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Sample records for administration increases mnsod

  1. AMP-activated protein kinase controls exercise training- and AICAR-induced increases in SIRT3 and MnSOD

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    Josef eBrandauer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial protein deacetylase sirtuin (SIRT 3 may mediate exercise training-induced increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and improvements in reactive oxygen species (ROS handling. We determined the requirement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK for exercise training-induced increases in skeletal muscle abundance of SIRT3 and other mitochondrial proteins. Exercise training for 6.5 weeks increased SIRT3 (p<0.01 and superoxide dismutase 2 (MnSOD; p<0.05 protein abundance in quadriceps muscle of wild-type (WT; n=13-15, but not AMPK α2 kinase dead (KD; n=12-13 mice. We also observed a strong trend for increased MnSOD abundance in exercise-trained skeletal muscle of healthy humans (p=0.051; n=6. To further elucidate a role for AMPK in mediating these effects, we treated WT (n=7-8 and AMPK α2 KD (n=7-9 mice with 5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR. Four weeks of daily AICAR injections (500 mg/kg resulted in AMPK-dependent increases in SIRT3 (p<0.05 and MnSOD (p<0.01 in WT, but not AMPK α2 KD mice. We also tested the effect of repeated AICAR treatment on mitochondrial protein levels in mice lacking the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-coactivator 1α (PGC-1α KO; n=9-10. Skeletal muscle SIRT3 and MnSOD protein abundance was reduced in sedentary PGC-1α KO mice (p<0.01 and AICAR-induced increases in SIRT3 and MnSOD protein abundance was only observed in WT mice (p<0.05. Finally, the acetylation status of SIRT3 target lysine residues on MnSOD (K122 or oligomycin-sensitivity conferring protein (OSCP; K139 was not altered in either mouse or human skeletal muscle in response to acute exercise. We propose an important role for AMPK in regulating mitochondrial function and ROS handling in skeletal muscle in response to exercise training.

  2. Proton pump inhibitors suppress iNOS-dependent DNA damage in Barrett's esophagus by increasing Mn-SOD expression

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    Thanan, Raynoo [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie 513-8670 (Japan); Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Ma, Ning [Faculty of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie 513-0293 (Japan); Iijima, Katsunori; Abe, Yasuhiko; Koike, Tomoyuki; Shimosegawa, Tooru [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Miyaki 980-8574 (Japan); Pinlaor, Somchai [Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Hiraku, Yusuke; Oikawa, Shinji; Murata, Mariko [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Kawanishi, Shosuke, E-mail: kawanisi@suzuka-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie 513-8670 (Japan)

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inflammation by Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a risk factor of its adenocarcinoma (BEA). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 8-Nitroguanine and 8-oxodG are inflammation-related DNA lesions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA lesions and iNOS expression were higher in the order, BEA > BE > normal tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proton pump inhibitors suppress DNA damage by increasing Mn-SOD via Nrf2 activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA lesions can be useful biomarkers to predict risk of BEA in BE patients. -- Abstract: Barrett's esophagus (BE), an inflammatory disease, is a risk factor for Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma (BEA). Treatment of BE patients with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is expected to reduce the risk of BEA. We performed an immunohistochemical study to examine the formation of nitrative and oxidative DNA lesions, 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 Prime -deoxygaunosine (8-oxodG), in normal esophageal, BE with pre- and post-treatment by PPIs and BEA tissues. We also observed the expression of an oxidant-generating enzyme (iNOS) and its transcription factor NF-{kappa}B, an antioxidant enzyme (Mn-SOD), its transcription factor (Nrf2) and an Nrf2 inhibitor (Keap1). The immunoreactivity of DNA lesions was significantly higher in the order of BEA > BE > normal tissues. iNOS expression was significantly higher in the order of BEA > BE > normal tissues, while Mn-SOD expression was significantly lower in the order of BEA < BE < normal tissues. Interestingly, Mn-SOD expression and the nuclear localization of Nrf2 were significantly increased, and the formation of DNA lesions was significantly decreased in BE tissues after PPIs treatment for 3-6 months. Keap1 and iNOS expression was not significantly changed by the PPIs treatment in BE tissues. These results indicate that 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG play a role in BE-derived BEA. Additionally, PPIs treatment may trigger the activation and

  3. Proton pump inhibitors suppress iNOS-dependent DNA damage in Barrett’s esophagus by increasing Mn-SOD expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Inflammation by Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is a risk factor of its adenocarcinoma (BEA). ► 8-Nitroguanine and 8-oxodG are inflammation-related DNA lesions. ► DNA lesions and iNOS expression were higher in the order, BEA > BE > normal tissues. ► Proton pump inhibitors suppress DNA damage by increasing Mn-SOD via Nrf2 activation. ► DNA lesions can be useful biomarkers to predict risk of BEA in BE patients. -- Abstract: Barrett’s esophagus (BE), an inflammatory disease, is a risk factor for Barrett’s esophageal adenocarcinoma (BEA). Treatment of BE patients with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is expected to reduce the risk of BEA. We performed an immunohistochemical study to examine the formation of nitrative and oxidative DNA lesions, 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxygaunosine (8-oxodG), in normal esophageal, BE with pre- and post-treatment by PPIs and BEA tissues. We also observed the expression of an oxidant-generating enzyme (iNOS) and its transcription factor NF-κB, an antioxidant enzyme (Mn-SOD), its transcription factor (Nrf2) and an Nrf2 inhibitor (Keap1). The immunoreactivity of DNA lesions was significantly higher in the order of BEA > BE > normal tissues. iNOS expression was significantly higher in the order of BEA > BE > normal tissues, while Mn-SOD expression was significantly lower in the order of BEA < BE < normal tissues. Interestingly, Mn-SOD expression and the nuclear localization of Nrf2 were significantly increased, and the formation of DNA lesions was significantly decreased in BE tissues after PPIs treatment for 3–6 months. Keap1 and iNOS expression was not significantly changed by the PPIs treatment in BE tissues. These results indicate that 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG play a role in BE-derived BEA. Additionally, PPIs treatment may trigger the activation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2 resulting in the expression of antioxidant genes, leading to DNA damage suppression. These DNA lesions can be useful

  4. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD catalyzes NO-dependent tyrosine residue nitration

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    SRDJAN STOJANOVIC

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The peroxynitrite-induced nitration of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD tyrosine residue, which causes enzyme inactivation, is well established. This led to suggestions that MnSOD nitration and inactivation in vivo, detected in various diseases associated with oxidative stress and overproduction of nitric monoxide (NO, conditions which favor peroxynitrite formation, is also caused by peroxynitrite. However, our previous in vitro study demonstrated that exposure of MnSOD to NO led to NO conversion into nitrosonium (NO+ and nitroxyl (NO– species, which caused enzyme modifications and inactivation. Here it is reported that MnSOD is tyrosine nitrated upon exposure to NO, as well as that MnSOD nitration contributes to inactivation of the enzyme. Collectively, these observations provide a compelling argument supporting the generation of nitrating species in MnSOD exposed to NO and shed a new light on MnSOD tyrosine nitration and inactivation in vivo. This may represent a novel mechanism by which MnSOD protects cell from deleterious effects associated with overproduction of NO. However, extensive MnSOD modification and inactivation associated with prolonged exposure to NO will amplify the toxic effects caused by increased cell superoxide and NO levels.

  5. Peroxynitrite induced mitochondrial biogenesis following MnSOD knockdown in normal rat kidney (NRK cells

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    Akira Marine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide is widely regarded as the primary reactive oxygen species (ROS which initiates downstream oxidative stress. Increased oxidative stress contributes, in part, to many disease conditions such as cancer, atherosclerosis, ischemia/reperfusion, diabetes, aging, and neurodegeneration. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide into hydrogen peroxide which can then be further detoxified by other antioxidant enzymes. MnSOD is critical in maintaining the normal function of mitochondria, thus its inactivation is thought to lead to compromised mitochondria. Previously, our laboratory observed increased mitochondrial biogenesis in a novel kidney-specific MnSOD knockout mouse. The current study used transient siRNA mediated MnSOD knockdown of normal rat kidney (NRK cells as the in vitro model, and confirmed functional mitochondrial biogenesis evidenced by increased PGC1α expression, mitochondrial DNA copy numbers and integrity, electron transport chain protein CORE II, mitochondrial mass, oxygen consumption rate, and overall ATP production. Further mechanistic studies using mitoquinone (MitoQ, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant and L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor demonstrated that peroxynitrite (at low micromolar levels induced mitochondrial biogenesis. These findings provide the first evidence that low levels of peroxynitrite can initiate a protective signaling cascade involving mitochondrial biogenesis which may help to restore mitochondrial function following transient MnSOD inactivation.

  6. INCREASING AND PROLONGING BLOOD PENICILLIN CONCENTRATIONS FOLLOWING INTRAMUSCULAR ADMINISTRATION.

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    Bronfenbrenner, J; Favour, C B

    1945-06-29

    (1) Restriction of fluid intake to 1,500 cc and the salt intake to 3 gm a day doubles the penicillin blood level following interrupted intramuscular [See Figure in the PDF file] injections of penicillin. (2) The administration of benzoic acid to a patient on an unrestricted diet Ilay double the penicillin blood level during similar treatment. (3) The combination of these two procedures results in a four- to eight-fold increase in penicillin blood level with a prolonged effective blood concentration.

  7. L-tyrosine administration increases acetylcholinesterase activity in rats.

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    Ferreira, Gabriela K; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Vieira, Júlia S; Scaini, Giselli; Ghedim, Fernando V; Deroza, Pedro F; Zugno, Alexandra I; Pereira, Talita C B; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Maurício R; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

    2012-12-01

    Tyrosinemia is a rare genetic disease caused by mutations on genes that codify enzymes responsible for tyrosine metabolism. Considering that tyrosinemics patients usually present symptoms associated with central nervous system alterations that ranges from slight decreases in intelligence to severe mental retardation, we decided to investigate whether acute and chronic administration of L-tyrosine in rats would affect acetylcholinesterase mRNA expression and enzymatic activity during their development. In our acute protocol, Wistar rats (10 and 30 days old) were killed one hour after a single intraperitoneal L-tyrosine injection (500 mg/kg) or saline. Chronic administration consisted of L-tyrosine (500 mg/kg) or saline injections 12 h apart for 24 days in Wistar rats (7 days old) and rats were killed 12 h after last injection. Acetylcholinesterase activity was measured by Ellman's method and acetylcholinesterase expression was carried out by a semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. We observed that acute (10 and 30 days old rats) and chronic L-tyrosine administration increased acetylcholinesterase activity in serum and all tested brain areas (hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex) when compared to control group. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in mRNA levels of acetylcholinesterase in hippocampus was observed after acute protocol (10 and 30 days old rats) and in striatum after chronic protocol. In case these alterations also occur in the brain of the patients, our results may explain, at least in part, the neurological sequelae associated with high plasma concentrations of tyrosine seen in patients affected by tyrosinemia type II.

  8. A manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) from ark shell, Scapharca broughtonii: Molecular characterization, expression and immune activity analysis.

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    Zheng, Libing; Wu, Biao; Liu, Zhihong; Tian, Jiteng; Yu, Tao; Zhou, Liqing; Sun, Xiujun; Yang, Aiguo

    2015-08-01

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is one of the key members of the antioxidant defense enzyme family, however, data regarding to the immune function of MnSOD in mollusks still remain limited now. In this study, a full-length MnSOD cDNA was identified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method from cDNA library of ark shell Scapharca broughtonii (termed SbMnSOD). The cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 696 bp which encoded a polypeptide of 232 amino acids, a 5'-UTR with length of 32 bp and a 3'-UTR of 275 bp. Four putative amino acid residues (His-57, His-105, Asp-190 and His-194) responsible for manganese coordination were located in the most highly conserved regions of SbMnSOD and the signature sequence (DVWEHAYY) also existed in SbMnSOD. The deduced amino acid sequence of SbMnSOD shared high homology to MnSOD from other species. All those data revealed that the SbMnSOD was a novel member of the MnSOD family. The mRNA expression profiles of SbMnSOD in tissues of foot, gill, mantle, adductor muscle, hemocytes and hepatopancreas analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) suggested the mRNA transcripts of SbMnSOD distributed in all the examined tissues. Importantly, Vibrio anguillarum challenge resulted in the increased expression of SbMnSOD mRNA with a regular change trend in all examined tissues, indicating SbMnSOD actively participated in the immune response process. What's more, further analysis on the antibacterial activity of the recombinant SbMnSOD showed that the fusion protein could remarkably inhibit growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The present results clearly suggested that SbMnSOD was an acute phase protein involved in the immune reaction in S. broughtonii.

  9. A Comparison of Two Yeast MnSODs: Mitochondrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae versus Cytosolic Candida albicans

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    Sheng Y.; Cabelli D.; Stich, T.A.; Barnese, K.; Gralla, E.B.; Cascio, D.; Britt, R.D.; Valentine, J.S.

    2011-12-28

    Human MnSOD is significantly more product-inhibited than bacterial MnSODs at high concentrations of superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup -}). This behavior limits the amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} produced at high [O{sub 2}{sup -}]; its desirability can be explained by the multiple roles of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in mammalian cells, particularly its role in signaling. To investigate the mechanism of product inhibition in MnSOD, two yeast MnSODs, one from Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria (ScMnSOD) and the other from Candida albicans cytosol (CaMnSODc), were isolated and characterized. ScMnSOD and CaMnSODc are similar in catalytic kinetics, spectroscopy, and redox chemistry, and they both rest predominantly in the reduced state (unlike most other MnSODs). At high [O{sub 2}{sup -}], the dismutation efficiencies of the yeast MnSODs surpass those of human and bacterial MnSODs, due to very low level of product inhibition. Optical and parallel-mode electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra suggest the presence of two Mn{sup 3+} species in yeast Mn{sup 3+}SODs, including the well-characterized 5-coordinate Mn{sup 3+} species and a 6-coordinate L-Mn{sup 3+} species with hydroxide as the putative sixth ligand (L). The first and second coordination spheres of ScMnSOD are more similar to bacterial than to human MnSOD. Gln154, an H-bond donor to the Mn-coordinated solvent molecule, is slightly further away from Mn in yeast MnSODs, which may result in their unusual resting state. Mechanistically, the high efficiency of yeast MnSODs could be ascribed to putative translocation of an outer-sphere solvent molecule, which could destabilize the inhibited complex and enhance proton transfer from protein to peroxide. Our studies on yeast MnSODs indicate the unique nature of human MnSOD in that it predominantly undergoes the inhibited pathway at high [O{sub 2}{sup -}].

  10. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and nitrate tolerance – comparison of nitroglycerin and pentaerithrityl tetranitrate in Mn-SOD+/- mice

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    Stalleicken Dirk

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic therapy with nitroglycerin (GTN results in a rapid development of nitrate tolerance which is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. According to recent studies, mitochondrial ROS formation and oxidative inactivation of the organic nitrate bioactivating enzyme mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2 play an important role for the development of nitrate and cross-tolerance. Methods Tolerance was induced by infusion of wild type (WT and heterozygous manganese superoxide dismutase mice (Mn-SOD+/- with ethanolic solution of GTN (12.5 μg/min/kg for 4 d. For comparison, the tolerance-free pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN, 17.5 μg/min/kg for 4 d was infused in DMSO. Vascular reactivity was measured by isometric tension studies of isolated aortic rings. ROS formation and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2 activity was measured in isolated heart mitochondria. Results Chronic GTN infusion lead to impaired vascular responses to GTN and acetylcholine (ACh, increased the ROS formation in mitochondria and decreased ALDH-2 activity in Mn-SOD+/- mice. In contrast, PETN infusion did not increase mitochondrial ROS formation, did not decrease ALDH-2 activity and accordingly did not lead to tolerance and cross-tolerance in Mn-SOD+/- mice. PETN but not GTN increased heme oxygenase-1 mRNA in EA.hy 926 cells and bilirubin efficiently scavenged GTN-derived ROS. Conclusion Chronic GTN infusion stimulates mitochondrial ROS production which is an important mechanism leading to tolerance and cross-tolerance. The tetranitrate PETN is devoid of mitochondrial oxidative stress induction and according to the present animal study as well as numerous previous clinical studies can be used without limitations due to tolerance and cross-tolerance.

