these ward specialties, MRSA transmission risk varied by 13% and reductions in the prevalence and nosocomial incidence rate of MRSA due to infection control policies varied by up to 45%. Different levels of infection control were required to reduce and control nosocomial MRSA infections for each ward specialty. Infection control policies and policy targets should be specific for the ward and context of the hospital. The model we developed is generic and can be calibrated to represent different ward settings and pathogens transmitted between patients indirectly through health care workers. This can aid the timely and cost effective design of synergistic and context specific infection control policies.

  1. Effectiveness of hospital-wide methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection control policies differs by ward specialty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadsad, Rosemarie; Sintchenko, Vitali; McDonnell, Geoff D; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of preventable nosocomial infections and is endemic in hospitals worldwide. The effectiveness of infection control policies varies significantly across hospital settings. The impact of the hospital context towards the rate of nosocomial MRSA infections and the success of infection control is understudied. We conducted a modelling study to evaluate several infection control policies in surgical, intensive care, and medical ward specialties, each with distinct ward conditions and policies, of a tertiary public hospital in Sydney, Australia. We reconfirm hand hygiene as the most successful policy and find it to be necessary for the success of other policies. Active screening for MRSA, patient isolation in single-bed rooms, and additional staffing were found to be less effective. Across these ward specialties, MRSA transmission risk varied by 13% and reductions in the prevalence and nosocomial incidence rate of MRSA due to infection control policies varied by up to 45%. Different levels of infection control were required to reduce and control nosocomial MRSA infections for each ward specialty. Infection control policies and policy targets should be specific for the ward and context of the hospital. The model we developed is generic and can be calibrated to represent different ward settings and pathogens transmitted between patients indirectly through health care workers. This can aid the timely and cost effective design of synergistic and context specific infection control policies.

  2. Community-Based School Finance and Accountability: A New Era for Local Control in Education Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez Heilig, Julian; Ward, Derrick R.; Weisman, Eric; Cole, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Top-down accountability policies have arguably had very limited impact over the past 20 years. Education stakeholders are now contemplating new forms of bottom-up accountability. In 2013, policymakers in California enacted a community-based approach that creates the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) process for school finance to increase…

  3. Association of School Nutrition Policy and Parental Control with Childhood Overweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Lee, Chung Gun

    2012-01-01

    Background: Schools and parents may play important roles in preventing childhood obesity by affecting children's behaviors related to energy balance. This study examined how school nutrition policy and parental control over children's eating and physical activity habits are associated with the children's overweight/obesity (hereafter overweight)…

  4. Tobacco control policies and perinatal health: A national quasi-experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Peelen (Myrthe); A. Sheikh; M. Kok (Marjolein); P.J. Hajenius (Petra); L.J.I. Zimmermann (Luc); B.W. Kramer (Boris); C.W.P.M. Hukkelhoven (Chantal); I.K.M. Reiss (Irwin); B.W. Mol (Ben W.); J.V. Been (Jasper V.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe investigated whether changes in perinatal outcomes occurred following introduction of key tobacco control policies in the Netherlands: smoke-free legislation in workplaces plus a tobacco tax increase and mass media campaign (January-February 2004); and extension of the smoke-free law

  5. Soviet Education Policy 1917-1935: From Ideology to Bureaucratic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauglo, Jon

    1988-01-01

    Examining early Soviet educational policy, Lauglo analyzes the initial expression of Marxist humanist values, popular participation, and the value of productive work for general education. Discusses the routinization into a Stalinist pattern of bureaucratically controlled utilitarianism and comments briefly on recent indications of change in…

  6. Computer simulation to support policy making in the control of pseudorabies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijtels, J.A.A.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Nes, van A.

    1997-01-01

    A further integration of international markets makes a coordinated policy against contagious animal infections increasingly important. In the future, stricter demands are to be expected concerning the control and eradication of such infections. To anticipate these demands, a computer simulation mode

  7. Implementing a Session Aware Policy Based Mechanism for QoS Control in LTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhair Bazzal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of Service (QoS provisioning has become significant with the widely growth of multimedia applications and high increase in the number of users in both wireless and wired networks. In this paper, we implemented a session-aware policy based mechanism for QoS provisioning and control in LTE (Long Term Evolution networks. Policies are a set of rules identifying the QoS parameters for users. Implementation included DiffServ (Differentiated Services configuration and setting policies inside the PCRF (Policy Charging Rules Function which is the brain entity in LTE, then mapping from QCI (QoS Class ID to DiffServ. Moreover, the dialogue between PCEF (Policy Charging Enforcement Function and PCRF was implemented. Simulations on four different traffic application types: VoIP (voice over IP, video, web, and ftp (file transfer protocol were performed under the network simulator (ns2. Results showed that applying PCEF over the different traffic applications has a great effect in controlling these applications and specifically UDP (User Datagram Protocol based applications such as video.

  8. AIDS Research and Its Role in China's AIDS Prevention and Control Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    By the end of 2005, the estimated number of HIV infected people in China was 650,000. The seriousness of the epidemic calls for effective control measures to tackle the problems in order to avoid the tragedy in Africa from happening in China. "Prevention First" is the cornerstone of the country's health policy. On 2003 World AIDS Day, Premier Jiabao Wen announced a new national AIDS control policy, "Four Frees and One Care". This policy clearly shows that the Chinese government has once again taken full responsibility to solve public health problems and has profound impact far beyond the AIDS field. In early 2006, the central government put scientific and technology innovation as a national priority and set the target to build an innovative China by year 2020. Since then, the government has been increasing investment in science and technology with major emphasis on both infectious diseases control and new drug research and development. For the first time, development of 100 new drugs and control of major infectious diseases (AIDS, HBV, TB and other emerging infectious diseases) have been selected as national key scientific projects. China's best minds in related fields will be pooled to work together in order to remove the technical barriers blocking efficient control of the major infectious disease in China. Knowledge on molecular epidemiology, immunology, pathogenesis, HAART, as well as HIVDR strains will certainly provide urgently needed scientific information for China's AIDS control program. Only evidence-based strategy from good research will provide long-term effective control of AIDS.

  9. IEEE 802.16系统中带有收益因子的动态呼叫接纳控制算法%Revenue-aware dynamic call admission control algorithm in IEEE 802.16 systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓希; 朱新宁; 徐春秀

    2009-01-01

    针对IEEE 802.16 OFDMA系统,提出了一种考虑运营收益并且动态调整预留信道的呼叫接纳控制算法.该算法将一个连接申请潜在的运营收益值作为接入优先级函数的因子,从而提高系统的运营收益;其次,算法根据系统内资源的使用情况动态调整预留信道,在降低系统掉话率的同时,也尽可能地将呼叫阻塞率保持在较低水平.将所提算法与传统接纳控制方法进行了仿真比较,结果表明该算法能够有效控制系统掉话率和阻塞率,达到用户使用满意度要求,同时增大系统运营收益.%This paper proposed a call admission control algorithm in IEEE 802.16 OFDMA systems, which took the revenue of the service providers into consideration and adjusted the threshold of reserved guard channel dynamically. First, introduced the revenue generated by accepting a connection in the admission priority function to produce high revenue of the system. Se-cond, the proposed algorithm adjusted the reserved channel according to the state of system dynamically so as to reduce the call dropping probability (CDP) and the call blocking probability (CBP) simultaneously. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can decrease CDP and CBP effectively to achieve high users' satisfaction degree, while increase the revenue of the network at the same time.

  10. College Admissions: Beyond Conventional Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Standardized admissions tests such as the SAT (originally stood for "Scholastic Aptitude Test") and the ACT measure only a narrow segment of the skills needed to become an active citizen and possibly a leader who makes a positive, meaningful, and enduring difference to the world. The problem with these tests is that they promised, under…

  11. Admissions Plan Goes beyond Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Northeastern University's Torch Scholars Program is designed to seek out first-generation students who would not qualify under the university's regular admissions process. The scholarships go to motivated students who have shown determination in overcoming personal challenges. Northeastern believes the experiment will enhance the socioeconomic…

  12. Association between tobacco control policies and smoking behaviour among adolescents in 29 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hublet, Anne; Schmid, Holger; Clays, Els

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the associations between well-known, cost-effective tobacco control policies at country level and smoking prevalence among 15-year-old adolescents. DESIGN: Multi-level modelling based on the 2005-06 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study, a cross-national study......, including daily smoking (dichotomous). FINDINGS: Interaction effects between gender and smoking policies were identified, therefore boys and girls were analysed separately. Large cross-national differences in smoking prevalence were documented. Intraclass correlations (ICC) of 0.038 (boys) and 0.035 (girls...

  13. FISCAL POLICY OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA: ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE FISCAL CONTROL AND ENTITY BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpiu GHERMAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is an actual theme, determined by achievements of tax control in Moldova and its impact on the behaviour of the entity as important elements of fiscal policy. There are examined different methods for differentiating the problem, supplemented by deduction, induction, synthesis, analysis of defining phenomena of fiscal policy and its elements. The methodology used in this study is based on assessments of the theory, studies and interpretations of specialized literature and analyzes the practical activities specific for taxation at national, European and international levels, depending on which some opinions, conclusions and proposals were founded and formulated, to minimize the impact of tax evasion and fraud.

  14. The economic impact of emission peaking control policies and China's sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the goals of national sustainable development, the peaking control of CO2 emissions is pivotal, as well as other pollutants. In this paper, we build a Chinese inter-regional CGE model and simulate 13 policies and their combinations. By analyzing the energy consumptions, coal consumptions, relating emissions and their impacts on GDP, we found that with the structure adjustment policy, the proportion of coal in primary fossil fuels in 2030 will decrease from 53% to 48% and CO2 emissions will decrease by 11.3%–22.8% compared to the baseline scenario. With the energy intensity reduction policy, CO2 emissions will decrease by 33.3% in 2030 and 47.8% in 2050 than baseline scenario. Other pollutants will also be controlled as synergetic effects. In this study we also find that although the earlier the peaking time the better for emission amounts control, the economic costs can not be ignored. The GDP will decrease by 2.96%–8.23% under different scenarios. Therefore, integrated policy solutions are needed for realizing the peaks package and more targeted measures are required to achieve the peaks of other pollutants earlier.

  15. Study on the application of an optimal admission control policy in IPTV system%优化AC技术在IPTV系统中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王传安; 葛华; 王亚军

    2011-01-01

    在分析IPTV接入网的要求和WiMAX技术优势的基础上,提出了适合IPTV业务特点的准入控制(AC)接入技术.在WiMAX系统中,AC起着很重要的作用,也是实现IPTV的服务质量(QoS)的一个重要环节.本文的AC策略在收益最大化的基础上增加了关系用户利益的2个约束条件,即阻断率和带宽利用率.实验结果表明.此方法在收益、阻断率、带宽利用率3方面都有良好的性能,确保了IPTV系统中的QoS性能.

  16. Tobacco control policy in France: from war to compromise and collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Braillon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Absence of an effective tobacco control policy costs lives and tobacco prevention is policy-sensitive. We describe the historical record of tobacco control in France. METHODS: Public policies and main decisions (laws, regulations, health plans for tobacco control were considered from 1950 to 2010. Data for cigarette sales and relative price of cigarettes were obtained from official databases. Sales are expressed in number of cigarettes. The relative price of cigarettes is the nominal price divided by the Consumer Price Index. RESULTS: The first step Veil Law (1976 blunted the steady increase in cigarette sales observed since World War II. The second period began with the Evin Law (1991. This law banned tobacco advertising and withdrew tobacco from the Consumer Price Index allowing for marked and repeated increases in taxes. Sales decreased over the next 6 years, from 97.1 billion to 83.0 billion in 1997 but then remained steady for 5 years (83.5 billion in 2001. The first Cancer Plan (2003 imposed three tax increases in a year (39% increase in price. Cigarette sales decreased to 54.9 billion in 2004. This period ended in 2004 when a moratorium on tobacco taxes was announced. The policies which have been implemented since President Sarkozy was elected in 2007 were flawed and protected the interests of the tobacco industry: prevalence of smoking is now increasing, mainly among the younger generation. Since 1991, the cigarette market has nearly halved but the decline has been a stop-and-go erratic process. The two 5-year periods (1997-2002 and 2005 -2010 during which consumption leveled off seem to demonstrate that government-driven health policies could have been influenced by commercial interests. CONCLUSION: Tobacco control efforts, especially tobacco tax increases, need to be sustained and shielded from the influence of the tobacco industry.

  17. 32 CFR 643.35 - Policy-Mineral leasing on lands controlled by the Department of the Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Mineral leasing on lands controlled by the... OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.35 Policy—Mineral leasing on lands controlled by the Department of the Army. (a) Acquired lands—(1) General. The Coal Leasing Amendments Act...

  18. 21 CFR 1404.635 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy settle a debarment or suspension action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy settle a debarment or suspension action? 1404.635 Section 1404.635 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG... Suspension and Debarment Actions § 1404.635 May the Office of National Drug Control Policy settle a...

  19. 21 CFR 1404.610 - What procedures does the Office of National Drug Control Policy use in suspension and debarment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What procedures does the Office of National Drug Control Policy use in suspension and debarment actions? 1404.610 Section 1404.610 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General...

  20. The Policy of Helminthiasis control and Public knowledge Againts Helminthiasis in banjar regency South kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhairiyah Juhairiyah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available background: Helminthiasis is a neglected disease that lack of attention both prevention and handling. Eventhough helminthiasis is tent not to be deadly disease but it can reduce the nutrition that influence the growth and mental of the children. For the adult it brings out the reducing of productivity. That’s why it is very important to determine helminthiasis prevention strategies in South Kalimantan by doing a comprehensive effort to be the basic data for determining policies to helminthiasis control programs appropriatly. This study is aimed to know the specific aspects that retart the program of helminthiasis control in Banjar Regency, South Kalimantan. Methods: It is descriptive study with cross sectional design. The data are collected by indepth interview to the policy holder that has connection with the helminthiasis control and the guardian of elementary schoo, they are 291 respondents. results: There has not any coordination yet between cross programs and sector to control helminthiasis and there has not any budget yet for helminthiasis program. Those are one of the obstruction that make helminthiasis program can not wotk effectively. The public knowledge of Banjar Regency about helminthiasis is in good level. There is no relationship between parental knowledge with helminthiasis, otherwise there is relationship between knowledge of children with helminthiasis. conclusion:Policy only focus on curative services due to helminthiasis is not a deadly disease. recommendation: Increasing the budget of program and improving the awareness of across sector and program will support helminthiasis control program.

  1. Effectiveness of national air pollution control policies on the air quality in metropolitan areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuxiao; Xing, Jia; Zhao, Bin; Jang, Carey; Hao, Jiming

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effectiveness of national air pollution controls is important for control policy design to improve the future air quality in China. This study evaluated the effectiveness of major national control policies implemented recently in China through a modeling analysis. The sulfur dioxide (SO2) control policy during the 11th Five Year Plan period (2006-2010) had succeeded in reducing the national SO2 emission in 2010 by 14% from its 2005 level, which correspondingly reduced ambient SO2 and sulfate (SO4(2-)) concentrations by 13%-15% and 8%-10% respectively over east China. The nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) control policy during the 12th Five Year Plan period (2011-2015) targets the reduction of the national NO(x) emission in 2015 by 10% on the basis of 2010. The simulation results suggest that such a reduction in NO(x) emission will reduce the ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrate (NO3(-)), 1-hr maxima ozone (O3) concentrations and total nitrogen deposition by 8%, 3%-14%, 2% and 2%-4%, respectively over east China. The application of new emission standards for power plants will further reduce the NO2, NO3(-), 1-hr maxima O(3 concentrations and total nitrogen deposition by 2%-4%, 1%-6%, 0-2% and 1%-2%, respectively. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the inter-provincial impacts of emission reduction in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and the Yangtze River Delta, which indicated the need to implement joint regional air pollution control.

  2. What If There Was No Affirmative Action in College Admissions? A Further Refinement of Our Earlier Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Theodore

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the consequences to the nation and to Blacks of abolishing affirmative action in college and university admission policies. It examines the impact of abandoning racial preferences on school admissions, particularly as it concerns graduate and medical schools. The author argues that without the use of racial preferences far fewer Blacks…

  3. Drug-related hospital admissions in a generic pharmaceutical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargarzadeh, A H; Emami, M H; Hosseini, F

    2007-01-01

    1. Generically based pharmaceutical systems exist in a few countries of the world, such as Iran. Most developed countries have free market pharmaceutical systems. Drug-related problems (DRP) have been reported mostly in the Western world but few data are available for generic systems. In this study, we tried to measure the prevalence of drug-related problems leading to hospital admissions in Isfahan, Iran. 2. One thousand consecutive hospital admissions in three major teaching hospitals were studied for a period of 6 months for the presence of DRP as a cause of hospital admissions. Two subcategories of DRP were considered: (i) drug therapy failure; and (ii) adverse drug reactions. Preventability and outcome measures were also assessed. Medications responsible for DRP were classified according to the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification of the World Health Organization. 3. Of the 1000 admissions studied, 115 (11.5%) were owing to DRP, 81% as a result of drug therapy failure and 19% as adverse drug reactions. A total of 106 out of the 115 DRP cases (92%) were either preventable or probably preventable, most of which had to do with either prescriber or patient error. An overview of DRP showed that 58.3% resulted in complete recovery, 33.9% in relative recovery and 7.8% in death. Close to 1% of hospital admissions resulted in DRP-related deaths. 4. The overall prevalence of hospital admissions caused by DRP is similar to that in free market pharmaceutical systems. The high preventability rate of these problems should alert clinicians and policy makers to design strategies to curtail this. Also, reasons for differences in subtypes of DRP between the results of this study and those of the literature from free market systems needs to be investigated further.

  4. First passage times in M2[X ]|G |1 |R queue with hysteretic overload control policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechinkin, Alexander V.; Razumchik, Rostislav R.; Zaryadov, Ivan S.

    2016-06-01

    One of the reported approaches towards the solution of overload problem in networks of SIP servers is the implementation of multi-level hysteretic control of arrivals in SIP servers. Each level, being the parameter of the policy, specifies operation mode of SIP server i.e. it implicitly indicates what SIP server must do with the arriving packets. The choice of parameters' values is not guided by standards and is usually left for the network owner. In general, all operation modes of the considered policy can be grouped into two groups: normal mode (when all arriving packets are accepted) and congested mode (when part or all arriving packets are being dropped). Such grouping may serve as the criteria for choosing parameters' values of the policy: pick those values which minimize SIP server sojourn time in congested mode. In this short note we propose some analytical results which facilitate the solution of stated minimization problem. The considered mathematical model of SIP server is the queueing system M2[X ]|G |1 |R with batch arrivals and bi-level hysteretic control policy, which specifies three operation modes: normal (customers both flows are accepted), overload (only customers from one flow are accepted), discard (customers from both flows are blocked/lost)). The switching between modes can occur only on service completions. Analytical method allowing computation of stationary sojourn times in different operation modes (as well as first passage times between modes) is presented in brief. Numerical example is given.

  5. Tobacco control policies and perinatal health: a national quasi-experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelen, Myrthe J.; Sheikh, Aziz; Kok, Marjolein; Hajenius, Petra; Zimmermann, Luc J.; Kramer, Boris W.; Hukkelhoven, Chantal W.; Reiss, Irwin K.; Mol, Ben W.; Been, Jasper V.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether changes in perinatal outcomes occurred following introduction of key tobacco control policies in the Netherlands: smoke-free legislation in workplaces plus a tobacco tax increase and mass media campaign (January-February 2004); and extension of the smoke-free law to the hospitality industry, accompanied by another tax increase and mass media campaign (July 2008). This was a national quasi-experimental study using Netherlands Perinatal Registry data (2000–2011; registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02189265). Primary outcome measures were: perinatal mortality, preterm birth, and being small-for-gestational age (SGA). The association with timing of the tobacco control policies was investigated using interrupted time series logistic regression analyses with adjustment for confounders. Among 2,069,695 singleton births, there were 13,027 (0.6%) perinatal deaths, 116,043 (5.6%) preterm live-births and 187,966 (9.1%) SGA live-births. The 2004 policies were not associated with significant changes in the odds of developing any of the primary outcomes. After the 2008 policy change, a -4.4% (95% CI -2.4; -6.4, p < 0.001) decrease in odds of being SGA was observed. A reduction in SGA births, but not preterm birth or perinatal mortality, was observed in the Netherlands after extension of the smoke-free workplace law to bars and restaurants in conjunction with a tax increase and mass media campaign. PMID:27103591

  6. Tobacco control policies and perinatal health: a national quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelen, Myrthe J; Sheikh, Aziz; Kok, Marjolein; Hajenius, Petra; Zimmermann, Luc J; Kramer, Boris W; Hukkelhoven, Chantal W; Reiss, Irwin K; Mol, Ben W; Been, Jasper V

    2016-04-22

    We investigated whether changes in perinatal outcomes occurred following introduction of key tobacco control policies in the Netherlands: smoke-free legislation in workplaces plus a tobacco tax increase and mass media campaign (January-February 2004); and extension of the smoke-free law to the hospitality industry, accompanied by another tax increase and mass media campaign (July 2008). This was a national quasi-experimental study using Netherlands Perinatal Registry data (2000-2011; registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02189265). Primary outcome measures were: perinatal mortality, preterm birth, and being small-for-gestational age (SGA). The association with timing of the tobacco control policies was investigated using interrupted time series logistic regression analyses with adjustment for confounders. Among 2,069,695 singleton births, there were 13,027 (0.6%) perinatal deaths, 116,043 (5.6%) preterm live-births and 187,966 (9.1%) SGA live-births. The 2004 policies were not associated with significant changes in the odds of developing any of the primary outcomes. After the 2008 policy change, a -4.4% (95% CI -2.4; -6.4, p tax increase and mass media campaign.

  7. The Brazil SimSmoke policy simulation model: the effect of strong tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in a middle income nation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Levy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brazil has reduced its smoking rate by about 50% in the last 20 y. During that time period, strong tobacco control policies were implemented. This paper estimates the effect of these stricter policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality, and the effect that additional policies may have. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The model was developed using the SimSmoke tobacco control policy model. Using policy, population, and smoking data for Brazil, the model assesses the effect on premature deaths of cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, mass media campaigns, marketing restrictions, packaging requirements, cessation treatment programs, and youth access restrictions. We estimate the effect of past policies relative to a counterfactual of policies kept to 1989 levels, and the effect of stricter future policies. Male and female smoking prevalence in Brazil have fallen by about half since 1989, which represents a 46% (lower and upper bounds: 28%-66% relative reduction compared to the 2010 prevalence under the counterfactual scenario of policies held to 1989 levels. Almost half of that 46% reduction is explained by price increases, 14% by smoke-free air laws, 14% by marketing restrictions, 8% by health warnings, 6% by mass media campaigns, and 10% by cessation treatment programs. As a result of the past policies, a total of almost 420,000 (260,000-715,000 deaths had been averted by 2010, increasing to almost 7 million (4.5 million-10.3 million deaths projected by 2050. Comparing future implementation of a set of stricter policies to a scenario with 2010 policies held constant, smoking prevalence by 2050 could be reduced by another 39% (29%-54%, and 1.3 million (0.9 million-2.0 million out of 9 million future premature deaths could be averted. CONCLUSIONS: Brazil provides one of the outstanding public health success stories in reducing deaths due to smoking, and serves as a model for other low and middle income nations. However, a

  8. Why Do Students Repeat Admissions Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martha S.

    Attitudes and beliefs about the admissions process, especially the role of standardized testing in admissions, were examined for students who took a standardized admissions test more than once. Their attitudes were compared with those of students who did not repeat the test. About 200 preveterinary students who had taken the Veterinary Aptitude…

  9. Toward a Sociology of Law School Admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlanger, Howard S.

    1984-01-01

    The law school admission process plays a major role in determining the social class origins and ethnic composition of the bar, and perhaps also the nonlegal skills lawyers will have. Research is incomplete; consideration of admission criteria, the composition and processes of admissions committees, and applicant self-selection is advisable. (MSE)

  10. Seasonal variations in hospital admissions for mania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medici, Clara Reece; Vestergaard, Claus Høstrup; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan;

    2016-01-01

    Central Research Register. The Danish Meteorological Institute provided the meteorological variables. The association between weather and admissions was tested using linear regression. RESULTS: Our database comprised 24,313 admissions with mania. There was a seasonal pattern with admission rates peaking...

