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Sample records for admission control decision

  1. An Intelligent Call Admission Control Decision Mechanism for Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    S., Ramesh Babu H; S, Satyanarayana P

    2010-01-01

    The Call admission control (CAC) is one of the Radio Resource Management (RRM) techniques plays instrumental role in ensuring the desired Quality of Service (QoS) to the users working on different applications which have diversified nature of QoS requirements. This paper proposes a fuzzy neural approach for call admission control in a multi class traffic based Next Generation Wireless Networks (NGWN). The proposed Fuzzy Neural Call Admission Control (FNCAC) scheme is an integrated CAC module that combines the linguistic control capabilities of the fuzzy logic controller and the learning capabilities of the neural networks .The model is based on Recurrent Radial Basis Function Networks (RRBFN) which have better learning and adaptability that can be used to develop the intelligent system to handle the incoming traffic in the heterogeneous network environment. The proposed FNCAC can achieve reduced call blocking probability keeping the resource utilisation at an optimal level. In the proposed algorithm we have c...

  2. Call Admission Control in Mobile Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Sanchita

    2013-01-01

    Call Admission Control (CAC) and Dynamic Channel Assignments (DCA) are important decision-making problems in mobile cellular communication systems. Current research in mobile communication considers them as two independent problems, although the former greatly depends on the resulting free channels obtained as the outcome of the latter. This book provides a solution to the CAC problem, considering DCA as an integral part of decision-making for call admission. Further, current technical resources ignore movement issues of mobile stations and fluctuation in network load (incoming calls) in the control strategy used for call admission. In addition, the present techniques on call admission offers solution globally for the entire network, instead of considering the cells independently.      CAC here has been formulated by two alternative approaches. The first approach aimed at handling the uncertainty in the CAC problem by employing fuzzy comparators.  The second approach is concerned with formulation of CAC ...

  3. Implementation av Network Admission Control

    OpenAIRE

    Sandqvist, Mattias; Johansson, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This examination work is about implementation of Cisco Systems Network Admission Control (NAC) within a leading IT-company in region of Jönköping. NAC is a technique that is used for securing the internal network from the inside. NAC can verify that the client who connects to the network has the latest antivirus updates and latest operative system hotfixes. Clients who don’t meet the criteria can be placed in quarantine VLAN where they only have access to the update servers. There are also fu...

  4. A lexicographic approach to constrained MDP admission control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfili, Martina; Pietrabissa, Antonio; Oddi, Guido; Suraci, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes a reinforcement learning-based lexicographic approach to the call admission control problem in communication networks. The admission control problem is modelled as a multi-constrained Markov decision process. To overcome the problems of the standard approaches to the solution of constrained Markov decision processes, based on the linear programming formulation or on a Lagrangian approach, a multi-constraint lexicographic approach is defined, and an online implementation based on reinforcement learning techniques is proposed. Simulations validate the proposed approach.

  5. Admission Control Techniques for UMTS System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kejik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS is one of the 3rd generation (3G cell phone technologies. The capacity of UMTS is interference limited. Radio resources management (RRM functions are therefore used. They are responsible for supplying optimum coverage, ensuring efficient use of physical resources, and providing the maximum planned capacity. This paper deals with admission control techniques for UMTS. An own UMTS simulation program and several versions of proposed admission control algorithms are presented in this paper. These algorithms are based on fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. The performance of algorithms is verified via simulations.

  6. Call Admission Control in Mobile Wireless

    OpenAIRE

    Goril, J.; Dobos, L.

    2002-01-01

    Some problems related to wireless network access are discussed in the article. Special attention is paid to Medium Access Control and Call Admission Control. Both have direct impact on communication link accession. While the first one dictates how to, the second one decides who can access the link. The problems with wireless medium access are mentioned and requirements on MAC protocols are named. Also need for CAC algorithms is illustrated and simple functional example is proposed. Finally, t...

  7. Homecare Nurses' Decision-Making During Admission Care Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolow, Paulina; Bass, Ellen J; Eberle, Carl L; Bowles, Kathryn H

    2016-01-01

    The re-hospitalization rate of homecare patients within 60 days of hospital discharge is 30%. Enhanced care planning based on better information may reduce this rate. However, very little is known about the homecare admission and care planning processes. The research team collected data during observations of three nursing visits to admit homecare patients in Camden NJ, and conducted thematic content analysis on these data. Human factors methods helped to identify nurse decision-making related to selection of the plan of care problems, non-nursing resources, and the nursing visit pattern. They identified how the electronic health record (EHR) assisted the nurse in visit pattern frequency decisions. Major themes that emerged included reduced efficiency due to use of redundant intra-team communication methods to augment EHR documentation, redundant documentation, and workarounds and reorganization of clinical workflow. PMID:27332156

  8. Influence of ICU-bed availability on ICU admission decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, René; Coudroy, Rémi; Ragot, Stéphanie; Lesieur, Olivier; Runge, Isabelle; Souday, Vincent; Desachy, Arnaud; Gouello, Jean-Paul; Hira, Michel; Hamrouni, Mouldi; Reignier, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Background The potential influence of bed availability on triage to intensive care unit (ICU) admission is among the factors that may influence the ideal ratio of ICU beds to population: thus, high bed availability (HBA) may result in the admission of patients too well or too sick to benefit, whereas bed scarcity may result in refusal of patients likely to benefit from ICU admission. Methods Characteristics and outcomes of patient admitted in four ICUs with usual HBA, defined by admission ref...

  9. The Value of Service Rate Flexibility in an M/M/1 Queue with Admission Control

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrakopoulos, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    We consider a single server queueing system with admission control and the possibility to switch dynamically between a low and a high service rate, and examine the benefit of this service rate flexibility. We formulate a discounted Markov Decision Process model for the problem of joint admission and service control, and show that the optimal policy has a threshold structure for both controls. Regarding the benefit due to flexibility, we show that it is increasing in system congestion, and that its effect on the admission policy is to increase the admission threshold. We also derive a simple approximate condition between the admission reward and the relative cost of service rate increase, so that the service rate flexibility is beneficial. We finally show that the results extend to the expected average reward case.

  10. The Use of Criminal History Information in College Admissions Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Matthew W.; Runyan, Carol W.; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I.

    2014-01-01

    To understand the potential public health and social justice implications of criminal background screening on college admissions, we examined postsecondary institutions' reasons for collecting or not collecting applicants' criminal justice information. We invited heads of admissions from 300 randomly sampled postsecondary institutions to…

  11. Beyond Correlations: Usefulness of High School GPA and Test Scores in Making College Admissions Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Correlational evidence suggests that high school GPA is better than admission test scores in predicting first-year college GPA, although test scores have incremental predictive validity. The usefulness of a selection variable in making admission decisions depends in part on its predictive validity, but also on institutions' selectivity and…

  12. Intelligent Decision Support Systems For Admission Management In Higher Education Institutes

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan Vohra; Nripendra Narayan Das

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of their use, the DSS has received positive feedback from the University's decision makers. Making use of Intelligent Decision Support Systems (IDSS) technologies suited to provide decision support in the higher education environments, by generating and presenting relevant information and knowledge which are helpful in taking the decision regarding admission management in higher education colleges or universities. The university decision makers' needs and the DSS components are i...

  13. Variability of intensive care admission decisions for the very elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Boumendil

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Although increasing numbers of very elderly patients are requiring intensive care, few large sample studies have investigated ICU admission of very elderly patients. Data on pre triage by physicians from other specialities is limited. This observational cohort study aims at examining inter-hospital variability of ICU admission rates and its association with patients' outcomes. All patients over 80 years possibly qualifying for ICU admission who presented to the emergency departments (ED of 15 hospitals in the Paris (France area during a one-year period were prospectively included in the study. Main outcome measures were ICU eligibility, as assessed by the ED and ICU physicians; in-hospital mortality; and vital and functional status 6 months after the ED visit. 2646 patients (median age 86; interquartile range 83-91 were included in the study. 94% of participants completed follow-up (n = 2495. 12.4% (n = 329 of participants were deemed eligible for ICU admission by ED physicians and intensivists. The overall in-hospital and 6-month mortality rates were respectively 27.2% (n = 717 and 50.7% (n = 1264. At six months, 57.5% (n = 1433 of patients had died or had a functional deterioration. Rates of patients deemed eligible for ICU admission ranged from 5.6% to 38.8% across the participating centers, and this variability persisted after adjustment for patients' characteristics. Despite this variability, we found no association between level of ICU eligibility and either in-hospital death or six-month death or functional deterioration. In France, the likelihood that a very elderly person will be admitted to an ICU varies widely from one hospital to another. Influence of intensive care admission on patients' outcome remains unclear. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00912600.

  14. Integrated Proactive Admission Control Technique For both UDP And TCP Traffic Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmanan Senthilkumar

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Real time traffic adopting UDP at the transport layer needs some quality of service. It is offered through an admission control scheme. This paper adopts one such scheme which is extended for elastic traffics adopting TCP at the transport layer. The proposed scheme operates on reserving network resources on a proactive manner. It is based on the principle of telephone networks Erlang-B model. The blocking probability measured is used as a flow admission decision parameter. The effectiveness of the proposed admission control algorithm is determined here through simulation. It offers a fair admission rate to both UDP and TCP traffic flows. It also results in a better bottleneck link utilization at a comparatively lower overhead traffic.

  15. A NEW ADMISSION CONTROL APPROACH BASED ON PREDICTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Kaining; Jin Zhigang; Zou Jun

    2002-01-01

    Admission control plays an important role in providing QoS to network users. Motivated by the measurement-based admission control algorithm, this letter proposed a new admission control approach for integrated service packet network based on traffic prediction. In the letter, FARIMA(p, d, q) models in the admission control algorithm is deployed. A method to simplify the FARIMA model fitting procedure and hence to reduce the time of traffic modeling and prediction is suggested. The feasibility-study experiments show that FARIMA models which have less number of parameters can be used to model and predict actual traffic on quite a large time scale. Simulation results validate the promising approach.

  16. Improving Experience-Based Admission Control through Traffic Type Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Jens Milbrandt; Michael Menth; Jan Junker

    2007-01-01

    Experience-based admission control (EBAC) is a hybrid approach combining the classical parameter-based and measurement-based admission control. EBAC calculates an appropriate overbooking factor used to overbook link capacities with resource reservations in packet-switched networks. This overbooking factor correlates with the average peak-to-mean rate ratio of all admitted traffic flows on the link. So far, a single overbooking factor is calculated for the entire traffic aggregate. In this pap...

  17. Intelligent Decision Support Systems For Admission Management In Higher Education Institutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Vohra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of their use, the DSS has received positive feedback from the University's decision makers. Making use of Intelligent Decision Support Systems (IDSS technologies suited to provide decision support in the higher education environments, by generating and presenting relevant information and knowledge which are helpful in taking the decision regarding admission management in higher education colleges or universities. The university decision makers' needs and the DSS components are identified with the help of survey done. In this paper the components of a decision support system (DSS for developing student admission policies in higher education institute or in the university and the architecture about DSS based on ERP are proposed followed by how intelligent DSS in conjunction with ERP helps to overcome the drawbacks , if ERP is used alone in higher education institutes.

  18. Intelligent Decision Support Systems For Admission Management In Higher Education Institutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Vohra

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of their use, the DSS has received positive feedback from the University's decision makers. Making use of Intelligent Decision Support Systems (IDSS technologies suited to provide decision support in the higher education environments, by generating and presenting relevant information and knowledge which are helpful in taking the decision regarding admission management in higher education colleges or universities. The university decision makers' needs and the DSS components are identified with the help of survey done. In this paper the components of a decision support system (DSS for developing student admission policies in higher education institute or in the university and the architecture about DSS based on ERP are proposed followed by how intelligent DSS in conjunction with ERP helps to overcome the drawbacks , if ERP is used alone in higher education institutes.

  19. SIMULATION MODELS OF CALL ADMISSION CONTROL SCHEMES USING GPSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilya ABDULOVA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In cellular wireless networks, a variety of channel allocation schemes have been developed for achieving high capacity with minimal interference. The choice of channel allocation scheme impacts the performance of the system, particularly as how calls are managed when a mobile user is handed off from one cell to another. Call Admission Control schemes take into account the effect of handoffs in the performance of the system, particularly call blocking probability and call dropping probability. In this study, we present simulation models and programs of some popular Call Admission Control schemes using GPSS simulation tool.

  20. Efficient Admission Control for Next Generation Cellular Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramkumar, Venkata; Stefan, Andrei Lucian; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    This paper proposes a novel efficient admission control (AC) algorithm, which guarantees quality of service (QoS) for new users while maintaining QoS for existing users and also increases the number of users admitted in to the system. To guarantee the QoS, a Markov based modeling of the queue in...

  1. Admission control in multiservice IP networks : architectural issues and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Solange; Carvalho, Paulo; Freitas, Vasco

    2007-01-01

    The trend toward the integration of current and emerging applications and services in the Internet has launched new challenges regarding service deployment and management. Within service management, admission control (AC) has been recognized as a convenient mechanism to keep services under controlled load and assure the required QoS levels, bringing consistency to the services offered. In this context, this article discusses the role of AC in multiservice IP networks and surveys current and r...

  2. Measurement Based Admission Control Methods in IP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Chromy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Trends in telecommunications show that customers require still more and more bandwidth. If the telecommunication operators want to be successful, they must invest a lot of money to their infrastructure and they must ensure required quality of service. The telecommunication operators would devote to development in this area. The article deals with quality of service in IP networks. Problems of quality of service can be solved through admission control methods based on measurements. These admission control methods take care of control of incoming traffic load. New flow can be accepted only if needed quality of service is ensured for it and without quality of service breach causing of already accepted flows. In the article were made description of simulations and results of simulations for Voice over IP, constant bit rate and video sources. Simulations were realized in Network simulator 2 environment. These simulations were evaluated on the base of some parameters such as: estimated bandwidth, utilization and loss rate.

  3. BARTER: Behavior Profile Exchange for Behavior-Based Admission and Access Control in MANETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias-Martinez, Vanessa; Stolfo, Salvatore J.; Keromytis, Angelos D.

    Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are very dynamic networks with devices continuously entering and leaving the group. The highly dynamic nature of MANETs renders the manual creation and update of policies associated with the initial incorporation of devices to the MANET (admission control) as well as with anomaly detection during communications among members (access control) a very difficult task. In this paper, we present BARTER, a mechanism that automatically creates and updates admission and access control policies for MANETs based on behavior profiles. BARTER is an adaptation for fully distributed environments of our previously introduced BB-NAC mechanism for NAC technologies. Rather than relying on a centralized NAC enforcer, MANET members initially exchange their behavior profiles and compute individual local definitions of normal network behavior. During admission or access control, each member issues an individual decision based on its definition of normalcy. Individual decisions are then aggregated via a threshold cryptographic infrastructure that requires an agreement among a fixed amount of MANET members to change the status of the network. We present experimental results using content and volumetric behavior profiles computed from the ENRON dataset. In particular, we show that the mechanism achieves true rejection rates of 95% with false rejection rates of 9%.

  4. Admission Control of VL in AFDX Under HRT Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qiang; QU Zhenliang; LIN Hengqing

    2011-01-01

    Avionics full duplex switched ethernet (AFDX) is a switched interconnection technology developed to provide reliable data exchange with strong data transmission time guarantees in internal communication of the spacecraft or aircraft. Virtual link (VL) is an important concept of AFDX to meet quality of service (QoS) requirements in terms of end-to-end message deadlines. A VL admission control algorithm in AFDX network under hard real-time (HRT) constraints is studied. Based on the scheduling principle of AFDX protocol, a packet scheduling scheme under HRT constraints is proposed, and after that an efficient VL admission control algorithm is presented. Analytical proof that the algorithm can effectively determine whether VL should be admitted is given. Finally simulative examples are presented to promote the conclusion.

  5. Cross-Layer Connection Admission Control Policies for Packetized Systems

    OpenAIRE

    SHENG, WEI; Blostein, Steven

    2010-01-01

    In summary, this chapter provides a framework for joint optimization of packet-switched multiple-antenna systems across physical, packet and connection levels. We extend the existing CAC policies in packet-switched networks to more general cases, where the SINR may vary quickly relative to the connection time, as encountered in multiple antenna base stations. Compared with the CAC policy for circuit-switched networks, the proposed connection admission control policy allows dynamical allocatio...

  6. Maximally Stabilizing Admission Control Policy for a Dynamical Queue

    CERN Document Server

    Savla, Ketan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the following stability problem for a novel dynamical queue. Independent and identical tasks arrive for a queue at a deterministic rate. The server spends deterministic state-dependent times to service these tasks, where the server state is governed by its utilization history through a simple dynamical model. Inspired by empirical laws for human performance as a function of mental arousal, we let the service time be related to the server state by a continuous convex function. We consider an admission control architecture which regulates task entry into service. The objective in this paper is to design such admission control policies that can stabilize the dynamical queue for the maximum possible arrival rate, where the queue is said to be stable if the number of tasks awaiting service does not grow unbounded over time. First, we prove an upper bound on the maximum stabilizable arrival rate for any admission control policy by postulating a notion of one-task equilibrium for the dynam...

  7. On channel-adaptive multiple burst admission control for mobile computing based on wideband CDMA

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, VKN; Kwok, YK

    2001-01-01

    Mobile computing systems built using third generation wireless standards are mostly based on the wideband CDMA platform to support high bit rate packet data services. One important component offering packet data service in CDMA is a burst admission control algorithm. We formulate the multiple-burst admission control problem as an integer programming problem, which induces our novel jointly adaptive burst admission algorithm, called the jointly adaptive burst admission-spatial dimension algori...

  8. A QoS Provisioning Recurrent Neural Network based Call Admission Control for beyond 3G Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Babu H. S.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Call admission control (CAC is one of the Radio Resource Management (RRM techniques that plays influential role in ensuring the desired Quality of Service (QoS to the users and applications in next generation networks. This paper proposes a fuzzy neural approach for making the call admission control decision in multi class traffic based Next Generation Wireless Networks (NGWN. The proposed Fuzzy Neural call admission control (FNCAC scheme is an integrated CAC module that combines the linguistic control capabilities of the fuzzy logic controller and the learning capabilities of the neural networks. The model is based on recurrent radial basis function networks which have better learning and adaptability that can be used to develop intelligent system to handle the incoming traffic in an heterogeneous network environment. The simulation results are optimistic and indicates that the proposed FNCAC algorithm performs better than the other two methods and the call blocking probability is minimal when compared to other two methods.

  9. Federal Constitutional Court affirms admissibility of decision in the matter of the Fast Breeder Kalkar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case of the examination of the constituionality of section 7 Atomic Energy Act, in as far as this article enables the licensing of nuclear power plants of the type called Fast Breeder, the Second Senate of the Federal Constitutional Court has answered the OVG Muenster's motion to stay proceedings dated Aug 18th, 1977, with the following 'interim decision' - 2 B v L 8/77 - dated Jan 31st, 1978: 'The action is admissible'. The verdict was unanimous. The main grounds upon which the interim judgment is based are given in full. (orig./HP)

  10. TCP-Call Admission Control Interaction in Multiplatform Space Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Theodoridis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of efficient call admission control (CAC algorithms is useful to prevent congestion and guarantee target quality of service (QoS. When TCP protocol is adopted, some inefficiencies can arise due to the peculiar evolution of the congestion window. The development of cross-layer techniques can greatly help to improve efficiency and flexibility for wireless networks. In this frame, the present paper addresses the introduction of TCP feedback into the CAC procedures in different nonterrestrial wireless architectures. CAC performance improvement is shown for different space-based architectures, including both satellites and high altitude platform (HAP systems.

  11. Power Admission Control with Predictive Thermal Management in Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Jianguo; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Zhu, Guchuan;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a control scheme for thermal management in smart buildings based on predictive power admission control. This approach combines model predictive control with budget-schedulability analysis in order to reduce peak power consumption as well as ensure thermal comfort. First, the...... power budget with a given thermal comfort constraint is optimized through budget-schedulability analysis which amounts to solving a constrained linear programming problem. Second, the effective peak power demand is reduced by means of the optimal scheduling and cooperative operation of multiple thermal...... appliances. The performance of the proposed control scheme is assessed by simulation based on the thermal dynamics of a real eight-room office building located at Danish Technical University....

  12. Improving Experience-Based Admission Control through Traffic Type Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Milbrandt

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Experience-based admission control (EBAC is a hybrid approach combining the classical parameter-based and measurement-based admission control. EBAC calculates an appropriate overbooking factor used to overbook link capacities with resource reservations in packet-switched networks. This overbooking factor correlates with the average peak-to-mean rate ratio of all admitted traffic flows on the link. So far, a single overbooking factor is calculated for the entire traffic aggregate. In this paper, we propose typespecific EBAC which provides a compound overbooking factor considering different types of traffic that subsume flows with similar peak-to-mean rate ratios. The concept can be well implemented since it does not require measurements of type-specific traffic aggregates. We give a proof of concept for this extension and compare it with the conventional EBAC approach. We show that EBAC with type-specific overbooking leads to better resource utilization under normal conditions and to faster response times for changing traffic mixes.

  13. Admission Control and Interference Management in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Martinez-Bauset

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study two important aspects to make dynamic spectrum access work in practice: the admission policy of secondary users (SUs to achieve a certain degree of quality of service and the management of the interference caused by SUs to primary users (PUs. In order to limit the forced termination probability of SUs, we evaluate the Fractional Guard Channel reservation scheme to give priority to spectrum handovers over new arrivals. We show that, contrary to what has been proposed, the throughput of SUs cannot be maximized by configuring the reservation parameter. We also study the interference caused by SUs to PUs. We propose and evaluate different mechanisms to reduce the interference, which are based on simple spectrum access algorithms for both PUs and SUs and channel repacking algorithms for SUs. Numerical results show that the reduction can be of one order of magnitude or more with respect to the random access case. Finally, we propose an adaptive admission control scheme that is able to limit simultaneously the forced termination probability of SUs and what we define as the probability of interference. Our scheme does not require any configuration parameters beyond the probability objectives. Besides, it is simple to implement and it can operate with any arrival process and distribution of the session duration.

  14. Optimizing Voip Using A Cross Layer Call Admission Control Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz AL-Mukhtar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Deployingwireless campus network becomes popular in many world universities for the services that areprovided.However, it suffers from different issues such as low VoIP network capacity, network congestioneffect on VoIP QoS and WLAN multi rate issue due to linkadaptation technique. In this paper a cross layercall admission control (CCAC scheme is proposed to reduce the effects of these problems on VoWLANbased on monitoring RTCPRR(RealTime Control Protocol ReceiverReportthat provides the QoS levelfor VoIP and monitoring the MAC layer for any change in the data rate. If the QoS level degrades due toone of the aforementioned reasons, a considerable change in the packet size or the codec type will be thesolution. A wireless campus network issimulatedusing OPNET 14.5 modeler and many scenarios aremodeled to improve this proposed scheme.

  15. Estimated Bandwidth Distribution with Admission Control for Enhanced QoS Multicast Routing in MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Revathi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless networks become more widely used to support advanced services. Traditional approaches to guarantee quality of service (QoS work well only with predictable channel and network access. The Multicast transmission is a more efficient mechanism when compared to uni-casting in supporting group communication applications and hence is an important aspect of future network developments. To enable high QoS for all admitted traffic, the Admission Control monitors the wireless channel and dynamically adapts admission control decisions to enable high network utilization while preventing congestion. Mobile Adhoc networks can provide multimedia users with mobility, if efficient QoS multicast strategies were developed. In load balancing QoS Multicast Routing QMR, constant available bandwidth for the link is assumed. A cross-layer framework to support QoS multicasting is extended for more effective than QMR. The extension reflects good packet delivery ratios associated with lower control overhead and lower packet delivery delay. If minimum real-time requirements are not met, these unusable packets waste scarce bandwidth and hinder other traffic, compounding the problem. Whereas the dynamically adapted mobility with control overhead monitors the high QoS for all admitted traffic, and the bandwidth for each node is enhanced to reflect the good packet delivery ratio associated with lower control overhead and lower packet delivery delay.

  16. Power Control Technique for Efficient Call Admission Control in Advanced Wirless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Sreenivasa Rao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In 4G networks, call admission control techniques have been proposed to provide Quality of Service (QoS in a network by restricting the access to network resources. Power control is essential in call admission control in order to provide fair access to all users, improve battery lifetime and system performance. But the existing call admission control algorithms rarely consider the power controlling techniques in the handoff process for different traffic classes. In this paper, we propose to develop a power controlled call admission control scheme for handoff in the advanced wireless networks. The incoming call measures the initial interference on it and then the base station starts transmitting the packets to the new call. The new call is rejected when the interference reaches a threshold value.Whenever an existing call meets the power constraint, the transmit power is decremented based on thetraffic class and incoming call obtains this information by monitoring the interference received on it. Theconvergence of the power control algorithm is checked and the power levels of all incoming calls areadjusted. From our simulation results we prove that this power control technique provides efficienthandoff in the 4G networks by increasing the throughput and reducing the delay of the existing users.

  17. Design and evaluation of an optimization based approach to multiple burst admission control for cdma2000

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, VKN; Kwok, YK

    2001-01-01

    In our recent study, we have formulated the burst admission control problem for wideband CDMA systems as an integer programming problem. In this paper, we propose and analyze the performance of a novel burst admission technique, called the multiple-burst admission-spatial dimension algorithm (MBA-SD) to judiciously allocate the previous channels in wideband CDMA systems to burst requests. Both the forward link and the reverse link burst requests are considered and the system is simulated by d...

  18. Optimal admission control algorithms for scheduling burst data in CDMA multimedia systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kwok, YK; Lau, VKN

    2001-01-01

    3rd generation mobile systems are mostly based on the wideband CDMA platform to support high bit rate packet data services. One important component to offer packet data service in CDMA is a burst admission control algorithm. In this paper, we propose and study a novel jointly adaptive burst admission algorithm, namely the jointly adaptive burst admission-spatial dimension algorithm (JABA-SD) to effectively allocate valuable resources in wideband CDMA systems to burst requests. In the physical...

  19. A New Self-Adapting Admission Control Algorithm for Differential Service in Web Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU An-feng; CHEN Zhi-gang; LONG Guo-ping

    2004-01-01

    A new admission control algorithm considering the network self-similar access characteristics is proposed.Taking advantage of the mathematical model of the network traffic admission control which can effectively overcome the self-similar characteristics of the network requests, through the scheduling of the differential service queue based on priority while at the same time taking into account various factors including access characteristics of requests, load information, etc, smoothness of the admission control is ensured by the algorithm proposed in this paper.We design a non-linear self-adapting control algorithm by introducing an exponential admission function, thus overcomes the negative aspects introduced by static threshold parameters.Simulation results show that the scheme proposed in this paper can effectively improve the resource utilization of the clusters, while at the same time protecting the service with high priority.Our simulation results also show that this algorithm can improve system stability and reliability too.

  20. A COMBINED ADMISSION CONTROL ALGORITHM WITH DA PROTOCOL FOR SATELLITE ATM NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Rong; Cao Zhigang

    2006-01-01

    Admission control is an important strategy for Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning in Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks. Based on a control-theory model of resources on-Demand Allocation (DA) protocol, the paper studies the effect of the protocol on the statistical characteristics of network traffic,and proposes a combined connection admission control algorithm with the DA protocol to achieve full utilization of link resources in satellite communication systems. The proposed algorithm is based on the cross-layer-design approach. Theoretical analysis and system simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can admit more connections within certain admission thresholds than one that does not take into account the DA protocol. Thus, the proposed algorithm can increase admission ratio of traffic sources for satellite ATM networks and improve satellite link utilization.

  1. A Policy-Based Admission Control Scheme for Voice over IP Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Alwakeel; Agung Prasetijo

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: In Voice Over IP (VOIP) network, when more calls are admitted to the network, more voice packet traffic is created. Since bandwidth is always limited, this may result network congestion and/or may affect voice quality. Thus, we needed a mechanism for improving the Quality of Service (QoS) by controlling VOIP calls admission. Approach: Given a specified bandwidth and a constant background data rate, we attempted to explore the effect of Open Window and Leaky Bucket admission...

  2. Distributed Decision Making and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Rantzer, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Distributed Decision Making and Control is a mathematical treatment of relevant problems in distributed control, decision and multiagent systems, The research reported was prompted by the recent rapid development in large-scale networked and embedded systems and communications. One of the main reasons for the growing complexity in such systems is the dynamics introduced by computation and communication delays. Reliability, predictability, and efficient utilization of processing power and network resources are central issues and the new theory and design methods presented here are needed to analyze and optimize the complex interactions that arise between controllers, plants and networks. The text also helps to meet requirements arising from industrial practice for a more systematic approach to the design of distributed control structures and corresponding information interfaces Theory for coordination of many different control units is closely related to economics and game theory network uses being dictated by...

  3. A connection-level call admission control using genetic algorithm for MultiClass multimedia services in wireless networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, X.; Xiao, Y; Ni, Q

    2006-01-01

    Call admission control in a wireless cell in a personal communication system (PCS) can be modeled as an M/M/C/C queuing system with m classes of users. Semi-Markov Decision Process (SMDP) can be used to optimize channel utilization with upper bounds on handoff blocking probabilities as Quality of Service constraints. However, this method is too time-consuming and therefore it fails when state space and action space are large. In this paper, we apply a genetic algorithm approach to address the...

  4. Continuous non contacting control of the degree of admission of filler rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In laboratory tests a method was found to control continuously and non-contacting the degree of admission of filler rods. Behind the filling station the absorption of the ionizing radiation of a 90Sr beta source is measured. After successful tests with the laboratory equipment on the manufacturing machine of filler rods a prototype plant was constructed. The calibration is made by setting the measuring value of the empty filler rod equal to 0% and the measuring value of the optimum degree of admission equal to 100%. Between these two joints a scale is calculated so that to each measuring value a degree of admission can be assigned. The measuring time is 1 s. The limits of the allowable degrees of admission are freely adjustable. The construction of the plant is described. (authors)

  5. Decision support in supervisory control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is argued that the supervisory control of complex industrial processes having a potential for serious consequences in case of accidents requires careful consideration of the allocation of decision making between the three main agents of control; namely the designer, the operator and the automatic control system. In particular, it is advocated that instead of continuing their efforts to make their preplanning of responses and countermeasures more and more complete and restricting the operator's initiative, designers should take advantage of modern information technology to make available to the operators their conceptual models and their processing resources so as to allow the operators to function as their extended arm in coping with the plant. Such an interactive decision making activity would thus benefit from this simultaneous availability of the design basis, up-to-date knowledge of plant status and accumualted operational experience. (author)

  6. SERVICE-AWARE BASED FUZZY ADMISSION CONTROL SCHEME IN MULTI-SERVICE NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Gongan; Zhang Shunyi; Liu Shidong

    2007-01-01

    Multi-service aggregated transmission is the direction of IP network. Providing different Quality of Service (QoS) assurance for different services has become a crucial problem in future network.Admission control is a vital function for multi-service IP network. This paper proposes a novel fuzzy admission control scheme based on coarse granularity service-aware technique. Different service has discriminative sensitivity to the same QoS characteristic parameter in general. The traffic class can be perceived by the service request parameter and the proposed QoS function. And requirements of different applications can be met by maintaining the life parameter. From simulation results, the proposed scheme shows a better QoS provisioning than those traditional fuzzy logic based methods under the same admission probability.

  7. Reduced Admissions for Acute Myocardial Infarction Associated with a Public Smoking Ban: Matched Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    2007-01-01

    There has been no research linking implementation of a public smoking ban and reduced incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among nonsmoking patients. An ex post facto matched control group study was conducted to determine whether there was a change in hospital admissions for AMI among nonsmoking patients after a public smoking ban was…

  8. FUZZY-LOGIC BASED CALL ADMISSION CONTROL FOR A HETEROGENEOUS RADIO ENVIRONMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramkumar, Venkata; Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Neeli R.;

    Dette dokument foreslår et nyt opkald Admission Control (CAC) algoritme, der finder forskellige typer af applikationer med forskellige QoS parametre, som en bruger og giver de nødvendige QoS til nyankomne brugere uden en forringelse af de QoS at der allerede er optaget dem. Den foreslåede CAC er ...

  9. A service-oriented admission control strategy for class-based IP networks

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Solange; Carvalho, Paulo; Freitas, Vasco

    2008-01-01

    The clear trend toward the integration of current and emerging applications and services in the Internet launches new demands on service deployment and management. Distributed service-oriented traffic control mechanisms, operating with minimum impact on network performance, assume a crucial role as regards controlling services quality and network resources transparently and efficiently. In this paper, we describe and specify a lightweight distributed admission control (AC) model based on ...

  10. Cognitive interference modeling with applications in power and admission control

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda

    2012-10-01

    One of the key design challenges in a cognitive radio network is controlling the interference generated at coexisting primary receivers. In order to design efficient cognitive radio systems and to minimize their unwanted consequences, it is therefore necessary to effectively control the secondary interference at the primary receivers. In this paper, a generalized framework for the interference analysis of a cognitive radio network where the different secondary transmitters may transmit with different powers and transmission probabilities, is presented and various applications of this interference model are demonstrated. The findings of the analytical performance analyses are confirmed through selected computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Joint QoS Multicast Power / Admission Control and Base Station Assignment : A Geometric Programming Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Karipidis, Eleftherios; Sidiropoulos, Nicholas; Tassiulas, Leandros

    2008-01-01

    The joint power control and base station (BS) assignment problem is considered under Quality-of-Service (QoS) constraints. If a feasible solution exists, the problem can be efficiently solved using existing distributed algorithms. Infeasibility is often encountered in practice, however, which brings up the issue of optimal admission control. The joint problem is NP-hard, yet important for QoS provisioning and bandwidth-efficient operation of existing and emerging cellular and overlay/underlay...

  12. Decision Support for effective production control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Africa, E.; Nehzati, T.; Strandhagen, J.O.;

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify the actual needs of decision makers for decision support in the production control activity, considering the role and cognitive skills of human decision-makers in the decision-making process. Multiple case studies have been conducted in order to gain practical insights...... from the manufacturing industry. This paper contributes to raise the issues that should be considered for successful implementation of the decision support systems in practice....

  13. A Study of Equivalence of Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI Zhi-bo; ZHOU Li-chao

    2003-01-01

    Measurement-Based Admission Control (MBAC) algorithms, as opposed to the more conservative worstcase parameter-based approach, are expressly designed to achieve high levels of network utilization for the controlledload service, a real-time service with very relaxed service guarantee. Most researchers studying MBAC algorithms(MBAC's) have focused primarily on the design of the Admission Control Equations (ACE's) using a variety of principled and ad hoc motivations. In this paper, we prove theoretically that the ACE's, even though derived and motivated in quite different ways, are equivalent by tuning the adjustable parameters of MBAC's. We also use simulations to confirm our work. The simulation results show that MBAC's may have the same utilization for a given packet loss rate through tuning the relevant parameters.

  14. A LP-RR Principle-Based Admission Control for a Mobile Network

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Vijay BP; Venkataram, Pallapa

    2002-01-01

    In mobile networks, the traffic fluctuation is unpredictable due to mobility and varying resource requirement of multimedia applications. Hence, it is essential to maintain traffic within the network capacity to provide service guarantees to running applications. This paper proposes an admission control (AC) scheme in a mobile cellular environment supporting hand-off and new application traffic. In the case of multimedia applications, each applications has its own distinct range of acceptable...

  15. Loss Performance Modeling for Hierarchical Heterogeneous Wireless Networks With Speed-Sensitive Call Admission Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Huang, Yue-Cai; Ko, King-Tim; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2011-01-01

    A hierarchical overlay structure is an alternative solution that integrates existing and future heterogeneous wireless networks to provide subscribers with better mobile broadband services. Traffic loss performance in such integrated heterogeneous networks is necessary for an operator's network...... dimensioning and planning. This paper investigates the computationally efficient loss performance modeling for multiservice in hierarchical heterogeneous wireless networks. A speed-sensitive call admission control (CAC) scheme is considered in our model to assign overflowed calls to appropriate tiers. This...

  16. Tensions between policy and practice: A qualitative analysis of decisions regarding compulsory admission to psychiatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistein, Elizabeth C; Clare, Isabel C H; Redley, Marcus; Holland, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    The use of detention for psychiatric treatment is widespread and sometimes necessary. International human rights law requires a legal framework to safeguard the rights to liberty and personal integrity by preventing arbitrary detention. However, research suggests that extra-legal factors may influence decisions to detain. This article presents observational and interview data to describe how decisions to detain are made in practice in one jurisdiction (England and Wales) where a tension between policy and practice has been described. The analysis shows that practitioners mould the law into 'practical criteria' that appear to form a set of operational criteria for identifying cases to which the principle of soft paternalism may be applied. Most practitioners also appear willing, albeit often reluctantly, to depart from their usual reliance on the principle of soft paternalism and authorise detention of people with the capacity to refuse treatment, in order to prevent serious harm. We propose a potential resolution for the tension between policy and practice: two separate legal frameworks to authorise detention, one with a suitable test of capacity, used to enact soft paternalism, and the other to provide legal justification for detention for psychiatric treatment of the small number of people who retain decision-making capacity but nonetheless choose to place others at risk by refusing treatment. This separation of detention powers into two systems, according to the principle that justifies the use of detention would be intellectually coherent, consistent with human rights instruments and, being consistent with the apparent moral sentiments of practitioners, less prone to idiosyncratic interpretations in practice. PMID:27062108

  17. EUPHIDS, a decision-support system for the admission of pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Beinat E; Berg R van den; Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam; Fraunhofer Institue for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Schmallenberg, Duitsland; International Centre of Pesticide Safety, Busto Garolfo, Italie; LBG

    1996-01-01

    EUPHIDS (EUropean Pesticide Hazard Information and Decision-support System) is the result of a research project carried out during 1993-1995 with the support of the Environment Research Programme (1990-1994) of the European Union. The system is meant to become an aid in the process of registering a plant-protection product (pesticide) in the European Union, including its Member States and their respective regions. The system is meant to fill the gap between the general criteria, set by the Un...

  18. Multi-Stage Admission Control for Load Balancing in Next Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Anggorojati, Bayu; Luo, Jijun;

    2008-01-01

    user to the network, i.e., the ranking of the intermediate decisions is dynamic. The decision is controlled by passing a token between the base station (BS) and the gateway (GW), thereby considering the load status of the BS and the backhaul network. A token is assigned to the entity with the highest...

  19. UTILITY BASED SCHEDULING AND CALL ADMISSION CONTROL FOR LONG TERM EVOLUTION NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vijay Franklin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose to design a call admission control algorithm which schedules the channels for Real time and non-real time users. In Long Term Evolution (LTE 3GPP Networks, several works were done on call admission control but these works rarely considers scheduling of resources to the real time and non-real time users.When the system meets traffic oriented performance degration, maximum resources are utilized for load balancing and to maintain the consistent quality. In order to avoid the channel degradation and improve the Quality of Service (QoS, the call requests are classified into New Call (NC request and Handoff Call (HC request and the type of services are classified as VoIP and video. Then based upon the Received Signal Strength (RSS value, the channel is estimated as good channel or bad channel. Resource allocation is made for VoIP users based on traffic density. Then non-VoIP users and the non-real time users are allocated resource blocks using the channel condition based marginal utility function. When there are no sufficient resources to allocate, it allocates the resources of bad channel users there by degrading their service. We have designed the network topology with G (n and B (n for representing the available good and bad channels. We investigate the performance degradation when the real time, Non real Time, video and VOIP environments based on RSS threshold value.Comparison is made with the VOS in terms of the paramenters like throughput,bandwidth,delay,fairness and rate. Our proposed method provides good performance and quality.From our simulation results we show that this admission control algorithm provides channel quality and prioritizes the handover calls over new calls which allocates resources to all kinds of users.

  20. Dynamic admission control for differentiated quality of video in IEEE 802.11e wireless LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hayoung; Kim, JongWon

    2004-10-01

    In this paper, we are investigating a dynamic admission control (DAC) scheme that is designed for guaranteed wireless video transmission over the IEEE 802.11e wireless LAN (WLAN) environment. To guarantee differentiated QoS services for network-adaptive video streaming, the proposed DAC is designed to utilize the video codec's layering characteristic as well as differentiation-capability of IEEE 802.11e MAC (multiple access control). Especially in order to match the time-varying hostile wireless environment, limited wireless resources for transmission opportunities are required to be dynamically reserved, coordinated, and utilized. Proposed realization of DAC is composed with three sub modules: reservation-based call admission control (CAC), dynamic service resource allocation, and on-flow service differentiation modules. To evaluate the performance of proposed DAC, we apply it to the wireless streaming of ITU-T H.263+ streams over the IEEE 802.11e WLAN, network simulator (NS-2) based simulation results show that it achieves both acceptable receiver-side video quality and efficient resource utilization in face of network loads and channel variations.

  1. Singular formalism and admissible control of spacecraft with rotating flexible solar array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Dongning

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the attitude control of a three-axis-stabilized spacecraft which consists of a central rigid body and a flexible sun-tracking solar array driven by a solar array drive assembly. Based on the linearization of the dynamics of the spacecraft and the modal identities about the flexible and rigid coupling matrices, the spacecraft attitude dynamics is reduced to a formally singular system with periodically varying parameters, which is quite different from a spacecraft with fixed appendages. In the framework of the singular control theory, the regularity and impulse-freeness of the singular system is analyzed and then admissible attitude controllers are designed by Lyapunov’s method. To improve the robustness against system uncertainties, an H∞ optimal control is designed by optimizing the H∞ norm of the system transfer function matrix. Comparative numerical experiments are performed to verify the theoretical results.

  2. Admission Control to Minimize Rejections and Online Set Cover with Repetitions

    CERN Document Server

    Alon, Noga; Gutner, Shai

    2008-01-01

    We study the admission control problem in general networks. Communication requests arrive over time, and the online algorithm accepts or rejects each request while maintaining the capacity limitations of the network. The admission control problem has been usually analyzed as a benefit problem, where the goal is to devise an online algorithm that accepts the maximum number of requests possible. The problem with this objective function is that even algorithms with optimal competitive ratios may reject almost all of the requests, when it would have been possible to reject only a few. This could be inappropriate for settings in which rejections are intended to be rare events. In this paper, we consider preemptive online algorithms whose goal is to minimize the number of rejected requests. Each request arrives together with the path it should be routed on. We show an $O(\\log^2 (mc))$-competitive randomized algorithm for the weighted case, where $m$ is the number of edges in the graph and $c$ is the maximum edge ca...

  3. Performance of a Two-Level Call Admission Control Scheme for DS-CDMA Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham O. Fapojuwo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a two-level call admission control (CAC scheme for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA wireless networks supporting multimedia traffic and evaluate its performance. The first-level admission control assigns higher priority to real-time calls (also referred to as class 0 calls in gaining access to the system resources. The second level admits nonreal-time calls (or class 1 calls based on the resources remaining after meeting the resource needs for real-time calls. However, to ensure some minimum level of performance for nonreal-time calls, the scheme reserves some resources for such calls. The proposed two-level CAC scheme utilizes the delay-tolerant characteristic of non-real-time calls by incorporating a queue to temporarily store those that cannot be assigned resources at the time of initial access. We analyze and evaluate the call blocking, outage probability, throughput, and average queuing delay performance of the proposed two-level CAC scheme using Markov chain theory. The analytic results are validated by simulation results. The numerical results show that the proposed two-level CAC scheme provides better performance than the single-level CAC scheme. Based on these results, it is concluded that the proposed two-level CAC scheme serves as a good solution for supporting multimedia applications in DS-CDMA wireless communication systems.

  4. Performance of a Two-Level Call Admission Control Scheme for DS-CDMA Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fapojuwo Abraham O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a two-level call admission control (CAC scheme for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA wireless networks supporting multimedia traffic and evaluate its performance. The first-level admission control assigns higher priority to real-time calls (also referred to as class 0 calls in gaining access to the system resources. The second level admits nonreal-time calls (or class 1 calls based on the resources remaining after meeting the resource needs for real-time calls. However, to ensure some minimum level of performance for nonreal-time calls, the scheme reserves some resources for such calls. The proposed two-level CAC scheme utilizes the delay-tolerant characteristic of non-real-time calls by incorporating a queue to temporarily store those that cannot be assigned resources at the time of initial access. We analyze and evaluate the call blocking, outage probability, throughput, and average queuing delay performance of the proposed two-level CAC scheme using Markov chain theory. The analytic results are validated by simulation results. The numerical results show that the proposed two-level CAC scheme provides better performance than the single-level CAC scheme. Based on these results, it is concluded that the proposed two-level CAC scheme serves as a good solution for supporting multimedia applications in DS-CDMA wireless communication systems.

  5. Admission Control for Multiservices Traffic in Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 Networks by Using Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Shyr Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available CAC (Call Admission Control plays a significant role in providing QoS (Quality of Service in mobile wireless networks. In addition to much research that focuses on modified Mobile IP to get better efficient handover performance, CAC should be introduced to Mobile IP-based network to guarantee the QoS for users. In this paper, we propose a CAC scheme which incorporates multiple traffic types and adjusts the admission threshold dynamically using fuzzy control logic to achieve better usage of resources. The method can provide QoS in Mobile IPv6 networks with few modifications on MAP (Mobility Anchor Point functionality and slight change in BU (Binding Update message formats. According to the simulation results, the proposed scheme presents good performance of voice and video traffic at the expenses of poor performance on data traffic. It is evident that these CAC schemes can reduce the probability of the handoff dropping and the cell overload and limit the probability of the new call blocking.

  6. Call Admission Control performance model for Beyond 3G Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, H S Ramesh; Satyanarayana, P S

    2010-01-01

    The Next Generation Wireless Networks (NGWN) will be heterogeneous in nature where the different Radio Access Technologies (RATs) operate together .The mobile terminals operating in this heterogeneous environment will have different QoS requirements to be handled by the system. These QoS requirements are determined by a set of QoS parameters. The radio resource management is one of the key challenges in NGWN. Call admission control is one of the radio resource management technique plays instrumental role in ensure the desired QoS to the users working on different applications which have diversified QoS requirements from the wireless networks . The call blocking probability is one such QoS parameter for the wireless network. For better QoS it is desirable to reduce the call blocking probability. In this customary scenario it is highly desirable to obtain analytic Performance model. In this paper we propose a higher order Markov chain based performance model for call admission control in a heterogeneous wireles...