  11. Molecular control of TiO₂-NPs toxicity formation at predicted environmental relevant concentrations by Mn-SODs proteins.

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    Yinxia Li

    Full Text Available With growing concerns of the safety of nanotechnology, the in vivo toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs at environmental relevant concentrations has drawn increasing attentions. We investigated the possible molecular mechanisms of titanium nanoparticles (Ti-NPs in the induction of toxicity at predicted environmental relevant concentrations. In nematodes, small sizes (4 nm and 10 nm of TiO₂-NPs induced more severe toxicities than large sizes (60 nm and 90 nm of TiO₂-NPs on animals using lethality, growth, reproduction, locomotion behavior, intestinal autofluorescence, and reactive oxygen species (ROS production as endpoints. Locomotion behaviors could be significantly decreased by exposure to 4-nm and 10-nm TiO₂-NPs at concentration of 1 ng/L in nematodes. Among genes required for the control of oxidative stress, only the expression patterns of sod-2 and sod-3 genes encoding Mn-SODs in animals exposed to small sizes TiO₂-NPs were significantly different from those in animals exposed to large sizes of TiO₂-NPs. sod-2 and sod-3 gene expressions were closely correlated with lethality, growth, reproduction, locomotion behavior, intestinal autofluorescence, and ROS production in TiO₂-NPs-exposed animals. Ectopically expression of human and nematode Mn-SODs genes effectively prevented the induction of ROS production and the development of toxicity of TiO₂-NPs. Therefore, the altered expression patterns of Mn-SODs may explain the toxicity formation for different sizes of TiO₂-NPs at predicted environmental relevant concentrations. In addition, we demonstrated here a strategy to investigate the toxicological effects of exposure to NPs upon humans by generating transgenic strains in nematodes for specific human genes.

  12. Intranasal administration of oxytocin increases compassion toward women.

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    Palgi, Sharon; Klein, Ehud; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2015-03-01

    It has been suggested that the degree of compassion-the feeling of warmth, understanding and kindness that motivates the desire to help others, is modulated by observers' views regarding the target's vulnerability and suffering. This study tested the hypothesis that as compassion developed to protect vulnerable kinships, hormones such as oxytocin, which have been suggested as playing a key role in 'tend-and-befriend' behaviors among women, will enhance compassion toward women but not toward men. Thirty subjects participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study. Following administration of oxytocin/placebo, participants listened to recordings of different female/male protagonists describing distressful emotional conflicts and were then asked to provide compassionate advice to the protagonist. The participants' responses were coded according to various components of compassion by two clinical psychologists who were blind to the treatment. The results showed that in women and men participants oxytocin enhanced compassion toward women, but did not affect compassion toward men. These findings indicate that the oxytocinergic system differentially mediates compassion toward women and toward men, emphasizing an evolutionary perspective that views compassion as a caregiving behavior designed to help vulnerable individuals.

  13. Intranasal administration of oxytocin increases compassion toward women.

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    Palgi, Sharon; Klein, Ehud; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2015-03-01

    It has been suggested that the degree of compassion-the feeling of warmth, understanding and kindness that motivates the desire to help others, is modulated by observers' views regarding the target's vulnerability and suffering. This study tested the hypothesis that as compassion developed to protect vulnerable kinships, hormones such as oxytocin, which have been suggested as playing a key role in 'tend-and-befriend' behaviors among women, will enhance compassion toward women but not toward men. Thirty subjects participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study. Following administration of oxytocin/placebo, participants listened to recordings of different female/male protagonists describing distressful emotional conflicts and were then asked to provide compassionate advice to the protagonist. The participants' responses were coded according to various components of compassion by two clinical psychologists who were blind to the treatment. The results showed that in women and men participants oxytocin enhanced compassion toward women, but did not affect compassion toward men. These findings indicate that the oxytocinergic system differentially mediates compassion toward women and toward men, emphasizing an evolutionary perspective that views compassion as a caregiving behavior designed to help vulnerable individuals. PMID:24711542

  14. Gene × Gene interaction between MnSOD and GPX-1 and breast cancer risk: a nested case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germ-line mutations in genes such as BRCA1, BRCA2, and ATM can cause a substantial increase in risk of breast cancer. However, these mutations are rare in the general population, and account for little of the incidence of sporadic breast cancer in the general population. Therefore, research has been focused on examining associations between common polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. To date, few associations have been described. This has led to the hypothesis that breast cancer is a complex disease, whereby a constellation of very low penetrance alleles need to be carried to present a risk phenotype. Polymorphisms in the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX-1) genes have been proposed as low penetrance alleles, and have not been clearly associated with breast cancer. We investigated whether variants at both polymorphisms, while not independently associated with breast cancer risk, could influence breast cancer risk when considered together. A case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study was performed comparing 1262 women diagnosed with breast cancer to 1533 disease free women. The MnSOD (Val16Ala, rs1799725) and GPX-1 (Pro198Leu, rs1050450) were genotyped via TaqMan assay. Disease risk was evaluated using logistic regression. While neither allele alone shows any change in breast cancer risk, an increase in the risk of breast cancer (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.09 – 3.19) is observed in individuals who carry both the Ala16Ala genotype of MnSOD and the Leu198Leu genotype of GPX-1. Polymorphisms in the GPX-1 and MnSOD genes are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer

  15. Irradiation increases manganese superoxide dismutase gene in human fibroblasts. Possible mechanisms for its accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibroblasts are one of the mesenchymal cells and constitute a major element of components in bone marrow stroma as well as submucosal and subcutaneous tissue. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a mitochondrial enzyme involved in scavenging of superoxide radicals (O2-). In this study, we examined the regulation of MnSOD gene by irradiation in WI38 human fibroblasts. We found that fibroblasts constitutively produced MnSOD; irradiation significantly increased the activity of MnSOD. The increase in MnSOD transcripts by irradiation was both time- and dose-dependent. Pretreatment with cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, did not change accumulation of MnSOD mRNA by irradiation. WI38 fibroblasts constitutively produce low levels of IL-1. Induction of MnSOD mRNA by irradiation was blocked by anti-IL-1 antibodies. Inhibition of the cyclooxygenase pathway with indomethacin caused augmentation in the irradiation-induced MnSOD mRNA. These results suggest that induction of MnSOD gene after irradiation is regulated, at least in part, by IL-1 production, and increased levels of MnSOD transcripts also occur through a pathway of prostaglandin inhibition. (author)

  16. Cloning and differential expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) of Trichinella pseudospiralis.

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    Wu, W K; Mak, C H; Ko, R C

    2008-01-01

    The complete coding sequence of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) of Trichinella pseudospiralis (Tp) was obtained and characterized for the first time by degenerative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends (RACE) reactions. The open reading frame of Tp Mn-SOD contained 663 nucleotides, encoding 220 amino acid residues. This included the conserved histidine and aspartate residues for metal binding, cysteine residues for disulfide bond formation, and arginine residue for directing the superoxide ion to the protein. The presence of mitochondrial transit peptides and maturation cleavage site suggest that the cloned Tp Mn-SOD gene is a mitochondrial enzyme. It is a single copy gene containing three introns. Northern blotting suggested that the expression level of Mn-SOD is lower than Cu/Zn SOD in infective stage larvae. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that a single dominant transcript of Tp Mn-SOD was highly expressed in the infective-stage larvae but not in adult worms. The information provides a better understanding of the highly compartmentalized superoxide dismutases of adenophorean nematodes. PMID:17955260

  17. Manganese deficiency in Chlamydomonas results in loss of photosystem II and MnSOD function, sensitivity to peroxides, and secondary phosphorus and iron deficiency.

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    Allen, Michael D; Kropat, Janette; Tottey, Stephen; Del Campo, José A; Merchant, Sabeeha S

    2007-01-01

    For photoheterotrophic growth, a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cell requires at least 1.7 x 10(7) manganese ions in the medium. At lower manganese ion concentrations (typically OEE proteins from the membrane. Assay of Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) indicates loss of activity of two isozymes in proportion to the Mn deficiency. The expression of MSD3 through MSD5, encoding various isoforms of the MnSODs, is up-regulated severalfold in Mn-deficient cells, but neither expression nor activity of the plastid Fe-containing superoxide dismutase is changed, which contrasts with the dramatically increased MSD3 expression and plastid MnSOD activity in Fe-deficient cells. Mn-deficient cells are selectively sensitive to peroxide but not methyl viologen or Rose Bengal, and GPXs, APX, and MSRA2 genes (encoding glutathione peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and methionine sulfoxide reductase 2) are slightly up-regulated. Elemental analysis indicates that the Mn, Fe, and P contents of cells in the Mn-deficient cultures were reduced in proportion to the deficiency. A natural resistance-associated macrophage protein homolog and one of five metal tolerance proteins were induced in Mn-deficient cells but not in Fe-deficient cells, suggesting that the corresponding gene products may be components of a Mn(2+)-selective assimilation pathway. PMID:17085511

  18. Effect of N+ Beam Exposure on Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase Activities and Induction of Mn-SOD in Deinococcus Radiodurans

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    Song, Dao-jun; Chen, Ruo-lei; Shao, Chun-lin; Wu, Li-jun; Yu, Zeng-liang

    2000-10-01

    Though bacteria of the radiation-resistant Deinococcus radiodurans have a high resistance to the lethal and mutagenic effects of many DNA-damaging agents, the mechanisms involved in the response of these bacteria to oxidative stress are poorly understood. In this report, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities produced by these bacteria were measured, and the change of SOD and CAT activities by 20 keV N+ beam exposure was examined. Their activities were increased by N+ beam exposure from 8×1014 ions/cm2 to 6×1015 ions/cm2. The treatment of H2O2 and [CHCl3 +CH3CH2OH] and the measurement of absorption spectrum showed that the increase in SOD activity was resulted from inducible activities of Mn-SOD in D. radiodurans AS1.633 by N+ beam exposure. These results suggested that this bacteria possess inducible defense mechanisms against the deleterious effects of oxidization.

  19. Genetic polymorphisms of MPO, COMT, MnSOD, NQO1, interactions with environmental exposures and bladder cancer risk.

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    Hung, Rayjean J; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Malaveille, Christian; Gelatti, Umberto; Placidi, Donatella; Carta, Angela; Hautefeuille, Agnès; Porru, Stefano

    2004-06-01

    Tobacco smoking and occupational exposure are major risk factors of bladder cancer via exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic amines, which lead to oxidative stress and DNA damage. Several enzymes, which play key roles in oxidative stress are polymorphic in humans. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) produces a strong oxidant for microbicidal activity, and activates carcinogens in tobacco smoke. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes the methylation of endo- and xenobiotics and prevents redox cycling. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) catalyzes the two-electron reduction of quinoid compounds, which also protects cells from redox cycling. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protects cells from free radical injury. To test the hypothesis that the risk of bladder cancer can be influenced by polymorphisms in the genes that modulate oxidative stress, in particular by interacting with environmental carcinogens, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study among men in Brescia, Northern Italy. We recruited and interviewed 201 incident cases and 214 controls from 1997 to 2000. Occupational exposures to PAHs and aromatic amines were coded blindly by occupational physicians. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression was applied to model the association between genetic polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk and the effect of modifications of smoking and occupational exposures were evaluated. MPO G-463A homozygous variant was associated with a reduced risk of bladder cancer with an OR of 0.31 (95% CI = 0.12-0.80). MnSOD Val/Val genotype increased the risk of bladder cancer with OR of 1.91 (95% CI = 1.20-3.04), and there was a combined effect with smoking (OR = 7.20, 95% CI = 3.23-16.1) and PAH (OR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.35-6.74). We did not observe an effect of COMT Val108Met polymorphism. These findings suggest that individual susceptibility of bladder cancer may be modulated by MPO and MnSOD polymorphisms, and that the combination of genetic

  20. Competitive dopamine receptor antagonists increase the equiactive cocaine concentration during self-administration

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    Norman, Andrew B.; Norman, Mantana K.; Tabet, Michael R.; Tsibulsky, Vladimir L.; Pesce, Amadeo J

    2010-01-01

    Competitive dopamine receptor antagonists increase the rate of cocaine self-administration. As the rate of self-administration at a particular unit dose is determined by the satiety threshold and the elimination half-life (t1/2) of cocaine, we investigated whether dopamine receptor antagonists altered these parameters. The plasma cocaine concentration at the time of each self-administration was constant during a session demonstrating that this satiety threshold concentration represents an equ...

  1. Coenzyme Q10 Administration Increases Brain Mitochondrial Concentrations and Exerts Neuroprotective Effects

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    Matthews, Russell T.; Yang, Lichuan; Browne, Susan; Baik, Myong; Flint Beal, M.

    1998-07-01

    Coenzyme Q10 is an essential cofactor of the electron transport chain as well as a potent free radical scavenger in lipid and mitochondrial membranes. Feeding with coenzyme Q10 increased cerebral cortex concentrations in 12- and 24-month-old rats. In 12-month-old rats administration of coenzyme Q10 resulted in significant increases in cerebral cortex mitochondrial concentrations of coenzyme Q10. Oral administration of coenzyme Q10 markedly attenuated striatal lesions produced by systemic administration of 3-nitropropionic acid and significantly increased life span in a transgenic mouse model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These results show that oral administration of coenzyme Q10 increases both brain and brain mitochondrial concentrations. They provide further evidence that coenzyme Q10 can exert neuroprotective effects that might be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. MnSOD upregulation induces autophagic programmed cell death in senescent keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeric Deruy

    Full Text Available Senescence is a state of growth arrest resulting mainly from telomere attrition and oxidative stress. It ultimately leads to cell death. We have previously shown that, in keratinocytes, senescence is induced by NF-kappaB activation, MnSOD upregulation and H(2O(2 overproduction. We have also shown that senescent keratinocytes do not die by apoptosis but as a result of high macroautophagic activity that targets the primary vital cell components. Here, we investigated the mechanisms that activate this autophagic cell death program. We show that corpses occurring at the senescence plateau display oxidatively-damaged mitochondria and nucleus that colocalize with autophagic vacuoles. The occurrence of such corpses was decreased by specifically reducing the H(2O(2 level with catalase, and, conversely, reproduced by overexpressing MnSOD or applying subtoxic doses of H(2O(2. This H(2O(2-induced cell death did occur through autophagy since it was accompanied by an accumulation of autophagic vesicles as evidenced by Lysotracker staining, LC3 vesiculation and transmission electron microscopy. Most importantly, it was partly abolished by 3-methyladenine, the specific inhibitor of autophagosome formation, and by anti-Atg5 siRNAs. Taken together these results suggest that autophagic cell death is activated in senescent keratinocytes because of the upregulation of MnSOD and the resulting accumulation of oxidative damages to nucleus and mitochondria.

  3. Intravaginal Administration of Sildenafil Citrate Increases Blood Flow in the Bovine Uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzięcioł Michał

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of sildenafil citrate administrated intravaginaly on the blood flow in the bovine uterus during dioestrus. Uterine blood flow was examined in six healthy adult cows. Sildenafil was administrated intravaginaly to each co w between the 6th and 8th d of the ovarian cycle, in the form of vaginal suppositories containing 100 mg of active substance at a dose of 100, 200, or 300 mg per animal. Uterine perfusion was estimated by the colour Doppler examination, and obtained results were analysed with the Pixel Flux Software (Chameleon, Germany. Moreover, cardiovascular parameters were also evaluated. Animals were examined before and five times after drug application (two times at 15 min intervals, and three times at 2 h intervals. A placebo suppository was also given to the cows. The analysis of the intensity and velocity of blood flow in the uterus proved that sildenafil administrated intravaginaly significantly increased blood flow in the uterus and the effect of increased perfusion was observed for 4 h and 30 min after administration. The effect of increased uterine perfusion was observed after low as well as high doses of sildenafil. Significant changes in the cardio-vascular parameters were not detected. There were no changes in the uterine perfusion as well as in cardiovascular parameters after placebo administration.