  11. 一种基于信任的P2P接纳控制方法%An Admission Control Method for P2P Network Based on Trust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志丽

    2014-01-01

    当前P2P系统的研究集中在P2P内部节点的信誉排名问题上,从节点如何进入系统的角度提出了一种P2P节点的接纳控制方法。该方法基于节点自身经验及好友节点的推荐对申请加入节点进行判断,模拟实验表明该方法对新节点加入系统进行了有效控制,而且系统扩展性很好,同时也阻止了部分恶意节点进入系统。%In P2P network area, the current studies focus on the reputation rankings for internal nodes of P2P.However, this paper proposes an admission control method for those nodes who apply to join the P2P system. This method judge nodes who apply to join based on experience and friend nodes’s recommended of nodes who have been applied. Simulation experiments show that, with our method, it can not only effectively control the nodes who new added, but also possess very good scalability, on the other hand, it also protect the system from malicious peers.

  12. Control policies for a water-treatment system using the Markov Decision Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Tze; Mitchell, Cary; Yih, Yuehwern

    In order to build a decision-making tool for choosing a control policy from a set of predefined policies for a water-treatment system, a simulation was developed. This technology-independent simulation focuses on the functions of a simplified representation of the water system based on documentation by NASA in the Baseline Value and Assumption Documents (BVAD). The clean-water requirement (consumption) and dirty-water generation (production) are based on crewmember demographics, activity schedules, and intensity of each activity. The water system consists of hygiene and potable-water subsystems. The hygiene-water subsystem supplies water for purposes such as laundry, urinal flush, dish wash, oral hygiene, and shower. The potable-water subsystem supplies water for drinking and re-hydration of food. Due to a lack of stochastic property descriptions for a real-world system in the BVAD, stochastic variables are introduced in this research to reflect a more realistic system. These variables describe the magnitude of deviation of system variables from their theoretical values through predetermined statistical distributions. These variables include hygiene and potable-water-treatment efficiencies, amounts of hygiene and potable water consumed, and amount of dirty water produced following potable-water consumption. Conditions of the system occurring hourly result from the intricate interaction of crewmembers and the water system. The primary measure of the condition of the system is the "state" representation of the system, assessed at the beginning of every hour. Conditions of the system examined include the amount of clean water available for consumption, amount of overflow (in excess of storage capacity) of clean and dirty water, amount of hourly water deficiency, amount of accumulated water deficiency, etc. State transitions of the system based on these assessments are affected by the stochastic properties of the system described above. The transitions also depend on

  13. Alcohol control in the news: the politics of media representations of alcohol policy in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhon, Mary; Herrick, Clare

    2013-10-01

    Media coverage of the "problems" associated with alcohol is widespread in countries of the global North and now, increasingly, in those of the global South. However, despite this mounting ubiquity, there have been very few analyses either of newspaper coverage of alcohol or of media coverage of alcohol policy, especially outside Europe and North America. This article argues that given international concern with the long-term health, economic, social, and developmental consequences of risky drinking in the global South, an exploration of newspaper coverage of nascent alcohol policy in such a context is both timely and valuable. Indeed, such analyses bring to the fore the deeply contextual and contingent nature of alcohol's problematization in politics, policy, and public life. To examine these assertions, we explore the "attention allocation" processes of two South African alcohol control policies--the Western Cape Liquor Bill and the city of Cape Town's liquor bylaws--in two regional English-language newspapers between 2007 and 2011. In so doing, the article highlights the particularities of the political valence of alcohol in the South African context. Furthermore, it also draws out the tensions between alcohol as a source of livelihoods in a context of endemic unemployment and chronic poverty and alcohol as a causal factor in poverty, crime, violence, and social disintegration. In contrast to media coverage of alcohol policy in Europe and North America, this analysis of the South African press suggests that liquor consumption is far less likely to be framed as an express health risk, forcing us to question how preventative policy efforts should best proceed.

  14. The Impact of Family Control on Dividend Policy: Evidence from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Setia Atmaja

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between family control and dividend policy in Indonesia. There are three possible explanations for the relationship. The expropriation hypothesis predicts that family control has a negative impact on dividend payouts. Meanwhile the reputation hypothesis and the family income hypothesis predict that family control has a positive impact on dividend payouts. Using a panel data of Indonesian publicly listed firms in the period of 2003-2009, the results shows that family control has a significant negative impact on dividend payouts, dividend yields and likelyhood to pay dividends. The results control for other variables that may potentially affect dividend payments such as growth opportunity, debt, profitability, firm size and firm age. From agency theory perspective, the finding is consistent with the argument that family controlling shareholders prefer lower dividends, in order to preserve cash flows that they can potentially expropriate (the expropriation hypothesis.

  15. Evaluation of air pollution control policies in Mexico City using finite Markov chain observation model

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Hoyos; Pedro Lara; Elba Ortiz; Rafael López; Jesús González

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a Markov observation based model, where the transition matrix is formulated using air quality monitoring data for specific pollutant emissions, with the primary objective to analyze the corresponding stationary distributions and evaluate sceneries for the air quality impact of pollution control policies. The model is non predictive and could be applied to every source of pollutant emissions included in air monitoring data. Two cases of study are presented, ozone and sulfur...

  16. A Cost-Effectiveness Tool for Informing Policies on Zika Virus Control.

    OpenAIRE

    Alfaro-Murillo, Jorge A.; Parpia, Alyssa S.; Fitzpatrick, Meagan C.; Jules A Tamagnan; Jan Medlock; Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial L.; Durland Fish; María L Ávila-Agüero; Rodrigo Marín; Ko, Albert I.; Galvani, Alison P.

    2016-01-01

    As Zika virus continues to spread, decisions regarding resource allocations to control the outbreak underscore the need for a tool to weigh policies according to their cost and the health burden they could avert. For example, to combat the current Zika outbreak the US President requested the allocation of $1.8 billion from Congress in February 2016.Illustrated through an interactive tool, we evaluated how the number of Zika cases averted, the period during pregnancy in which Zika infection po...

  17. A Cost-Effectiveness Tool for Informing Policies on Zika Virus Control

    OpenAIRE

    Alfaro-Murillo, Jorge A.; Parpia, Alyssa S.; Fitzpatrick, Meagan C.; Jules A Tamagnan; Medlock, Jan; Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial L.; Fish, Durland; María L Ávila-Agüero; Marín,Rodrigo; Ko, Albert I.; Galvani, Alison P.

    2016-01-01

    Background As Zika virus continues to spread, decisions regarding resource allocations to control the outbreak underscore the need for a tool to weigh policies according to their cost and the health burden they could avert. For example, to combat the current Zika outbreak the US President requested the allocation of $1.8 billion from Congress in February 2016. Methodology/Principal Findings Illustrated through an interactive tool, we evaluated how the number of Zika cases averted, the period ...

  18. This weapon called peace: The doctrine and strategy of Soviet arms control and disarmament policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trifan, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    The strategy of Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be summarized in what we have termed the ratchet strategy of peaceful coexistence, in which a strategic advance is achieved through the tactics of multiple and indirect lines of approach, legitimized through invocation of peaceful coexistence, and made permanent and irreversible both by treaties and agreements and by the increasing military capability of the Soviet Union and her allies. This strategy is unchanged from World War II until today. Soviet strategic thought is based on the writings of V. I. Lenin; and both Lenin's strategic concepts and Soviet disarmament and arms-control strategy bear a striking resemblance to the precepts expressed by the 4th-century B.C. Chinese strategist Sun Tzu in the Art of War. This dissertation examines not only the strategic content of this policy, but the doctrinal components of Soviet disarmament and arms control strategy. The doctrinal principles must be derived through examination of: authoritative political and strategic writings, records of negotiations and negotiating positions, treaties and agreements, data concerning weapons systems, and the relationship of these to observed political and strategic developments during the period under examination. The doctrinal principles behind this strategy are: (1) the primary purpose of peaceful coexistence is the undermining of imperialism, (2) any means are permissible in the pursuit of peace strategy, and (3) the motive force for this strategy is Marxist-Leninist ideology, with the ultimate goal being the worldwide imposition of socialism in its Soviet variety. Shifts in Soviet policy are tactical instead of strategic in nature; and in keeping with the Soviet idea of the correlation of forces this strategy can be termed a time-fluid two-player zero-sum game. Consequently, Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be a weapon called peace.

  19. Collaboration with behavioral health care facilities to implement systemwide tobacco control policies--California, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Lauren; Modayil, Mary V; Pavlik, Jim; Morris, Chad D

    2015-02-05

    The California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) administered 4 regional trainings in 2012 to staffers at CTCP-funded projects, tobacco control coalitions, several county departments of mental health and alcohol and drug, and administrators and providers from behavioral health care facilities. These trainings focused on the special tobacco use cessation needs and opportunities for cessation among persons with mental illness or substance abuse disorders, and they provided information about cessation and smoke-free policies. CTCP surveyed county and private behavioral health care programs to assess their readiness for adopting tobacco control strategies at treatment facilities. Between baseline and follow-up we found a decrease in the proportion of organizations at the precontemplation or contemplation stages of change and twice as many organizations at the action and maintenance stages of change. Significant obstacles remain to implementing policy: many agencies have concerns about going tobacco-free. But significant progress has been made, as evidenced by new policies and a growing number of tobacco-free coalitions consisting of public health agencies, behavioral health care agencies, and local hospitals.

  20. Collaboration With Behavioral Health Care Facilities to Implement Systemwide Tobacco Control Policies — California, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Lauren; Modayil, Mary V.; Pavlik, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) administered 4 regional trainings in 2012 to staffers at CTCP-funded projects, tobacco control coalitions, several county departments of mental health and alcohol and drug, and administrators and providers from behavioral health care facilities. These trainings focused on the special tobacco use cessation needs and opportunities for cessation among persons with mental illness or substance abuse disorders, and they provided information about cessation and smoke-free policies. CTCP surveyed county and private behavioral health care programs to assess their readiness for adopting tobacco control strategies at treatment facilities. Between baseline and follow-up we found a decrease in the proportion of organizations at the precontemplation or contemplation stages of change and twice as many organizations at the action and maintenance stages of change. Significant obstacles remain to implementing policy: many agencies have concerns about going tobacco-free. But significant progress has been made, as evidenced by new policies and a growing number of tobacco-free coalitions consisting of public health agencies, behavioral health care agencies, and local hospitals. PMID:25654218

  1. Secured Resource Sharing in Cloud Storage using Policy based Access Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Imavathy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a general term anything that involves delivering hosted services, Anything as a Service (AaaS, over the web on demand basis. It uses the web and central remote servers to maintain data and applications. The lack of confidence in trusting information flow(users data are usually processes remotely in unknown machines that do not owned or operated by user in cloud has become common, as users fears of losing control of their own data (like personal, professional, financial, Health. In this approach, a secured cloud storage system that achieves policy -based access control is proposed with an information accountability cloud framework to keep track of the actual usage of the clients data.The ac cess policy generated for the file controls the file accesses and policy revocation makes the file permanently inaccessible. The system is built up on a set of cryptographic key operations that are self- maintained by a set of key managers and adds security features. The access details of the data are logged and auditing also performed.

  2. Secured Resource Sharing in Cloud Storage using Policy based Access Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Imavathy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a general term anything that involves delivering hosted services, Anything as a Service (AaaS, over the web on demand basis. It uses the web and central remote servers to maintain data and applications. The lack of confidence in trusting information flow(users data are usually processes remotely in unknown machines that do not owned or operated by user in cloud has become common, as users fears of losing control of their own data (like personal, professional, financial, Health. In this approach, a secured cloud storage system that achieves policy-based access control is proposed with an information accountability cloud framework to keep track of the actual usage of the clients data.The access policy generated for the file controls the file accesses and policy revocation makes the file permanently inaccessible. The system is built upon a set of cryptographic key operations that are self- maintained by a set of key managers and adds security features. The access details of the data are logged and auditing also performed.

  3. Racism, gun ownership and gun control: biased attitudes in US whites may influence policy decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry O'Brien

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty. This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. METHOD: The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US whites. Explanatory variables known to be related to gun ownership and gun control opposition (i.e., age, gender, education, income, conservatism, anti-government sentiment, southern vs. other states, political identification were entered in logistic regression models, along with measures of racism, and the stereotype of blacks as violent. Outcome variables included; having a gun in the home, opposition to bans on handguns in the home, support for permits to carry concealed handguns. RESULTS: After accounting for all explanatory variables, logistic regressions found that for each 1 point increase in symbolic racism there was a 50% increase in the odds of having a gun at home. After also accounting for having a gun in the home, there was still a 28% increase in support for permits to carry concealed handguns, for each one point increase in symbolic racism. The relationship between symbolic racism and opposition to banning handguns in the home (OR1.27 CI 1.03,1.58 was reduced to non-significant after accounting for having a gun in the home (OR1.17 CI.94,1.46, which likely represents self-interest in retaining property (guns. CONCLUSIONS: Symbolic racism was related to having a gun in the home and opposition to gun control policies in US whites. The findings help explain US whites' paradoxical attitudes towards gun ownership and gun control. Such attitudes may adversely influence US gun control policy debates and decisions.

  4. Policies for control and prevention of infections related to healthcare assistance in Brazil: a conceptual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Hadelândia Milon de; Silva, Cristiane Pavanello Rodrigues; Lacerda, Rúbia Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    This article is a theoretical-reflexive study that aims to discuss the development and changes in the quality of healthcare assistance to the patient over the years in Brazil, in light of the policies of control and prevention of Healthcare-associated Infection (HAI). Aspects of HAI and the process of change in health policy in Brazil, as well as the quality of assistance associated with its control, are approached in relation to policies of patient safety. There are various new theoretical and practical proposals created in Brazil. In spite of the difficulty of measuring patient safety, directed to the prevention and control of HAI, we emphasize that to only create policies and establish norms, guidelines, and indicators is not sufficient. If no structural support or conditions exist for interventions in the practices of healthcare professionals, aiming at results in acceptable levels, the control of HAI will not be achieved. Resumo Trata-se um estudo teórico-reflexivo, que objetiva discutir a evolução e as mudanças na qualidade da assistência ao paciente, ao longo dos anos no Brasil, à luz das políticas de controle e prevenção da Infecção Relacionada à Assistência à Saúde (IRAS). Aspectos sobre IRAS e o processo de mudança nas políticas de saúde no Brasil, bem como a qualidade da assistência associada ao seu controle, são abordados em relação às políticas de segurança do paciente. Há novas e várias propostas teóricas e práticas criadas no Brasil. Apesar da dificuldade de medir a segurança do paciente, direcionada à prevenção e controle das IRAS, enfatiza-se que somente criar políticas, estabelecer normas, diretrizes e indicadores não são suficientes. Se não houver suporte de estrutura e condições para as intervenções nas práticas dos profissionais na assistência prestada ao paciente, visando resultados em níveis aceitáveis, o controle das IRAS não será alcançado.

  5. Psychiatric expansionism and social control: the intersectioin of community care and state policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schissel, B

    1997-12-01

    Informed by the theories of political economy and professional interests, this research argues that psychiatric commitments to community care and to scientific categorization have contributed to expanding control of the mentally ill, and that these ideological commitments run parallel to and are exacerbated by state responses to macro-economic conditions. Time series analysis of the period from 1932 to 1975 is used to assess the relative impact of deinstitutionalization, medical entrenchment, and state fiscal policy on psychiatric expansionism. The findings demonstrate that a professional interests explanation (indicated by a commitment to community and to science) provides a significant contribution to a materialist-based explanation of expanding psychiatric control.

  6. Harmonisation of European Migration Policies: The Failure of Immigration Control Policies in the Seventh and Eighth Decades of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mesić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Until the middle of the 1970s, the migration policies of developed European countries were based on the assumption that controlling immigration was possible. Due to various reasons discussed in this article, such policies proved unsuccessful. The result was an increase in the total number of foreigners and a change in the composition of immigrant communities, i.e. the proportion of supported family members increased. During the 1980s there was increasing convergence in the migration policies of European immigration countries and traditional overseas emigration countries. Policies were more and more oriented towards preventing illegal migration flows, on regulating refugee flows and on balancing labour migration with family migration. The turning-point in the direction of “harmonising” West European migration policies was marked by the Schengen agreement (1985 on gradual elimination of border controls between the signing parties (France, Germany and the Benelux countries. Fear in the face of a possible invasion of Eastern Europeans after the collapse of socialism in 1989 was a further strong stimulus towards the harmonisation of migration policies in the developing EU. As opposed to migration control, the integration of immigrants has remained so far the prerogative of nation-states. The text further presents an overview of migration policy reforms in individual member states of the EU and of multilateral actions. The post-1989 migration regime in Europe has four major traits: 1 an extension of the agenda; 2 an accent on joint actions; 3 defensiveness; 4 confusion and an overload of issues. While on the one hand the EU continues to seek ways of protecting itself from undesired external migration, on the other hand the process of regional integration continues to “erase” its internal borders.

  7. Atrial Fibrillation on Intensive Care Unit Admission Independently Increases the Risk of Weaning Failure in Nonheart Failure Mechanically Ventilated Patients in a Medical Intensive Care Unit: A Retrospective Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yen-Han; Ko, Hsin-Kuo; Tseng, Yen-Chiang; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Kou, Yu Ru

    2016-05-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most frequent arrhythmias in clinical practice. Previous studies have reported the influence of AF on patients with heart failure (HF). The effect of AF on the non-HF critically ill patients in a medical intensive care unit (ICU) remains largely unclear. The study aimed to investigate the impact of AF presenting on ICU admission on the weaning outcome of non-HF mechanically ventilated patients in a medical ICU.A retrospective observational case-control study was conducted over a 1-year period in a medical ICU at Taipei Veterans General Hospital, a tertiary medical center in north Taiwan. Non-HF mechanically ventilated patients who were successful in their spontaneous breathing trial and underwent ventilator discontinuation were enrolled. The primary outcome measure was the ventilator status after the first episode of ventilator discontinuation.A total of 285 non-HF patients enrolled were divided into AF (n = 62) and non-AF (n = 223) groups. Compared with the non-AF patients, the AF patients were significantly associated with old age (P = 0.002), a higher rate of acute respiratory distress syndrome causing respiratory failure (P = 0.015), a higher percentage of sepsis before liberation from mechanical ventilation (MV) (P = 0.004), and a higher serum level of blood urea nitrogen on the day of liberation from MV (P = 0.003). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that AF independently increased the risk of weaning failure [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 3.268; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.254-8.517; P = 0.015]. Furthermore, the AF patients were found to be independently associated with a high rate of ventilator dependence (log rank test, P = 0.026), prolonged total ventilator use (AOR, 1.979; 95% CI, 1.032-3.794; P = 0.040), increased length of ICU stay (AOR, 2.256; 95% CI, 1.049-4.849; P = 0.037), increased length of hospital stay (AOR, 2.921; 95% CI, 1.363-6.260; P = 0

  8. 层次型WSN中基于博弈论的能耗优化与接纳控制机制%Energy optimization and admission control based on game theory in hierarchical wireless sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ji-jun; WANG Shuo; XUE Liang; LI Zhi-hua; WEI Zhong-cheng

    2014-01-01

    Energy constraint of cluster heads is an important issue in hierarchical wireless sensor networks.This paper proposed an admission control scheme based on a non-cooperative game model to solve the problem. By defining a pricing factor in the utility funct%针对层次型无线传感器网络中簇首节点的能量受限问题,提出了一种基于非合作博弈模型的节点接纳控制机制。该机制依据簇首节点的效用函数,引入定价因子,优化了簇首数目和功率水平,并得到簇首发射功率的纳什均衡。仿真实验模拟该博弈的均衡过程,将簇首节点设为非合作博弈的参与者,对各簇首节点发射功率的决策过程进行验证。

  9. Validating Self-Reports of Illegal Drug Use to Evaluate National Drug Control Policy: A Reanalysis and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magura, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Illicit drug use remains at high levels in the U.S. The federal Office of National Drug Control Policy evaluates the outcomes of national drug demand reduction policies by assessing annual changes in drug use from several federally sponsored annual national surveys. Such survey methods, relying exclusively on drug use as self-reported on…

  10. Analysis of Control Policies and Dynamic Response of a Q-Car 2-DOF Semi Active System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Ihsan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Several control policies of Q-car 2-DOF semiactive system, namely skyhook, groundhook and hybrid controls are presented. Their ride comfort, suspension displacement and road-holding performances are analyzed and compared with passive system. The analysis covers both transient and steady state responses in time domain and transmissibility response in frequency domain. The results show that the hybrid control policy yields better comfort than a passive suspension, without reducing the road-holding quality or increasing the suspension displacement for typical passenger cars. The hybrid control policy is also shown to be a better compromise between comfort, road-holding and suspension displacement than the skyhook and groundhook control policies.

  11. TD-LTE网络基于AoA+TA功能的接入控制应用%Admission control application based on the AoA+TA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦嗣仲

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the new problems encountered in the TD-LTE network, ie the boundary optimization problem. The TD-LTE network site of China Mobile is built nearby Yalu River in Dandong. The reference Dandong border GSM network, combined with TD-LTE network's own characteristics, and TD-LTE network are coverage of the macro station district reached Sinuiju, North Korea along the region, using the location to accept control algorithm (such as the AOA+TA method, etc.), through the UE distance macro station district the proximity of the site limit the Korean users access the TD-LTE network to conduct business.%本文论述了在TD-LTE网络中遇见的新问题,即边境优化问题。中国移动TD-LTE网络建设与朝鲜隔江而建,参考丹东边境GSM网络的方法,结合TD-LTE网络自身特点,TD-LTE网络采用宏站小区覆盖朝鲜新义州沿江区域,令宏站小区采用基于位置的接纳控制算法(如AoA+TA方法等),通过UE距离站点的远近限制朝鲜用户接入TD-LTE网络进行业务。

  12. Improving air pollution control policy in China--A perspective based on cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinglei; Yuan, Zengwei; Liu, Xuewei; Xia, Xiaoming; Huang, Xianjin; Dong, Zhanfeng

    2016-02-01

    To mitigate serious air pollution, the State Council of China promulgated the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan in 2013. To verify the feasibility and validity of industrial energy-saving and emission-reduction policies in the action plan, we conducted a cost-benefit analysis of implementing these policies in 31 provinces for the period of 2013 to 2017. We also completed a scenario analysis in this study to assess the cost-effectiveness of different measures within the energy-saving and the emission-reduction policies individually. The data were derived from field surveys, statistical yearbooks, government documents, and published literatures. The results show that total cost and total benefit are 118.39 and 748.15 billion Yuan, respectively, and the estimated benefit-cost ratio is 6.32 in the S3 scenario. For all the scenarios, these policies are cost-effective and the eastern region has higher satisfactory values. Furthermore, the end-of-pipe scenario has greater emission reduction potential than energy-saving scenario. We also found that gross domestic product and population are significantly correlated with the benefit-cost ratio value through the regression analysis of selected possible influencing factors. The sensitivity analysis demonstrates that benefit-cost ratio value is more sensitive to unit emission-reduction cost, unit subsidy, growth rate of gross domestic product, and discount rate among all the parameters. Compared with other provinces, the benefit-cost ratios of Beijing and Tianjin are more sensitive to changes of unit subsidy than unit emission-reduction cost. These findings may have significant implications for improving China's air pollution prevention policy.

  13. Can “Feature” be used to Model the Changing Access Control Policies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Shantha Kumari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Access control policies [ACPs] regulate the access to data and resources in information systems. These ACPs are framed from the functional requirements and the Organizational security & privacy policies. It was found to be beneficial, when the ACPs are included in the early phases of the software development leading to secure development of information systems. Many approaches are available for including the ACPs in requirements and design phase. They relied on UML artifacts, Aspects and also Feature for this purpose. But the earlier modeling approaches are limited in expressing the evolving ACPs due to organizational policy changes and business process modifications. In this paper, we analyze, whether “Feature”- defined as an increment in program functionality can be used as a modeling entity to represent the Evolving Access control requirements. We discuss the two prominent approaches that use Feature in modeling ACPs. Also we have a comparative analysis to find the suitability of Features in the context of changing ACPs. We conclude with our findings and provide directions for further research.