  7. Mitigating Handoff Call Dropping in Wireless Cellular Networks: A Call Admission Control Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpenyong, Moses Effiong; Udoh, Victoria Idia; Bassey, Udoma James

    2016-06-01

    Handoff management has been an important but challenging issue in the field of wireless communication. It seeks to maintain seamless connectivity of mobile users changing their points of attachment from one base station to another. This paper derives a call admission control model and establishes an optimal step-size coefficient (k) that regulates the admission probability of handoff calls. An operational CDMA network carrier was investigated through the analysis of empirical data collected over a period of 1 month, to verify the performance of the network. Our findings revealed that approximately 23 % of calls in the existing system were lost, while 40 % of the calls (on the average) were successfully admitted. A simulation of the proposed model was then carried out under ideal network conditions to study the relationship between the various network parameters and validate our claim. Simulation results showed that increasing the step-size coefficient degrades the network performance. Even at optimum step-size (k), the network could still be compromised in the presence of severe network crises, but our model was able to recover from these problems and still functions normally.

  8. Novel Stochastic Model for Call Admission Control in Broadband Wireless Multimedia Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUGan; ZHUGuangxi; RUANYoulin; HUZhenping; WUWeimin; WANGDesheng

    2005-01-01

    As the increasing demand of the capacity of cellular networks, the cell sizes have become smaller than ever, which increases the probability of handoff one may experience during a service. To ensure the calls, QoS and high channel utilization, an effective call admission control is needed urgently. The well-known Guard channel method (GCM) which works with static fashion cannotadapt to the changes in traffic pattern, whereas, SDCA mechanism proposed by S. Wu can overcome that shortcoming due to its dynamic nature. Unfortunately, it is only suitable for single-service. In this paper, we establish a novel stochastic model to study the actual system so as to avoid coping with the complex multiple dimensions stochastic problem. Two wonderful features of the model make it competent for this role. On one hand, it can turnthe multiple steps of state transition into single step ofstate transition, which is a necessary condition for ideal birth-death processes. On the other hand, it can providea simple method to compute the approximation of the call dropping probabilities for multiple services, which facilitate our estimation for the acceptance ratio vector subject to QoS requirement. As a result, we get a multi-services dynamic call admission scheme to adapt for multiple types of services in mobile wireless networks. Numerical results show that our scheme steadily satisfies the constraint on call dropping probability of multi-services while maintaining a high channel throughput.

  9. Algorithms for Deterministic Call Admission Control of Pre-stored VBR Video Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Tryfonas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We examine the problem of accepting a new request for a pre-stored VBR video stream that has been smoothed using any of the smoothing algorithms found in the literature. The output of these algorithms is a piecewise constant-rate schedule for a Variable Bit-Rate (VBR stream. The schedule guarantees that the decoder buffer does not overflow or underflow. The problem addressed in this paper is the determination of the minimal time displacement of each new requested VBR stream so that it can be accommodated by the network and/or the video server without overbooking the committed traffic. We prove that this call-admission control problem for multiple requested VBR streams is NP-complete and inapproximable within a constant factor, by reducing it from the VERTEX COLOR problem. We also present a deterministic morphology-sensitive algorithm that calculates the minimal time displacement of a VBR stream request. The complexity of the proposed algorithm along with the experimental results we provide indicate that the proposed algorithm is suitable for real-time determination of the time displacement parameter during the call admission phase.

  10. Rotary Mode Core Sampling Control Decision Record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A control decision meeting was held on December 19, 2000, to analyze the rotary mode core sampling (RMCS) controls. The agenda for the control decision meeting is included in Appendix A, and the attendee list is included in Appendix B. The purpose of this control decision meeting was to reconcile the Los Alamos National Laboratories safety assessment control allocation for RMCS with the rest of the Tank Farms Authorization Basis (AB). In-mid 1998, calculation note HNF-3228, Rev. 0, Recalculation of Accident Consequences to Account for Rotary Mode Core Sampling, was generated to incorporate RMCS into HNF-SD-WM-B10-001, Tank Waste Remediation System Basis for Interim Operation (BIO), which was the current AB at that time. The Addendum 5 addition to the BIO was based on calculation note HNF-3228 and issued for approval in August 1998. Approval of Addendum 5 has been delayed. Since Addendum 5 was generated, the BIO has been superceded by HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR); numerous changes have been made to the accident analyses; and considerable data have been gathered on aerosol experience during RMCS. These changes necessitated an update to HNF-3228, Rev. 0, to provide a current evaluation of the impact of RMCS activities on the accident analyses in the FSAR before RMCS is incorporated into the FSAR. The scope of this control decision is for RMCS activities only. The AB documents used for this control decision were Revision 2 of the FSAR and Revision 2 of HNF-SD-WM-TSR-006, Tank Farms Technical Safety Requirements, as well as supporting calculation notes HNF-3228/Rev.1, HNF-4240/Rev.1, Organic Solvent Topical Report, and HNF-3588/Rev.1, Organic Complexant Topical Report. The control decision meeting was conducted in accordance with the established and approved process and criteria described in the FSAR. A summary of the control decision process and criteria was presented at the start of the control decision meeting and is included in

  11. AN Enhanced SINR-Based Call Admission Control in 3G Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Ekpenyong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (SINR-based call admission control (CAC as an effective technique that guarantees signal quality for admitted users. We propose a CAC model that admits users as long as the SINR exceeds a threshold (th SINR . To reduce blocking, we ensure that the threshold level is maintained at a lower bound (lb thSINR −, convenient to keep the blocking probability ( Pb below a maximum value ( Pb−max. We simulate the CAC model with the Java programming language and evaluate the performance of the model. Simulation results show that our CAC scheme produce the expected performance that improves the network quality.

  12. A STUDY ON PROBE-BASED MULTICAST ADMISSION CONTROL AND ENHANCEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Le Chunhui; He Jianhua; Yang Zongkai; Liu Wei

    2006-01-01

    To provide scalable and simple Quality of Service(QoS) mechanism for multicast services,Probe-Based Multicast Admission Control (PBMAC) scheme was proposed. In this paper, PBMAC is studied and a so-called subsequent request problem is found in PBMAC, which degrades system performance significantly when the network traffic is heavily loaded. Based on the analysis on subsequent request problem, an Enhance PBMAC (EPBMAC) scheme is proposed, in which complementary probing is devised to solve the problem. Using a new metric of normalized requested equivalent link capacity, the performance of PBMAC and EPBMAC is analyzed and evaluated. Two implementations are proposed for incremental deployment. The paper finally introduces evaluation with packet-based simulations. Both analytical and simulation results show the significant improvement in performance.

  13. Setting Local Cut Scores on the Sat Reasoning Test™ Writing Section: For Use in College Placement and Admissions Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Deanna L.

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of the SAT Reasoning Test™ with a writing section in March 2005 and the concomitant elimination of the SAT® Subject Test in Writing after January 2005 have led many colleges and institutions to ask for guidance in using the new SAT Reasoning Test writing section scores for college placement and admissions. Standard-setting…

  14. Financial Analysis, Budgeting, Decision and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rodica TIRLEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic processes taking place in the economic environment are stochastic processes that involve and imply risks, arising from product diversification, competition, financial derivatives transactions: swaps, futures, options and from the large number of actors involved in the stock market with a higher or a smaller uncertainty degree. Competition and competitiveness, led to major and rapid change in the business environment, they determined actors participating in the economy to find solutions and methods of collecting and processing data, in such a way that, after being transformed into information they quickly help based on their analysis in decision making, planning and financial forecasting, having an effect on increasing their economic efficiency. In these circumstances the financial analysis, decision, forecasting and control, should be based on quality information that should be a value creation source. The active nature of the financial function implies the existence of a substantially large share of financial analysis, financial decision, forecasting and control.

  15. Study on the Class-Based Admission Control Scheme for DiffServ in MPLS Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李震宇; 张中兆

    2003-01-01

    Differentiated services (DiffServ) and MPLS are two major building blocks for providing multi-class services over IP networks. In order to respond to the need for relatively simple, coarse methods of providing different levels of service for Internet traffic, to support various types of applications and specific business requirements, the MPLS network infrastructure and the DiffServ traffic model will work together. Meanwhile, in today's environment of multiple service networks, it is necessary for the node in the networks to perform the control mechanism to guarantee various QoS. In this paper, we propose a class-based admission control scheme that is suitable for DiffServ in MPLS networks. This scheme can achieve twofold objects: reliable QoS provisioning and high resource utilization. We evaluate the proposed scheme by numerical analysis of its performance in terms of throughput, delay, and reject probability. By performing simulation, we can ensure that the proposed scheme can work efficiently to provide strict QoS guarantees.

  16. Call Admission Control Algorithm for pre-stored VBR video streams

    CERN Document Server

    Tryfonas, Christos; Mehler, Andrew; Skiena, Steven

    2008-01-01

    We examine the problem of accepting a new request for a pre-stored VBR video stream that has been smoothed using any of the smoothing algorithms found in the literature. The output of these algorithms is a piecewise constant-rate schedule for a Variable Bit-Rate (VBR) stream. The schedule guarantees that the decoder buffer does not overflow or underflow. The problem addressed in this paper is the determination of the minimal time displacement of each new requested VBR stream so that it can be accomodated by the network and/or the video server without overbooking the committed traffic. We prove that this call-admission control problem for multiple requested VBR streams is NP-complete and inapproximable within a constant factor, by reducing it from the VERTEX COLOR problem. We also present a deterministic morphology-sensitive algorithm that calculates the minimal time displacement of a VBR stream request. The complexity of the proposed algorithm make it suitable for real-time determination of the time displacem...

  17. Performance Analysis and Optimization of an Adaptive Admission Control Scheme in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunfu Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In cognitive radio networks, if all the secondary user (SU packets join the system without any restrictions, the average latency of the SU packets will be greater, especially when the traffic load of the system is higher. For this, we propose an adaptive admission control scheme with a system access probability for the SU packets in this paper. We suppose the system access probability is inversely proportional to the total number of packets in the system and introduce an Adaptive Factor to adjust the system access probability. Accordingly, we build a discrete-time preemptive queueing model with adjustable joining rate. In order to obtain the steady-state distribution of the queueing model exactly, we construct a two-dimensional Markov chain. Moreover, we derive the formulas for the blocking rate, the throughput, and the average latency of the SU packets. Afterwards, we provide numerical results to investigate the influence of the Adaptive Factor on different performance measures. We also give the individually optimal strategy and the socially optimal strategy from the standpoints of the SU packets. Finally, we provide a pricing mechanism to coordinate the two optimal strategies.

  18. A BATCH ARRIVAL RETRIAL QUEUE WITH STARTING FAILURES, FEEDBACK AND ADMISSION CONTROL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinting WANG; Peng-Feng ZHOU

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the analysis of a feedback M[X]/G/1 retrial queue with starting failures and general retrial times.In a batch,each individual customer is subject to a control admission policy upon arrival.If the server is idle,one of the customers admitted to the system may start its service and the rest joins the retrial group,whereas all the admitted customers go to the retrial group when the server is unavailable upon arrival.An arriving customer(primary or retrial)must turn-on the server,which takes negligible time.If the server is started successfully(with a certain probability),the customer gets service immediately.Otherwise,the repair for the server commences immediately and the customer must leave for the orbit and make a retrial at a later time.It is assumed that the customers who find the server unavailable are queued in the orbit in accordance with an FCFS discipline and only the customer at the head of the queue is allowed for access to the server.The Markov chain underlying the considered queueing system is studied and the necessary and sufficient condition for the system to be stable is presented.Explicit formulae for the stationary distribution and some performance measures of the system in steady-state are obtained.Finally,some numerical examples are presented to illustrate the influence of the parameters on several performance characteristics.

  19. Further Studies on Equivalence of Structure and Its Relevance to Performance of Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUIZhibo; ZHOULichao

    2005-01-01

    The advantage of Measurement-based admission control algorithms (MBACs) is that they are able to improve network utilization for the controlled-load service. Most researchers have focused primarily on designs of the Admission control equations (ACEs) of MBACs using a variety of principled and ad hoc motivations. In this paper, six typical MBACs, namely MS, HB, TP, TO, TE and MC algorithms, are discussed. First, we have proven analytically that the ACEs of TE and MC have the same structural form as the ACEs of the other four MBACs above. Second, through formal analysis we have theoretically proven that the ACEs of TE and MC, even though they are derived and motivated in quite different ways, are equivalent to the other four MBACs by tuning the adjustable parameters of MBACs. Finally, we have used also simulations to confirm our work.

  20. Metacognitive Control of Categorial Neurobehavioral Decision Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R

    2016-01-01

    The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS) model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive) functions that engender normal and addictive responding. However, a case may be made for construing several components of the impulsive and executive systems depicted in the model as categories (elements) of additional systems that are concerned with the metacognitive control of behavior. Hence, this paper proposes a category-based structure for understanding the effects on behavior of CNDS, which includes not only the impulsive and executive systems of the basic model but a superordinate level of reflective or rational decision-making. Following recent developments in the modeling of cognitive control which contrasts Type 1 (rapid, autonomous, parallel) processing with Type 2 (slower, computationally demanding, sequential) processing, the proposed model incorporates an arena in which the potentially conflicting imperatives of impulsive and executive systems are examined and from which a more appropriate behavioral response than impulsive choice emerges. This configuration suggests a forum in which the interaction of picoeconomic interests, which provide a cognitive dimension for CNDS, can be conceptualized. This proposition is examined in light of the resolution of conflict by means of bundling. PMID:26925004

  1. Metacognitive control of categorial neurobehavioral decision systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Robert Foxall

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC. The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive functions that engender classes normal and addictive responding. However, a case may be made for construing several components of the impulsive and executive systems depicted in the model as categories (elements of additional systems that are concerned with the metacognitive control of behavior. Hence, this paper proposes a category-based structure for understanding the effects on behavior of CNDS, which includes not only the impulsive and executive systems of the basic model but, a superordinate level of reflective or rational decision-making. Following recent developments in the modeling of cognitive control which contrasts Type 1 (rapid, autonomous, parallel processing with Type 2 (slower, computationally-demanding, sequential processing, the proposed model incorporates an arena in which the potentially conflicting imperatives of impulsive and executive systems are examined and from which a more appropriate behavioral response than impulsive choice emerges. This configuration suggests a forum in which the interaction of picoeconomic interests, which provide a cognitive dimension for CNDS, can be conceptualized. This proposition is examined in light of the resolution of conflict by means of bundling.

  2. Investment decisions with benefits of control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    as a representation of the large shareholders' expected private benefits. Using a large panel of U.S. data, I find that large shareholders' concern with dilution of ownership and control cause firms to issue less equity and to invest less. I also find that it has no significant effect whether new......This paper studies how large shareholders with benefits of control affect firms' equity issue behavior and investment decisions. I introduce an explicit agency cost structure based on the large shareholder's benefits of control. In a simple extension of Myers and Majluf [1984], I show that...... underinvestment is aggravated when there are benefits of being in control, and these benefits are diluted if equity is issued to finance the investment project. I assume that large shareholders are constrained from further investments in their firms, and that they maximize their own wealth, which includes the...

  3. A framework of call admission control procedures for integrated services mobile wireless networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a general framework for a wide range of call admission control (CAC) algorithms. For several CAC schemes, which are a subset of this general framework, an analytical performance evaluation is presented for a multi-traffic mobile wireless network. These CAC algorithms consider a variety of mechanisms to prioritize traffic in an attempt to support different levels of quality of service (QoS) for different types of calls. These mechanisms include dividing the handoff traffic into more than one class and using guard channels or allowing channel splitting to admit more handoff calls. Other mechanisms aimed at adding priority for handoff calls consider employing queuing of handoff calls or dynamically reducing the number lower priority calls. Furthermore our analysis relaxes the typically used assumptions of equal channel holding time and equal resource usage for voice and data calls. The main contribution of this paper is the development of an analytical model for each of the three CAC algorithms specified in this study. In addition to the call blocking and termination probabilities which are usually cited as the performance metrics, in this work we derive and evaluate other metrics that not have be considered by the previous work such as the average queue length, the average queue residency, and the time-out probability for handoff calls. We also develop a simulation tool to test and verify our results. Finally, we present numerical examples to demonstrate the performance of the proposed CAG algorithms and we show that analytical and simulation results are in total agreement. (author)

  4. Sequential decision making in merger control

    OpenAIRE

    LANGUS, Gregor; Lipatov, Vilen; Neven, Damien

    2014-01-01

    We model merger control procedures as a process of sequential acquisition of information and compare US and EU procedures. In the US, the authorities do not have to justify their decision to require further information (issue a second request), whereas in the EU, the authorities face a different (enforceable) standard of proof in phase I relative to phase II. We find that in the absence of remedies, the US procedure is always superior in terms of expected consumer welfare. When we allow for r...

  5. Mental workload in decision and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, T. B.

    1979-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the problems of defining and measuring the 'mental workload' of aircraft pilots and other human operators of complex dynamic systems. Of the alternative approaches the author indicates a clear preference for the use of subjective scaling. Some recent experiments from MIT and elsewhere are described which utilize subjective mental workload scales in conjunction with human decision and control tasks in the laboratory. Finally a new three-dimensional mental workload rating scale, under current development for use by IFR aircraft pilots, is presented.

  6. A control-theory model for human decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, W. H.; Tanner, R. B.

    1971-01-01

    A model for human decision making is an adaptation of an optimal control model for pilot/vehicle systems. The models for decision and control both contain concepts of time delay, observation noise, optimal prediction, and optimal estimation. The decision making model was intended for situations in which the human bases his decision on his estimate of the state of a linear plant. Experiments are described for the following task situations: (a) single decision tasks, (b) two-decision tasks, and (c) simultaneous manual control and decision making. Using fixed values for model parameters, single-task and two-task decision performance can be predicted to within an accuracy of 10 percent. Agreement is less good for the simultaneous decision and control situation.

  7. Time from admission to initiation of surgery for source control is a critical determinant of survival in patients with gastrointestinal perforation with associated septic shock

    OpenAIRE

    Azuhata, Takeo; Kinoshita, Kosaku; Kawano, Daisuke; Komatsu, Tomonori; Sakurai, Atsushi; Chiba, Yasutaka; Tanjho, Katsuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We developed a protocol to initiate surgical source control immediately after admission (early source control) and perform initial resuscitation using early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) for gastrointestinal (GI) perforation with associated septic shock. This study evaluated the relationship between the time from admission to initiation of surgery and the outcome of the protocol. Methods This examination is a prospective observational study and involved 154 patients of GI perforat...

  8. Integrating sand control, completion decisions pay off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, K.D.; Procyk, A.

    1998-10-01

    Anadarko recently completed an open-hole, horizontal gas well in the Gulf of Mexico using completion and sand control techniques that have proven extremely successful, judging from the production numbers. The well, in the East Addition, High Island Area, about 120 miles southeast of Galveston in 341-ft waters, was completed with a Pall Stratapac Sand Control Screen without a gravel pack. The flow rate of the well is four to sic times what would have been expected from a conventional, vertical, gravel-packed well with similar conditions. The well`s peak production rate was 22.0 MMcfd, and the well produced a total of more than 2.635 bcf of gas from November 1997 to July 1998. Drawdown was calculated at less than 40 psi, and a skin factor of negative 3.5 indicates that formation damage during the completion was negligible. The full range of completion and sand control decisions came together to make this well a success.

  9. QoS awared power and admission controls based on non-cooperative game theory in wireless networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to better accommodate heterogeneous quality of service (QoS) in wireless networks, an algorithm called QeS-aware power and admission controls (QAPAC) is proposed. The system is modeled as u non- cooperative game where the users adjust their transmit powers to maximize the utility, thus restraining the interferences. By using adaptive utility functions and tunable pricing parameters according to QoS levels, this algorithm can well meet different QoS reqniremcnts and improve system capacity compared with those that ignore the QoS differ- ences.

  10. QoS awared power and admission controls based on non-cooperative game theory in wireless networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to better accommodate heterogeneous quality of service (QoS) in wireless networks, an algorithm called QoS-aware power and admission controls (QAPAC) is proposed. The system is modeled as a non-cooperative game where the users adjust their transmit powers to maximize the utility, thus restraining the interferences. By using adaptive utility functions and tunable pricing parameters according to QoS levels, this algorithm can well meet different QoS requirements and improve system capacity compared w...

  11. Two-Level Cross-Talked Admission Control Mechanism for QoS Guarantee in 802.11e EDCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Zhisheng; LIU Jing

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a two-level cross-talked admission control mechanism that guarantees qual-ity of service (QoS) requirements for multimedia applications over wireless local area networks (WLANs). An enhanced distributed channel access analytical model is used to compute the maximum number of admitted users according to the QoS requirements and the packet arrival characters. Then, some channel resources are reserved for handoff calls based on the maximum number of admitted users and the call-level traffic model. The channel utilization ratio is also measured to reflect the current system traffic load. The maximum number of admitted users and the channel utilization ratio are used for admission control for applications with QoS requirements in the call level and for rate control of best effort applications in the packet level using the p-nonacknowledgement scheme. Thus, the QoS requirements are statistically guaranteed while the system is efficiently utilized. Simulations validate the effectiveness of this mechanism to guarantee the QoS and bandwidth utilization.

  12. A control theory model for human decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    The optimal control model for pilot-vehicle systems has been extended to handle certain types of human decision tasks. The model for decision making incorporates the observation noise, optimal estimation, and prediction concepts that form the basis of the model for control behavior. Experiments are described for the following task situations: (1) single decision tasks; (2) two decision tasks; and (3) simultaneous manual control and decision tasks. Using fixed values for model parameters, single-task and two-task decision performance scores to within an accuracy of 10 percent can be predicted. The experiment on simultaneous control and decision indicates the presence of task interference in this situation, but the results are not adequate to allow a conclusive test of the predictive capability of the model.

  13. Decision theory applied to image quality control in radiology

    OpenAIRE

    Arantes Paula R; Caous Cristofer A; Lessa Patrícia S; Amaro Edson; de Souza Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The present work aims at the application of the decision theory to radiological image quality control (QC) in diagnostic routine. The main problem addressed in the framework of decision theory is to accept or reject a film lot of a radiology service. The probability of each decision of a determined set of variables was obtained from the selected films. Methods Based on a radiology service routine a decision probability function was determined for each considered group of c...

  14. Control Decisions for Flammable Gas Hazards in Waste Transfer Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the control decisions for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems (i.e., waste transfer piping and waste transfer-associated structures) made at control decision meetings on November 30, 1999a and April 19, 2000, and their basis. These control decisions, and the analyses that support them, will be documented in an amendment to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG 2000a) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) (CHG 2000b) to close the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) (Bacon 1996 and Wagoner 1996). Following the Contractor Tier I review of the FSAR and TSR amendment, it will be submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) for review and approval. The control decision meeting on November 30, 1999 to address flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems followed the control decision process and the criteria for control decisions described in Section 3.3.1.5 of the FSAR. The control decision meeting agenda, attendance list, and introductory and background presentations are included in Attachments 1 through 4. The control decision discussions on existing and other possible controls for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems and the basis for selecting or not selecting specific controls are summarized in this report

  15. Task Release Control for Decision Making Queues

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Vaibhav; Bullo, Francesco; Langbort, Cédric

    2010-01-01

    We consider the optimal duration allocation in a decision making queue. Decision making tasks arrive at a given rate to a human operator. The correctness of the decision made by human evolves as a sigmoidal function of the duration allocated to the task. Each task in the queue loses its value continuously. We elucidate on this trade-off and determine optimal policies for the human operator. We show the optimal policy requires the human to drop some tasks. We present a receding horizon optimization strategy, and compare it with the greedy policy.

  16. An experimental study on load-peak shaving in smart homes by means of online admission control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Zhu, Guchuan;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design, implementation, and experimental results of an architecture for autonomous demand-side load management (ADSM) system for Smart Buildings in view of influencing the energy demand in the Smart Grid. In such an architecture, the management system has a layered structure...... and appliances' operation is modeled as a finite state machine, which enables an efficient load control using scheduling techniques borrowed from real-time computing systems. In this study the Admission Control, which is the bottom layer of the presented architecture interacting in real-time with...... physical equipments, is addressed and the real-time power consumption management in a residential dwelling is implemented and tested in a real office building. The experimental results provide a proof of concept for the proposed architecture and demonstrate the applicability of the on-line scheduling...

  17. Metacognitive Control of Categorial Neurobehavioral Decision Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Foxall, Gordon R

    2016-01-01

    The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS) model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive) functions tha...

  18. Status of dual control theory. [stochastic decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, E.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical studies of decision making and stochastic processes are discussed. Several approaches are described for an improved performing control method. It is shown that control performance is highly dependent on the knowledge of the unknown parameters in the system.

  19. Association between birth order and emergency room visits and acute hospital admissions following pediatric vaccination: a self-controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Hawken

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between a child's birth order and emergency room (ER visits and hospital admissions following 2-,4-,6- and 12-month pediatric vaccinations. METHODS: We included all children born in Ontario between April 1(st, 2006 and March 31(st, 2009 who received a qualifying vaccination. We identified vaccinations, ER visits and admissions using health administrative data housed at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. We used the self-controlled case series design to compare the relative incidence (RI of events among 1(st-born and later-born children using relative incidence ratios (RIR. RESULTS: For the 2-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st-borns versus later-born children was 1.37 (95% CI: 1.19-1.57, which translates to 112 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. For the 4-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st-borns vs. later-borns was 1.70 (95% CI: 1.45-1.99, representing 157 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. At 6 months, the RIR for 1(st vs. later-borns was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.09-1.48, or 77 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. At the 12-month vaccination, the RIR was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02-1.21, or 249 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Birth order is associated with increased incidence of ER visits and hospitalizations following vaccination in infancy. 1(st-born children had significantly higher relative incidence of events compared to later-born children.

  20. Relevant Costs for Decision in an Effective Controlling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TULVINSCHI

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Controlling is considered a leading concept in the sense of coordination, planning, control and automation, in order to produce the synthesis necessary in decision making. The purpose of article is to highlight the link between a dynamic accounting system and an effective controlling system. The research method used is based on the idea that the cost analysis in an efficient controlling system involves obtaining accounting information from within the entity which management then uses in decision making. In conclusion, we emphasize that an effective controlling system must provide managers the tools to meet their informational needs.

  1. Real-Time Co-Operative Decision Making & Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vlacic, Ljubo; Thomas, Daniel; Pérez Rastelli, Joshué

    2011-01-01

    International audience Learning and adaptability (and thus the ability of being co-operative) are important features of decision & control systems. This paper investigates decision making and control concepts that enable human beings and artificial beings to interact and co-operate in real time in a dynamic and reliable way. It examines the aspects of being co-operative and substitutable in the context of: (i) co-operative driving by driverless vehicles; and (ii) computer game play scenari...

  2. Admissibility of Linear Systems in Banach Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Fa-ming

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, infinite-time p-admissibility of unbounded operators is introduced and the Co-semigroup characterization of the infinite-time p-admissibility of unbounded observation operators is given. Moreover, the analogous result for the infinite-time p-admissibility of unbounded control operators is presented.

  3. Enhanced signaling scheme with admission control in the hybrid optical wireless (HOW) networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Yu, Hao; Wessing, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    The hybrid optical wireless (HOW) network has been viewed as a promising solution to meet the increasing user bandwidth and mobility demands. Due to the basic differences in the optical and wireless technologies, a challenging problem lies in the Media Access Control (MAC) protocol design so that...

  4. Airport Casualties: Non-Admission and Return Risks at Times of Internalized/Externalized Border Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maybritt Jill Alpes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes what can happen to forced returnees upon arrival in their country of nationality. Subjective configurations of state agents in the Global South have created return risks, which in turn transform subjectivities of post-colonial citizens. The article contributes to this Special Issue by tracing repercussions of the externalization and internalization of border controls. In the case of Cameroon, these connections have resulted in the criminalization of emigration. Aspiring migrants are prosecuted if their departure projects fail to respect the entry requirements of countries in the Global North. The article is based on research conducted in Douala, Cameroon, in the form of discussions with control agents at the international airport, investigations at a prison, a review of related case law, police registers and interviews with Cameroonians returnees (November 2013–January 2014. Border controls and connected anti-fraud programs suppress family-based forms of solidarity and allow only for subjectivities rooted in state-managed forms of national identity. The article illustrates how efforts to combat fraud fuel corruption in returnees’ social networks, whereby, instead of receiving remittances, families in emigration countries have to mobilize financial resources in order to liberate returnees from police stations or prison complexes. Migration related detention of nationals in the Global South highlights the growing significance of exit controls in migration management.

  5. Admission to Law School: New Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Marjorie M.; Zedeck, Sheldon

    2012-01-01

    Standardized tests have been increasingly controversial over recent years in high-stakes admission decisions. Their role in operationalizing definitions of merit and qualification is especially contested, but in law schools this challenge has become particularly intense. Law schools have relied on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) and an INDEX…

  6. Effectiveness of telemonitoring integrated into existing clinical services on hospital admission for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: researcher blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Pinnock, Hilary; Hanley, Janet; McCloughan, Lucy; Todd, Allison; Krishan, Ashma; Lewis, Stephanie; Stoddart, Andrew; van der Pol, Marjon; MacNee, William; Sheikh, Aziz; Pagliari, Claudia; McKinstry, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To test the effectiveness of telemonitoring integrated into existing clinical services such that intervention and control groups have access to the same clinical care. Design: Researcher blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Setting: UK primary care (Lothian, Scotland). Participants: Adults with at least one admission for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the year before randomisation. We excluded people who had other significant lung disease, who were unab...

  7. Effectiveness of telemonitoring integrated into existing clinical services on hospital admission for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: researcher blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Pinnock, Hilary; Hanley, Janet; McCloughan, Lucy; Todd, Allison; Krishan, Ashma; Lewis, Stephanie; Stoddart, Andrew; van der Pol, Marjon; MacNee, William; Sheikh, Aziz; Pagliari, Claudia; McKinstry, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the effectiveness of telemonitoring integrated into existing clinical services such that intervention and control groups have access to the same clinical care. Design Researcher blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Setting UK primary care (Lothian, Scotland). Participants Adults with at least one admission for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the year before randomisation. We excluded people who had other significant lung disease, who were unable t...

  8. Facts and fiction of learning systems. [decision making intelligent control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saridis, G. N.

    1975-01-01

    The methodology that will provide the updated precision for the hardware control and the advanced decision making and planning in the software control is called learning systems and intelligent control. It was developed theoretically as an alternative for the nonsystematic heuristic approaches of artificial intelligence experiments and the inflexible formulation of modern optimal control methods. Its basic concepts are discussed and some feasibility studies of some practical applications are presented.

  9. Relevant Costs for Decision in an Effective Controlling System

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela TULVINSCHI

    2010-01-01

    Controlling is considered a leading concept in the sense of coordination, planning, control and automation, in order to produce the synthesis necessary in decision making. The purpose of article is to highlight the link between a dynamic accounting system and an effective controlling system. The research method used is based on the idea that the cost analysis in an efficient controlling system involves obtaining accounting information from within the entity which management then uses in decis...

  10. Generation companies decision-making modeling by linear control theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes four decision-making procedures to be employed by electric generating companies as part of their bidding strategies when competing in an oligopolistic market: naive, forward, adaptive, and moving average expectations. Decision-making is formulated in a dynamic framework by using linear control theory. The results reveal that interactions among all GENCOs affect market dynamics. Several numerical examples are reported, and conclusions are presented. (author)

  11. The effect of health-facility admission and skilled birth attendant coverage on maternal survival in India: a case-control analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann L Montgomery

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research in areas of low skilled attendant coverage found that maternal mortality is paradoxically higher in women who seek obstetric care. We estimated the effect of health-facility admission on maternal survival, and how this effect varies with skilled attendant coverage across India. METHODS/FINDINGS: Using unmatched population-based case-control analysis of national datasets, we compared the effect of health-facility admission at any time (antenatal, intrapartum, postpartum on maternal deaths (cases to women reporting pregnancies (controls. Probability of maternal death decreased with increasing skilled attendant coverage, among both women who were and were not admitted to a health-facility, however, the risk of death among women who were admitted was higher (at 50% coverage, OR = 2.32, 95% confidence interval 1.85-2.92 than among those women who were not; while at higher levels of coverage, the effect of health-facility admission was attenuated. In a secondary analysis, the probability of maternal death decreased with increasing coverage among both women admitted for delivery or delivered at home but there was no effect of admission for delivery on mortality risk (50% coverage, OR = 1.0, 0.80-1.25, suggesting that poor quality of obstetric care may have attenuated the benefits of facility-based care. Subpopulation analysis of obstetric hemorrhage cases and report of 'excessive bleeding' in controls showed that the probability of maternal death decreased with increasing skilled attendant coverage; but the effect of health-facility admission was attenuated (at 50% coverage, OR = 1.47, 0.95-1.79, suggesting that some of the effect in the main model can be explained by women arriving at facility with complications underway. Finally, highest risk associated with health-facility admission was clustered in women with education ≤ 8 years. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of health-facility admission did vary by skilled attendant coverage, and

  12. Using the decision ladder to understand road user decision making at actively controlled rail level crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, Christine M; Salmon, Paul M; Beanland, Vanessa; Lenné, Michael G; Read, Gemma J M; Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-09-01

    Rail level crossings (RLXs) represent a key strategic risk for railways worldwide. Despite enforcement and engineering countermeasures, user behaviour at RLXs can often confound expectations and erode safety. Research in this area is limited by a relative absence of insights into actual decision making processes and a focus on only a subset of road user types. One-hundred and sixty-six road users (drivers, motorcyclists, cyclists and pedestrians) completed a diary entry for each of 457 naturalistic encounters with RLXs when a train was approaching. The final eligible sample comprised 94 participants and 248 encounters at actively controlled crossings where a violation of the active warnings was possible. The diary incorporated Critical Decision Method probe questions, which enabled user responses to be mapped onto Rasmussen's decision ladder. Twelve percent of crossing events were non-compliant. The underlying decision making was compared to compliant events and a reference decision model to reveal important differences in the structure and type of decision making within and between road user groups. The findings show that engineering countermeasures intended to improve decision making (e.g. flashing lights), may have the opposite effect for some users because the system permits a high level of flexibility for circumvention. Non-motorised users were more likely to access information outside of the warning signals because of their ability to achieve greater proximity to the train tracks and the train itself. The major conundrum in resolving these issues is whether to restrict the amount of time and information available to users so that it cannot be used for circumventing the system or provide more information to help users make safe decisions. PMID:27184305

  13. Analysis of Quality of Service Performances of Connection Admission Control Mechanisms in OFDMA IEEE 802.16 Network using BMAP Queuing

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchti, Abdelali El; Kafhali, Said El

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a single-cell IEEE 802.16 environment in which the base station allocates subchannels to the subscriber stations in its coverage area. The subchannels allocated to a subscriber station are shared by multiple connections at that subscriber station. To ensure the Quality of Service (QoS) performances, two Connection Admission Control (CAC) mechanisms, namely, threshold-based and queue-aware CAC mechanisms are considered at a subscriber station. A queuing analytical framework for these admission control mechanisms is presented considering Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) based transmission at the physical layer. Then, based on the queuing model, both the connection-level and the packet-level performances are studied and compared with their analogues in the case without CAC. The connection arrival is modeled by a Poisson process and the packet arrival for a connection by Batch Markov Arrival Process (BMAP). We determine analytically and numerically different QoS per...

  14. Distributed Bayesian Decision-Making for Urban Traffic Control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmídl, Václav; Přikryl, Jan

    Paris : IEEE, 2006, s. 1-6. [Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. IECON'06 /32./. Paris (FR), 06.11.2006-11.11.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR 1ET100750401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Bayesian decision-making, * multi-agent systems * fully probabilistic design * urban traffic control Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  15. Long-term exposure to air pollution and hospital admissions for ischemic stroke. A register-based case-control study using modelled NOx as exposure proxy

    OpenAIRE

    Oudin, Anna; Stroh, Emilie; Strömberg, Ulf; Jakobsson, Kristina; Björk, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    Background Long-term exposure to air pollution is a hypothesized risk factor for ischemic stroke. In a large case-control study with a complete study base, we investigated whether hospital admissions for ischemic stroke were associated with residential concentrations of outdoor NOx, as a proxy for exposure to air pollution, in the region of Scania, Southern Sweden. Methods We used a two-phase case-control study design, including as first-phase controls all individuals born between 1923 and 19...

  16. Supervision of dynamic systems: Monitoring, decision-making and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, T. N.

    1982-01-01

    Effects of task variables on the performance of the human supervisor by means of modelling techniques are discussed. The task variables considered are: The dynamics of the system, the task to be performed, the environmental disturbances and the observation noise. A relationship between task variables and parameters of a supervisory model is assumed. The model consists of three parts: (1) The observer part is thought to be a full order optimal observer, (2) the decision-making part is stated as a set of decision rules, and (3) the controller part is given by a control law. The observer part generates, on the basis of the system output and the control actions, an estimate of the state of the system and its associated variance. The outputs of the observer part are then used by the decision-making part to determine the instants in time of the observation actions on the one hand and the controls actions on the other. The controller part makes use of the estimated state to derive the amplitude(s) of the control action(s).

  17. Controlling Uncertainty Decision Making and Learning in Complex Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Osman, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Controlling Uncertainty: Decision Making and Learning in Complex Worlds reviews and discusses the most current research relating to the ways we can control the uncertain world around us.: Features reviews and discussions of the most current research in a number of fields relevant to controlling uncertainty, such as psychology, neuroscience, computer science and engineering; Presents a new framework that is designed to integrate a variety of disparate fields of research; Represents the first book of its kind to provide a general overview of work related to understanding control

  18. Automated system for individual control for admission of staff in the controlled zones of the Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the system leads to the following: automated registering of the staff in the personnel database; real time reading of the personal dosimeters; real time reading of the collective dose; the control over the working people (especially external) concerning the dose limits or restrictions are performed in real time

  19. Emergent collective decision-making: Control, model and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tian

    In this dissertation we study emergent collective decision-making in social groups with time-varying interactions and heterogeneously informed individuals. First we analyze a nonlinear dynamical systems model motivated by animal collective motion with heterogeneously informed subpopulations, to examine the role of uninformed individuals. We find through formal analysis that adding uninformed individuals in a group increases the likelihood of a collective decision. Secondly, we propose a model for human shared decision-making with continuous-time feedback and where individuals have little information about the true preferences of other group members. We study model equilibria using bifurcation analysis to understand how the model predicts decisions based on the critical threshold parameters that represent an individual's tradeoff between social and environmental influences. Thirdly, we analyze continuous-time data of pairs of human subjects performing an experimental shared tracking task using our second proposed model in order to understand transient behavior and the decision-making process. We fit the model to data and show that it reproduces a wide range of human behaviors surprisingly well, suggesting that the model may have captured the mechanisms of observed behaviors. Finally, we study human behavior from a game-theoretic perspective by modeling the aforementioned tracking task as a repeated game with incomplete information. We show that the majority of the players are able to converge to playing Nash equilibrium strategies. We then suggest with simulations that the mean field evolution of strategies in the population resemble replicator dynamics, indicating that the individual strategies may be myopic. Decisions form the basis of control and problems involving deciding collectively between alternatives are ubiquitous in nature and in engineering. Understanding how multi-agent systems make decisions among alternatives also provides insight for designing

  20. The Eldicus prospective, observational study of triage decision making in European intensive care units: Part I-European Intensive Care Admission Triage Scores (EICATS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprung, Charles L; Baras, Mario; Iapichino, Gaetano;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Life and death triage decisions are made daily by intensive care unit physicians. Scoring systems have been developed for prognosticating intensive care unit mortality but none for intensive care unit triage. The objective of this study was to develop an intensive care unit triage...... decision rule based on 28-day mortality rates of admitted and refused patients. DESIGN:: Prospective, observational study of triage decisions from September 2003 until March 2005. SETTING:: Eleven intensive care units in seven European countries. PATIENTS:: All patients >18 yrs with a request for intensive...... score. Cutoff values for 99.5% specificity were determined. Of 6796 patients, 5602 were admitted and 1194 rejected. The initial refusal score included age, diagnosis, systolic blood pressure, pulse, respirations, creatinine, bilirubin, PaO2, bicarbonate, albumin, use of vasopressors, Glasgow Coma Scale...

  1. Evolutionary game dynamics of controlled and automatic decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toupo, Danielle F. P.; Strogatz, Steven H.; Cohen, Jonathan D.; Rand, David G.

    2015-07-01

    We integrate dual-process theories of human cognition with evolutionary game theory to study the evolution of automatic and controlled decision-making processes. We introduce a model in which agents who make decisions using either automatic or controlled processing compete with each other for survival. Agents using automatic processing act quickly and so are more likely to acquire resources, but agents using controlled processing are better planners and so make more effective use of the resources they have. Using the replicator equation, we characterize the conditions under which automatic or controlled agents dominate, when coexistence is possible and when bistability occurs. We then extend the replicator equation to consider feedback between the state of the population and the environment. Under conditions in which having a greater proportion of controlled agents either enriches the environment or enhances the competitive advantage of automatic agents, we find that limit cycles can occur, leading to persistent oscillations in the population dynamics. Critically, however, these limit cycles only emerge when feedback occurs on a sufficiently long time scale. Our results shed light on the connection between evolution and human cognition and suggest necessary conditions for the rise and fall of rationality.

  2. Nursing Home Admission: When, Why, Where?

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman, H; Clarfield, A M

    1985-01-01

    The decision to institutionalize older patients puts stress on both them and their families. This option should be carefully considered and alternatives explored before a final decision is made. The physician must seek and treat reversible diseases, and try to optimize the patient's functional status. Once the decision to institutionalize is made, careful preparation and follow-up of both family and patient must occur in the pre-, peri-, and post-admission periods. In this way, the physician ...

  3. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT KOP CONCEPTUAL DESIGN CONTROL DECISION REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This control decision addresses the Knock-Out Pot (KOP) Disposition KOP Processing System (KPS) conceptual design. The KPS functions to (1) retrieve KOP material from canisters, (2) remove particles less than 600 (micro)m in size and low density materials from the KOP material, (3) load the KOP material into Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) baskets, and (4) stage the MCO baskets for subsequent loading into MCOs. Hazard and accident analyses of the KPS conceptual design have been performed to incorporate safety into the design process. The hazard analysis is documented in PRC-STP-00098, Knock-Out Pot Disposition Project Conceptual Design Hazard Analysis. The accident analysis is documented in PRC-STP-CN-N-00167, Knock-Out Pot Disposition Sub-Project Canister Over Lift Accident Analysis. Based on the results of these analyses, and analyses performed in support of MCO transportation and MCO processing and storage activities at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and Canister Storage Building (CSB), control decision meetings were held to determine the controls required to protect onsite and offsite receptors and facility workers. At the conceptual design stage, these controls are primarily defined by their safety functions. Safety significant structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that could provide the identified safety functions have been selected for the conceptual design. It is anticipated that some safety SSCs identified herein will be reclassified based on hazard and accident analyses performed in support of preliminary and detailed design.

  4. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT KOP CONCEPTUAL DESIGN CONTROL DECISION REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARRO CA

    2010-03-09

    This control decision addresses the Knock-Out Pot (KOP) Disposition KOP Processing System (KPS) conceptual design. The KPS functions to (1) retrieve KOP material from canisters, (2) remove particles less than 600 {micro}m in size and low density materials from the KOP material, (3) load the KOP material into Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) baskets, and (4) stage the MCO baskets for subsequent loading into MCOs. Hazard and accident analyses of the KPS conceptual design have been performed to incorporate safety into the design process. The hazard analysis is documented in PRC-STP-00098, Knock-Out Pot Disposition Project Conceptual Design Hazard Analysis. The accident analysis is documented in PRC-STP-CN-N-00167, Knock-Out Pot Disposition Sub-Project Canister Over Lift Accident Analysis. Based on the results of these analyses, and analyses performed in support of MCO transportation and MCO processing and storage activities at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and Canister Storage Building (CSB), control decision meetings were held to determine the controls required to protect onsite and offsite receptors and facility workers. At the conceptual design stage, these controls are primarily defined by their safety functions. Safety significant structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that could provide the identified safety functions have been selected for the conceptual design. It is anticipated that some safety SSCs identified herein will be reclassified based on hazard and accident analyses performed in support of preliminary and detailed design.

  5. Multistable decision switches for flexible control of epigenetic differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Guantes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available It is now recognized that molecular circuits with positive feedback can induce two different gene expression states (bistability under the very same cellular conditions. Whether, and how, cells make use of the coexistence of a larger number of stable states (multistability is however largely unknown. Here, we first examine how autoregulation, a common attribute of genetic master regulators, facilitates multistability in two-component circuits. A systematic exploration of these modules' parameter space reveals two classes of molecular switches, involving transitions in bistable (progression switches or multistable (decision switches regimes. We demonstrate the potential of decision switches for multifaceted stimulus processing, including strength, duration, and flexible discrimination. These tasks enhance response specificity, help to store short-term memories of recent signaling events, stabilize transient gene expression, and enable stochastic fate commitment. The relevance of these circuits is further supported by biological data, because we find them in numerous developmental scenarios. Indeed, many of the presented information-processing features of decision switches could ultimately demonstrate a more flexible control of epigenetic differentiation.

  6. Arousal, Executive Control and Decision Making in Compulsive Buying Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Zöega; Zuraigat, Farah Qureshi; Jacobsen, Catrine;

    2013-01-01

    Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is noted by an obsession with shopping and a chronic, repetitive purchasing behavior with adverse consequences for the sufferer and their social surroundings. While CBD is often classified as an impulse control disorder (ICD), little is still known about the actua......, products of interest (e.g. fashion items) produce bottom-up emotional responses that skews the decision-making process, leading CBD sufferers to make bad purchase decisions....... psychological and physiological mechanisms underlying the phenomenon. By comparing subjects with CBD to a control group, we find that CBD is not associated with lower performance on executive function or emotional responses. Rather, an observed increase in willingness to pay (WTP) specifically for fashion...... products was associated with a stronger emotional response in CBD subjects, while no relationship between emotions and WTP could be observed in healthy controls. This suggests that CBD, instead of being tentatively classified as an ICD, should rather be understood as a behavioral addiction. By this token...