  4. Recombinant acylation stimulating protein administration to C3-/- mice increases insulin resistance via adipocyte inflammatory mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Nancy Munkonda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complement 3 (C3, a key component of the innate immune system, is involved in early inflammatory responses. Acylation stimulating protein (ASP; aka C3adesArg, a C3 cleavage product, is produced in adipose tissue and stimulates lipid storage. We hypothesized that, depending on the diet, chronic ASP administration in C3(-/- mice would affect lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity via an adaptive adipose tissue inflammatory response. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: C3(-/- mice on normal low fat diet (ND or high fat diet (HFD were chronically administered recombinant ASP (rASP for 25 days via an osmotic mini-pump. While there was no effect on food intake, there was a decrease in activity, with a relative increase in adipose tissue weight on ND, and a shift in adipocyte size distribution. While rASP administration to C3(-/- mice on a ND increased insulin sensitivity, on a HFD, rASP administration had the opposite effect. Specifically, rASP administration in C3(-/- HFD mice resulted in decreased gene expression of IRS1, GLUT4, SREBF1 and NFκB in muscle, and decreased C5L2 but increased JNK, CD36, CD11c, CCR2 and NFκB gene expression in adipose tissue as well as increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (Rantes, KC, MCP-1, IL-6 and G-CSF. In adipose tissue, although IRS1 and GLUT4 mRNA were unchanged, insulin response was reduced. CONCLUSION: The effects of chronic rASP administration are tissue and diet specific, rASP administration enhances the HFD induced inflammatory response leading to an insulin-resistant state. These results suggest that, in humans, the increased plasma ASP associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease could be an additional factor directly contributing to development of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and diabetes.

  5. The Leadership Roles of Distance Learning Administrators (DLAs) in Increasing Educational Value and Quality Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Donovan A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the leadership roles of distance learning administrators (DLAs) in light of the demand and need for value and quality in educational distance learning programs and schools. The author explores the development of distance learning using available and emerging technologies in relation to increased demand for education, training,…

  6. Administration of testosterone increases functional connectivity in a cortico-cortical depression circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Peper, J.S.; Koppeschaar, H.P.F.; Kahn, R.S.; Honk, E.J. van

    2005-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the steroid hormone testosterone (T) enhances libido and decreases depression. Even a single administration of T (0.5 mg sublingually) in healthy young women is sufficient to enhance physiological sexual responsiveness. Such physiological evidence is not yet availab

  7. A Single Oral Administration of Theaflavins Increases Energy Expenditure and the Expression of Metabolic Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Kudo

    Full Text Available Theaflavins are polyphenols found in black tea, whose physiological activities are not well understood. This study on mice evaluated the influence of a single oral administration of theaflavins on energy metabolism by monitoring the initial metabolic changess in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue (BAT. Oxygen consumption (VO2 and energy expenditure (EE were increased significantly in mice treated with theaflavin rich fraction (TF compared with the group administered vehicle alone. There was no difference in locomotor activity. Fasting mice were euthanized under anesthesia before and 2 and 5, 20-hr after treatment with TF or vehicle. The mRNA levels of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α in BAT were increased significantly 2-hr after administration ofTF. The levels of UCP-3 and PGC-1α in the gastrocnemius muscle were increased significantly 2 and 5-hr after administration of TF. The concentration of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK 1α was also increased significantly in the gastrocnemius 2 and 5-hr after treatment with TF. These results indicate that TF significantly enhances systemic energy expenditure, as evidenced by an increase in expression of metabolic genes.

  8. MnSOD downregulation induced by extremely low 0.1 mGy single and fractionated X-rays and microgravity treatment in human neuroblastoma cell line, NB-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indo, Hiroko P.; Tomiyoshi, Tsukasa; Suenaga, Shigeaki; Tomita, Kazuo; Suzuki, Hiromi; Masuda, Daisuke; Terada, Masahiro; Ishioka, Noriaki; Gusev, Oleg; Cornette, Richard; Okuda, Takashi; Mukai, Chiaki; Majima, Hideyuki J.

    2015-01-01

    A human neuroblastoma cell line, NB-1, was treated with 24 h of microgravity simulation by clinostat, or irradiated with extremely small X-ray doses of 0.1 or 1.0 mGy using single and 10 times fractionation regimes with 1 and 2 h time-intervals. A quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) examination was performed for apoptosis related factors (BAX, CYTC, APAF1, VDAC1–3, CASP3, CASP8, CASP9 P53, AIF, ANT1 and 2, BCL2, MnSOD, autophagy related BECN and necrosis related CYP-40. The qRT-PCR results revealed that microgravity did not result in significant changes except for a upregulation of proapoptotic VDAC2, and downregulations of proapoptotic CASP9 and antiapoptotic MnSOD. After 0.1 mGy fractionation irradiation, there was increased expression of proapoptotic APAF1 and downregulation of proapoptotic CYTC, VDAC2, VDAC3, CASP8, AIF, ANT1, and ANT2, as well as an increase in expression of antiapoptotic BCL2. There was also a decrease in MnSOD expression with 0.1 mGy fractionation irradiation. These results suggest that microgravity and low-dose radiation may decrease apoptosis but may potentially increase oxidative stress. PMID:26388666

  9. Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen handler om den praksis, vi kalder administration. Vi er i den offentlige sektor i Danmark hos kontorfolkene med deres sagsmapper, computere, telefoner,, lovsamlinger,, retningslinier og regneark. I bogen udfoldes en mangfoldighed af konkrete historier om det administrative arbejde fra...... forskellige områder i den offentlige sektor. Hensigten er at forstå den praksis og faglighed der knytter sig til det administrative arbejde...

  10. Exogenous t-PA administration increases hippocampal mature BDNF levels. plasmin- or NMDA-dependent mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodier, Marion; Prigent-Tessier, Anne; Béjot, Yannick; Jacquin, Agnès; Mossiat, Claude; Marie, Christine; Garnier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) through TrkB activation is central for brain functioning. Since the demonstration that plasmin is able to process pro-BDNF to mature BDNF and that these two forms have opposite effects on neuronal survival and plasticity, a particular attention has been paid to the link between tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)/plasmin system and BDNF metabolism. However, t-PA via its action on different N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits is also considered as a neuromodulator of glutamatergic transmission. In this context, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of recombinant (r)t-PA administration on brain BDNF metabolism in rats. In the hippocampus, we found that rt-PA (10 mg/kg) administration induced a progressive increase in mature BDNF levels associated with TrkB activation. In order to delineate the mechanistic involved, plasmin activity was assessed and its inhibition was attempted using tranexamic acid (30 or 300 mg/kg, i.v.) while NMDA receptors were antagonized with MK801 (0.3 or 3 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with rt-PA treatment. Our results showed that despite a rise in rt-PA activity, rt-PA administration failed to increase hippocampal plasmin activity suggesting that the plasminogen/plasmin system is not involved whereas MK801 abrogated the augmentation in mature BDNF levels observed after rt-PA administration. All together, our results show that rt-PA administration induces increase in hippocampal mature BDNF expression and suggests that rt-PA contributes to the control of brain BDNF synthesis through a plasmin-independent potentiation of NMDA receptors signaling.

  11. Exogenous t-PA administration increases hippocampal mature BDNF levels. plasmin- or NMDA-dependent mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Rodier

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF through TrkB activation is central for brain functioning. Since the demonstration that plasmin is able to process pro-BDNF to mature BDNF and that these two forms have opposite effects on neuronal survival and plasticity, a particular attention has been paid to the link between tissue plasminogen activator (tPA/plasmin system and BDNF metabolism. However, t-PA via its action on different N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor subunits is also considered as a neuromodulator of glutamatergic transmission. In this context, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of recombinant (rt-PA administration on brain BDNF metabolism in rats. In the hippocampus, we found that rt-PA (10 mg/kg administration induced a progressive increase in mature BDNF levels associated with TrkB activation. In order to delineate the mechanistic involved, plasmin activity was assessed and its inhibition was attempted using tranexamic acid (30 or 300 mg/kg, i.v. while NMDA receptors were antagonized with MK801 (0.3 or 3 mg/kg, i.p. in combination with rt-PA treatment. Our results showed that despite a rise in rt-PA activity, rt-PA administration failed to increase hippocampal plasmin activity suggesting that the plasminogen/plasmin system is not involved whereas MK801 abrogated the augmentation in mature BDNF levels observed after rt-PA administration. All together, our results show that rt-PA administration induces increase in hippocampal mature BDNF expression and suggests that rt-PA contributes to the control of brain BDNF synthesis through a plasmin-independent potentiation of NMDA receptors signaling.

  12. The significance of MnSOD detection in HCC%HCC中MnSOD检测的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘毅

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨HCC中检测MnSOD的意义。方法:运用WST-1方法检测所收集的肝癌、癌旁组织、正常肝组织中MnSOD的含量。结果:Mnsod在组织中的含量正常肝组织、癌旁组、肝癌组比较逐步明显下降,三者比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:MnSOD的含量下降在肝癌发生发展过程中起到了促进作用,MnSOD可能作为治疗肝癌的靶点之一。%Objective To explore the significance of detection of MnSOD in HCC.Methods Using the WST - 1 Methodstest the content of MnSOD for liver cancer、collected in adjacent tissues and normal liver.Results Comparison of MnSOD content, in the normal liver tissue group, and the tissue adjacent to carcinoma group, and the liver cancer group. They was decline gradually obvious, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05).Conclusions MnSOD levels drop will play a promoting role in the development of liver cancer, MnSOD may as one of the targets for the treatment of liver cancer.

  13. Oral administration of antimicrobials increase antimicrobial resistance in E. coli from chicken--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, C; Burow, E; Tenhagen, B-A; Käsbohrer, A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobials play an important role in animal and human health care. It was the aim of this systematic review to assess the effects of oral administration of antimicrobials on the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Escherichia coli (E. coli) from chickens. Moreover, the effects of the administration of more than one antimicrobial and of different dosages were studied. Literature was searched in November 2012 from the electronic databases ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus and a national literature database (DIMDI) as well as the database ProQuest LLC. The search was updated in March 2014. Original studies describing a treatment (A) and a control group of either non-treatment (C) or initial value (0) and determining AMR in E. coli at different sample points (SP) were included. The literature search resulted in 35 full text articles on the topic, seven (20%) of which contained sufficient information on the administered antimicrobial and the impact of treatment on AMR. Most papers described the use of more than one antimicrobial, several dosages, controls (non-treatment or pre-treatment) and measured AMR at different SPs leading to a total of 227 SPs on the impact of the use of antimicrobials on AMR in chickens. 74% of the SPs (168/227) described a higher AMR-rate in E. coli from treated animals than from controls. After the administration of a single antimicrobial, AMR increased at 72% of the SPs. Administration of more than one antimicrobial increased AMR at 82% of the SPs. Higher dosages were associated with similar or higher AMR rates. The limited number of studies for each antimicrobial agent and the high variability in the resistance effect call for more well designed studies on the impact of oral administration on AMR development and spread. PMID:25433717

  14. Prophylactic Chronic Zinc Administration Increases Neuroinflammation in a Hypoxia-Ischemia Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas-Sanchez, Constantino; Blanco-Alvarez, Victor Manuel; Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Garcia-Robles, Guadalupe; Soto-Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Torres-Soto, Maricela; Gonzalez-Vazquez, Alejandro; Aguilar-Peralta, Ana Karina; Garate-Morales, José-Luis; Aguilar-Carrasco, Luis-Angel; Limón, Daniel I.; Cebada, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Acute and subacute administration of zinc exert neuroprotective effects in hypoxia-ischemia animal models; yet the effect of chronic administration of zinc still remains unknown. We addressed this issue by injecting zinc at a tolerable dose (0.5 mg/kg weight, i.p.) for 14 days before common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO) in a rat. After CCAO, the level of zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, nitrites were determined by Griess method, lipoperoxidation was measured by Gerard-Monnier assay, and mRNA expression of 84 genes coding for cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors was measured by qRT-PCR, whereas nitrotyrosine, chemokines, and their receptors were assessed by ELISA and histopathological changes in the temporoparietal cortex-hippocampus at different time points. Long-term memory was evaluated using Morris water maze. Following CCAO, a significant increase in nitrosative stress, inflammatory chemokines/receptors, and cell death was observed after 8 h, and a 2.5-fold increase in zinc levels was detected after 7 days. Although CXCL12 and FGF2 protein levels were significantly increased, the long-term memory was impaired 12 days after reperfusion in the Zn+CCAO group. Our data suggest that the chronic administration of zinc at tolerable doses causes nitrosative stress, toxic zinc accumulation, and neuroinflammation, which might account for the neuronal death and cerebral dysfunction after CCAO. PMID:27635404

  15. Prophylactic Chronic Zinc Administration Increases Neuroinflammation in a Hypoxia-Ischemia Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantino Tomas-Sanchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute and subacute administration of zinc exert neuroprotective effects in hypoxia-ischemia animal models; yet the effect of chronic administration of zinc still remains unknown. We addressed this issue by injecting zinc at a tolerable dose (0.5 mg/kg weight, i.p. for 14 days before common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO in a rat. After CCAO, the level of zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, nitrites were determined by Griess method, lipoperoxidation was measured by Gerard-Monnier assay, and mRNA expression of 84 genes coding for cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors was measured by qRT-PCR, whereas nitrotyrosine, chemokines, and their receptors were assessed by ELISA and histopathological changes in the temporoparietal cortex-hippocampus at different time points. Long-term memory was evaluated using Morris water maze. Following CCAO, a significant increase in nitrosative stress, inflammatory chemokines/receptors, and cell death was observed after 8 h, and a 2.5-fold increase in zinc levels was detected after 7 days. Although CXCL12 and FGF2 protein levels were significantly increased, the long-term memory was impaired 12 days after reperfusion in the Zn+CCAO group. Our data suggest that the chronic administration of zinc at tolerable doses causes nitrosative stress, toxic zinc accumulation, and neuroinflammation, which might account for the neuronal death and cerebral dysfunction after CCAO.

  16. Insufficient insulin administration to diabetic rats increases substrate utilization and maintains lactate production in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Lipsø, Kasper; Ostergaard, Jakob Appel; Nørregaard, Rikke; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Pedersen, Michael; Palm, Fredrik; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2014-12-01

    Good glycemic control is crucial to prevent the onset and progression of late diabetic complications, but insulin treatment often fails to achieve normalization of glycemic control to the level seen in healthy controls. In fact, recent experimental studies indicate that insufficient treatment with insulin, resulting in poor glycemic control, has an additional effect on progression of late diabetic complications, than poor glycemic control on its own. We therefore compared renal metabolic alterations during conditions of poor glycemic control with and without suboptimal insulin administration, which did not restore glycemic control, to streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats using noninvasive hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) (1)H-MRI to determine renal metabolic flux and oxygen availability, respectively. Suboptimal insulin administration increased pyruvate utilization and metabolic flux via both anaerobic and aerobic pathways in diabetic rats even though insulin did not affect kidney oxygen availability, HbA1c, or oxidative stress. These results imply direct effects of insulin in the regulation of cellular substrate utilization and metabolic fluxes during conditions of poor glycemic control. The study demonstrates that poor glycemic control in combination with suboptimal insulin administration accelerates metabolic alterations by increasing both anaerobic and aerobic metabolism resulting in increased utilization of energy substrates. The results demonstrate the importance of tight glycemic control in insulinopenic diabetes, and that insulin, when administered insufficiently, adds an additional burden on top of poor glycemic control. PMID:25501426

  17. Acute administration of fenproporex increased acetylcholinesterase activity in brain of young rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRENA P. TEODORAK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fenproporex is the second most commonly amphetamine-based anorectic consumed worldwide; this drug is rapidly converted into amphetamine, in vivo, and acts by increasing dopamine levels in the synaptic cleft. Considering that fenproporex effects on the central nervous system are still poorly known and that acetylcholinesterase is a regulatory enzyme which is involved in cholinergic synapses and may indirectly modulate the release of dopamine, the present study investigated the effects of acute administration of fenproporex on acetylcholinesterase activity in brain of young rats. Young male Wistar rats received a single injection of fenproporex (6.25, 12.5 or 25mg/kg i.p. or vehicle (2% Tween 80. Two hours after the injection, the rats were killed by decapitation and the brain was removed for evaluation of acetylcholinesterase activity. Results showed that fenproporex administration increased acetylcholinesterase activity in the hippocampus and posterior cortex, whereas in the prefrontal cortex, striatum and cerebellum the enzyme activity was not altered. In conclusion, in the present study we demonstrated that acute administration of fenproporex exerts an effect in the cholinergic system causing an increase in the activity of acetylcholinesterase in a dose-dependent manner in the hippocampus and posterior cortex. Thus, we suggest that the imbalance in cholinergic homeostasis could be considered as an important pathophysiological mechanism underlying the brain damage observed in patients who use amphetamines such as fenproporex.