  14. The evolution of HIV policy in Vietnam: from punitive control measures to a more rights-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Nguyen Ha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Policymaking in Vietnam has traditionally been the preserve of the political elite, not open to the scrutiny of those outside the Communist Party. This paper aims to analyse Vietnam's HIV policy development in order to describe and understand the policy content, policy-making processes, actors and obstacles to policy implementation. Methods: Nine policy documents on HIV were analysed and 17 key informant interviews were conducted in Hanoi and Quang Ninh Province, based on a predesigned interview guide. Framework analysis, a type of qualitative content analysis, was applied for data analysis. Results: Our main finding was that during the last two decades, developments in HIV policy in Vietnam were driven in a top-down way by the state organs, with support and resources coming from international agencies. Four major themes were identified: HIV policy content, the policy-making processes, the actors involved and human resources for policy implementation. Vietnam's HIV policy has evolved from one focused on punitive control measures to a more rights-based approach, encompassing harm reduction and payment of health insurance for medical costs of patients with HIV-related illness. Low salaries and staff reluctance to work with patients, many of whom are drug users and female sex workers, were described as the main barriers to low health staff motivation. Conclusion: Health policy analysis approaches can be applied in a traditional one party state and can demonstrate how similar policy changes take place, as those found in pluralistic societies, but through more top-down and somewhat hidden processes. Enhanced participation of other actors, like civil society in the policy process, is likely to contribute to policy formulation and implementation that meets the diverse needs and concerns of its population.

  15. Fundamental study of CO2 control technologies and policies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The technical roadmap and policies for CO2 mitigation suitable for China are a common center of attention in the fields of energy, environment, and management science in the country. Emphasizing interaction between technical research and policy research, this work discovers the potential breakthrough in the integrated field. The technical difficulties of recovering CO2 are pointed out, the mechanism of combining CO2 recovery with energy conversion is investigated, and the basic principle for integrating an environmental-friendly energy system is discussed. Moreover, the formulation of a new energy system that can recover CO2 with very low or even zero energy penalty is proposed, while the assessment methodology and model system for the technical roadmap of CO2 emission control are developed. Finally, a new technical roadmap constructing an energy network suitable for China is proposed, which may provide a new way for the development of sustainable energy and environment technologies.

  16. Patient Admission Preferences and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Clayton; Melnikow, Joy; Dinh, Tu; Holmes, James F.; Gaona, Samuel D.; Bottyan, Thomas; Paterniti, Debora; Nishijima, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Understanding patient perceptions and preferences of hospital care is important to improve patients’ hospitalization experiences and satisfaction. The objective of this study was to investigate patient preferences and perceptions of hospital care, specifically differences between intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital floor admissions. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of emergency department (ED) patients who were presented with a hypothetical scenario of a patient with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). We surveyed their preferences and perceptions of hospital care related to this scenario. A closed-ended questionnaire provided quantitative data on patient preferences and perceptions of hospital care and an open-ended questionnaire evaluated factors that may not have been captured with the closed-ended questionnaire. Results Out of 302 study patients, the ability for family and friends to visit (83%), nurse availability (80%), and physician availability (79%) were the factors most commonly rated “very important,” while the cost of hospitalization (62%) and length of hospitalization (59%) were the factors least commonly rated “very important.” When asked to choose between the ICU and the floor if they were the patient in the scenario, 33 patients (10.9%) choose the ICU, 133 chose the floor (44.0%), and 136 (45.0%) had no preference. Conclusion Based on a hypothetical scenario of mild TBI, the majority of patients preferred admission to the floor or had no preference compared to admission to the ICU. Humanistic factors such as the availability of doctors and nurses and the ability to interact with family appear to have a greater priority than systematic factors of hospitalization, such as length and cost of hospitalization or length of time in the ED waiting for an in-patient bed. PMID:26587095

  17. Combining Correlation-Based and Reward-Based Learning in Neural Control for Policy Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoonpong, Poramate; Kolodziejski, Christoph; Wörgötter, Florentin;

    2013-01-01

    Classical conditioning (conventionally modeled as correlation-based learning) and operant conditioning (conventionally modeled as reinforcement learning or reward-based learning) have been found in biological systems. Evidence shows that these two mechanisms strongly involve learning about...... associations. Based on these biological findings, we propose a new learning model to achieve successful control policies for artificial systems. This model combines correlation-based learning using input correlation learning (ICO learning) and reward-based learning using continuous actor–critic reinforcement...... learning (RL), thereby working as a dual learner system. The model performance is evaluated by simulations of a cart-pole system as a dynamic motion control problem and a mobile robot system as a goal-directed behavior control problem. Results show that the model can strongly improve pole balancing control...

  18. Policy-based secure communication with automatic key management for industrial control and automation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernoguzov, Alexander; Markham, Thomas R.; Haridas, Harshal S.

    2016-11-22

    A method includes generating at least one access vector associated with a specified device in an industrial process control and automation system. The specified device has one of multiple device roles. The at least one access vector is generated based on one or more communication policies defining communications between one or more pairs of devices roles in the industrial process control and automation system, where each pair of device roles includes the device role of the specified device. The method also includes providing the at least one access vector to at least one of the specified device and one or more other devices in the industrial process control and automation system in order to control communications to or from the specified device.

  19. 21 CFR 1405.400 - What are my responsibilities as a(n) Office of National Drug Control Policy awarding official?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... National Drug Control Policy awarding official? 1405.400 Section 1405.400 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Responsibilities of Office of National Drug Control Policy Awarding Officials § 1405.400 What are...

  20. 21 CFR 1404.645 - Do other Federal agencies know if the Office of National Drug Control Policy agrees to a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... National Drug Control Policy agrees to a voluntary exclusion? 1404.645 Section 1404.645 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General... Office of National Drug Control Policy agrees to a voluntary exclusion? (a) Yes, we enter...

  1. Prioritizing congenital syphilis control in south China: a decision analytic model to inform policy implementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas X Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syphilis is a major public health problem in many regions of China, with increases in congenital syphilis (CS cases causing concern. The Chinese Ministry of Health recently announced a comprehensive 10-y national syphilis control plan focusing on averting CS. The decision analytic model presented here quantifies the impact of the planned strategies to determine whether they are likely to meet the goals laid out in the control plan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our model incorporated data on age-stratified fertility, female adult syphilis cases, and empirical syphilis transmission rates to estimate the number of CS cases associated with prenatal syphilis infection on a yearly basis. Guangdong Province was the focus of this analysis because of the availability of high-quality demographic and public health data. Each model outcome was simulated 1,000 times to incorporate uncertainty in model inputs. The model was validated using data from a CS intervention program among 477,656 women in China. Sensitivity analyses were performed to identify which variables are likely to be most influential in achieving Chinese and international policy goals. Increasing prenatal screening coverage was the single most effective strategy for reducing CS cases. An incremental increase in prenatal screening from the base case of 57% coverage to 95% coverage was associated with 106 (95% CI: 101, 111 CS cases averted per 100,000 live births (58% decrease. The policy strategies laid out in the national plan led to an outcome that fell short of the target, while a four-pronged comprehensive syphilis control strategy consisting of increased prenatal screening coverage, increased treatment completion, earlier prenatal screening, and improved syphilis test characteristics was associated with 157 (95% CI: 154, 160 CS cases averted per 100,000 live births (85% decrease. CONCLUSIONS: The Chinese national plan provides a strong foundation for syphilis control, but more

  2. Increasing the admission rate to upper secondary school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoest, A.; Jensen, V.M.; Nielsen, L.P.

    2013-01-01

    Although several studies investigate the effects of school resources on student performance, these studies tend to focus more on intervention effect sizes than on their cost-effectiveness. Exploiting policy-induced variation in Denmark and using high-quality administrative data, we investigate...... the effects of a school intervention that introduces structured student career guidance in lower secondary school on upper secondary school admission. Disregarding the sunk-cost of implementation, the reform was cost-neutral. In a difference-in-difference framework, we find that the reform increases admission...... to upper secondary school between 4.0 and 6.3 percentage points for immigrants, but shows at best small improvements for the native students....

  3. Admissibility and policies of public-private partnerships on communal level in the field of energy supply; Rechtliche Zulaessigkeit und Handlungsvorgaben gemischt-wirtschaftlicher Unternehmen mit kommunaler Beteiligung im Bereich der Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsing-An

    2012-11-01

    The investigation comprised four steps. In the first step, background information on public-private partnerships is presented, and trends are outlined. The relationship between PPP and privatisation is discussed, definitions are given, and basic models of PPP are presented before proceeding to a discussion of public-private partnerships in the energy supply sector. The second part focuses on communal energy supply. The role of energy supply within the range of services provided by communal administration is defined, and public-private partnerships in the communal sector are gone into. In the third section, legal boundary conditions for the establishment of public-private energy utilities in the communal sector are analyzed. The emphasis is on the legal requirements and limitations to be observed by communities intending to establish public-private energy utilities or cooperate in them. Finally, the fourth section goes into the policies that should be adapted by communal PPP utilities under energy industry law. A distinction is made between the different activities of energy utilities, i.e. as grid operators and power suppliers, and the different legal obligations involved. Pricing is another important consideration. For this reason, the regulations of cartel law and energy industry law concerning pricing in power supply are investigated in detail, especially as grid connection, grid access and base load power supply are concerned.

  4. Configuración de territorios de violencia y control policial: corporalidades, emociones y relaciones sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Daich

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se centra en el análisis de los procesos de configuración de territorios de violencia y control policial resultantes de la malla de relaciones y prácticas sociales que vinculan a grupos policiales con sujetos y colectivos que habitualmente son definidos y tipificados por la misma agencia policial como objeto de su control y administración. Se enfatiza, para ello, en el análisis de las corporalidades y emociones qua constructoras de cuerpos, identidades y relaciones sociales. Esto, pues entendemos que son las redes de sociabilidad que vinculan recíprocamente a los individuos mediante interdependencias de diversa clase, las que configuran el campo de lo cotidiano sobre el que se construyen y producen las formas efectivas de control y violencia.Este trabalho centra-se na análise dos processos de configuração de territórios de violência e controle que resultam da malha de relações e práticas sociais que vinculam grupos policiais com sujeitos e coletivos aos quais a mesma instituição policial define e tipifica como seu objeto de controle y administração. Da-se ênfase nas corporalidades e emoções qua construtoras de corpos, identidades e relações sociais. Isso assim, pois se entende que são as redes de sociabilidade, que vinculam reciprocamente aos indivíduos mediante interdependências de diverso tipo, as que configuram o campo do cotidiano sobre o qual se constroem e produzem formas efetivas de controle e violência.This work is centered in the analysis of the processes of configuration of violent territories and police control as resultants of the network of social relations and practices that bind police groups with subjects and groups, regularly defined and typified by the same police agency as objects of their control and administration. It is focused, in that sense, in the analysis of the corporalities and emotions qua constructors of bodies, identities and social relations. This, because we understand

  5. Public attitudes towards alcohol control policies in Scotland and England: Results from a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jessica; Lovatt, Melanie; Eadie, Douglas; Dobbie, Fiona; Meier, Petra; Holmes, John; Hastings, Gerard; MacKintosh, Anne Marie

    2017-03-01

    The harmful effects of heavy drinking on health have been widely reported, yet public opinion on governmental responsibility for alcohol control remains divided. This study examines UK public attitudes towards alcohol policies, identifies underlying dimensions that inform these, and relationships with perceived effectiveness. A cross-sectional mixed methods study involving a telephone survey of 3477 adult drinkers aged 16-65 and sixteen focus groups with 89 adult drinkers in Scotland and England was conducted between September 2012 and February 2013. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to reduce twelve policy statements into underlying dimensions. These dimensions were used in linear regression models examining alcohol policy support by demographics, drinking behaviour and perceptions of UK drinking and government responsibility. Findings were supplemented with a thematic analysis of focus group transcripts. A majority of survey respondents supported all alcohol policies, although the level of support varied by type of policy. Greater enforcement of laws on under-age sales and more police patrolling the streets were strongly supported while support for pricing policies and restricting access to alcohol was more divided. PCA identified four main dimensions underlying support on policies: alcohol availability, provision of health information and treatment services, alcohol pricing, and greater law enforcement. Being female, older, a moderate drinker, and holding a belief that government should do more to reduce alcohol harms were associated with higher support on all policy dimensions. Focus group data revealed findings from the survey may have presented an overly positive level of support on all policies due to differences in perceived policy effectiveness. Perceived effectiveness can help inform underlying patterns of policy support and should be considered in conjunction with standard measures of support in future research on alcohol control policies.

  6. Admission Criteria for MBA Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Dakduk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a review of studies on admission criteria for MBA programs. The method consisted in a literary review based on a systematic search in international databases (Emerald, ABI/INFORM Global, ProQuest Education Journals, ProQuest European Business, ProQuest Science Journal, ProQuest Research Library, ProQuest Psychology Journals, ProQuest Social Science Journals and Business Source Complete of studies published from January 1990 to December 2013, which explore the academic performance of students or graduates of MBA programs. A quantitative review was performed. Results show that most researchers studied relations between GMAT (Graduate Management Admission Test and UGPA (Undergraduate Grade Point Average as predictors of GGPA (Graduate Grade Point Average. On the other hand, work experience and personal traits (such as personality, motivation, learning strategies, self-efficacy beliefs and achievement expectations and their relation with GGPA had been less studied, and results are not consistent enough to consider them valid predictors of student performance at this time.

  7. Understanding post 9/11 drug control policy and politics in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latypov, Alisher

    2009-09-01

    This paper exposes contemporary drug policy challenges in Central Asia by focusing on a single point in the history of drug control, in a single region of the global war against drugs and terrorism, and on one agency whose mission is to help make the world safer from crime, drugs and terrorism. By looking closely at the post 9/11 security-oriented donor priorities, I conclude that, in Central Asia, the rhetoric of the taking a more 'balanced approach' to drug policy is bankrupt. When enacted by the national law enforcement agencies in the Central Asian republics, the 'Drug Free' aspirational goal is driving the HIV epidemic among IDUs. The face-saving 'containment' thesis does not reflect the drug situation in this region but rather the failure to adopt an evidence-based approach. The harm reduction agenda continues to face many challenges including resistance to substitution treatment, the harm from drug treatment, from poorly designed drug prevention programmes and from repressive counter-narcotics policies and practices.

  8. Policy Iteration for H∞ Optimal Control of Polynomial Nonlinear Systems via Sum of Squares Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanheng; Zhao, Dongbin; Yang, Xiong; Zhang, Qichao

    2017-01-10

    Sum of squares (SOS) polynomials have provided a computationally tractable way to deal with inequality constraints appearing in many control problems. It can also act as an approximator in the framework of adaptive dynamic programming. In this paper, an approximate solution to the H∞ optimal control of polynomial nonlinear systems is proposed. Under a given attenuation coefficient, the Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs equation is relaxed to an optimization problem with a set of inequalities. After applying the policy iteration technique and constraining inequalities to SOS, the optimization problem is divided into a sequence of feasible semidefinite programming problems. With the converged solution, the attenuation coefficient is further minimized to a lower value. After iterations, approximate solutions to the smallest L₂-gain and the associated H∞ optimal controller are obtained. Four examples are employed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  9. CONSOLIDATION POLICY: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE APPROACHES TO THE CONCEPT OF CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ienciu Alin Ionel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Preparing consolidated financial statements has been a common practice for groups of companies around the world for a relatively long time, going back one century in the USA and tens of years in different European countries.A far-reaching issue regarding consolidation accounting policy is the concept of control, as it holds a crucial role in determining the basis of consolidation and the applicable method of consolidation and subsequently in influencing the content of the group financial statements. We focus in our article on the concept of exclusive control as it is approached by the relevant International, American and European standards, casting light also on possible future developments of this concept. The objective of our study is to acknowledge the differences and similarities between the approaches to the control concept, closing with the presentation of the influences of these approaches on the basis of consolidation.

  10. Modeling Pareto efficient PM10 control policies in Northern Italy to reduce health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisoni, Enrico; Volta, Marialuisa

    High PM10 concentrations can cause human health problems, both related to short-term and long-term exposure to particles. In this work the impact of efficient PM10 control problems in Northern Italy is assessed by means of a two-stage methodology. In the first stage a multi-objective optimization approach is applied. The multi-objective problem defines two control objectives (the emission reduction costs and the air quality index) to be minimized varying the decision variables (precursor emission reductions). The solution of the multi-objective problem is the Pareto efficient PM10 control policies. In the second stage, the ExternE methodology is applied to estimate health impacts and external costs for the efficient emission reduction scenarios computed in the first stage. The methodology has been applied over Lombardia region, one of the most polluted areas in Europe.

  11. Family control,institutional environment and cash dividend policy:Evidence from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihua; Wei; Shinong; Wu; Changqing; Li; Wei; Chen

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of 1486 Chinese A-share listed companies for the period 2004-2008,this study empirically tests the impact of family control,institutional environment and their interaction on the cash dividend policy of listed companies.Our results indicate that(1)family firms have a lower cash dividend payout ratio and propensity to pay dividends than non-family firms;(2) a favorable regional institutional environment has a significant positive impact on the cash dividend payout ratio and propensity to pay dividends of listed companies;and(3) the impact of the regional institutional environment on cash dividends is stronger in family firms than in non-family firms.Somewhat surprisingly,we find that controlling family shareholders in China may intensify Agency Problem Ⅰ(the owner-manager conflict) rather than Agency Problem Ⅱ(the controlling shareholder-minority shareholder conflict),and thus have a significant negative impact on cash dividend policy.In contrast,a favorable regional institutional environment plays a positive corporate governance role in mitigating Agency Problem 1 and encouraging family firms to pay cash dividends.

  12. Management and control of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB): Addressing policy needs for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atre, Sachin R; Murray, Megan B

    2016-05-06

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) challenges TB control efforts because of delays in diagnosis plus its long-term treatment which has toxic effects. Of TB high-incidence countries, India carries the highest burden of MDR-TB cases. We describe policy issues in India concerning MDR-TB diagnosis and management in a careful review of the literature including a systematic review of studies on the prevalence of MDR-TB. Of 995 articles published during 2001-2016 and retrieved from the PubMed, only 20 provided data on the population prevalence of MDR-TB. We further reviewed and describe diagnostic criteria and treatment algorithms in use and endorsed by the Revised National TB Control Program of India. We discuss problems encountered in treating MDR-TB patients with standardized regimens. Finally, we provide realistic suggestions for policymakers and program planners to improve the management and control of MDR-TB in India.Journal of Public Health Policy advance online publication, 6 May 2016; doi:10.1057/jphp.2016.14.

  13. Do National Ideas and Policies Still Matter? The Case of Merger Control in Germany, the United Kingdom, and France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Munk; Nedergaard, Peter; Stenbæk, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    There is a pressure for convergence in the area of merger control in the EU member states. How is this pressure spelled out in German, British, and French merger control? Do the three countries’ merger control regimes have recognizable ideational foundations and policies? Through a careful, detai...... for European convergence coexist with significant traces of ideational national foundations....

  14. Concern about passive smoking and tobacco control policies in European countries: An ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemsen Marc C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the magnitude of the global tobacco epidemic, the World Health Organisation developed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC, an international legally binding treaty to control tobacco use. Adoption and implementation of specific tobacco control measures within FCTC is an outcome of a political process, where social norms and public opinion play important roles. The objective of our study was to examine how a country’s level of tobacco control is associated with smoking prevalence, two markers of denormalisation of smoking (social disapproval of smoking and concern about passive smoking, and societal support for tobacco control. Methods An ecological study was conducted, using data from two sources. The first source was the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS from 2011, which quantifies the implementation of tobacco control policies in European Union (EU countries. Data on smoking prevalence, societal disapproval of smoking, concern about passive smoking, and societal support for policy measures were taken from the Eurobarometer survey of 2009. Data from Eurobarometer surveys were aggregated to country level. Data from the 27 European Union member states were used. Results Smoking prevalence rates in 2009 were negatively associated with a country’s TCS 2011 score, although not statistically significant (r = −.25; p = .21. Experience of societal disapproval was positively associated with higher TCS scores, though not significantly (r = .14; p = .48. The same was true for societal support for tobacco control (r = .27; p = .18. The TCS score in 2011 was significantly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .42; p =.03. Support for tobacco control measures was also strongly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .52, p = .006. Conclusions Smokers in countries with a higher TCS score were more concerned about whether their smoke harms others. Further, support for tobacco control measures

  15. Analysis and comparison of two optimized call admission control schemes in mobile computing environment%移动计算中2种呼叫接入控制优化策略的分析与比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国盛; 陈志刚; 陈炳权; 赵明; 颜琳

    2016-01-01

    在介绍DT−CAC和RBDO−CAC这2种呼叫接入控制优化策略的基础上,通过NS−2工具对这2种策略在不同呼叫流量强度下的性能进行仿真测试,并与传统的 NCB 策略进行对比。研究结果表明:DT−CAC 和RBDO−CAC优化策略的性能均比NCB方案的性能好,从整体上看,RBDO−CAC策略的切换呼叫掉线率和新呼叫阻塞率比DT−CAC的低,且其系统资源利用率比DT−CAC的高;在网络呼叫流量较高的情况下,RBDO−CAC策略资源利用率比DT−CAC策略高2%~5%。%After two optimized call admission control schemes known as DT−CAC and RBDO−CAC were presented,the performances of these two schemesatdifferent call traffic intensitieswere tested using NS−2, and compared with traditional NCB scheme.Theresults show that both DT−CAC and RBDO−CAC can achieve better performancesthan NCB. On the whole,when compared with DT−CAC,RBDO−CAChas lowerhandoff call dropping probability and new call blocking probability, and higher system resource utilization rate. The system resource utilization rate under high call traffic load of RBDO−CAC can be 2%−5%higher thanDT−CAC.

  16. The Predictive Validity of using Admissions Testing and Multiple Mini-interviews in Undergraduate University Admissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Havmose, Philip; Vang, Maria Louison;

    2016-01-01

    to the grade-based admissions procedure. Finally, students admitted through the MMI scored significantly higher on academic learning self-efficacy and critical thinking compared to students selected by grades. The implications for higher education admissions are discussed....

  17. Successes and failures in the control of infectious diseases in Brazil: social and environmental context, policies, interventions, and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Mauricio L; Teixeira, M Gloria; Bastos, Francisco I; Ximenes, Ricardo A A; Barata, Rita B; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2011-05-28

    Despite pronounced reductions in the number of deaths due to infectious diseases over the past six decades, infectious diseases are still a public health problem in Brazil. In this report, we discuss the major successes and failures in the control of infectious diseases in Brazil, and identify research needs and policies to further improve control or interrupt transmission. Control of diseases such as cholera, Chagas disease, and those preventable by vaccination has been successful through efficient public policies and concerted efforts from different levels of government and civil society. For these diseases, policies dealt with key determinants (eg, the quality of water and basic sanitation, vector control), provided access to preventive resources (such as vaccines), and successfully integrated health policies with broader social policies. Diseases for which control has failed (such as dengue fever and visceral leishmaniasis) are vector-borne diseases with changing epidemiological profiles and major difficulties in treatment (in the case of dengue fever, no treatment is available). Diseases for which control has been partly successful have complex transmission patterns related to adverse environmental, social, economic, or unknown determinants; are sometimes transmitted by insect vectors that are difficult to control; and are mostly chronic diseases with long infectious periods that require lengthy periods of treatment.

  18. Effect of nation-wide tobacco control policies on smoking cessation in high and low educated groups in 18 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaap, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Leinsalu, Mall

    2008-01-01

    not show consistent differences between high and low educated. Of all tobacco control policies of which the TCS is constructed, price policies showed the strongest association with quit ratios, followed by an advertising ban. CONCLUSION: Countries with more developed tobacco control policies have higher...