  7. Decision-theoretic control of EUVE telescope scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Othar; Mayer, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a decision theoretic scheduler (DTS) designed to employ state-of-the-art probabilistic inference technology to speed the search for efficient solutions to constraint-satisfaction problems. Our approach involves assessing the performance of heuristic control strategies that are normally hard-coded into scheduling systems and using probabilistic inference to aggregate this information in light of the features of a given problem. The Bayesian Problem-Solver (BPS) introduced a similar approach to solving single agent and adversarial graph search patterns yielding orders-of-magnitude improvement over traditional techniques. Initial efforts suggest that similar improvements will be realizable when applied to typical constraint-satisfaction scheduling problems.

  8. Neuromodulatory control of a goal-directed decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Keiko; Moroz, Leonid L; Hatcher, Nathan G; Gillette, Rhanor

    2014-01-01

    Many cost-benefit decisions reduce to simple choices between approach or avoidance (or active disregard) to salient stimuli. Physiologically, critical factors in such decisions are modulators of the homeostatic neural networks that bias decision processes from moment to moment. For the predatory sea-slug Pleurobranchaea, serotonin (5-HT) is an intrinsic modulatory promoter of general arousal and feeding. We correlated 5-HT actions on appetitive state with its effects on the approach-avoidance decision in Pleurobranchaea. 5-HT and its precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) augmented general arousal state and reduced feeding thresholds in intact animals. Moreover, 5-HT switched the turn response to chemosensory stimulation from avoidance to orienting in many animals. In isolated CNSs, bath application of 5-HT both stimulated activity in the feeding motor network and switched the fictive turn response to unilateral sensory nerve stimulation from avoidance to orienting. Previously, it was shown that increasing excitation state of the feeding network reversibly switched the turn motor network response from avoidance to orienting, and that 5-HT levels vary inversely with nutritional state. A simple model posits a critical role for 5-HT in control of the turn network response by corollary output of the feeding network. In it, 5-HT acts as an intrinsic neuromodulatory factor coupled to nutritional status and regulates approach-avoidance via the excitation state of the feeding network. Thus, the neuromodulator is a key organizing element in behavioral choice of approach or avoidance through its actions in promoting appetitive state, in large part via the homeostatic feeding network. PMID:25048964

  9. Demand response based on admission control in smart grid%基于接纳控制的智能电网需求响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马锴; 姚婷; 关新平

    2015-01-01

    采用效用函数刻画用户的用电满意度,将需求响应问题建模为一类凸优化问题。针对电力供应商的供电量不能满足用户最小用电需求的问题,结合分布式用电量调度和实时定价,设计两类接纳控制算法。仿真结果表明,通过接纳控制,满足了购电用户的最小用电需求,保证了用户的用电质量,能够实现电网的供需平衡。%Utility functions are used to denote the satisfaction of consumers and formulate demand response as a convex optimization problem. For the case that the power supply can not meet the minimum power consumption of the consumers, two admission control algorithms are designed, combining with distributed power consumption scheduling and real-time pricing. Simulation results show that the admission control makes the consumers meet the minimum power consumption, ensure the power quality of the consumers, and balance the supply and the demand in smart grid.

  10. Cost and effects of different admission screening strategies to control the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Gurieva

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infection rates due to antibiotic-resistant bacteriae, e.g., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA remain high in most countries. Screening for MRSA carriage followed by barrier precautions for documented carriers (so-called screen and isolate (S&I has been successful in some, but not all settings. Moreover, different strategies have been proposed, but comparative studies determining their relative effects and costs are not available. We, therefore, used a mathematical model to evaluate the effect and costs of different S&I strategies and to identify the critical parameters for this outcome. The dynamic stochastic simulation model consists of 3 hospitals with general wards and intensive care units (ICUs and incorporates readmission of carriers of MRSA. Patient flow between ICUs and wards was based on real observations. Baseline prevalence of MRSA was set at 20% in ICUs and hospital-wide at 5%; ranges of costs and infection rates were based on published data. Four S&I strategies were compared to a do-nothing scenario: S&I of previously documented carriers ("flagged" patients; S&I of flagged patients and ICU admissions; S&I of flagged and group of "frequent" patients; S&I of all hospital admissions (universal screening. Evaluated levels of efficacy of S&I were 10%, 25%, 50% and 100%. Our model predicts that S&I of flagged and S&I of flagged and ICU patients are the most cost-saving strategies with fastest return of investment. For low isolation efficacy universal screening and S&I of flagged and "frequent" patients may never become cost-saving. Universal screening is predicted to prevent hardly more infections than S&I of flagged and "frequent" patients, albeit at higher costs. Whether an intervention becomes cost-saving within 10 years critically depends on costs per infection in ICU, costs of screening and isolation efficacy.

  11. Decision Support Facility for the APS Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Dohan, D A

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source is now in its fifth year of routine beam production. The EPICS-based [1] control system has entered the phase in its life cycle where new control algorithms must be implemented under increasingly stringent operational and reliability requirements. The sheer volume of the control system (~270,000 records, ~145 VME-based input-output controllers (IOCs), and ~7,000,000 lines of EPICS ASCII configuration code), presents a daunting challenge for code maintenance. The present work describes a relational database that provides an integrated view of the interacting components of the entire APS control system, including the IOC low-level logic, the physical wiring documentation, and high-level client applications. The database is extracted (booted) from the same operational CVS repository as that used to load the active IOCs. It provides site-wide decision support facilities to inspect and trace control flow and to identify client (e.g., user interface) programs involved at any selected poin...

  12. The role of consciousness in cognitive control and decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon evan Gaal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we review studies on the complexity and strength of unconscious information processing. We focus on empirical evidence that relates awareness of information to cognitive control processes (e.g. response inhibition, conflict resolution, and task-switching, the life-time of information maintenance (e.g. working memory and the possibility to integrate multiple pieces of information across space and time. Overall, the results that we review paint a picture of local and specific effects of unconscious information on various (high-level brain regions, including areas in the prefrontal cortex. Although this neural activation does not elicit any conscious experience, it is functional and capable of influencing many perceptual, cognitive (control and decision-related processes, sometimes even for relatively long periods of time. However, recent evidence also points out interesting dissociations between conscious and unconscious information processing when it comes to the duration, flexibility and the strategic use of that information for complex operations and decision-making. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that the role of task-relevance of subliminal information and meta-cognitive factors in unconscious cognition need more attention in future work.

  13. Wide Variability in Emergency Physician Admission Rates: A New Target To Reduce Healthcare Costs Without Adversely Affecting Quality of Care

    OpenAIRE

    Richman, Mark; Guterman, Jeffrey James; Lundberg, Scott Ryan; Talan, David Andrew; Gross-Schulman, Sandra Geri; Wang, Chien-Ju; Scheib, Geoffrey Paul

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Attending physician judgment is the traditional standard of care for Emergency Department (ED) admission decisions. The extent to which variability in admission decisions affect cost and quality is not well understood. METHODS We sought to determine the impact of variability in admission decisions on cost and quality. We performed a retrospective observational study of patients presenting to a u...

  14. Dynamic allocation and admission policies for QoS-aware provisioning systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, M.; Mazzara, M.; Dragoni, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    such that the service provider is liable to compensate his/her customers if the level of performance is not satisfactory. The system is driven by a utility function which tries to optimise the average earned revenue per unit time. The middleware collects demand and performance statistics, and estimates...... traffic parameters in order to make dynamic decisions concerning server allocation and admission control. We empirically evaluate the effects of admission policies, resource allocation and service differentiation schemes on the achieved revenues, and we find that our system is robust enough to...

  15. A Stunning Admission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Few people set out to become admissions counselors, say people in the profession. But the field is requiring skills that are more demanding and varied than ever. And at a time when universities are looking especially hard at the bottom line, people in admissions need to constantly learn new things and make themselves indispensable. Counselors…

  16. Indeterminate EMU admissions: does repeating the admission help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkou, Srijana; Grade, Madeline; Hoerth, Matthew T; Noe, Katherine H; Sirven, Joseph I; Drazkowski, Joseph F

    2011-04-01

    Epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) admissions during 2007-2009 at Mayo Clinic Hospital Arizona were reviewed. Of the 106 indeterminate admissions, 13 (12%) went on to have a second admission. During the second admission, 8 (62%) were diagnosed. Five patients went on to have a third or fourth admission, with none of them receiving a diagnosis. Nineteen (18%) patients had ambulatory EEG monitoring after an indeterminate admission, with only one (5%) receiving a diagnosis after ambulatory EEG monitoring. Even in patients who were initially indeterminate, medication management changed 37% of the time. Admission to the EMU was helpful for spell classification, with 80% of the patients receiving a diagnosis after the first admission. Based on this study, a second admission should be considered if no diagnosis is reached after the first admission. If no diagnosis is made after the second EMU admission, subsequent admissions are unlikely to produce a definitive diagnosis. PMID:21441070

  17. Healthy eating decisions require efficient dietary self-control in children: A mouse-tracking food decision study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Oh-Ryeong; Bruce, Amanda S; Pruitt, Stephen W; Cherry, J Bradley C; Smith, T Ryan; Burkart, Dominic; Bruce, Jared M; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2016-10-01

    Learning how to make healthy eating decisions, (i.e., resisting unhealthy foods and consuming healthy foods), enhances physical development and reduces health risks in children. Although healthy eating decisions are known to be challenging for children, the mechanisms of children's food choice processes are not fully understood. The present study recorded mouse movement trajectories while eighteen children aged 8-13 years were choosing between eating and rejecting foods. Children were inclined to choose to eat rather than to reject foods, and preferred unhealthy foods over healthy foods, implying that rejecting unhealthy foods could be a demanding choice. When children rejected unhealthy foods, mouse trajectories were characterized by large curvature toward an eating choice in the beginning, late decision shifting time toward a rejecting choice, and slowed response times. These results suggested that children exercised greater cognitive efforts with longer decision times to resist unhealthy foods, providing evidence that children require dietary self-control to make healthy eating-decisions by resisting the temptation of unhealthy foods. Developmentally, older children attempted to exercise greater cognitive efforts for consuming healthy foods than younger children, suggesting that development of dietary self-control contributes to healthy eating-decisions. The study also documents that healthy weight children with higher BMIs were more likely to choose to reject healthy foods. Overall, findings have important implications for how children make healthy eating choices and the role of dietary self-control in eating decisions. PMID:27349708

  18. Mathematical models of decision making on space vehicle motion control at fuzzy conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the structure of decision making for control of spacecraft motion is considered. Mathematical models of decision making problems are investigated. New methods of criteria convolution are received. New convolution have properties of smoothness. (author)

  19. Primary and Secondary Selection Tools in an Optometry Admission Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spafford, Marlee M.

    2000-01-01

    A five-year evaluation of the admissions decision process at the University of Waterloo (Ontario) School of Optometry found that when primary tools (i.e., university grades, Optometry Admission Test scores) did not differentiate candidates, there was an increased emphasis on secondary tools (i.e., interview, autobiographic sketch, prerequisite…

  20. The Use of Tests in Admissions to Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruen, Mary

    1978-01-01

    There are both strengths and weaknesses of using standardized test scores as a criterion for admission to institutions of higher education. The relative importance of scores is dependent on the institution's degree of selectivity. In general, decision processes and admissions criteria are not well defined. Advantages of test scores include: use of…

  1. The association of tobacco control policies and the risk of acute myocardial infarction using hospital admissions data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Jan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of a nationwide comprehensive smoking ban (CSB and tobacco tax increase (TTI on the risk of acute myocardial infarctions (AMI in Panama for the period of 2006 - 2010 using hospital admissions data. METHODS: Data of AMI cases was gathered from public and private hospitals in the country for the period of January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2010. The number of AMI cases was calculated on a monthly basis. The risk of AMI was estimated for the pre-CSB period (January 2006 to April 2008 and was used as a reference point. Three post-intervention periods were examined: (1 post-CSB from May 2008 to April 2009 (12 months; (2 post-CSB from May 2009 to November 2009 (7 months; and (3 post-TTI from December 2009 to December 2010 (13 months. Relative risks (RR of AMI were estimated for each post intervention periods by using a Poisson regression model. Mortality registries for the country attributed to myocardial infarction (MI were obtained from January 2001 to December 2012. The annual percentage change (APC of the number of deaths from MI was calculated using Joinpoint regression analysis. RESULTS: A total sample size of 2191 AMI cases was selected (monthly mean number of cases 36.52 ± 8.24 SD. Using the pre-CSB as a reference point (RR = 1.00, the relative risk of AMI during the first CSB period, the second CSB period and post-TTI were 0.982, 1.049, and 0.985, respectively. The APC of deaths from MI from January 2001 to April 2008 was 0.5%. From January 2001 to June 2010 the APC trend was 0.47% and from July 2010 to December 2012 the APC was -0.3%. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of a CSB and TTI in Panama were associated with a decrease in tobacco consumption and a reduction of the RR of AMI.

  2. MACHINE LEARNING APPROACHES IN IMPROVING SERVICE LEVEL AGREEMENT-BASED ADMISSION CONTROL FOR A SOFTWARE-AS-A-SERVICE PROVIDER IN CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Mohana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Software as a Service (SaaS offers reliable access to software applications to the end users over the Internet without direct investment in infrastructure and software. SaaS providers utilize resources of internal data centres or rent resources from a public Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS provider in order to serve their customers. Internal hosting can ample cost of administration and maintenance whereas hiring from an IaaS provider can impact the service quality due to its variable performance. To surmount these drawbacks, we propose pioneering admission control and scheduling algorithms for SaaS providers to effectively utilize public Cloud resources to maximize profit by minimizing cost and improving customer satisfaction level. There is a drawback in this method is strength of the algorithms by handling errors in dynamic scenario of cloud environment, also there is a need of machine learning method to predict the strategies and produce the according resources. The admission control provided by trust model that is based on SLA uses different strategies to decide upon accepting user requests so that there is minimal performance impact, avoiding SLA penalties that are giving higher profit. Machine learning method aims at building a distributed system for cloud resource monitoring and prediction that includes learning-based methodologies for modelling and optimization of resource prediction models. The learning methods are Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Support Vector Machine (SVM are two typical machine learning strategies in the category of regression computation. These two methods can be employed for modelling resource state prediction. In addition, we conduct a widespread evaluation study to analyze which solution matches best in which scenario to maximize SaaS provider’s profit. Results obtained through our extensive simulation shows that our proposed algorithms provide significant improvement (up to 40% cost saving over

  3. Migratory decisions in birds: extent of genetic versus environmental control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogonowski, Mark S; Conway, Courtney J

    2009-08-01

    Migration is one of the most spectacular of animal behaviors and is prevalent across a broad array of taxa. In birds, we know much about the physiological basis of how birds migrate, but less about the relative contribution of genetic versus environmental factors in controlling migratory tendency. To evaluate the extent to which migratory decisions are genetically determined, we examined whether individual western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) change their migratory tendency from one year to the next at two sites in southern Arizona. We also evaluated the heritability of migratory decisions by using logistic regression to examine the association between the migratory tendency of burrowing owl parents and their offspring. The probability of migrating decreased with age in both sexes and adult males were less migratory than females. Individual owls sometimes changed their migratory tendency from one year to the next, but changes were one-directional: adults that were residents during winter 2004-2005 remained residents the following winter, but 47% of adults that were migrants in winter 2004-2005 became residents the following winter. We found no evidence for an association between the migratory tendency of hatch-year owls and their male or female parents. Migratory tendency of hatch-year owls did not differ between years, study sites or sexes or vary by hatching date. Experimental provision of supplemental food did not affect these relationships. All of our results suggest that heritability of migratory tendency in burrowing owls is low, and that intraspecific variation in migratory tendency is likely due to: (1) environmental factors, or (2) a combination of environmental factors and non-additive genetic variation. The fact that an individual's migratory tendency can change across years implies that widespread anthropogenic changes (i.e., climate change or changes in land use) could potentially cause widespread changes in the migratory tendency of

  4. Attention control learning in the decision space using state estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaee, Zahra; Fatehi, Alireza; Mirian, Maryam S.; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid

    2016-05-01

    The main goal of this paper is modelling attention while using it in efficient path planning of mobile robots. The key challenge in concurrently aiming these two goals is how to make an optimal, or near-optimal, decision in spite of time and processing power limitations, which inherently exist in a typical multi-sensor real-world robotic application. To efficiently recognise the environment under these two limitations, attention of an intelligent agent is controlled by employing the reinforcement learning framework. We propose an estimation method using estimated mixture-of-experts task and attention learning in perceptual space. An agent learns how to employ its sensory resources, and when to stop observing, by estimating its perceptual space. In this paper, static estimation of the state space in a learning task problem, which is examined in the WebotsTM simulator, is performed. Simulation results show that a robot learns how to achieve an optimal policy with a controlled cost by estimating the state space instead of continually updating sensory information.

  5. Vista goes online: Decision-analytic systems for real-time decision-making in mission control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Matthew; Horvitz, Eric; Ruokangas, Corinne; Srinivas, Sampath

    1994-01-01

    The Vista project has centered on the use of decision-theoretic approaches for managing the display of critical information relevant to real-time operations decisions. The Vista-I project originally developed a prototype of these approaches for managing flight control displays in the Space Shuttle Mission Control Center (MCC). The follow-on Vista-II project integrated these approaches in a workstation program which currently is being certified for use in the MCC. To our knowledge, this will be the first application of automated decision-theoretic reasoning techniques for real-time spacecraft operations. We shall describe the development and capabilities of the Vista-II system, and provide an overview of the use of decision-theoretic reasoning techniques to the problems of managing the complexity of flight controller displays. We discuss the relevance of the Vista techniques within the MCC decision-making environment, focusing on the problems of detecting and diagnosing spacecraft electromechanical subsystems component failures with limited information, and the problem of determining what control actions should be taken in high-stakes, time-critical situations in response to a diagnosis performed under uncertainty. Finally, we shall outline our current research directions for follow-on projects.

  6. Automatic learning of sequential decision strategies for dynamic security assessment and control

    OpenAIRE

    Wehenkel, Louis; Glavic, Mevludin; Geurts, Pierre; Ernst, Damien

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes to formulate security control as a sequential decision making problem and presents new developments in automatic learning of sequential decision making strategies from simulations and/or information collected from real-life system measurements. The exploitation of these methods for the design of decision making strategies and control policies in the context of preventive and emergency mode dynamic security assessment and control is discussed and further opportunities for r...

  7. Towards a controlled sensitivity analysis of model development decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Martyn; Nijssen, Bart

    2016-04-01

    The current generation of hydrologic models have followed a myriad of different development paths, making it difficult for the community to test underlying hypotheses and identify a clear path to model improvement. Model comparison studies have been undertaken to explore model differences, but these studies have not been able to meaningfully attribute inter-model differences in predictive ability to individual model components because there are often too many structural and implementation differences among the models considered. As a consequence, model comparison studies to date have provided limited insight into the causes of differences in model behavior, and model development has often relied on the inspiration and experience of individual modelers rather than a systematic analysis of model shortcomings. This presentation will discuss a unified approach to process-based hydrologic modeling to enable controlled and systematic analysis of multiple model representations (hypotheses) of hydrologic processes and scaling behavior. Our approach, which we term the Structure for Unifying Multiple Modeling Alternatives (SUMMA), formulates a general set of conservation equations, providing the flexibility to experiment with different spatial representations, different flux parameterizations, different model parameter values, and different time stepping schemes. We will discuss the use of SUMMA to systematically analyze different model development decisions, focusing on both analysis of simulations for intensively instrumented research watersheds as well as simulations across a global dataset of FLUXNET sites. The intent of the presentation is to demonstrate how the systematic analysis of model shortcomings can help identify model weaknesses and inform future model development priorities.

  8. Investigating Postgraduate College Admission Interviews: Generalizability Theory Reliability and Incremental Predictive Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Ferrer, Alvaro J.; Castillo, Irene Borges

    2007-01-01

    The use of face-to-face interviews is controversial for college admissions decisions in light of the lack of availability of validity and reliability evidence for most college admission processes. This study investigated reliability and incremental predictive validity of a face-to-face postgraduate college admission interview with a sample of…

  9. Modeling, control and optimization of water systems systems engineering methods for control and decision making tasks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides essential background knowledge on the development of model-based real-world solutions in the field of control and decision making for water systems. It presents system engineering methods for modelling surface water and groundwater resources as well as water transportation systems (rivers, channels and pipelines). The models in turn provide information on both the water quantity (flow rates, water levels) of surface water and groundwater and on water quality. In addition, methods for modelling and predicting water demand are described. Sample applications of the models are presented, such as a water allocation decision support system for semi-arid regions, a multiple-criteria control model for run-of-river hydropower plants, and a supply network simulation for public services.

  10. An Empirical Study of Surrogates' Preferred Level of Control over Value-laden Life Support Decisions in Intensive Care Units

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Sara K.; Bautista, Christopher A.; Hong, Seo Yeon; Weissfeld, Lisa; White, Douglas B.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Despite ongoing ethical debate concerning who should control decisions to discontinue life support for incapacitated, critically ill patients, the perspectives of surrogate decision makers are poorly understood.

  11. Understanding the role of locus of control in consultative decision-making: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Selart, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims at clarifying whether locus of control may act as a bias in organisational decision-making or not. Design/methodology/approach: Altogether 44 managers working at Skanska (a Swedish multinational construction company) participated in the study. They were asked to complete a booklet including a locus of control test and a couple of decision tasks. The latter were based on case scenarios reflecting strategic issues relevant for consultative/ participative decision-making....

  12. Impact of a clinical decision model for febrile children at risk for serious bacterial infections at the emergency department: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien de Vos-Kerkhof

    Full Text Available To assess the impact of a clinical decision model for febrile children at risk for serious bacterial infections (SBI attending the emergency department (ED.Randomized controlled trial with 439 febrile children, aged 1 month-16 years, attending the pediatric ED of a Dutch university hospital during 2010-2012. Febrile children were randomly assigned to the intervention (clinical decision model; n = 219 or the control group (usual care; n = 220. The clinical decision model included clinical symptoms, vital signs, and C-reactive protein and provided high/low-risks for "pneumonia" and "other SBI". Nurses were guided by the intervention to initiate additional tests for high-risk children. The clinical decision model was evaluated by 1 area-under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic-curve (AUC to indicate discriminative ability and 2 feasibility, to measure nurses' compliance to model recommendations. Primary patient outcome was defined as correct SBI diagnoses. Secondary process outcomes were defined as length of stay; diagnostic tests; antibiotic treatment; hospital admission; revisits and medical costs.The decision model had good discriminative ability for both pneumonia (n = 33; AUC 0.83 (95% CI 0.75-0.90 and other SBI (n = 22; AUC 0.81 (95% CI 0.72-0.90. Compliance to model recommendations was high (86%. No differences in correct SBI determination were observed. Application of the clinical decision model resulted in less full-blood-counts (14% vs. 22%, p-value < 0.05 and more urine-dipstick testing (71% vs. 61%, p-value < 0.05.In contrast to our expectations no substantial impact on patient outcome was perceived. The clinical decision model preserved, however, good discriminatory ability to detect SBI, achieved good compliance among nurses and resulted in a more standardized diagnostic approach towards febrile children, with less full blood-counts and more rightfully urine-dipstick testing.Nederlands Trial Register NTR2381.

  13. Admissible and Restrained Revision

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, R; 10.1613/jair.1874

    2011-01-01

    As partial justification of their framework for iterated belief revision Darwiche and Pearl convincingly argued against Boutiliers natural revision and provided a prototypical revision operator that fits into their scheme. We show that the Darwiche-Pearl arguments lead naturally to the acceptance of a smaller class of operators which we refer to as admissible. Admissible revision ensures that the penultimate input is not ignored completely, thereby eliminating natural revision, but includes the Darwiche-Pearl operator, Nayaks lexicographic revision operator, and a newly introduced operator called restrained revision. We demonstrate that restrained revision is the most conservative of admissible revision operators, effecting as few changes as possible, while lexicographic revision is the least conservative, and point out that restrained revision can also be viewed as a composite operator, consisting of natural revision preceded by an application of a "backwards revision" operator previously studied by Papini. ...

  14. Analysis of Decision Factors for the Application of Information Access Controls within the Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Carl A.

    2013-01-01

    The application of access controls on internal information necessarily impacts the availability of that information for sharing inside the enterprise. The decisions establishing the degree of control are a crucial first step to balance the requirements to protect and share. This research develops a set of basic decision factors and examines other…

  15. Disciplined Decision Making in an Interdisciplinary Environment: Some Implications for Clinical Applications of Statistical Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantula, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    Clinical applications of statistical process control (SPC) in human service organizations are considered. SPC is seen as providing a standard set of criteria that serves as a common interface for data-based decision making, which may bring decision making under the control of established contingencies rather than the immediate contingencies of…

  16. Bar Admission--Default on Student Loan Warrants Denial of Admission to Minnesota Bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Mitchell Law Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The Minnesota Supreme Court upheld a decision that student loan default, and subsequent dismissal through bankruptcy, is sufficient reason to deny a law student's bar admission. The bar's requirement of good moral character was interpreted as financial integrity in the Gahan case. (MSE)

  17. A Markov decision process approach to optimal control of a multi-level hierarchical manpower system

    OpenAIRE

    Udom, Akaninyene U.

    2013-01-01

    A recurrent problem in manpower control is how to attain the desired structural configuration in an optimal way, since it is possible to reach a desired structural configuration using different control inputs. The major aim of this paper is to develop a Markov Decision Process for optimal control of a Multi-level Hierarchical Manpower System (MHMS) by promotion and interdepartmental transfers. This is examined under control by intervention and contraction cost Markov Decision Process.

  18. Growing old at home – A randomized controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of preventive home visits to reduce nursing home admissions: study protocol [NCT00644826

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riedel-Heller Steffi G

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regarding demographic changes in Germany it can be assumed that the number of elderly and the resulting need for long term care is increasing in the near future. It is not only an individual's interest but also of public concern to avoid a nursing home admission. Current evidence indicates that preventive home visits can be an effective way to reduce the admission rate in this way making it possible for elderly people to stay longer at home than without home visits. As the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of preventive home visits strongly depends on existing services in the social and health system existing international results cannot be merely transferred to Germany. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of such an intervention in Germany by a randomized controlled trial. Methods The trial is designed as a prospective multi-center randomized controlled trial in the cities of Halle and Leipzig. The trial includes an intervention and a control group. The control group receives usual care. The intervention group receives three additional home visits by non-physician health professionals (1 geriatric assessment, (2 consultation, (3 booster session. The nursing home admission rate after 18 months will be defined as the primary outcome. An absolute risk reduction from a 20% in the control-group to a 7% admission rate in the intervention group including an assumed drop out rate of 30% resulted in a required sample size of N = 320 (n = 160 vs. n = 160. Parallel to the clinical outcome measurement the intervention will be evaluated economically. The economic evaluation will be performed from a society perspective. Discussion To the authors' knowledge for the first time a trial will investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of preventive home visits for people aged 80 and over in Germany using the design of a randomized controlled trial. Thus, the trial will contribute to

  19. Decision-making in adolescents with suicidal ideation: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftall, Arielle H; Davidson, Dustin J; McBee-Strayer, Sandy M; Ackerman, John; Mendoza, Kristen; Reynolds, Brady; Bridge, Jeffrey A

    2015-08-30

    Decision-making deficits have been associated with attempted suicide in adolescents and adults. This study examined Iowa Gambling Task performance in 19 youths with suicidal ideation and 19 never-suicidal comparison subjects. Group differences in decision-making did not persist after controlling for current affective problems and psychotropic medication use. Future research should determine the contribution of decision-making in predicting the transition from suicidal thoughts to suicide attempts. PMID:26163723

  20. An engineering approach to modelling, decision support and control for sustainable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, W; Audsley, E; Frost, A R

    2008-02-12

    Engineering research and development contributes to the advance of sustainable agriculture both through innovative methods to manage and control processes, and through quantitative understanding of the operation of practical agricultural systems using decision models. This paper describes how an engineering approach, drawing on mathematical models of systems and processes, contributes new methods that support decision making at all levels from strategy and planning to tactics and real-time control. The ability to describe the system or process by a simple and robust mathematical model is critical, and the outputs range from guidance to policy makers on strategic decisions relating to land use, through intelligent decision support to farmers and on to real-time engineering control of specific processes. Precision in decision making leads to decreased use of inputs, less environmental emissions and enhanced profitability-all essential to sustainable systems. PMID:17656345

  1. Control of a Braitenberg Lizard in a Phonotaxis Task with Decision Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Hallam, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    Braitenberg vehicle–like mobile robot without any decision model in a phonotaxis task. In this paper we extend the Braitenberg vehicle model to include two separate decision models in the control and recreate the phonotaxis task. We compare the performance of the robot, in terms of successful phonotaxis...

  2. Structural contradictions in control system by enterprise as function of associate administrative decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyuzhna, N.; Golovkova, К.

    2013-01-01

    The key role of organizationally-functional structure improvement of management is reasonable in the increase of efficiency of preparation processes, acceptance and realization of administrative decisions on an enterprise. The algorithm of structural exposure contradictions is offered in control system by an enterprise. The morphological matrix of description of structural contradiction as functions of associate administrative decisions is formed. Sources 22.

  3. Decisions on control of foot-and-mouth disease informed using model predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Willeberg, P.; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo;

    2013-01-01

    The decision on whether or not to change the control strategy, such as introducing emergency vaccination, is perhaps one of the most difficult decisions faced by the veterinary authorities during a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic. A simple tool that may predict the epidemic outcome and...

  4. Decision Support System for Flood Control with Applications to Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱来友

    2004-01-01

    Affected by the climatic fluctuation and human activities, significant changes of the flood control situation are taking place in China. In the new century, the flood control systems have to face a series of challenges. In this paper, we design fa decision support system (DSS) for flood control based on its requirements. The DSS has been applied to decision-making for flood control in Jiangxi province, and play an important role in the flood control in the recent two years. Finally, we plot the further improvement on the DSS so that it will make more contribution in the flood control.

  5. On admissible canonical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General solution has been derived for the functional c-number equation which determines all admissible realisations of various mechanics with associative (but not necessary realizable by operators) law of multiplication of the observables. The general solution includes the algebras of observables for the classical and for the quantum mechanics. In addition, the solution includes one new algebra which corresponds formally to purely imaginary value to the Planck constant. The mathematical difficulties of treating the new algebra are discussed

  6. Aid to Families with Dependent Children Quality Control Review Panel Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) Quality Control Review Panel of the Departmental Appeals Board concerning the AFDC program...

  7. The separation of ownership and control and investment decisions in Mexican manufacturing firms

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Porras, Antonio; Lopez-Mateo, Celina

    2010-01-01

    We study how the ownership and control structures may explain investment decisions of Mexican manufacturing firms. We study them with aggregate indexes and the assessment of several regression sets. We use measures of ownership, management and agency costs. The econometric analysis uses longitudinal census data for 182 industries. Our findings support the claim that agency costs, as a measure of the separation of management and control, and firms` size can explain investment decisions. Furthe...

  8. Proceedings of the eighth European annual conference on human decision making and manual control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papers contributed at the eighth European annual conference on human decision making and manual control cover the subject areas of vehicle control, robotics, modeling, operator support and cognitive engineering, artificial intelligence and neural network. Some of the papers are relevant to power plant control and in this respect to nuclear safety. (AB)

  9. Investigating the Decision Heuristics of Candidate Teachers Who Are Different in Their Responsibility Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen, Yener

    2016-01-01

    In this study, decision heuristics used by individuals with different responsibility controls were investigated. In the research, 370 final grade university students studying at Erzincan University Faculty of Education were included. In order to collect data, Internally Controlled Responsibility-Externally Controlled Responsibility Scale of Özen…

  10. Designing a Decision Making Support Information System for the Operational Control of Industrial Technological Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Faradian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy logic is a new and innovative technology that was used in order to develop a realization of engineering control. In recent years, fuzzy logic proved its great potential especially applied to automatization of industrial process control, where it enables the control design to be formed based on experience of experts and results of experiments. The projects that have been realized reveal that the application of fuzzy logic in the technological process control has already provided us with better decisions compared to that of standard control technique. Fuzzy logic provides an opportunity to design an advisory system for decision-making based on operator experience and results of experiments not taking a mathematical model as a basis. The present work deals with a specific technological process ─ designing a support decision making information system for the operational control of the lime kiln with the use of fuzzy logic based on creation of the relevant expert-objective knowledge base.

  11. Assessing the structure of non-routine decision processes in Airline Operations Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richters, Floor; Schraagen, Jan Maarten; Heerkens, Hans

    2016-03-01

    Unfamiliar severe disruptions challenge Airline Operations Control professionals most, as their expertise is stretched to its limits. This study has elicited the structure of Airline Operations Control professionals' decision process during unfamiliar disruptions by mapping three macrocognitive activities on the decision ladder: sensemaking, option evaluation and action planning. The relationship between this structure and decision quality was measured. A simulated task was staged, based on which think-aloud protocols were obtained. Results show that the general decision process structure resembles the structure of experts working under routine conditions, in terms of the general structure of the macrocognitive activities, and the rule-based approach used to identify options and actions. Surprisingly, high quality of decision outcomes was found to relate to the use of rule-based strategies. This implies that successful professionals are capable of dealing with unfamiliar problems by reframing them into familiar ones, rather than to engage in knowledge-based processing. Practitioner Summary: We examined the macrocognitive structure of Airline Operations Control professionals' decision process during a simulated unfamiliar disruption in relation to decision quality. Results suggest that successful professionals are capable of dealing with unfamiliar problems by reframing them into familiar ones, rather than to engage in knowledge-based processing. PMID:26224064

  12. Use of web services for computerized medical decision support, including infection control and antibiotic management, in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steurbaut, Kristof; Van Hoecke, Sofie; Colpaert, Kirsten; Lamont, Kristof; Taveirne, Kristof; Depuydt, Pieter; Benoit, Dominique; Decruyenaere, Johan; De Turck, Filip

    2010-01-01

    The increasing complexity of procedures in the intensive care unit (ICU) requires complex software services, to reduce improper use of antibiotics and inappropriate therapies, and to offer earlier and more accurate detection of infections and antibiotic resistance. We investigated whether web-based software can facilitate the computerization of complex medical processes in the ICU. The COSARA application contains the following modules: Infection overview, Thorax, Microbiology, Antibiotic therapy overview, Admission cause with comorbidity and admission diagnosis, Infection linking and registration, and Feedback. After the implementation and test phase, the COSARA software was installed on a physician's office PC and then on the bedside PCs of the patients. Initial evaluation indicated that the services had been integrated easily into the daily clinical workflow of the medical staff. The use of a service oriented architecture with web service technology for the development of advanced decision support in the ICU offers several advantages over classical software design approaches. PMID:20086264

  13. Operational accounting and control: information base for timely management decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Шаровська, Тамара Сергіївна; Старенька, Ольга Миколаївна

    2015-01-01

    In the article it is investigated the practice of industrial enterprises accounting and operational controls, whereby it is determined that these two systems are very simplistic and imperfect, that does not allow for timely detection of adverse deviations and eliminate them, and as a result, reduces the company’s efficiency. In the modern business environment becomes relevant the formation of approach to further development of operational accounting and control, taking into account the object...

  14. Online Markov decision processes with Kullback-Leibler control cost

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Peng; Raginsky, Maxim; Willett, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers an online (real-time) control problem that involves an agent performing a discrete-time random walk over a finite state space. The agent's action at each time step is to specify the probability distribution for the next state given the current state. Following the set-up of Todorov, the state-action cost at each time step is a sum of a state cost and a control cost given by the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence between the agent's next-state distribution and that determine...

  15. On Decision-Making Among Multiple Rule-Bases in Fuzzy Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstel, Edward; Jamshidi, Mo

    1997-01-01

    Intelligent control of complex multi-variable systems can be a challenge for single fuzzy rule-based controllers. This class of problems cam often be managed with less difficulty by distributing intelligent decision-making amongst a collection of rule-bases. Such an approach requires that a mechanism be chosen to ensure goal-oriented interaction between the multiple rule-bases. In this paper, a hierarchical rule-based approach is described. Decision-making mechanisms based on generalized concepts from single-rule-based fuzzy control are described. Finally, the effects of different aggregation operators on multi-rule-base decision-making are examined in a navigation control problem for mobile robots.

  16. The role of consciousness in cognitive control and decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Van Gaal; de Lange, Floris P.; Cohen, Michael X

    2012-01-01

    Here we review studies on the complexity and strength of unconscious information processing. We focus on empirical evidence that relates awareness of information to cognitive control processes (e.g., response inhibition, conflict resolution, and task-switching), the life-time of information maintenance (e.g., working memory) and the possibility to integrate multiple pieces of information across space and time. Overall, the results that we review paint a picture of local and specific effects o...

  17. Development of an Automated Decision-Making Tool for Supervisory Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Muhlheim, Michael David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Flanagan, George F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This technical report was generated as a product of the Supervisory Control for Multi-Modular Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Plants project within the Instrumentation, Control and Human-Machine Interface technology area under the Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) Research and Development Program of the US Department of Energy. The report documents the definition of strategies, functional elements, and the structural architecture of a supervisory control system for multi-modular AdvSMR plants. This research activity advances the state of the art by incorporating real-time, probabilistic-based decision-making into the supervisory control system architectural layers through the introduction of a tiered-plant system approach. The report provides background information on the state of the art of automated decision-making, including the description of existing methodologies. It then presents a description of a generalized decision-making framework, upon which the supervisory control decision-making algorithm is based. The probabilistic portion of automated decision-making is demonstrated through a simple hydraulic loop example.

  18. Control Decisions for Flammable Gas Hazards in Double Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRTs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2000-06-28

    This report describes the control decisions for flammable gas hazards in double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs) made at control decision meetings on November 16, 17, and 18, 1999, on April 19,2000, and on May 10,2000, and their basis. These control decisions, and the analyses that support them, will be documented in an amendment to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG 2000a) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) (CHG 2000b) to close the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) (Bacon 1996 and Wagoner 1996) for DCRTs. Following the contractor Tier I review of the FSAR and TSR amendment, it will be submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) for review and approval.

  19. Qualitative critical incident study of patients’ experiences leading to emergency hospital admission with advanced respiratory illness

    OpenAIRE

    Karasouli, Eleni; Munday, Daniel; Bailey, Cara; Staniszewska, Sophie; Hewison, Alistair; Griffiths, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The high volume of emergency admissions to hospital is a challenge for health systems internationally. Patients with lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are frequently admitted to hospital as emergency cases. While the frequency of emergency admission has been investigated, few studies report patient experiences, particularly in relation to the decision-making process prior to emergency admission. We sought to explore patient and carer experiences and those...

  20. Using Admission Tests to Predict Success in College — Evidence from the University of Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    James F. Ragan; Dong Li; Horacio Matos-Díaz

    2011-01-01

    In making admission decisions, many colleges have de-emphasized standardized test scores. Using data for seven cohorts of applicants to the University of Puerto Rico, we assess the ability of test scores and other proxies of academic potential to predict student GPA. We study sample selection and address a dilemma facing admissions offices: college grades of non-matriculants are unknowable. We find that decreasing the weight on admission tests benefits females and students from public high sc...

  1. Issues in College Admissions Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Julie P.; Camara, Wayne J.

    College admissions tests provide a standardized and objective measure of student achievement and generalized skills. Unlike high school grades or rank, admission tests are a common measure for comparing students who have attended different high schools, completed different courses, received different grades in courses taught by different teachers,…

  2. Deciding How To Decide: Self-Control and Meta-Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boureau, Y-Lan; Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2015-11-01

    Many different situations related to self control involve competition between two routes to decisions: default and frugal versus more resource-intensive. Examples include habits versus deliberative decisions, fatigue versus cognitive effort, and Pavlovian versus instrumental decision making. We propose that these situations are linked by a strikingly similar core dilemma, pitting the opportunity costs of monopolizing shared resources such as executive functions for some time, against the possibility of obtaining a better outcome. We offer a unifying normative perspective on this underlying rational meta-optimization, review how this may tie together recent advances in many separate areas, and connect several independent models. Finally, we suggest that the crucial mechanisms and meta-decision variables may be shared across domains. PMID:26483151

  3. The Costs of Outside Equity Control: Evidence from Motion Picture Financing Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    C. Edward Fee

    2002-01-01

    Recent theoretical work suggests that outside investor control may have costs as well as benefits, particularly in small, entrepreneurial firms. The possibility of investor opportunism can reduce an entrepreneur's incentives to invest personal effort into the firm. I investigate this issue in the context of motion picture financing decisions. Filmmakers face the choice of using studio financing (and giving up control) or of obtaining independent financing (and retaining control). I find that ...

  4. Cost account in agriculture with particular accordance to requirements of decision making process and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kondraszuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents cost account applicability in the agricultural companies regarding the general theory of economic and organisation of enterprises. The main focus was laid down to analyse the unit total cost account with variable costs and their applicability in three spheres: stock valuation and profit, requirements of planning and decision making processes and controlling. It was concluded that cost calculation at the level of agricultural enterprise should be an inherent element of integrated information system at the level of registry, planning, decision making and control.

  5. Enhanced situation awareness and decision making for an intelligent reconfigurable reactor power controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Learning Automata based intelligent reconfigurable controller has been adapted for use as a reactor power controller to achieve improved reactor temperature performance. The intelligent reconfigurable controller is capable of enforcing either a classical or an optimal reactor power controller based on control performance feedback. Four control performance evaluation measures: dynamically estimated average quadratic temperature error, power, rod reactivity and rod reactivity rate were developed to provide feedback to the control decision component of the intelligent reconfigurable controller. Fuzzy Logic and Neural Network controllers have been studied for inclusion in the bank of controllers that form the intermediate level of an enhanced intelligent reconfigurable reactor power controller (IRRPC). The increased number of alternatives available to the supervisory level of the IRRPC requires enhanced situation awareness. Additional performance measures have been designed and a method for synthesizing them into a single indication of the overall performance of the currently enforced reactor power controller has been conceptualized. Modification of the reward/penalty scheme implemented in the existing IRRPC to increase the quality of the supervisory level decision process has been studied. The logogen model of human memory (Morton, 1969) and individual controller design information could be used to allocate reward to the most appropriate controller. Methods for allocating supervisory level attention were also studied with the goal of maximizing learning rate

  6. Measurement-Based Performance and Admission Controlin Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Orhan, Ibrahim; Lindh, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This journal paper presents a measurement-basedperformance management system for contention-based wireless sensor networks. Its main features are admission andperformance control based on measurement data from lightweight performance meters in the endpoints. Test results showthat admission and performance control improve the predictability and level of performance. The system can also be used asa tool for dimensioning and configuration of services in wireless sensor networks. Among the rapidl...

  7. Insular neural system controls decision-making in healthy and methamphetamine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Katahira, Kentaro; Inutsuka, Ayumu; Fukumoto, Kazuya; Nakamura, Akihiro; Wang, Tian; Nagai, Taku; Sato, Jun; Sawada, Makoto; Ohira, Hideki; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2015-07-21

    Patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders such as substance-related and addictive disorders exhibit altered decision-making patterns, which may be associated with their behavioral abnormalities. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying such impairments are largely unknown. Using a gambling test, we demonstrated that methamphetamine (METH)-treated rats chose a high-risk/high-reward option more frequently and assigned higher value to high returns than control rats, suggestive of changes in decision-making choice strategy. Immunohistochemical analysis following the gambling test revealed aberrant activation of the insular cortex (INS) and nucleus accumbens in METH-treated animals. Pharmacological studies, together with in vivo microdialysis, showed that the insular neural system played a crucial role in decision-making. Moreover, manipulation of INS activation using designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug technology resulted in alterations to decision-making. Our findings suggest that the INS is a critical region involved in decision-making and that insular neural dysfunction results in risk-taking behaviors associated with altered decision-making. PMID:26150496

  8. Atomos IV : enabling integrated decision support in the supervisory control of ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breda, L. van; Veen, H.A.H.C. van

    2005-01-01

    TNO participated during eight years in a European Consortium ATOMOS IV (Advanced Technology ro Optimise Marine Operational Safety - Intelligent Vessels), performing research in the human-centred development of decision support systems for ship control centers. New concepts were developed and tested,

  9. Decision support system for flood control and ecosystem upgrading in the Red River basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, M.J.; Bloschl, Gunter; Franks, Stewart; Kumagai, Michio; Musiake, Katumi; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2003-01-01

    A decision support system (DSS) for the selection of a suitable combination of flood control and ecosystem upgrading measures was developed. This was achieved by carefully selecting the most appropriate model environment for the DSS. The hydrological, hydraulic and socioeconomic models within the DS

  10. Admissibility of logical inference rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rybakov, VV

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present the fundamental theoretical results concerning inference rules in deductive formal systems. Primary attention is focused on: admissible or permissible inference rules the derivability of the admissible inference rules the structural completeness of logics the bases for admissible and valid inference rules. There is particular emphasis on propositional non-standard logics (primary, superintuitionistic and modal logics) but general logical consequence relations and classical first-order theories are also considered. The book is basically self-contained and

  11. Financial decisions as determinants of ownership structure: Evidence from Spanish family controlled firms

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Pindado; Chabela de la Torre

    2008-01-01

    Purpose -The aim of this paper is to analyse how financial decisions influence corporate ownership structure of Spanish family and non-family controlled firms. Design/methodology/approach -The authors derived two models in line with financial theory, which have then been estimated by using a sample of Spanish companies. Panel data methodology and estimation by the generalized method of moments allow the unobservable heterogeneity to be eliminated and the endogeneity problem controlled. Findin...

  12. Exact Methods for Multi-echelon Inventory Control: Incorporating Shipment Decisions and Detailed Demand Information

    OpenAIRE

    Stenius, Olle

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in information technologies and an increased environmental awareness have altered the prerequisites for successful logistics. For companies operating on a global market, inventory control of distribution systems is often an essential part of their logistics planning. In this context, the research objective of this thesis is: To develop exact methods for stochastic inventory control of multi-echelon distribution systems incorporating shipment decisions and/or detailed d...

  13. Quality measurement and control in physician decision making: state of the art.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, O W; Shields, M C

    1982-01-01

    The status of the concept of controlling the quality of physicians is reviewed as are studies that have been done on methods to measure and improve quality. The conclusions are dismal given the rhetoric and actions on attempts to measure and control quality of physician decision making. Massive attempts are being made, for example, mandating PSROs to monitor quality before there is a methodology. Cost and quality reviews have, at most, a marginal impact and do not deserve the expenditures to ...