  18. Prophylactic Chronic Zinc Administration Increases Neuroinflammation in a Hypoxia-Ischemia Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas-Sanchez, Constantino; Blanco-Alvarez, Victor Manuel; Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Garcia-Robles, Guadalupe; Soto-Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Brambila, Eduardo; Torres-Soto, Maricela; Gonzalez-Vazquez, Alejandro; Aguilar-Peralta, Ana Karina; Garate-Morales, José-Luis; Aguilar-Carrasco, Luis-Angel; Limón, Daniel I; Cebada, Jorge; Leon-Chavez, Bertha Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Acute and subacute administration of zinc exert neuroprotective effects in hypoxia-ischemia animal models; yet the effect of chronic administration of zinc still remains unknown. We addressed this issue by injecting zinc at a tolerable dose (0.5 mg/kg weight, i.p.) for 14 days before common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO) in a rat. After CCAO, the level of zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, nitrites were determined by Griess method, lipoperoxidation was measured by Gerard-Monnier assay, and mRNA expression of 84 genes coding for cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors was measured by qRT-PCR, whereas nitrotyrosine, chemokines, and their receptors were assessed by ELISA and histopathological changes in the temporoparietal cortex-hippocampus at different time points. Long-term memory was evaluated using Morris water maze. Following CCAO, a significant increase in nitrosative stress, inflammatory chemokines/receptors, and cell death was observed after 8 h, and a 2.5-fold increase in zinc levels was detected after 7 days. Although CXCL12 and FGF2 protein levels were significantly increased, the long-term memory was impaired 12 days after reperfusion in the Zn+CCAO group. Our data suggest that the chronic administration of zinc at tolerable doses causes nitrosative stress, toxic zinc accumulation, and neuroinflammation, which might account for the neuronal death and cerebral dysfunction after CCAO. PMID:27635404

  19. Chronic central administration of Ghrelin increases bone mass through a mechanism independent of appetite regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Jin Choi

    Full Text Available Leptin plays a critical role in the central regulation of bone mass. Ghrelin counteracts leptin. In this study, we investigated the effect of chronic intracerebroventricular administration of ghrelin on bone mass in Sprague-Dawley rats (1.5 μg/day for 21 days. Rats were divided into control, ghrelin ad libitum-fed (ghrelin ad lib-fed, and ghrelin pair-fed groups. Ghrelin intracerebroventricular infusion significantly increased body weight in ghrelin ad lib-fed rats but not in ghrelin pair-fed rats, as compared with control rats. Chronic intracerebroventricular ghrelin infusion significantly increased bone mass in the ghrelin pair-fed group compared with control as indicated by increased bone volume percentage, trabecular thickness, trabecular number and volumetric bone mineral density in tibia trabecular bone. There was no significant difference in trabecular bone mass between the control group and the ghrelin ad-lib fed group. Chronic intracerebroventricular ghrelin infusion significantly increased the mineral apposition rate in the ghrelin pair-fed group as compared with control. In conclusion, chronic central administration of ghrelin increases bone mass through a mechanism that is independent of body weight, suggesting that ghrelin may have a bone anabolic effect through the central nervous system.

  20. Insufficient insulin administration to diabetic rats increases substrate utilization and maintains lactate production in the kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Lipsø, Hans Kasper Wigh; Østergaard, Jakob Appel;

    2014-01-01

    with insulin, resulting in poor glycemic control, has an additional effect on progression of late diabetic complications, than poor glycemic control on its own. We therefore compared renal metabolic alterations during conditions of poor glycemic control with and without suboptimal insulin administration, which...... did not restore glycemic control, to streptozotocin (STZ)‐diabetic rats using noninvasive hyperpolarized 13C‐pyruvate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and blood oxygenation level–dependent (BOLD) 1H‐MRI to determine renal metabolic flux and oxygen availability, respectively. Suboptimal insulin...... administration increased pyruvate utilization and metabolic flux via both anaerobic and aerobic pathways in diabetic rats even though insulin did not affect kidney oxygen availability, HbA1c, or oxidative stress. These results imply direct effects of insulin in the regulation of cellular substrate utilization...

  1. Immunoreactive Cu-SOD and Mn-SOD in lymphocytes sub-populations from normal and trisomy 21 subjects according to age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper and manganese superoxide dismutases (Cu-SOD and Mn-SOD) were measured by radioimmunoassay in B and T lymphocytes and macrophages, in patients with trisomy 21 and in matched controls. In the controls, Cu-SOD was present in greater amounts than Mn-SOD and there were quantitative differences in the distribution in the three cellular sub-populations. In trisomy 21, levels of Cu-SOD were raised, with no change in levels of Mn-SOD, supporting the theory of a gene dosage effect. There were significant positive and negative correlations between age and Cu-SOD levels in controls, and a correlation approaching significance for Mn-SOD. In trisomy 21, there was no correlation between age and Cu-SOD levels, and the only significant correlation for Mn-SOD was for B lymphocytes

  2. Polymorphic variations in manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) genes contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J Y; Tao, F; Wu, X X; Tan, Y Z; He, L; Lu, H

    2015-01-01

    Impaired antioxidant defense increases the oxidative stress and contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MnSOD and eNOS are important antioxidant enzymes. This aim of this study was to verify the association of MnSOD and eNOS tagSNPs with T2DM in a Chinese Han population. Four tagSNPs of MnSOD and eight tagSNPs of eNOS were detected using TaqMan technology in 1272 healthy controls and 1234 T2DM patients. All study participants were unrelated members of the Han ethnic group in China. In this study, the frequency of the rs4880 MnSOD single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotype differed significantly between T2DM patients and controls [allele: P = 0.03, genotype: P = 0.04, odd's ratio (OR) = 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.49]. The A-T haplotype and G-T haplotype remained significant in T2DM after Bonferroni correction (P = 1.58 x 10(-6) and 8.00 x 10(-4), respectively) with a global p-value of 7.25 x 10(-8). The rs1799983 and rs891512 SNPs of eNOS differed significantly between T2DM patients and controls [rs1799983: corrected allele: P = 2.10 x 10(-3), corrected genotype: P = 6.30 x 10(-3), OR = 1.43 (95%CI = 1.18-1.73); rs891512, corrected allele: P = 3.50 x 10(-3), corrected genotype: P = 9.10 x 10(-3), OR = 1.70 (95%CI = 1.26-2.30)]. Following Bonferroni correction, none of the haplotypes of eNOS were significant in T2DM. These results indicate that common variants in MnSOD and eNOS increased the risk of T2DM in the Chinese Han population. PMID:26505452

  3. Prolonged ethanol administration depletes mitochondrial DNA in MnSOD-overexpressing transgenic mice, but not in their wild type littermates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcohol consumption increases reactive oxygen species formation and lipid peroxidation, whose products can damage mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and alter mitochondrial function. A possible role of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) on these effects has not been investigated. To test whether MnSOD overexpression modulates alcohol-induced mitochondrial alterations, we added ethanol to the drinking water of transgenic MnSOD-overexpressing (TgMnSOD) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates for 7 weeks. In TgMnSOD mice, alcohol administration further increased the activity of MnSOD, but decreased cytosolic glutathione as well as cytosolic glutathione peroxidase activity and peroxisomal catalase activity. Whereas ethanol increased cytochrome P-450 2E1 and mitochondrial ROS generation in both WT and TgMnSOD mice, hepatic iron, lipid peroxidation products and respiratory complex I protein carbonyls were only increased in ethanol-treated TgMnSOD mice but not in WT mice. In ethanol-fed TgMnSOD mice, but not ethanol-fed WT mice, mtDNA was depleted, and mtDNA lesions blocked the progress of polymerases. The iron chelator, DFO prevented hepatic iron accumulation, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl formation and mtDNA depletion in alcohol-treated TgMnSOD mice. Alcohol markedly decreased the activities of complexes I, IV and V of the respiratory chain in TgMnSOD, with absent or lesser effects in WT mice. There was no inflammation, apoptosis or necrosis, and steatosis was similar in ethanol-treated WT and TgMnSOD mice. In conclusion, prolonged alcohol administration selectively triggers iron accumulation, lipid peroxidation, respiratory complex I protein carbonylation, mtDNA lesions blocking the progress of polymerases, mtDNA depletion and respiratory complex dysfunction in TgMnSOD mice but not in WT mice

  4. Membrane targeting of MnSOD is essential for oxidative stress tolerance of nitrogen-fixing cultures of Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Prashanth S; Rajaram, Hema; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2015-07-01

    The nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, Anabaena PCC7120 encodes for a membrane-targeted 30 kDa Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and a cytosolic FeSOD. The MnSOD is post-translationally processed to 27 and 24 kDa forms in the cytosol and periplasm/thylakoid lumen. The extent of cleavage of signal and linker peptides at the N-terminus is dependent on the availability of combined nitrogen during growth. While the 24 and 27 kDa forms are present in near equal proportions under nitrogen-fixing conditions, the 24 kDa form is predominant under nitrogen-supplemented conditions. Individual contribution of these forms of MnSOD to total oxidative stress tolerance was analysed using recombinant Anabaena strains overexpressing either different molecular forms of MnSOD or MnSOD defective in the cleavage of signal/linker peptide. Targeting of MnSOD to the membrane and subsequent cleavage to release both the 24 and 27 kDa forms was essential for oxidative stress tolerance under nitrogen-fixing conditions. On the other hand, the cleavage of linker peptide was absolutely essential and the release of cytosolic 24 kDa form of MnSOD was obligatory for developing oxidative stress tolerance under nitrogen-supplemented conditions. Thus, a single MnSOD caters to the reduction of superoxide radical in both cytosol and thylakoid lumen/periplasm irrespective of the N-status of growth by regulating its cleavage. This is the first report on the physiological advantage of membrane-targeting and processing of MnSOD in either bacteria or plants. The higher oxidative stress tolerance offered by the cytosolic form of MnSOD has possibly resulted in retention of only the cytosolic form in bacterial non-nitrogen-fixers during evolution.

  5. Free fatty acids, lipopolysaccharide and IL-1α induce adipocyte manganese superoxide dismutase which is increased in visceral adipose tissues of obese rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Krautbauer

    Full Text Available Excess fat storage in adipocytes is associated with increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and impaired activity of antioxidant mechanisms. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD is a mitochondrial enzyme involved in detoxification of ROS, and objective of the current study is to analyze expression and regulation of MnSOD in obesity. MnSOD is increased in visceral but not subcutaneous fat depots of rodents kept on high fat diets (HFD and ob/ob mice. MnSOD is elevated in visceral adipocytes of fat fed mice and exposure of differentiating 3T3-L1 cells to lipopolysaccharide, IL-1α, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated free fatty acids (FFA upregulates its level. FFA do not alter cytochrome oxidase 4 arguing against overall induction of mitochondrial enzymes. Upregulation of MnSOD in fat loaded cells is not mediated by IL-6, TNF or sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 which are induced in these cells. MnSOD is similarly abundant in perirenal fat of Zucker diabetic rats and non-diabetic animals with similar body weight and glucose has no effect on MnSOD in 3T3-L1 cells. To evaluate whether MnSOD affects adipocyte fat storage, MnSOD was knocked-down in adipocytes for the last three days of differentiation and in mature adipocytes. Knock-down of MnSOD does neither alter lipid storage nor viability of these cells. Heme oxygenase-1 which is induced upon oxidative stress is not altered while antioxidative capacity of the cells is modestly reduced. Current data show that inflammation and excess triglyceride storage raise adipocyte MnSOD which is induced in epididymal adipocytes in obesity.

  6. Heat increases MDMA-enhanced NAcc 5-HT and body temperature, but not MDMA self-administration

    OpenAIRE

    Feduccia, Allison A.; Kongovi, Nundhun; Duvauchelle, Christine L.

    2010-01-01

    There is concern that hot environments enhance adverse effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “Ecstasy”). In this study, long-term (4-wks) daily MDMA self-administration sessions and an MDMA challenge test were conducted with rats under normal and high thermal conditions (23° or 32° C). During MDMA self-administration sessions, activity and body temperature were increased by heat or MDMA experience, while MDMA self-administration rates increased with experience, but were compar...

  7. The increasing of beta-defensin-2 level in saliva after probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri administration

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    Tuti Kusumaningsih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Commesal bacteria is an excellent inducer for beta defensin-2 (BD-2. Probiotics bacteria Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri as commensal bacteria may play the same role as an excellent inducer for BD-2. Beta defensin is natural antimicrobial peptides widely expressed in oral cavity, including in epithelium salivary gland. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans as the main of bacteria causing caries are sensitive to BD-2. Purpose: This research was aimed to determine whether administration of probiotic L. reuteri can increase salivary BD-2 level in Wistar rats. Methods: This research can be considered as a laboratory experimental research with a randomized control group post test only design. Twenty-four male Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain rats aged 3 months were used. They were randomly divided into four groups, namely two control groups (negative control group that was not induced and positive control group induced with S. mutans, and two treatment groups (K1: induced with L. reuteri for 14 days and S. mutans for 7 days, and K2: induced with L. reuteri and S. mutans simultaneously for 14 days. L. reuteri culture at a concentration of 108 CFU/ml and S. mutans culture at a concentration of 1010CFU/ml were induced into the oral cavity of Wistar rats. An examination of BD-2 level was then conducted by using Elisa techniques. results: There was significant difference of salivary BD-2 level among those treatment groups (p=0.001. BD-2 level in saliva was increased after the administration of L. reuteri. Conclusion: L. reuteri probiotic can increase salivary BD-2 level in Wistar rats.

  8. Oral administration of lactoferrin increases hemoglobin and total serum iron in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paesano, Rosalba; Torcia, Francesco; Berlutti, Francesca; Pacifici, Enrica; Ebano, Valeria; Moscarini, Massimo; Valenti, Piera

    2006-06-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) during pregnancy continues to be of world-wide concern. IDA is a risk factor for preterm delivery and subsequent low birth weight, and possibly for poor neonatal health. Iron supplementation in pregnancy is a widely recommended practice, yet intervention programs have met with many controversies. In our study, 300 women at different trimesters of pregnancy were enrolled in a trial of oral administration of ferrous sulfate (520 mg once a day) or 30% iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin (bLf) (100 mg twice a day). Pregnant women refusing treatment represented the control group. In this group hemoglobin and total serum iron values measured after 30 d without treatment decreased significantly, especially in women at 18-31 weeks of pregnancy. In contrast, after 30 d of oral administration of bLf, hemoglobin and total serum iron values increased and to a greater extent than those observed in women treated orally for 30 d with ferrous sulfate, independently of the trimester of pregnancy. Unlike ferrous sulfate, bLf did not result in any side effects. These findings lead us to hypothesize that lactoferrin could influence iron homeostasis directly or through other proteins involved in iron transport out of the intestinal cells into the blood.