  19. PRESENTATION OF MANDATORY POLICY OF ACCESS CONTROL VIA THE HARRISONRUSSO-WILLIAM’S MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korolev I. D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The accepted model of the access control is realized with the monitor of safety in the protected automated information system. Models of safety are considered, as a rule, as a system which is a single whole and has the uniform monitor of safety. Nevertheless, the architecture of the real automated information systems and processes of their functioning can be characterized by distribution. The distributed automated information system consists more than of one local segment representing isolated set of subjects and objects of access. In the distributed system local segments can be realized both on the basis of discretionary, and on the basis of mandatory models of safety (i.e. to be diverse. One of directions of a safety in this case is realization of the general monitor of the safety providing the uniform (coordinated policy of access control. For safe interaction of patchwork systems it’s necessary to bring them to a single model. Hence, while the integration of information systems the problem of their interaction becomes persistent. Thus in the systems processing the information of a various level of confidentiality, it is necessary to realize mandatory access control. In given clause the mandatory policy of the safety presented by classical model of Bell-LaPadula, is described by the elements of classical model of Harrison-Russo-William. Using the mechanisms of change of a matrix access the opportunity of assignment and change of confidentiality marks is described and the observance of safe practices within the limits of mandatory access control is analyzed. The safety of application of the given approach has been proved. The perspective direction of research has been defined

  20. Unethical Admissions: Academic Integrity in Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansah, Richard Hannis; Aikhuele, Daniel O; Yao, Liu

    2016-11-28

    The increasing unethical practices of graduates' admissions have heightened concerns about the integrity of the academy. This article informs this important subject that affects the students, admission systems, and the entire scientific community, thus, representing an approach against scholarly black market activities including falsified documents and unethical practices by consultants and students' recruitment agencies.

  1. Admission to Law School: New Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Marjorie M.; Zedeck, Sheldon

    2012-01-01

    Standardized tests have been increasingly controversial over recent years in high-stakes admission decisions. Their role in operationalizing definitions of merit and qualification is especially contested, but in law schools this challenge has become particularly intense. Law schools have relied on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) and an INDEX…

  2. Prioritizing Congenital Syphilis Control in South China: A Decision Analytic Model to Inform Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Nicholas X.; Rydzak, Chara; Yang, Li-Gang; Vickerman, Peter; Yang, Bin; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Hawkes, Sarah; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Syphilis is a major public health problem in many regions of China, with increases in congenital syphilis (CS) cases causing concern. The Chinese Ministry of Health recently announced a comprehensive 10-y national syphilis control plan focusing on averting CS. The decision analytic model presented here quantifies the impact of the planned strategies to determine whether they are likely to meet the goals laid out in the control plan. Methods and Findings Our model incorporated data on age-stratified fertility, female adult syphilis cases, and empirical syphilis transmission rates to estimate the number of CS cases associated with prenatal syphilis infection on a yearly basis. Guangdong Province was the focus of this analysis because of the availability of high-quality demographic and public health data. Each model outcome was simulated 1,000 times to incorporate uncertainty in model inputs. The model was validated using data from a CS intervention program among 477,656 women in China. Sensitivity analyses were performed to identify which variables are likely to be most influential in achieving Chinese and international policy goals. Increasing prenatal screening coverage was the single most effective strategy for reducing CS cases. An incremental increase in prenatal screening from the base case of 57% coverage to 95% coverage was associated with 106 (95% CI: 101, 111) CS cases averted per 100,000 live births (58% decrease). The policy strategies laid out in the national plan led to an outcome that fell short of the target, while a four-pronged comprehensive syphilis control strategy consisting of increased prenatal screening coverage, increased treatment completion, earlier prenatal screening, and improved syphilis test characteristics was associated with 157 (95% CI: 154, 160) CS cases averted per 100,000 live births (85% decrease). Conclusions The Chinese national plan provides a strong foundation for syphilis control, but more comprehensive measures

  3. A Logical Characterization of Iterated Admissibility

    CERN Document Server

    Halpern, Joseph Y

    2009-01-01

    Brandenburger, Friedenberg, and Keisler provide an epistemic characterization of iterated admissibility (i.e., iterated deletion of weakly dominated strategies) where uncertainty is represented using LPSs (lexicographic probability sequences). Their characterization holds in a rich structure called a complete structure, where all types are possible. Here, a logical charaacterization of iterated admisibility is given that involves only standard probability and holds in all structures, not just complete structures. A stronger notion of strong admissibility is then defined. Roughly speaking, strong admissibility is meant to capture the intuition that "all the agent knows" is that the other agents satisfy the appropriate rationality assumptions. Strong admissibility makes it possible to relate admissibility, canonical structures (as typically considered in completeness proofs in modal logic), complete structures, and the notion of ``all I know''.

  4. Evidence-based diabetes prevention and control programs and policies in local health departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwald, Marissa; Elliott, Lindsay; Brownson, Ross C.; Skala, Mahree

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to: (1) assess implementation of evidence-based programs and policies (EBPPs) related to diabetes prevention and control in local health departments; (2) assess feasibility of non-implemented diabetes prevention and control EBPPs; and (3) examine individual- and organizational-level factors associated with implementation of diabetes prevention and control EBPPs. Methods An online survey was administered in January 2015 to key representatives of all local health departments in Missouri. Descriptive statistics were used to describe implementation and perceived feasibility of 20 diabetes prevention and control EBPPs. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between individual and organizational factors and diabetes prevention and control EBPP implementation. Results One hundred local health departments participated (89% response rate) in the online survey. Most frequently implemented diabetes-related EBPPs in local health departments included: nutrition education for agency or community members; increased fruit and vegetable access in community settings; and community-wide campaigns to promote physical activity. Increased encouragement to others in the department to use evidence-based decision making and agency incentives to help employees use evidence-based decision making were positively associated with implementation of diabetes prevention and control EBPPs. Conclusions Local health departments are the “front line” of public health and this study demonstrates the important role these organizations play in implementing diabetes prevention and control EBPPs. Potential leverage points for more widespread adoption of diabetes-related EBPPs in local health departments include education about and encouragement of evidence-based decision making and organizational incentives for employees to integrate evidence-based decision making into their diabetes prevention and control activities. PMID:26297714

  5. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Erin O; Herrera, Diego; Kirkpatrick, A Justin; Brandão, Amintas; Dickson, Rebecca; Hall, Simon; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Shoch, David; Vedoveto, Mariana; Young, Luisa; Pfaff, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts' selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM) offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal "blacklist" that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual) scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012). This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and permutations on policies

  6. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin O Sills

    Full Text Available Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts' selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal "blacklist" that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012. This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and

  7. Parsing pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: forensic chemistry, receptor models, and source control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Kirk T; Pietari, Jaana; Boehm, Paul D

    2014-04-01

    A realistic understanding of contaminant sources is required to set appropriate control policy. Forensic chemical methods can be powerful tools in source characterization and identification, but they require a multiple-lines-of-evidence approach. Atmospheric receptor models, such as the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)'s chemical mass balance (CMB), are increasingly being used to evaluate sources of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments. This paper describes the assumptions underlying receptor models and discusses challenges in complying with these assumptions in practice. Given the variability within, and the similarity among, pyrogenic PAH source types, model outputs are sensitive to specific inputs, and parsing among some source types may not be possible. Although still useful for identifying potential sources, the technical specialist applying these methods must describe both the results and their inherent uncertainties in a way that is understandable to nontechnical policy makers. The authors present an example case study concerning an investigation of a class of parking-lot sealers as a significant source of PAHs in urban sediment. Principal component analysis is used to evaluate published CMB model inputs and outputs. Targeted analyses of 2 areas where bans have been implemented are included. The results do not support the claim that parking-lot sealers are a significant source of PAHs in urban sediments.

  8. Evidence and decision making: tobacco control policy and legislation in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Hideki; Khuong, Tuan A; Ngo, Anh D; Hill, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    The Ministry of Health (MOH) in Vietnam is currently drafting the Tobacco Harm Prevention Law. The government requested the MOH to provide evidence on the strategies proposed in the draft law as part of its submission to the National Assembly. This study examines the availability and strength of evidence and its relationship to policy stakeholders' positions towards policy instruments proposed in the law. Several qualitative methods were employed including documentary analysis, key informant interviews, focus group discussion and a key stakeholders' survey. Contradictory findings were identified over the role of evidence. While there is high demand for local evidence, the availability and strength of evidence are not always aligned with stakeholders' positions with respect to different strategies. Stakeholders' positions are shaped by competing interests on the basis of their perceptions of the socioeconomic implications and health consequences of tobacco control. Claims of limited availability of evidence are often used to justify the maintenance of the status quo, a position that is seen to protect the state-owned tobacco industry and state revenue. Local evidence of the impact of tobacco on population health is argued to be 'one-sided' and evidence of selected interventions discounted. Compelling and comprehensive local evidence, including those addressing economic concerns, is acutely needed in order to proceed with the current legislation process. For evidence to play a critical role, it needs to engage those ministries responsible for the tobacco industry itself and the economic development.

  9. The influence of economic interests on alcohol control policy: a case study from Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavaikko, M; Osterberg, E

    2000-12-01

    Finland's participation in the European Union has meant that Finnish markets have been opened to international competition and that the traditional alcohol policy decision-making that revolved around Alko, the state alcohol monopoly company, has become impossible. The influence of private commercial interests increased in the 1990s but not in a straightforward manner. They had their biggest influence in the mid-1990s when the 1994 Alcohol Act was drafted and accepted. After that the influence of commercial interests has declined, and nowadays the alcohol question is again discussed in terms of public health and safety and drinking among young people. Integration did not lead to the expected deregulation of alcohol control but to new forms of regulation, where EU authorities such as the Commission and the EU Court also play an important role. Alcohol policy-making is now more transparent, and free trade and competition without interference are much more stressed than previously. These are the new frames of public intervention in the alcohol question, both in the trade of alcoholic beverages and in the taking care of individuals harmed by the use of alcohol.

  10. Fundamental study of CO2 control technologies and policies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN HongGuang; ZHANG XiLiang; GAO Lin; YUE Li; HE JianKun; CAI RuiXian

    2008-01-01

    The technical roadmap and policies for CO2 mitigation suitable for China are a common center of attention in the fields of energy,environment,and management science in the country.Emphasizing interaction between technical research and policy research,this work discovers the potential breakthrough in the integrated field.The technical difficulties of recovering CO2 are pointed out,the mechanism of combining CO2 recovery with energy conversion is investigated,and the basic principle for integrating an environmental-friendly energy system is discussed.Moreover,the formulation of a new energy system that can recover CO2 with very low or even zero energy penalty is proposed,while the assessment methodology and model system for the technical roadmap of CO2 emission control are devel-oped.Finally,a new technical roadmap constructing an energy network suitable for China is proposed,which may provide a new way for the development of sustainable energy and environment technologies.

  11. Optimal control policies for carbon dioxide miscible flooding enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Methos, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Optimal control theory of distributed parameter systems has been used to develop improved operational strategies for carbon dioxide miscible flooding. The optimization criterion was to maximize the net profitability of the CO/sub 2/ flood. A two-dimensional, three-phase, modified black-oil model was used to describe miscible displacement of oil. Calculus of variations was applied to find control functions that provide extreme for an objective functional which related injection costs and production revenue. Lagrange multipliers, or costate variables, were used to ensure that the constraints given by the equations of the simulation model were satisfied. Control functions computed were the carbon dioxide and water injection policies and the production wellbore pressure history. In order to avoid difficulties in obtaining a stable numerical scheme for the costate equation, a discrete formulation of the optimal control problem was developed. A steepest decent gradient search method was used to find the optimal control law. Starting functions for the algorithm described currently used strategies: a large slug of CO/sub 2/ followed by drive water; carbon dioxide injected simultaneously with water; and injection of small slugs of CO/sub 2/ alternately with slugs of water. Improvements in the cost functional from the starting functions ranged from four to eleven percent. While the optimal control law found was highly dependent upon the starting functions used to initiate the algorithm, the shape of the optimal control law was found to be unique, as was the optimal total volume of carbon dioxide injected and the optimal value of the cost functional.

  12. The Origins of Race-Conscious Affirmative Action in Undergraduate Admissions: A Comparative Analysis of Institutional Change in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulberg, Lisa M.; Chen, Anthony S.

    2014-01-01

    What explains the rise of race-conscious affirmative action policies in undergraduate admissions? The dominant theory posits that adoption of such policies was precipitated by urban and campus unrest in the North during the late 1960s. Based on primary research in a sample of 17 selective schools, we find limited support for the dominant theory.…

  13. Affirmative Action in Law School Admissions: What Do Racial Preferences Do? NBER Working Paper No. 14276

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Jesse; Yoon, Albert H.

    2008-01-01

    The Supreme Court has held repeatedly that race-based preferences in public university admissions are constitutional. But debates over the wisdom of affirmative action continue. Opponents of these policies argue that preferences are detrimental to minority students--that by placing these students in environments that are too competitive,…

  14. The Myth That Preferential College Admissions Create High Black Student Dropout Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Theodore L.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the impact of affirmative-action college-admission policies on black student dropout rates in the nation's top higher education institutions. Black student dropout rate comparative data are provided that show graduation rate percentages of Ivy League schools, less-selective state universities, and historically black colleges. (GLR)

  15. [Regionalization as a strategy for the definition of homicide-control public policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Mônica S Monteiro de; Silva, Bráulio Figueiredo Alves da; Assunção, Renato M; Beato Filho, Cláudio Chaves

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the spatial distribution of homicide rates in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using data from the Ministry of Health Mortality Information System (SIM/MS) from 1996 to 2000. Population data used to calculate rates were also obtained from the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Minas Gerais has a large territory, so the study used a recently developed statistical methodology implemented in the SKATER software to generate homogeneous spatial clusters. The technique obtained 24 spatial clusters, in which municipalities with similar homicide rates were aggregated. Using these results, the authors discuss the possible creation of "public security administration areas" that would allow the implementation of public policies aimed at controlling and diminishing homicides in municipalities with similar characteristics for this type of crime.

  16. Optimal pricing and promotional effort control policies for a new product growth in segmented market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation enables the marketers to understand and serve the customers more effectively thereby improving company’s competitive position. In this paper, we study the impact of price and promotion efforts on evolution of sales intensity in segmented market to obtain the optimal price and promotion effort policies. Evolution of sales rate for each segment is developed under the assumption that marketer may choose both differentiated as well as mass market promotion effort to influence the uncaptured market potential. An optimal control model is formulated and a solution method using Maximum Principle has been discussed. The model is extended to incorporate budget constraint. Model applicability is illustrated by a numerical example. P.C. Jha, P. Manik, K. Chaudhary, R. Cambini / Optimal Pricing and Promotional 2 Since the discrete time data is available, the formulated model is discretized. For solving the discrete model, differential evolution algorithm is used.

  17. Comparison of policies for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture in the Eastern Mancha aquifer (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Haro, S.; Llopis-Albert, C.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Stalder, A.; Garcia-Prats, A.; Henriquez-Dole, L.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture has given rise to different legal frameworks. The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) is the most recent one. This work aims to help in the definition of the most cost-efficient policy to control non-point groundwater to attain the objectives established in the WFD. In this study we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of different policies for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture. The policies considered were taxes on nitrogen fertilizers, water price, taxes on emissions and fertilizer standards. We used a hydro-economic model, where we maximized the farmer's benefits. The benefits were calculated as sum of crop revenue minus variable and fixed cost per hectare minus the damage costs from nitrogen leaching. In the cost-effectiveness analysis we considered the costs as the reduction on benefits due to the application of a policy and the effectiveness the reduction on nitrate leaching. The methodology was applied to Eastern Mancha aquifer in Spain. The aquifer is part of the Júcar River Basin, which was declared as EU Pilot Basin in 2002 for the implementation of the WFD. Over the past 30 years the area has undertaken a significant socioeconomic development, mainly due to the intensive groundwater use for irrigated crops, which has provoked a steady decline of groundwater levels and a reduction of groundwater discharged into the Júcar River, as well as nitrate concentrations higher than those allowed by the WFD at certain locations (above 100 mg/l.). Crop revenue was calculated using production functions and the amount of nitrate leached was estimated by calibrated leaching functions. These functions were obtained by using an agronomic model (a GIS version of EPIC, GEPIC), and they depend on the water and the fertilizer use. The Eastern Mancha System was divided into zones of homogeneous crop production and nitrate leaching properties. Given the different soil types and climatic

  18. Macropolitics Caught Up in Micropolitics: The Case of the Policy on Quality Control in Flanders (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelchtermans, Geert

    2007-01-01

    Using the case of the Flemish policy on educational quality and based on a series of case studies, the author argues that the impact of central policy measures on educational practices in schools is never simply straightforward. Policy measures are always interpreted by and translated to the particular context of a school. In these processes of…

  19. Admission to acute care hospitals for adolescent substance abuse: a national descriptive analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisolm Deena J

    2006-07-01

    . Conclusion General acute care hospitals have a significant and important opportunity to recognize, treat, and refer adolescents with substance abuse problems. These results suggest that inpatient facilities should develop and implement policies and processes to ensure that adolescent substance abusers admitted to their institutions receive appropriate care during the admission and appropriate referral to community care resources.

  20. Drug related hospital admissions in subspecialities of internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, J

    1996-04-01

    probably had a specific effect on avoidable DRHs. Admissions caused by adverse ractions to over-the-counter remedies, usually salicylates, were characterised by a particularly inappropriate use of drugs, suggesting that the public may also be a suitable target for interventions. In 1990 the author established the Odense PharmacoEpidemiologic Database (OPED), a research registry with person-identifiable data on computerised refund claims from Funen County. The registry was validated by a cohort study on the association of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) and admission for severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB). All 31,503 recorded NSAID users in Odense during a 19 month period and a control cohort were studied. For both cohorts we obtained data on admissions caused by UGB and other diagnosis- and prescription-data that would be relevant for confounder control. The standardised incidence ratio was 5.5, controlled for age, sex and previous peptic ulcer episodes. A multivariate analyse revealed a number of other risk factors, but no other important confounders. The standardised incidence of UGB was particularly high during the first month of NSAID therapy. The size of the data set permitted an estimate of excess risk within various patient categories. NSAID users over 75 years of age or with a previous peptic ulcer episode had particularly high excess risks. The utilization pattern of NSAIDs was surprisingly sporadic and appeared to favour a high UGB rate for a given sales volume. It is pointed out that individualised dispensing data may be an important tool in future endeavors to control DRH incidences. The data may be used for generating or confirming hypotheses on unknown and suspected ADRs, for studies on risk factors of ADRs, for characterising the population's drug utilization, for identifying objects for interventions and for monitoring the effect of interventions.

  1. Streamlining Local Behaviour Through Communication, Incentives and Control: A Case Study of Local Environmental Policies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Heberer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how China uses evaluation ratings and monitoring as incentives in order to foster the implementation of environmental policies at the local level. It is argued that decentralisation in China leaves room for actors at the local levels to manoeuver and bargain with those on higher levels for flexible adjustment of implementation policies according to local conditions. However, decentralisation is accompanied by significant institutional changes in the structure of intergovernmental communication, incentives and control. Accordingly, decentralisation in China exhibits a specific design which leaves space for divergent local environmental policies while also engendering “grass-roots mechanisms”. On the whole, this new institutional setting benefits the implementation of environmental policies.

  2. The effects of recent control policies on trends in emissions of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants and CO2 in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, Junying; Nielsen, Chris

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of China's national policies of energy conservation and emission control during 2005–2010, inter-annual emission trends of gaseous pollutants, primary aerosols, and CO2 are estimated with a bottom-up framework. The control measures led to improved energy efficiency and/or increased penetration of emission control devices at power plants and other important industrial sources, yielding reduced emission factors for all evaluated species except NOx. The national emissions ...

  3. Admissible Strategies in Semimartingale Portfolio Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Biagini, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The choice of admissible trading strategies in mathematical modelling of financial markets is a delicate issue, going back to Harrison and Kreps (1979). In the context of optimal portfolio selection with expected utility preferences this question has been a focus of considerable attention over the last twenty years. We propose a novel notion of admissibility that has many pleasant features -- admissibility is characterized purely under the objective measure $P$; the wealth of any admissible strategy is a supermartingale under all pricing measures; local boundedness of the price process is not required; neither strict monotonicity, strict concavity nor differentiability of the utility function are necessary; the definition encompasses both the classical mean-variance preferences and the monotone expected utility. For utility functions finite on the real line, our class represents a minimal set containing simple strategies which also contains the optimizer, under conditions that are substantially milder than th...

  4. Every seventh acute medical admission is preventable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Henrik Koldborg; Hendriksen, Carsten; Nielsen, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    The majority of patients who are admitted to the departments of internal medicine are admitted acutely. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of admissions to a community hospital in Copenhagen....

  5. The Parent Role in College Admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses techniques secondary school counselors can use to help parents understand and negotiate the college admissions process, including encouraging parental self-assessment; assisting parents to assess student; giving parents special tips; and maintaining open and ethical communication. (ABL)

  6. Re-examination of sea lamprey control policies for the St. Marys River: Completion of an adaptive management cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael L.; Brenden, Travis O.; Irwin, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    The St. Marys River (SMR) historically has been a major producer of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. In the early 2000s, a decision analysis (DA) project was conducted to evaluate sea lamprey control policies for the SMR; this project suggested that an integrated policy of trapping, sterile male releases, and Bayluscide treatment was the most cost-effective policy. Further, it concluded that formal assessment of larval sea lamprey abundance and distribution in the SMR would be valuable for future evaluation of control strategies. We updated this earlier analysis, adding information from annual larval assessments conducted since 1999 and evaluating additional control policies. Bayluscide treatments continued to be critical for sea lamprey control, but high recruitment compensation minimized the effectiveness of trapping and sterile male release under current feasible ranges. Because Bayluscide control is costly, development of strategies to enhance trapping success remains a priority. This study illustrates benefits of an adaptive management cycle, wherein models inform decisions, are updated based on learning achieved from those decisions, and ultimately inform future decisions.

  7. Every seventh acute medical admission is preventable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Henrik Koldborg; Hendriksen, Carsten; Nielsen, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    The majority of patients who are admitted to the departments of internal medicine are admitted acutely. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of admissions to a community hospital in Copenhagen.......The majority of patients who are admitted to the departments of internal medicine are admitted acutely. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of admissions to a community hospital in Copenhagen....

  8. VOCs and OVOCs distribution and control policy implications in Pearl River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Peter K. K.; Ho, Josephine W. K.; Tsang, Roy C. W.; Blake, Donald R.; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Yu, Jian Zhen; Yuan, Zibing; Wang, Xinming; Shao, Min; Zhong, Liuju

    2013-09-01

    Ambient air measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) were conducted and characterised during a two-year grid study in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of southern China. The present grid study pioneered the systematic investigation of the nature and characteristics of complex VOC and OVOC sources at a regional scale. The largest contributing VOCs, accounting over 80% of the total VOCs mixing ratio, were toluene, ethane, ethyne, propane, ethene, butane, benzene, pentane, ethylbenzene, and xylenes. Sub-regional VOC spatial characteristics were identified, namely: i) relatively fresh pollutants, consistent with elevated vehicular and industrial activities, around the PRD estuary; and ii) a concentration gradient with higher mixing ratios of VOCs in the west as compared with the eastern part of PRD. Based on alkyl nitrate aging determination, a high hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration favoured fast hydrocarbon reactions and formation of locally produced ozone. The photochemical reactivity analysis showed aromatic hydrocarbons and alkenes together consisted of around 80% of the ozone formation potential (OFP) among the key VOCs. We also found that the OFP from OVOCs should not be neglected since their OFP contribution was more than one-third of that from VOCs alone. These findings support the choice of current air pollution control policy which focuses on vehicular sources but warrants further controls. Industrial emissions and VOCs emitted by solvents should be the next targets for ground-level ozone abatement.