  14. Pilot/Controller Coordinated Decision Making in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Chris; Miller, Ronald c.; Orasanu, Judith M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: NextGen technologies promise to provide considerable benefits in terms of enhancing operations and improving safety. However, there needs to be a thorough human factors evaluation of the way these systems will change the way in which pilot and controllers share information. The likely impact of these new technologies on pilot/controller coordinated decision making is considered in this paper using the "operational, informational and evaluative disconnect" framework. Method: Five participant focus groups were held. Participants were four experts in human factors, between x and x research students and a technical expert. The participant focus group evaluated five key NextGen technologies to identify issues that made different disconnects more or less likely. Results: Issues that were identified were: Decision Making will not necessarily improve because pilots and controllers possess the same information; Having a common information source does not mean pilots and controllers are looking at the same information; High levels of automation may lead to disconnects between the technology and pilots/controllers; Common information sources may become the definitive source for information; Overconfidence in the automation may lead to situations where appropriate breakdowns are not initiated. Discussion: The issues that were identified lead to recommendations that need to be considered in the development of NextGen technologies. The current state of development of these technologies provides a good opportunity to utilize recommendations at an early stage so that NextGen technologies do not lead to difficulties in resolving breakdowns in coordinated decision making.

  15. CARDIOTOCOGRAPH: ADMISSION TEST AND OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesam Susana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of intrapartum fetal monitoring is reduction or prevention of congenital neurological deficit and other intrapartum adverse events by screening for intrapartum hypoxia/acidosis. With an aim of evaluating role of admission test in predicting the adverse fetal outcome in high risk pregnancies in Government Chengalpattu Medical College, a cross-sectional study was designed including 50 high risk patients and 50 low risk patients. All the patients were subjected to a standard clinical evaluation using a proforma and subsequently subjected to admission test for 20 mins and their readings were grouped into 1. Reactive, 2. Suspicious, 3. Ominous. Intervention is planned based on the tracings of the admission test. The data from the admission test were compiled and subjected to statistical analysis. At the end of statistical analysis, it is found that electronic fetal monitoring has high sensitivity and low specificity. Antepartum risk factors are a poor predictors of fetal outcome. A normal tracing carries a predictive value of over 95% for APGAR score of 7 or greater and an abnormal tracing carries a predictive value of about 50% for APGAR score less than 7. In high risk cases admission test is more sensitive and in low risk cases the admission test is more specific. The negative predictive value for both groups were 85.2% and 97.7%

  16. Government Control,Uncertainty,and Investment Decisions in China’s Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Xu; Jingwei Wang; Yu Xin

    2010-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the relation between uncertainty and investment among China’s listed companies, and analyzes the influence of government control on the investment-uncertainty relation. We find that there is a negative relation between total firm uncertainty and investment in China’s listed companies. However, this holds only for privately controlled firms. Among privately controlled listed firms, investment is negatively related to firm-specific uncertainty, whereas among government-controlled ones, investment is positively related to market uncertainty. We also find that the risktaking preference of government-controlled listed companies is greater among those firms with fewer investment opportunities. Finally, among financially distressed firms, the negative relation between investment and uncertainty becomes nonsignificant because of risk shifting, which is more serious among government-controlled listed companies. We conclude that government control leads to state interference and weak corporate governance, which, in turn, distorts investment decision making among listed companies.

  17. Temperature effects on hospital admissions for kidney morbidity in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yu-Kai [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Wang, Yu-Chun [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200 Chung-Pei Road, Chung Li 320, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Environmental Risk Management, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200 Chung-Pei Road, Chung Li 320, Taiwan (China); Ho, Tsung-Jung [The Division of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University Beigang Hospital, Taiwan (China); School Of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, 91 Xueshi Road, Taichung City 404, Taiwan (China); Lu, Chensheng, E-mail: cslu@hsph.harvard.edu [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Objective: This study aimed to associate hospital admissions of kidney diseases with extreme temperature and prolonged heat/cold events in 7 regions of Taiwan. Methods: Age-specific (< 65 years, 65 + years and all ages) hospital admission records of nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, or nephrosis, in the form of electronic insurance reimbursement claims, were retrieved from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database during the period of 2000–2008. The area–age-specific relative risk (RR) accounting for 8 days of lag for temperature on hospital admissions of kidney diseases were estimated using distributed lag non-linear models with the Poisson distribution controlling for extreme temperature events, levels of air pollutants (PM{sub 10}, O{sub 3}, and NO{sub 2}) and potential confounders. Results: We observed a V or J-shape association between daily average temperatures and the RR estimates for hospital admissions of kidney diseases in Taiwan. The lowest risk for hospital admissions of kidney diseases was found at around 25 °C, and risk increased as temperatures deviated from 25 °C. The pooled cumulative 8-day RR for all ages of population of the 7 study areas were 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.19) at 18 °C and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.27, 1.64) at 30 °C. High temperature has more profound influence on hospital admission of kidney diseases than low temperature. Temperature risks for hospital admissions were similar between younger (< 65 years) and elderly (65 + years) population. This study observed no significant effects of prolonged heat extremes on hospital admissions of kidney diseases. Conclusions: The heat effect for kidney morbidities leading to hospital admission was more significant than that of the cold temperature. This study did not find the age-dependent relative risks for temperature associating with hospital admissions of kidney diseases. - Highlights: ► V or J-shaped association was observed between daily temperatures and

  18. Decision-making for foot-and-mouth disease control: Objectives matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probert, William J M; Shea, Katriona; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J; Runge, Michael C; Carpenter, Tim E; Dürr, Salome; Garner, M Graeme; Harvey, Neil; Stevenson, Mark A; Webb, Colleen T; Werkman, Marleen; Tildesley, Michael J; Ferrari, Matthew J

    2016-06-01

    Formal decision-analytic methods can be used to frame disease control problems, the first step of which is to define a clear and specific objective. We demonstrate the imperative of framing clearly-defined management objectives in finding optimal control actions for control of disease outbreaks. We illustrate an analysis that can be applied rapidly at the start of an outbreak when there are multiple stakeholders involved with potentially multiple objectives, and when there are also multiple disease models upon which to compare control actions. The output of our analysis frames subsequent discourse between policy-makers, modellers and other stakeholders, by highlighting areas of discord among different management objectives and also among different models used in the analysis. We illustrate this approach in the context of a hypothetical foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in Cumbria, UK using outputs from five rigorously-studied simulation models of FMD spread. We present both relative rankings and relative performance of controls within each model and across a range of objectives. Results illustrate how control actions change across both the base metric used to measure management success and across the statistic used to rank control actions according to said metric. This work represents a first step towards reconciling the extensive modelling work on disease control problems with frameworks for structured decision making. PMID:27266845

  19. Approaches to Affective Computing and Learning towards Interactive Decision Making in Process Control Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Chong; LI Hong-Guang

    2013-01-01

    Numerous multi-objective decision-making problems related to industrial process control engineering such as control and operation performance evaluation are being resolved through human-computer interactions.With regard to the problems that traditional interactive evolutionary computing approaches suffer i.e.,limited searching ability and human's strong subjectivity in multi-objective-attribute decision-making,a novel affective computing and learning solution adapted to human-computer interaction mechanism is explicitly proposed.Therein,a kind of stimulating response based affective computing model (STAM) is constructed,along with quantitative relations between affective space and human's subjective preferences.Thereafter,affective learning strategies based on genetic algorithms are introduced which are responsible for gradually grasping essentials in human's subjective judgments in decision-making,reducing human's subjective fatigue as well as making the decisions more objective and scientific.Affective learning algorithm's complexity and convergence analysis are shown in Appendices A and B.To exemplify applications of the proposed methods,ad-hoc test functions and PID parameter tuning are suggested as case studies,giving rise to satisfying results and showing validity of the contributions.

  20. 44 CFR 68.9 - Admissible evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Admissible evidence. 68.9 Section 68.9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... admissible. (b) Documentary and oral evidence shall be admissible. (c) Admissibility of non-expert...

  1. Admission control with batch arrivals and imperfect information in loss systems%批量到达及不完美信息条件下损失系统的准入控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶涛锋; 达庆利

    2011-01-01

    研究面向2个任务类的损失系统中的动态准入控制策略.任务有不同的服务时间要求和不同的报酬,对于到达的任务,服务提供者无法直接判断每个任务属于哪一类,但能观测到每个任务所带的信号.证明了值函数的次模性和凹性,且存在一个唯一的用于对任务进行归类的信号阈值,建立了一个4层的准入控制策略.当任务信号的信息量较少时,在一定的条件下所建立的准入策略仍然有效.最后,将所建立的4层准入控制策略应用于不完美信息条件下的库存配给问题,应用结果表明该控制策略是可行而有效的.%This paper considers the dynamic admission control policy in a two-class loss system.Each class of jobs requires different service rates and offer different rewards.The service provider cannot directly determine the identities but can observe the signals of the jobs in a batch.The submodularity and concavity properties of the value function are proved. There is a signal threshold such that the jobs with signals larger than or equal to it are classified as class 1,and those with signals smaller than it are classified as class 2.Consequently,a four-layer admission control policy is established.When the signals are less informative,the main results are also available under some certain conditions.Finally,the resulting admission control policy is applied to an inventory rationing problem with imperfect information,and the feasibility and effectiveness of such a polity is identified.

  2. The control gap : the role of budgets, accounting information and (non-) decisions in hospital settings

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the link between budgets, accounting information and the decisionmaking processes at both strategic and operational levels in a large Norwegian hospital, as this hospital now is facing the New Public Management reforms which are introduced in Norway. The study has examined the use of budget and accounting information in the management control process. The empirical data are based on interviews with key actors in the decision-making process at all management levels in t...

  3. Bayesian Updating in the EEG : Differentiation between Automatic and Controlled Processes of Human Economic Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Hügelschäfer, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that economic decision makers often do not behave according to the prescriptions of rationality, but instead show systematic deviations from rational behavior (e.g., Starmer, 2000). One approach to explain these deviations is taking a dual-process perspective (see Evans, 2008; Sanfey & Chang, 2008; Weber & Johnson, 2009) in which a distinction is made between deliberate, resource-consuming controlled processes and fast, effortless automatic processes. In many cases, deviati...

  4. Emergency-Dependent Supply Decisions with Risk Perception and Price Control

    OpenAIRE

    Shaofu Du; Huifang Jiao; Rongji Huang; Jiaang Zhu

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of emergencies on the supplier’s decision-making behaviors including production and information sharing in consideration of consumer risk perception, consumer loss aversion phenomenon, and government price control. The intensity of emergencies is sequential and emergencies can be divided into two types (positive or negative) according to their effect on demand. When emergencies have negative effect on demand, the supplier’s sales will reduce and he would share in...

  5. Designing strategies to control grey mould in strawberry cultivation using decision support systems

    OpenAIRE

    Evenhuis, A.; Wilms, J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Grey mould is one of the major diseases in strawberry cultivation. Fungicides to control Botrytis cinerea are applied frequently during flowering and sometimes at harvest. Reduction of pesticide use is one of the major aims of the Dutch government. Implementation of a Decision Support System (DSS) helps to achieve this goal. Pin point timing of fungicide application can possibly improve the efficacy of the treatment and reduce the number of spray applications. Predicted weather data to foreca...

  6. Broadening the foreign market entry mode decision: separating ownership and control

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J. R.; C S Dev; Zhou, Z.

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that the ownership and control dimensions of foreign market entry mode choice should be separated, and that foreign market entry mode decisions should be expanded to business activities beyond production and distribution. Empirical results from the global hotel industry indicate that the transferability of the entrant's competitive advantages, the local market's absorptive capacity, and the availability of trustworthy local partners differentially affect the ownership and co...

  7. Private Benefits of Control, Ownership, and the Cross-Listing Decision

    OpenAIRE

    Craig Doidge; G. Andrew Karolyi; Karl V. Lins; Darius P. Miller; Stulz, Rene M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates how a foreign firm's decision to cross-list its shares in the U.S. is related to the concentration of the ownership of its cash flow rights and of its control rights. Theory has proposed that when private benefits are high, controlling shareholders are less likely to choose to list their firm's shares in the U.S. because the higher standards for transparency and disclosure, as well as the increased monitoring associated with such listings, limit their ability to extrac...

  8. Researching Applicants Online in the Veterinary Program Admissions Process: Perceptions, Practices, and Implications for Curricular Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori R; Hellyer, Peter W; Stewart, Sherry M; Hendrickson, Dean A; Dowers, Kristy L; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina

    2015-01-01

    As the use of social media websites continues to grow among adults 18-34 years old, it is necessary to examine the consequences of online disclosure to the veterinary admissions processes and to consider the effects on the professional integrity of veterinary schools and on the e-professionalism of DVM graduates. Prior research has shown that employers, across all fields, routinely use information from social media sites to make hiring decisions. In veterinary medicine, a little over one-third of private practitioners reported using online information in the selection of new associates. However, professional academic programs appear to use online information less frequently in the selection processes. The current study examines the behaviors and attitudes of veterinary medical admissions committees toward the use of applicants' online information and profiles in their recruitment and selection process. An online survey was distributed to Associate Deans for Academic Affairs at all AAVMC-affiliated schools of veterinary medicine. A total of 21 schools completed the survey. The results showed that most veterinary schools do not currently use online research in their admissions process; however, most admissions committee members feel that using online social networking information to investigate applicants is an acceptable use of technology. Previous research has suggested that the majority of veterinary student applicants view this as an invasion of their privacy. Given this discordance, future educational efforts should focus on helping veterinary students determine what type of information is appropriate for posting online and how to use privacy settings to control their sharing behaviors. PMID:26291414

  9. Developing an Intelligent Reservoir Flood Control Decision Support System through Integrating Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L. C.; Kao, I. F.; Tsai, F. H.; Hsu, H. C.; Yang, S. N.; Shen, H. Y.; Chang, F. J.

    2015-12-01

    Typhoons and storms hit Taiwan several times every year and cause serious flood disasters. Because the mountainous terrain and steep landform rapidly accelerate the speed of flood flow, rivers cannot be a stable source of water supply. Reservoirs become one of the most important and effective floodwater storage facilities. However, real-time operation for reservoir flood control is a continuous and instant decision-making process based on rules, laws, meteorological nowcast, in addition to the immediate rainfall and hydrological data. The achievement of reservoir flood control can effectively mitigate flood disasters and store floodwaters for future uses. In this study, we construct an intelligent decision support system for reservoir flood control through integrating different types of neural networks and the above information to solve this problem. This intelligent reservoir flood control decision support system includes three parts: typhoon track classification, flood forecast and adaptive water release models. This study used the self-organizing map (SOM) for typhoon track clustering, nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (NARX) for multi-step-ahead reservoir inflow prediction, and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for reservoir flood control. Before typhoons landfall, we can estimate the entire flood hydrogragh of reservoir inflow by using SOM and make a pre-release strategy and real-time reservoir flood operating by using ANFIS. In the meanwhile, NARX can be constantly used real-time five-hour-ahead inflow prediction for providing the newest flood information. The system has been successfully implemented Typhoons Trami (2013), Fitow (2013) and Matmo (2014) in Shihmen Reservoir.

  10. Cognitive control and individual differences in economic ultimatum decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim De Neys

    Full Text Available Much publicity has been given to the fact that people's economic decisions often deviate from the rational predictions of standard economic models. In the classic ultimatum game, for example, most people turn down financial gains by rejecting unequal monetary splits. The present study points to neglected individual differences in this debate. After participants played the ultimatum game we tested for individual differences in cognitive control capacity of the most and least economic responders. The key finding was that people who were higher in cognitive control, as measured by behavioral (Go/No-Go performance and neural (No-Go N2 amplitude markers, did tend to behave more in line with the standard models and showed increased acceptance of unequal splits. Hence, the cognitively highest scoring decision-makers were more likely to maximize their monetary payoffs and adhere to the standard economic predictions. Findings question popular claims with respect to the rejection of standard economic models and the irrationality of human economic decision-making.

  11. Economic analysis for upgrade decision-making using a control system replacement example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper (3rd in a CNS series) provides insight on how nuclear power plants can achieve better efficiencies and reduced operations and maintenance (O and M) costs by making well-informed equipment upgrade decisions. An investment decision in a plant system upgrade will have various technical options and associated performance outcomes. These can be modelled and evaluated using economic and financial analysis methods. The economic analysis usually involves a comparison of an investment scenario versus a no-investment scenario called difference case analysis. The investment may include several scenarios due to the existence of various options, different investment timings, or desired performance results. Classical approaches, using financial tools such as net present value and internal rate of return calculations, may be used to quantify the financial benefits of the difference cases when certainty about the outcomes is assumed. When making decisions under risk, the classical approaches may be augmented with methods that consider life-cycle costs and benefits, the cost consequences of and probability of equipment failure, the timing of the replacement, and the uncertainties in estimating costs and benefits. The use of expected value and Monte Carlo simulation, among others, allow the incorporation of financial and technical uncertainty into the analysis. Finally, sensitivity analysis enables better understanding of the problem and may improve the decision and clarify the level of confidence that should be put in the outcomes. This paper illustrates the use of financial decision analysis methods for equipment replacements using a control system upgrade example. These methods may easily be generalized for other types of plant upgrades. (author)

  12. A Content Analysis of Medical School Admissions Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Altmaier

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Prospective medical school applicants use Internet websites to gain information about medical school interviews as well as to offer their experience in such interviews. This study examined applicants’ reported experiences of interviews and compared them to the purposes of the interview as purported by medical schools. Method. Content analysis of student feedback regarding medical school interviews at 161 medical schools was conducted for entries of over 4600 students applying to medical school who anonymously and voluntarily completed an online questionnaire. Results. Across all medical schools, nearly one half of all cited interview questions addressed non-cognitive characteristics of the applicants. Top ranked medical schools were reported to ask significantly more interpersonal and illegal questions and fewer academic/general knowledge questions than other medical schools. Lower ranked schools did not differ significantly in the types of questions reportedly asked applicants compared to other medical schools. Discussion. Medical school interviews are generally gathering types of information about applicants that admissions personnel identify as important in the admission decision. In addition to measuring interpersonal characteristics, medical school admissions interviews are assessing cognitive abilities and ethical decision-making. Sources on the Internet provide actual medical school interview questions to prospective students. This practice can help them gain an undue advantage in interviewing. Admissions committees and faculty who interview students may want to consider how best to obtain accurate and valid responses from applicants.

  13. Sentinel: An Expert System Decision Aid For A Command, Control And Communications Operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobat, Daniel L.; Rogers, Steven K.; Cross, Stephen E.

    1986-03-01

    The growing complexity and quantity of information used in command, control and communications (C3) networks makes it essential to reduce the workload on the operators of these networks. SENTINEL is an expert system which functions as a decision aid for the strategic missile warning officer, using a simulation of a C3 network that involves multiple missile launches and up to 20 countries. In this research, a blackboard model expert system using rule bases and object oriented programming techniques was developed that permits SENTINEL to deal with uncertainty and offer several layers of explanation. SENTINEL deals with uncertainty by using Cohen's endorsement theory and the pattern recognition techniques of feature sets and prototypes. SENTINEL analyzes the causes of reported events into higher level, yet less precise forms to offer an abstract layer of explanation. The results are applicable to further expert system or decision aid development for C3 networks.

  14. Culling decisions of dairy farmers during a 3-year Salmonella control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dohoo, I.

    2011-01-01

    -and-cull procedures. From autumn 2003 until end of 2006 quarterly milk quality control samples from all lactating cows and biannual blood samples from all young stock above the age of three months were tested using an indirect antibody ELISA. The most recent and previous test results were used to categorise all...... at least one recent moderately high ELISA result (flagged as “yellow”) on the lists. Risk management included, e.g. culling or separation of the cows at calving. We analysed culling decisions using two models. For heifers a hierarchical multivariable logistic model with herd as random effect...... at different time points and interactions with prevalence in the herd while accounting for parity, stage of lactation, milk yield, somatic cell count and the hierarchical structure of the data with animals clustered at herd level. This study illustrates how investigation of culling decisions made by...

  15. Improving Computational Efficiency of Model Predictive Control Genetic Algorithms for Real-Time Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsker, B. S.; Zimmer, A. L.; Ostfeld, A.; Schmidt, A.

    2014-12-01

    Enabling real-time decision support, particularly under conditions of uncertainty, requires computationally efficient algorithms that can rapidly generate recommendations. In this paper, a suite of model predictive control (MPC) genetic algorithms are developed and tested offline to explore their value for reducing CSOs during real-time use in a deep-tunnel sewer system. MPC approaches include the micro-GA, the probability-based compact GA, and domain-specific GA methods that reduce the number of decision variable values analyzed within the sewer hydraulic model, thus reducing algorithm search space. Minimum fitness and constraint values achieved by all GA approaches, as well as computational times required to reach the minimum values, are compared to large population sizes with long convergence times. Optimization results for a subset of the Chicago combined sewer system indicate that genetic algorithm variations with coarse decision variable representation, eventually transitioning to the entire range of decision variable values, are most efficient at addressing the CSO control problem. Although diversity-enhancing micro-GAs evaluate a larger search space and exhibit shorter convergence times, these representations do not reach minimum fitness and constraint values. The domain-specific GAs prove to be the most efficient and are used to test CSO sensitivity to energy costs, CSO penalties, and pressurization constraint values. The results show that CSO volumes are highly dependent on the tunnel pressurization constraint, with reductions of 13% to 77% possible with less conservative operational strategies. Because current management practices may not account for varying costs at CSO locations and electricity rate changes in the summer and winter, the sensitivity of the results is evaluated for variable seasonal and diurnal CSO penalty costs and electricity-related system maintenance costs, as well as different sluice gate constraint levels. These findings indicate

  16. Adolescent Temperament and Parental Control in the Development of the Adolescent Decision Making in a Chilean Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, J. Carola; Cumsille, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    The study analyzes the way in which adolescents' temperamental characteristics interact with parental control to shape adolescent decision making development. A sample of high-school Chilean adolescents (N = 391) answered a self-report questionnaire that included measures of behavioral autonomy (the extent to which adolescents make decisions in…

  17. Among three different executive functions, general executive control ability is a key predictor of decision making under objective risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Schiebener

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Executive functioning is supposed to have an important role in decision making under risk. Several studies reported that more advantageous decision-making behavior was accompanied by better performance in tests of executive functioning and that the decision-making process was accompanied by activations in prefrontal and subcortical brain regions associated with executive functioning. However, to what extent different components of executive functions contribute to decision making is still unclear. We tested direct and indirect effects of three executive functions on decision-making performance in a laboratory gambling task, the Game of Dice Task (GDT. Using Brand’s model of decisions under risk (2006 we tested seven structural equation models with three latent variables that represent executive functions supposed to be involved in decision making. The latent variables were general control (represented by the general ability to exert attentional and behavioral self-control that is in accordance with task goals despite interfering information, concept formation (represented by categorization, rule detection, and set maintenance, and monitoring (represented by supervision of cognition and behavior. The seven models indicated that only the latent dimension general control had a direct effect on decision making under risk. Concept formation and monitoring only contributed in terms of indirect effects, when mediated by general control. Thus, several components of executive functioning seem to be involved in decision making under risk. However, general control functions seem to have a key role. They may be important for implementing the calculative and cognitively controlled processes involved in advantageous decision making under risk.

  18. College Admissions: Beyond Conventional Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Standardized admissions tests such as the SAT (originally stood for "Scholastic Aptitude Test") and the ACT measure only a narrow segment of the skills needed to become an active citizen and possibly a leader who makes a positive, meaningful, and enduring difference to the world. The problem with these tests is that they promised, under what have…

  19. Admission Conditions and Graduates' Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Fernando; Portela, Miguel; Sa, Carla

    2009-01-01

    In a context of increasing competition for students, admission conditions have been used as an instrument in a strategy of differentiation. Such a strategy is guided by short-run concerns, that is, the immediate need to attract more students. This article takes a longer term view, by examining graduates' employability. The authors find that…

  20. Admission to Selective Schools, Alphabetically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurajda, Stepan; Munich, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    One's position in an alphabetically sorted list may be important in determining access to over-subscribed public services. Motivated by anecdotal evidence, we investigate the importance of the position in the alphabet of Czech students for their admission chances into over-subscribed schools. Empirical evidence based on the population of students…

  1. Admission to selective schools, alphabetically

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Münich, Daniel

    -, č. 5427 (2006), s. 1-28. ISSN 0265-8003 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : admission chances * schools * alphabet ical listing Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cepr.org/pubs/new-dps/dplist.asp?dpno=5427

  2. Admission to selective schools, alphabetically

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Münich, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 6 (2010), s. 1100-1109. ISSN 0272-7757 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : admissions to school * alphabet ical order * order effects Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.066, year: 2010

  3. Admission to selective schools, alphabetically

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Münich, Daniel

    -, č. 282 (2005), s. 1-29. ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/03/0340 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : admission chances * schools * alphabet ical listing Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp282.pdf

  4. Controle de plantas daninhas em arroz irrigado mediante o momento da admissão e da altura da lâmina de água Weed control in lowland rice, using water application moment and water dephts

    OpenAIRE

    Enes Furlani Junior; José Ricardo Machado; Edivaldo Domingues Velini

    1995-01-01

    Este trabalho, desenvolvido ao nível de campo, na Fazenda Experimental Edgárdia, da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas da UNESP, Botucatu, no ano agrícola 1990/91, objetivou avaliar os efeitos do momento de admissão da água e da altura da lâmina de água sobre o desenvolvimento das plantas daninhas e os reflexos sobre as de arroz. O delineamento experimental usado foi de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subsubdivididas. Às parcelas, corresponderam os momentos de admissão de água M1, M2 e M3, respec...

  5. Real-time sensing of fatigue crack damage for information-based decision and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Eric Evans

    Information-based decision and control for structures that are subject to failure by fatigue cracking is based on the following notion: Maintenance, usage scheduling, and control parameter tuning can be optimized through real time knowledge of the current state of fatigue crack damage. Additionally, if the material properties of a mechanical structure can be identified within a smaller range, then the remaining life prediction of that structure will be substantially more accurate. Information-based decision systems can rely one physical models, estimation of material properties, exact knowledge of usage history, and sensor data to synthesize an accurate snapshot of the current state of damage and the likely remaining life of a structure under given assumed loading. The work outlined in this thesis is structured to enhance the development of information-based decision and control systems. This is achieved by constructing a test facility for laboratory experiments on real-time damage sensing. This test facility makes use of a methodology that has been formulated for fatigue crack model parameter estimation and significantly improves the quality of predictions of remaining life. Specifically, the thesis focuses on development of an on-line fatigue crack damage sensing and life prediction system that is built upon the disciplines of Systems Sciences and Mechanics of Materials. A major part of the research effort has been expended to design and fabricate a test apparatus which allows: (i) measurement and recording of statistical data for fatigue crack growth in metallic materials via different sensing techniques; and (ii) identification of stochastic model parameters for prediction of fatigue crack damage. To this end, this thesis describes the test apparatus and the associated instrumentation based on four different sensing techniques, namely, traveling optical microscopy, ultrasonic flaw detection, Alternating Current Potential Drop (ACPD), and fiber

  6. Multi-phase intelligent decision model for reservoir real-time flood control during typhoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Huang, Chien-Lin; Wei, Chih-Chiang

    2015-03-01

    This study applies an Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and a Real-Time Recurrent Learning Neural Network (RTRLNN) with an optimized reservoir release hydrograph using Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) from historical typhoon events to develop a multi-phase intelligent real-time reservoir operation model for flood control. The flood control process is divided into three stages: (1) before flood (Stage I); (2) before peak flow (Stage II); and (3) after peak flow (Stage III). The models are then constructed with either three phase modules (ANFIS-3P and RTRLNN-3P) or two phase (Stage I + II and Stage III) modules (ANFIS-2P and RTRLNN-2P). The multi-phase modules are developed with consideration of the difference in operational decision mechanisms, decision information, release functions, and targets between each flood control stage to solve the problem of time-consuming computation and difficult system integration of MILP. In addition, the model inputs include the coupled short lead time and total reservoir inflow forecast information that are developed using radar- and satellite-based meteorological monitoring techniques, forecasted typhoon tracks, meteorological image similarity analysis, ANFIS and RTRLNN. This study uses the Tseng-Wen Reservoir basin as the study area, and the model results showed that RTRLNN outperformed ANFIS in the simulated outcomes from the optimized hydrographs. This study also applies the models to Typhoons Kalmaegi and Morakot to compare the simulations to historical operations. From the operation results, the RTRLNN-3P model is better than RTRLNN-2P and historical operations. Further, because the RTRLNN-3P model combines the innovative multi-phase module with monitored and forecasted decision information, the operation can simultaneously, effectively and automatically achieve the dual goals of flood detention at peak flow periods and water supply at the end of a typhoon event.

  7. Fuzzy decision trees for planning and autonomous control of a coordinated team of UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James F., III; Nguyen, ThanhVu H.

    2007-04-01

    A fuzzy logic resource manager that enables a collection of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to automatically cooperate to make meteorological measurements will be discussed. Once in flight no human intervention is required. Planning and real-time control algorithms determine the optimal trajectory and points each UAV will sample, while taking into account the UAVs' risk, risk tolerance, reliability, mission priority, fuel limitations, mission cost, and related uncertainties. The control algorithm permits newly obtained information about weather and other events to be introduced to allow the UAVs to be more effective. The approach is illustrated by a discussion of the fuzzy decision tree for UAV path assignment and related simulation. The different fuzzy membership functions on the tree are described in mathematical detail. The different methods by which this tree is obtained are summarized including a method based on using a genetic program as a data mining function. A second fuzzy decision tree that allows the UAVs to automatically collaborate without human intervention is discussed. This tree permits three different types of collaborative behavior between the UAVs. Simulations illustrating how the tree allows the different types of collaboration to be automated are provided. Simulations also show the ability of the control algorithm to allow UAVs to effectively cooperate to increase the UAV team's likelihood of success.

  8. The Tension between the Decision and Control Perspectives of Accounting Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, John

    2009-01-01

    to use different accounting systems for different purposes. That is not the norm. The tensions are managed within a single accounting system and that leads to trade-offs in the accounting system. I will revisit these conflicts of uses of accounting systems using product costing, transfer pricing and......The accounting system is a carefully managed information system which is used for multiple purposes. Traditionally, the uses are categorized using the main headings of decision and control. Numerous conflicts are the consequence of the multi-purpose accounting system. The easy way out is apparently...

  9. The Effect of Using Break-Even-Point in Planning, Controlling, and Decision Making in the Industrial Jordanian Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil Alnasser; Osama Samih Shaban; Ziad Al-Zubi

    2014-01-01

    This research study aimed to figure out the effect of using breakeven point in planning, controlling, and in the decision-making process, in the Jordanian industrial companies. This research study shed the light on the reality of the use of the breakeven point in the planning, controlling and decision-making in industrial companies in Jordan. The study sample of the study was formed out of 54 employees in the accounting departments in the Jordanian industrial companies. The study found out th...

  10. Advising and Admission: Partners in Enrollment Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Joseph E.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on marketing strategies for college admission and examines the essential interaction between admission and academic units as a means of enhancing retention and producing informed, satisfied consumers/students. (KS)

  11. 10 CFR 2.708 - Admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... admission of the genuineness and authenticity of any relevant document described in or attached to the... document for which an admission of genuineness and authenticity is requested must be delivered with...

  12. Short- and Long-Term Validity of High School GPA for Admission to Colleges outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hattami, Abdulghani

    2014-01-01

    High school GPA is the only admission criterion that is currently used by many colleges in Yemen to select their potential students. Its predictive validity was investigated to ensure the accuracy of the admission decisions in these colleges. The relationship between students' persistence in the 4 years of college and high school GPA was studied…

  13. Admissible Strategies in Semimartingale Portfolio Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Biagini, S; Černý, A.

    2009-01-01

    The choice of admissible trading strategies in mathematical modelling of financial markets is a delicate issue, going back to Harrison and Kreps (1979). In the context of optimal portfolio selection with expected utility preferences this question has been a focus of considerable attention over the last twenty years. We propose a novel notion of admissibility that has many pleasant features - admissibility is characterized purely under the objective measure; each admissible strategy can be app...

  14. Analyzing the decision making process of certifying digital control systems of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We have performed basic research in analyzing certification process and developed a regulatory decision making model for nuclear digital control system certification. The model views certification as an evidence–confidence conversion process. ► We have applied this model to analyze previous nuclear digital I and C certification experiences and obtained valuable insights. ► Furthermore, a prototype of a computer-aided licensing support system based on the model has been developed to enhance regulatory review efficiency. - Abstract: Safety-critical computing systems need regulators’ approval before operation. Such a permit issue process is called “certification”. Digital instrumentation and Control (I and C) certification in the nuclear domain has always been problematic and lengthy. Thus, the certification efficiency has always been a crucial concern to the applicant whose business depends on the regulatory decision. However, to our knowledge, there is little basic research on this topic. This study presents a Regulatory Decision-Making Model aiming at analyzing the characteristics and efficiency influence factors in a generic certification process. This model is developed from a dynamic operational perspective by viewing the certification process as an evidence–confidence conversion process. The proposed model is then applied to previous nuclear digital I and C certification experiences to successfully explain why some cases were successful and some were troublesome. Lessons learned from these cases provide invaluable insights regarding to the regulatory review activity. Furthermore, to utilize the insights obtained from the model, a prototype of a computer-aided licensing support system has been developed to speed up review evidence preparation and manipulation; thus, regulatory review efficiency can be further improved.

  15. Development of a First-of-a-Kind Deterministic Decision-Making Tool for Supervisory Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Muhlheim, Michael David [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL

    2015-07-01

    Decision-making is the process of identifying and choosing alternatives where each alternative offers a different approach or path to move from a given state or condition to a desired state or condition. The generation of consistent decisions requires that a structured, coherent process be defined, immediately leading to a decision-making framework. The overall objective of the generalized framework is for it to be adopted into an autonomous decision-making framework and tailored to specific requirements for various applications. In this context, automation is the use of computing resources to make decisions and implement a structured decision-making process with limited or no human intervention. The overriding goal of automation is to replace or supplement human decision makers with reconfigurable decision- making modules that can perform a given set of tasks reliably. Risk-informed decision making requires a probabilistic assessment of the likelihood of success given the status of the plant/systems and component health, and a deterministic assessment between plant operating parameters and reactor protection parameters to prevent unnecessary trips and challenges to plant safety systems. The implementation of the probabilistic portion of the decision-making engine of the proposed supervisory control system was detailed in previous milestone reports. Once the control options are identified and ranked based on the likelihood of success, the supervisory control system transmits the options to the deterministic portion of the platform. The deterministic multi-attribute decision-making framework uses variable sensor data (e.g., outlet temperature) and calculates where it is within the challenge state, its trajectory, and margin within the controllable domain using utility functions to evaluate current and projected plant state space for different control decisions. Metrics to be evaluated include stability, cost, time to complete (action), power level, etc. The

  16. Decision support system for optimal reservoir operation modeling within sediment deposition control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadihardaja, Iwan K

    2009-01-01

    Suspended sediment deals with surface runoff moving toward watershed affects reservoir sustainability due to the reduction of storage capacity. The purpose of this study is to introduce a reservoir operation model aimed at minimizing sediment deposition and maximizing energy production expected to obtain optimal decision policy for both objectives. The reservoir sediment-control operation model is formulated by using Non-Linear Programming with an iterative procedure based on a multi-objective measurement in order to achieve optimal decision policy that is established in association with the development of a relationship between stream inflow and sediment rate by utilizing the Artificial Neural Network. Trade off evaluation is introduced to generate a strategy for controlling sediment deposition at same level of target ratio while producing hydroelectric energy. The case study is carried out at the Sanmenxia Reservoir in China where redesign and reconstruction have been accomplished. However, this model deals only with the original design and focuses on a wet year operation. This study will also observe a five-year operation period to show the accumulation of sediment due to the impact of reservoir storage capacity. PMID:19214002

  17. Management of redundancy in flight control systems using optimal decision theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The problem of using redundancy that exists between dissimilar systems in aircraft flight control is addressed. That is, using the redundancy that exists between a rate gyro and an accelerometer--devices that have dissimilar outputs which are related only through the dynamics of the aircraft motion. Management of this type of redundancy requires advanced logic so that the system can monitor failure status and can reconfigure itself in the event of one or more failures. An optimal decision theory was tutorially developed for the management of sensor redundancy and the theory is applied to two aircraft examples. The first example is the space shuttle and the second is a highly maneuvering high performance aircraft--the F8-C. The examples illustrate the redundancy management design process and the performance of the algorithms presented in failure detection and control law reconfiguration.

  18. Admission to selective schools, alphabetically

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Münich, Daniel

    Praha: Česká společnost ekonomická, 2006, s. 1-29. [Výroční konference České společnosti ekonomické /4./. Praha (CZ), 25.11.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/03/0340 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : admission chances * schools * alphabet ical listing Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  19. A Decision Support System (talsim) For Integrated Management of Reservoir Controlled Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, H.; Ostrowski, M.; Leichtfuss, A.

    Both, the European Water Framework Directives and the discussion of the report of the world commission on dams (WCD-Report) ask for efficient and transparent decision support tools for rivers and river basins controlled by reservoir systems. It is evident that in contrast to historical planning conditions new objectives according to sustain- ability criteria have to be considered. Also, climate and land use changes have to be considered to account for changes of the hydrological cycle. In addition to river basin management dam safety has become a major issue in recent European discussions. In most cases decision support systems for reservoir systems have been individually tai- lored systems being only applicable to the system they had been developed for. Any transfer to other systems was strongly restricted as system definition and operation rules were implemented in the program code. Thus, a generic DSS for reservoir sys- tems modelling and optimisation is required to serve as a basic tool to support reser- voir operators and water administration to account for new objectives under changing boundary conditions. During the last six years a DSS for reservoir systems including their catchments and river reaches has been developed to fulfill these requirements (named TALSIM). The work has been supported by the Environmental Agency of the German Federal State of North-Rhine Westfalia. During the development and test phases the DSS has been applied to several reservoir systems in Germany and Africa. At present it is applied to one of the most complex German systems. The scope of the presentation is to present - the new requirements for decision making procedures in reservoir management - the structure of the TALSIM DSS including simulation and optimisation modules - completed and ongoing case studies

  20. Regulating outdoor advertisement boards; employing spatial decision support system to control urban visual pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakil, K.; Hussnain, MQ; Tahir, A.; Naeem, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    Unmanaged placement, size, location, structure and contents of outdoor advertisement boards have resulted in severe urban visual pollution and deterioration of the socio-physical living environment in urban centres of Pakistan. As per the regulatory instruments, the approval decision for a new advertisement installation is supposed to be based on the locational density of existing boards and their proximity or remoteness to certain land- uses. In cities, where regulatory tools for the control of advertisement boards exist, responsible authorities are handicapped in effective implementation due to the absence of geospatial analysis capacity. This study presents the development of a spatial decision support system (SDSS) for regularization of advertisement boards in terms of their location and placement. The knowledge module of the proposed SDSS is based on provisions and restrictions prescribed in regulatory documents. While the user interface allows visualization and scenario evaluation to understand if the new board will affect existing linear density on a particular road and if it violates any buffer restrictions around a particular land use. Technically the structure of the proposed SDSS is a web-based solution which includes open geospatial tools such as OpenGeo Suite, GeoExt, PostgreSQL, and PHP. It uses three key data sets including road network, locations of existing billboards and building parcels with land use information to perform the analysis. Locational suitability has been calculated using pairwise comparison through analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and weighted linear combination (WLC). Our results indicate that open geospatial tools can be helpful in developing an SDSS which can assist solving space related iterative decision challenges on outdoor advertisements. Employing such a system will result in effective implementation of regulations resulting in visual harmony and aesthetic improvement in urban communities.

  1. Oxytocin Effect on Collective Decision Making: A Randomized Placebo Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Maria; Rutledge, Robb B.; Winston, Joel; Wright, Nicholas; Dolan, Raymond J.; Bahrami, Bahador

    2016-01-01

    Collective decision making often benefits both the individuals and the group in a variety of contexts. However, for the group to be successful, individuals should be able to strike a balance between their level of competence and their influence on the collective decisions. The hormone oxytocin has been shown to promote trust, conformism and attention to social cues. We wondered if this hormone may increase participants’ (unwarranted) reliance on their partners’ opinion, resulting in a reduction in collective benefit by disturbing the balance between influence and competence. To test this hypothesis we employed a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design in which male dyads self-administered intranasal oxytocin or placebo and then performed a visual search task together. Compared to placebo, collective benefit did not decrease under oxytocin. Using an exploratory time dependent analysis, we observed increase in collective benefit over time under oxytocin. Moreover, trial-by-trial analysis showed that under oxytocin the more competent member of each dyad was less likely to change his mind during disagreements, while the less competent member showed a greater willingness to change his mind and conform to the opinion of his more reliable partner. This role-dependent effect may be mediated by enhanced monitoring of own and other’s performance level under oxytocin. Such enhanced social learning could improve the balance between influence and competence and lead to efficient and beneficial collaboration. PMID:27070542

  2. Oxytocin Effect on Collective Decision Making: A Randomized Placebo Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Uri; Kelly, Maria; Rutledge, Robb B; Winston, Joel; Wright, Nicholas; Dolan, Raymond J; Bahrami, Bahador

    2016-01-01

    Collective decision making often benefits both the individuals and the group in a variety of contexts. However, for the group to be successful, individuals should be able to strike a balance between their level of competence and their influence on the collective decisions. The hormone oxytocin has been shown to promote trust, conformism and attention to social cues. We wondered if this hormone may increase participants' (unwarranted) reliance on their partners' opinion, resulting in a reduction in collective benefit by disturbing the balance between influence and competence. To test this hypothesis we employed a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design in which male dyads self-administered intranasal oxytocin or placebo and then performed a visual search task together. Compared to placebo, collective benefit did not decrease under oxytocin. Using an exploratory time dependent analysis, we observed increase in collective benefit over time under oxytocin. Moreover, trial-by-trial analysis showed that under oxytocin the more competent member of each dyad was less likely to change his mind during disagreements, while the less competent member showed a greater willingness to change his mind and conform to the opinion of his more reliable partner. This role-dependent effect may be mediated by enhanced monitoring of own and other's performance level under oxytocin. Such enhanced social learning could improve the balance between influence and competence and lead to efficient and beneficial collaboration. PMID:27070542

  3. A Model of Human Decision Making in Complex Systems and its Use for Design of System Control Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Lind, Morten

    The paper describes a model of operators' decision making in complex system control, based on studies of event reports and performance in control rooms. This study shows how operators base their decisions on knowledge of system properties at different levels of abstraction depending on their...... perception of the system's immediate control requirements. These levels correspond to the abstraction hierarchy including system purpose, functions, and physical details, which is generally used to describe a formal design process. In emergency situations the task of the operator is to design a suitable...

  4. Investigating a training supporting shared decision making (IT'S SDM 2011): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Geiger Friedemann; Liethmann Katrin; Hoffmann Frauke; Paschedag Jutta; Kasper Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Background Shared Decision Making (SDM) is regarded as the best practice model for the communicative challenge of decision making about treatment or diagnostic options. However, randomized controlled trials focusing the effectiveness of SDM trainings are rare and existing measures of SDM are increasingly challenged by the latest research findings. This study will 1) evaluate a new physicians' communication training regarding patient involvement in terms of SDM, 2) validate SDMMASS, a new com...

  5. A Systematic Approach for Dynamic Security Assessment and the Corresponding Preventive Control Scheme Based on Decision Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Leo; Sun, Kai; Rather, Zakir Hussain;

    2014-01-01

    system simulations. Fed with real-time wide-area measurements, one DT of measurable variables is employed for online DSA to identify potential security issues, and the other DT of controllable variables provides online decision support on preventive control strategies against those issues. A cost...

  6. Racism, gun ownership and gun control: biased attitudes in US whites may influence policy decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry O'Brien

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty. This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. METHOD: The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US whites. Explanatory variables known to be related to gun ownership and gun control opposition (i.e., age, gender, education, income, conservatism, anti-government sentiment, southern vs. other states, political identification were entered in logistic regression models, along with measures of racism, and the stereotype of blacks as violent. Outcome variables included; having a gun in the home, opposition to bans on handguns in the home, support for permits to carry concealed handguns. RESULTS: After accounting for all explanatory variables, logistic regressions found that for each 1 point increase in symbolic racism there was a 50% increase in the odds of having a gun at home. After also accounting for having a gun in the home, there was still a 28% increase in support for permits to carry concealed handguns, for each one point increase in symbolic racism. The relationship between symbolic racism and opposition to banning handguns in the home (OR1.27 CI 1.03,1.58 was reduced to non-significant after accounting for having a gun in the home (OR1.17 CI.94,1.46, which likely represents self-interest in retaining property (guns. CONCLUSIONS: Symbolic racism was related to having a gun in the home and opposition to gun control policies in US whites. The findings help explain US whites' paradoxical attitudes towards gun ownership and gun control. Such attitudes may adversely influence US gun control policy debates and decisions.

  7. Improved Hypoxia Modeling for Nutrient Control Decisions in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Pickering, Ken; Tzortziou, Maria; Maninio, Antonio; Policelli, Fritz; Stehr, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Modeling Framework is a suite of coupled models linking the deposition and transport of sediment and nutrients to subsequent bio-geo chemical processes and the resulting effect on concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the coastal waters of Louisiana and Texas. Here, we examine the potential benefits of using multiple NASA remote sensing data products within this Modeling Framework for increasing the accuracy of the models and their utility for nutrient control decisions in the Gulf of Mexico. Our approach is divided into three components: evaluation and improvement of (a) the precipitation input data (b) atmospheric constituent concentrations in EPA's air quality/deposition model and (c) the calculation of algal biomass, organic carbon and suspended solids within the water quality/eutrophication models of the framework.