  9. Prolonged withdrawal following cocaine self-administration increases resistance to punishment in a cocaine binge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancarz-Kausch, Amy M.; Adank, Danielle N.; Dietz, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction is characterized by compulsive drug-taking behaviors and a high propensity to relapse following drug cessation. Drug craving and seeking can increase during a period of abstinence, but this phenomenon is not observed in drug-induced reinstatement models. To investigate the effect of withdrawal on cocaine relapse, rats were exposed to extended-access cocaine self-administration and subjected to either 1 or 30 d of withdrawal. When tested during 12 h unlimited access to cocaine (binge), the duration of the withdrawal did not influence cocaine intake. However, using a histamine punishment procedure that greatly suppresses drug-taking behavior, we demonstrate that longer periods of abstinence from cocaine induce a greater persistence in responding for drug in the face of negative consequences. PMID:25363133

  10. KAJIAN PERAN MANGANESE-CONTAINING SUPER OXIDE DISMUTASE (MNSOD DALAM REGULASI EKSPRESI HYPOXIA INDUCIBLE FACTOR-1α (HIF-1α PADA KEADAAN HIPOKSIA

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    Masagus Zainuri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKekurangan suplai oksigen pada jaringan disebut hipoksia. Sel tumor sering mengalami hipoksia dan menjadi tidak responsif terhadap terapi. Keadaan hipoksia pada jaringan tumor perlu ditanggulangi agar keberhasilan terapi tumor dapat  ditingkatkan.  Pada keadaan hipoksia,  factor  Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α  (HIF-1α berperan  penting  dalam pengendalian respon selular. Ekspresi gen HIF-1α sangat dipengaruhi oleh status redoks sel. Enzim MnSOD merupakan enzim antioksidan endogen yang berperan sebagai scavenger O2.-yang menghasilkan H2O2 dan O2 , sehingga aktivitas MnSOD akan mempengaruhi status redoks dari sel. Melalui O2.-dan H2O2, MnSOD memiliki peran biphasic terhadap regulasi ekspresi gen HIF-1α, sehingga dapat menekan dampak hipoksia pada jaringan. Sampai saat ini MnSOD belum dimanfaatkan  sebagai  terapi  pendukung  pada  terapi tumor  dan  perlu  dilakukan  banyak  eksperimen  untuk mengeksplorasi potensi MnSOD sebagai terapi adjuvant alternative untuk terapi tumor.Kata Kunci : MnSOD, HIF-1α, Superoksida (O2.-, Hidrogen Peroksida (H2O2AbstractInsufficient oxygen supply in tissue is named hypoxia. Tumor cells frequentlyexperience tissue hypoxia, therefore it becomes irresponsive to the main therapy. Hypoxia of tumor tissue needs to be solved to improve the tumor therapy succeed. In hypoxia, Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α plays an essential role in controlling the cellular responses. HIF-1α  gene  expression  is  influenced  by  the  redox stateof the cells. MnSOD enzyme is an endogenous antioxidant enzyme that acting as an O2.-scavenger that producing H2O2 and O2, so that MnSOD activity would affect the redox state of the cells. ViaO2.-and H2O2, MnSOD has a biphasic role for gene expression of HIF-1α regulation and reducing the tissue hypoxia effect. Recently, MnSOD is not an adjuvant therapy for tumor treatment yet, and some experiments are needed to explore MnSOD potential as an alternative

  11. Increased ventilatory response to carbon dioxide in COPD patients following vitamin C administration

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    Sara E. Hartmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD have decreased ventilatory and cerebrovascular responses to hypercapnia. Antioxidants increase the ventilatory response to hypercapnia in healthy humans. Cerebral blood flow is an important determinant of carbon dioxide/hydrogen ion concentration at the central chemoreceptors and may be affected by antioxidants. It is unknown whether antioxidants can improve the ventilatory and cerebral blood flow response in individuals in whom these are diminished. Thus, we aimed to determine the effect of vitamin C administration on the ventilatory and cerebrovascular responses to hypercapnia during healthy ageing and in COPD. Using transcranial Doppler ultrasound, we measured the ventilatory and cerebral blood flow responses to hyperoxic hypercapnia before and after an intravenous vitamin C infusion in healthy young (Younger and older (Older subjects and in moderate COPD. Vitamin C increased the ventilatory response in COPD patients (mean (95% CI 1.1 (0.9–1.1 versus 1.5 (1.1–2.0 L·min−1·mmHg−1, p0.05 or Older (1.3 (1.0–1.7 versus 1.3 (1.0–1.7 L·min−1·mmHg−1, p>0.05 healthy subjects. Vitamin C did not affect the cerebral blood flow response in the young or older healthy subjects or COPD subjects (p>0.05. Vitamin C increases the ventilatory but not cerebrovascular response to hyperoxic hypercapnia in patients with moderate COPD.

  12. Real estate capitalization of Public Administration Institutions - a chance to stimulate investment and increase economic competitiveness

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    Ionut Constantin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The divide in the development of the different European space regions, is exemplified by the different ability to attract investments between rural and urban areas. Urban areas usually assure to investors a broad availability of structures and services that rural areas cannot offer. Another limiting factor for rural areas is the difficulty the enterprises which want to localize their structures outside the urban area meet when they try to find information about the quantity and the quality of the available structures. This penalization affects also the unused real estates of the public administration institutions; these real estates could represent for the investors an important opportunity to improve area’s resources, meeting some forms of converging collaboration with the public administration institutions. POLYINVEST project aims at improving conditions for investment in the rural areas, directly tackling the development gap between the regions of the South East Europe and to develop an information system useful for those public administration institutions.

  13. U.S. Public Administration Programs: Increasing Academic Achievement by Identifying and Utilizing Student Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Lorenda A; Wooldridge, Blue; Lyles, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Global economic shifts are forcing universities to become more competitive and operationally efficient. As a result, universities emphasize access, affordability, and achievement. More specifically, U.S. universities have responded by emphasizing course assessment, retention rates, and graduation rates. Both university administrators and faculty…

  14. Late administration of surfactant replacement therapy increases surfactant protein-B content: a randomized pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Roberta L; MERRILL, JEFFREY D.; Black, Dennis M.; Steinhorn, Robin H.; Eichenwald, Eric C.; Durand, David J.; RYAN, RITA M.; Truog, William E; Courtney, Sherry E.; Ballard, Philip L.; Ballard, Roberta A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Surfactant dysfunction may contribute to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in persistently ventilated preterm infants. We conducted a multicenter randomized, blinded, pilot study to assess the safety and efficacy of late administration of doses of a surfactant protein-B (SP-B)-containing surfactant (calfactant) in combination with prolonged inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in infants ≤1,000 g birth weight (BW). Methods: We randomized 85 preterm infants ventilated at 7–...

  15. Increasing the Quality of the Public Administration by Computerizing the Institutions

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    Elena HLACIUC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The last decades of the previous century weremarked by a series of major changes in the informationaltechnique domain, leading to the creation and development of anew type of society, the informational one.The essence of the informational society consists in theintegrated, massive and generalized use of the informationaland communication technologies in all the domains of theeconomical and social life, including the public administration,material and artistic production, services, leisure spending etc.

  16. Neuropeptide-Y in the paraventricular nucleus increases ethanol self-administration

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, Stephen P; Nannini, Michelle A.; Bratt, Alison M.; Hodge, Clyde W.

    2001-01-01

    The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is known to modulate feeding, obesity, and ethanol intake. Neuropeptide-Y (NPY), which is released endogenously by neurons projecting from the arcuate nucleus to the PVN, is one of the most potent stimulants of feeding behavior known. The role of NPY in the PVN on ethanol self-administration is unknown. To address this issue, rats were trained to self-administer ethanol via a sucrose fading procedure and injector guide cannulae aimed at th...

  17. Cocaine Self-Administration Produces a Persistent Increase in Dopamine D2High Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Briand, Lisa A.; Flagel, Shelly B.; Seeman, Philip; ROBINSON, TERRY E.

    2008-01-01

    Cocaine addicts are reported to have decreased numbers of striatal dopamine D2 receptors. However, in rodents, repeated cocaine administration consistently produces hypersensitivity to the psychomotor activating effects of both indirect dopamine agonists, such as cocaine itself, and importantly, to direct-acting D2 receptor agonists. The current study reports a possible resolution to this long-standing paradox. The dopamine D2 receptor exists in both a low and a high affinity state, and dopam...

  18. Chikusetsu Saponin V Attenuates MPP+-Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells via Regulation of Sirt1/Mn-SOD and GRP78/Caspase-12 Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Yuan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that saponins from Panax japonicus (SPJ possess neuroprotective effects. However, whether Chikusetsu saponin V (CsV, the most abundant member of SPJ, can exert neuroprotective effects against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+-induced cytotoxicity is not known. In this study, we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of CsV on MPP+-induced cytotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and explore its possible mechanisms. Our results show that CsV attenuates MPP+-induced cytotoxicity, inhibits ROS accumulation, and increases mitochondrial membrane potential dose-dependently. We also found that levels of Sirt1 protein and Mn-SOD mRNA significantly decreased in MPP+-treated group but were restored with CsV treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, GRP78 protein and Caspase-12 mRNA levels were elevated by MPP+ exposure but reversed by CsV treatment. CsV inhibited the MPP+-induced downregulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax in a dose-dependent manner and, thus, increased the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. Overall, these results suggest that Sirt1/Mn-SOD and GRP78/Caspase-12 pathways might be involved in the CsV-mediated neuroprotective effects.

  19. Increase in cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in specific areas of the mouse brain by acute caffeine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin Hee; Cho, Yun Ha; Kim, Hyo Young; Cha, Seung Ha; Ryu, Hyun; Jang, Wooyoung; Shin, Kyung Ho

    2015-04-01

    Caffeine produces a variety of behavioral effects including increased alertness, reduced food intake, anxiogenic effects, and dependence upon repeated exposure. Although many of the effects of caffeine are mediated by its ability to block adenosine receptors, it is possible that other neural substrates, such as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), may be involved in the effects of caffeine. Indeed, a recent study demonstrated that repeated caffeine administration increases CART in the mouse striatum. However, it is not clear whether acute caffeine administration alters CART in other areas of the brain. To explore this possibility, we investigated the dose- and time-dependent changes in CART immunoreactivity (CART-IR) after a single dose of caffeine in mice. We found that a high dose of caffeine (100 mg/kg) significantly increased CART-IR 2 h after administration in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (Arc), and locus coeruleus (LC), and returned to control levels after 8 h. But this increase was not observed in other brain areas. In addition, caffeine administration at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg appears to produce dose-dependent increases in CART-IR in these brain areas; however, the magnitude of increase in CART-IR observed at a dose of 50 mg/kg was similar or greater than that observed at a dose of 100 mg/kg. This result suggests that CART-IR in AcbSh, dBNST, CeA, PVN, Arc, and LC is selectively affected by caffeine administration. PMID:25820086

  20. Abrupt suspension of probiotics administration may increase host pathogen susceptibility by inducing gut dysbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Liu, Wenshu; Ran, Chao; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the risk associated with suspension of probiotics administration in tilapia, an animal model that may mimic immune-compromised conditions in humans. Tilapias were fed for 14 days using a probiotics-supplemented diet, followed by a three-day suspension of probiotics treatment and a subsequent challenge by Aeromonas hydrophila. Unexpectedly, the suspension of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum JCM1149 significantly triggered susceptibility of the host to A. hydrophila. We further observed that suspension of JCM1149 resulted in host gut microbiota dysbiosis and the subsequent disorder in the intestinal metabolites (bile acids, amino acids, and glucose) and damage in the intestinal epithelium, giving rise to a condition similar to antibiotics-induced gut dysbiosis, which collectively impaired tilapia's gut health and resistance to pathogenic challenges. Additionally, we determined that JCM1149 adhered relatively poorly to tilapia intestinal mucosa and was rapidly released from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) after suspension, with the rapid loss of probiotic strain probably being the direct cause of gut dysbiosis. Finally, three other probiotic Lactobacillus strains with low intestinal mucosa binding activity showed similar rapid loss phenotype following administration suspension, and induced higher host susceptibility to infection, indicating that the risk is a generic phenomenon in Lactobacillus. PMID:26983596

  1. Effect of perioperative somatostatin administration of sphincteroplasty-induced increase of amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncoroni, L; De Bernardinis, M; Violi, V; Montanari, M; Peracchia, A

    1986-06-01

    Twenty patients undergoing sphincteroplasty for cholelithiasis were randomly divided into two groups of 10. The former (T) were treated with a 4-h somatostatin intravenous drip (250 micrograms/h), started at the beginning of operation, while the latter (C) made up the control group. Serum and urine amylase, amylase creatinine clearance ratio, and liver function tests were assessed for 2 days before surgery, after the operation and for a period of 5 postoperative days. Homogeneity between the two series was verified in experimental conditions. Statistical differences occurred postoperatively in amylase creatinine clearance ratio, which proved higher in C group, and gamma-GT, which was higher in T group. Short-term somatostatin administration proved effective in reducing the postoperative amylase creatinine clearance ratio, although more evident results are reported after long-term administration. Cholestasis or any serious impairment in liver function did not occur, suggesting the suitability of somatostatin use even in patients with jaundice. Since a relationship between postoperative amylase levels and risk of pancreatitis has not yet been proved, the value of somatostatin in the prevention of postoperative pancreatitis after sphincteroplasty needs to be further verified.

  2. Nitrate administration increases blood flow in dysfunctional but viable myocardium, leading to improved assessment of myocardial viability : A PET study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Agool, Ali; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Bax, Jeroen J.

    2006-01-01

    SPECT with Tc-99m-labeled agents is better able to detect viability after nitrate administration. Nitrates induce vasoclilation and may increase blood flow to severely hypoperfused but viable myocardium, thereby enhancing tracer delivery and improving the detection of viability. Quantitative data on

  3. Increasing the Use of Group Interventions in a Pediatric Rehabilitation Program: Perceptions of Administrators, Therapists, and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camden, Chantal; Tetreault, Sylvie; Swaine, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore perceptions related to increased utilization of group interventions as a part of the service reorganization within a pediatric rehabilitation program. Methods: Individual interviews with program administrators (n = 13) and focus groups with therapists (n = 19) and parents of children with disabilities (n = 5) were conducted.…

  4. Generation of hydroxyl radical in isolated pea root cell wall, and the role of cell wall-bound peroxidase, Mn-SOD and phenolics in their production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukavica, Biljana; Mojovic, Milos; Vuccinic, Zeljko; Maksimovic, Vuk; Takahama, Umeo; Jovanovic, Sonja Veljovic

    2009-02-01

    The hydroxyl radical produced in the apoplast has been demonstrated to facilitate cell wall loosening during cell elongation. Cell wall-bound peroxidases (PODs) have been implicated in hydroxyl radical formation. For this mechanism, the apoplast or cell walls should contain the electron donors for (i) H(2)O(2) formation from dioxygen; and (ii) the POD-catalyzed reduction of H(2)O(2) to the hydroxyl radical. The aim of the work was to identify the electron donors in these reactions. In this report, hydroxyl radical (.OH) generation in the cell wall isolated from pea roots was detected in the absence of any exogenous reductants, suggesting that the plant cell wall possesses the capacity to generate .OH in situ. Distinct POD and Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) isoforms different from other cellular isoforms were shown by native gel electropho-resis to be preferably bound to the cell walls. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of cell wall isolates containing the spin-trapping reagent, 5-diethoxyphosphoryl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DEPMPO), was used for detection of and differentiation between .OH and the superoxide radical (O(2)(-).). The data obtained using POD inhibitors confirmed that tightly bound cell wall PODs are involved in DEPMPO/OH adduct formation. A decrease in DEPMPO/OH adduct formation in the presence of H(2)O(2) scavengers demonstrated that this hydroxyl radical was derived from H(2)O(2). During the generation of .OH, the concentration of quinhydrone structures (as detected by EPR spectroscopy) increased, suggesting that the H(2)O(2) required for the formation of .OH in isolated cell walls is produced during the reduction of O(2) by hydroxycinnamic acids. Cell wall isolates in which the proteins have been denaturated (including the endogenous POD and SOD) did not produce .OH. Addition of exogenous H(2)O(2) again induced the production of .OH, and these were shown to originate from the Fenton reaction with tightly bound metal ions