  9. A Cost-Effectiveness Tool for Informing Policies on Zika Virus Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Alfaro-Murillo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As Zika virus continues to spread, decisions regarding resource allocations to control the outbreak underscore the need for a tool to weigh policies according to their cost and the health burden they could avert. For example, to combat the current Zika outbreak the US President requested the allocation of $1.8 billion from Congress in February 2016.Illustrated through an interactive tool, we evaluated how the number of Zika cases averted, the period during pregnancy in which Zika infection poses a risk of microcephaly, and probabilities of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS impact the cost at which an intervention is cost-effective. From Northeast Brazilian microcephaly incidence data, we estimated the probability of microcephaly in infants born to Zika-infected women (0.49% to 2.10%. We also estimated the probability of GBS arising from Zika infections in Brazil (0.02% to 0.06% and Colombia (0.08%. We calculated that each microcephaly and GBS case incurs the loss of 29.95 DALYs and 1.25 DALYs per case, as well as direct medical costs for Latin America and the Caribbean of $91,102 and $28,818, respectively. We demonstrated the utility of our cost-effectiveness tool with examples evaluating funding commitments by Costa Rica and Brazil, the US presidential proposal, and the novel approach of genetically modified mosquitoes. Our analyses indicate that the commitments and the proposal are likely to be cost-effective, whereas the cost-effectiveness of genetically modified mosquitoes depends on the country of implementation.Current estimates from our tool suggest that the health burden from microcephaly and GBS warrants substantial expenditures focused on Zika virus control. Our results justify the funding committed in Costa Rica and Brazil and many aspects of the budget outlined in the US president's proposal. As data continue to be collected, new parameter estimates can be customized in real-time within our user-friendly tool to provide

  10. Privatisation Policies and Postprivatisation Control Devices in India's Higher Education: Evidence from a Regional Study and Implications for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on economic analysis of privatisation policies and postprivatisation control devices in India's higher education. As a case study, the experiences of Karnataka State in collegiate education under general higher education are emphasised. A change in public financing, rather than a shift of public ownership and management to…

  11. Hospital admission among HIV-exposed uninfected children compared with HIV-unexposed children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moseholm, Ellen; Helleberg, Marie; Nordly, Sannie B;

    2016-01-01

    : A nationwide register-based cohort study. METHODS: All HEU children born in Denmark from 2000 to 2012 were individually matched to five HIV-unexposed controls. Outcomes were risk of hospital admission (any, because of an infectious disease, observation/nonspecific diagnosis) and use of antibiotics during......OBJECTIVE:: The main objective of this study was, on a national level, to investigate the risk of in-hospital admissions and use of antibiotics during the first 4 years of life among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children compared with a matched control group of HIV-unexposed children. DESIGN...... because of observation/nonspecific diagnosis [excess incidence rate 22.6 (95% CI 18.2-27.0), IRR 6.06 (95% CI 4.84-7.61)]. CONCLUSION: HEU children had an increased risk of overall hospital admission mainly due to an increased risk of admission because of observation/nonspecific diagnosis...

  12. Application of innovative policies for controlling radionuclide releases: The {open_quotes}open-market trading rule{close_quotes}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, D.W. [Dade Moeller & Associates, Inc., New Bern, NC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In the past, most efforts for reducing airborne radio nuclide releases and controlling radioactive wastes have been directed to the development of new and improved technologies. Little attention has been paid to the possible application to these problems of new, innovative policies. Yet, experience in other fields shows that such applications could be beneficial. A prime example is the {open_quotes}open-market trading rule,{close_quotes} now being widely used in the U.S. for the control of a range of environmental problems. Through this rule, nuclear facility operators would be permitted to control airborne emissions in a more cost-effective manner, and those responsible for decommissioning and decontaminating nuclear facilities no longer in operation could do so at far lower costs while generating significantly smaller volumes of radioactive wastes. Application of such a policy would also significantly reduce the demands on existing, and the need for research to develop new, improved, control technologies. 16 refs.

  13. Crossing institutional boundaries: mapping the policy process for improved control of endemic and neglected zoonoses in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna; Welburn, Susan; Smith, James

    2015-07-01

    The recent adoption of the World Health Assembly Resolution 66.12 for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in May 2013 is an important turning point for advocacy regarding a number of endemic zoonotic infections, defined by the World Health Organization as the neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs). In addition to NTD-listed zoonoses such as rabies, echinococcosis (hydatid disease), leishmaniasis, Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) and Taenia solium cysticercosis, the NZDs also include important bacterial zoonoses such as anthrax, bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis. To date, analysis of the processes that prioritize, develop and deliver zoonoses control programmes in many low- and middle-income countries is lacking, despite its potential to highlight significant evidence gaps and institutional constraints to the intersectoral approach required for their control. Policy process analysis was conducted via a series of semi-structured interviews with key policy actors within various ministries and institutes in Uganda and Nigeria. The study concluded that despite the rhetoric around 'linear' models of health policy development promoting consultation with a wide range of national stakeholders, the decision-making process for zoonotic disease control appears instead overtly influenced by the external political economy of trending pandemic threats, often overlooking national and regional zoonoses priorities. The inclusion of political systems remains a key factor in the zoonoses analysis matrix, enhancing our understanding of the intersectoral and transdisciplinary approaches required for their control. The authors consider policy process analysis to be a fundamental first step of any attempt to holistically strengthen human and animal health systems in a development context, particularly regarding the promotion of integrated control policies for regionally important zoonoses under the growing One Health movement.

  14. Mexico's "ley de narcomenudeo" drug policy reform and the international drug control regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Werb, Daniel; Beletsky, Leo; Rangel, Gudelia; Arredondo, Jaime; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2014-11-14

    It has been over half a century since the landmark Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs was adopted, for the first time unifying international drug policy under a single treaty aimed at limiting use, manufacture, trade, possession, and trafficking of opiates, cannabis, and other narcotics. Since then, other international drug policy measures have been adopted, largely emphasizing enforcement-based approaches to reducing drug supply and use. Recently, in response to concerns that the historic focus on criminalization and enforcement has had limited effectiveness, international drug policies have begun to undergo a paradigm shift as countries seek to enact their own reforms to partially depenalize or deregulate personal drug use and possession. This includes Mexico, which in 2009 enacted national drug policy reform partially decriminalizing possession of small quantities of narcotics for personal consumption while also requiring drug treatment for repeat offenders. As countries move forward with their own reform models, critical assessment of their legal compatibility and effectiveness is necessary. In this commentary we conduct a critical assessment of the compatibility of Mexico's reform policy to the international drug policy regime and describe its role in the current evolving drug policy environment. We argue that Mexico's reform is consistent with flexibilities allowed under international drug treaty instruments and related commentaries. We also advocate that drug policy reforms and future governance efforts should be based on empirical evidence, emphasize harm reduction practices, and integrate evidence-based evaluation and implementation of drug reform measures.

  15. Implementing Internationalization Policy in Higher Education Explained by Regulatory Control in Neoliberal Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dian-Fu

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the internationalization policy and involved evaluating the effects of policy-driven reform on universities in the context of neoliberal theory. In this study, 293 professors from various universities were invited to express their opinions on the selected indicators reflected the implementation of internationalization in…

  16. Translating research into policy: lessons learned from eclampsia treatment and malaria control in three southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matinhure Sheillah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the process of knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. We studied policymaking processes in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe to understand the factors affecting the use of research evidence in national policy development, with a particular focus on the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs. We examined two cases: the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 in the treatment of eclampsia in pregnancy (a clinical case; and the use of insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual household spraying for malaria vector control (a public health case. Methods We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the policy making process. We carried out key informants interviews with a range of research and policy stakeholders in each country, reviewed documents and developed timelines of key events. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Findings Prior experience of particular interventions, local champions, stakeholders and international networks, and the involvement of researchers in policy development were important in knowledge translation for both case studies. Key differences across the two case studies included the nature of the evidence, with clear evidence of efficacy for MgSO4 and ongoing debate regarding the efficacy of bed nets compared with spraying; local researcher involvement in international evidence production, which was stronger for MgSO4 than for malaria vector control; and a long-standing culture of evidence-based health care within obstetrics. Other differences were the importance of bureaucratic processes for clinical regulatory approval of MgSO4, and regional networks and political interests for malaria control. In contrast to treatment policies for eclampsia, a diverse group of stakeholders with varied interests, differing in their use and interpretation of evidence, was involved in malaria policy decisions in the three

  17. A Study of Heavy Metal Pollution in China: Current Status, Pollution-Control Policies and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past 30 years, China’s economy has experienced rapid development, which led to a vast increase in energy consumption and serious environmental pollution. Among the different types of pollution, heavy metal pollution has become one of the major environmental issues in China. A number of studies show that high level of heavy metal exposure is a frequent cause of permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities. In recent years, some traditional pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide, have been put under control in China. However, heavy metal pollution, which poses even greater risks to public health and sustainable development, has yet to gain policymakers’ attention. The purpose of this paper is to explore effective countermeasures for heavy metal pollution in China. The present study reviews the current status of China’s heavy metal pollution and analyzes related public policies and countermeasures against that pollution. It also presents a few recommendations and measures for prevention of heavy metal pollution.

  18. Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennen, E.; Nagelhout, G.E.; van den Putte, B.; Janssen, E.; Mons, U.; Guignard, R.; Beck, F.; de Vries, H.; Thrasher, J.F.; Willemsen, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and

  19. Solving a Novel Inventory Location Model with Stochastic Constraints and (R,s,S Inventory Control Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Cabrera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We solve a novel inventory-location model with a stochastic capacity constraint based on a periodic inventory control (ILM-PR policy. The ILM-PR policy implies several changes with regard to other previous models proposed in the literature, which consider continuous review as their inventory policy. One of these changes is the inclusion of the undershoot concept, which has not been considered in previous ILM models in the literature. Based on our model, we are able to design a distribution network for a two-level supply chain, addressing both warehouse location and customer assignment decisions, whilst taking into consideration several aspects of inventory planning, in particular, evaluating the impact of the inventory control review period on the network configuration and system costs. Because the model is a very hard-to solve combinatorial nonlinear optimisation problem, we implemented two heuristics to solve it, namely, Tabu Search and Particle Swarm Optimisation. These approaches were tested over small instances in which they were able to find the optimal solution in just a few seconds. Because the model is a new one, a set of medium-size instances is provided that can be useful as a benchmark in future research. The heuristics showed a good convergence rate when applied to those instances. The results confirm that decision making over the inventory control policy has effects on the distribution network design.

  20. Differential Impact of Tobacco Control Policies on Youth Sub-Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Tauras

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: While previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of tobacco control interventions in reducing tobacco use among youth overall, there have been very few studies that examine the potential differential impact of tobacco control policies on various youth subgroups, defined by socio-economic status (SES, race/ethnicity, and gender. Objective: We examined the relationship between state-level cigarette prices and smoke-free air laws and youth smoking prevalence and intensity for various youth sub-populations in the United States. Methods: We estimated a 2-part model of cigarette demand using data from the 1991 through 2010 nationally representative surveys of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students as part of the Monitoring the Future project. Findings: We found that real cigarette prices are strong determinants of youth smoking. Blacks, females, Hispanics, and low-SES subpopulations are found to have a larger price response with respect to smoking prevalence than the full sample. Smoke-free air laws are found to have a negative effect on smoking prevalence for the full sample and for the male, white, and high-SES sub-populations. Conclusions: This research concludes that higher cigarette prices will reduce smoking prevalence rates of Blacks, Hispanics, females, and low-SES subpopulations faster than the overall youth population and other youth sub-populations. Moreover, this research concludes that smoke-free air laws will reduce smoking prevalence for the overall youth population with the largest reductions in high SES and male subpopulations.

  1. A call for policy guidance on psychometric testing in doping control in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petróczi, Andrea; Backhouse, Susan H; Barkoukis, Vassilis; Brand, Ralf; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Lazuras, Lambros; Lucidi, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    One of the fundamental challenges in anti-doping is identifying athletes who use, or are at risk of using, prohibited performance enhancing substances. The growing trend to employ a forensic approach to doping control aims to integrate information from social sciences (e.g., psychology of doping) into organised intelligence to protect clean sport. Beyond the foreseeable consequences of a positive identification as a doping user, this task is further complicated by the discrepancy between what constitutes a doping offence in the World Anti-Doping Code and operationalized in doping research. Whilst psychology plays an important role in developing our understanding of doping behaviour in order to inform intervention and prevention, its contribution to the array of doping diagnostic tools is still in its infancy. In both research and forensic settings, we must acknowledge that (1) socially desirable responding confounds self-reported psychometric test results and (2) that the cognitive complexity surrounding test performance means that the response-time based measures and the lie detector tests for revealing concealed life-events (e.g., doping use) are prone to produce false or non-interpretable outcomes in field settings. Differences in social-cognitive characteristics of doping behaviour that are tested at group level (doping users vs. non-users) cannot be extrapolated to individuals; nor these psychometric measures used for individual diagnostics. In this paper, we present a position statement calling for policy guidance on appropriate use of psychometric assessments in the pursuit of clean sport. We argue that, to date, both self-reported and response-time based psychometric tests for doping have been designed, tested and validated to explore how athletes feel and think about doping in order to develop a better understanding of doping behaviour, not to establish evidence for doping. A false 'positive' psychological profile for doping affects not only the individual

  2. The Predictive Validity of using Admissions Testing and Multiple Mini-interviews in Undergraduate University Admissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Havmose, Philip; Vang, Maria Louison;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of a two-step admissions procedure that included a cognitive ability test followed by multiple mini-interviews (MMI) used to assess non-cognitive skills compared to a grade-based admissions relative to subsequent drop-out rates and aca...

  3. Assessing Practical Intelligence in Business School Admissions: A Supplement to the Graduate Management Admissions Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Jennifer; Wilt, Jeanne M.; Nebel, Kristina L.; Ashford, Susan J.; Sternberg, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    The Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) is the most widely used measure of managerial potential in MBA admissions. GMAT scores, although predictive of grades in business school, leave much of the variance in graduate school performance unexplained. The GMAT also produces disparities in test scores between groups, generating the potential for…

  4. "Hollow Village" Evolution and Policy Control from the Perspective of Rural Urbanization: A Case Study of Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han SONG

    2016-01-01

    From the perspective of the process of urbanization,this paper puts forward the corresponding public policy control by analyzing the characteristics of " hollowing" at different stages of urbanization. Moreover,the paper focuses on the stage of China’s current urbanization.Based on the survey of migrant workers,this paper evaluates China’s current policies,and argues that the rural " hollowing" is an objective that accompanies urbanization. At different stages of the process of urbanization,the rural " hollowing" presents different characteristics. Local governments should make policy and plan based on the different stages of local urbanization and local conditions,because of the extent of regional differences in economic and social development. This paper aims to guide the rural " hollowing" to develop toward the right direction.

  5. 21 CFR 1404.615 - How does the Office of National Drug Control Policy notify a person of a suspension or debarment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does the Office of National Drug Control Policy notify a person of a suspension or debarment action? 1404.615 Section 1404.615 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT)...

  6. Impact of admission screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on the length of stay in an emergency department.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gilligan, P

    2010-06-01

    Preventing and controlling methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) includes early detection and isolation. In the emergency department (ED), such measures have to be balanced with the requirement to treat patients urgently and transfer quickly to an acute hospital bed. We assessed, in a busy and overcrowded ED, the contribution made to a patient\\'s stay by previous MRSA risk group identification and by selective rescreening of those patients who were previously documented in the research hospital as being MRSA positive. Patients with a previous diagnosis of MRSA colonisation were flagged automatically as \\'risk group\\' (RG) on their arrival in the ED and were compared with \\'non-risk group\\' (NRG), i.e. not previously demonstrated in the research hospital to be infected or colonised with MRSA. Over an 18 month period, there were 16 456 admissions via the ED, of which 985 (6%) were RG patients. The expected median times to be admitted following a request for a ward bed for NRG and RG patients were 10.4 and 12.9h, respectively. Female sex, age >65 years, and RG status all independently predicted a statistically significantly longer stay in the ED following a request for a hospital bed. We consider that national and local policies for MRSA need to balance the welfare of patients in the ED with the need to comply with best practice, when there are inadequate ED and inpatient isolation facilities. Patients with MRSA requiring emergency admission must have a bed available for them.

  7. Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Rennen, Els; Nagelhout, Gera E.; van den Putte, Bas; Janssen, Eva; Mons, Ute; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François,; de Vries, Hein; Thrasher, James F.; Marc C. Willemsen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and Germany were used from two survey waves of the longitudinal International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys. Associations were examined of aspects of social unacceptability of smoking (i.e. feeling u...

  8. The impact of consumer returns policies on consignment contracts with inventory control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, W.; Li, Y.; Govindan, Kannan

    2014-01-01

    , and then the retailer sets her retail price for selling the product. The vendor gets paid based on net sold units and salvages unsold units as well as returned items in a secondary market. Under the framework, we study and compare two different consignment arrangements: the retailer/vendor manages consignment inventory...... (RMCI/VMCI) programs. To study the impact of return policy, we discuss a consignment contract without return policy as a benchmark. We show that whether or not the vendor offers a return policy, it is always beneficial for the channel to delegate the inventory decision to the vendor. We find...

  9. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti

  10. The therapeutic relationship after psychiatric admission.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roche, Eric

    2014-03-01

    The therapeutic relationship is one of the most central and important factors in the treatment of mental health disorders. A better therapeutic relationship is associated with service engagement, medication adherence, and satisfaction with services. This study aimed to compare the demographic and clinical factors associated with the therapeutic relationship in voluntarily and involuntarily admitted psychiatric service users. We found that individuals who had been admitted involuntarily, who had a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder, and who reported higher levels of perceived pressures on admission were more likely to have a poorer therapeutic relationship with their consultant psychiatrist. Greater levels of insight and treatment satisfaction, together with higher levels of procedural justice experienced on admission, were associated with a better therapeutic relationship. We found that the level of perceived coercion on admission was not related to the therapeutic relationship. Targeted interventions to improve the therapeutic relationship, particularly for involuntarily admitted service users, are discussed.

  11. PRM:A Resource Management Framework for Policy-driven QoS Control in Enhanced Internets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xiaoming; ZHANG Yaoxue

    2001-01-01

    The Internet has evolved from a tra-ditional best-effort delivery data network into an en-hanced Internet that can provide a certain Qualityof Service(QoS) mechanisms for applications.How-ever,these QoS mechanisms usually do not take policyfactors into account such as priority and time-of-day.The paper presents a Resource Management Frame-work for Policy-driven QoS control (PRM) in en-hanced internets,which consists of four components:Domain Policy Controller(DPC) resides an adminis-trator domain,Border Resource Manager(BRM) re-sides between adjacent domains,Interior ResourceManagers(IRM) in each router between two BRMswithin the same domain,and Endsystem ResourceManager(ERM) in charge of end-node/host router re-sources.We first introduce challenges and demandsfacing the enhanced internets,then give a formalizeddefinition of policy and describe the functions and in-teraction of components of PRM.Specifically we takeQoS-pricing policy used in a Diff-Serv environmentas an example to illustrate the operational phases of PRM.

  12. Survey of Infection Control Policies within Dental/Educational Patient Treatment Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Keith Winfield

    1986-01-01

    The article describes a survey of 36 dental education programs to identify educators' reactive policies and procedures in their patient treatment centers to minimize dental contamination and cross-contamination. (Author/CT)

  13. Entropy Production and Admissibility of Shocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tai-Ping Liu; Tommaso Ruggeri

    2003-01-01

    In shock wave theory there are two considerations in selecting the physically relevant shock waves.There is the admissibility criterion for the well-posedness of hyperbolic conservation laws. Another consideration concerns the entropy production across the shocks. The latter is natural from the physical point of view, but is not sufficient in its straightforward formulation, if the system is not genuinely nonlinear. In this paper we propose the principles of increasing entropy production and that of the superposition of shocks. These principles are shown to be equivalent to the admissibility criterion.

  14. Bernoulli measure of complex admissible kneading sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Bruin, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Iterated quadratic polynomials give rise to a rich collection of different dynamical systems that are parametrized by a simple complex parameter $c$. The different dynamical features are encoded by the \\emph{kneading sequence} which is an infinite sequence over $\\{0,\\1\\}$. Not every such sequence actually occurs in complex dynamics. The set of admissible kneading sequences was described by Milnor and Thurston for real quadratic polynomials, and by the authors in the complex case. We prove that the set of admissible kneading sequences has positive Bernoulli measure within the set of sequences over $\\{0,\\1\\}$.

  15. FMD vaccines: reflections on quality aspects for applicability in European disease control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, K; Goris, N; Barnett, P V; MacKay, D K

    2008-01-01

    Most foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines used around the world are inactivated vaccines for prophylactic or emergency use, generally manufactured by the same basic methodology outlined in the OIE Manual and, for Europe, in the European Pharmacopoeia, and for the EU Member States in compliance with Directive 2001/82/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 November 2001 on the Community code relating to veterinary medicinal products as amended by Directive 2004/28/EC. Most of the requirements that apply to all immunological veterinary medicinal products apply equally to FMD vaccines. There are, however, some unique features of the disease and vaccines used against it that require a different approach to fulfil the requirements of the relevant legislation, if a vaccinate-to-live policy will be applied with 'authorized' vaccines. Several aspects of vaccine efficacy and safety are elaborated with emphasis on quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC). The purity of the vaccine in respect of the presence of non-structural protein antibodies could be checked indirectly by serology after vaccination. The viability of a vaccine bank approach was greatly aided by the principle of storing inactivated concentrated FMD viral antigen (Ag) over liquid nitrogen for subsequent formulation into vaccine. A worldwide Ag bank network might be an option for the far future and a solution to the problem of covering many different FMDV serotypes and strains. The producers should respect the strict FMD biosecurity rules worked out by the FAO EUFMD and described in Council Directive 2003/85/EC. Making the experience related to vaccine QA/QC available to all countries will reduce the risk of an FMD outbreak within these countries and consequently will reduce the FMD risk around the world.

  16. Escape and evade control policies for ensuring the physical security of nonholonomic, ground-based, unattended mobile sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenas, David; Stull, Christopher; Farrar, Charles

    2011-06-01

    In order to realize the wide-scale deployment of high-endurance, unattended mobile sensing technologies, it is vital to ensure the self-preservation of the sensing assets. Deployed mobile sensor nodes face a variety of physical security threats including theft, vandalism and physical damage. Unattended mobile sensor nodes must be able to respond to these threats with control policies that facilitate escape and evasion to a low-risk state. In this work the Precision Immobilization Technique (PIT) problem has been considered. The PIT maneuver is a technique that a pursuing, car-like vehicle can use to force a fleeing vehicle to abruptly turn ninety degrees to the direction of travel. The abrupt change in direction generally causes the fleeing driver to lose control and stop. The PIT maneuver was originally developed by law enforcement to end vehicular pursuits in a manner that minimizes damage to the persons and property involved. It is easy to imagine that unattended autonomous convoys could be targets of this type of action by adversarial agents. This effort focused on developing control policies unattended mobile sensor nodes could employ to escape, evade and recover from PIT-maneuver-like attacks. The development of these control policies involved both simulation as well as small-scale experimental testing. The goal of this work is to be a step toward ensuring the physical security of unattended sensor node assets.

  17. State preemption of local tobacco control policies restricting smoking, advertising, and youth access--United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    Preemptive state tobacco control legislation prohibits localities from enacting tobacco control laws that are more stringent than state law. State preemption provisions can preclude any type of local tobacco control policy. The three broad types of state preemption tracked by CDC include preemption of local policies that restrict 1) smoking in workplaces and public places, 2) tobacco advertising, and 3) youth access to tobacco products. A Healthy People 2020 objective (TU-16) calls for eliminating state laws that preempt any type of local tobacco control law. A previous study reported that the number of states that preempt local smoking restrictions in one or more of three settings (government worksites, private-sector worksites, and restaurants) has decreased substantially in recent years. To measure progress toward achieving Healthy People 2020 objectives, this study expands on the previous analysis to track changes in state laws that preempt local advertising and youth access restrictions and to examine policy changes from December 31, 2000, to December 31, 2010. This new analysis found that, in contrast with the substantial progress achieved during the past decade in reducing the number of states that preempt local smoking restrictions, no progress has been made in reducing the number of states that preempt local advertising restrictions and youth access restrictions. Increased progress in removing state preemption provisions will be needed to achieve the relevant Healthy People 2020 objective.

  18. Primary Path Reservation Using Enhanced Slot Assignment in TDMA for Session Admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Koneri Chandrasekaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET is a self-organized collection of nodes that communicates without any infrastructure. Providing quality of service (QoS in such networks is a competitive task due to unreliable wireless link, mobility, lack of centralized coordination, and channel contention. The success of many real time applications is purely based on the QoS, which can be achieved by quality aware routing (QAR and admission control (AC. Recently proposed QoS mechanisms do focus completely on either reservation or admission control but are not better enough. In MANET, high mobility causes frequent path break due to the fact that every time the source node must find the route. In such cases the QoS session is affected. To admit a QoS session, admission control protocols must ensure the bandwidth of the relaying path before transmission starts; reservation of such bandwidth noticeably improves the admission control performance. Many TDMA based reservation mechanisms are proposed but need some improvement over slot reservation procedures. In order to overcome this specific issue, we propose a framework—PRAC (primary path reservation admission control protocol, which achieves improved QoS by making use of backup route combined with resource reservation. A network topology has been simulated and our approach proves to be a mechanism that admits the session effectively.