  8. A nuclear decision support system built with a real-time process control AI shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Managing large nuclear power plants is generally approached by creating separate management teams to handle major functional areas such as operations, maintenance, training and engineering. While this approach facilitates a general understanding of the specific functions and problem areas of a nuclear plant, such broad definitions diminish the integration of information needed to understand the overall problem domain. One solution utilizes a decision support system that integrates a real-time process control AI shell, relational database manager, graphic depiction of the real-time events, and distributed knowledge bases that reside within each of the departments. The goal is to create a living model between plant components, procedures, tech specs, specific functions, maintenance and training requirements. This paper describes such a model, called Engineering Model and Simulation System (EMASS)

  9. Including Life Cycle Assessment for decision-making in controlling wastewater nutrient removal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corominas, Lluís; Larsen, Henrik Fred; Flores-Alsina, Xavier;

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the performance of seventeen control strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). It tackles the importance of using site-specific factors for nutrient enrichment when decision-makers have to select best operating...... systems (e.g. open coastal areas) the most eco-friendly strategies differ from the ones dealing with discharging into P-deficient (e.g. lakes and rivers) and N&P-deficient systems (e.g. coastal zones). More particularly, the results suggest that strategies that promote increased nutrient removal and....../or energy savings present an environmental benefit for N&P and P-deficient systems. This is not the case when addressing N-deficient systems for which the use of chemicals (even for improving N removal efficiencies) is not always beneficial for the environment. A sensitivity analysis on using weighting of...

  10. A new computational account of cognitive control over reinforcement-based decision-making: Modeling of a probabilistic learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendehrouh, Sareh

    2015-11-01

    Recent work on decision-making field offers an account of dual-system theory for decision-making process. This theory holds that this process is conducted by two main controllers: a goal-directed system and a habitual system. In the reinforcement learning (RL) domain, the habitual behaviors are connected with model-free methods, in which appropriate actions are learned through trial-and-error experiences. However, goal-directed behaviors are associated with model-based methods of RL, in which actions are selected using a model of the environment. Studies on cognitive control also suggest that during processes like decision-making, some cortical and subcortical structures work in concert to monitor the consequences of decisions and to adjust control according to current task demands. Here a computational model is presented based on dual system theory and cognitive control perspective of decision-making. The proposed model is used to simulate human performance on a variant of probabilistic learning task. The basic proposal is that the brain implements a dual controller, while an accompanying monitoring system detects some kinds of conflict including a hypothetical cost-conflict one. The simulation results address existing theories about two event-related potentials, namely error related negativity (ERN) and feedback related negativity (FRN), and explore the best account of them. Based on the results, some testable predictions are also presented. PMID:26339919

  11. Just-in-time information improved decision-making in primary care: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie McGowan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The "Just-in-time Information" (JIT librarian consultation service was designed to provide rapid information to answer primary care clinical questions during patient hours. This study evaluated whether information provided by librarians to answer clinical questions positively impacted time, decision-making, cost savings and satisfaction. METHODS AND FINDING: A randomized controlled trial (RCT was conducted between October 2005 and April 2006. A total of 1,889 questions were sent to the service by 88 participants. The object of the randomization was a clinical question. Each participant had clinical questions randomly allocated to both intervention (librarian information and control (no librarian information groups. Participants were trained to send clinical questions via a hand-held device. The impact of the information provided by the service (or not provided by the service, additional resources and time required for both groups was assessed using a survey sent 24 hours after a question was submitted. The average time for JIT librarians to respond to all questions was 13.68 minutes/question (95% CI, 13.38 to 13.98. The average time for participants to respond their control questions was 20.29 minutes/question (95% CI, 18.72 to 21.86. Using an impact assessment scale rating cognitive impact, participants rated 62.9% of information provided to intervention group questions as having a highly positive cognitive impact. They rated 14.8% of their own answers to control question as having a highly positive cognitive impact, 44.9% has having a negative cognitive impact, and 24.8% with no cognitive impact at all. In an exit survey measuring satisfaction, 86% (62/72 responses of participants scored the service as having a positive impact on care and 72% (52/72 indicated that they would use the service frequently if it were continued. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, providing timely information to clinical questions had a highly positive impact on

  12. A model of human decision making in complex systems and its use for design of system control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a model of operators' decision making in complex system control, based on studies of event reports and performance in control rooms. This study shows how operators base their decisions on knowledge of system properties at different levels of abstraction depending on their preception of the system's immediate control requirements. These levels correspond to the abstraction hierarchy including system purpose, functions, and physical details, which is generally used to describe a formal design process. In emergency situations the task of the operator is to design a suitabel control strategy for systems recovery, and the control systems designer should provide a man-machine interface, supporting the operator in identification of his task and in communication with the system at the level of abstraction corresponding to the immedite control requirement. A formalized representation of system properties in a multilevel flow model is described to provide a basis for an integrated control system design. (author)

  13. Decision tree-based learning to predict patient controlled analgesia consumption and readjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Yuh-Jyh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate postoperative pain management contributes to earlier mobilization, shorter hospitalization, and reduced cost. The under treatment of pain may impede short-term recovery and have a detrimental long-term effect on health. This study focuses on Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA, which is a delivery system for pain medication. This study proposes and demonstrates how to use machine learning and data mining techniques to predict analgesic requirements and PCA readjustment. Methods The sample in this study included 1099 patients. Every patient was described by 280 attributes, including the class attribute. In addition to commonly studied demographic and physiological factors, this study emphasizes attributes related to PCA. We used decision tree-based learning algorithms to predict analgesic consumption and PCA control readjustment based on the first few hours of PCA medications. We also developed a nearest neighbor-based data cleaning method to alleviate the class-imbalance problem in PCA setting readjustment prediction. Results The prediction accuracies of total analgesic consumption (continuous dose and PCA dose and PCA analgesic requirement (PCA dose only by an ensemble of decision trees were 80.9% and 73.1%, respectively. Decision tree-based learning outperformed Artificial Neural Network, Support Vector Machine, Random Forest, Rotation Forest, and Naïve Bayesian classifiers in analgesic consumption prediction. The proposed data cleaning method improved the performance of every learning method in this study of PCA setting readjustment prediction. Comparative analysis identified the informative attributes from the data mining models and compared them with the correlates of analgesic requirement reported in previous works. Conclusion This study presents a real-world application of data mining to anesthesiology. Unlike previous research, this study considers a wider variety of predictive factors, including PCA

  14. Risk factors for pediatric intensive care admission in children with acute asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. van den Bosch (Gerbrich); P.J.F.M. Merkus (Peter); C.M.P. Buysse (Corinne); A.L. Boehmer; A.A.P.H. Vaessen-Verberne (Anja); L. van Veen (Leoniek); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); M. de Hoog (Matthijs)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractINTRODUCTION: Severe acute asthma in children is associated with substantial morbidity and may require pediatric ICU (PICU) admission. The aim of the study was to determine risk factors for PICU admission. METHODS: The study used a retrospective multicenter case-control design. The cases

  15. Risk factors for pediatric intensive care admission in children with acute asthma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.E. van den; Merkus, P.J.F.M.; Buysse, C.M.; Boehmer, A.L.; Vaessen-Verberne, A.A.; Veen, L.N. van; Hop, W.C.J.; Hoog, M. de

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Severe acute asthma in children is associated with substantial morbidity and may require pediatric ICU (PICU) admission. The aim of the study was to determine risk factors for PICU admission. METHODS: The study used a retrospective multicenter case-control design. The cases included ch

  16. Patient Admission Preferences and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Clayton; Melnikow, Joy; Dinh, Tu; Holmes, James F.; Gaona, Samuel D.; Bottyan, Thomas; Paterniti, Debora; Nishijima, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Understanding patient perceptions and preferences of hospital care is important to improve patients’ hospitalization experiences and satisfaction. The objective of this study was to investigate patient preferences and perceptions of hospital care, specifically differences between intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital floor admissions. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of emergency department (ED) patients who were presented with a hypothetical scenario of a patient with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). We surveyed their preferences and perceptions of hospital care related to this scenario. A closed-ended questionnaire provided quantitative data on patient preferences and perceptions of hospital care and an open-ended questionnaire evaluated factors that may not have been captured with the closed-ended questionnaire. Results Out of 302 study patients, the ability for family and friends to visit (83%), nurse availability (80%), and physician availability (79%) were the factors most commonly rated “very important,” while the cost of hospitalization (62%) and length of hospitalization (59%) were the factors least commonly rated “very important.” When asked to choose between the ICU and the floor if they were the patient in the scenario, 33 patients (10.9%) choose the ICU, 133 chose the floor (44.0%), and 136 (45.0%) had no preference. Conclusion Based on a hypothetical scenario of mild TBI, the majority of patients preferred admission to the floor or had no preference compared to admission to the ICU. Humanistic factors such as the availability of doctors and nurses and the ability to interact with family appear to have a greater priority than systematic factors of hospitalization, such as length and cost of hospitalization or length of time in the ED waiting for an in-patient bed. PMID:26587095

  17. Development of a patient decision aid for type 2 diabetes mellitus for patients not achieving glycemic control on metformin alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shillington AC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alicia C Shillington,1 Nananda Col,2 Robert A Bailey,3 Mark A Jewell11EPI-Q, Inc., Oak Brook, IL, USA; 2Shared Decision-making Resources, Georgetown, ME, USA; 3Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Raritan, NJ, USAPurpose: To describe the process used to develop an evidence-based patient decision aid (PDA that facilitates shared decision-making for treatment intensification in inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM consistent with International Patient Decision Aids Standards.Methods: A PDA was developed by a multidisciplinary steering committee of clinicians, patient advocate, nurse, certified diabetes educators, and decision scientist, using a systematic development process. The process included defining the PDA scope and purpose, outlining the framework, content creation, and designing for integration into clinical practice. This was accomplished through a review of the literature and publically available educational materials and input from practicing clinicians and patients during development and iteratively refining content based on input. Patients with poorly controlled T2DM on metformin considering additional medication assessed the PDA during a pilot.Results: Testing identified six preference-sensitive domains important for choosing T2DM treatment: degree of glycemic response, avoiding weight gain, hypoglycemia risk and other adverse events, avoiding injections, convenience of dose administration, blood glucose monitoring, and cost of therapy. Patient feedback guided content revision. Treatment options were offered after presenting medication class risk–benefit information and eliciting patient values, goals, and preferences. The PDA received the highest International Patient Decision Aids Standards global score to date, 88/100, with 100% of criteria fully met for the following dimensions: development process, disclosures, evaluation process, evidence quality, guidance for users, information quality, language

  18. Computer decision support software safely improves glycemic control in the burn intensive care unit: a randomized controlled clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Elizabeth A.; Jones, John A.; Wolf, Steven E.; Wade, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The optimal method for glycemic control in the critically burned patient is unknown. The purpose of this randomized controlled study was to determine the safety and efficacy of computer decision support software (CDSS) to control serum glucose concentration in a burn intensive care unit. Methods Eighteen adult burn/trauma patients receiving continuous insulin infusion were initially randomized to receive glucose management via a traditional paper-based protocol (PP) or a computer protocol (CP) for 72 hours, then crossed over to the alternate method for an additional 72 hours. Results Time in target glucose range (80-110 mg/dl) was higher in the CP group (47 ± 17% versus 41 ± 16.6%; p ≤ 0.05); time over target range was not significantly reduced in the CP group (49 ± 17.8% versus 54 ± 17.1; p = 0.08); and no difference was noted in time under target range of 80 mg/dl (CP 4.5 ± 2.8, PP 4.8 ± 3.3%; p = 0.8), under 60 mg/dl (p = 0.7), and under 40 mg/dl (p = 1.0). Severe hypoglycemic events (< 40 mg/dl) did not differ from the CP group compared to historical controls for patients receiving no insulin (p = 0.6). More glucose measurements were performed in the CP group (p = 0.0003), and nursing staff compliance with CP recommendations was greater (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Glycemic control using CDSS is safe and effective for the critically burned patient. Time in target range improved without increase in hypoglycemic events. CDSS enhanced consistency in practice, providing standardization among nursing staff. PMID:21240001

  19. Controle de plantas daninhas em arroz irrigado mediante o momento da admissão e da altura da lâmina de água Weed control in lowland rice, using water application moment and water dephts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enes Furlani Junior

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho, desenvolvido ao nível de campo, na Fazenda Experimental Edgárdia, da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas da UNESP, Botucatu, no ano agrícola 1990/91, objetivou avaliar os efeitos do momento de admissão da água e da altura da lâmina de água sobre o desenvolvimento das plantas daninhas e os reflexos sobre as de arroz. O delineamento experimental usado foi de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subsubdivididas. Às parcelas, corresponderam os momentos de admissão de água M1, M2 e M3, respectivamente, 15, 42 e 74 dias após a emergência das plantas de arroz. As subparcelas corresponderam às alturas das lâminas de água L5, L10 e L15, respectivamente, 5, 10 e 15 cm e as subsubparcelas, a dois sistemas de condução: com capina (cc e sem capina (sc. Verificou-se que o desenvolvimento das plantas daninhas foi afetado tanto pelo momento de admissão de água como pela altura da lâmina de água sendo a produção de grãos reduzida 61,5% devido à competição das plantas daninhas com a cultura.This research was carried out at the "Experimental Edgárdia Farm" - State of São Paulo University, Campus of Botucatu - Brazil, during the growing season of 1990/91. The objective was to evaluate the effect of water depths and the beginning of water application on the weed development and rice yield. Three water dephts (5, 10 and 15 cm; three water application moments (15, 42 and 74 days after crop emergence and weed management (weeded and unweeded were tested in a randomized complete block design, arranged in split-splitplots. The moments were the main plots; the water depths, the splitplots and the weed management, the split-splitplots. The weed development was affected by the water depths and water application moments. The grain yield was reduced in 61.5% by the weed competition with the rice crop.

  20. An audit of anticoagulant management to assess anticoagulant control using decision support software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Paul; Harper, Joe; Hill, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a computerised self-adjusting anticoagulant algorithm to predict appropriate warfarin dosing and to assess its use in clinical practice. Design A 3-year audit of anticoagulant control in patients managed by doctors and pharmacists using computer decision support and an evaluation of the impact of dose adjustments made by the users. Participants 3660 patients on oral anticoagulants; one-third of patients managed by doctors and two-thirds by pharmacists. Setting Anticoagulant supervision in primary care and pharmacies at 60 sites in New Zealand. Main outcome measures The time in the therapeutic range (TTR), the outcome of adherence to the computer dosing algorithm, the percentage of time the clinicians over-ride the algorithm and the impact of their intervention on anticoagulant control. Results A TTR of 72.9% was achieved for all patients. The TTR was significantly better in patients managed by pharmacists than doctors (75.1% versus 67.4%, ppharmacists. Conclusions The clinicians predominantly change the dose when the INR is below the therapeutic range. The changes are not necessary to correct for inaccuracies in the algorithm. The most likely explanation is the clinician's belief that their own dose adjustment would achieve better control; however, in practice, their changes tend to underdose patients. The doctors achieved poorer control than the pharmacists; this is in part due to the action of the doctors over-riding the algorithm. Our results imply that clinicians could achieve better anticoagulant control if they more closely followed the computer algorithm. PMID:25183709

  1. Durable decision-making is central to the control of risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In several capacities the author has promoted the importance of risk analysis techniques as a rational path to the improved assurance of safety. The interest in decisions arose from the persistent observation of only moderate or minor impacts or benefits to practical operations from the availability of wall documented risk analysis studies for many nuclear units. The complexity and number of variables in decisions on matters of safety of large scale operations defies ordinary intuitive decision making. The structured decision process is not a panacea, but is often the practical tool of choise for managing complexity in an orderly way. Typical basic sources for decision techniques are listed in references. (orig.)

  2. Decision making concept of risk control: integration of decision criteria, top level risk indices and plant performance indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A support system for risk monitoring and control is suggested. The following concepts of system elements are briefly discussed: risk curve partitioning, the reliability cost function, the multi-objective optimization model, preference assessment, safety/risk indicators, and knowledge based systems. (Z.S.) 2 figs

  3. Emotionally controlled decision-making and a gene variant related to serotonin synthesis in women with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurex, Liselotte; Zaboli, Ghazal; Wiens, Stefan; Asberg, Marie; Leopardi, Rosario; Ohman, Arne

    2009-02-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was used to examine (i) social decision-making in women with borderline personality disorder (BPD), and (ii) the relationship between impaired decision-making and the tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH-1) gene, involved in serotonin synthesis. Forty-two women with BPD and a history of suicide attempts were genotyped, and the frequency of a TPH-1 haplotype previously uniquely associated with BPD was calculated. The BPD group scored significantly lower than a control group in the IGT. Furthermore, the TPH-1 haplotype displayed a significantly higher frequency in BPD participants with impaired decision making, compared to BPD participants with normal scores. These findings suggest that impaired decision-making as determined by the IGT is a feature of BPD and may be (i) associated with serotonin dysfunction, and (ii) possibly relevant for suicidal behavior. PMID:18826425

  4. A decision aid to assist decisions on disclosure of mental health status to an employer: protocol for the CORAL exploratory randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henderson Claire

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK Equality Act 2010 makes it unlawful for employers to ask health questions before making an offer of employment except in certain circumstances. While the majority of employers would prefer applicants to disclose a mental illness at the application stage, many people either wait until they have accepted the job and then disclose to an occupational health professional, or do not do so at all due to the anticipation of discrimination or a wish for privacy. However, non disclosure precludes the ability to request reasonable adjustments in the workplace or to make a claim of direct discrimination. Disclosure to employers is therefore a difficult decision. A recent pilot study by our group of the CORAL decision aid showed that it helped mental health service users clarify their needs and values regarding disclosure and led to reduction in decisional conflict. The present proof of concept trial aims to determine whether a full scale randomised controlled trial (RCT is justifiable and feasible, and to optimise its design. Methods In this single blind exploratory RCT in London, a total of 80 participants (inclusion criteria: age ≥18 years, on the caseload of a specialist employment adviser working with people with mental illness; referred to the adviser either from primary care via Improving Access to Psychological Therapies or secondary mental health service; currently seeking or interested in either paid or voluntary employment, and a Decisional Conflict Scale score of 37.5 or greater and stage of decision score 1–5 will be recruited from vocational advice services. After completing a baseline assessment, participants will be randomly assigned to one of two conditions (1 Use of the CORAL Decision Aid (DA in addition to treatment as usual or (2 Treatment as usual. Those allocated to the DA condition will be given it to read and complete, and the researcher will be present to record the time taken and any content that

  5. Decision making under uncertainty using imprecise probabilities.

    OpenAIRE

    Troffaes, M. C. M.

    2007-01-01

    Various ways for decision making with imprecise probabilities—admissibility, maximal expected utility, maximality, E-admissibility, Gamma-maximax, Gamma-maximin, all of which are well known from the literature—are discussed and compared. We generalise a well-known sufficient condition for existence of optimal decisions. A simple numerical example shows how these criteria can work in practice, and demonstrates their differences. Finally, we suggest an efficient approach to calculate optimal de...

  6. Using Markov Decision Process to define an adaptive strategy to control the spread of an animal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Viet, Anne-France; Jeanpierre, Laurent; Bouzid, Maroua; Mouaddib, Abdel-Illah

    2012-01-01

    A strategy to control an animal disease within an area is often based on one or more actions systematically implemented. In this paper, we illustrate how to use a Markov Decision Process (MDP) to compute an adaptive strategy depending on the pathogen spread within a group of farmers with only one decisionmaker for the group. The objective at the group level is to decrease the cost of the disease and its control. Status for each farm is assumed to be exactly known each year by the decision-mak...

  7. Regional Labour Court Baden-Wuerttemberg (Mannheim), decision of November 24, 1986 (co-determination in matters of security control)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its decision of November 24, 1986, the Regional Court of Baden-Wuerttemberg deals with the direction of security controls in nuclear research plants. The co-determination of the works council in this field is excluded, if the operator is directed by the licensing authority to carry out these controls pursuant to an obligation of the operating licence according to sec. 7 and sec. 17 of the Atomic Energy Act. With regard to the security purpose in sec. 1 no. 2 Atomic Energy Act only the operator is competent to make decisions in these cases. (WG)

  8. TWRS FSAR integrated control decision meetings - January 22 - 31,1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saladin, V.L.

    1997-03-17

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) letter 97-MSD-163 dated January 15, 1997, directed the Project Hanford Management Contractor (Contractor), Fluor Daniel Hanford, inc., to form a joint RL-Contractor Integrated Control Decision Team (ICDT) to evaluate the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) accident scenarios that were identified to be above the risk evaluation guidelines (radiological and/or toxicological) defined by the April 8, 1996, letter from J. Kinzer, RL-TWRS (96-MSO-069) to Dr. A. L. Trego, Westinghouse Hanford Company. The ICDT evaluated six postulated accidents from the draft FSAR which had analyzed consequences above the DOE directed risk evaluation guidelines after controls were applied. The accidents were: (1) Organic Solvent Fires; (2) Organic Salt-Nitrate Fire; (3) Spray Leak; (4) Flammable Gas; (5) Steam Intrusion; and (6) Seismic Event. Five of the postulated accidents exceed radiological risk guidelines. Although the postulated steam intrusion accident does not exceed the radiological risk guidelines, it was considered in the ICDT evaluation because its calculated consequences exceed toxicological risk evaluation guidelines. Figure 1 delineates the mitigated and unmitigated risk evaluations performed for the FSAR.

  9. Nuclear receptor NR5A2 controls neural stem cell fate decisions during development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiopoulos, Athanasios; Politis, Panagiotis K.

    2016-01-01

    The enormous complexity of mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is generated by highly synchronized actions of diverse factors and signalling molecules in neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs). However, the molecular mechanisms that integrate extrinsic and intrinsic signals to control proliferation versus differentiation decisions of NSCs are not well-understood. Here we identify nuclear receptor NR5A2 as a central node in these regulatory networks and key player in neural development. Overexpression and loss-of-function experiments in primary NSCs and mouse embryos suggest that NR5A2 synchronizes cell-cycle exit with induction of neurogenesis and inhibition of astrogliogenesis by direct regulatory effects on Ink4/Arf locus, Prox1, a downstream target of proneural genes, as well as Notch1 and JAK/STAT signalling pathways. Upstream of NR5a2, proneural genes, as well as Notch1 and JAK/STAT pathways control NR5a2 endogenous expression. Collectively, these observations render NR5A2 a critical regulator of neural development and target gene for NSC-based treatments of CNS-related diseases. PMID:27447294

  10. Admission time to hospital: a varying standard for a critical definition for admissions to an intensive care unit from the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Shane; Weiss, Heike; Bailey, Michael; van Lint, Allison; Cameron, Peter; Pilcher, David

    2014-11-01

    Objective Time spent in the emergency department (ED) before admission to hospital is often considered an important key performance indicator (KPI). Throughout Australia and New Zealand, there is no standard definition of 'time of admission' for patients admitted through the ED. By using data submitted to the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database, the aim was to determine the differing methods used to define hospital admission time and assess how these impact on the calculation of time spent in the ED before admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). Methods Between March and December of 2010, 61 hospitals were contacted directly. Decision methods for determining time of admission to the ED were matched to 67787 patient records. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between decision method and the reported time spent in the ED. Results Four mechanisms of recording time of admission were identified, with time of triage being the most common (28/61 hospitals). Reported median time spent in the ED varied from 2.5 (IQR 0.83-5.35) to 5.1h (2.82-8.68), depending on the decision method. After adjusting for illness severity, hospital type and location, decision method remained a significant factor in determining measurement of ED length of stay. Conclusions Different methods are used in Australia and New Zealand to define admission time to hospital. Professional bodies, hospitals and jurisdictions should ensure standardisation of definitions for appropriate interpretation of KPIs as well as for the interpretation of studies assessing the impact of admission time to ICU from the ED. What is known about the topic? There are standards for the maximum time spent in the ED internationally, but these standards vary greatly across Australia. The definition of such a standard is critically important not only to patient care, but also in the assessment of hospital outcomes. Key performance indicators rely

  11. A randomised controlled trial of the effects of a web-based PSA decision aid, Prosdex. Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths Jeff

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Informed decision making is the theoretical basis in the UK for men's decisions about Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA testing for prostate cancer testing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a web-based PSA decision-aid, Prosdex, on informed decision making in men. The objective is to assess the effect of Prosdex on six specific outcomes: (i knowledge of PSA and prostate cancer-related issues – the principal outcome of the study; (ii attitudes to testing; (iii decision conflict; (iv anxiety; (v intention to undergo PSA testing; (vi uptake of PSA testing. In addition, a mathematical simulation model of the effects of Prosdex will be developed. Methods A randomised controlled trial with four groups: two intervention groups, one viewing Prosdex and the other receiving a paper version of the site; two control groups, the second controlling for the potential Hawthorn effect of the questionnaire used with the first control group. Men between the ages of 50 and 75, who have not previously had a PSA test, will be recruited from General Practitioners (GPs in Wales, UK. The principal outcome, knowledge, and four other outcome measures – attitudes to testing, decision conflict, anxiety and intention to undergo testing – will be measured with an online questionnaire, used by men in three of the study groups. Six months later, PSA test uptake will be ascertained from GP records; the online questionnaire will then be repeated. These outcomes, and particularly PSA test uptake, will be used to develop a mathematical simulation model, specifically to consider the impact on health service resources. Trial registration Current Controlled Trial: ISRCTN48473735.

  12. Investigating a training supporting shared decision making (IT'S SDM 2011: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geiger Friedemann

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Shared Decision Making (SDM is regarded as the best practice model for the communicative challenge of decision making about treatment or diagnostic options. However, randomized controlled trials focusing the effectiveness of SDM trainings are rare and existing measures of SDM are increasingly challenged by the latest research findings. This study will 1 evaluate a new physicians' communication training regarding patient involvement in terms of SDM, 2 validate SDMMASS, a new compound measure of SDM, and 3 evaluate the effects of SDM on the perceived quality of the decision process and on the elaboration of the decision. Methods In a multi-center randomized controlled trial with a waiting control group, 40 physicians from 7 medical fields are enrolled. Each physician contributes a sequence of four medical consultations including a diagnostic or treatment decision. The intervention consists of two condensed video-based individual coaching sessions (15min. supported by a manual and a DVD. The interventions alternate with three measurement points plus follow up (6 months. Realized patient involvement is measured using the coefficient SDMMASS drawn from the Multifocal Approach to the Sharing in SDM (MAPPIN'SDM which includes objective involvement, involvement as perceived by the patient, and the doctor-patient concordance regarding their judges of the involvement. For validation purposes, all three components of SDMMASS are supplemented by similar measures, the OPTION observer scale, the Shared Decision Making Questionnaire (SDM-Q and the dyadic application of the Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS. Training effects are analyzed using t-tests. Spearman correlation coefficients are used to determine convergent validities, the influence of involvement (SDMMASS on the perceived decision quality (DCS and on the elaboration of the decision. The latter is operationalised by the ELAB coefficient from the UP24 (Uncertainty Profile, 24 items version

  13. Linear Decision Fusion under the Control of Constrained PSO for WSNs

    OpenAIRE

    Sisi Jiang; Zhiwen Zhao; Sheng Mou; Zushun Wu; Yi Luo

    2012-01-01

    A major application of a distributed WSN (wireless sensor network) is to monitor a specific area for detecting some events such as disasters and enemies. In order to achieve this objective, each sensor in the network is required to collect local observations which are probably corrupted by noise, make a local decision regarding the presence or absence of an event, and then send its local decision to a fusion center. After that, the fusion center makes the final decision depending on these loc...

  14. Agency Decision-Making Control and Employment Outcomes by Vocational Rehabilitation Consumers Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Bernard A.; Kwan, Ngai; Boeltzig-Brown, Heike; Haines, Kelly; Halliday, John; Foley, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We hypothesized that consumers who are blind or visually impaired (that is, those who have low vision) who were served by state vocational rehabilitation agencies with decision-making control over administrative functions would experience better vocational rehabilitation outcomes than consumers served by vocational rehabilitation…

  15. ProsCan for Men: Randomised controlled trial of a decision support intervention for men with localised prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardiner RA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer in the Western world but is highly heterogeneous in disease progression and outcomes. Consequently, the most substantial morbidity may actually arise from the adverse psychosocial impact of distress in decision-making and long term quality of life effects such as impotence. This paper presents the design of a randomised controlled trial of a decision support/psychosocial intervention for men newly diagnosed with localised prostate cancer. Methods/Design 350 men per condition (700 men in total have been recruited after diagnosis and before treatment through urology private practices and hospital outpatient clinics and randomised to 1 a tele-based nurse delivered five session decision support/psychosocial intervention or 2 a usual care control group. Two intervention sessions are delivered before treatment that address decision support, stress management and preparation for treatment. Three further sessions are provided three weeks, seven weeks and five months after treatment that focus on adjustment to cancer, problem solving and coping with treatment side effects. Participants are assessed at baseline (before treatment and 2, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months post-treatment. Outcome measures include: cancer threat appraisal; decision-related distress and bother from treatment side effects; involvement in decision making; satisfaction with health care; heath care utilisation; use of health care resources; and a return to previous activities. Discussion The study will provide recommendations about the efficacy of early decision support to facilitate adjustment after prostate cancer. As well the study will identify men diagnosed with localised prostate cancer at risk of poorer long term psychosocial adjustment. Trial Registration ACTRN012607000233426.

  16. Optimal Decision for Fashion Supply Chains with Service Level Constraint and Controllable Lead Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a two-echelon supply chain inventory model with controllable lead time and service level constraint in fashion supply chains, in which we assume that the unit cost of compressing lead time follows exponential distribution. Under these conditions we investigate the optimal ordering quantity and production quantity in the fashion supply chain by minimizing the joint total cost. Simultaneously, we work out the boundaries of ordering quantity and production quantity, which simplify the computation. Furthermore, numerical examples are presented to test the feasibility of the model. The results show that assuming the unit cost of compressing lead time in accordance with exponential distribution is realistic. It also notices that the optimal order and production decision for fashion supply chains are constrained obviously by the service level and safety factors. What is more, the holding cost rate of both the service level and safety factors has a certain influence on it. And by further analyzing on some references in the last part, we have done some extensions and found some interesting results.

  17. Performing under pressure: gaze control, decision making and shooting performance of elite and rookie police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Joan N; Lewinski, William

    2012-02-01

    Gaze of elite (E) and rookie (R) officers were analyzed as they faced a potentially lethal encounter that required use of a handgun, or inhibition of the shot when a cell phone was drawn. The E shot more accurately than the R (E 74.60%; R 53.80%) and made fewer decisions errors in the cell condition when 18.50% of E and 61.50% of R fired at the assailant. E and R did not differ in duration of the draw/aim/fire phases, but the R's motor onsets were later, during the final second compared to the E's final 2.5 s. Across the final six fixations the E increased the percent of fixations on the assailant's weapon/cell to 71% and to 86% on hits, compared to a high of 34% for the R. Before firing, the R made a rapid saccade to their own weapon on 84% of trials leading to a failure to fixate the assailant on 50% of trials as they fired. Compared to the R, the E had a longer quiet eye duration on the assailant's weapon/cell prior to firing. The results provide new insights into officer weapon focus, firearms training and the role of optimal gaze control when under extreme pressure. PMID:21807433

  18. Business Intelligence Framework in Higher Education Admission Center (HEAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Humaid Alwashahi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available - In recent year found that many organizations used Business Intelligence (BI in most of sectors in order to gather, consolidating, analyzing , and providing access to data to provide better decision-making to be faster than ever before by providing the right information to the right people at the right Time. This paper proposes Business Intelligence (BI framework for Higher Education Admission Centre (HEAC to simplify and integrate business critical data of a multi-schema database by using an Active database approach uses active rules, called EventCondition-Action (ECA rules. This paper explores the problem in HEAC, BI overview, BI component, BI features, BI framework, active DB.

  19. The supportive effect of patterns in architecture decision recovery-A controlled experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesch, Uwe van; Avgeriou, Paris; Zdun, Uwe; Harrison, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The documentation of software architectural design decisions is important to help people understand the system and the rationale behind architectural solutions. In practice, the documentation of such decisions is regularly done after the fact, or skipped completely. To support software maintenance a

  20. Efficiently Establishing Concepts of Inferential Statistics and Hypothesis Decision Making through Contextually Controlled Equivalence Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienup, Daniel M.; Critchfield, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Computerized lessons that reflect stimulus equivalence principles were used to teach college students concepts related to inferential statistics and hypothesis decision making. Lesson 1 taught participants concepts related to inferential statistics, and Lesson 2 taught them to base hypothesis decisions on a scientific hypothesis and the direction…

  1. The Interplay between Information and Control Theory within Interactive Decision-Making Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorantla, Siva Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The context for this work is two-agent team decision systems. An "agent" is an intelligent entity that can measure some aspect of its environment, process information and possibly influence the environment through its action. In a collaborative two-agent team decision system, the agents can be coupled by noisy or noiseless interactions…

  2. Distributed multisensor processing, decision making, and control under constrained resources for remote health and environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Ashit; Sheikh, Tanwir; Chandramouli, Lavanya

    2004-04-01

    Previous field-deployable distributed sensing systems for health/biomedical applications and environmental sensing have been designed for data collection and data transmission at pre-set intervals, rather than for on-board processing These previous sensing systems lack autonomous capabilities, and have limited lifespans. We propose the use of an integrated machine learning architecture, with automated planning-scheduling and resource management capabilities that can be used for a variety of autonomous sensing applications with very limited computing, power, and bandwidth resources. We lay out general solutions for efficient processing in a multi-tiered (three-tier) machine learning framework that is suited for remote, mobile sensing systems. Novel dimensionality reduction techniques that are designed for classification are used to compress each individual sensor data and pass only relevant information to the mobile multisensor fusion module (second-tier). Statistical classifiers that are capable of handling missing/partial sensory data due to sensor failure or power loss are used to detect critical events and pass the information to the third tier (central server) for manual analysis and/or analysis by advanced pattern recognition techniques. Genetic optimisation algorithms are used to control the system in the presence of dynamic events, and also ensure that system requirements (i.e. minimum life of the system) are met. This tight integration of control optimisation and machine learning algorithms results in a highly efficient sensor network with intelligent decision making capabilities. The applicability of our technology in remote health monitoring and environmental monitoring is shown. Other uses of our solution are also discussed.

  3. Grade Inflation and Law School Admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsurawat, Winai

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the evidence on whether grade inflation has led to an increasing emphasis on standardized test scores as a criterion for law school admissions. Design/methodology/approach: Fit probabilistic models to admissions data for American law schools during the mid to late 1990s, a period during which…

  4. The Terms and Tasks of "Open Admissions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert A.

    1976-01-01

    Noting the need to define the terms used for policies which are changing the role of admissions offices, the author defines "open admissions" as "universal opportunity for post-secondary schooling" and points out changes in the core tasks of recruiting, selecting, counseling, and management of student records and data. (JT)

  5. Alphabetical Order Effects in School Admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurajda, Štepán; Münich, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    If school admission committees use alphabetically sorted lists of applicants in their evaluations, one's position in the alphabet according to last name initial may be important in determining access to selective schools. Jurajda and Münich (2010) "Admission to Selective Schools, Alphabetically". "Economics of Education…

  6. Admissible Unbiased Quantizations: Distributions with Linear Components

    OpenAIRE

    Pötzelberger, Klaus

    2000-01-01

    We show that results on the characterization of admissible quantizations, which have been derived in Potzelberger [3], have to be modified in case the probability distribution has linear components. Furthermore, we provide an example, where the limit of optimal quantizations is not admissible. (author's abstract)

  7. Randomised controlled trial of clinical decision support tools to improve learning of evidence based medicine in medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Gabriel M; Johnston, Janice M; Tin, Keith Y K; Wong, Irene O. L.; Ho, Lai-Ming; Lam, Wendy W.T.; Lam, Tai-hing

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the educational effectiveness on learning evidence based medicine of a handheld computer clinical decision support tool compared with a pocket card containing guidelines and a control. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting University of Hong Kong, 2001. Participants: 169 fourth year medical students. Main outcome measures: Factor and individual item scores from a validated questionnaire on five key self reported measures: personal application and current use of evi...

  8. Importance Sampling Based Decision Trees for Security Assessment and the Corresponding Preventive Control Schemes: the Danish Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Leo; Rather, Zakir Hussain; Chen, Zhe; Bak, Claus Leth; Thøgersen, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Decision Trees (DT) based security assessment helps Power System Operators (PSO) by providing them with the most significant system attributes and guiding them in implementing the corresponding emergency control actions to prevent system insecurity and blackouts. DT is obtained offline from time-domain simulation and the process of data mining, which is then implemented online as guidelines for preventive control schemes. An algorithm named Classification and Regression Trees (CART) is used t...

  9. Timing of College Enrollment and Family Formation Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria; Kristoffersen, Jannie H. G.; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    The level of progression of an individual’s educational or labor market career is a potentially important factor for family formation decisions. We address this issue by considering the effects of a particular college admission system on family formation. We show that the admission system affects...... mainly the timing of college enrollment and not the college - going decision. As such, we consider a specific type of career interruption and its consequences for relationship formation and fertility decisions. Specifically, we employ a regression discontinuity design based on the college admission...... system to estimate the effect of being above the admission requirement in the year of application on later family formation decisions. We find that the admission system has substantial effects on the timing of family formation and, specifically, that the timing of college enrollment is an important...

  10. Atmospheric pollutants and hospital admissions due to pneumonia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Negrisoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between exposure to air pollutants and hospitalizations due to pneumonia in children of Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Time series ecological study, from 2007 to 2008. Daily data were obtained from the State Environmental Agency for Pollution Control for particulate matter, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, besides air temperature and relative humidity. The data concerning pneumonia admissions were collected in the public health system of Sorocaba. Correlations between the variables of interest using Pearson cofficient were calculated. Models with lags from zero to five days after exposure to pollutants were performed to analyze the association between the exposure to environmental pollutants and hospital admissions. The analysis used the generalized linear model of Poisson regression, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: There were 1,825 admissions for pneumonia, with a daily mean of 2.5±2.1. There was a strong correlation between pollutants and hospital admissions, except for ozone. Regarding the Poisson regression analysis with the multi-pollutant model, only nitrogen dioxide was statistically significant in the same day (relative risk - RR=1.016, as well as particulate matter with a lag of four days (RR=1.009 after exposure to pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: There was an acute effect of exposure to nitrogen dioxide and a later effect of exposure to particulate matter on children hospitalizations for pneumonia in Sorocaba.

  11. Does Grade Inflation Affect the Credibility of Grades? Evidence from US Law School Admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsurawat, Winai

    2009-01-01

    While the nature and causes of university grade inflation have been extensively studied, little empirical research on the consequence of this phenomenon is currently available. The present study uses data for 48 US law schools to analyze admission decisions in 1995, 2000, and 2007, a period during which university grade inflation appears to have…

  12. Redundancy, Discrimination and Corruption in the Multibillion-Dollar Business of College Admissions Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Monica Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Most American colleges and universities require standardized entrance exams when making admissions decisions. Scores on these exams help determine if, when and where students will be allowed to pursue higher education. These scores are also used to determine eligibility for merit based financial aid. This testing persists even though half of the…

  13. Formative and Summative Evaluation at Ground Zero: Some Comments on the Selective Admissions College Application Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ray

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the paucity of useful evaluation measures that administrators making decisions about selective college admissions have to work with. Argues that the implementation of national testing would allow for more formative assessment of college applicants and would encourage increased classroom instruction with a formative focus at the secondary…

  14. Out of control mortality matters: the effect of perceived uncontrollable mortality risk on a health-related decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian V. Pepper

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prior evidence from the public health literature suggests that both control beliefs and perceived threats to life are important for health behaviour. Our previously presented theoretical model generated the more specific hypothesis that uncontrollable, but not controllable, personal mortality risk should alter the payoff from investment in health protection behaviours. We carried out three experiments to test whether altering the perceived controllability of mortality risk would affect a health-related decision. Experiment 1 demonstrated that a mortality prime could be used to alter a health-related decision: the choice between a healthier food reward (fruit and an unhealthy alternative (chocolate. Experiment 2 demonstrated that it is the controllability of the mortality risk being primed that generates the effect, rather than mortality risk per se. Experiment 3 showed that the effect could be seen in a surreptitious experiment that was not explicitly health related. Our results suggest that perceptions about the controllability of mortality risk may be an important factor in people’s health-related decisions. Thus, techniques for adjusting perceptions about mortality risk could be important tools for use in health interventions. More importantly, tackling those sources of mortality that people perceive to be uncontrollable could have a dual purpose: making neighbourhoods and workplaces safer would have the primary benefit of reducing uncontrollable mortality risk, which could lead to a secondary benefit from improved health behaviours.

  15. Scoping decision document for HEPA filter differential pressure interlock control installation and tank farm exhauster operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2001-06-27

    This document is a decision document regarding the scope of HEPA filter differential pressure interlock system installations at Tank Farm emission units. It is intended to provide supporting information for administration of Baseline Change Request.

  16. Scoping decision document for HEPA filter differential pressure interlock control installation and tank farm exhauster operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a decision document regarding the scope of HEPA filter differential pressure interlock system installations at Tank Farm emission units. It is intended to provide supporting information for administration of Baseline Change Request

  17. Radical Decisions in Cancer: Redox Control of Cell Growth and Death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainz, Rosa M., E-mail: sainzrosa@uniovi.es [Cellular Biology and Morphology Department, School of Medicine, University of Oviedo, Oviedo 33006 (Spain); University Institute of Oncology of Asturias (IUOPA), University of Oviedo, Oviedo 33006 (Spain); Lombo, Felipe [University Institute of Oncology of Asturias (IUOPA), University of Oviedo, Oviedo 33006 (Spain); Functional Biology Department, Area of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Oviedo, Oviedo 33006 (Spain); Mayo, Juan C. [Cellular Biology and Morphology Department, School of Medicine, University of Oviedo, Oviedo 33006 (Spain); University Institute of Oncology of Asturias (IUOPA), University of Oviedo, Oviedo 33006 (Spain)

    2012-04-25

    Free radicals play a key role in many physiological decisions in cells. Since free radicals are toxic to cellular components, it is known that they cause DNA damage, contribute to DNA instability and mutation and thus favor carcinogenesis. However, nowadays it is assumed that free radicals play a further complex role in cancer. Low levels of free radicals and steady state levels of antioxidant enzymes are responsible for the fine tuning of redox status inside cells. A change in redox state is a way to modify the physiological status of the cell, in fact, a more reduced status is found in resting cells while a more oxidative status is associated with proliferative cells. The mechanisms by which redox status can change the proliferative activity of cancer cells are related to transcriptional and posttranscriptional modifications of proteins that play a critical role in cell cycle control. Since cancer cells show higher levels of free radicals compared with their normal counterparts, it is believed that the anti-oxidative stress mechanism is also increased in cancer cells. In fact, the levels of some of the most important antioxidant enzymes are elevated in advanced status of some types of tumors. Anti-cancer treatment is compromised by survival mechanisms in cancer cells and collateral damage in normal non-pathological tissues. Though some resistance mechanisms have been described, they do not yet explain why treatment of cancer fails in several tumors. Given that some antitumoral treatments are based on the generation of free radicals, we will discuss in this review the possible role of antioxidant enzymes in the survival mechanism in cancer cells and then, its participation in the failure of cancer treatments.

  18. Radical Decisions in Cancer: Redox Control of Cell Growth and Death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free radicals play a key role in many physiological decisions in cells. Since free radicals are toxic to cellular components, it is known that they cause DNA damage, contribute to DNA instability and mutation and thus favor carcinogenesis. However, nowadays it is assumed that free radicals play a further complex role in cancer. Low levels of free radicals and steady state levels of antioxidant enzymes are responsible for the fine tuning of redox status inside cells. A change in redox state is a way to modify the physiological status of the cell, in fact, a more reduced status is found in resting cells while a more oxidative status is associated with proliferative cells. The mechanisms by which redox status can change the proliferative activity of cancer cells are related to transcriptional and posttranscriptional modifications of proteins that play a critical role in cell cycle control. Since cancer cells show higher levels of free radicals compared with their normal counterparts, it is believed that the anti-oxidative stress mechanism is also increased in cancer cells. In fact, the levels of some of the most important antioxidant enzymes are elevated in advanced status of some types of tumors. Anti-cancer treatment is compromised by survival mechanisms in cancer cells and collateral damage in normal non-pathological tissues. Though some resistance mechanisms have been described, they do not yet explain why treatment of cancer fails in several tumors. Given that some antitumoral treatments are based on the generation of free radicals, we will discuss in this review the possible role of antioxidant enzymes in the survival mechanism in cancer cells and then, its participation in the failure of cancer treatments

  19. Experimental Investigation of Performance, Flow Interactions and Rotor Forcing in Axial Partial Admission Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Fridh, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The thesis comprises a collection of four papers with preceding summary and supplementary appendices. The core investigation solely is of experimental nature although reference and comparisons with numerical models will be addressed. The first admission stage in an industrial steam turbine is referred to as the control stage if partial admission is applied. In order to achieve high part load efficiency and a high control stage output it is routinely applied in industrial steam turbines used i...