  5. Dietary carotenoid-rich oil supplementation improves exercise-induced anisocytosis in runners: influences of haptoglobin, MnSOD (Val9Ala), CAT (21A/T) and GPX1 (Pro198Leu) gene polymorphisms in dilutional pseudoanemia (sports anemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Physical training induces beneficial adaptation, whereas exhaustive exercises increase reactive oxygen-species generation, thereby causing oxidative damage in plasma and erythrocytes, fractions susceptible to lipid peroxidation. Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) is a Brazilian Cerrado fruit containing a carotenoid-rich oil. The aim was to investigate the effects of pequi-oil on exercise-induced oxidative damage in plasma and erythrocytes, after running in the same environment and undergoing weekly training under the same conditions as to type, intensity and length. Evaluations were accomplished after outdoor running on flat land before and after ingestion of 400 mg pequi-oil capsules for 14 days. Blood samples were taken after running and submitted to TBARS assay and erythrogram analysis. Haptoglobin, MnSOD (Val9Ala), CAT (21A/T) and GPX1 (Pro198Leu) gene polymorphisms were priorly investigated, so as to estimate genetic influence The reduction in erythrocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit after pequi-oil treatment was notably associated with higher plasma expansion. Except for MCHC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration) and RDW (red cell distribution width), the results were influenced by the polymorphisms studied. The best response to pequi-oil was presented by MnSOD Val/Val, CAT AA or AT genotypes and the GPX1 Pro allele. The significantly lower RDW and higher MHCH values were related to pequi-oil protective effects. Pequi oil, besides possessing other nutritional properties, showed protective blood effects. PMID:21637495

  6. Post-conditioning exacerbates the MnSOD immune-reactivity after experimental cerebral global ischemia and reperfusion in the rat brain hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemethova, Miroslava; Danielisova, Viera; Gottlieb, Miroslav; Burda, Jozef

    2008-01-01

    This study monitored the effects of sub-lethal ischemia (post-conditioning) applied after a previous ischemic attack by way of the MnSOD immune-reactivity examined in CA1 and dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampus. The experimental 10 min transient cerebral ischemia was followed by 2 days of reperfusion, the rats then underwent a second ischemia (4 or 6 min post-conditioning). MnSOD immune-reactivity was evaluated after 5 h, 1 and 2 days. Results obtained by computer microdensitometric image analysis indicated that 4 min of ischemic post-conditioning caused higher MnSOD immune-reactivity than 6 min. However, higher viability of CA1 neurons after stronger (6 min) post-conditioning when production of MnSOD is lower, as well as differences between MnSOD in CA1 and dentate gyrus indicates another mechanism switching pro-apoptotic destination of CA1 neurons to anti-apoptotic. PMID:17936646

  7. Increased seizure latency and decreased severity of pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice after essential oil administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroumanidou, Eleni; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Kortsaris, Alexandros; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Polissiou, Moschos; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos; Pagonopoulou, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs) from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ-) induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a lethal dose of PTZ to eight respective groups of Balb-c mice. Control group received only one i.p. PTZ injection. Motor and behavioral activity of the animals after EOs administration, development of tonic-clonic seizures, seizure latency and severity, and percentage of survival after PTZ administration were determined for each group. All groups of mice treated with the EOs showed reduced activity and stability after the administration of the oil, except for those treated with O. vulgare (100% mortality after the administration of the oil). After PTZ administration, mice from the different groups showed increased latency and reduced severity of seizures (ranging from simple twitches to complete seizures). Mice who had received M. piperita demonstrated no seizures and 100% survival. The different drastic component and its concentration could account for the diversity of anticonvulsant effects. PMID:23819045

  8. Increased Seizure Latency and Decreased Severity of Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizures in Mice after Essential Oil Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Koutroumanidou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ- induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of a lethal dose of PTZ to eight respective groups of Balb-c mice. Control group received only one i.p. PTZ injection. Motor and behavioral activity of the animals after EOs administration, development of tonic-clonic seizures, seizure latency and severity, and percentage of survival after PTZ administration were determined for each group. All groups of mice treated with the EOs showed reduced activity and stability after the administration of the oil, except for those treated with O. vulgare (100% mortality after the administration of the oil. After PTZ administration, mice from the different groups showed increased latency and reduced severity of seizures (ranging from simple twitches to complete seizures. Mice who had received M. piperita demonstrated no seizures and 100% survival. The different drastic component and its concentration could account for the diversity of anticonvulsant effects.

  9. Increased latencies to initiate cocaine self-administration following laterodorsal tegmental nucleus lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steidl, Stephan; Cardiff, Katherine M.; Wise, Roy A.

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic input to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), origin of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system that is critical for cocaine reward, is important for both cocaine seeking and cocaine taking. The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDTg) provides one of the two major sources of excitatory cholinergic input to the VTA, but little is known of the role of the LDTg in cocaine reward. LDTg cholinergic cells express urotensin-II receptors and here we used local microinjections of a conjugate of the endogenous ligand for these receptors with diphtheria toxin (Dtx::UII) to lesion the cholinergic cells of the LDTg in rats previously trained to self-administer cocaine (1 mg/kg/infusion, i.v.). Lesioned rats showed long latencies to initiate cocaine self-administration after treatment with the toxin, which resulted in a reduction in cocaine intake per session. Priming injections reduced latencies to initiate responding for cocaine in lesioned rats, and once they began to respond the rats regulated their moment-to-moment cocaine intake within normal limits. Thus we conclude that while LDTg cholinergic cell loss does not significantly alter the rewarding effects of cocaine, LDTg lesions can reduce the rat’s responsiveness to cocaine-predictive stimuli. PMID:25746513

  10. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass increases intravenous ethanol self-administration in dietary obese rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Polston

    Full Text Available Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB is an effective treatment for severe obesity. Clinical studies however have reported susceptibility to increased alcohol use after RYGB, and preclinical studies have shown increased alcohol intake in obese rats after RYGB. This could reflect a direct enhancement of alcohol's rewarding effects in the brain or an indirect effect due to increased alcohol absorption after RGYB. To rule out the contribution that changes in alcohol absorption have on its rewarding effects, here we assessed the effects of RYGB on intravenously (IV administered ethanol (1%. For this purpose, high fat (60% kcal from fat diet-induced obese male Sprague Dawley rats were tested ~2 months after RYGB or sham surgery (SHAM using both fixed and progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement to evaluate if RGYB modified the reinforcing effects of IV ethanol. Compared to SHAM, RYGB rats made significantly more active spout responses to earn IV ethanol during the fixed ratio schedule, and achieved higher breakpoints during the progressive ratio schedule. Although additional studies are needed, our results provide preliminary evidence that RYGB increases the rewarding effects of alcohol independent of its effects on alcohol absorption.

  11. Gabapentin potentiates sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol and increases alcohol self-administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besheer, Joyce; Frisbee, Suzanne; Randall, Patrick A; Jaramillo, Anel A; Masciello, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Gabapentin, a drug used in the treatment of epileptic seizures and neuropathic pain, has shown efficacy in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Moreover, given that gabapentin is used in the general population (e.g., non-dependent individuals, social drinkers), we sought to utilize preclinical assessments to examine the effects of gabapentin on sensitivity to moderate alcohol doses and alcohol self-administration in rats with a history of moderate drinking. To this end, we assessed whether gabapentin (0, 10, 30, 120 mg/kg, IG) pretreatment alters sensitivity to experimenter- and self-administered alcohol, and whether gabapentin alone has alcohol-like discriminative stimulus effects in rats trained to discriminate alcohol dose (1 g/kg, IG) vs. water. Second, we assessed whether gabapentin (0, 10, 30, 60 mg/kg, IG) would alter alcohol self-administration. Gabapentin pretreatment potentiated the interoceptive effects of both experimenter-administered and self-administered alcohol in discrimination-trained rats. Additionally, the highest gabapentin doses tested (30 and 120 mg/kg) were found to have partial alcohol-like discriminative stimulus effects when administered alone (e.g., without alcohol). In the self-administration trained rats, gabapentin pretreatment (60 mg/kg) resulted in an escalation in alcohol self-administration. Given the importance of interoceptive drug cues in priming and maintaining self-administration, these data define a specific behavioral mechanism (i.e., potentiation of alcohol effects) by which gabapentin may increase alcohol self-administration in non-dependent populations.

  12. Oral administration of lithium increases tissue magnesium contents but not plasma magnesium level in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Musik, Irena; Hordyjewska, Anna; Boguszewska, Anna; Lewandowska, Anna; Pasternak, Kazimierz

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the influence of different doses of lithium on magnesium concentration in plasma and tissues of rats. For a period of eight weeks rats had been provided with aqueous solutions of Li(2)CO(3) whose concentrations were established as follows: 0.7; 1.4; 2.6; 3.6; 7.1; 10.7 mmol Li(+)/l. Magnesium concentration was determined in plasma and tissue supernatants. Lithium caused no changes in magnesium concentration in plasma, whereas Mg concentration in tissues was found to be enhanced, although the degree of the increment depended on the studied tissue. In the liver, brain and heart muscle, the increase was statistically insignificant vs. control. In the kidney, the higher Li doses were required to result in the significant Mg enhancement, whereas in femoral muscle all the used doses caused well-marked Mg increase vs. control. Positive correlations between average daily Li intake and tissue Mg concentration in the kidney (r = 0.650) and femoral muscle (r = 0.696) were found. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the different Li doses disturbed tissue homeostasis of magnesium. The increase in Mg tissue concentration, observed in groups receiving higher Li doses can influence nervous-muscular excitability.

  13. Peripheral administration of oxytocin increases social affiliation in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Skyler J; Douglas, Natasha R; Holmes, Melissa M

    2014-04-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin regulates a wide variety of social behaviors across diverse species. However, the types of behaviors that are influenced by this hormone are constrained by the species in question and the social organization that a particular species exhibits. Therefore, the present experiments investigated behaviors regulated by oxytocin in a eusocial mammalian species by using the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber). In Experiment 1, adult non-breeding mole-rats were given intraperitoneal injections of either oxytocin (1mg/kg or 10mg/kg) or saline on alternate days. Animals were then returned to their colony and behavior was recorded for minutes 15-30 post-injection. Both doses of oxytocin increased huddling behavior during this time period. In Experiment 2, animals received intraperitoneal injections of either oxytocin (1mg/kg), an oxytocin-receptor antagonist (0.1mg/kg), a cocktail of oxytocin and the antagonist, or saline across 4 testing days in a counterbalanced design. Animals were placed in either a 2-chamber arena with a familiar conspecific or in a small chamber with 1week old pups from their home colony and behaviors were recorded for minutes 15-30 post-injection. Oxytocin increased investigation of, and time spent in close proximity to, a familiar conspecific; these effects were blocked by the oxytocin antagonist. No effects were seen on pup-directed behavior. These data suggest that oxytocin is capable of modulating affiliative-like behavior in this eusocial species.

  14. Oral administration of lactulose: a novel therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dan-Feng; Hu, Hui-Jun; Sun, Xue-Jun; Meng, Xiang-En; Zhang, Yu; Pan, Shu-Yi

    2016-01-01

    It has been known that the pathophysiology of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is related to hypoxia, the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Studies have shown that the novel, safe and effective free radical scavenger, hydrogen, has neuroprotective effects in both acute CO poisoning and delayed neuropsychological sequelae in CO poisoning. Orally administered lactulose, which may be used by some intestinal bacteria as a food source to produce endogenous hydrogen, can ameliorate oxidative stress. Based on the available findings, we hypothesize that oral administration of lactulose may be a novel therapy for acute CO poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production.

  15. Administration of URB597, oleoylethanolamide or palmitoylethanolamide increases waking and dopamine in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Murillo-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oleoylethanolamide (OEA and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA are amides of fatty acids and ethanolamine named N-acylethanolamines or acylethanolamides. The hydrolysis of OEA and PEA is catalyzed by the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH. A number of FAAH inhibitors that increase the levels of OEA and PEA in the brain have been developed, including URB597. In the present report, we examined whether URB597, OEA or PEA injected into wake-related brain areas, such as lateral hypothalamus (LH or dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN would promote wakefulness (W in rats. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male Wistar rats (250-300 g were implanted for sleep studies with electrodes to record the electroencephalogram and electromyogram as well as a cannulae aimed either into LH or into DRN. Sleep stages were scored to determine W, slow wave sleep (SWS and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS. Power spectra bands underly neurophysiological mechanisms of the sleep-wake cycle and provide information about quality rather than quantity of sleep, thus fast Fourier transformation analysis was collected after the pharmacological trials for alpha (for W; α = 8-12 Hz, delta (for SWS; δ = 0.5-4.0 Hz and theta (for REMS; θ = 6.0-12.0 Hz. Finally, microdialysis samples were collected from a cannula placed into the nucleus accumbens (AcbC and the levels of dopamine (DA were determined by HPLC means after the injection of URB597, OEA or PEA. We found that microinjection of compounds (10, 20, 30 µg/1 µL; each into LH or DRN during the lights-on period increased W and decreased SWS as well as REMS and enhanced DA extracellular levels. CONCLUSIONS: URB597, OEA or PEA promoted waking and enhanced DA if injected into LH or DRN. The wake-promoting effects of these compounds could be linked with the enhancement in levels of DA and indirectly mediated by anandamide.

  16. Acute Carnosine Administration Increases Respiratory Chain Complexes and Citric Acid Cycle Enzyme Activities in Cerebral Cortex of Young Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Levy W; Cararo, José H; Maravai, Soliany G; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Kist, Luiza W; Guerra Martinez, Camila; Kurtenbach, Eleonora; Bogo, Maurício R; Hipkiss, Alan R; Streck, Emilio L; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C

    2016-10-01

    Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is an imidazole dipeptide synthesized in excitable tissues of many animals, whose biochemical properties include carbonyl scavenger, anti-oxidant, bivalent metal ion chelator, proton buffer, and immunomodulating agent, although its precise physiological role(s) in skeletal muscle and brain tissues in vivo remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo effects of acute carnosine administration on various aspects of brain bioenergetics of young Wistar rats. The activity of mitochondrial enzymes in cerebral cortex was assessed using a spectrophotometer, and it was found that there was an increase in the activities of complexes I-III and II-III and succinate dehydrogenase in carnosine-treated rats, as compared to vehicle-treated animals. However, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) data on mRNA levels of mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins (nuclear respiratory factor 1 (Nrf1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α (Ppargc1α), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam)) were not altered significantly and therefore suggest that short-term carnosine administration does not affect mitochondrial biogenesis. It was in agreement with the finding that immunocontent of respiratory chain complexes was not altered in animals receiving carnosine. These observations indicate that acute carnosine administration increases the respiratory chain and citric acid cycle enzyme activities in cerebral cortex of young rats, substantiating, at least in part, a neuroprotector effect assigned to carnosine against oxidative-driven disorders.

  17. Co-administration of GF120918 significantly increases the systemic exposure to oral paclitaxel in cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Malingré, M M; Beijnen, J H; Rosing, H; Koopman, F J; Jewell, R C; Paul, E M; Huinink, W W ten Bokkel; Schellens, J H M

    2001-01-01

    Oral bioavailability of paclitaxel is very low, which is due to efficient transport of the drug by the intestinal drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp). We have recently demonstrated that the oral bioavailability of paclitaxel can be increased at least 7-fold by co-administration of the P-gp blocker cyclosporin A (CsA). Now we tested the potent alternative orally applicable non-immunosuppressive P-gp blocker GF120918. Six patients received one course of oral paclitaxel of 120 mg/m2 in combin...