  19. Primary path reservation using enhanced slot assignment in TDMA for session admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneri Chandrasekaran, Suresh; Savarimuthu, Prakash; Andi Elumalai, Priya; Ayyaswamy, Kathirvel

    2015-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) is a self-organized collection of nodes that communicates without any infrastructure. Providing quality of service (QoS) in such networks is a competitive task due to unreliable wireless link, mobility, lack of centralized coordination, and channel contention. The success of many real time applications is purely based on the QoS, which can be achieved by quality aware routing (QAR) and admission control (AC). Recently proposed QoS mechanisms do focus completely on either reservation or admission control but are not better enough. In MANET, high mobility causes frequent path break due to the fact that every time the source node must find the route. In such cases the QoS session is affected. To admit a QoS session, admission control protocols must ensure the bandwidth of the relaying path before transmission starts; reservation of such bandwidth noticeably improves the admission control performance. Many TDMA based reservation mechanisms are proposed but need some improvement over slot reservation procedures. In order to overcome this specific issue, we propose a framework-PRAC (primary path reservation admission control protocol), which achieves improved QoS by making use of backup route combined with resource reservation. A network topology has been simulated and our approach proves to be a mechanism that admits the session effectively.

  20. Controlling equine influenza: policy networks and decision-making during the 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, K; Gillespie, J A; Toribio, J-A L M L; Ward, M P; Dhand, N K

    2014-10-01

    Rapid, evidence-based decision-making is critical during a disease outbreak response; however, compliance by stakeholders is necessary to ensure that such decisions are effective - especially if the response depends on voluntary action. This mixed method study evaluated technical policy decision-making processes during the 2007 outbreak of equine influenza in Australia by identifying and analysing the stakeholder network involved and the factors driving policy decision-making. The study started with a review of the outbreak literature and published policy documents. This identified six policy issues regarding policy modifications or differing interpretations by different state agencies. Data on factors influencing the decision-making process for these six issues and on stakeholder interaction were collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 individuals representing 12 industry and government organizations. Quantitative data were analysed using social network analysis. Qualitative data were coded and patterns matched to test a pre-determined general theory using a method called theory-oriented process-tracing. Results revealed that technical policy decisions were framed by social, political, financial, strategic and operational considerations. Industry stakeholders had influence through formal pre-existing channels, yet specific gaps in stakeholder interaction were overcome by reactive alliances formed during the outbreak response but outside the established system. Overall, the crisis management system and response were seen as positive, and 75-100% of individuals interviewed were supportive of, had interest in and considered the outcome as good for the majority of policy decisions, yet only 46-75% of those interviewed considered that they had influence on these decisions. Training to increase awareness and knowledge of emergency animal diseases (EADs) and response systems will improve stakeholder

  1. Control of parallel non-observable queues: Asymptotic equivalence and optimality of periodic policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatha Anselmi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider a queueing system composed of a dispatcher that routes jobs to a set of non-observable queues working in parallel. In this setting, the fundamental problem is which policy should the dispatcher implement to minimize the stationary mean waiting time of the incoming jobs. We present a structural property that holds in the classic scaling of the system where the network demand (arrival rate of jobs grows proportionally with the number of queues. Assuming that each queue of type r is replicated k times, we consider a set of policies that are periodic with period k∑rpr and such that exactly pr jobs are sent in a period to each queue of type r. When k→∞, our main result shows that all the policies in this set are equivalent, in the sense that they yield the same mean stationary waiting time, and optimal, in the sense that no other policy having the same aggregate arrival rate to all queues of a given type can do better in minimizing the stationary mean waiting time. This property holds in a strong probabilistic sense. Furthermore, the limiting mean waiting time achieved by our policies is a convex function of the arrival rate in each queue, which facilitates the development of a further optimization aimed at solving the fundamental problem above for large systems.

  2. False confessions, expert testimony, and admissibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Clarence; Weiss, Kenneth J; Pouncey, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The confession of a criminal defendant serves as a prosecutor's most compelling piece of evidence during trial. Courts must preserve a defendant's constitutional right to a fair trial while upholding the judicial interests of presenting competent and reliable evidence to the jury. When a defendant seeks to challenge the validity of that confession through expert testimony, the prosecution often contests the admissibility of the expert's opinion. Depending on the content and methodology of the expert's opinion, testimony addressing the phenomenon of false confessions may or may not be admissible. This article outlines the scientific and epistemological bases of expert testimony on false confession, notes the obstacles facing its admissibility, and provides guidance to the expert in formulating opinions that will reach the judge or jury. We review the 2006 New Jersey Superior Court decision in State of New Jersey v. George King to illustrate what is involved in the admissibility of false-confession testimony and use the case as a starting point in developing a best-practice approach to working in this area.

  3. Differential Prediction Generalization in College Admissions Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinis, Herman; Culpepper, Steven A.; Pierce, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the concept of "differential prediction generalization" in the context of college admissions testing. Specifically, we assess the extent to which predicted first-year college grade point average (GPA) based on high-school grade point average (HSGPA) and SAT scores depends on a student's ethnicity and gender and whether this…

  4. The National Center Test for University Admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the National Center Test for University Admissions, a unified national test in Japan, which is taken by 500,000 students every year. It states that implementation of the Center Test began in 1990, with the English component consisting only of the written section until 2005, when the listening section was first implemented…

  5. Reporting Subscores from College Admission Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyren, Per-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The added value of reporting subscores on a college admission test (SweSAT) was examined in this study. Using a CTT-derived objective method for determining the value of reporting subscores, it was concluded that there is added value in reporting section scores (Verbal/Quantitative) as well as subtest scores. These results differ from a study of…

  6. 7 CFR 15a.16 - Admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admission. 15a.16 Section 15a.16 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL... institutions, subpart C applies only to institutions of vocational education, professional education,...

  7. Internal medicine and emergency admissions: from a national hospital discharge records (SDO study to a regional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Pietrantonio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, the number of internists has grown by 10% since 1990 reaching 11,435 units, they manage 39,000 beds in 1060 Internal Medicine (IM wards. The Internists are expected to ensure a cost-effective management of poly-pathological and complex patients. A collaborative study between the Federation of Associations of Hospital Doctors on Internal Medicine (FADOI and the Consortium for Applied Health Economics Research (C.R.E.A. Sanità based on data from hospital discharge records has been conducted starting from November 2014. In this article the preliminary results are shown with focus on emergency admissions characteristics to contribute to define the role of hospital IM. Evaluation is performed comparing emergency and planned admissions, IM impact on hospital admissions, availability of community-based healthcare services, diagnosis-related groups (DRGs weight in IM and regional differences in managing hospital admissions with focus on IM department. In 2013 IM wards discharged 1,073,526 patients (16.18% of the total discharged by hospitals with a total economic value of 3,426,279.88 € (average DRG 3882.80 €, from 3682.19 to 4083.42. The average length of stay (LOS in IM was 9.3 days. IM covers 27% of admissions from Emergency Room. Determinants significantly affecting the emergency admissions are old age and comorbidities of the patients that also have a role in increasing LOS. 55% of Italian hospital admissions are emergency admissions. Hospitalization rates in emergency are systematically higher than those in election and the greatest differences are in the regions with inefficiently organized regional network. The role of the hospital IM appears central in the offer of beds to the emergency room by accepting 27% of urgent admissions. The increasing impact of IM on hospital management will put the internists as authoritative stakeholders in health policy.

  8. Prospective payments to hospitals: should emergency admissions have higher rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, G A; Serrato, C A; Mann, J M

    1989-01-01

    Systematic variation in patient resource use can be a significant problem for a system based on diagnosis-related groups (DRG's) if this variation is not evenly distributed across hospitals. If certain hospitals routinely treat patients who require more services than average under DRG's, the long-run financial viability of these hospitals will be threatened. In this study, the authors examine whether patients who are admitted on an emergency or urgent basis represent an identifiable group of patients whose costs are systematically higher than those of electively admitted patients, controlling for DRG. Alternative approaches for incorporating admission status into a DRG payment system are developed and tested.

  9. The Effects of Gratz and Grutter: A Public Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, Kari Ann

    2009-01-01

    Despite the precedent established in the "University of California Board of Regents v. Bakke," that race may be used as a factor in admissions policies at state institutions of higher education, state and federal court decisions were divided over whether the use of race in admissions decisions was a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the…

  10. Routine perineal shaving on admission in labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basevi, Vittorio; Lavender, Tina

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundPubic or perineal shaving is a procedure performed before birth in order to lessen the risk of infection if there is a spontaneous perinealtear or if an episiotomy is performed.ObjectivesTo assess the effects of routine perineal shaving before birth onmaternal and neonatal outcomes, according to the best available evidence.Search methodsWe searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (12 June 2014).Selection criteriaAll controlled trials (including quasi-randomised) that compare perineal shaving versus no perineal shaving.Data collection and analysisTwo review authors independently assessed all potential studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted the data using apredesigned form. Data were checked for accuracy.Main resultsThree randomised controlled trials (1039 women) published between 1922 and 2005 fulfilled the prespecified criteria. In the earliesttrial, 389 women were alternately allocated to receive either skin preparation and perineal shaving or clipping of vulval hair only. In thesecond trial, which included 150 participants, perineal shaving was compared with the cutting of long hairs for procedures only. In thethird and most recent trial, 500 women were randomly allocated to shaving of perineal area or cutting of perineal hair. The primaryoutcome for all three trials was maternal febrile morbidity; no differences were found (risk ratio (RR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval(CI) 0.73 to 1.76). No differences were found in terms of perineal wound infection (RR 1.47, 95% CI 0.80 to 2.70) and perinealwound dehiscence (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.01 to 8.00) in the most recent trial involving 500 women, which was the only trial to assessthese outcomes. In the smallest trial, fewer women who had not been shaved had Gram-negative bacterial colonisation compared withwomen who had been shaved (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.98). There were no instances of neonatal infection in either group in theone trial that reported this

  11. Factors that associated with TB patient admission rate and TB inpatient service cost: a cross-sectional study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyan Hu; Jiaying Chen; Kaori D.Sato; Yang Zhou; Hui Jiang; Pingbo Wu; Hong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background:China has recently adopted the "TB designated hospital model" to improve the quality of tuberculosis (TB) treatment and patient management.Considering that inpatient service often results in high patient financial burden,and therefore influences patient adherence to treatment,it is critical to better understand the TB patient admission rate and TB inpatient service cost,as well as their influential factors in this new model.Methods:Quantitative and qualitative studies were conducted in two cities,Hanzhong in Shaanxi Province and Zhenjiang in Jiangsu Province,in China.Quantitative data were obtained from a sample survey of 533 TB patients and TB inpatient records from 2010-2012 in six county designated hospitals.Qualitative information was obtained through interviews with key stakeholders (40 key informant interviews,14 focus group discussions) and reviews of health policy documents in study areas.Both univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were applied for the quantitative analysis,and the thematic framework approach was applied for the qualitative analysis.Results:The TB patient admission rates in Zhenjiang and Hanzhong were 54.8 and 55.9 %,respectively.Qualitative analyses revealed that financial incentives,misunderstanding of infectious disease control and failure of health insurance regulations were the key factors associated with the admission rates and medical costs.Quantitative analyses found differences in hospitalization rate existed among patients with different health insurance and patients from different counties.Average medical costs for TB inpatients in Jurong and Zhenba were 7,215 CNY and 4,644 CNY,which was higher than the 5,500 CNY and 3,800 CNY limits set by the New Rural Cooperative Medical System.No differences in medical cost or length of stay were found between patients with and without comorbidities in county-level hospitals.Conclusions:TB patient admission rates and inpatient service costs were relatively high

  12. The Predictive Validity of using Admissions Testing and Multiple Mini-interviews in Undergraduate University Admissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Havmose, Philip S.; Vang, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of a two-step admissions procedure that included a cognitive ability test followed by multiple mini-interviews (MMI) used to assess non-cognitive skills compared to a grade-based admissions relative to subsequent drop-out rates...... and academic achievement after one and two years of study. The participants consisted of the entire population of 422 psychology students who were admitted to the University of Southern Denmark between 2010 and 2013. The results showed significantly lower drop-out rates after the first year of study, and non......-significant lower drop-out rates after the second year of study for the admission procedure that included the assessment of non-cognitive skills though the MMI. Furthermore, this admission procedure resulted in a significant lower risk of failing the final exam after the first and second year of study, compared...

  13. How European Integration Is Eroding National Control over Education Planning and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Jean-Emile; Croche, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    On every continent, educational systems are considered the exclusive responsibility of individual states. Particularly in Europe, developing educational systems was viewed as an important part of nation building until World War II. After the war, however, there was a concerted effort to harmonize educational policies to protect the continent from…

  14. Network Controlled Mobility Management with Policy Enforcement towards IMT-A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klockar, Annika; Mihovska, Albena D.; Luo, Jijun

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework of mobility management and call-handling based on policy en-hancement towards the IMT-A system. The function al-location and several selected mechanisms for the frame-work are described with analysis....

  15. Association between antipsychotic/antidepressant drug treatments and hospital admissions in schizophrenia assessed using a mental health case register

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Rudolf N; Savulich, George; Mann, Louisa M; Fernández-Egea, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Background: The impact of psychotropic drug choice upon admissions for schizophrenia is not well understood. Aims: To examine the association between antipsychotic/antidepressant use and time in hospital for patients with schizophrenia. Methods: We conducted an observational study, using 8 years’ admission records and electronically generated drug histories from an institution providing secondary mental health care in Cambridgeshire, UK, covering the period 2005–2012 inclusive. Patients with a coded ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were selected. The primary outcome measure was the time spent as an inpatient in a psychiatric unit. Antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs used by at least 5% of patients overall were examined for associations with admissions. Periods before and after drug commencement were compared for patients having pre-drug admissions, in mirror-image analyses correcting for overall admission rates. Drug use in one 6-month calendar period was used to predict admissions in the next period, across all patients, in a regression analysis accounting for the effects of all other drugs studied and for time. Results: In mirror-image analyses, sulpiride, aripiprazole, clozapine, and olanzapine were associated with fewer subsequent admission days. In regression analyses, sulpiride, mirtazapine, venlafaxine, and clozapine–aripiprazole and clozapine–amisulpride combinations were associated with fewer subsequent admission days. Conclusions: Use of these drugs was associated with fewer days in hospital. Causation is not implied and these findings require confirmation by randomized controlled trials. PMID:27336041

  16. Widening educational inequalities in adolescent smoking following national tobacco control policies in the Netherlands in 2003: a time-series analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, M.A.G.; Nagelhout, G.E.; Willemsen, M.C.; Kunst, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims In 2003, the Netherlands introduced tobacco control policies, including bans on tobacco sales to minors, advertising and sponsoring and tobacco sales in government institutions. We examined the extent to which these policies were associated with a change in educational inequaliti

  17. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1995)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  18. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  19. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  20. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  1. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1992)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  2. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1999)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  3. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  4. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1994)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  5. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1998)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  6. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  7. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  8. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1996)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  9. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1993)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  10. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  11. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  12. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  13. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  14. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  15. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  16. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  17. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  18. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  19. Control of Groundwater Pollution from Animal Feeding Operations: A Farm-Level Dynamic Model for Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Baerenklau, K.

    2012-12-01

    Consolidation in livestock production generates higher farm incomes due to economies of scale, but it also brings waste disposal problems. Over-application of animal waste on adjacent land produces adverse environmental and health effects, including groundwater nitrate pollution. The situation is particularly noticeable in California. In respond to this increasingly severe problem, EPA published a type of command-and-control regulation for concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in 2003. The key component of the regulation is its nutrient management plans (NMPs), which intend to limit the land application rates of animal waste. Although previous studies provide a full perspective on potential economic impacts for CAFOs to meet nutrient standards, their models are static and fail to reflect changes in management practices other than spreading manure on additional land and changing cropping patterns. We develop a dynamic environmental-economic modeling framework for representative CAFOs. The framework incorporates four models (i.e., animal model, crop model, hydrologic model, and economic model) that include various components such as herd management, manure handling system, crop rotation, water sources, irrigation system, waste disposal options, and pollutant emissions. We also include the dynamics of soil characteristics in the rootzone as well as the spatial heterogeneity of the irrigation system. The operator maximizes discounted total farm profit over multiple periods subject to environmental regulations. Decision rules from the dynamic optimization problem demonstrate best management practices for CAFOs to improve their economic and environmental performance. Results from policy simulations suggest that direct quantity restrictions of emission or incentive-based emission policies are much more cost-effective than the standard approach of limiting the amount of animal waste that may be applied to fields (as shown in the figure below); reason being

  20. Future respiratory hospital admissions from wildfire smoke under climate change in the Western US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco Liu, Jia; Mickley, Loretta J.; Sulprizio, Melissa P.; Yue, Xu; Peng, Roger D.; Dominici, Francesca; Bell, Michelle L.

    2016-12-01

    Background. Wildfires are anticipated to be more frequent and intense under climate change. As a result, wildfires may emit more air pollutants that can harm health in communities in the future. The health impacts of wildfire smoke under climate change are largely unknown. Methods. We linked projections of future levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) specifically from wildfire smoke under the A1B climate change scenario using the GEOS-Chem model for 2046-2051, present-day estimates of hospital admission impacts from wildfire smoke, and future population projections to estimate the change in respiratory hospital admissions for persons ≥65 years by county (n = 561) from wildfire PM2.5 under climate change in the Western US. Results. The increase in intense wildfire smoke days from climate change would result in an estimated 178 (95% confidence interval: 6.2, 361) additional respiratory hospital admissions in the Western US, accounting for estimated future increase in the elderly population. Climate change is estimated to impose an additional 4990 high-pollution smoke days. Central Colorado, Washington and southern California are estimated to experience the highest percentage increase in respiratory admissions from wildfire smoke under climate change. Conclusion. Although the increase in number of respiratory admissions from wildfire smoke seems modest, these results provide important scientific evidence of an often-ignored aspect of wildfire impact, and information on their anticipated spatial distribution. Wildfires can cause serious social burdens such as property damage and suppression cost, but can also raise health problems. The results provide information that can be incorporated into development of environmental and health policies in response to climate change. Climate change adaptation policies could incorporate scientific evidence on health risks from natural disasters such as wildfires.

  1. Equity of Access. New Approaches to Minority Admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Rebecca Saady

    1978-01-01

    One new approach to the admission of minorities to medical schools is that of the Simulated Minority Admission Exercises (SMAE). It sensitizes admission committee members to the different backgrounds of minority applicants and teaches them to evaluate them more effectively. (Author/AM)

  2. Reclaiming the Educational Role of Chief Admission Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Patricia; Robertson, Larry

    1995-01-01

    Describes changes that have occurred in high schools, colleges, and the entrepreneurial admission sector. Relates the evolution of the admission officer's job since the early 1960s and the profession's rapid growth. Details the hybrid role of marketer and educator for chief admissions officers, and issues a call for professional standards. (RJM)

  3. 22 CFR 142.42 - Admissions and recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... who has a handicap that impairs sensory, manual, or speaking skills, the test results accurately... denied admission or be subjected to discrimination in admission or recruitment by a recipient to which... persons who may be admitted; (2) May not make use of any test or criterion for admission that has...

  4. 22 CFR 217.42 - Admissions and recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applicant who has a handicap that impairs sensory, manual, or speaking skills, the test results accurately... denied admission or be subjected to discrimination in admission or recruitment by a recipient to which... who may be admitted; (2) May not make use of any test or criterion for admission that has...

  5. Admission criteria and diversity in medical school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Vonsild, Maria; Wallstedt, Birgitta;

    2013-01-01

    of students admitted via the two tracks between the years 2002-2007. Method: This prospective cohort study included 1074 medical students admitted between the years 2002-2007 to the University of Southern Denmark (USD) medical school. Of these, 454 were admitted by grade-based selection and 620 were selected......Introduction: The underrepresentation of students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds in medical education is an important social issue. There is currently little evidence about whether changes in admission strategy could increase the diversity of medical students. Denmark introduced an “attribute......-based or attribute-based) had no statistically significant effect on the social diversity of medical students admitted to USD. Discussion: It may be a myth that attribute-based admission widens access and increases social diversity. To the contrary, there is evidence that combining grade-based with attribute...

  6. Data Sharing for Context-Sensitive Access Control Policy Evaluation and Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rasheed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Context-awareness has long been an important building block in designing systems that vary their operating behavior based on an analysis of rapidly changing operating conditions. There is the need however to define context more formally so that context data-sharing can take place between systems and more complex interactions between connected systems can be developed. The area of computer security is examined in particular as an area where the representation and sharing of context data can lead to more effective policy enforcement. A framework is proposed for sharing data between assessment sensors and enforcement mechanisms in order to facilitate more accurate policy enforcement. A detailed performance analysis of the proposed system is offered along with conclusions on the feasibility of such systems.

  7. Conventional Arms Control and American Policy in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Norfolk, Virginia , 2 June 1999, p. 7. 24 General Wesley K. Clark. Waging Modern War. (New York: Public Affairs, 2001), pp. 293-294. 25 Frankfurter...Weapons in U.S. Foreign and Defense Policy. (Washington: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1993), p. 27. 87 Amy F. Woolf , ―Nonstrategic...99 Ibid. See also Woolf , p. 12. 100 Dorn Crawford. Conventional Armed

  8. Lie Admissible Non-Associative Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Mohammad Ahmadi; Ki-Bong Nam; Jonathan Pakinathan

    2005-01-01

    A non-associative ring which contains a well-known associative ring or Lie ring is interesting. In this paper, a method to construct a Lie admissible non-associative ring is given; a class of simple non-associative algebras is obtained; all the derivations of the non-associative simple N0,0,1 algebra defined in this paper are determined; and finally, a solid algebra is defined.

  9. THE OBJECT OF THE ADMISSION OF GUILT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin NEDELCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at studying how elements of negotiated justice specific to common law systems entered into the Romanian criminal procedural law system. It particularly deals with the admission of guilt and about one of its most controversial aspects – the object of recognition. The research concludes that what is recognized within this simplified procedure it is the deed and not its legal classification given by the criminal prosecution bodies.

  10. Intelligent control of a sensor-actuator system via kernelized least-squares policy iteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Chen, Sanfeng; Li, Shuai; Liang, Yongsheng

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a new framework, called Compressive Kernelized Reinforcement Learning (CKRL), for computing near-optimal policies in sequential decision making with uncertainty is proposed via incorporating the non-adaptive data-independent Random Projections and nonparametric Kernelized Least-squares Policy Iteration (KLSPI). Random Projections are a fast, non-adaptive dimensionality reduction framework in which high-dimensionality data is projected onto a random lower-dimension subspace via spherically random rotation and coordination sampling. KLSPI introduce kernel trick into the LSPI framework for Reinforcement Learning, often achieving faster convergence and providing automatic feature selection via various kernel sparsification approaches. In this approach, policies are computed in a low-dimensional subspace generated by projecting the high-dimensional features onto a set of random basis. We first show how Random Projections constitute an efficient sparsification technique and how our method often converges faster than regular LSPI, while at lower computational costs. Theoretical foundation underlying this approach is a fast approximation of Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). Finally, simulation results are exhibited on benchmark MDP domains, which confirm gains both in computation time and in performance in large feature spaces.

  11. Intelligent Control of a Sensor-Actuator System via Kernelized Least-Squares Policy Iteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new framework, called Compressive Kernelized Reinforcement Learning (CKRL, for computing near-optimal policies in sequential decision making with uncertainty is proposed via incorporating the non-adaptive data-independent Random Projections and nonparametric Kernelized Least-squares Policy Iteration (KLSPI. Random Projections are a fast, non-adaptive dimensionality reduction framework in which high-dimensionality data is projected onto a random lower-dimension subspace via spherically random rotation and coordination sampling. KLSPI introduce kernel trick into the LSPI framework for Reinforcement Learning, often achieving faster convergence and providing automatic feature selection via various kernel sparsification approaches. In this approach, policies are computed in a low-dimensional subspace generated by projecting the high-dimensional features onto a set of random basis. We first show how Random Projections constitute an efficient sparsification technique and how our method often converges faster than regular LSPI, while at lower computational costs. Theoretical foundation underlying this approach is a fast approximation of Singular Value Decomposition (SVD. Finally, simulation results are exhibited on benchmark MDP domains, which confirm gains both in computation time and in performance in large feature spaces.