  20. Controlling equine influenza: policy networks and decision-making during the 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, K; Gillespie, J A; Toribio, J-A L M L; Ward, M P; Dhand, N K

    2014-10-01

    Rapid, evidence-based decision-making is critical during a disease outbreak response; however, compliance by stakeholders is necessary to ensure that such decisions are effective - especially if the response depends on voluntary action. This mixed method study evaluated technical policy decision-making processes during the 2007 outbreak of equine influenza in Australia by identifying and analysing the stakeholder network involved and the factors driving policy decision-making. The study started with a review of the outbreak literature and published policy documents. This identified six policy issues regarding policy modifications or differing interpretations by different state agencies. Data on factors influencing the decision-making process for these six issues and on stakeholder interaction were collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 individuals representing 12 industry and government organizations. Quantitative data were analysed using social network analysis. Qualitative data were coded and patterns matched to test a pre-determined general theory using a method called theory-oriented process-tracing. Results revealed that technical policy decisions were framed by social, political, financial, strategic and operational considerations. Industry stakeholders had influence through formal pre-existing channels, yet specific gaps in stakeholder interaction were overcome by reactive alliances formed during the outbreak response but outside the established system. Overall, the crisis management system and response were seen as positive, and 75-100% of individuals interviewed were supportive of, had interest in and considered the outcome as good for the majority of policy decisions, yet only 46-75% of those interviewed considered that they had influence on these decisions. Training to increase awareness and knowledge of emergency animal diseases (EADs) and response systems will improve stakeholder

  1. Cost-effectiveness of novel vaccines for tuberculosis control: a decision analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menzies Dick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of a successful new tuberculosis (TB vaccine would circumvent many limitations of current diagnostic and treatment practices. However, vaccine development is complex and costly. We aimed to assess the potential cost effectiveness of novel vaccines for TB control in a sub-Saharan African country - Zambia - relative to the existing strategy of directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS and current level of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccination coverage. Methods We conducted a decision analysis model-based simulation from the societal perspective, with a 3% discount rate and all costs expressed in 2007 US dollars. Health outcomes and costs were projected over a 30-year period, for persons born in Zambia (population 11,478,000 in 2005 in year 1. Initial development costs for single vaccination and prime-boost strategies were prorated to the Zambian share (0.398% of global BCG vaccine coverage for newborns. Main outcome measures were TB-related morbidity, mortality, and costs over a range of potential scenarios for vaccine efficacy. Results Relative to the status quo strategy, a BCG replacement vaccine administered at birth, with 70% efficacy in preventing rapid progression to TB disease after initial infection, is estimated to avert 932 TB cases and 422 TB-related deaths (prevention of 199 cases/100,000 vaccinated, and 90 deaths/100,000 vaccinated. This would result in estimated net savings of $3.6 million over 30 years for 468,073 Zambians born in year 1 of the simulation. The addition of a booster at age 10 results in estimated savings of $5.6 million compared to the status quo, averting 1,863 TB cases and 1,011 TB-related deaths (prevention of 398 cases/100,000 vaccinated, and of 216 deaths/100,000 vaccinated. With vaccination at birth alone, net savings would be realized within 1 year, whereas the prime-boost strategy would require an additional 5 years to realize savings, reflecting a greater initial

  2. Local control after radiosurgery for brain metastases: predictive factors and implications for clinical decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the local control of brain metastases (BM) in patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), correlate the outcome with treatment parameters and lesion characteristics, and define its implications for clinical decisions. Between 2007 and 2012, 305 BM in 141 consecutive patients were treated with SRS. After exclusions, 216 BM in 100 patients were analyzed. Doses were grouped as follows: ≤15 Gy, 16–20 Gy, and ≥21 Gy. Sizes were classified as ≤10 mm and >10 mm. Local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank statistics were used to identify the prognostic factors affecting LC and OS. For multivariate analyses, a Cox proportional model was applied including all potentially significant variables reached on univariate analyses. Median age was 54 years (18–80). Median radiological follow-up of the lesions was 7 months (1–66). Median LC and the LC at 1 year were 22.3 months and 69.7%, respectively. On univariate analysis, tumor size, SRS dose, and previous whole brain irradiation (WBRT) were significant factors for LC. Patients with lesions >10 and ≤10 mm had an LC at 1 year of 58.6% and 79.1%, respectively (p = 0.008). In lesions receiving ≤15 Gy, 16–20 Gy, and ≥21 Gy, the 1-year LC rates were 39.6%, 71.7%, and 92.3%, respectively (p < 0.001). When WBRT was done previously, LC at 1 year was 57.9% compared with 78.4% for those who did not undergo WBRT (p = 0.004). On multivariate analysis, dose remained the single most powerful prognostic factor for LC. Median OS for all patients was 17 months, with no difference among the groups. Dose is the most important predictive factor for LC of BM. Doses below 16 Gy correlated with poor LC. The SRS dose as salvage treatment after previous WBRT should not be reduced unless there is a pressing reason to do so

  3. Weather, season, and daily stroke admissions in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggins, William B.; Woo, Jean; Ho, Suzanne; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Chau, P. H.

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies examining daily temperature and stroke incidence have given conflicting results. We undertook this retrospective study of all stroke admissions in those aged 35 years old and above to Hong Kong public hospitals from 1999 through 2006 in order to better understand the effects of meteorological conditions on stroke risk in a subtropical setting. We used Poisson Generalized Additive Models with daily hemorrhagic (HS) and ischemic stroke (IS) counts separately as outcomes, and daily mean temperature, humidity, solar radiation, rainfall, air pressure, pollutants, flu consultation rates, day of week, holidays, time trend and seasonality as predictors. Lagged effects of temperature, humidity and pollutants were also considered. A total of 23,457 HS and 107,505 IS admissions were analyzed. Mean daily temperature had a strong, consistent, negative linear association with HS admissions over the range (8.2-31.8°C) observed. A 1°C lower average temperature over the same day and previous 4 days (lags 0-4) being associated with a 2.7% (95% CI: 2.0-3.4%, P < .0.0001) higher admission rate after controlling for other variables. This association was stronger among older subjects and females. Higher lag 0-4 average change in air pressure from previous day was modestly associated with higher HS risk. The association between IS and temperature was weaker and apparent only below 22°C, with a 1°C lower average temperature (lags 0-13) below this threshold being associated with a 1.6% (95% CI:1.0-2.2%, P < 0.0001) higher IS admission rate. Pollutant levels were not associated with HS or IS. Future studies should examine HS and IS risk separately.

  4. Consciência situacional, tomada de decisão e modos de controle cognitivo em ambientes complexos Situation awareness, decision making, and cognitive control in complex environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Henriqson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar a consciência situacional, os processos de tomada de decisão naturalística e os modos de controle cognitivo utilizados por pilotos de aeronaves em um experimento em simulador de voo. Dessa forma, diferentes situações foram propostas durante a simulação objetivando o estudo da consciência situacional e tomada de decisão dos tripulantes. As ações dos participantes foram investigadas e classificadas de acordo com o modelo de controle cognitivo proposto. Os resultados sugerem que os fatores de complexidade contextual afetam a gestão da dificuldade, influenciando a consciência situacional, a tomada de decisão e os modos de controle cognitivo dos pilotos.This work aims to analyze situation awareness, natural decision-making processes and cognitive control modes used by airplane pilots in a flight simulator experiment. In this way, different situations during flight simulation were considered in order to study the crew's situation awareness and natural decision-making. The participants' actions were investigated and classified according to the cognitive control model proposed. Results suggest that context complexity factors affect difficulty management, influencing situation awareness, decision-making and pilots' cognitive control modes.

  5. Analysis of Communication between Main Control Room Operators in Decision-making Process in Steam Generator Tube Rupture Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents an investigation results for Main Control Room operators' reliability by Performance Evaluation of Teamwork method, based on FSS-1000 training archives in KNPP in case of Steam Generator Tube Rupture accident. The advantages of operators' teamwork are shown: a) group decision-making vs. individual one: b) positive influence of crew initiated communication consisting of orders and reports that are required by instruction. (authors)

  6. 16 CFR 3.32 - Admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Discovery; Compulsory Process § 3.32 Admissions. (a) At any time after thirty (30... unless the party states that it has made reasonable inquiry and that the information known to or...

  7. Admissible Strategies in Semimartingale Portfolio Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Biagini, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The choice of admissible trading strategies in mathematical modelling of financial markets is a delicate issue, going back to Harrison and Kreps (1979). In the context of optimal portfolio selection with expected utility preferences this question has been a focus of considerable attention over the last twenty years. We propose a novel notion of admissibility that has many pleasant features -- admissibility is characterized purely under the objective measure $P$; the wealth of any admissible strategy is a supermartingale under all pricing measures; local boundedness of the price process is not required; neither strict monotonicity, strict concavity nor differentiability of the utility function are necessary; the definition encompasses both the classical mean-variance preferences and the monotone expected utility. For utility functions finite on the real line, our class represents a minimal set containing simple strategies which also contains the optimizer, under conditions that are substantially milder than th...

  8. Every seventh acute medical admission is preventable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Henrik Koldborg; Hendriksen, Carsten; Nielsen, Henrik; Nybo, Birgitte; Perrild, Hans

    2013-01-01

    The majority of patients who are admitted to the departments of internal medicine are admitted acutely. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of admissions to a community hospital in Copenhagen....

  9. Should Universities lower Admission Requirements for Celebrities?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, many famous universities lower admission requirements for celebrities. More and more celebrities, especially sports stars, have been admitted to famous universities even without an entry examination. This phenomenon has become a subject of widespread controversy.

  10. Simple decision tools to help optimize the control strategy 2 weeks into a Danish FMD epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette;

    2012-01-01

    The choice of whether or not to apply emergency vaccination is one of the most difficult decisions facing the authorities when foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) breaks out in a free country (Barnett et al. 2002). A simple quantitative tool has been proposed using the first 14-days incidence (FFI) of...... how to apply vaccine, but also its economic consequences. Computer modelling may be a useful aid to cost benefit and decision support systems in this context (Barnett et al. 2002). We used a modified FFI procedure to analyze data from a series of 5,000 FMD simulations with current Danish population...

  11. Scheduling start time in CDMA burst admission

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuge, L; Li, VOK

    2002-01-01

    Burst transmission protocols have been proposed in the next generation CDMA cellular systems to support short-time high-speed data communications. The existing burst admission algorithm considers only the current interference condition in the system. The burst transmission request will be rejected if the interference in the system will exceed the acceptable level with the burst admitted. In this paper we propose a new burst admission algorithm where a currently-unacceptable burst request can ...

  12. GRADE: Machine Learning Support for Graduate Admissions

    OpenAIRE

    Waters, Austin; University of Texas at Austin; Miikkulainen, Risto; University of Texas at Austin

    2014-01-01

    This article describes GRADE, a statistical machine learning system developed to support the work of the graduate admissions committee at the University of Texas at Austin Department of Computer Science (UTCS). In recent years, the number of applications to the UTCS PhD program has become too large to manage with a traditional review process. GRADE uses historical admissions data to predict how likely the committee is to admit each new applicant. It reports each prediction as a score similar ...

  13. Immigration, moving house and psychiatric admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, L M; Sundquist, J; Johansson, S E; Bergman, B

    1998-08-01

    This study was designed to elucidate psychiatric admission rates for native Swedes and foreign-born individuals during the period 1991-1994, when Sweden had a great influx of refugees. During the same period, and even earlier, psychiatric in-patient care had been reduced. Tests of differences between Swedes and foreign-born individuals in first psychiatric admission rates were performed using Poisson regressions, and the risk of a readmission was assessed using a proportional hazard model. Foreign-born individuals and native Swedes, both males and females, showed a similar admission pattern with regard to the number of admissions. Foreign-born males under 55 years of age and foreign-born females under 35 years of age had significantly higher admission rates than native Swedes. In total, native Swedes, both males and females, were hospitalized for a significantly longer period than the foreign-born subjects. About 43% of the patients were readmitted. The risk of a readmission was significantly increased among those with a high rate of internal migration. The high admission rates for young foreign-born individuals might be explained by a high incidence of mental illness owing to the trauma of being violently forced to migrate, acculturation difficulties, or unsatisfactory social circumstances such as high unemployment. The shorter hospitalization time could be due to undertreatment or less serious mental illness. PMID:9718235

  14. Approaches to optimal aquifer management and intelligent control in a multiresolutional decision support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Shlomo; Meystel, Alexander M.

    2005-03-01

    Despite remarkable new developments in stochastic hydrology and adaptations of advanced methods from operations research, stochastic control, and artificial intelligence, solutions of complex real-world problems in hydrogeology have been quite limited. The main reason is the ultimate reliance on first-principle models that lead to complex, distributed-parameter partial differential equations (PDE) on a given scale. While the addition of uncertainty, and hence, stochasticity or randomness has increased insight and highlighted important relationships between uncertainty, reliability, risk, and their effect on the cost function, it has also (a) introduced additional complexity that results in prohibitive computer power even for just a single uncertain/random parameter; and (b) led to the recognition in our inability to assess the full uncertainty even when including all uncertain parameters. A paradigm shift is introduced: an adaptation of new methods of intelligent control that will relax the dependency on rigid, computer-intensive, stochastic PDE, and will shift the emphasis to a goal-oriented, flexible, adaptive, multiresolutional decision support system (MRDS) with strong unsupervised learning (oriented towards anticipation rather than prediction) and highly efficient optimization capability, which could provide the needed solutions of real-world aquifer management problems. The article highlights the links between past developments and future optimization/planning/control of hydrogeologic systems. Malgré de remarquables nouveaux développements en hydrologie stochastique ainsi que de remarquables adaptations de méthodes avancées pour les opérations de recherche, le contrôle stochastique, et l'intelligence artificielle, solutions pour les problèmes complexes en hydrogéologie sont restées assez limitées. La principale raison est l'ultime confiance en les modèles qui conduisent à des équations partielles complexes aux paramètres distribués (PDE) à une

  15. Decision-Making Style among Adolescents: Relationship with Sensation Seeking and Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, Roberto; Laghi, Fiorenzo; D'Alessio, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The principal aim of the study was to examine the psychometric properties and construct validity of the General Decision-Making Scale (GDMS) in a sample of 700 adolescents (aged 15-19 years). Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses provide evidence for a solid five-dimension structure reflecting the theorized construct: rational, intuitive,…

  16. Does Family Group Decision Making Affect Child Welfare Outcomes? Findings from a Randomized Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzin, Stephanie Cosner; Cohen, Ed; Thomas, Karen; Dawson, William C.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of two family group decision-making programs administered under the California Title IV-E Waiver Demonstration Project. This is the only evaluation using random assignment to examine FGDM. Overall, results did not indicate more positive outcomes for children receiving the intervention, but did indicate that…

  17. Assisting informed decision making for labour analgesia: a randomised controlled trial of a decision aid for labour analgesia versus a pamphlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torvaldsen Siranda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most women use some method of pain relief during labour. There is extensive research evidence available of pharmacological pain relief during labour; however this evidence is not readily available to pregnant women. Decision aids are tools that present evidence based information and allow preference elicitation. Methods We developed a labour analgesia decision aid. Using a RCT design women either received a decision aid or a pamphlet. Eligible women were primiparous, ≥ 37 weeks, planning a vaginal birth of a single infant and had sufficient English to complete the trial materials. We used a combination of affective (anxiety, satisfaction and participation in decision-making and behavioural outcomes (intention and analgesia use to assess the impact of the decision aid, which were assessed before labour. Results 596 women were randomised (395 decision aid group, 201 pamphlet group. There were significant differences in knowledge scores between the decision aid group and the pamphlet group (mean difference 8.6, 95% CI 3.70, 13.40. There were no differences between decisional conflict scores (mean difference -0.99 (95% CI -3.07, 1.07, or anxiety (mean difference 0.3, 95% CI -2.15, 1.50. The decision aid group were significantly more likely to consider their care providers opinion (RR 1.28 95%CI 0.64, 0.95. There were no differences in analgesia use and poor follow through between antenatal analgesia intentions and use. Conclusions This decision aid improves women's labour analgesia knowledge without increasing anxiety. Significantly, the decision aid group were more informed of labour analgesia options, and considered the opinion of their care providers more often when making their analgesia decisions, thus improving informed decision making. Trial Registration Trial registration no: ISRCTN52287533

  18. On the Bayesness, minimaxity and admissibility of point estimators of allelic frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carlos Alberto; Khare, Kshitij; Elzo, Mauricio A

    2015-10-21

    In this paper, decision theory was used to derive Bayes and minimax decision rules to estimate allelic frequencies and to explore their admissibility. Decision rules with uniformly smallest risk usually do not exist and one approach to solve this problem is to use the Bayes principle and the minimax principle to find decision rules satisfying some general optimality criterion based on their risk functions. Two cases were considered, the simpler case of biallelic loci and the more complex case of multiallelic loci. For each locus, the sampling model was a multinomial distribution and the prior was a Beta (biallelic case) or a Dirichlet (multiallelic case) distribution. Three loss functions were considered: squared error loss (SEL), Kulback-Leibler loss (KLL) and quadratic error loss (QEL). Bayes estimators were derived under these three loss functions and were subsequently used to find minimax estimators using results from decision theory. The Bayes estimators obtained from SEL and KLL turned out to be the same. Under certain conditions, the Bayes estimator derived from QEL led to an admissible minimax estimator (which was also equal to the maximum likelihood estimator). The SEL also allowed finding admissible minimax estimators. Some estimators had uniformly smaller variance than the MLE and under suitable conditions the remaining estimators also satisfied this property. In addition to their statistical properties, the estimators derived here allow variation in allelic frequencies, which is closer to the reality of finite populations exposed to evolutionary forces. PMID:26271891

  19. Decision making on the control of the European grape berry moth Lobesia botrana in the "vinhos verdes" region, in the northwest of Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Mexia, António; St. Aubyn, A.; Aguiar, A.

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual model is proposed as a decision tool for control of European grape moth Lobesia botrana Denis & Scchiffermuller (Lepidoptera; Tortricidae) in the "vinhos verdes" region in the northwest of Portugal. The aim is to use simple methods of estimating the pest population so the farmers can make future decisions earlier in the season and avoid the effects of a third generation. A dochotomous decision tree was used to structure the alternative choices by each farmer. For the tree L. botr...

  20. 45 CFR 84.42 - Admissions and recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Admissions and recruitment. 84.42 Section 84.42... Education § 84.42 Admissions and recruitment. (a) General. Qualified handicapped persons may not, on the basis of handicap, be denied admission or be subjected to discrimination in admission or recruitment...

  1. 22 CFR 217.42 - Admissions and recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Admissions and recruitment. 217.42 Section 217... Admissions and recruitment. (a) General. Qualified handicapped persons may not, on the basis of handicap, be denied admission or be subjected to discrimination in admission or recruitment by a recipient to...

  2. 15 CFR 8b.20 - Admission and recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admission and recruitment. 8b.20... Secondary Education § 8b.20 Admission and recruitment. (a) General. Qualified handicapped may not, on the basis of handicap, be denied admission or be subjected to discrimination in admission or recruitment...

  3. 34 CFR 104.42 - Admissions and recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Admissions and recruitment. 104.42 Section 104.42... ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 104.42 Admissions and recruitment. (a) General. Qualified handicapped... admission or recruitment by a recipient to which this subpart applies. (b) Admissions. In administering...

  4. 43 CFR 41.305 - Preference in admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preference in admission. 41.305 Section 41... Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 41.305 Preference in admission. A recipient to which §§ 41.300 through 41.310 apply shall not give preference to applicants for admission, on the...

  5. 28 CFR 54.305 - Preference in admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preference in admission. 54.305 Section... Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 54.305 Preference in admission. A recipient to which §§ 54.300 through 54.310 apply shall not give preference to applicants for admission, on the...

  6. 22 CFR 229.305 - Preference in admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preference in admission. 229.305 Section 229... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 229.305 Preference in admission. A recipient to which §§ 229.300 through 229.310 apply shall not give preference to applicants for admission, on the basis...

  7. 15 CFR 8a.305 - Preference in admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preference in admission. 8a.305... on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 8a.305 Preference in admission. A recipient to which §§ 8a.300 through 8a.310 apply shall not give preference to applicants for admission,...

  8. 22 CFR 146.305 - Preference in admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preference in admission. 146.305 Section 146... in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 146.305 Preference in admission. A recipient to which §§ 146.300 through 146.310 apply shall not give preference to applicants for admission, on the basis...

  9. 31 CFR 28.305 - Preference in admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preference in admission. 28.305... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 28.305 Preference in admission. A recipient to which §§ 28.300 through 28.310 apply shall not give preference to applicants for admission,...

  10. 49 CFR 25.305 - Preference in admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preference in admission. 25.305 Section 25.305... Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 25.305 Preference in admission. A recipient to which §§ 25.300 through 25.310 apply shall not give preference to applicants for admission, on the basis of attendance...

  11. 45 CFR 86.22 - Preference in admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preference in admission. 86.22 Section 86.22... on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 86.22 Preference in admission. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall not give preference to applicants for admission, on the...

  12. 6 CFR 17.305 - Preference in admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preference in admission. 17.305 Section 17.305... the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 17.305 Preference in admission. A recipient to which §§ 17.300 through 17.310 apply shall not give preference to applicants for admission, on...

  13. 40 CFR 5.305 - Preference in admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preference in admission. 5.305 Section... on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 5.305 Preference in admission. A recipient to which §§ 5.300 through 5.310 apply shall not give preference to applicants for admission,...

  14. A decision tree-based on-line preventive control strategy for power system transient instability prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Dong, Zhao Yang; Zhang, Rui; Wong, Kit Po

    2014-02-01

    Maintaining transient stability is a basic requirement for secure power system operations. Preventive control deals with modifying the system operating point to withstand probable contingencies. In this article, a decision tree (DT)-based on-line preventive control strategy is proposed for transient instability prevention of power systems. Given a stability database, a distance-based feature estimation algorithm is first applied to identify the critical generators, which are then used as features to develop a DT. By interpreting the splitting rules of DT, preventive control is realised by formulating the rules in a standard optimal power flow model and solving it. The proposed method is transparent in control mechanism, on-line computation compatible and convenient to deal with multi-contingency. The effectiveness and efficiency of the method has been verified on New England 10-machine 39-bus test system.

  15. Control policies for a water-treatment system using the Markov Decision Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Tze; Mitchell, Cary; Yih, Yuehwern

    In order to build a decision-making tool for choosing a control policy from a set of predefined policies for a water-treatment system, a simulation was developed. This technology-independent simulation focuses on the functions of a simplified representation of the water system based on documentation by NASA in the Baseline Value and Assumption Documents (BVAD). The clean-water requirement (consumption) and dirty-water generation (production) are based on crewmember demographics, activity schedules, and intensity of each activity. The water system consists of hygiene and potable-water subsystems. The hygiene-water subsystem supplies water for purposes such as laundry, urinal flush, dish wash, oral hygiene, and shower. The potable-water subsystem supplies water for drinking and re-hydration of food. Due to a lack of stochastic property descriptions for a real-world system in the BVAD, stochastic variables are introduced in this research to reflect a more realistic system. These variables describe the magnitude of deviation of system variables from their theoretical values through predetermined statistical distributions. These variables include hygiene and potable-water-treatment efficiencies, amounts of hygiene and potable water consumed, and amount of dirty water produced following potable-water consumption. Conditions of the system occurring hourly result from the intricate interaction of crewmembers and the water system. The primary measure of the condition of the system is the "state" representation of the system, assessed at the beginning of every hour. Conditions of the system examined include the amount of clean water available for consumption, amount of overflow (in excess of storage capacity) of clean and dirty water, amount of hourly water deficiency, amount of accumulated water deficiency, etc. State transitions of the system based on these assessments are affected by the stochastic properties of the system described above. The transitions also depend on

  16. A Life-Cycle Cost Estimating Methodology for NASA-Developed Air Traffic Control Decision Support Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianzhong Jay; Datta, Koushik; Landis, Michael R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a life-cycle cost (LCC) estimating methodology for air traffic control Decision Support Tools (DSTs) under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), using a combination of parametric, analogy, and expert opinion methods. There is no one standard methodology and technique that is used by NASA or by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for LCC estimation of prospective Decision Support Tools. Some of the frequently used methodologies include bottom-up, analogy, top-down, parametric, expert judgement, and Parkinson's Law. The developed LCC estimating methodology can be visualized as a three-dimensional matrix where the three axes represent coverage, estimation, and timing. This paper focuses on the three characteristics of this methodology that correspond to the three axes.

  17. Quantum Type Indeterminacy in Dynamic Decision-Making: Self-Control through Identity Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Busemeyer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Type Indeterminacy model is a theoretical framework that uses some elements of quantum formalism to model the constructive preference perspective suggested by Kahneman and Tversky. In a dynamic decision context, type indeterminacy induces a game with multiple selves associated with a state transition process. We define a Markov perfect equilibrium among the selves with individual identity (preferences as the state variable. The approach allows to characterize generic personality types and derive some comparative static results.

  18. Study of the strong prolongation equation for the construction of statically admissible stress fields: implementation and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Rey, Valentine; Rey, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the construction of statically admissible stress fields (SA-fields) for a posteriori error estimation. In the context of verification, the recovery of such fields enables to provide strict upper bounds of the energy norm of the discretization error between the known finite element solution and the unavailable exact solution. The reconstruction is a difficult and decisive step insofar as the effectiveness of the estimator strongly depends on the quality of the SA-fields. This paper examines the strong prolongation hypothesis, which is the starting point of the Element Equilibration Technique (EET). We manage to characterize the full space of SA-fields satisfying the prolongation equation so that optimizing inside this space is possible. The computation exploits topological properties of the mesh so that implementation is easy and costs remain controlled. In this paper, we describe the new technique in details and compare it to the classical EET and to the flux-free technique for different...

  19. Major Research Efforts of the Law School Admission Council. Law School Admission Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Frederick M.; Evans, Franklin R.

    Research conducted by the Law School Admission Council since the development of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) in 1948 is described. An overview of the research topics is provided, and relevant published reports are cited in 61 footnotes. The following topics of study are discussed: (1) use and validity of traditional predictors of law…

  20. Assessing Practical Intelligence in Business School Admissions: A Supplement to the Graduate Management Admissions Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Jennifer; Wilt, Jeanne M.; Nebel, Kristina L.; Ashford, Susan J.; Sternberg, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    The Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) is the most widely used measure of managerial potential in MBA admissions. GMAT scores, although predictive of grades in business school, leave much of the variance in graduate school performance unexplained. The GMAT also produces disparities in test scores between groups, generating the potential for…

  1. The relationship between asthma admission rates, routes of admission, and socioeconomic deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J P; Cowen, P; Lewis, R A

    1996-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between hospital admissions for asthma and socioeconomic deprivation. A retrospective study examined one year of hospital admissions for asthma in the West Midlands region of England (n = 10,044), and in one of the region's wealthier districts, Worcester (n = 251). Age standardized admission ratios (SARs) for asthma, and the routes of hospital admission, were compared with the Towns- end Deprivation Index for the place of residence. Asthma SAR was strongly associated with deprivation as measured by the Towns end Index for the district of residence (Spearman rank correlation coefficient rho = 0.65; p = 0.004). Asthma admission rates for all age groups, except those aged over 65 yrs, were higher in poorer districts. A significantly greater proportion of emergency admissions in poorer districts came via Accident and Emergency departments, rather than general practitioner referrals (rho = 0.76; p Townsend Index for the ward of residence (rho = 0.39; p < 0.001). This remained significant after excluding repeat admissions (rho = 0.45; p < 0.001). We conclude that asthma admissions are strongly associated with deprivation in the community. Differences in the health care received during acute exacerbations by asthma patients from different economic backgrounds is likely to be an important factor in this relationship. PMID:8902471

  2. Cognitive issues in autonomous spacecraft-control operations: An investigation of software-mediated decision making in a scaled environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elizabeth Drummond

    As advances in technology are applied in complex, semi-automated domains, human controllers are distanced from the controlled process. This physical and psychological distance may both facilitate and degrade human performance. To investigate cognitive issues in spacecraft ground-control operations, the present experimental research was undertaken. The primary issue concerned the ability of operations analysts who do not monitor operations to make timely, accurate decisions when autonomous software calls for human help. Another key issue involved the potential effects of spatial-visualization ability (SVA) in environments that present data in graphical formats. Hypotheses were derived largely from previous findings and predictions in the literature. Undergraduate psychology students were assigned at random to a monitoring condition or an on-call condition in a scaled environment. The experimental task required subjects to decide on the veracity of a problem diagnosis delivered by a software process on-board a simulated spacecraft. To support decision-making, tabular and graphical data displays presented information on system status. A level of software confidence in the problem diagnosis was displayed, and subjects reported their own level of confidence in their decisions. Contrary to expectations, the performance of on-call subjects did not differ significantly from that of continuous monitors. Analysis yielded a significant interaction of sex and condition: Females in the on-call condition had the lowest mean accuracy. Results included a preference for bar charts over line graphs and faster performance with tables than with line graphs. A significant correlation was found between subjective confidence and decision accuracy. SVA was found to be predictive of accuracy but not speed; and SVA was found to be a stronger predictor of performance for males than for females. Low-SVA subjects reported that they relied more on software confidence than did medium- or high

  3. The interaction of perceived control and Gambler's fallacy in risky decision making: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Robin; Sun, Delin; Lee, Tatia M C

    2016-03-01

    Limited recent evidence implicates the anterior/posterior cingulate (ACC/PCC) and lateral prefrontal networks as the neural substrates of risky decision-making biases such as illusions of control (IoC) and gambler's fallacy (GF). However, investigation is lacking on the dynamic interactive effect of those biases during decision making. Employing a card-guessing game that independently manipulates trial-by-trial perceived control and gamble outcome among 29 healthy female participants, we observed both IoC- and GF-type behaviors, as well as an interactive effect of previous control and previous outcome, with GF-type behaviors only following computer-selected, but not self-selected, outcomes. Imaging results implicated the ACC and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in agency processing, and the cerebellum and right DLPFC in previous outcome processing, in accordance with past literature. Critically, the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL) exhibited significant betting-related activities to the interaction of previous control and previous outcome, showing more positive signals to previous computer-selected winning versus losing outcomes but the reverse pattern following self-selected outcomes, as well as responding to the interactive effect of control and outcome during feedback. Associations were also found between participants' behavioral sensitivity to the interactive effect of previous control and previous outcome, and right IPL signals, as well as its functional connectivity with neural networks implicated in agency and previous outcome processing. We propose that the right IPL provides the neural substrate for the interaction of perceived control and GF, through coordinating activities in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices and working conjunctively with lateral PFC and other parietal networks. PMID:26818937

  4. Increasing malaria hospital admissions in Uganda between 1999 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alegana Victor A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some areas of Africa are witnessing a malaria transition, in part due to escalated international donor support and intervention coverage. Areas where declining malaria rates have been observed are largely characterized by relatively low baseline transmission intensity and rapid scaling of interventions. Less well described are changing patterns of malaria burden in areas of high parasite transmission and slower increases in control and treatment access. Methods Uganda is a country predominantly characterized by intense, perennial malaria transmission. Monthly pediatric admission data from five Ugandan hospitals and their catchments have been assembled retrospectively across 11 years from January 1999 to December 2009. Malaria admission rates adjusted for changes in population density within defined catchment areas were computed across three time periods that correspond to periods where intervention coverage data exist and different treatment and prevention policies were operational. Time series models were developed adjusting for variations in rainfall and hospital use to examine changes in malaria hospitalization over 132 months. The temporal changes in factors that might explain changes in disease incidence were qualitatively examined sequentially for each hospital setting and compared between hospital settings Results In four out of five sites there was a significant increase in malaria admission rates. Results from time series models indicate a significant month-to-month increase in the mean malaria admission rates at four hospitals (trend P Conclusions The declining malaria disease burden in some parts of Africa is not a universal phenomena across the continent. Despite moderate increases in the coverage of measures to reduce infection and disease without significant coincidental increasing access to effective medicines to treat disease may not lead to severe disease burden reductions in high transmission areas of Africa

  5. Assessment and prediction of short term hospital admissions: the case of Athens, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassomenos, P.; Papaloukas, C.; Petrakis, M.; Karakitsios, S.

    The contribution of air pollution on hospital admissions due to respiratory and heart diseases is a major issue in the health-environmental perspective. In the present study, an attempt was made to run down the relationships between air pollution levels and meteorological indexes, and corresponding hospital admissions in Athens, Greece. The available data referred to a period of eight years (1992-2000) including the daily number of hospital admissions due to respiratory and heart diseases, hourly mean concentrations of CO, NO 2, SO 2, O 3 and particulates in several monitoring stations, as well as, meteorological data (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed/direction). The relations among the above data were studied through widely used statistical techniques (multivariate stepwise analyses) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). Both techniques revealed that elevated particulate concentrations are the dominant parameter related to hospital admissions (an increase of 10 μg m -3 leads to an increase of 10.2% in the number of admissions), followed by O 3 and the rest of the pollutants (CO, NO 2 and SO 2). Meteorological parameters also play a decisive role in the formation of air pollutant levels affecting public health. Consequently, increased/decreased daily hospital admissions are related to specific types of meteorological conditions that favor/do not favor the accumulation of pollutants in an urban complex. In general, the role of meteorological factors seems to be underestimated by stepwise analyses, while ANNs attribute to them a more important role. Comparison of the two models revealed that ANN adaptation in complicate environmental issues presents improved modeling results compared to a regression technique. Furthermore, the ANN technique provides a reliable model for the prediction of the daily hospital admissions based on air quality data and meteorological indices, undoubtedly useful for regulatory purposes.

  6. The therapeutic relationship after psychiatric admission.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roche, Eric

    2014-03-01

    The therapeutic relationship is one of the most central and important factors in the treatment of mental health disorders. A better therapeutic relationship is associated with service engagement, medication adherence, and satisfaction with services. This study aimed to compare the demographic and clinical factors associated with the therapeutic relationship in voluntarily and involuntarily admitted psychiatric service users. We found that individuals who had been admitted involuntarily, who had a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder, and who reported higher levels of perceived pressures on admission were more likely to have a poorer therapeutic relationship with their consultant psychiatrist. Greater levels of insight and treatment satisfaction, together with higher levels of procedural justice experienced on admission, were associated with a better therapeutic relationship. We found that the level of perceived coercion on admission was not related to the therapeutic relationship. Targeted interventions to improve the therapeutic relationship, particularly for involuntarily admitted service users, are discussed.

  7. Can advanced paramedics in the field diagnose patients and predict hospital admission?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cummins, Niamh Maria

    2013-02-13

    BACKGROUND: Accurate patient diagnosis in the prehospital environment is essential to initiate suitable care pathways. The advanced paramedic (AP) is a relatively recent role in Ireland, and refers to a prehospital practitioner with advanced life-support skills and training. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to compare the diagnostic decisions of APs with emergency medicine (EM) physicians, and to investigate if APs, as currently trained, can predict the requirement for hospital admission. METHODS: A prospective study was initiated, whereby each emergency ambulance call received via the statutory 999 system was recorded by the attending AP. The AP was asked to provide a clinical diagnosis for each patient, and to predict if hospital admission was required. The data was then cross-referenced with the working diagnosis of the receiving emergency physician and the hospital admission records. RESULTS: A total of 17 APs participated in the study, and 1369 emergency calls were recorded over a 6-month period. Cases where a general practitioner attended the scene were excluded from the concordance analysis. Concordance with the receiving emergency physician represents 70% (525\\/748) for all cases of AP diagnosis, and is mirrored with 70% (604\\/859) correct hospital admission predictions. CONCLUSIONS: AP diagnosis and admission prediction for emergency calls is similar to other emergency medical services systems despite the relative recency of the AP programme in Ireland. Recognition of non-concordance case types may identify priorities for AP education, and drive future AP practice in areas such as \\'treat and refer\\'.

  8. Resource allocation within the National AIDS Control Program of Pakistan: a qualitative assessment of decision maker's opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Masood

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited resources, whether public or private, demand prioritisation among competing needs to maximise productivity. With a substantial increase in the number of reported HIV cases, little work has been done to understand how resources have been distributed and what factors may have influenced allocation within the newly introduced Enhanced National AIDS Control Program of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to identify perceptions of decision makers about the process of resource allocation within Pakistan's Enhanced National AIDS Control Program. Methods A qualitative study was undertaken and in-depth interviews of decision makers at provincial and federal levels responsible to allocate resources within the program were conducted. Results HIV was not considered a priority issue by all study participants and external funding for the program was thought to have been accepted because of poor foreign currency reserves and donor agency influence rather than local need. Political influences from the federal government and donor agencies were thought to manipulate distribution of funds within the program. These influences were thought to occur despite the existence of a well-laid out procedure to determine allocation of public resources. Lack of collaboration among departments involved in decision making, a pervasive lack of technical expertise, paucity of information and an atmosphere of ad hoc decision making were thought to reduce resistance to external pressures. Conclusion Development of a unified program vision through a consultative process and advocacy is necessary to understand goals to be achieved, to enhance program ownership and develop consensus about how money and effort should be directed. Enhancing public sector expertise in planning and budgeting is essential not just for the program, but also to reduce reliance on external agencies for technical support. Strengthening available databases for effective

  9. Decision model on the demographic profile for tuberculosis control using fuzzy logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laisa Ribeiro de Sá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the relationship between demographic factors and the involvement of tuberculosis by applying a decision support model based on fuzzy logic to classify the regions as priority and non-priority in the city of João Pessoa, state of Paraíba (PB. As data source, we used the Notifiable Diseases Information System between 2009 and 2011. We chose the descriptive analysis, relative risk (RR, spatial distribution and fuzzy logic. The total of 1,245 cases remained in the study, accounting for 37.02% of cases in 2009. High and low risk clusters were identified, and the RR was higher among men (8.47, with 12 clusters, and among those uneducated (11.65, with 13 clusters. To demonstrate the functionality of the model was elected the year with highest number of cases, and the municipality district with highest population. The methodology identified priority areas, guiding managers to make decisions that respect the local particularities.

  10. Neuropsychologist experts and neurolaw: cases, controversies, and admissibility challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Paul M

    2013-01-01

    Clinical neuropsychologists engage increasingly in forensic consulting activities because such expert opinions are generally relevant, reliable and helpful in resolving certain legal claims, especially those related to traumatic brain injury. Consequently, practitioners of law, medicine and psychology would benefit from understanding the nature of neuropsychological evidence, the standards for its admissibility, and its expanding role in neurolaw. This article reviews important evidentiary rules regulating relevance, preliminary questions, and expert testimony, while tracing federal key court decisions and progeny. Civil and criminal cases are detailed to illustrate the application of these rules and case law to neuropsychological evidence, with suggestions for overcoming motions to exclude such evidence. Expert neuropsychologists have a role in forensic consultation on brain trauma cases, even as the interdisciplinary dialog and understanding among law, medicine, and psychology continues to expand. PMID:24115139

  11. The Effect of Farmers' Decisions on Pest Control with Bt Crops: A Billion Dollar Game of Strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice E Milne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A farmer's decision on whether to control a pest is usually based on the perceived threat of the pest locally and the guidance of commercial advisors. Therefore, farmers in a region are often influenced by similar circumstances, and this can create a coordinated response for pest control that is effective at a landscape scale. This coordinated response is not intentional, but is an emergent property of the system. We propose a framework for understanding the intrinsic feedback mechanisms between the actions of humans and the dynamics of pest populations and demonstrate this framework using the European corn borer, a serious pest in maize crops. We link a model of the European corn borer and a parasite in a landscape with a model that simulates the decisions of individual farmers on what type of maize to grow. Farmers chose whether to grow Bt-maize, which is toxic to the corn borer, or conventional maize for which the seed is cheaper. The problem is akin to the snow-drift problem in game theory; that is to say, if enough farmers choose to grow Bt maize then because the pest is suppressed an individual may benefit from growing conventional maize. We show that the communication network between farmers' and their perceptions of profit and loss affects landscape scale patterns in pest dynamics. We found that although adoption of Bt maize often brings increased financial returns, these rewards oscillate in response to the prevalence of pests.

  12. The Effect of Farmers' Decisions on Pest Control with Bt Crops: A Billion Dollar Game of Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Alice E; Bell, James R; Hutchison, William D; van den Bosch, Frank; Mitchell, Paul D; Crowder, David; Parnell, Stephen; Whitmore, Andrew P

    2015-12-01

    A farmer's decision on whether to control a pest is usually based on the perceived threat of the pest locally and the guidance of commercial advisors. Therefore, farmers in a region are often influenced by similar circumstances, and this can create a coordinated response for pest control that is effective at a landscape scale. This coordinated response is not intentional, but is an emergent property of the system. We propose a framework for understanding the intrinsic feedback mechanisms between the actions of humans and the dynamics of pest populations and demonstrate this framework using the European corn borer, a serious pest in maize crops. We link a model of the European corn borer and a parasite in a landscape with a model that simulates the decisions of individual farmers on what type of maize to grow. Farmers chose whether to grow Bt-maize, which is toxic to the corn borer, or conventional maize for which the seed is cheaper. The problem is akin to the snow-drift problem in game theory; that is to say, if enough farmers choose to grow Bt maize then because the pest is suppressed an individual may benefit from growing conventional maize. We show that the communication network between farmers' and their perceptions of profit and loss affects landscape scale patterns in pest dynamics. We found that although adoption of Bt maize often brings increased financial returns, these rewards oscillate in response to the prevalence of pests. PMID:26720851

  13. Using Statistical Process Control to Make Data-Based Clinical Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfadt, Al; Wheeler, Donald J.

    1995-01-01

    Statistical process control (SPC), which employs simple statistical tools and problem-solving techniques such as histograms, control charts, flow charts, and Pareto charts to implement continual product improvement procedures, can be incorporated into human service organizations. Examples illustrate use of SPC procedures to analyze behavioral data…

  14. Integration of Epidemiological Evidence in a Decision Support Model for the Control of Campylobacter in Poultry Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Madsen, Anders L.; Vigre, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    decision support systems are constructed as probabilistic graphical models (PGMs) which integrate knowledge and use Bayesian methods to deal with uncertainty. This paper presents a specific model designed to integrate epidemiological knowledge from the United Kingdom (UK model) in order to assist poultry...... were no or only small financial gains when using a hypothetical vaccine B (able to decrease Campylobacter numbers from two to six logs in 20% of the chickens with a cost of 0.025 £/chicken) and reward system 1 (based on similar gross profits in relation to Campylobacter levels) under the specific...... more than one reward system and consequently, diverse potential solutions for the control of Campylobacter may be considered. Cost-effective Campylobacter control strategies that can significantly reduce the probability of Campylobacter introduction into a flock and/or the numbers of Campylobacter in...

  15. What Should University Admissions Tests Predict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemler, Steven E.

    2012-01-01

    University admissions tests should predict an applicant's ability to succeed in college, but how should this success be defined and measured? The status quo has been to use 1st-year grade point average (FYGPA) as the key indicator of college success, but a review of documents such as university mission statements reveals that universities expect…

  16. 49 CFR 1114.1 - Admissibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Admissibility. 1114.1 Section 1114.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE EVIDENCE; DISCOVERY General Rules of Evidence §...

  17. 45 CFR 86.21 - Admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... disabilities related to pregnancy, childbirth, termination of pregnancy, or recovery therefrom in the same manner and under the same policies as any other temporary disability or physical condition; and (4) Shall... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Admission. 86.21 Section 86.21 Public...

  18. Virginia Tech's Undergraduate Admissions Director Resigns

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Clara B.

    2003-01-01

    Karen E. Torgersen, director of undergraduate admissions at Virginia Tech since 1997, has submitted her resignation from the university effective Dec. 31 to become associate executive director of U21pedagogica Limited (Pedagogica), a new international educational enterprise in Charlottesville, Va.

  19. 18 CFR 1317.300 - Admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Admission. 1317.300 Section 1317.300 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON... person on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth, termination of pregnancy, or recovery therefrom,...

  20. 44 CFR 19.300 - Admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Admission. 19.300 Section 19.300 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... against or exclude any person on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth, termination of pregnancy, or...

  1. "In the beginning...": tools for talking about resuscitation and goals of care early in the admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jocelyn; Fromme, Erik K

    2013-11-01

    Quality standards no longer allow physicians to delay discussing goals of care and resuscitation. We propose 2 novel strategies for discussing goals and resuscitation on admission. The first, SPAM (determine Surrogate decision maker, determine resuscitation Preferences, Assume full care, and advise them to expect More discussion especially with clinical changes), helps clinicians discover patient preferences and decision maker during routine admissions. The second, UFO-UFO (Understand what they know, Fill in knowledge gaps, ask about desired Outcomes, Understand their reasoning, discuss the spectrum Feasible Outcomes), helps patients with poor or uncertain prognosis or family-team conflict. Using a challenging case example, this article illustrates how SPAM and UFO-UFO can help clinicians have patient-centered resuscitation and goals of care discussions at the beginning of care. PMID:23236089

  2. Coarse Particulate Air Pollution Associated with Increased Risk of Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in a Tropical City, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Hsuan; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-10-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between coarse particles (PM₂.₅-₁₀) levels and frequency of hospital admissions for respiratory diseases (RD) in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for RD including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and pneumonia, and ambient air pollution data levels for Kaohsiung were obtained for the period from 2006 to 2010. The relative risk of hospital admissions for RD was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For the single pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), increased rate of admissions for RD were significantly associated with higher coarse PM levels only on cool days (carbon monoxide, or ozone on cool days. This study provides evidence that higher levels of PM₂.₅-₁₀ enhance the risk of hospital admissions for RD on cool days. PMID:26501308

  3. Optimal control of uncertain stochastic systems with Markovian switching and its applications to portfolio decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Weiyin Fei

    2014-01-01

    This paper first describes a class of uncertain stochastic control systems with Markovian switching, and derives an It\\^o-Liu formula for Markov-modulated processes. And we characterize an optimal control law, which satisfies the generalized Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation with Markovian switching. Then, by using the generalized HJB equation, we deduce the optimal consumption and portfolio policies under uncertain stochastic financial markets with Markovian switching. Finally, for cons...

  4. Infectious disease and health systems modelling for local decision making to control neglected tropical diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hollingsworth, T Deirdre; Langley, Ivor; Nokes, D James; Eleanor E. MacPherson; McGivern, Gerry; Adams, Emily R.; Bockarie, Moses J.; Mortimer, Kevin; Reimer, Lisa J.; Squire, Bertie; Torr, Stephen J.; Medley, Graham F

    2015-01-01

    Most neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have complex life cycles and are challenging to control. The “2020 goals” of control and elimination as a public health programme for a number of NTDs are the subject of significant international efforts and investments. Beyond 2020 there will be a drive to maintain these gains and to push for true local elimination of transmission. However, these diseases are affected by variations in vectors, human demography, access to water and sanitation, access to...

  5. QUANTIFICATION OF THE DECISIONS OF CONTROL AND AUDIT IN INVENTORY MANAGEMENT IN CEMENT INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Sylwia £êgowik-Œwi¹cik

    2011-01-01

    Inventory management in enterprises of cement industry necessitates the assessment of the level of risk which is generated by production inventory. The processes of control and auditing allow for planning, monitoring and organization of inventory management in the analysed business entities. This paper is aimed at presentation of the phase of preparation of audit activities in the area of inventory and verification of model solutions for the processes of control and audit in terms of inventor...

  6. Development of Integration Algorithms for Vision/Force Robot Control with Automatic Decision System

    OpenAIRE

    Bdiwi, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    In advanced robot applications, the challenge today is that the robot should perform different successive subtasks to achieve one or more complicated tasks similar to human. Hence, this kind of tasks required to combine different kind of sensors in order to get full information about the work environment. However, from the point of view of control, more sensors mean more possibilities for the structure of the control system. As shown previously, vision and force sensors are the most common ex...

  7. Racism, gun ownership and gun control:biased attitudes in US whites may influence policy decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Kerry O'Brien; Walter Forrest; Dermot Lynott; Michael Daly

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty). This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. METHOD: The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US wh...