  18. [Rapid construction of full-length MnSOD cDNA of chickens by one-step 3'RACE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, You-Quan; Luo, Xu-Gang; Liu, Bin; Li, Su-Fen

    2004-07-01

    RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) is a popular technique to rapidly obtain the full-length cDNA. After obtaining the 3' cDNA and 5' cDNA fragments with a overlapped region by 3' RACE and 5' RACE, the full-length cDNA could be generated by end-to-end PCR or subcloning. In this study, 3' RACE combined with touch-down PCR was successfully used for the rapid construction of full-length MnSOD cDNA of chickens. Compared with the conventional end-to-end PCR or subcloning, this method, called one-step 3' RACE, is fast, economical and highly specific. It especially fits the rapid construction of full-length cDNA by RACE method. PMID:15640053

  19. Increased sexual desire with exogenous testosterone administration in men with obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melehan, K L; Hoyos, C M; Yee, B J; Wong, K K; Buchanan, P R; Grunstein, R R; Liu, P Y

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone (T) deficiency, sexual dysfunction, obesity and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are common and often coexist. T prescriptions have increased worldwide during the last decade, including to those with undiagnosed or untreated OSA. The effect of T administration on sexual function, neurocognitive performance and quality of life in these men is poorly defined. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of T administration on sexual function, quality of life and neurocognitive performance in obese men with OSA. We also secondarily examined whether baseline T might modify the effects of T treatment by dichotomizing on baseline T levels pre-specified at 8, 11 and 13 nmol/L. This was a randomized placebo-controlled study in which 67 obese men with OSA (mean age 49 ± 1.3 years) were randomized to receive intramuscular injections of either 1000 mg T undecanoate or placebo at baseline, week 6 and week 12. All participants were concurrently enrolled in a weight loss program. General and sleep-related quality of life, neurocognitive performance and subjective sexual function were assessed before and 6, 12 and 18 weeks after therapy. T compared to placebo increased sexual desire (p = 0.004) in all men, irrespective of baseline T levels. There were no differences in erectile function, frequency of sexual attempts, orgasmic ability, general or sleep-related quality of life or neurocognitive function (all p = NS). In those with baseline T levels below 8 nmol/L, T increased vitality (p = 0.004), and reduced reports of feeling down (p = 0.002) and nervousness (p = 0.03). Our findings show that 18 weeks of T therapy increased sexual desire in obese men with OSA independently of baseline T levels whereas improvements in quality of life were evident only in those with T levels below 8 nmol/L. These small improvements would need to be balanced against potentially more serious adverse effects of T therapy on breathing. PMID:26610430

  20. Increased salt sensitivity induced by sensory denervation:role of superoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-zhong SONG; Alex F CHEN; Donna H WANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To test the hypothesis that production of superoxide in mesenteric resistance arteries is increased and contributes to the development of hypertension induced by sensory denervation plus high salt intake. METHODS:Newborn Wistar rats were given capsaicin 50mg/kg sc on the 1st and 2nd d of life. After weaning, male rats were grouped as follows and treated for 3 weeks with: capsaicin pretreatment plus normal sodium diet (0.5%, CAP-NS),CAP plus high sodium diet (4%, CAP-HS), control plus NS (CON-NS), or CON-HS. Both tail-cuff systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured in each of the groups. Western blot analysis was used for measurement of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the mesenteric resistance arteries. Lucigenin chemiluminescence assay was used for superoxide production in the mesenteric resistance arteries. The Griess method was used for measurement of nitrite/nitrate levels in plasma.RESULTS: Both tail-cuff pressure and MAP were higher in CAP-HS compared with CAP-NS, CON-HS, and CONNS rats (P<0.05). Both MnSOD and eNOS in the mesenteric resistance arteries were increased in CAP-HS compared with CAP-NS, CON-HS, and CON-NS (P<0.05). However, nitrite/nitrate levels in plasma were not different among 4 groups. Acute iv administration of tempol, a membrane-permeable superoxide scavenger, decreased MAP in both CAP-HS and CON-HS when compared with their respective controls. However, the decreases of MAP between these two groups were not different. Chronic treatment with tempol failed to prevent the development of hypertension in CAP-HS rats. Superoxide production in the mesenteric resistance arteries was increased in CAP-HS compared with CAP-NS, CON-HS, and CON-NS (P<0.05). However, chronic treatment with tempol did not prevent the increase of mesenteric superoxide production in CAP-HS rats. CONCLUSIONS:Regardless of increased vascular MnSOD levels, salt sensitive hypertension

  1. Repeated oral administration of capsaicin increases anxiety-like behaviours with prolonged stress-response in rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y-J Choi; J Y Kim; S B Yoo; J-H Lee; J W Jahng

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine the psycho-emotional effects of repeated oral exposure to capsaicin, the principal active component of chili peppers. Each rat received 1 mL of 0.02% capsaicin into its oral cavity daily, and was subjected to behavioural tests following 10 daily administrations of capsaicin. Stereotypy counts and rostral grooming were significantly increased, and caudal grooming decreased, in capsaicin-treated rats during the ambulatory activity test. In elevated plus maze test, not only the time spent in open arms but also the percent arm entry into open arms was reduced in capsaicin-treated rats compared with control rats. In forced swim test, although swimming duration was decreased, struggling increased in the capsaicin group, immobility duration did not differ between the groups. Repeated oral capsaicin did not affect the basal levels of plasma corticosterone; however, the stress-induced elevation of plasma corticosterone was prolonged in capsaicin treated rats. Oral capsaicin exposure significantly increased c-Fos expression not only in the nucleus tractus of solitarius but also in the paraventricular nucleus. Results suggest that repeated oral exposure to capsaicin increases anxiety-like behaviours in rats, and dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may play a role in its pathophysiology.

  2. Increased serum bile acid concentration following low-dose chronic administration of thioacetamide in rats, as evidenced by metabolomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Sook; Kim, Gabin; Shin, Ho Jung; Park, Se-Myo; Oh, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Yong-Bum; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Jeong, Jayoung; Shin, Jae-Gook; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2015-10-15

    A liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOF-MS)-based metabolomics approach was employed to identify endogenous metabolites as potential biomarkers for thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver injury. TAA (10 and 30mg/kg), a well-known hepatotoxic agent, was administered daily to male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 28days. We then conducted untargeted analyses of endogenous serum and liver metabolites. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was performed on serum and liver samples to evaluate metabolites associated with TAA-induced perturbation. TAA administration resulted in altered levels of bile acids, acyl carnitines, and phospholipids in serum and in the liver. We subsequently demonstrated and confirmed the occurrence of compromised bile acid homeostasis. TAA treatment significantly increased serum levels of conjugated bile acids in a dose-dependent manner, which correlated well with toxicity. However, hepatic levels of these metabolites were not substantially changed. Gene expression profiling showed that the hepatic mRNA levels of Ntcp, Bsep, and Oatp1b2 were significantly suppressed, whereas those of basolateral Mrp3 and Mrp4 were increased. Decreased levels of Ntcp, Oatp1b2, and Ostα proteins in the liver were confirmed by western blot analysis. These results suggest that serum bile acids might be increased due to the inhibition of bile acid enterohepatic circulation rather than increased endogenous bile acid synthesis. Moreover, serum bile acids are a good indicator of TAA-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:26222700

  3. N-terminal processing of membrane-targeted MnSOD and formation of multiple active superoxide dismutase dimers in the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Prashanth S; Rajaram, Hema; Apte, Shree K

    2013-10-01

    Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120 expresses a 30 kDa manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) comprising a hydrophobic region (signal peptide + linker peptide) attached to a catalytic unit. Bioinformatics predicted cleavage of the signal peptide at (25)CQPQ by signal peptidase and of the linker peptide by an Arg-C-like protease at the Arg52/Arg59 residue. The three predicted forms of MnSOD were immunodetected in Anabaena, with the 30 kDa MnSOD found exclusively in the membrane and the shorter 27 and 24 kDa forms found both in the membrane and soluble fractions. The corresponding sodA gene was truncated for (a) the first eight residues, or, (b) the signal peptide, or (c) the entire hydrophobic region, or (d) the Arg52/Arg59 residues were modified to serine. Overexpression of these MnSOD variants in recombinant Anabaena strains revealed that (a) the 30 kDa membrane-targeted MnSOD was cleaved by membrane-localized signal peptidase either during or after its transport through the membrane to release the 27 kDa form, either in the cytosol or in the periplasmic/thylakoid lumen, (b) the 27 kDa form was further cleaved to the 24 kDa form by Arg-C-like protease, both in the cytosol and in the periplasmic/thylakoid lumen, (c) deletion of signal peptide localized the MnSOD forms in the cytosol, and (d) alteration of the signal/linker peptide cleavage sites interfered with MnSOD localization and processing. Homo/heterodimerization of the 24 and 27 kDa forms of MnSOD and the cytosolic iron-dependent SOD results in multiple SOD activities, from a single MnSOD gene (sodA), in different cellular compartments of Anabaena.

  4. Effectiveness of increasing the frequency of posaconazole syrup administration to achieve optimal plasma concentrations in patients with haematological malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wan Beom; Cho, Joo-Youn; Park, Sang-In; Kim, Eun Jung; Yoon, Seonghae; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Youngil; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Kim, Eu Suk; Bang, Su Mi; Kim, Nam Joong; Kim, Inho; Oh, Myoung-Don; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Sang Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Few data are available on whether adjusting the dose of posaconazole syrup is effective in patients receiving anti-cancer chemotherapy. The aim of this prospective study was to analyse the impact of increasing the frequency of posaconazole administration on optimal plasma concentrations in adult patients with haematological malignancy. A total of 133 adult patients receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who received posaconazole syrup 200 mg three times daily for fungal prophylaxis were enrolled in this study. Drug trough levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In 20.2% of patients (23/114) the steady-state concentration of posaconazole was suboptimal (syrup is effective for achieving optimal levels in patients with haematological malignancy undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:27234674

  5. Brief intermittent cocaine self-administration and abstinence sensitizes cocaine effects on the dopamine transporter and increases drug seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calipari, Erin S; Siciliano, Cody A; Zimmer, Benjamin A; Jones, Sara R

    2015-02-01

    Although traditional sensitization paradigms, which result in an augmentation of cocaine-induced locomotor behavior and dopamine (DA) overflow following repeated experimenter-delivered cocaine injections, are often used as a model to study drug addiction, similar effects have been difficult to demonstrate following cocaine self-administration. We have recently shown that intermittent access (IntA) to cocaine can result in increased cocaine potency at the DA transporter (DAT); however, traditional sensitization paradigms often show enhanced effects following withdrawal/abstinence periods. Therefore, we determined a time course of IntA-induced sensitization by examining the effects of 1 or 3 days of IntA, as well as a 7-day abstinence period on DA function, cocaine potency, and reinforcement. Here we show that cocaine potency is increased following as little as 3 days of IntA and further augmented following an abstinence period. In addition, IntA plus abstinence produced greater evoked DA release in the presence of cocaine as compared with all other groups, demonstrating that following abstinence, both cocaine's ability to increase DA release and inhibit uptake at the DAT, two separate mechanisms for increasing DA levels, are enhanced. Finally, we found that IntA-induced sensitization of the DA system resulted in an increased reinforcing efficacy of cocaine, an effect that was augmented after the 7-day abstinence period. These results suggest that sensitization of the DA system may have an important role in the early stages of drug abuse and may drive the increased drug seeking and taking that characterize the transition to uncontrolled drug use. Human data suggest that intermittency, sensitization, and periods of abstinence have an integral role in the process of addiction, highlighting the importance of utilizing pre-clinical models that integrate these phenomena, and suggesting that IntA paradigms may serve as novel models of human addiction. PMID:25212486

  6. 蜡样杆菌(Bacillus cereus)M22 Mn-SOD cDNA片断的克隆%Cloning and Analysis of cDNA Fragment of Mn-SOD (Manganese Superoxide Dismutase) from Bacillus cereus M22

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠芳; 尚玉磊; 王琦; 王慧敏; 梅汝鸿

    2004-01-01

    分析不同种细菌Mn-SOD氨基酸序列的保守区域,设计一对简并引物进行RT-PCR扩增,产物经T-A载体连接转化大肠杆菌JM109,筛选阳性克隆、测序并进行同源性分析,得到 436 bp Mn-SOD cDNA片段.根据此片段设计 5′端特异性引物,然后进行5′RACE扩增,获得Mn-SOD 5′端 387 bp cDNA片断.将 2 段序列进行拼接获得 594 bp cDNA片断,编码 172 个氨基酸.对推定氨基酸序列进行BLAST分析,结果表明其与炭疽芽孢杆菌(Bacillus anthracis)同源性为 95 %,且Gly77,Aly78,Phe86,Gln150和Asp151在已报道的Mn-SOD中均存在,构成Mn-SOD的活性中心.表明该序列为蜡样芽孢杆菌Mn-SOD的cDNA序列.

  7. Defects in TLR3 expression and RNase L activation lead to decreased MnSOD expression and insulin resistance in muscle cells of obese people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Odile Martine Julie; Breuker, C; Amouzou, C;

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress that blunt insulin response in its target tissues, leading to insulin resistance (IR). IR is a characteristic feature of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle is responsible for 75% of total insulin-dependent glucose uptake...... with palmitate, a saturated free fatty acid (FFA) known to induce inflammation and oxidative stress via TLR4 activation. While RNase L and RLI levels remained unchanged, OAS level was decreased in primary myotubes from insulin-resistant obese subjects (OB-IR) compared with myotubes from insulin-sensitive obese...... subjects (OB-IS). TLR3 and mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) were also underexpressed in OB-IR myotubes. Activation of RNase L by 2-5A transfection allowed to restore insulin response, OAS, MnSOD and TLR3 expression in OB-IR myotubes. Due to low expression of OAS, OB-IR myotubes present...

  8. Increasing compliance with mass drug administration programs for lymphatic filariasis in India through education and lymphedema management programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Cantey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nearly 45% of people living at risk for lymphatic filariasis (LF worldwide live in India. India has faced challenges obtaining the needed levels of compliance with its mass drug administration (MDA program to interrupt LF transmission, which utilizes diethylcarbamazine (DEC or DEC plus albendazole. Previously identified predictors of and barriers to compliance with the MDA program were used to refine a pre-MDA educational campaign. The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of these refinements and of a lymphedema morbidity management program on MDA compliance. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A randomized, 30-cluster survey was performed in each of 3 areas: the community-based pre-MDA education plus community-based lymphedema management education (Com-MDA+LM area, the community-based pre-MDA education (Com-MDA area, and the Indian standard pre-MDA education (MDA-only area. Compliance with the MDA program was 90.2% in Com-MDA+LM, 75.0% in Com-MDA, and 52.9% in the MDA-only areas (p<0.0001. Identified barriers to adherence included: 1 fear of side effects and 2 lack of recognition of one's personal benefit from adherence. Multivariable predictors of adherence amenable to educational intervention were: 1 knowing about the MDA in advance of its occurrence, 2 knowing everyone is at risk for LF, 3 knowing that the MDA was for LF, and 4 knowing at least one component of the lymphedema management techniques taught in the lymphedema management program. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study confirmed previously identified predictors of and barriers to compliance with India's MDA program for LF. More importantly, it showed that targeting these predictors and barriers in a timely and clear pre-MDA educational campaign can increase compliance with MDA programs, and it demonstrated, for the first time, that lymphedema management programs may also increase compliance with MDA programs.