  12. Characteristics of delayed admission to stroke unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Parnetti, Lucilla; Tambasco, Nicola; Corea, Francesco; Capocchi, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    Early admission to stroke unit (SU) and factors that may cause admission delay represent relevant issues to obtain an optimal management of acute stroke. This study was aimed at recording timing from clinical onset to admission to our SU and to identify the reasons for delay. We prospectively examined acute stroke patients consecutively admitted to the Perugia SU. Baseline characteristics of stroke patients, stroke type and etiology, time from symptom onset to arrival in the SU were obtained from the Hospital-Based Perugia Stroke Registry. 60.8% of 2,213 consecutive stroke patients admitted to the SU arrived within 6 hrs and 39.2% after 6 hrs. Underestimation of symptoms was the cause of delay in 48.7% of cases. Younger age, especially for females, ischemic stroke, mild and/or unspecific symptoms and the underestimation of symptoms seem to be the main reasons for delayed arrival in the SU. To increase the proportion of stroke patients arriving in the SU within 3 hr of symptom onset, it is necessary to improve public and general practitioner awareness of stroke through educational programs.

  13. Perceived coercion in voluntary hospital admission.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, Brian

    2014-01-30

    The legal status of service users admitted to psychiatric wards is not synonymous with the level of coercion that they can perceive during the admission. This study aimed to identify and describe the proportion of individuals who were admitted voluntarily but experienced levels of perceived coercion comparable to those admitted involuntarily. Individuals admitted voluntarily and involuntarily to three psychiatric hospitals were interviewed using the MacArthur Admission Experience Interview and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses. One hundered sixty-one individuals were interviewed and 22% of the voluntarily admitted service users had levels of perceived coercion similar to that of the majority of involuntarily admitted service users. Voluntarily admitted service users who experienced high levels of perceived coercion were more likely to have more severe psychotic symptoms, have experienced more negative pressures and less procedural justices on admission. Individuals brought to hospital under mental health legislation but who subsequently agreed to be admitted voluntarily and those treated on a secure ward also reported higher levels of perceived coercion. It needs to be ensured that if any service user, whether voluntary or involuntary, experiences treatment pressures or coercion that there is sufficient oversight of the practice, to ensure that individual\\'s rights are respected.

  14. Chapitre 13. Overview of Current Public Policies

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Current Public Policies, Rules and Legislation – especially European ones – With Regard to Highly Skilled Immigration, Nationality Regimes, Stay Rights, etc.Binod Khadria Introduction: Three Levels of Public Policies Policies and programs adopted by the developed receiving countries – mainly the United States, Canada, Australia, and the European Union (EU) countries – for the admission of foreign workers with a view to facilitating and/or regulating high-skill immigration fall into three broa...

  15. The role of the asthma nurse in treatment compliance and self-management following hospital admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, A H; Wrench, C

    2001-11-01

    Effective self-management and treatment compliance is important in achieving good symptom control in asthma. The aim of this study was to determine whether asthma nurse intervention during hospital admission could increase knowledge and improve self-management and whether this would influence the number of emergency call-out visits by Genera Practitioners (GPs) and hospital re-admissions. Patients with acute asthma (n=80) were assessed by the asthma nurse within 24 h of admission using a British Thoracic Society (BTS) guideline-based questionnaire. Main outcome measures were: know edge of inhalers, self-management plans, peak flow monitoring, recognition of worsening symptoms and appropriate emergency action, Following randomization, half received nurse intervention during hospitalization. All received a follow-up questionnaire 6 weeks post-discharge and again at 6 months (response rates 86% and 81% respectively). GPs were contacted by postal questionnaire after 4 months. Questionnaire responses indicated an increase in knowledge in the intervention group, along with an ability to identify appropriate action on worsening symptoms. Emergency GP call-outs were more frequent in the control group in the 4 months post-discharge. Hospital re-admission rates were similar in both groups. Asthma nurse intervention appeared to increase knowledge of asthma management, maintained throughout the study period, but had no significant impact on reducing re-admissions to hospital.

  16. Houston's Novel Strategy to Control Hazardous Air Pollutants: A Case Study in Policy Innovation and Political Stalemate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H

    2015-01-01

    Although ambient concentrations have declined steadily over the past 30 years, Houston has recorded some of the highest levels of hazardous air pollutants in the United States. Nevertheless, federal and state regulatory efforts historically have emphasized compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone, treating "air toxics" in Houston as a residual problem to be solved through application of technology-based standards. Between 2004 and 2009, Mayor Bill White and his administration challenged the well-established hierarchy of air quality management spelled out in the Clean Air Act, whereby federal and state authorities are assigned primacy over local municipalities for the purpose of designing and implementing air pollution control strategies. The White Administration believed that existing regulations were not sufficient to protect the health of Houstonians and took a diversity of both collaborative and combative policy actions to mitigate air toxic emissions from stationary sources. Opposition was substantial from a local coalition of entrenched interests satisfied with the status quo, which hindered the city's attempts to take unilateral policy actions. In the short term, the White Administration successfully raised the profile of the air toxics issue, pushed federal and state regulators to pay more attention, and induced a few polluting facilities to reduce emissions. But since White left office in 2010, air quality management in Houston has returned to the way it was before, and today there is scant evidence that his policies have had any lasting impact.

  17. On the Transmission Mechanism of the Chinese Land Policy in Macroeconomic-control: A Theoretical Study Based on Modified IS-LM Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linlin; DIAO; Jinming; YAN

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to bring land factor into the general fame of national product and develop a new modified‘IS-LM equilibrium model’,aiming to find out the impacts of land factor on the effective allocation of capital between total supply and total demand constituting gross national product,to analyze the relation mechanism among land factor and macroeconomic variables,and to discuss the theoretical mechanism under which land,fiscal and monetary policy are integrated. Methods employed include econometrics and model analysis. The results indicate that:( i) on the conditions that the equilibrium of supply and demand in land market,the modified IS-LM model taking into account land factor successfully performs transmission mechanism of land policy participation in macroeconomic-control by means of money capital regulation;( ii) the direction and intensity of land policy control are effected by elasticity of land supply and land price,meanwhile different characteristics of land supply elasticity exit in different stages of economic development;( iii) the realization of IS-LM equilibrium requires the aggregate effects of fiscal,monetary and land policy. It is concluded that land policies for macroeconomic-control drives land price higher,and land supply regulation would diminish financial effect. During the economic expansion or recovery period,the effect of expansionary land policy would be counteracted by high land price. During the economic transition or recession period,the government could control economical operation better through tightening land policy.

  18. Past and future cadmium emissions from municipal solid-waste incinerators in Japan for the assessment of cadmium control policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Kyoko, E-mail: kyoko.ono@aist.go.jp

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Cd emissions from municipal solid waste incinerators were estimated for 1970–2030. • Emissions peaked in 1973 (11.1 t) at levels ten times that in 2010 (1.2 t). • In the 1970s, the main source was pigments, but after 2000, it was Ni-Cd batteries. • The effects of two Cd control policies were compared. • Banning Cd use reduced emissions more than intensive collection of batteries. -- Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is a harmful pollutant emitted from municipal solid-waste incinerators (MSWIs). Cd stack emissions from MSWIs have been estimated between 1970 and 2030 in Japan. The aims of this study are to quantify emitted Cd by category and to analyze Cd control policies to reduce emissions. Emissions were estimated using a dynamic substance flow analysis (SFA) that took into account representative waste treatment flows and historical changes in emission factors. This work revealed that the emissions peaked in 1973 (11.1 t) and were ten times those in 2010 (1.2 t). Emission from MSWIs was two-thirds of that from non-ferrous smelting in 2010. The main Cd emission source was pigment use in the 1970s, but after 2000 it had shifted to nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries. Future emissions were estimated for 2030. Compared to the business-as-usual scenario, an intensive collection of used Ni-Cd batteries and a ban on any future use of Ni-Cd batteries will reduce emissions by 0.09 and 0.31 t, respectively, in 2030. This approach enables us to identify the major Cd emission source from MSWIs, and to prioritize the possible Cd control policies.

  19. Glycated hemoglobin A: A predictor of outcome in trauma admissions to intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Ruby Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Although large studies have demonstrated the association between hyperglycemia and adverse intensive care unit (ICU outcomes, it is yet unclear which subset of patients benefit from tight sugar control in ICU. Recent evidence suggests that stress induced hyperglycemia (SIH and co-incidentally detected diabetes mellitus are different phenomena with different prognoses. Differentiating SIH from diabetic hyperglycemia is challenging in ICU settings. We followed a cohort of trauma patients admitted to a surgical intensive care unit (SICU to evaluate if initial glycated hemoglobin A (HbA 1 c level predicts the outcome of admission. Materials and Methods: A cohort of 120 consecutive admissions to SICU following trauma were recruited and admission blood sugar and HbA 1 c were measured. Outcomes were prospectively measured by blinded ICU doctors. A logistic regression model was developed to assess if HbA 1 c predicts poor outcomes in these settings. Results: Nearly 24% of the participants had HbA 1 c ≥ 6. Those with HbA 1 c ≥ 6 had 3.14 times greater risk of poor outcome at the end of hospital stay when compared to those with HbA 1 c < 6 and this risk increased to an odds ratio of 4.57 on adjusting for other significant predictors: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, injury severity score, admission blood sugar and age at admission. Conclusions: Substantial proportion of trauma admissions has underlying diabetes. HbA 1 c, a measure of pre admission glycaemic status is an important predictor of ICU outcome in trauma patients.

  20. Of special humanitarian concern: U.S. refugee admissions since passage of the Refugee Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, D; Forbes, S; Fagan, P W

    1986-01-01

    The Refugee Act of 1980 is the 1st comprehensive legislation on the admission of refugees to the US; in the 5+ years since its enactment, over 500,000 refugees from more than 25 countries have been admitted to the US. This report assesses the effectiveness of the law in achieving its objectives in making and implementing decisions about the admission of refugees. The objectives of the Act include 1) a desire for a humanitarian response to refugee emergencies and a desire for control over that response, 2) a concern that ideological and geographic restrictions on refugee admissions be removed, and 3) a desire to balance international concerns and domestic impacts in making decisions on refugee admissions. The authors conclude that the refugee program does not serve the broad humanitarian purposes of previous parole programs, due to its stringent review requirements. The formal Congressional Consultations on refugee numbers should be rescheduled to allow regular Congressional input. The program needs a contingency budget for changing situations. The program needs more input from nongovernmental agencies and information sources. Recommendations on refugee admission numbers and allocations have not been well substantiated. Determinations as to which refugees are of "special humanitarian concern" are made solely on the basis of nationality; these decisions should also incorporate other factors. Admissions priorities are generally based on ties to this country, but this makes the refugee program a surrogate immigration program. Although the application of the refugee definition is difficult in practice, it forms the essence of the admission process. US staff must be trained to make these decisions; indecisiveness must not be allowed to jeopardize refugees.

  1. Sensitive But Unclassified Information and Other Controls: Policy and Options for Scientific and Technical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-14

    National Laboratory, a Department of Energy affiliated national laboratory, in “F.A.Q. Mozart ,” at [http://www.pnl.gov/isrc / mozart /faq.html]. 2...within the scientific community....” This policy is reflected in Executive Order 12958. NSDD-189 is still in effect , as stated in a letter from the... effect increased from 4,736 in 2001 to 4,885 in 2004 (p. 5) However, it is likely that most of these were recommended by, and issued to, federal agencies

  2. Filippov Ratio-Dependent Prey-Predator Model with Threshold Policy Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghong Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Filippov ratio-dependent prey-predator model with economic threshold is proposed and studied. In particular, the sliding mode domain, sliding mode dynamics, and the existence of four types of equilibria and tangent points are investigated firstly. Further, the stability of pseudoequilibrium is addressed by using theoretical and numerical methods, and also the local sliding bifurcations including regular/virtual equilibrium bifurcations and boundary node bifurcations are studied. Finally, some global sliding bifurcations are addressed numerically. The globally stable touching cycle indicates that the density of pest population can be successfully maintained below the economic threshold level by designing suitable threshold policy strategies.

  3. Anger, Sadness and Fear in Response to Breaking Crime and Accident News Stories: How Emotions Influence Support for Alcohol-Control Public Policies via Concern about Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solloway, Tyler; Slater, Michael D; Chung, Adrienne; Goodall, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Prior research shows that discrete emotions, notably anger and fear, can explain effects of news articles on health and alcohol-control policy support. This study advances prior work by coding expressed emotional responses to messages (as opposed to directly manipulated emotions or forced responses), incorporating and controlling for central thoughts, including sadness (a particularly relevant response to tragic stories), and examining concern's mediating role between emotion and policy support. An experiment with a national online adult panel had participants read one of 60 violent crime or accident news stories, each manipulated to mention or withhold alcohol's causal contribution. Multi-group structural equation models suggest that stories not mentioning alcohol had a direct effect on policy support via fear and central thoughts, unmediated by concern. When alcohol was mentioned, sadness and anger affects alcohol-control support through concern. Findings help confirm that emotional responses are key in determining news story effects on public support of health policies.

  4. Infinite horizon self-learning optimal control of nonaffine discrete-time nonlinear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qinglai; Liu, Derong; Yang, Xiong

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a novel iterative adaptive dynamic programming (ADP)-based infinite horizon self-learning optimal control algorithm, called generalized policy iteration algorithm, is developed for nonaffine discrete-time (DT) nonlinear systems. Generalized policy iteration algorithm is a general idea of interacting policy and value iteration algorithms of ADP. The developed generalized policy iteration algorithm permits an arbitrary positive semidefinite function to initialize the algorithm, where two iteration indices are used for policy improvement and policy evaluation, respectively. It is the first time that the convergence, admissibility, and optimality properties of the generalized policy iteration algorithm for DT nonlinear systems are analyzed. Neural networks are used to implement the developed algorithm. Finally, numerical examples are presented to illustrate the performance of the developed algorithm.

  5. Políticas públicas de nutrição para o controle da obesidade infantil Policies on nutrition for controlling childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Eduardo G Reis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar criticamente as políticas públicas de nutrição brasileiras no controle da obesidade infantil. FONTES DE DADOS: Buscaram-se artigos, ensaios, resenhas, resoluções e legislações nas bases SciELO, Lilacs, PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Sistema de Legislação em Saúde e Legislação em Vigilância Sanitária, que abordavam políticas públicas de nutrição brasileiras no controle da obesidade infantil, publicados entre 1990 e 2010. Foram utilizadas as palavras-chaves: "obesidade", "sobrepeso", "criança", "escolar(es", "políticas públicas", "política de saúde", "política de nutrição", "cantina escolar", "alimentação escolar", "propaganda de alimentos", "publicidade de alimentos", "rótulos alimentares", em português e em inglês. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O governo brasileiro, nos últimos anos, tem promulgado ações de promoção de saúde que visam ao combate da obesidade infantil, como o Programa Saúde na Escola, o Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar, a Regulamentação dos Alimentos Comercializados nas Cantinas Escolares, o Projeto Escola Saudável, a Promoção da Alimentação Saudável nas Escolas, os Dez Passos para a Promoção da Alimentação Saudável nas Escolas e a Regulamentação de Propaganda e Publicidade de Alimentos. Observa-se a necessidade de implementar e de fiscalizar as leis e regulamentações para o controle da obesidade infantil no Brasil, além de promover a alimentação saudável, nos aspectos que envolvem o público infantil. CONCLUSÕES: O projeto, o planejamento, a implementação e a gestão dessas políticas devem se apoiar na busca da transformação do problema social da obesidade.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the Brazilian nutrition public policies on the control of childhood obesity. DATA SOURCES: Articles, essays, reviews and laws in SciELO, Lilacs, PubMed, Virtual Health Library, System Health Legislation and Sanitary Surveillance Legislation between 1990 and 2010

  6. College-age twins: university admission policies / twin research: birth weight and neuromotor performance; transfusion syndrome markers; vanishing twins and fetal sex determination; mz twin discordance for wilson's disease / media: big at birth; planned separation of conjoined twins; x factor twins; Cinema: the identical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2014-12-01

    There is a lack of research findings addressing the unique college admissions issues faced by twins and other multiples. The advantages and disadvantage twins face, as reported by college administrators, twins and families are reviewed. Next, recent research addressing twins' birth weight and neuromotor performance, transfusion syndrome markers, the vanishing twin syndrome and monozygotic (MZ) twin discordance for Wilson's disease is described. News items concerning the birth of unusually large twins, the planned separation of conjoined twins, twin participants in the X Factor games and a film, The Identical, are also summarized.

  7. Evaluation of diesel fleet emissions and control policies from plume chasing measurements of on-road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chui Fong; Rakowska, Agata; Townsend, Thomas; Brimblecombe, Peter; Chan, Tat Leung; Yam, Yat Shing; Močnik, Griša; Ning, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Vehicle emissions are an important source of urban air pollution. Diesel fuelled vehicles, although constituting a relatively small fraction of fleet population in many cities, are significant contributors to the emission inventory due to their often long mileage for goods and public transport. Recent classification of diesel exhaust as carcinogenic by the World Health Organization also raises attention to more stringent control of diesel emissions to protect public health. Although various mandatory and voluntary based emission control measures have been implemented in Hong Kong, there have been few investigations to evaluate if the fleet emission characteristics have met desired emission reduction objectives and if adoption of an Inspection/Maintenance (I/M) programme has been effective in achieving these objectives. The limitations are partially due to the lack of cost-effective approaches for the large scale characterisation of fleet based emissions to assess the effectiveness of control measures and policy. This study has used a plume chasing method to collect a large amount of on-road vehicle emission data of Hong Kong highways and a detailed analysis was carried out to provide a quantitative evaluation of the emission characteristics in terms of the role of high and super-emitters in total emission reduction, impact of after-treatment on the multi-pollutants reduction strategy and the trend of NO2 emissions with newer emission standards. The study revealed that not all the high-emitters are from those vehicles of older Euro emission standards. Meanwhile, there is clear evidence that high-emitters for one pollutant may not be a high-emitter for another pollutant. Multi-pollutant control strategy needs to be considered in the enactment of the emission control policy which requires more comprehensive retrofitting technological solutions and matching I/M programme to ensure the proper maintenance of fleets. The plume chasing approach used in this study also

  8. Optimal Control of the D-Policy M/G/1 Queueing System with Server Breakdowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsiung Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with a single server in the D-policy M/G/1 queueing system in which the server is turned off at the end of each complete period and is activated again only when the cumulative completion times of the customers in the system exceeds a given level D. While the server is working, he is subject to breakdowns according to a Poisson process. When the server breaks down, he requires repair at a repair facility, where the repair time obeys a general distribution. We have demonstrated that the probability that the server is busy in the steady-state is equal to the traffic intensity. The total expected cost function per customer per unit time is constructed to determine the optimal operating D-policy at a minimum cost. We use the steady-state analytic results and apply an efficient Matlab computer program to calculate the optimal value of D. Based on three different service distributions: exponential, 3-stage Erlang and deterministic, we provide extensive numerical computation for illustration purpose. Sensitivity analysis is also investigated.

  9. Environmental policy in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, Shigeto; Weidner, H. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    This book deals in English with the most important features of Japanese environmental policy in a number of individual articles by different authors. The various sections report on: 1. History and organization of environmental policy; 2. The role of non-governmental actors in environmental policy (large industries); 3. Special features of environmental policies and problems; 4. Classical pollution control areas: Regulations and effects; 5. Environmental problems in a broader perspective (nature conservation); 6. Policy areas with influence on environmental quality; 7. Environmental monitoring and reporting; 8. Japanese environmental policy in an international perspective (preventive policies, developing countries). (HSCH).

  10. Examining Implementation of Tobacco Control Policy at the District Level: A Case Study Analysis from a High Burden State in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Persai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. While extensive scientific evidence exists on the tobacco epidemic, a lack of understanding of both policies and their appropriate way of implementation continues to hinder effective tobacco control. This is especially so in the developing countries such as India. The present study aims to understand current implementation practices and the challenges faced in mainstreaming tobacco control policy and program. Methods. We chose a qualitative study design to conduct the case analysis. A total of 42 in-depth interviews were undertaken with seven district officials in six districts of Andhra Pradesh. A conceptual framework was developed by applying grounded theory for analysis. Analysis was undertaken using case analysis approach. Results and Discussion. Our study revealed that most program managers were unfamiliar with the comprehensive tobacco control policy. Respondents have an ambiguous opinion regarding integration of tobacco control program into existing health and development programs. Respondents perceive lack of resources, low prioritization of tobacco control, and lack of monitoring and evaluation of smoke-free laws as limiting factors affecting implementation of tobacco control policy. Conclusion. The findings of this study highlighted the need for a systematic, organized action plan for effective implementation of tobacco control policy and program.

  11. Air pollution and hospital admissions for asthma in a tropical city: Kaohsiung, Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang-Shyue Tsai; Meng-Hsuan Cheng; Hui-Fen Chiu; Trong-Neng Wu; Chun-Yuh Yang [I-Shou University, Kaohsiung (Taiwan). Department of Health Care Administration

    2006-07-15

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there is an association between air pollutants levels and hospital admissions for asthma in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for asthma and ambient air pollution data for Kaohsiung were obtained for the period from 1996 through 2003. The relative risk of hospital admission was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. In the single-pollutant models, on warm days ({>=}25{sup o}C) statistically significant positive associations were found in all pollutants except sulfur dioxide. On cool days ({<=} 25{sup o}C) all pollutants were significantly associated with asthma admissions. For the two pollutant models, CO and O{sub 3} were significant in combination with each of the other four pollutants on warm days. On cool days NO{sub 2} remained statistically significant in all the two-pollutant models. This study provides evidence that higher levels of ambient pollutants increase the risk of hospital admissions for asthma.

  12. Psychosocial impact of alternative management policies for low-grade cervical abnormalities: results from the TOMBOLA randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Sharp

    -points. CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in the longer-term psychosocial impact of management policies based on cytological surveillance or initial colposcopy. Policy-makers, clinicians, and women themselves can be reassured that neither management policy has a significantly greater psychosocial cost. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN 34841617.

  13. Local Medicaid home- and community-based services spending and nursing home admissions of younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kali S; Keohane, Laura; Mor, Vincent

    2014-11-01

    We used fixed-effect models to examine the relationship between local spending on home- and community-based services (HCBSs) for cash-assisted Medicaid-only disabled (CAMOD) adults and younger adult admissions to nursing homes in the United States during 2001 through 2008, with control for facility and market characteristics and secular trends. We found that increased CAMOD Medicaid HCBS spending at the local level is associated with decreased admissions of younger adults to nursing homes. Our findings suggest that states' efforts to expand HCBS for this population should continue.

  14. Racial disparities in receiving total hip/knee replacement surgery: the effect of hospital admission sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Rizzo, John A; Parasuraman, Shreekant; Gunnarsson, Candace

    2013-02-01

    Using a nationally-representative inpatient care dataset (the HCUP National Inpatient Sample from 2002 to 2007) we examined racial disparities in receiving total hip replacement (THR) and total knee replacement (TKR) surgeries. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed that racial minorities were significantly less likely to receive THR or TKR than Whites, controlling for patients' hospital admission source and hospital characteristics. Employing Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition techniques, we found that observed difference in population characteristics explained 55%-67% and 78% of the racial disparities in THR and TKR, respectively. Differences in patients' hospital admission source emerged as the major individual factor associated with these disparities, explaining 57%-77% of racial disparities in THR and 26%-50% of racial disparities in TKR. This study suggests that substantive racial and ethnic disparities exist in utilization of THR and TKR surgery. Observed population characteristics accounted for most of these differences, with hospital admission source being the key factor.