  8. Racism, Gun Ownership and Gun Control: Biased Attitudes in US Whites May Influence Policy Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Kerry S.; Forrest, Walter; Lynott, Dermot; Daly, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty). This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. Method The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US whit...

  9. Interpretations of legal criteria for involuntary psychiatric admission: a qualitative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Feiring, Eli; Ugstad, Kristian N

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of involuntary admission in psychiatry may be necessary to enable treatment and prevent harm, yet remains controversial. Mental health laws in high-income countries typically permit coercive treatment of persons with mental disorders to restore health or prevent future harm. Criteria intended to regulate practice leave scope for discretion. The values and beliefs of staff may become a determinating factor for decisions. Previous research has only to a lim...

  10. EFFICACY OF ADMISSION CARDIOTOCOGRAPHY (ADMISSION T EST TO PREDICT OBSTETRIC OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwarakanath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of admission test on perin atal outcome and levels of obstetric interventions. METHODS: Prospective study on 200 pregnant women at admission by cardiotocography and assess th e perinatal outcome and obstetric interventions. RESULTS: Incidence of reactive trace was 69%, suspicious 24% and ominous 7%. Out of 200 cases 159(80% had vaginal delivery, 28( 14% had LSCS and 13(6% had instrumental delivery. There was increased incidenc e of operative delivery and NICU admissions in suspicious and ominous tracings. This study has a sensitivity of 76% and positive predictive value(PPV of 96%, specificity of 77% and negative predictive value(NPV of 33% for a reactive test. CONCLUSION: Admission test is an effective predictive technique to detect pre- existing fetal distress and plan early intervention to prevent adverse perinatal outcome.

  11. Training family physicians and residents in family medicine in shared decision making to improve clinical decisions regarding the use of antibiotics for acute respiratory infections: protocol for a clustered randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frémont Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore ways to reduce the overuse of antibiotics for acute respiratory infections (ARIs, we conducted a pilot clustered randomized controlled trial (RCT to evaluate DECISION+, a training program in shared decision making (SDM for family physicians (FPs. This pilot project demonstrated the feasibility of conducting a large clustered RCT and showed that DECISION+ reduced the proportion of patients who decided to use antibiotics immediately after consulting their physician. Consequently, the objective of this study is to evaluate, in patients consulting for ARIs, if exposure of physicians to a modified version of DECISION+, DECISION+2, would reduce the proportion of patients who decide to use antibiotics immediately after consulting their physician. Methods/design The study is a multi-center, two-arm, parallel clustered RCT. The 12 family practice teaching units (FPTUs in the network of the Department of Family Medicine and Emergency Medicine of Université Laval will be randomized to a DECISION+2 intervention group (experimental group or to a no-intervention control group. These FPTUs will recruit patients consulting family physicians and residents in family medicine enrolled in the study. There will be two data collection periods: pre-intervention (baseline including 175 patients with ARIs in each study arm, and post-intervention including 175 patients with ARIs in each study arm (total n = 700. The primary outcome will be the proportion of patients reporting a decision to use antibiotics immediately after consulting their physician. Secondary outcome measures include: 1 physicians and patients' decisional conflict; 2 the agreement between the parties' decisional conflict scores; and 3 perception of patients and physicians that SDM occurred. Also in patients, at 2 weeks follow-up, adherence to the decision, consultation for the same reason, decisional regret, and quality of life will be assessed. Finally, in both patients

  12. Coarse Particulate Air Pollution Associated with Increased Risk of Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in a Tropical City, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hsuan Cheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between coarse particles (PM2.5–10 levels and frequency of hospital admissions for respiratory diseases (RD in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for RD including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, asthma, and pneumonia, and ambient air pollution data levels for Kaohsiung were obtained for the period from 2006 to 2010. The relative risk of hospital admissions for RD was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For the single pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants, increased rate of admissions for RD were significantly associated with higher coarse PM levels only on cool days (<25 °C, with a 10 µg/m3 elevation in PM2.5–10 concentrations associated with a 3% (95% CI = 1%–5% rise in COPD admissions, 4% (95% CI = 1%–7% increase in asthma admissions, and 3% (95% CI = 2%–4% rise in pneumonia admissions. No significant associations were found between coarse particle levels and the number of hospital admissions for RD on warm days. In the two-pollutant models, PM2.5–10 levels remained significantly correlated with higher rate of RD admissions even controlling for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, or ozone on cool days. This study provides evidence that higher levels of PM2.5–10 enhance the risk of hospital admissions for RD on cool days.

  13. EFFICACY OF ADMISSION CARDIOTOCOGRAPHY (ADMISSION T EST) TO PREDICT OBSTETRIC OUTCOME

    OpenAIRE

    Dwarakanath; Lakshmikantha; Chaitra

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of admission test on perin atal outcome and levels of obstetric interventions. METHODS: Prospective study on 200 pregnant women at admission by cardiotocography and assess th e perinatal outcome and obstetric interventions. RESULTS: Incidence of reactive trace was 69%, suspicious 24% and ominous 7%. Out of 200 cases 159(80%) had vaginal delivery, 28( 14%) had LSCS and 13(6%) had instrumental delivery. ...

  14. The effects of photovoltaic electricity injection into microgrids: Combination of Geographical Information Systems, multicriteria decision methods and electronic control modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Geographical Information Systems can be used as a support to classify the viable locations for photovoltaic facilities. • Multicriteria decision methods are useful tools to choose the optimal locations for photovoltaic systems. • Variations of photovoltaic power injected into the grid have been calculated for the optimum locations. • Grid stabilization can be achieved within 500 ms with electronic control strategies. - Abstract: This article presents a model to calculate the impact on the grid of the injection of electricity generated from photovoltaic systems. The methodology combines the use of Geographical Information System tools to classify the optimal locations for the installation of photovoltaic systems with the calculation of the impact into microgrids of the electricity generated in such locations. The case study is focused on Murcia region, in South-east Spain, and on medium size photovoltaic systems. The locations have been selected from a Geographical Information System database including several parameters, and evaluated and classified using a fuzzy version of the multicriteria decision method called Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution. In order to obtain the weights for the criteria used in the evaluation, the Analytic Hierarchy Process has been used. Finally, using meteorological data from a small set of possible locations, the impact on the grid arising from the injection of power generated from photovoltaic systems that are connected to the grid via a module implementing different control electronic strategies has been calculated. Different electronic control strategies have been modeled to demonstrate that stabilization of the electrical parameters of a microgrid can be obtained within 500 ms in all cases, even when a relatively large power surge, or slower variations, are injected into the grid from the medium size photovoltaic systems

  15. Users' experiences of an emergency department patient admission predictive tool: A qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Melanie; Crilly, Julia; Boyle, Justin; Wallis, Marianne; Lind, James; Green, David; Fitzgerald, Gerard

    2016-09-01

    Emergency department overcrowding is an increasing issue impacting patients, staff and quality of care, resulting in poor patient and system outcomes. In order to facilitate better management of emergency department resources, a patient admission predictive tool was developed and implemented. Evaluation of the tool's accuracy and efficacy was complemented with a qualitative component that explicated the experiences of users and its impact upon their management strategies, and is the focus of this article. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 pertinent users, including bed managers, after-hours managers, specialty department heads, nurse unit managers and hospital executives. Analysis realised dynamics of accuracy, facilitating communication and enabling group decision-making Users generally welcomed the enhanced potential to predict and plan following the incorporation of the patient admission predictive tool into their daily and weekly decision-making processes. They offered astute feedback with regard to their responses when faced with issues of capacity and communication. Participants reported an growing confidence in making informed decisions in a cultural context that is continually moving from reactive to proactive. This information will inform further patient admission predictive tool development specifically and implementation processes generally. PMID:25916833

  16. Changes in Levels of Affirmative Action in College Admissions in Response to Statewide Bans and Judicial Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Grant H.; Long, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    Affirmative action in college admissions was effectively banned in Texas by the Hopwood ruling in 1997, by voter referenda in California and Washington in 1996 and 1998, and by administrative decisions in Florida in 1999. The "Hopwood" and "Johnson" rulings also had possible applicability to public colleges throughout Alabama,…

  17. Decision and decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuta Porutiu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic context, decision making requires complex and multiple actions on the part of the policy makers, who are more challenged than in previous situations, due to the crisis that we are facing. Decision problems cannot be solved by focusing on manager’s own experience or intuition, but require constant adaptation of the methods used effectively in the past to new challenges. Thus, a systemic analysis and modeling of arising issues is required, resulting in the stringent use of Decision Support Systems (DSS, as a necessity in a competitive environment. DSS optimize the situation by getting a timely decision because the decision making process must acquire, process and interpret an even larger amount of data in the shortest possible time. A solution for this purpose is the artificial intelligence systems, in this case Decision Support Systems (DSS, used in a wider area due to expansion of all the new information technologies in decisionmaking processes. These substantial cyber innovations have led to a radical shift in the relationship between enterprise success and quality of decisions made by managers.

  18. Factors Influencing the Decisions and Actions of Pilots and Air Traffic Controllers in Three Plausible NextGen Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Battiste, Vernol; Johnson, Walter

    2011-01-01

    In the current air traffic management (ATM) system, pilots and air traffic controllers have well-established roles and responsibilities: pilots fly aircraft and are concerned with energy management, fuel efficiency, and passenger comfort; controllers separate aircraft and are concerned with safety and management of traffic flows. Despite having different goals and obligations, both groups must be able to effectively communicate and interact with each other for the ATM system to work. This interaction will become even more challenging as traffic volume increases dramatically in the near future. To accommodate this increase, by 2025 the national air transportation system in the U.S. will go through a transformation that will modernize the ATM system and make it safer, more effective, and more efficient. This new system, NextGen, will change how pilots and controllers perform their tasks by incorporating advanced technologies and employing new procedures. It will also distribute responsibility between pilots, controllers and automation over such tasks as maintaining aircraft separation. The present chapter describes three plausible concepts of operations that allocate different ATM responsibilities to these groups. We describe how each concept changes the role of each operator and the types of decisions and actions performed by them.

  19. Does Emotional Intelligence at Medical School Admission Predict Future Academic Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddy, John J.; Wood, Timothy J.; Puddester, Derek; Moineau, Geneviève

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Medical school admissions committees are increasingly considering noncognitive measures like emotional intelligence (EI) in evaluating potential applicants. This study explored whether scores on an EI abilities test at admissions predicted future academic performance in medical school to determine whether EI could be used in making admissions decisions. Method The authors invited all University of Ottawa medical school applicants offered an interview in 2006 and 2007 to complete the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso EI Test (MSCEIT) at the time of their interview (105 and 101, respectively), then again at matriculation (120 and 106, respectively). To determine predictive validity, they correlated MSCEIT scores to scores on written examinations and objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) administered during the four-year program. They also correlated MSCEIT scores to the number of nominations for excellence in clinical performance and failures recorded over the four years. Results The authors found no significant correlations between MSCEIT scores and written examination scores or number of failures. The correlations between MSCEIT scores and total OSCE scores ranged from 0.01 to 0.35; only MSCEIT scores at matriculation and OSCE year 4 scores for the 2007 cohort were significantly correlated. Correlations between MSCEIT scores and clinical nominations were low (range 0.12–0.28); only the correlation between MSCEIT scores at matriculation and number of clinical nominations for the 2007 cohort were statistically significant. Conclusions EI, as measured by an abilities test at admissions, does not appear to reliably predict future academic performance. Future studies should define the role of EI in admissions decisions. PMID:24556771

  20. Hospital Admissions from Nursing Homes: Rates and Reasons

    OpenAIRE

    Geir Egil Eide; Kristian Jansen; Anders Grimsmo; Kjell Krüger; Jonn Terje Geitung

    2011-01-01

    Hospital admissions from nursing homes have not previously been investigated in Norway. During 12 months all hospital admissions (acute and elective) from 32 nursing homes in Bergen were recorded via the Norwegian ambulance register. The principal diagnosis made during the stay, length of stay, and the ward were sourced from the hospital's data register and data were merged. Altogether 1,311 hospital admissions were recorded during the 12 months. Admissions from nursing homes made up 6.1% of ...

  1. Making school admissions fairer? 'Quasi-regulation' under New Labour

    OpenAIRE

    West, Anne; Ingram, Dabney

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines reforms to secondary school admissions in England since 1997. In particular, it focuses on the new ‘quasi-regulation’ that has been introduced to make the process of admissions fairer and more transparent. Our analysis reveals that the quasi-regulation has had some impact on the process of admissions to secondary schools. In a number of authorities with highly developed secondary school quasi-markets, the policy changes have resulted in some inequitable admissions criteria...

  2. Identifying patients at risk of emergency admission for colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, D.; Walker, K.; Kuryba, A; Finan, P; Scott, N.; Van Der Meulen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients whose colorectal cancer is treated after an emergency admission tend to have late-stage cancer and a poor prognosis. We identified risk factors for an emergency admission by linking data from the National Bowel Cancer Audit (NBCA) and the English Hospital Episode Statistics (HES), an administrative database of all admissions to English National Health Service hospitals, which includes data on mode of admission. Methods: We identified all adults included in the NBCA with a...

  3. The GRAIDS Trial: a cluster randomised controlled trial of computer decision support for the management of familial cancer risk in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Emery, J.; Morris, H.; R. Goodchild; Fanshawe, T.; Prevost, A.T.; Bobrow, M.; Kinmonth, A L

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of an assessment strategy using the computer decision support system (the GRAIDS software), on the management of familial cancer risk in British general practice in comparison with best current practice. The design included cluster randomised controlled trial, and involved forty-five general practice teams in East Anglia, UK. Randomised to GRAIDS (Genetic Risk Assessment on the Internet with Decision Support) support (intervention n=23) or comparison (...

  4. Pursuing Equity in and through Teacher Education Program Admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Ruth A.; Broad, Kathryn; Gallagher-Mackay, Kelly; Sher, Yael; Escayg, Kerry-Ann; McGrath, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This case study investigated equity in teacher education admissions. Through document analysis and structured interviews with ten past or current members of the admissions committee in a large initial teacher education program in Ontario, we developed an understanding of equity in teacher education admissions as encompassing two foci: equity in…

  5. 22 CFR 142.42 - Admissions and recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Admissions and recruitment. 142.42 Section 142... and recruitment. (a) General. Qualified handicapped persons may not, on the basis of handicap, be denied admission or be subjected to discrimination in admission or recruitment by a recipient to...

  6. 7 CFR 15b.30 - Admissions and recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admissions and recruitment. 15b.30 Section 15b.30... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 15b.30 Admissions and recruitment... be subjected to discrimination in admission or recruitment by a recipient to which this...

  7. 45 CFR 1170.42 - Admissions and recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Admissions and recruitment. 1170.42 Section 1170... FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Postsecondary Education § 1170.42 Admissions and recruitment. (a... subjected to discrimination in admission or recruitment by a recipient to which this subpart applies....

  8. 45 CFR 605.42 - Admissions and recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Admissions and recruitment. 605.42 Section 605.42... Postsecondary Education § 605.42 Admissions and recruitment. (a) General. Qualified handicapped persons may not... recruitment by a recipient to which this subpart applies. (b) Admissions. In administering its...

  9. 38 CFR 18.442 - Admissions and recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recruitment. 18.442 Section 18.442 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Postsecondary Education § 18.442 Admissions and recruitment. (a) General. Qualified handicapped persons may not... recruitment by a recipient. (b) Admission. In administering its admission policies, a recipient; (1) May...

  10. Criteria Use and Importance in Independent Secondary School Admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Shannan Boyle

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: first, to determine the use of specified admission criteria in the independent school admission process; second, to determine admission directors' perceptions of the importance of selected criteria; and third, to determine the nature of the relationship between selected independent measures and the use of…

  11. Reclaiming the Educational Role of Chief Admission Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Patricia; Robertson, Larry

    1995-01-01

    Describes changes that have occurred in high schools, colleges, and the entrepreneurial admission sector. Relates the evolution of the admission officer's job since the early 1960s and the profession's rapid growth. Details the hybrid role of marketer and educator for chief admissions officers, and issues a call for professional standards. (RJM)

  12. 7 CFR 15a.22 - Preference in admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preference in admission. 15a.22 Section 15a.22... Prohibited § 15a.22 Preference in admission. A recipient to which the subpart applies shall not give preference to applicants for admission, on the basis of attendance at any educational institution or...

  13. 10 CFR 5.305 - Preference in admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preference in admission. 5.305 Section 5.305 Energy... Prohibited § 5.305 Preference in admission. A recipient to which §§ 5.300 through 5.310 apply shall not give preference to applicants for admission, on the basis of attendance at any educational institution or...

  14. 14 CFR 1253.305 - Preference in admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preference in admission. 1253.305 Section... on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1253.305 Preference in admission. A recipient to which §§ 1253.300 through 1253.310 apply shall not give preference to applicants for...

  15. 45 CFR 618.305 - Preference in admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preference in admission. 618.305 Section 618.305... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 618.305 Preference in admission. A recipient to which §§ 618.300 through 618.310 apply shall not give preference to applicants for...

  16. 29 CFR 36.305 - Preference in admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Preference in admission. 36.305 Section 36.305 Labor Office... Prohibited § 36.305 Preference in admission. A recipient to which §§ 36.300 through 36.310 apply shall not give preference to applicants for admission, on the basis of attendance at any educational...

  17. 13 CFR 113.305 - Preference in admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preference in admission. 113.305... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 113.305 Preference in admission. A recipient to which §§ 113.300 through 113.310 apply shall not give preference to applicants for...

  18. 44 CFR 19.305 - Preference in admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preference in admission. 19... Recruitment Prohibited § 19.305 Preference in admission. A recipient to which §§ 19.300 through 19.310 apply shall not give preference to applicants for admission, on the basis of attendance at any...

  19. Spatial Externalities of Pest Control Decisions in the California Citrus Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Grogan, Kelly A.; Goodhue, Rachael E

    2012-01-01

    Predaceous and parasitic insects provide control of important citrus pests. However, many pesticides are toxic to these beneficials. Using California citrus grower survey data, this article tests whether landscape-level use of pesticides affects the presence of and reliance on Aphytis melinus, an important beneficial insect. Results show that landscape-level pesticide use decreases the presence of A. melinus and increases reliance on insecticides. Pesticide use on non-citrus crops has a signi...

  20. Decisions on foot-and-mouth disease control informed by model prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Willeberg, Preben; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo;

    2013-01-01

    affected herds, epidemic duration, geographical size, and costs. The first fourteen days spatial spread (FFS) was also included to support the prediction. The epidemic data were obtained from a Danish version (DTU-DADS) of the Davis Animal Disease Spread simulation model. The FFI and FFS showed good...... supplementing the models with information on FFS and characteristics of the index-herd. Results presented here will contribute to improve preparedness of Denmark to early control of a hypothetical FMD epidemic....

  1. Decision and decision makers

    OpenAIRE

    Anuta Porutiu

    2010-01-01

    In the current economic context, decision making requires complex and multiple actions on the part of the policy makers, who are more challenged than in previous situations, due to the crisis that we are facing. Decision problems cannot be solved by focusing on manager’s own experience or intuition, but require constant adaptation of the methods used effectively in the past to new challenges. Thus, a systemic analysis and modeling of arising issues is required, resulting in the stringent use ...

  2. Assisted living nursing practice: admission assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitty, Ethel; Flores, Sandi

    2007-01-01

    Admission assessment, generally conducted by a registered nurse, is autonomous, without opportunity for dialogue with colleagues and other health care professionals and bounded by the nurse's knowledge and skills, state regulations, facility practices, and marketing. The fact that some states permit admission and retention of nursing home level-of-care residents and provision of end-of-life care means that the assessment has to be able to predict the resident's likely trajectory of well-being as well as chronic illness exacerbation. The nurse must have a clear perspective on staff competencies and judge whether additional education or training will be necessary. This article reviews assessment standards of practice as put forth by the American Assisted Living Nurses Association as part of its application for recognition of assisted living nursing as specialty nursing practice by the American Nurses Association. The role of the Licensed Practical Nurse/Licensed Vocational Nurse in resident assessment is also discussed. PMID:17292794

  3. Per-flow Admission Control with Adaptive Reservation of Bandwidth and Multiple QoS Support in EDCA of IEEE 802.11e Based on Cross-layer Design%基于跨层的自适应预留带宽和多重QoS保证的EDCA流接纳控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾菊玲; 蒋砺思

    2012-01-01

    提出了基于跨层的自适应带宽预留和多重QoS保证的802.11eEDCA分布式流接纳控制.首先自适应分配各站点OFDM子载波比特以最大化信道容量,并将比特率跨层传送到MAC层.基于此,提出了基于分布式测量的动态带宽预留机制,使预留带宽自适应各用户信道特点和业务特征;提出了半模式化的中心控制的剩余因子估计方法,从而克服了直接测量的不准确性和分布式估计的局部性,并降低了计算复杂度;提出了基于协议模型的带宽和碰撞率双重接纳标准,使多重QoS参数同时得到保证.通过这些措施得到自上至下的自适应接纳控制.仿真表明,提出的接纳控制机制能较大地提高资源利用率,更好地保证业务质量.%A novel dynamic distributed admission control with adaptive reservation of bandwidth and multiple QoS support of EDCA(enhanced distributed channel access) in IEEE802. lie based on cross-layer was presented. In this mechanism, the bits of the subcarrier of OFDM in the station are allocated to obtain the maximum channel capacity subjected to the maximum power at first and the bit rate is transmitted to the medium access control layer at the same time. By means of that,a dynamic reservation of the bandwidth was presented based on the distributed measurement, which a-dapts tb the characteristics of the channel and the service. And an estimation of the surplus factor by center control half-based on model was presented, which overcomes the un-accuracy resulted by directed measuring and locality resulted by distributed estimation. The relationship between the service's parameters and the collision probability was obtained and the double admission criteria of the bandwidth and the collision probability was suggested to support the multiple QoS such as bandwidth and delay as well as error ratio of the frame. All above suggestions structure an adaptive admission control from the upper layer to the lower layer

  4. THE OBJECT OF THE ADMISSION OF GUILT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin NEDELCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at studying how elements of negotiated justice specific to common law systems entered into the Romanian criminal procedural law system. It particularly deals with the admission of guilt and about one of its most controversial aspects – the object of recognition. The research concludes that what is recognized within this simplified procedure it is the deed and not its legal classification given by the criminal prosecution bodies.

  5. A novel active battery equalization control with on-line unhealthy cell detection and cell change decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Milanes-Montero, M. Isabel; Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel A.

    2015-12-01

    Battery Equalization systems are necessary as cell imbalance can lead to poor performance and safety hazards. In this paper we present a novel active battery equalization control, based on the Shunt Transistor method, which is feasible for EV battery equalization. Unlike the actual Shunt Transistor control methods that can only operate at the end of the charging process, the proposed smart control is able to accomplish the equalization during both driving and charging EV operations (optimizing time and performance) with a high final efficiency. Balancing is not enough when battery aging manifests; therefore, health management is essential. By taking advantage of the proposed system, a novel on-line unhealthy cell detection and cell change decision function is implemented. The proposed health analysis can be performed during normal driving, without the need for numerous charging/discharging cycles, a considerable data set, or complex models or estimations. Simulation results and experimental validation, in a battery pack made up with three cells, first prove the correct equalization during driving (with a real driving profile) and charging/discharging operations, with high efficiency (over 95%); and secondly, validates the cell health analysis, obtaining a cell health map and detecting the unhealthy cell placed on purpose.

  6. Perceived coercion in voluntary hospital admission.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, Brian

    2014-01-30

    The legal status of service users admitted to psychiatric wards is not synonymous with the level of coercion that they can perceive during the admission. This study aimed to identify and describe the proportion of individuals who were admitted voluntarily but experienced levels of perceived coercion comparable to those admitted involuntarily. Individuals admitted voluntarily and involuntarily to three psychiatric hospitals were interviewed using the MacArthur Admission Experience Interview and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses. One hundered sixty-one individuals were interviewed and 22% of the voluntarily admitted service users had levels of perceived coercion similar to that of the majority of involuntarily admitted service users. Voluntarily admitted service users who experienced high levels of perceived coercion were more likely to have more severe psychotic symptoms, have experienced more negative pressures and less procedural justices on admission. Individuals brought to hospital under mental health legislation but who subsequently agreed to be admitted voluntarily and those treated on a secure ward also reported higher levels of perceived coercion. It needs to be ensured that if any service user, whether voluntary or involuntary, experiences treatment pressures or coercion that there is sufficient oversight of the practice, to ensure that individual\\'s rights are respected.

  7. Analysis of factors influencing admission to intensive care following convulsive status epilepticus in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tirupathi, Sandya

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify clinical features and therapeutic decisions that influence admission to the Intensive Care unit (ICU) in children presenting with convulsive status epilepticus (CSE). METHODS: We evaluated 47 admissions with status epilepticus to a tertiary paediatric hospital A&E over a three year period (2003-2006). Following initial management 23 episodes required admission to ICU and 24 were managed on a paediatric ward. We compared clinical, demographic data and compliance with our CSE protocol between the ICU and ward groups. RESULTS: Median age at presentation in the ICU group was 17 months (range 3 months-11 years) compared to 46 months in the ward group (range 3 months-10 years). Fifty per cent of patients in both groups had a previous history of seizures. Median duration of pre-hospital seizure activity was 30 min in both groups. More than two doses of benzodiazepines were given as first line medication in 62% of the ICU group and 33% of the ward group. Among children admitted to ICU with CSE, 26% had been managed according to the CSE protocol, compared to 66% of children who were admitted to a hospital ward. Febrile seizures were the most common aetiology in both groups. CONCLUSION: Younger age at presentation, administration of more than two doses of benzodiazepines and deviation from the CSE protocol appear to be factors which influence admission of children to ICU. Recognition of pre-hospital administration of benzodiazepines and adherence to therapeutic guidelines may reduce the need for ventilatory support in this group.

  8. Non-native fish control below Glen Canyon Dam - Report from a structured decision-making project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; Bean, Ellen; Smith, David; Kokos, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the results of a structured decision-making project by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide substantive input to the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) for use in the preparation of an Environmental Assessment concerning control of non-native fish below Glen Canyon Dam. A forum was created to allow the diverse cooperating agencies and Tribes to discuss, expand, and articulate their respective values; to develop and evaluate a broad set of potential control alternatives using the best available science; and to define individual preferences of each group on how to manage the inherent trade-offs in this non-native fish control problem. This project consisted of two face-to-face workshops, held in Mesa, Arizona, October 18-20 and November 8-10, 2010. At the first workshop, a diverse set of objectives was discussed, which represented the range of concerns of those agencies and Tribes present. A set of non-native fish control alternatives ('hybrid portfolios') was also developed. Over the 2-week period between the two workshops, four assessment teams worked to evaluate the control alternatives against the array of objectives. At the second workshop, the results of the assessment teams were presented. Multi-criteria decision analysis methods were used to examine the trade-offs inherent in the problem, and allowed the participating agencies and Tribes to express their individual judgments about how those trade-offs should best be managed in Reclamation`s selection of a preferred alternative. A broad array of objectives was identified and defined, and an effort was made to understand how these objectives are likely to be achieved by a variety of strategies. In general, the objectives reflected desired future conditions over 30 years. A rich set of alternative approaches was developed, and the complex structure of those alternatives was documented. Multi-criteria decision analysis methods allowed the evaluation of those alternatives against the array

  9. SCOPE safety-controls optimization by performance evaluation: A systematic approach for safety-related decisions at the Hanford Tank Remediation System. Phase 1, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, K.D.; Williams, D.C.; Slezak, S.E.; Young, M.L. [and others

    1996-12-01

    The Department of Energy`s Hanford Tank Waste Remediation system poses a significant challenge for hazard management because of the uncertainty that surrounds many of the variables that must be considered in decisions on safety and control strategies. As a result, site managers must often operate under excessively conservative and expensive assumptions. This report describes a systematic approach to quantifying the uncertainties surrounding the critical parameters in control decisions (e.g., condition of the tanks, kinds of wastes, types of possible accidents) through the use of expert elicitation methods. The results of the elicitations would then be used to build a decision support system and accident analysis model that would allow managers to see how different control strategies would affect the cost and safety of a facility configuration.

  10. SCOPE safety-controls optimization by performance evaluation: A systematic approach for safety-related decisions at the Hanford Tank Remediation System. Phase 1, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's Hanford Tank Waste Remediation system poses a significant challenge for hazard management because of the uncertainty that surrounds many of the variables that must be considered in decisions on safety and control strategies. As a result, site managers must often operate under excessively conservative and expensive assumptions. This report describes a systematic approach to quantifying the uncertainties surrounding the critical parameters in control decisions (e.g., condition of the tanks, kinds of wastes, types of possible accidents) through the use of expert elicitation methods. The results of the elicitations would then be used to build a decision support system and accident analysis model that would allow managers to see how different control strategies would affect the cost and safety of a facility configuration

  11. Effects of Coarse Particulate Matter on Emergency Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases: A Time-Series Analysis in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Hong; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun; Tian, Linwei; Wang, Xiaorong; Tse, Lap Ah; Tam, Wilson; Wong, Tze Wai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many epidemiological studies have linked daily counts of hospital admissions to particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM 10) and ≤ 2.5 μm (PM 2.5), but relatively few have investigated the relationship of hospital admissions with coarse PM (PM c; 2.5-10 μm aerodynamic diameter). Objectives: We conducted this study to estimate the health effects of PM c on emergency hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in Hong Kong after controlling for PM 2.5 and ga...

  12. Glycated hemoglobin A: A predictor of outcome in trauma admissions to intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Ruby Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Although large studies have demonstrated the association between hyperglycemia and adverse intensive care unit (ICU outcomes, it is yet unclear which subset of patients benefit from tight sugar control in ICU. Recent evidence suggests that stress induced hyperglycemia (SIH and co-incidentally detected diabetes mellitus are different phenomena with different prognoses. Differentiating SIH from diabetic hyperglycemia is challenging in ICU settings. We followed a cohort of trauma patients admitted to a surgical intensive care unit (SICU to evaluate if initial glycated hemoglobin A (HbA 1 c level predicts the outcome of admission. Materials and Methods: A cohort of 120 consecutive admissions to SICU following trauma were recruited and admission blood sugar and HbA 1 c were measured. Outcomes were prospectively measured by blinded ICU doctors. A logistic regression model was developed to assess if HbA 1 c predicts poor outcomes in these settings. Results: Nearly 24% of the participants had HbA 1 c ≥ 6. Those with HbA 1 c ≥ 6 had 3.14 times greater risk of poor outcome at the end of hospital stay when compared to those with HbA 1 c < 6 and this risk increased to an odds ratio of 4.57 on adjusting for other significant predictors: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, injury severity score, admission blood sugar and age at admission. Conclusions: Substantial proportion of trauma admissions has underlying diabetes. HbA 1 c, a measure of pre admission glycaemic status is an important predictor of ICU outcome in trauma patients.

  13. 7 CFR 283.10 - Consent decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM APPEALS OF QUALITY CONTROL (âQCâ) CLAIMS Appeals of QC Claims... contain an admission of at least the jurisdictional facts, consent to the issuance of the agreed...

  14. Optimal DO Setpoint Decision and Electric Cost Saving in Aerobic Reactor Using Respirometer and Air Blower Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main objects for wastewater treatment operation are to maintain effluent water quality and minimize operation cost. However, the optimal operation is difficult because of the change of influent flow rate and concentrations, the nonlinear dynamics of microbiology growth rate and other environmental factors. Therefore, many wastewater treatment plants are operated for much more redundant oxygen or chemical dosing than the necessary. In this study, the optimal control scheme for dissolved oxygen (DO) is suggested to prevent over-aeration and the reduction of the electric cost in plant operation while maintaining the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration for the metabolism of microorganisms in oxic reactor. The oxygen uptake rate (OUR) is real-time measured for the identification of influent characterization and the identification of microorganisms' oxygen requirement in oxic reactor. Optimal DO set-point needed for the micro-organism is suggested based on real-time measurement of oxygen uptake of micro-organism and the control of air blower. Therefore, both stable effluent quality and minimization of electric cost are satisfied with a suggested optimal set-point decision system by providing the necessary oxygen supply requirement to the micro-organisms coping with the variations of influent loading

  15. Optimal DO Setpoint Decision and Electric Cost Saving in Aerobic Reactor Using Respirometer and Air Blower Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Su; Yoo, Changkyoo [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Minhan [Pangaea21 Ltd., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jongrack [UnUsoft Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Main objects for wastewater treatment operation are to maintain effluent water quality and minimize operation cost. However, the optimal operation is difficult because of the change of influent flow rate and concentrations, the nonlinear dynamics of microbiology growth rate and other environmental factors. Therefore, many wastewater treatment plants are operated for much more redundant oxygen or chemical dosing than the necessary. In this study, the optimal control scheme for dissolved oxygen (DO) is suggested to prevent over-aeration and the reduction of the electric cost in plant operation while maintaining the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration for the metabolism of microorganisms in oxic reactor. The oxygen uptake rate (OUR) is real-time measured for the identification of influent characterization and the identification of microorganisms' oxygen requirement in oxic reactor. Optimal DO set-point needed for the micro-organism is suggested based on real-time measurement of oxygen uptake of micro-organism and the control of air blower. Therefore, both stable effluent quality and minimization of electric cost are satisfied with a suggested optimal set-point decision system by providing the necessary oxygen supply requirement to the micro-organisms coping with the variations of influent loading.

  16. TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) integrated control decision team (ICDT) meetings January 22 - 31,1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) letter 97-MSD-163 dated January 15, 1997, directed the Project Hanford Management Contractor (Contractor), Fluor Daniel Hanford, inc., to form a joint RL-Contractor Integrated Control Decision Team (ICDT) to evaluate the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) accident scenarios that were identified to be above the risk evaluation guidelines (radiological and/or toxicological) defined by the April 8, 1996, letter from J. Kinzer, RL-TWRS (96-MSO-069) to Dr. A. L. Trego, Westinghouse Hanford Company. The ICDT evaluated six postulated accidents from the draft FSAR which had analyzed consequences above the DOE directed risk evaluation guidelines after controls were applied. The accidents were: (1) Organic Solvent Fires; (2) Organic Salt-Nitrate Fire; (3) Spray Leak; (4) Flammable Gas; (5) Steam Intrusion; and (6) Seismic Event. Five of the postulated accidents exceed radiological risk guidelines. Although the postulated steam intrusion accident does not exceed the radiological risk guidelines, it was considered in the ICDT evaluation because its calculated consequences exceed toxicological risk evaluation guidelines. Figure 1 delineates the mitigated and unmitigated risk evaluations performed for the FSAR

  17. Falcon: neural fuzzy control and decision systems using FKP and PFKP clustering algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, W L; Quek, C

    2004-02-01

    Neural fuzzy networks proposed in the literature can be broadly classified into two groups. The first group is essentially fuzzy systems with self-tuning capabilities and requires an initial rule base to be specified prior to training. The second group of neural fuzzy networks, on the other hand, is able to automatically formulate the fuzzy rules from the numerical training data. Examples are the Falcon-ART, and the POPFNN family of networks. A cluster analysis is first performed on the training data and the fuzzy rules are subsequently derived through the proper connections of these computed clusters. This correspondence proposes two new networks: Falcon-FKP and Falcon-PFKP. They are extensions of the Falcon-ART network, and aimed to overcome the shortcomings faced by the Falcon-ART network itself, i.e., poor classification ability when the classes of input data are very similar to each other, termination of training cycle depends heavily on a preset error parameter, the fuzzy rule base of the Falcon-ART network may not be consistent Nauck, there is no control over the number of fuzzy rules generated, and learning efficiency may deteriorate by using complementarily coded training data. These deficiencies are essentially inherent to the fuzzy ART, clustering technique employed by the Falcon-ART network. Hence, two clustering techniques--Fuzzy Kohonen Partitioning (FKP) and its pseudo variant PFKP, are synthesized with the basic Falcon structure to compute the fuzzy sets and to automatically derive the fuzzy rules from the training data. The resultant neural fuzzy networks are Falcon-FKP and Falcon-PFKP, respectively. These two proposed networks have a lean and efficient training algorithm and consistent fuzzy rule bases. Extensive simulations are conducted using the two networks and their performances are encouraging when benchmarked against other neural and neural fuzzy systems. PMID:15369109

  18. The Predictive Validity of using Admissions Testing and Multiple Mini-interviews in Undergraduate University Admissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Havmose, Philip; Vang, Maria Louison;

    2016-01-01

    the grade-based admissions procedure. Finally, students admitted through the MMI scored significantly higher on academic learning self-efficacy and critical thinking compared to students selected by grades. The implications for higher education admissions are discussed....... academic achievement after one and two years of study. The participants consisted of the entire population of 422 psychology students who were admitted to the University of Southern Denmark between 2010 and 2013. The results showed significantly lower drop-out rates after the first year of study, and non...

  19. 40 CFR 85.1512 - Admission of catalyst and O2 sensor-equipped vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... system and/or O2 sensor; (iii) Is labeled in accordance with 40 CFR part 86, subpart A or subpart S, or... CFR 12.73 unless it is included in a catalyst and O2 sensor control program approved by the... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Admission of catalyst and O2...

  20. Admission criteria and diversity in medical school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Vonsild, Maria; Wallstedt, Birgitta;

    2013-01-01

    students admitted via the two tracks between the years 2002-2007. Method: This prospective cohort study included 1074 medical students admitted between the years 2002-2007 to the University of Southern Denmark (USD) medical school. Of these, 454 were admitted by grade-based selection and 620 were selected...... (grade-based or attribute-based) had no statistically significant effect on the social diversity of medical students admitted to USD. Discussion: It may be a myth that attribute-based admission widens access and increases social diversity. To the contrary, there is evidence that combining grade...

  1. Admissible submonoids of Artin-Tits monoids

    OpenAIRE

    Castella, Anatole

    2008-01-01

    We show the analogue of Muhlherr's [Coxeter groups in Coxeter groups, Finite Geom. and Combinatorics, Cambridge Univ. Press (1993), 277-287] for Artin-Tits monoids, and for Artin-Tits groups of spherical type. That is, the submonoid (resp. subgroup) of an Artin-Tits monoid (resp. group of spherical type) induced by an admissible partition of the Coxeter graph is an Artin-Tits monoid (resp. group). This generalizes and unifies the situation of the submonoid (resp. subgroup) of fixed elements o...

  2. Students Selection for University Course Admission at the Joint Admissions Board (Kenya) Using Trained Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabwoba, Franklin; Mwakondo, Fullgence M.

    2011-01-01

    Every year, the Joint Admission Board (JAB) is tasked to determine those students who are expected to join various Kenyan public universities under the government sponsorship scheme. This exercise is usually extensive because of the large number of qualified students compared to the very limited number of slots at various institutions and the…

  3. A Randomized Controlled Trial on Teaching Geriatric Medical Decision Making and Cost Consciousness With the Serious Game GeriatriX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagro, J.; Pol, M.H.J. van de; Laan, A. van der; Huijbregts-Verheyden, F.J.; Fluit, L.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Medical students often lack training in complex geriatric medical decision making. We therefore developed the serious game, GeriatriX, for training medical decision making with weighing patient preferences, and appropriateness and costs of medical care. We hypothesized that education with

  4. Six-year outcomes in first admission adolescent inpatients: clinical and cognitive characteristics at admission as predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge, David L; Insalaco, Brie; Bertisch, Hilary; Bilginer, Lale; Stokes, John; Cornblatt, Barbara A; Harvey, Philip D

    2008-07-15

    Persistent functional disability is common after even a single psychiatric admission in people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, but less is known about other conditions and about adolescent onset patients. This study examined clinical symptoms and cognitive performance at the time of the first admission for the prediction of 6-year outcomes. First admission adolescent patients with a variety of psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with comprehensive clinical ratings of psychopathology, a neuropsychological assessment, and received clinical diagnoses while experiencing their first psychiatric admission. They were contacted 6 years after discharge and examined with a structured assessment of psychiatric symptoms and functioning. Despite the low levels of overall impairment at follow-up, at least 20% of the variance in depression, psychosis, poor peer relationships and poor school attendance 6 years after the hospital admission were predicted by information collected during the hospitalization. Attentional deficits during admission predicted the presence of psychosis at follow-up more substantially than psychotic symptoms during admission, as well as predicting risk for relapse. Attentional deficits during a first psychiatric admission predicted risk for manifesting psychosis at 6-year follow-up to a more substantial degree than either a psychosis diagnosis or psychotic symptoms at admission. In contrast to psychosis, depression at follow-up was predicted by admission symptomatology, but not by cognitive deficits. PMID:18534688

  5. Split Decisions, Split Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The lead stories in Nature and Science went in opposite directions this week. Science chose outer space, launching into NASA’s hotly disputed decision to shelve a planned mission to Pluto. Nature plunged into inner space with a story about a report to the European Commission advising against granting “premature” approval to create human embryos for stem-cell research.

  6. Re-admission after gastro-intestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauduchon, L; Sabbagh, C; Regimbeau, J M

    2015-12-01

    Re-admission is a new concept in France, born with the advent of day-case surgery, and defined as any re-admission occurring within 30 days after surgery. The re-admission rate has increasingly come to be considered a criterion of the quality of medical care, by both the medical profession and by insurance companies. This report outlines the generalities and definitions related to re-admission after gastro-intestinal surgery, describes the current situation, rationalizes the value of re-admission rates as a measure of quality of care, details the risk factors for re-admission according to the type of intervention, exposes the possible means of prevention and what to do when a patient comes to the emergency room within 30 days after an operation. PMID:26527260

  7. Pre-consultation educational group intervention to improve shared decision-making in postmastectomy breast reconstruction: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Platt, Jennica; Baxter, Nancy; Jones, Jennifer; Metcalfe, Kelly; Causarano, Natalie; Hofer, Stefan OP; ONeill, Anne; Cheng, Terry; Starenkyj, Elizabeth; Zhong, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Background The Pre-Consultation Educational Group Intervention pilot study seeks to assess the feasibility and inform the optimal design for a definitive randomized controlled trial that aims to improve the quality of decision-making in postmastectomy breast reconstruction patients. Methods/design This is a mixed-methods pilot feasibility randomized controlled trial that will follow a single-center, 1:1 allocation, two-arm parallel group superiority design. Setting: The University Health Netw...

  8. Effect of tele health care on exacerbations and hospital admissions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringbæk, Thomas; Green, Allan; Laursen, Lars Christian;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Tele monitoring (TM) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has gained much interest, but studies have produced conflicting results. Our aim was to investigate the effect of TM with the option of video consultations on exacerbations and hospital...... during the study period. RESULTS: Most of the enrolled patients had severe COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 second <50%pred in 86% and ≥hospital admission for COPD in the year prior to enrollment in 45%, respectively, of the patients). No difference in drop-out rate and mortality was found between the...... groups. With regard to the primary outcome, no significant difference was found in hospital admissions for COPD between the groups (P=0.74), and likewise, no difference was found in time to first admission or all-cause hospital admissions. Compared with the control group, TM group patients had more...

  9. Point-of-care testing of HbA1c in diabetes care and preventable hospital admissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels; Rose Olsen, Kim

    Background: Point-of-care testing (POCT) of HbA1c may result in improved diabetic control, better patient outcomes and enhanced clinical efficiency with fewer patient visits and subsequent reductions in hospitalizations and costs. In 2008, the Danish regulators agreed to create a new tariff...... for the remuneration of POCT of HbA1c in primary care. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess whether there is an association between the use of POCT of HbA1c and preventable hospital admissions among diabetes patients in general practice. Method: We apply logistic regression analyses to examine whether...... there is a link between preventable hospital admissions and POCT of HbA1c in general practice. Preventable hospital admissions were assessed through the ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) classification of hospital admissions. We include independent variables such as gender, age, ethnicity...

  10. Nosocomial infection in adult admissions with hematological malignancies originating from different lineages: a prospective observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infection (NI causes prolonged hospital stays, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality among patients with hematological malignancies (HM. However, few studies have compared the incidence of NI according to the HM lineage.To compare the incidence of NI according to the type of HM lineage, and identify the risk factors for NI.This prospective observational study monitored adult patients with HM admitted for >48 hours to the General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army during 2010-2013. Attack rates and incidences of NI were compared, and multivariable logistic regression was used to control for confounding effects.This study included 6,613 admissions from 1,922 patients. During these admissions, 1,023 acquired 1,136 NI episodes, with an attack rate of 15.47% and incidence of 9.6‰ (95% CI: 9.1-10.2. Higher rates and densities of NIs were observed among myeloid neoplasm (MN admissions, compared to lymphoid neoplasm (LN admissions (28.42% vs. 11.00%, P<0.001 and 11.4% vs. 8.4‰, P<0.001. NI attack rates in acute myeloid leukemia (AML and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN were higher than those in MDS (30.69% vs. 20.19%, P<0.001; 38.89% vs. 20.19%, P = 0.003. Attack rates in T/NK-cell neoplasm and B-cell neoplasm were higher than those in Hodgkin lymphoma (15.04% vs. 3.65%; 10.94% vs. 3.65%, P<0.001. Multivariable regression analysis indicated prolonged hospitalization, presence of central venous catheterization, neutropenia, current stem cell transplant, infection on admission, and old age were independently associated with higher NI incidence. After adjusting for these factors, MN admissions still had a higher risk of infection (odds ratio 1.34, 95% CI: 1.13-1.59, P<0.001.Different NI attack rates were observed for HM from different lineages, with MN lineages having a higher attack rate and incidence than LN lineages. Special attention should be paid to MN admissions, especially AML and MDS

  11. The complexity of admissible rules of {\\L}ukasiewicz logic

    CERN Document Server

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the computational complexity of admissibility of inference rules in infinite-valued {\\L}ukasiewicz propositional logic (\\L). It was shown in [13] that admissibility in {\\L} is checkable in PSPACE. We establish that this result is optimal, i.e., admissible rules of {\\L} are PSPACE-complete. In contrast, derivable rules of {\\L} are known to be coNP-complete.

  12. Influences of Parental Control and Decision Making on Risk-Taking Behavior: A Cross-Cultural Study in the U.S. and Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Catherine Pei Wern

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to examine the use and the effect of parental control (i.e., behavioral control and psychological control) on risk-taking behavior among emerging adults by using a cross-cultural approach. Specifically, the current research aimed to examine the associations between parental control and risk-taking behavior as mediated by decision making processes. Data were drawn from college students from the U.S. (Asian American N = 164) and Taiwan (N = 156) by using ...