  15. Win–Win strategies to promote air pollutant control policies and non-fossil energy target regulation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lining; Patel, Pralit L.; Yu, Sha; Liu, Bo; Mcleod, Jeffrey D.; Clarke, Leon E.; Chen, Wenying

    2016-02-01

    The rapid growth of energy consumption in China has led to increased emissions of air pollutants. As a response, in its 12th Five Year Plan the Chinese government proposed mitigation targets for SO2 and NOx emissions. Herein we have investigated mitigation measures taken in different sectors and their corresponding impacts on the energy system. Additionally, as non-fossil energy development has gained traction in addressing energy and environmental challenges in China, we further investigated the impact of non-fossil energy development on air pollutant emissions, and then explored interactions and co-benefits between these two types of policies. An extended Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) was used in this study, which includes an additional air pollutant emissions control module coupling multiple end-of-pipe (EOP) control technologies with energy technologies, as well as more detailed end-use sectors in China. We find that implementing EOP control technologies would reduce air pollution in the near future, but with little room left to implement these EOP technologies, other cleaner and more efficient technologies are also effective. These technologies would reduce final energy consumption, increase electricity’s share in final energy, and increase the share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy and electricity consumption. Increasing non-fossil energy usage at China’s proposed adoption rate would in turn also reduce SO2 and NOx emissions, however, the reductions from this policy alone still lag behind the targeted requirements of air pollutant reduction. Fortunately, a combination of air pollutant controls and non-fossil energy development could synergistically help realize the respective individual targets, and would result in lower costs than would addressing these issues separately.

  16. Clinical audit indicators of outcome following admission to hospital with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Background: The 1997 BTS/RCP national audit of acute chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in terms of process of care has previously been reported. This paper describes from the same cases the outcomes of death, readmission rates within 3 months of initial admission, and length of stay. Identification of the main pre-admission predictors of outcome may be used to control for confounding factors in population characteristics when comparing performance between units.

  17. Assessing the effect of desertification controlling projects and policies in northern Shaanxi Province, China by integrating remote sensing and farmer investigation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Duanyang; Song, Alin; Song, Xiao

    2016-11-01

    To combat desertification, the Chinese government has launched a series of Desertification Controlling Projects and Policies over the past several decades. However, the effect of these projects and policies remains controversial due to a lack of suitable methods and data to assess them. In this paper, the authors selected the farmingpastoral region of the northern Shaanxi Province in China as a sample region and attempted to assess the effect of Desertification Controlling Projects and Policies launched after 2000 by combining remote sensing and farmer investigation data. The results showed that the combination of these two complementary assessments can provide comprehensive information to support decision-making. According to the remote sensing and Net Primary Production data, the research region experienced an obvious desertification reversion between 2000 and 2010, and approximately 70% of this reversion can be explained by Desertification Controlling Projects and Policies. Farmer investigation data also indicated that these projects and policies were the dominating factor contributing to desertification reversion, and approximately 70% of investigated farmers agreed with this conclusion. However, low supervision and subsidy levels were issues that limited the policy effect. Therefore, it is necessary for the government to enhance supervision, raise subsidy levels, and develop environmental protection regulations to encourage more farmers to participate in desertification control.

  18. Re-casting the FAC Net: People, Platforms, and Policy in Forward Air Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    supporting fighters are waiting to help. Additionally, FACs coordinate supporting aircraft by acting as airborne air traffic controllers . They must know...units and provide control as required to increase the effectiveness of close air support. FAC(A)s provided an elevated reconnaissance platform to see...case enemy fighters attacked while aircraft low on fuel dropped their ordnance quickly. TAC-As acted as air traffic controllers to accomplish this

  19. Industrial Policy Approaches from Theory to Practice in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dachin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The main debate about industrial policy consists of the attitude regarding the role of state versus market. The admission of possible market failures was the inspiration source for policies in the field of competition strengthening, supply of public goods, overcoming the deficit of capital etc. The general objectives of industrial policy may vary from the absolute role of the market to the market control. The European Community has applied a diversity of policies, differentiated from one period to another, in connection with the competition pressure on the world market and with the European integration stages. The EC had at its beginning a complete faith in the market mechanism, then a period of protectionism followed, as an answer to the oil shock and to the pressure of competition on international markets, especially coming from large American and Japanese companies. During the period 1985-1990, the European Community began to establish an industrial policy to encourage partnership between European companies and to promote cooperation in the field of research and development. In 1990 the European Commission proposed a new coherent concept of market oriented industrial policy, according to the model of neutral policy. Industrial policy is strongly connected to the competition policy. Especially after 1995, there have been signs of worry about the lower competitiveness in terms of productivity growth rate, expenditures for research and innovation capacity compared to USA and Japan. In addition, the European industry must face the competition pressure coming from the emergence of countries, mainly those from South-East Asia. In this context, the key factor which ensures a favorable perspective for the industry is competitiveness. This also implies expected positive effects of EU enlargement. The decision to sustain competitiveness was already taken in Lisbon, where a modern strategy was presented. Its priorities are the creation of a suitable

  20. Industrial Policy Approaches from Theory to Practice in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dachin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main debate about industrial policy consists of the attitude regarding the role of state versus market. The admission of possible market failures was the inspiration source for policies in the field of competition strengthening, supply of public goods, overcoming the deficit of capital etc. The general objectives of industrial policy may vary from the absolute role of the market to the market control. The European Community has applied a diversity of policies, differentiated from one period to another, in connection with the competition pressure on the world market and with the European integration stages. The EC had at its beginning a complete faith in the market mechanism, then a period of protectionism followed, as an answer to the oil shock and to the pressure of competition on international markets, especially coming from large American and Japanese companies. During the period 1985-1990, the European Community began to establish an industrial policy to encourage partnership between European companies and to promote cooperation in the field of research and development. In 1990 the European Commission proposed a new coherent concept of market oriented industrial policy, according to the model of neutral policy. Industrial policy is strongly connected to the competition policy. Especially after 1995, there have been signs of worry about the lower competitiveness in terms of productivity growth rate, expenditures for research and innovation capacity compared to USA and Japan. In addition, the European industry must face the competition pressure coming from the emergence of countries, mainly those from South-East Asia. In this context, the key factor which ensures a favorable perspective for the industry is competitiveness. This also implies expected positive effects of EU enlargement. The decision to sustain competitiveness was already taken in Lisbon, where a modern strategy was presented. Its priorities are the creation of a suitable

  1. Modelling and Analysing Access Control Policies in XACML 3.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana

    XACML (eXtensible Access Control Markup Language) is a prominent access control language that is widely adopted both in industry and academia. XACML is an international standard in the field of information security. The problem with XACML is that its specification is described in natural language...

  2. Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennen, Els; Nagelhout, Gera E; van den Putte, Bas; Janssen, Eva; Mons, Ute; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; de Vries, Hein; Thrasher, James F; Willemsen, Marc C

    2014-02-01

    This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and Germany were used from two survey waves of the longitudinal International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys. Associations were examined of aspects of social unacceptability of smoking (i.e. feeling uncomfortable, important people disapproval and societal disapproval) with tobacco policy awareness (i.e. awareness of warning labels, anti-tobacco information and smoking restrictions at work) and smoking cessation. Only the positive association of awareness of anti-tobacco information with feeling uncomfortable about smoking was significant in each of the three countries. Important people disapproval predicted whether smokers attempted to quit, although this did not reach significance in the French and German samples in multivariate analyses. Our findings suggest that anti-tobacco information campaigns about the dangers of second-hand smoke in France and about smoking cessation in the Netherlands and Germany might have reduced the social acceptability of smoking in these countries. However, campaigns that influence the perceived disapproval of smoking by important people may be needed to ultimately increase attempts to quit smoking.

  3. Students Selection for University Course Admission at the Joint Admissions Board (Kenya) Using Trained Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabwoba, Franklin; Mwakondo, Fullgence M.

    2011-01-01

    Every year, the Joint Admission Board (JAB) is tasked to determine those students who are expected to join various Kenyan public universities under the government sponsorship scheme. This exercise is usually extensive because of the large number of qualified students compared to the very limited number of slots at various institutions and the…

  4. Effects of Particulate Matter and Its Chemical Constituents on Elderly Hospital Admissions Due to Circulatory and Respiratory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Morais Ferreira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Various fractions of particulate matter have been associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The purpose of our study is to analyze the associations between concentrations of PM2.5, PM2.5–10, PM10 and their chemical constituents (soluble ions with hospital admissions due to circulatory and respiratory diseases among the elderly in a medium-sized city in Brazil. A time series study was conducted using Poisson regression with generalized additive models adjusted for confounders. Statistically significant associations were identified between PM10 and PM2.5–10 and respiratory diseases. Risks of hospitalization increased by 23.5% (95% CI: 13.5; 34.3 and 12.8% (95% CI: 6.0; 20.0 per 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5-10 and PM10, respectively. PM2.5 exhibited a significant association with circulatory system diseases, with the risk of hospitalization increasing by 19.6% (95% CI: 6.4; 34.6 per 10 μg/m3. Regarding the chemical species; SO42−, NO3−, NH4+ and K+ exhibited specific patterns of risk, relative to the investigated outcomes. Overall, SO42− in PM2.5–10 and K+ in PM2.5 were associated with increased risk of hospital admissions due to both types of diseases. The results agree with evidence indicating that the risks for different health outcomes vary in relation to the fractions and chemical composition of PM10. Thus, PM10 speciation studies may contribute to the establishment of more selective pollution control policies.

  5. The impact of airborne particulate matter on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia among Jinan children: a case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chenguang; Wang, Xianfeng; Pang, Na; Wang, Lanzhong; Wang, Yuping; Xu, Tengfei; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Tianran; Li, Wei

    2016-12-14

    This study aims to examine the effect of short-term changes in the concentration of particulate matter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ≤ 10 µm (PM10) on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China. It explored confoundings factos of weather, season, and chemical pollutants. Information on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in 2014 was extracted from the database of Jinan Qilu Hospital. The relative risk of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia was assessed using a case-crossover approach, controlling weather variables, day of the week, and seasonality. The single-pollutant model demonstrated that increased risk of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia was significantly associated with elevated PM2.5 concentrations the day before hospital admission and elevated PM10 concentrations two days before hospital admission. An increment of 10 μg/m(3) in PM2.5 and PM10 were correlated with a 6% (95% CI 1.02-1.10) and 4% (95% CI 1.00-1.08) rise in number of admissions for pneumonia, respectively. In two pollutant models, PM2.5 and PM10 remained significant after inclusion of sulfur dioxide or nitrogen dioxide but not carbon monoxide. This study demonstrated short-term exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5/PM10) may be an important determinant of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China. This study demonstrated short-term exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5/PM10) may be an important determinant of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China and suggested the relevance of pollutant exposure levels and their effects. As a specific group, children are sensitive to airborne particulate matter. This study estimated the short-term effects attribute to other air pollutants to provide references for relevant studies.

  6. Admission Hyperglycemia in Head Injured Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousefzadeh Chabok Sh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia, in trauma patient, is commonly associated with a hyper metabolic stress response. Our objective is to determine the effects of hyperglycemia on the overall outcome of head trauma patients. In this descriptive study data were collected from head trauma patients' admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU of Poursina University Hospital in a one-year period (Jan 2004-Jan 2005, retrospectively. All patients had stayed in the ICU for more than 48 hours post-injuries. They were divided into two groups according to their serum glucose levels at the time of admission (<200mg/dl or >200mg/dl, age, gender and Injury Severity Score (ISS. Patients with diabetes mellitus were excluded .We determined the outcome according to duration of hospitalization and ICU stay as well as mortality rates. Variables were analyzed with t-test and chi square test. Out of 115 patients, 89.6% were men. About 36 % of patients had serum glucose levels ≥ 200 mg/dl over the study period and this group had significantly greater mortality rate but without necessarily longer ICU or hospital stay. In this study we have shown that admission hyperglycemia has significant effect on patient's mortality but it is still unclear whether it can be a cause for longer ICU/hospital stay."n© 2009 Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.

  7. FlexRFID: A Security and Service Control Policy-Based Middleware for Context-Aware Pervasive Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdia Ajana El Khaddar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous computing targets the provision of seamless services and applications by providing an environment that involves a variety of devices having different capabilities. The design of applications in these environments needs to consider the heterogeneous devices, applications preferences, and rapidly changing contexts. RFID and WSN technologies are widely used in today’s ubiquitous computing. In Wireless Sensor Networks, sensor nodes sense the physical environment and send the sensed data to the sink by multi-hops. WSN are used in many applications such as military and environment monitoring. In Radio Frequency Identification, a unique ID is assigned to a RFID tag which is associated with a real world object. RFID applications cover many areas such as Supply Chain Management (SCM, healthcare, library management, automatic toll collection, etc. The integration of both technologies will bring many advantages in the future of ubiquitous computing, through the provision of real-world tracking and context information about the objects. This will increase considerably the automation of an information system. In order to process the large volume of data captured by sensors and RFID readers in real time, a middleware solution is needed. This middleware should be designed in a way to allow the aggregation, filtering and grouping of the data captured by the hardware devices before sending them to the backend applications. In this paper we demonstrate how our middleware solution called FlexRFID handles large amount of RFID and sensor scan data, and executes applications’ business rules in real time through its policy-based Business Rules layer. The FlexRFID middleware provides easy addition and removal of hardware devices that capture data, as well as uses the business rules of the applications to control all its services. We demonstrate how the middleware controls some defined healthcare scenarios, and deals with the access control security

  8. Elevator Group-Control Policy Based on Neural Network Optimized by Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hong; WAN Jianru; ZHANG Zhichao; LIU Yingpei; LI Guangye

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at the diversity and nonlinearity of the elevator system control target, an effective group method based on a hybrid algorithm of genetic algorithm and neural network is presented in this paper. The genetic algo-rithm is used to search the weight of the neural network. At the same time, the multi-objective-based evaluation function is adopted, in which there are three main indicators including the passenger waiting time, car passengers number and the number of stops. Different weights are given to meet the actual needs. The optimal values of the evaluation function are obtained, and the optimal dispatch control of the elevator group control system based on neural network is realized. By analyzing the running of the elevator group control system, all the processes and steps are presented. The validity of the hybrid algorithm is verified by the dynamic imitation performance.

  9. Model Predictive Control for Integration of Industrial Consumers to the Smart Grid under a Direct Control Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahnama, Samira; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a three-level hierarchical control framework for integration of industrial consumers to the future smart grid. With this structure, a balance responsible party (BRP) at the top level will be able to provide regulating power from the consumer side to help the power grid i...

  10. Understanding the vector in order to plan effective tobacco control policies: an analysis of contemporary tobacco industry materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B

    2012-03-01

    This paper builds on tobacco document research by analysing contemporary materials to explore how the global tobacco market has changed, how transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) are responding and the implications for tobacco control. The methods involved analysis of a variety of materials, including tobacco company annual reports, investor relations materials, financial analyst reports, market research reports and data. Once China, where TTCs have little market share, is excluded, global cigarette volumes are already declining. Nevertheless, industry profits continue to increase. This pattern is explained by the pricing power of TTCs-their ability to increase prices faster than volumes fall, a consequence of market failure. Pricing power is now fundamental to the long term future of TTCs. Consequently, and in light of growing regulations, the business model of the TTCs is changing. Product innovation is now a key marketing technique used to drive consumers to buy more expensive (ie, profitable) premium cigarettes. Contrary to established wisdom, high tobacco excise rates, particularly where increases in excise are gradual, can benefit TTCs by enabling price (profit) increases to be disguised. Large intermittent tax increases likely have a greater public health benefit. TTC investments in smokeless tobacco appear designed to eliminate competition between smokeless tobacco and cigarettes, thereby increasing the pricing power of TTCs while enabling them to harness the rhetoric of harm reduction. Monitoring TTCs can inform effective policy development. The value maximising approach of TTCs suggests that a ban on product innovation and more informed tobacco excise policies are needed.

  11. Policy Based Access Control in Dynamic Grid-based Collaborative Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Demchenko; L. Gommans; A. Tokmakoff; R. van Buuren

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a flexible, customer-driven, security infrastructure for Gridbased Collaborative Environments. The paper proposes further development of the access control model built around a service or resource provisioning agreement (e.g., an experiment or proje

  12. A Radical Sodium Reduction Policy is not Supported by Randomized Controlled Trials or Observational Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2016-01-01

    controlled trials (RCTs) allocating individuals to below 2,300 mg and measuring health outcomes; (ii) RCTs allocating risk groups such as obese prehypertensive individuals and hypertensive individuals down to (but not below) 2,300 mg show no effect of sodium reduction on all-cause mortality; (iii) RCTs...

  13. National Administrations in EU trade policy : Maintaining the capacity to control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaensen, J.

    2016-01-01

    This book studies the relation between administrative capacity and a member state’s influence in the European Union. More specifically, it studies member states’ ability to exert control over the European Commission during trade negotiations. But what determines administrative capacity and how do me

  14. HIV/AIDS and admission to intensive care units: A comparison of India, Brazil and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantharuben Naidoo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In resource-constrained settings and in the context of HIV-infected patients requiring intensive care, value-laden decisions by critical care specialists are often made in the absence of explicit policies and guidelines. These are often based on individual practitioners’ knowledge and experience, which may be subject to bias. We reviewed published information on legislation and practices related to intensive care unit (ICU admission in India, Brazil and South Africa, to assess access to critical care services in the context of HIV. Each of these countries has legal instruments in place to provide their citizens with health services, but they differ in their provision of ICU care for HIV-infected persons. In Brazil, some ICUs have no admission criteria, and this decision vests solely on the ‘availability, and the knowledge and the experience’ of the most experienced ICU specialist at the institution. India has few regulatory mechanisms to ensure ICU care for critically ill patients including HIV-infected persons. SA has made concerted efforts towards non-discriminatory criteria for ICU admissions and, despite the shortage of ICU beds, HIV-infected patients have relatively greater access to this level of care than in other developing countries in Africa, such as Botswana. Policymakers and clinicians should devise explicit policy frameworks to govern ICU admissions in the context of HIV status. S Afr J HIV Med 2013;14(1:15-16. DOI:10.7196/SAJHIVMED.887

  15. The effects of recent control policies on trends in emissions of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants and CO2 in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Nielsen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of China's national policies of energy conservation and emission control during 2005–2010, inter-annual emission trends of gaseous pollutants, primary aerosols, and CO2 are estimated with a bottom-up framework. The control measures led to improved energy efficiency and/or increased penetration of emission control devices at power plants and other important industrial sources, yielding reduced emission factors for all evaluated species except NOx. The national emissions of anthropogenic SO2, CO, and total primary PM (particulate matter in 2010 are estimated to have been 89%, 108%, and 86% of those in 2005, respectively, suggesting successful emission control of those species despite fast growth of the economy and energy consumption during the period. The emissions of NOx and CO2, however, are estimated to have increased by 48% and 43%, respectively, indicating that they remain largely determined by the growth of energy use, industrial production, and vehicle populations. Based on application of a Monte-Carlo framework, estimated uncertainties of SO2 and PM emissions increased from 2005 to 2010, resulting mainly from weakly understood average SO2 removal efficiency in flue gas desulfurization (FGD systems in the power sector, and unclear changes in the penetration levels of dust collectors at industrial sources, respectively. While emission trends determined by bottom-up methods can be generally verified by observations from both ground stations and satellites, clear discrepancies exist for given regions and seasons, indicating a need for more accurate spatial and time distributions of emissions. Limitations of current emission control polices are analyzed based on the estimated emission trends. Compared with control of total PM, there are fewer gains in control of fine particles and carbonaceous aerosols, the PM forms most responsible for damages to public health and effects on radiative forcing. A decrease of alkaline

  16. [Triage in acute medical admission units.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Mikkel; Folkestad, Lars; Hallas, Peter

    2010-01-01

    . At 87% of the MAUs, a doctor was contacted by the admitting physician, while the contact was the responsibility of a nurse in 13% of MAUs. None of the contacted MAUs used a validated triage tool and 95% answered that they triaged on the basis of individual clinical assessment of patients. However, 22......INTRODUCTION: Many emergency departments use validated triage tools. It is currently undocumented if such a practice is common in Danish medical admission units (MAU). The current study was conducted in order to clarify this. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Questionnaire survey with data collected from......% answered that selected groups of patients were routinely assessed by a senior physician. CONCLUSION: None of the Danish MAUs uses a validated triage tool to prioritize acutely admitted medical patients. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-May-31...

  17. Superconformal minimal models and admissible Jack polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Blondeau-Fournier, Olivier; Ridout, David; Wood, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We give new proofs of the rationality of the N=1 superconformal minimal model vertex operator superalgebras and of the classification of their modules in both the Neveu-Schwarz and Ramond sectors. For this, we combine the standard free field realisation with the theory of Jack symmetric functions. A key role is played by Jack symmetric polynomials with a certain negative parameter that are labelled by admissible partitions. These polynomials are shown to describe free fermion correlators, suitably dressed by a symmetrising factor. The classification proofs concentrate on explicitly identifying Zhu's algebra and its twisted analogue. Interestingly, these identifications do not use an explicit expression for the non-trivial vacuum singular vector. While the latter is known to be expressible in terms of an Uglov symmetric polynomial or a linear combination of Jack superpolynomials, it turns out that standard Jack polynomials (and functions) suffice to prove the classification.

  18. Namibia's exceptional admission to the ILO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromont, M

    1998-01-01

    Namibia officially became the 136th ¿member state¿ of the International Labour Office (ILO) on October 3, 1978. At that time Namibia was politically dependent on South Africa and lived under apartheid. This stood in contradiction to international law, given that since October 1966 the UN General Assembly had terminated the Republic of South Africa's mandate over the territory. In 1967 it had entrusted its official administration to the UN Council for Namibia, which requested Namibia's admission to the ILO as a full member. Namibia met all the criteria required of a state: an established population and territory, a stable and internationally recognized legal structure, together with the capacity to enter into relations with other states. Namibia was recognized by the Conference as the de-facto authentic government through an election in which 368 voted in favor of Namibia with no oppositions and 50 abstentions.

  19. The historical development of flood control policy in U.S.A.%美国防洪政策演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜付仁; 向立云; 刘树坤

    2000-01-01

    回顾了近300年来美国防洪战略转移的历史进程.美国陆军工程兵团曾根据国家防洪与发展航运的需要,实施“堤防万能”的防洪政策·然而,1927年的大洪水冲毁了“堤防万能”的神话,迫使国会通过1928年的防洪法,进行水库、行洪区、分洪区与堤防协调防洪,随着联邦洪水及其它灾害救济费用的不断攀升,促使美国颁布1968年的洪水保险法与1973年的洪水灾害防御法,实行洪水风险区划与土地利用规划,以减轻洪水灾害.1993年中西部大洪水促使美国走上了一条从流域范围着手,重视多部门协作,追求生态环境与经济发展协调平衡的道路——实行更全面、更协调的措施保护,并管理人与自然系统,以确保长期的经济运行与生态环境的可持续发展.%The historical development of flood control during the past three centuries in U.S.A. is reviewed.Based on the results of the investigation,the U.S.A. Army corps of Engineers advocated construction of a series of massive levees aimed at promoting navigation and flood control along the streams and rivers.This“levees-only”policy became flood prevention policy for most of the nation's major river basins.However,the flood of 1927 swept away the myths about the utility of“levess-only”policy.The Mississippi Flood Control Actof 1928,marked a major shift in policy,authorized the construction of dam and flood storage projects,channel improvements and flood ways.The escalating financial burden of flod and other disaster relief are strong stimulants for the implementation of the National Flood Insurance Actof 1968 and the National Flood Disaster Defense Act of 1973 to advocated land-use planning and flood zoning to protect against flood disasters.The Great Mid-west Flood of 1993 urged the formulation of a more comprehensive and coordinate approach in protecting and managing human and natural systems to ensureeconomic and ecological sustainable

  20. Optimal operating policy for a controllable queueing model with a fuzzy environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuen-homg LIN; Jau-chuan KE

    2009-01-01

    We construct the membership functions of the fuzzy objective values of a controllable queueing model, in which cost elements, arrival rate and service rate are all fuzzy numbers. Based on Zadeh's extension principle, a set of parametric nonlinear programs is developed to find the upper and lower bounds of the minimal average total cost per unit time at the possibility level. The membership functions of the minimal average total cost are further constructed using different values of the possibility level. A numerical example is solved successfully to illustrate the validity of the proposed approach. Because the object value is ex-pressed and governed by the membership functions, the optimization problem in a fuzzy environment for the controllable queueing models is represented more accurately and analytical results are more useful for system designers and practitioners.