  13. Effect of air pollution on pediatric respiratory emergency room visits and hospital admissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C.L. Farhat

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the effect of air pollution on pediatric respiratory morbidity, we carried out a time series study using daily levels of PM10, SO2, NO2, ozone, and CO and daily numbers of pediatric respiratory emergency room visits and hospital admissions at the Children's Institute of the University of São Paulo Medical School, from August 1996 to August 1997. In this period there were 43,635 hospital emergency room visits, 4534 of which were due to lower respiratory tract disease. The total number of hospital admissions was 6785, 1021 of which were due to lower respiratory tract infectious and/or obstructive diseases. The three health end-points under investigation were the daily number of emergency room visits due to lower respiratory tract diseases, hospital admissions due to pneumonia, and hospital admissions due to asthma or bronchiolitis. Generalized additive Poisson regression models were fitted, controlling for smooth functions of time, temperature and humidity, and an indicator of weekdays. NO2 was positively associated with all outcomes. Interquartile range increases (65.04 µg/m³ in NO2 moving averages were associated with an 18.4% increase (95% confidence interval, 95% CI = 12.5-24.3 in emergency room visits due to lower respiratory tract diseases (4-day moving average, a 17.6% increase (95% CI = 3.3-32.7 in hospital admissions due to pneumonia or bronchopneumonia (3-day moving average, and a 31.4% increase (95% CI = 7.2-55.7 in hospital admissions due to asthma or bronchiolitis (2-day moving average. The study showed that air pollution considerably affects children's respiratory morbidity, deserving attention from the health authorities.

  14. The effect of a patient-oriented treatment decision aid for risk factor management in patients with diabetes (PORTDA-diab: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denig Petra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve risk factor management in diabetes, we need to support effective interactions between patients and healthcare providers. Our aim is to develop and evaluate a treatment decision aid that offers personalised information on treatment options and outcomes, and is intended to empower patients in taking a proactive role in their disease management. Important features are: (1 involving patients in setting goals together with their provider; (2 encourage them to prioritise on treatments that maximise relevant outcomes; and (3 integration of the decision aid in the practice setting and workflow. As secondary aim, we want to evaluate the impact of different presentation formats, and learn more from the experiences of the healthcare providers and patients with the decision aid. Methods and design We will conduct a randomised trial comparing four formats of the decision aid in a 2×2 factorial design with a control group. Patients with type 2 diabetes managed in 18 to 20 primary care practices in The Netherlands will be recruited. Excluded are patients with a recent myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, angina pectoris, terminal illness, cognitive deficits, >65 years at diagnosis, or not able to read Dutch. The decision aid is offered to the patients immediately before their quarterly practice consultation. The same decision information will be available to the healthcare provider for use during consultation. In addition, the providers receive a set of treatment cards, which they can use to discuss the benefits and risks of different options. Patients in the control group will receive care as usual. We will measure the effect of the intervention on patient empowerment, satisfaction with care, beliefs about medication, negative emotions, health status, prescribed medication, and predicted cardiovascular risk. Data will be collected with questionnaires and automated extraction from medical records in 6 months before and

  15. Control of decisions in proceedings at administrative courts relating to the Federal Act for Protection Against Nuisances and to the Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author examines especially those lawsuits where the judicial decision depends - among other things - on the prior settling of most difficult technological questions. The decision on Kalkar given by the Federal Court of Justice is so important because it confirms that largely unclear legal terms are unobjectionable from the point of view of constitutional law. Using other findings, the author discusses the extension of legal protection as to include earlier stages of licensing procedures, foreclosure, the tightness of controls in case of review and subsequent assessment of difficult scientific or technological issues, risk assessment and its evaluation by the executive and judiciary. Law leaves final decision and assessment up to the executive power, the review of the framework up to the court. The problems mentioned can be solved without having to set up a science court or to install a judge who is an expert in technologies. (HSCH)

  16. Preventing compulsory admission to psychiatric inpatient care through psycho-education and crisis focused monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Barbara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high number of involuntary placements of people with mental disorders in Switzerland and other European countries constitutes a major public health issue. In view of the ethical and personal relevance of compulsory admission for the patients concerned and given the far-reaching effects in terms of health care costs, innovative interventions to improve the current situation are much needed. A number of promising approaches to prevent involuntary placements have been proposed that target continuity of care by increasing self-management skills of patients. However, the effectiveness of such interventions in terms of more robust criteria (e.g., admission rates has not been sufficiently analysed in larger study samples. The current study aims to evaluate an intervention programme for patients at high risk of compulsory admission to psychiatric hospitals. Effectiveness will be assessed in terms of a reduced number of psychiatric hospitalisations and days of inpatient care in connection with involuntary psychiatric admissions as well as in terms of cost-containment in inpatient mental health care. The intervention furthermore intends to reduce the degree of patients’ perceived coercion and to increase patient satisfaction, their quality of life and empowerment. Methods/Design This paper describes the design of a randomised controlled intervention study conducted currently at four psychiatric hospitals in the Canton of Zurich. The intervention programme consists of individualised psycho-education focusing on behaviours prior to and during illness-related crisis, the distribution of a crisis card and, after inpatient admission, a 24-month preventive monitoring of individual risk factors for compulsory re-admission to hospital. All measures are provided by a mental health care worker who maintains permanent contact to the patient over the course of the study. In order to prove its effectiveness the intervention programme will be

  17. HIV/AIDS and admission to intensive care units: A comparison of India, Brazil and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantharuben Naidoo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In resource-constrained settings and in the context of HIV-infected patients requiring intensive care, value-laden decisions by critical care specialists are often made in the absence of explicit policies and guidelines. These are often based on individual practitioners’ knowledge and experience, which may be subject to bias. We reviewed published information on legislation and practices related to intensive care unit (ICU admission in India, Brazil and South Africa, to assess access to critical care services in the context of HIV. Each of these countries has legal instruments in place to provide their citizens with health services, but they differ in their provision of ICU care for HIV-infected persons. In Brazil, some ICUs have no admission criteria, and this decision vests solely on the ‘availability, and the knowledge and the experience’ of the most experienced ICU specialist at the institution. India has few regulatory mechanisms to ensure ICU care for critically ill patients including HIV-infected persons. SA has made concerted efforts towards non-discriminatory criteria for ICU admissions and, despite the shortage of ICU beds, HIV-infected patients have relatively greater access to this level of care than in other developing countries in Africa, such as Botswana. Policymakers and clinicians should devise explicit policy frameworks to govern ICU admissions in the context of HIV status. S Afr J HIV Med 2013;14(1:15-16. DOI:10.7196/SAJHIVMED.887

  18. Study protocol: Improving patient choice in treating low back pain (IMPACT - LBP: A randomised controlled trial of a decision support package for use in physical therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tysall Colin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain is a common and costly condition. There are several treatment options for people suffering from back pain, but there are few data on how to improve patients' treatment choices. This study will test the effects of a decision support package (DSP, designed to help patients seeking care for back pain to make better, more informed choices about their treatment within a physiotherapy department. The package will be designed to assist both therapist and patient. Methods/Design Firstly, in collaboration with physiotherapists, patients and experts in the field of decision support and decision aids, we will develop the DSP. The work will include: a literature and evidence review; secondary analysis of existing qualitative data; exploration of patients' perspectives through focus groups and exploration of experts' perspectives using a nominal group technique and a Delphi study. Secondly, we will carry out a pilot single centre randomised controlled trial within NHS Coventry Community Physiotherapy. We will randomise physiotherapists to receive either training for the DSP or not. We will randomly allocate patients seeking treatment for non specific low back pain to either a physiotherapist trained in decision support or to receive usual care. Our primary outcome measure will be patient satisfaction with treatment at three month follow-up. We will also estimate the cost-effectiveness of the intervention, and assess the value of conducting further research. Discussion Informed shared decision-making should be an important part of any clinical consultation, particularly when there are several treatments, which potentially have moderate effects. The results of this pilot will help us determine the benefits of improving the decision-making process in clinical practice on patient satisfaction. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN46035546

  19. Superconformal minimal models and admissible Jack polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Blondeau-Fournier, Olivier; Ridout, David; Wood, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We give new proofs of the rationality of the N=1 superconformal minimal model vertex operator superalgebras and of the classification of their modules in both the Neveu-Schwarz and Ramond sectors. For this, we combine the standard free field realisation with the theory of Jack symmetric functions. A key role is played by Jack symmetric polynomials with a certain negative parameter that are labelled by admissible partitions. These polynomials are shown to describe free fermion correlators, suitably dressed by a symmetrising factor. The classification proofs concentrate on explicitly identifying Zhu's algebra and its twisted analogue. Interestingly, these identifications do not use an explicit expression for the non-trivial vacuum singular vector. While the latter is known to be expressible in terms of an Uglov symmetric polynomial or a linear combination of Jack superpolynomials, it turns out that standard Jack polynomials (and functions) suffice to prove the classification.

  20. Priority setting for the prevention and control of cardiovascular diseases: multi-criteria decision analysis in four eastern Mediterranean countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ghandour, Rula; Shoaibi, Azza; Khatib, Rana; Abu Rmeileh, Niveen; UNAL, Belgin; Sözmen, Kaan; Kılıç, Bülent; Fouad, Fouad; Al Ali, Radwan; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Aissi, Wafa; Ahmad, Balsam; Capewell, Simon; Critchley, Julia; Husseini, Abdullatif

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the feasibility of using a simple multi-criteria decision analysis method with policy makers/key stakeholders to prioritize cardiovascular disease (CVD) policies in four Mediterranean countries: Palestine, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. Methods A simple multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method was piloted. A mixed methods study was used to identify a preliminary list of policy options in each country. These policies were rated by different policymakers/stakeho...

  1. Temperature effects on hospital admissions for kidney morbidity in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: This study aimed to associate hospital admissions of kidney diseases with extreme temperature and prolonged heat/cold events in 7 regions of Taiwan. Methods: Age-specific (10, O3, and NO2) and potential confounders. Results: We observed a V or J-shape association between daily average temperatures and the RR estimates for hospital admissions of kidney diseases in Taiwan. The lowest risk for hospital admissions of kidney diseases was found at around 25 °C, and risk increased as temperatures deviated from 25 °C. The pooled cumulative 8-day RR for all ages of population of the 7 study areas were 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.19) at 18 °C and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.27, 1.64) at 30 °C. High temperature has more profound influence on hospital admission of kidney diseases than low temperature. Temperature risks for hospital admissions were similar between younger (< 65 years) and elderly (65 + years) population. This study observed no significant effects of prolonged heat extremes on hospital admissions of kidney diseases. Conclusions: The heat effect for kidney morbidities leading to hospital admission was more significant than that of the cold temperature. This study did not find the age-dependent relative risks for temperature associating with hospital admissions of kidney diseases. - Highlights: ► V or J-shaped association was observed between daily temperatures and hospital admissions for renal diseases in Taiwan. ► The pooled relative risks accounting for 8 days of lag for the 7 study areas were 1.1 at 18 °C and 1.46 at 30 °C. ► There is no difference of the relative risk estimates for hospital admissions between younger and elderly population. ► We found significant protective effects of hospital admissions for prolonged cold extremes, but not for heat extremes

  2. Business making decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Benjamín Franklin Fincowsky

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available People and organizations make better or get wrong as consequence of making decisions. Sometimes making decisions is just a trial and error process. Some others, decisions are good and the results profitable with a few of mistakes, most of the time because it’s considered the experience and the control of a specific field or the good intention of who makes them. Actually, all kinds of decisions bring learning. What is important is the intention, the attitude and the values considered in this process. People from different scenes face many facts and circumstances—almost always out of control—that affect the making decisions process. There is not a unique way to make decisions for all companies in many settings. The person who makes a decision should identify the problem, to solve it later using alternatives and solutions. Even though, follow all the steps it’s not easy as it seems. Looking back the conditions related to the decisions, we can mention the followings: uncertainty, risk and certainty. When people identify circumstances and facts, as well as its effects in a possible situation, they will make decisions with certainty. As long as the information decreases and it becomes ambiguous the risk becomes an important factor in the making decisions process because they are connected to probable objectives (clear or subjective (opinion judgment or intuition. To finish, uncertainty, involves people that make a decision with no or little information about circumstances or criteria with basis

  3. 基于决策网络模型的通信网阻塞控制方法%The Novel Approach of Congestion Control of Communication Network Based on Decision Network Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宽全; 程代杰

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the decision network model of congestion control of communication network is presented and simulation of this model is conducted by software. At last this model is applied in man-agement of telecommunication network and the decision of congestion control strategies can be effective-ly obtained.

  4. Assisted admissions? A national survey of general practitioner experience of involuntary admissions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, M

    2011-10-01

    The 2001 Mental Health Act introduced in 2006, changed how a patient is admitted involuntarily to a psychiatric unit. This paper reports on a national survey of general practitioners\\' experience implementing the Act. Five hundred and sixty eight (568) GPs completed the survey. Twenty five percent (25%) of respondants had not used it. When used, twenty four percent (24%) report that it takes seven hours or more to complete an admission. Fifty percent (50%) of respondents are confident to complete the necessary paperwork. Overall GPs are dissatisfied with arrangements for transport of patients (mean Likert score 3.5), primarily due to the time delay. GPs believe this places risk on the patient, family and GP. Only thirty-three percent (33%) of respondents feel that the Mental Health Act has improved the patient, GP and family experience of involuntary admission.

  5. Psychological expert witness testimony and judicial decision making trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, David L; Mixon, LeKisha; Jackson, Melissa; Shook, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the establishment of the Daubert standard in 1993, the evidentiary criteria are rarely used as a basis for admissibility of expert witness testimony in the behavioral sciences. Ever since the promulgation of Frye and the Federal Rules of Evidence, controversy has surrounded the admissibility of expert testimony in courtrooms. There appears to be no existing uniform application of standards governing the admissibility of psychological expert witness testimony. Therefore, it is essential for the psycho-legal communities to explore judicial decision-making trends regarding psychological expert witness evidence. In this current research, psychological expert witness testimony and judicial decision-making will be explored. In preliminary examination, 97 criminal and civil case summaries from the LexisNexis Academic Database involved issues of admissibility. Analyses conducted by eight trained and paired coders revealed that reliability and assistance to the trier of fact were the most often cited reasons for admissibility in courts. Consistent with prior studies, it was also found that the most applied standards for admissibility of psychological evidence were the Federal Rules of Evidence. Interestingly, while the Daubert scientific criteria for admission of scientific testimony were mentioned, they were rarely utilized. A secondary analysis of 167 civil and criminal appellate cases indicated that the reliability of testimony (18% of all cases), ability to assist the trier of fact (17%), the expert witness' qualifications (17%), and the relevance of the testimony (16%) were the most commonly cited reasons for determining admissibility. A tertiary qualitative analysis focusing on these four categories then revealed eight major trends in admissibility of psychological expert evidence. PMID:26341310

  6. 49 CFR 1114.27 - Request for admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Request for admission. 1114.27 Section 1114.27... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE EVIDENCE; DISCOVERY Discovery § 1114.27 Request for admission. (a) Availability; procedures for use. Subject to the provisions of § 1114.21(b)(2), a party may serve upon...

  7. 49 CFR 1114.3 - Admissibility of business records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Admissibility of business records. 1114.3 Section 1114.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION... § 1114.3 Admissibility of business records. Any writing or record, whether in the form of an entry in...

  8. University of California Adopts Sweeping Changes in Admissions Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Josh; Hoover, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The University of California has adopted changes to its undergraduate admissions policy that will enlarge its applicant pool and drop the requirement that students take the SAT Subject Tests. The policy is the most significant change in the university's admissions practices in at least a decade. It will increase the number of California…

  9. Early Admission to Elementary School: Barriers versus Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Theron B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This article analyzes why schools fail to provide for early admission of intellectually advanced children. Reasons cited include misinterpretation of research findings, bias of school personnel, expense of screening, convenience of administering a uniform entrance age procedure, etc. Benefits accruing from early admission are discussed. (JDD)

  10. Admissions Handbook, Third level full time courses : 1988

    OpenAIRE

    City of Dublin Vocational Education Committee

    1988-01-01

    Issued by the Admissions Office, DIT, 14 Upr. Mount St., Dublin 2. Booklet includes application form for admission to third level whole-time courses 1988/89, external examinations form,submission of portfolios form, payment form and application acknowledgement postcard.

  11. Problems in Admissions in U.S. Dental Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Robert W.; Tabb, W. Gary

    1977-01-01

    Dental school admission policy must direct significant attention to the number of selectees who might enter each of the dental career fields and to those who might eventually serve population segments that currently receive little dental care. Specific suggestions for improving the admissions situation are offered. (LBH)

  12. Using Social Media "Smartly" in the Admissions Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrot, Teresa Valerio; Tipton, Stacia

    2010-01-01

    Admissions officers around the country are hearing consistent calls to enhance their social media presence. Whether the pressure is from administrators, influential alumni, or peers across institutions, social media are touted as the next big thing in admissions marketing. But are social media strategies truly "strategic," or are they merely…

  13. A Revised Admissions Standard for One Community College Nursing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, Maris A.

    2010-01-01

    Predicting success on the NCLEX-RN is of paramount importance to nursing programs as they are held accountable for this outcome by accrediting agencies and by boards of nursing. This action research study examined the relationship between the NET admission test, anatomy and physiology grades, grade point average (GPA) on admission to the program…

  14. Communications Is from Mars, Admissions Is from Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maura King

    2010-01-01

    Marketing communications and admissions often have very different needs, priorities, and ways of conducting business, but the two units work toward the same end goal. Brad Ward of BlueFuego, a marketing company that specializes in social Web tools for educational institutions, explains that admissions doesn't necessarily need to [talk] to…

  15. Hospital admission interviews are time-consuming with several interruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghazanfar, Misbah N; Honoré, Per Gustaf Hartvig; Nielsen, Trine R H;

    2012-01-01

    The admission interview is an important procedure to reduce medication errors. Studies indicate that physicians do not spend much time on the interview and that the major obstacles are lack of time and heavy workload. The aim of this study was to measure the time physicians spend on admission...... interviews and to describe factors that affect time consumption....

  16. 14 CFR 125.315 - Admission to flight deck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admission to flight deck. 125.315 Section...,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 125.315 Admission to flight deck. (a) No person may admit any person to the flight deck of an airplane unless...

  17. 14 CFR 121.547 - Admission to flight deck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admission to flight deck. 121.547 Section... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.547 Admission to flight deck. (a) No person may admit any person to the flight deck of an aircraft unless the person being...

  18. 36 CFR 1211.305 - Preference in admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preference in admission. 1211... Preference in admission. A recipient to which §§ 1211.300 through 1211.310 apply shall not give preference to... that admits as students only or predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference...

  19. 38 CFR 23.305 - Preference in admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preference in admission... Preference in admission. A recipient to which §§ 23.300 through 23.310 apply shall not give preference to... that admits as students only or predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference...

  20. 32 CFR 196.305 - Preference in admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preference in admission. 196.305 Section 196.305... Preference in admission. A recipient to which §§ 196.300 through 196.310 apply shall not give preference to... that admits as students only or predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference...

  1. 34 CFR 106.22 - Preference in admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preference in admission. 106.22 Section 106.22... Preference in admission. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall not give preference to applicants... which admits as students only or predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference...

  2. 24 CFR 3.305 - Preference in admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preference in admission. 3.305... Preference in admission. A recipient to which §§ 3.300 through 3.310 apply shall not give preference to... that admits as students only or predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference...

  3. 24 CFR 1720.425 - Presentation and admission of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PRACTICE Adjudicatory Proceedings Discovery and Evidence § 1720.425 Presentation and admission of evidence... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Presentation and admission of evidence. 1720.425 Section 1720.425 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  4. Transformation of admission interview to documentation for nursing practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højskov, Ida E; Glasdam, Stinne

    2014-01-01

    Ricoeur was conducted and consisted of five taped admission interviews, along with the written patient documentation subsequently worked out by the nurse. The findings were presented in four constructed themes: Admission interviews are the nurse's room rather than the patient's; Information on a surgical......The admission interview is usually the first structured meeting between patient and nurse. The interview serves as the basis for personalised nursing and care planning and is the starting point for the clinic's documentation of the patient and his course of treatment. In this way, admission...... interviews constitute a basis for reporting by each nurse on the patient to nursing colleagues. This study examined how, by means of the admission interview, nurses constructed written documentation of the patient and his course of treatment for use by fellow nurses. A qualitative case study inspired by...

  5. Factors related to monitoring during admission of acute patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Thomas; Bech, Camilla Louise Nørgaard; Brabrand, Mikkel;

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the use of patient monitoring systems in emergency and acute facilities may help to identify reasons for failure to identify risk patients in these settings. Hence, we investigate factors related to the utilization of automated monitoring for patients admitted to an acute admission...... one measurement were analyzed using quantile regression by looking at the impact of distance from nursing office, number of concurrent patients, wing type (medical/surgical), age, sex, comorbidities, and severity conditioned on how much patients were monitored during their admissions. We registered 11......,848 admissions, of which we were able to link patient monitor readings to 3149 (26.6 %) with 50 % being monitored <1.4 % of total admission time. Distance from nursing office had little influence on patients monitored <10 % of their admission time. But for other patients, being positioned further away from the...

  6. Early Cell Fate Decisions of Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Mouse Epiblast Stem Cells Are Controlled by the Same Signalling Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Ludovic Vallier; Thomas Touboul; Zhenzhi Chng; Minodora Brimpari; Nicholas Hannan; Enrique Millan; Smithers, Lucy E.; Matthew Trotter; Peter Rugg-Gunn; Anne Weber; Pedersen, Roger A.

    2009-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells have unique value for regenerative medicine, as they are capable of differentiating into a broad variety of cell types. Therefore, defining the signalling pathways that control early cell fate decisions of pluripotent stem cells represents a major task. Moreover, modelling the early steps of embryonic development in vitro may provide the best approach to produce cell types with native properties. Here, we analysed the function of key developmental growth factors suc...

  7. Hexagonal Binary Decision Diagram Quantum Logic Circuits Using Schottky In-Plane and Wrap Gate Control of GaAs and InGaAs Nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Hasegawa, Hideki; Kasai, Seiya

    2001-01-01

    Previous quantum device research has been done on discrete device levels and lacks a clear vision for high density integration. This paper proposes a new, simple and realistic approach for quantum large scale integrated circuits (QLSIs) where a binary-decision diagram (BDD) logic architecture is implemented by BDD node devices based on quantum wire transistors (QWTrs) and single electron transistors (SETs) realized by the Schottky in-plane gate (IPG) and wrap-gate (WPG) control of III-V hexag...

  8. An environmental fairness based optimisation model for the decision-support of joint control over the water quantity and quality of a river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sen; He, Li; Lu, Hongwei

    2016-04-01

    This paper presented a new environmental fairness based optimisation model (EFOM) for the decision-support of water resources management and water pollution control at the watershed scale. The model integrated three prediction modules for water consumption and pollutant discharge (WCPD), environmental Gini coefficient (EGC) and water quality (WASP). The model is capable of optimizing the total discharge quantity in the whole basin and controlling units both spatially and temporally, and addressing the conflicts between environmental fairness and efficiency. The model was applied to the Songhua River basin, attempting to support decision-making of joint control over the water quantity and quality. Validation of the WASP module showed that the simulation agreed well with water quality monitoring values (2013) in the Harbin section. Results from the EFOM model also indicated that the water environment in the Harbin section would be improved significantly by effectively controlling the total pollution discharge. The identified optimal strategy obtained from the EFOM showed that the percentage of water in good quality reaches 72% in 2020, suggesting that the strategy would guarantee the planning goals of The China Action Plan for Water Pollution Control to be satisfied. Hence, the modelling under the consideration of environmental fairness can be a new attempt, which is beneficial to optimal joint control of water quantity and water quality at the watershed scale.

  9. Revisiting Bakke and Diversity-Based Admissions: Constitutional Law, Social Science Research, and the University of Michigan Affirmative Action Cases. Briefing Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancheta, Angelo N.

    This paper explains how upcoming U.S. Supreme Court decisions in Gratz v. Bollinger and Grutter v. Bollinger are expected to broadly affect the future of race-conscious affirmative action. In these cases, the Supreme Court addresses the constitutionality of admissions policies at the University of Michigan designed to promote educational diversity…

  10. Shared decision making for prostate cancer screening: the results of a combined analysis of two practice-based randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheridan Stacey L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Professional societies recommend shared decision making (SDM for prostate cancer screening, however, most efforts have promoted informed rather than shared decision making. The objective of this study is to 1 examine the effects of a prostate cancer screening intervention to promote SDM and 2 determine whether framing prostate information in the context of other clearly beneficial men’s health services affects decisions. Methods We conducted two separate randomized controlled trials of the same prostate cancer intervention (with or without additional information on more clearly beneficial men’s health services. For each trial, we enrolled a convenience sample of 2 internal medicine practices, and their interested physicians and male patients with no prior history of prostate cancer (for a total of 4 practices, 28 physicians, and 128 men across trials. Within each practice site, we randomized men to either 1 a video-based decision aid and researcher-led coaching session or 2 a highway safety video. Physicians at each site received a 1-hour educational session on prostate cancer and SDM. To assess intervention effects, we measured key components of SDM, intent to be screened, and actual screening. After finding that results did not vary by trial, we combined data across sites, adjusting for the random effects of both practice and physician. Results Compared to an attention control, our prostate cancer screening intervention increased men’s perceptions that screening is a decision (absolute difference +41%; 95% CI 25 to 57% and men’s knowledge about prostate cancer screening (absolute difference +34%; 95% CI 19% to 50%, but had no effect on men’s self-reported participation in shared decisions or their participation at their preferred level. Overall, the intervention decreased screening intent (absolute difference −34%; 95% CI −50% to −18% and actual screening rates (absolute difference −22%; 95% CI −38 to

  11. 77 FR 41973 - Record of Decision for the Entry Control Reconfiguration and Base Perimeter Fence Relocation in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... Availability (NOA) of a Record of Decision (ROD). SUMMARY: On June 21, 2012, the United States Air Force signed... relevant factors. The FEIS was made available to the public on May 11, 2012 through a NOA in the Federal... FEIS. Authority: This NOA is published pursuant to the regulations (40 CFR Part 1506.6)...

  12. Rational decisions

    CERN Document Server

    Binmore, Ken

    2008-01-01

    It is widely held that Bayesian decision theory is the final word on how a rational person should make decisions. However, Leonard Savage--the inventor of Bayesian decision theory--argued that it would be ridiculous to use his theory outside the kind of small world in which it is always possible to ""look before you leap."" If taken seriously, this view makes Bayesian decision theory inappropriate for the large worlds of scientific discovery and macroeconomic enterprise. When is it correct to use Bayesian decision theory--and when does it need to be modified? Using a minimum of mathematics,

  13. Daily weather variables and affective disorder admissions to psychiatric hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have reported that admission rates in patients with affective disorders are subject to seasonal variation. Notwithstanding, there has been limited evaluation of the degree to which changeable daily meteorological patterns influence affective disorder admission rates. A handful of small studies have alluded to a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (heat waves in particular), wind direction and sunshine. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test, ARIMA and time-series regression analyses to examine whether daily meteorological variables—namely wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, hours of sunshine, sunlight radiation and temperature—influence admission rates for mania and depression across 12 regions in Ireland over a 31-year period. Although we found some very weak but interesting trends for barometric pressure in relation to mania admissions, daily meteorological patterns did not appear to affect hospital admissions overall for mania or depression. Our results do not support the small number of papers to date that suggest a link between daily meteorological variables and affective disorder admissions. Further study is needed.

  14. Fine particulate air pollution and its components in association with cause-specific emergency admissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutrakis Petros

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the association between exposure to particulate matter and health is well established, there remains uncertainty as to whether certain chemical components are more harmful than others. We explored whether the association between cause-specific hospital admissions and PM2.5 was modified by PM2.5 chemical composition. Methods We estimated the association between daily PM2.5 and emergency hospital admissions for cardiac causes (CVD, myocardial infarction (MI, congestive heart failure (CHF, respiratory disease, and diabetes in 26 US communities, for the years 2000-2003. Using meta-regression, we examined how this association was modified by season- and community-specific PM2.5 composition, controlling for seasonal temperature as a surrogate for ventilation. Results For a 10 μg/m3 increase in 2-day averaged PM2.5 concentration we found an increase of 1.89% (95% CI: 1.34- 2.45 in CVD, 2.25% (95% CI: 1.10- 3.42 in MI, 1.85% (95% CI: 1.19- 2.51 in CHF, 2.74% (95% CI: 1.30- 4.2 in diabetes, and 2.07% (95% CI: 1.20- 2.95 in respiratory admissions. The association between PM2.5 and CVD admissions was significantly modified when the mass was high in Br, Cr, Ni, and Na+, while mass high in As, Cr, Mn, OC, Ni, and Na+ modified MI, and mass high in As, OC, and SO42- modified diabetes admissions. For these species, an interquartile range increase in their relative proportion was associated with a 1-2% additional increase in daily admissions per 10 μg/m3 increase in mass. Conclusions We found that PM2.5 mass higher in Ni, As, and Cr, as well as Br and OC significantly increased its effect on hospital admissions. This result suggests that particles from industrial combustion sources and traffic may, on average, have greater toxicity.

  15. Variance in practice emergency medical admission rates: can it be explained?

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Rebecca; Neville, Ron; Staines, Harry

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emergency admission rates have been rising steadily in recent years, with the majority of the increase owing to emergency medical admissions. Possible causative factors include changing demography, incidence of disease, admission thresholds, multiple admissions, and appropriateness of admission. AIM: To investigate the impact of patient and practice factors on variance in general practices' emergency medical admissions rates. DESIGN OF STUDY: Multiple regression analysis relating ...

  16. Unplanned admissions following ambulatory plastic surgery--a retrospective study.

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mandal; Imran, D.; McKinnell, T.; G. S. Rao

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Admission for overnight or longer hospital stay from a day-case unit is an unwelcome event. This audit was designed to identify the incidence of unplanned admissions and also to detect the potential factors for such overstays. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Details of plastic surgical day-case patients were obtained from the hospital records for a period of 6 months (February 2002 to July 2002). RESULTS: The total number of unplanned admissions was 28 (3.55%). High rates were recorded in...

  17. Simulation and experimental studies of operators` decision styles and crew composition while using an ecological and traditional user interface for the control room of a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshkati, N.; Buller, B.J.; Azadeh, M.A. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The goal of this research is threefold: (1) use of the Skill-, Rule-, and Knowledge-based levels of cognitive control -- the SRK framework -- to develop an integrated information processing conceptual framework (for integration of workstation, job, and team design); (2) to evaluate the user interface component of this framework -- the Ecological display; and (3) to analyze the effect of operators` individual information processing behavior and decision styles on handling plant disturbances plus their performance on, and preference for, Traditional and Ecological user interfaces. A series of studies were conducted. In Part I, a computer simulation model and a mathematical model were developed. In Part II, an experiment was designed and conducted at the EBR-II plant of the Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho. It is concluded that: the integrated SRK-based information processing model for control room operations is superior to the conventional rule-based model; operators` individual decision styles and the combination of their styles play a significant role in effective handling of nuclear power plant disturbances; use of the Ecological interface results in significantly more accurate event diagnosis and recall of various plant parameters, faster response to plant transients, and higher ratings of subject preference; and operators` decision styles affect on both their performance and preference for the Ecological interface.

  18. Simulation and experimental studies of operators' decision styles and crew composition while using an ecological and traditional user interface for the control room of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this research is threefold: (1) use of the Skill-, Rule-, and Knowledge-based levels of cognitive control -- the SRK framework -- to develop an integrated information processing conceptual framework (for integration of workstation, job, and team design); (2) to evaluate the user interface component of this framework -- the Ecological display; and (3) to analyze the effect of operators' individual information processing behavior and decision styles on handling plant disturbances plus their performance on, and preference for, Traditional and Ecological user interfaces. A series of studies were conducted. In Part I, a computer simulation model and a mathematical model were developed. In Part II, an experiment was designed and conducted at the EBR-II plant of the Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho. It is concluded that: the integrated SRK-based information processing model for control room operations is superior to the conventional rule-based model; operators' individual decision styles and the combination of their styles play a significant role in effective handling of nuclear power plant disturbances; use of the Ecological interface results in significantly more accurate event diagnosis and recall of various plant parameters, faster response to plant transients, and higher ratings of subject preference; and operators' decision styles affect on both their performance and preference for the Ecological interface

  19. Admission avoidance using intramuscular antibiotics for the treatment of borderline foot infections in people with diabetes in a tertiary care foot clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhatariya, Ketan

    2013-01-01

    Several international guidelines exist to help decision making for the infected 'diabetic foot'. However, none consider admissions avoidance. We wanted to develop an antibiotic foot formulary for the empirical treatment of diabetes related foot infections presenting to our service and subsequently to asses the costs associated with the introduction of our protocol. We rationalised our antibiotic protocol. The introduction of our formulary changed the average antibiotic prescribing costs for a 3 week course of treatment from £17.12 to £16.42. In addition, we adapted the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) guideline by introducing a category of 'moderate infection - borderline admission' to our classification. This enabled the administration of outpatient intramuscular antibiotics. Over 22 months of follow up, 26 episodes were eligible for treatment with intramuscular antibiotics. Over the same time period, 121 people were admitted directly from the foot clinic. The costs saved as a result of avoided or delayed admission for those 26 episodes was over £76,000. For 12 people who required subsequent admission, their length of hospital stay was significantly shorter than those admitted directly (9.25 days [range 2-25] vs. 16.11 [2-64] p=0.045). In summary, by modifying the IDSA classification and adopting a protocol to administer outpatient oral and intramuscular antibiotics we have led to substantial cost savings, shorter hospital admissions and also have developed a successful admissions avoidance strategy. PMID:26734186

  20. Differentiability of the Pritchard-Salamon systems with admissible state-feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xin

    2005-01-01

    Many papers on a wide range of control problems for Pritchard-Salamon systems have appeared and many of its important mathematical and system theoretical properties have been revealed. This paper deals with the differentiability of the Pritchard-Salamon system with admissible state-feedback. Spectrum analysis showed that under definite condition, the unbounded perturbation semigroup of the Pritchard-Salamon system is eventually differentiable.

  1. Inertia and Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alós-Ferrer, Carlos; Hügelschäfer, Sabine; Li, Jiahui

    2016-01-01

    Decision inertia is the tendency to repeat previous choices independently of the outcome, which can give rise to perseveration in suboptimal choices. We investigate this tendency in probability-updating tasks. Study 1 shows that, whenever decision inertia conflicts with normatively optimal behavior (Bayesian updating), error rates are larger and decisions are slower. This is consistent with a dual-process view of decision inertia as an automatic process conflicting with a more rational, controlled one. We find evidence of decision inertia in both required and autonomous decisions, but the effect of inertia is more clear in the latter. Study 2 considers more complex decision situations where further conflict arises due to reinforcement processes. We find the same effects of decision inertia when reinforcement is aligned with Bayesian updating, but if the two latter processes conflict, the effects are limited to autonomous choices. Additionally, both studies show that the tendency to rely on decision inertia is positively associated with preference for consistency. PMID:26909061

  2. The control of decisions concerning the Act for the Protections against Nuisances and the Atomic Energy Law in administrative court proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author intends to take up basic issues and to outline approaches e lege lata for proceedings in which the judicial decision depends, among other things, on settling the most difficult technical questions first. He refers to latest jurisdiction, stating that both decisions of the Federal Constitutional Court, the one of August 8, 1978, and the one of December 20, 1979 had proved to be stimulating. The author comes to the conclusion that the Act for the Protection against Nuisances and the Atomic Energy Law, both being matters of a special kind, request the use of new categories in court proceedings. This holds for control intensity, the right to file suit and preliminary legal protection. These new problems coming from developments in technology could be solved by traditional legal instruments applied correctly. (HSCH)

  3. Algorithm for decision support as the tool for control system of industries with variable assortment of products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladaniuk, Anatolii; Ivashchuk, Viacheslav; Kisała, Piotr; Askarova, Nursanat; Sagymbekova, Azhar

    2015-12-01

    Conditions of diversification of enterprise products are involving for changes of higher levels of management hierarchy, so it's leading by tasks correcting and changing schedule for operating of production plans. Ordinary solve by combination of enterprise resource are planning and management execution system often has exclusively statistical content. So, the development of decision support system, that helps to use knowledge about subject for capabilities estimating and order of operation of production object is relevant in this time.

  4. Profitability goals, control goals, and the R&D investment decisions of family and non-family firms

    OpenAIRE

    Kotlar, Josip; Fang, Hanqing; De Massis, Alfredo; Frattini, Federico

    2014-01-01

    R&D investments can help build sustainable competitive advantages and improve firm performance as well as foster industry transformations and economic growth. Nevertheless, managers also acknowledge the difficulties associated with managing R&D and the low chances of success of innovation programs. For this reason, researchers have long been interested in understanding how managers make R&D investment decisions and, more specifically, identifying the conditions under which managers are most l...

  5. Decision Making Support for the Choice of a Controlled Pump Drive in the Project of Water Supply System Renovation

    OpenAIRE

    Galkina, A; Ribickis, L; Kuņicina, N; Čaiko, J

    2007-01-01

    The problem of renovation of the electric drive pump stations is highly actual in Latvia. In particular, in Riga the operation of major pump stations is economically unprofitable. The renovation is a long-term project, whose results will be seen in the future. Therefore, it is of importance to choose such a type of the pump regulation that will be effective in perspective, taking into account the capital and maintenance expenses. The paper describes a decision making procedure for the choice ...

  6. Air pollution from biomass burning and asthma hospital admissions in a sugar cane plantation area in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Arbex, Flávio Ferlin; Cançado, José Eduardo Delfini; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between the total suspended particles (TSPs) generated from preharvest sugar cane burning and hospital admission due to asthma (asthma hospital admissions) in the city of Araraquara. Design An ecological time‐series study. Total daily records of asthma hospital admissions (ICD 10th J15) were obtained from one of the main hospitals in Araraquara, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 23 March 2003 to 27 July 2004. The daily concentration of TSP (μg/m3) was obtained using Handi‐vol equipment (Energética, Brazil) placed in downtown Araraquara. The local airport provided the daily mean figures of temperature and humidity. The daily number of asthma hospital admissions was considered as the dependent variable in Poisson's regression models and the daily concentration of TSP was considered the independent variable. The generalised linear model with natural cubic spline was adopted to control for long‐time trend. Linear terms were used for weather variables. Results TSP had an acute effect on asthma admissions, starting 1 day after TSP concentrations increased and remaining almost unchanged for the next four days. A 10 μg/m3 increase in the 5‐day moving average (lag1–5) of TSP concentrations was associated with an increase of 11.6% (95% CI 5.4 to 17.7) in asthma hospital admissions. Conclusion Increases in TSP concentrations were definitely associated with asthma hospital admissions in Araraquara and, despite using sugar cane alcohol to reduce air pollution from automotive sources in large Brazilian urban centres, the cities where sugar cane is harvested pay a high toll in terms of public health. PMID:17435205

  7. The effect of solar-geomagnetic activity during and after admission on survival in patients with acute coronary syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vencloviene, Jone; Babarskiene, Ruta; Milvidaite, Irena; Kubilius, Raimondas; Stasionyte, Jolanta

    2014-08-01

    A number of studies have established the effects of solar-geomagnetic activity on the human cardio-vascular system. It is plausible that the heliophysical conditions existing during and after hospital admission may affect survival in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We analyzed data from 1,413 ACS patients who were admitted to the Hospital of Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania, and who survived for more than 4 days. We evaluated the associations between active-stormy geomagnetic activity (GMA), solar proton events (SPE), and solar flares (SF) that occurred 0-3 days before and after admission, and 2-year survival, based on Cox's proportional-hazards model, controlling for clinical data. After adjustment for clinical variables, active-stormy GMA on the 2nd day after admission was associated with an increased (by 1.58 times) hazard ratio (HR) of cardiovascular death (HR = 1.58, 95 % CI 1.07-2.32). For women, geomagnetic storm (GS) 2 days after SPE occurred 1 day after admission increased the HR by 3.91 times (HR = 3.91, 95 % CI 1.31-11.7); active-stormy GMA during the 2nd-3rd day after admission increased the HR by over 2.5 times (HR = 2.66, 95 % CI 1.40-5.03). In patients aged over 70 years, GS occurring 1 day before or 2 days after admission, increased the HR by 2.5 times, compared to quiet days; GS in conjunction with SF on the previous day, nearly tripled the HR (HR = 3.08, 95 % CI 1.32-7.20). These findings suggest that the heliophysical conditions before or after the admission affect the hazard ratio of lethal outcome; adjusting for clinical variables, these effects were stronger for women and older patients.

  8. 31 CFR 501.802 - Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decisions. 501.802 Section 501.802... § 501.802 Decisions. The Office of Foreign Assets Control will advise each applicant of the decision respecting filed applications. The decision of the Office of Foreign Assets Control acting on behalf of...

  9. 16 CFR 1025.34 - Requests for admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS Discovery, Compulsory Process § 1025.34 Requests for admission. (a) Procedure for request. A party... inquiry and that the information known or readily available to him/her is insufficient to enable...

  10. 19 CFR 210.31 - Requests for admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Discovery and Compulsory Process § 210.31 Requests for admission. (a... or deny unless he states that he has made reasonable inquiry and that the information known to...

  11. Admission to a psychiatric unit and changes in tobacco smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owens David

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Smoking and withdrawal from smoking complicates the assessment and treatment of mental illness. We aimed to establish whether psychiatric inpatients smoke different amounts after admission than beforehand and, if so, to find out why. Forty-three inpatients on a working age adult psychiatry ward completed self-report questionnaires about smoking habits. Those who smoked a different amount after admission had a follow-up interview to find out why they thought this had occurred. The interview incorporated qualitative and quantitative aspects which were analysed accordingly. Fifty-six percent of participants were smokers before admission, rising to 70% afterwards. Of the smokers, 17% smoked less after admission, and 63% smoked more. The average number of cigarettes smoked per person per day increased from five to thirteen. The main reasons for smoking more were boredom, stress and the wish to socialise.

  12. 49 CFR 386.44 - Request for admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... serve upon any other party a request for admission of any relevant matter or the authenticity of any... other proceeding. (c) If a party refuses to admit a matter or the authenticity of a document which...

  13. AMPLE Using BGP Based Traffic Engineering with Admission Control Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.V. Palanisamy#1 , K. Gowri

    2013-01-01

    Traffic engineering is an important mechanism for Internet network providers seeking to optimize network performance and traffic delivery. Routing optimization plays a key role in traffic engineering, finding efficient routes so as to achieve the desired network performance. BGP is the de facto protocol used for inter-autonomous system routing in the Internet. BGP has been proven to be secure, efficient, scalable, and robust. In proposed introduced AMPLE – an efficient traffic engineering and...

  14. A fuzzy approach to cloud admission control for safe overbooking

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez, Carlos; Tomas, Luis; Moreno, Ginés; Tordsson, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing enables elasticity - rapid provisioning and deprovisioning of computational resources.Elasticity allows cloud users to quickly adapt resource allocation to meet changes in their workloads.For cloud providers, elasticity complicates capacity management as the amount ofresources that can be requested by users is unknown and can vary significantly over time. Overbooking techniques allowproviders to increase utilization of their data centers. For safe overbooking, cloud providersn...

  15. RELATIONSHIP OF SUCCESS IN UNIVERSITY STUDY AND ADMISSION EXAM RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Poláčková, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The admission examinations represent a first important moment in academic education. If the admission proceedings really are expected to satisfy the intention to select those most capable and fittest candidates for study, proper attention has to be paid to them. Besides checking and confirming satisfactory levels of the results of secondary school studies they also should predict with sufficient reliability the academic success of study in the given branch. The paper brings research results c...

  16. Discovery of Association Rules from University Admission System Data

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Fattah Mashat; Mohammed M. Fouad; Yu, Philip S.; Tarek F. Gharib

    2013-01-01

    Association rules discovery is one of the vital data mining techniques. Currently there is an increasing interest in data mining and educational systems, making educational data mining (EDM) as a new growing research community. In this paper, we present a model for association rules discovery from King Abdulaziz University (KAU) admission system data. The main objective is to extract the rules and relations between admission system attributes for better analysis. The model utilizes an apriori...

  17. Inequitable achievement : different admissions criteria, same predictors of degree attainment?

    OpenAIRE

    Avery, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    San Diego State University (SDSU) admits freshman under two different admissions criteria. This study examined the intra-institutional gaps in 6-year degree attainment of students admitted under the two different admissions groups. The research focused on the graduation of White, Hispanic and African American students. Specifically, this study examined the predictors of degree attainment for the fall 2001 freshmen cohort. Theoretical models of retention guided this study. The research design ...

  18. Prediction of mortality 1 year after hospital admission.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kellett, J

    2012-09-01

    Hospital admission, especially for the elderly, can be a seminal event as many patients die within a year. This study reports the prediction of death within a year of admission to hospital of the Simple Clinical Score (SCS) and ECG dispersion mapping (ECG-DM). ECG-DM is a novel technique that analyzes low-amplitude ECG oscillations and reports them as the myocardial micro-alternation index (MMI).

  19. Grading standards, student ability and errors in college admission

    OpenAIRE

    Møen, Jarle; Tjelta, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Grades are important for admission of students in most higher education programmes. Analysing admission and student performance data at a major Norwegian business school, we find that the grading practice of teachers at regional colleges sending students to the school is affected by the average performance of the students being graded. Teachers at colleges recruiting good students from upper secondary school tend to be strict in their grading practice, while teachers at colleges r...

  20. [Compulsory admission to hospital in Tunisia: a necessary evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellouze, Faten; Lahmar, Aymen; Beji, Rami; Dridi, Anis; Fadhel M'rad, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of the legislation governing compulsory admission to hospital in Tunisia is interesting for two reasons. The country's 2011 revolution notably brought about major changes to the legislative framework, from constitutional through to ordinary laws. At the same time, the current trend for globalisation is also affecting legislation: international laws, treaties and UN charters are imposed on the laws of individual countries. This article looks at how Tunisian law governing compulsory admission to hospital has had to evolve. PMID:26143219