  9. Characterization of the aodA, dnmA, mnSOD and pimA genes in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Éva; Park, Hee-Soo; Kwon, Nak-Jung; Han, Kap-Hoon; Emri, Tamás; Oláh, Viktor; Mészáros, Ilona; Dienes, Beatrix; Vincze, János; Csernoch, László; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Pócsi, István

    2016-02-05

    Mitochondria play key roles in cellular energy generation and lifespan of most eukaryotes. To understand the functions of four nuclear-encoded genes predicted to be related to the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and function in Aspergillus nidulans, systematic characterization was carried out. The deletion and overexpression mutants of aodA, dnmA, mnSOD and pimA encoding alternative oxidase, dynamin related protein, manganese superoxide dismutase and Lon protease, respectively, were generated and examined for their growth, stress tolerances, respiration, autolysis, cell death, sterigmatocystin production, hyphal morphology and size, and mitochondrial superoxide production as well as development. Overall, genetic manipulation of these genes had less effect on cellular physiology and ageing in A. nidulans than that of their homologs in another fungus Podospora anserina with a well-characterized senescence. The observed interspecial phenotypic differences can be explained by the dissimilar intrinsic stabilities of the mitochondrial genomes in A. nidulans and P. anserina. Furthermore, the marginally altered phenotypes observed in A. nidulans mutants indicate the presence of effective compensatory mechanisms for the complex networks of mitochondrial defense and quality control. Importantly, these findings can be useful for developing novel platforms for heterologous protein production, or on new biocontrol and bioremediation technologies based on Aspergillus species.

  10. Increasing Coverage in Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination in an Urban Setting: a Study of Malindi Town, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njomo, Doris W.; Mukoko, Dunstan A.; Nyamongo, Nipher K.; Karanja, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Implementation of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) in urban settings is an obstacle to Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) elimination. No urban-specific guidelines on MDA in urban areas exist. Malindi district urban area had received 4 MDA rounds by the time the current study was implemented. Programme data showed average treatment coverage of 28.4% (2011 MDA), far below recommended minimum of 65–80%. Methods To identify, design and test strategies for increased treatment coverage in urban areas, a quasi-experimental study was conducted in Malindi urban area. Three sub-locations with lowest treatment coverage in 2011 MDA were purposively selected. In the pre-test phase, 947 household heads sampled using systematic random method were interviewed for quantitative data. For qualitative data, 12 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with single sex adult and youth male and female groups and 3 with community drug distributors (CDDs) were conducted. Forty in-depth interviews with opinion leaders and self-administered questionnaires with District Public Health officers purposively selected were carried out. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and statistical significance assessed by χ2 test.The qualitative data were analyzed manually according to study's themes. Results and Discussion The identified strategies were implemented prior to and during 2012 MDA in two sub-locations (experimental) while in the third (control), usual MDA strategies were applied. In the post-test phase, 2012 MDA coverage in experimental and control sub-locations was comparatively assessed for effect of the newly designed strategies on urban MDA. Results indicated improved treatment coverage in experimental sub-locations, 77.1% in Shella and 66.0% in Barani. Central (control) sub-location also attained high coverage, 70.4% indicating average treatment coverage of 71%. Conclusion The identified strategies contributed to increased treatment coverage in experimental sites and

  11. Increasing coverage in mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis elimination in an urban setting: a study of Malindi Town, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris W Njomo

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Implementation of Mass Drug Administration (MDA in urban settings is an obstacle to Lymphatic Filariasis (LF elimination. No urban-specific guidelines on MDA in urban areas exist. Malindi district urban area had received 4 MDA rounds by the time the current study was implemented. Programme data showed average treatment coverage of 28.4% (2011 MDA, far below recommended minimum of 65-80%. METHODS: To identify, design and test strategies for increased treatment coverage in urban areas, a quasi-experimental study was conducted in Malindi urban area. Three sub-locations with lowest treatment coverage in 2011 MDA were purposively selected. In the pre-test phase, 947 household heads sampled using systematic random method were interviewed for quantitative data. For qualitative data, 12 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs with single sex adult and youth male and female groups and 3 with community drug distributors (CDDs were conducted. Forty in-depth interviews with opinion leaders and self-administered questionnaires with District Public Health officers purposively selected were carried out. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and statistical significance assessed by χ(2 test.The qualitative data were analyzed manually according to study's themes. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The identified strategies were implemented prior to and during 2012 MDA in two sub-locations (experimental while in the third (control, usual MDA strategies were applied. In the post-test phase, 2012 MDA coverage in experimental and control sub-locations was comparatively assessed for effect of the newly designed strategies on urban MDA. Results indicated improved treatment coverage in experimental sub-locations, 77.1% in Shella and 66.0% in Barani. Central (control sub-location also attained high coverage, 70.4% indicating average treatment coverage of 71%. CONCLUSION: The identified strategies contributed to increased treatment coverage in experimental

  12. Increased orbitofrontal brain activation after administration of a selective adenosine A2A antagonist in cocaine dependent subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gerard eMoeller

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Positron Emission Tomography imaging studies provide evidence of reduced dopamine function in cocaine dependent subjects in the striatum, which is correlated with prefrontal cortical glucose metabolism, particularly in the orbitofrontal cortex. However, whether enhancement of dopamine in the striatum in cocaine dependent subjects would be associated with changes in prefrontal cortical brain activation is unknown. One novel class of medications that enhance dopamine function via heteromer formation with dopamine receptors in the striatum is the selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonists. This study sought to determine the effects administration of the selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist SYN115 on brain function in cocaine dependent subjects. Methodology/Principle Findings: Twelve cocaine dependent subjects underwent two fMRI scans (one after a dose of placebo and one after a dose of 100 mg of SYN115 while performing a working memory task with 3 levels of difficulty (3, 5, and 7 digits. fMRI results showed that for 7-digit working memory activation there was significantly greater activation from SYN115 compared to placebo in portions of left (L lateral orbitofrontal cortex, L insula, and L superior and middle temporal pole. Conclusion/Significance: These findings are consistent with enhanced dopamine function in the striatum in cocaine dependent subjects via blockade of adenosine A2A receptors producing increased brain activation in the orbitofrontal cortex and other cortical regions. This suggests that at least some of the changes in brain activation in prefrontal cortical regions in cocaine dependent subjects may be related to altered striatal dopamine function, and that enhancement of dopamine function via adenosine A2A receptor blockade could be explored further for amelioration of neurobehavioral deficits associated with chronic cocaine use.

  13. Increased Orbitofrontal Brain Activation after Administration of a Selective Adenosine A2A Antagonist in Cocaine Dependent Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, F. Gerard; Steinberg, Joel L.; Lane, Scott D.; Kjome, Kimberly L.; Ma, Liangsuo; Ferre, Sergi; Schmitz, Joy M.; Green, Charles E.; Bandak, Stephen I.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Kramer, Larry A.; Narayana, Ponnada A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Positron Emission Tomography imaging studies provide evidence of reduced dopamine function in cocaine dependent subjects in the striatum, which is correlated with prefrontal cortical glucose metabolism, particularly in the orbitofrontal cortex. However, whether enhancement of dopamine in the striatum in cocaine dependent subjects would be associated with changes in prefrontal cortical brain activation is unknown. One novel class of medications that enhance dopamine function via heteromer formation with dopamine receptors in the striatum is the selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonists. This study sought to determine the effects administration of the selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist SYN115 on brain function in cocaine dependent subjects. Methodology/Principle Findings: Twelve cocaine dependent subjects underwent two fMRI scans (one after a dose of placebo and one after a dose of 100 mg of SYN115) while performing a working memory task with three levels of difficulty (3, 5, and 7 digits). fMRI results showed that for 7-digit working memory activation there was significantly greater activation from SYN115 compared to placebo in portions of left (L) lateral orbitofrontal cortex, L insula, and L superior and middle temporal pole. Conclusion/Significance: These findings are consistent with enhanced dopamine function in the striatum in cocaine dependent subjects via blockade of adenosine A2A receptors producing increased brain activation in the orbitofrontal cortex and other cortical regions. This suggests that at least some of the changes in brain activation in prefrontal cortical regions in cocaine dependent subjects may be related to altered striatal dopamine function, and that enhancement of dopamine function via adenosine A2A receptor blockade could be explored further for amelioration of neurobehavioral deficits associated with chronic cocaine use. PMID:22654774

  14. Subacute Zinc Administration and L-NAME Caused an Increase of NO, Zinc, Lipoperoxidation, and Caspase-3 during a Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia Process in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manuel Blanco-Alvarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc or L-NAME administration has been shown to be protector agents, decreasing oxidative stress and cell death. However, the treatment with zinc and L-NAME by intraperitoneal injection has not been studied. The aim of our work was to study the effect of zinc and L-NAME administration on nitrosative stress and cell death. Male Wistar rats were treated with ZnCl2 (2.5 mg/kg each 24 h, for 4 days and N-ω-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 mg/kg on the day 5 (1 hour before a common carotid-artery occlusion (CCAO. The temporoparietal cortex and hippocampus were dissected, and zinc, nitrites, and lipoperoxidation were assayed at different times. Cell death was assayed by histopathology using hematoxylin-eosin staining and caspase-3 active by immunostaining. The subacute administration of zinc before CCAO decreases the levels of zinc, nitrites, lipoperoxidation, and cell death in the late phase of the ischemia. L-NAME administration in the rats treated with zinc showed an increase of zinc levels in the early phase and increase of zinc, nitrites, and lipoperoxidation levels, cell death by necrosis, and the apoptosis in the late phase. These results suggest that the use of these two therapeutic strategies increased the injury caused by the CCAO, unlike the alone administration of zinc.

  15. Acid-degradable core-shell nanoparticles for reversed tamoxifen-resistance in breast cancer by silencing manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soo Kyung; Pedram, Ali; Levin, Ellis R; Kwon, Young Jik

    2013-12-01

    Drug resistance acquired by cancer cells is a significant challenge in the clinic and requires impairing the responsible pathological pathway. Administering chemotherapeutics along with silencing resistance-basis activity using RNA interference (RNAi) is expected to restore the activity of the chemotherapeutic and generate synergistic cancer eradication. This study attempted to reverse tamoxifen (TAM)-resistance in breast cancer by silencing a mitochondrial enzyme, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), which dismutates TAM-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) (i.e., superoxide) to less harmful hydrogen peroxide and hampers therapeutic effects. Breast cancer cells were co-treated with TAM and MnSOD siRNA-delivering nanoparticles (NPs) made of a siRNA/poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendriplex core and an acid-degradable polyketal (PK) shell. The (siRNA/PAMAM)-PK NPs were designed for the PK shell to shield siRNA from nucleases, minimize detrimental aggregation in serum, and facilitate cytosolic release of siRNA from endosomal compartments. This method of forming the PK shell around the siRNA/PAMAM core via surface-initiated photo-polymerization enables ease of tuning NPs' size for readily controlled siRNA release kinetics. The resulting NPs were notably homogenous in size, resistant to aggregation in serum, and invulnerable to heparan sulfate-mediated disassembly, compared to siRNA/PAMAM dendriplexes. Gel electrophoresis and confocal microscopy confirmed efficient siRNA release from the (siRNA/PAMAM)-PK NPs upon stimuli-responsive hydrolysis of the PK shell. Sensitization of TAM-resistant MCF7-BK-TR breast cancer cells with (MnSOD siRNA/PAMAM)-PK NPs restored TAM-induced cellular apoptosis in vitro and significantly suppressed tumor growth in vivo, as confirmed by biochemical assays and histological observations. This study implies that combined gene silencing and chemotherapy is a promising strategy to overcoming a significant challenge in cancer therapy. PMID:24055523

  16. Obesity augments the age-induced increase in mitochondrial capacity for H(2) O(2) release in Zucker fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey-Mogensen, Martin; Jeppesen, Jacob; Madsen, K;

    2012-01-01

    determined and related to citrate synthase activity to determine intrinsic mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial-specific super-oxide dismuthase (MnSOD) protein content was determined in isolated mitochondria and muscle homogenate. Catalase protein content was determined in muscle homogenate. Results: Young...... was associated with increased mitochondrial hydrogenperoxide release. MnSOD tended to be higher in the obese strain in the isolated mitochondria. Regardless of age, catalase protein content was significantly lower in the obese rats. Conclusions: This study shows that the augmented increase in obesity and insulin...

  17. NucleoRed - Computerized system for increasing the effectiveness of the technical administrative conduct of the Laguna Verde Central

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The on-line systems for the management of the Laguna Verde Central (CLV) have had the challenge to evolve from the PC's of first generation until emigrate to the new Internet technologies, so that they allow to the diverse work groups to have the computer tool that allows them to gather the necessary data and to carry out efficiently the analysis of their results. To confront the previous challenge, in the CLV it has been developed and implemented the Nucleo Red that is an on-line system with the objective of providing in it lines strategic information for the Technician-administrative management of the plant in the nuclear context. The Nucleo Red is the computational tool that reflects the technical administrative processes implemented by personnel of the different Operative departments, it seeks to cooperate to the reliable and efficient operation of the first nucleo electric central of Mexico, with technology and Mexican personnel the one which already it had received international recognitions. The perspective of this computer system is to continue inside the process of continuous improvement and that although it was designed for a nucleo electric plant it can also be taken to the conventional plants of generation of electric power, so that this technology can be taken advantage of in other non nuclear facilities. The objective of the present work, is to show the new modules that have been developed in the Nucleo Red, its operation in general, and the benefits that it presents its use. (Author)

  18. Acute Central Neuropeptide Y Administration Increases Food Intake but Does Not Affect Hepatic Very Low-Density Lipoprotein (Vldl) Production in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerling, J.J.; Wang, Y.; Havekes, L.M.; Romijn, J.A.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Central neuropeptide Y (NPY) administration stimulates food intake in rodents. In addition, acute modulation of central NPY signaling increases hepatic production of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride (TG) in rats. As hypertriglyceridemia is an important risk factor for athe

  19. The Mine Safety and Health Administration's criterion threshold value policy increases miners' risk of pneumoconiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, J.L. [United Mine Workers America, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Background The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) proposes to issue citations for non-compliance with the exposure limit for respirable coal mine dust when measured exposure exceeds the exposure limit with a 'high degree of confidence.' This criterion threshold value (CTV) is derived from the sampling and analytical error of the measurement method. This policy is based on a combination of statistical and legal reasoning: the one-tailed 95% confidence limit of the sampling method, the apparent principle of due process and a standard of proof analogous to 'beyond a reasonable doubt.' This policy raises the effective exposure limit, it is contrary to the precautionary principle, it is not a fair sharing of the burden of uncertainty, and it employs an inappropriate standard of proof. Its own advisory committee and NIOSH have advised against this policy. For longwall mining sections, it results in a failure to issue citations for approximately 36% of the measured values that exceed the statutory exposure limit. Citations for non-compliance with the respirable dust standard should be issued for any measure exposure that exceeds the exposure limit.

  20. Central amygdala opioid transmission is necessary for increased high-fat intake following 24-h food deprivation, but not following intra-accumbens opioid administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Kyle E; Johns, Howard W; Floros, Ted G; Will, Matthew J

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a dissociation of certain neural mediators that contribute to the increased consumption of a high-fat diet that follows intra-accumbens (Acb) administration of μ-opioid receptor agonists vs. 24-h food deprivation. These two models, both which induce rapid consumption of the diet, have been shown to involve a distributed corticolimbic circuitry, including the amygdala. Specifically, the central amygdala (CeA) has been shown to be involved in high-fat feeding within both opioid and food-deprivation driven models. The present experiments were conducted to examine the more specific role of CeA opioid transmission in mediating high-fat feeding driven by either intra-Acb administration of the μ-opioid agonist d-Ala2-NMe-Phe4-Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO) or 24-h home cage food deprivation. Injection of DAMGO into the Acb (0.25 μg/0.5 μl/side) increased consumption of the high-fat diet, but this feeding was unaffected by administration of opioid antagonist, naltrexone (5 μg/0.25 μl/side) administered into the CeA. In contrast, intra-CeA naltrexone administration attenuated high-fat intake driven by 24-h food deprivation, demonstrating a specific role for CeA opioid transmission in high-fat consumption. Intra-CeA naltrexone administration alone had no effect on baseline feeding levels within either feeding model. These findings suggest that CeA opioid transmission mediates consumption of a palatable high-fat diet driven by short-term negative-energy balance (24-h food deprivation), but not intra-Acb opioid receptor activation.

  1. Pharyngeal oxygen administration increases the time to serious desaturation at intubation in acute lung injury: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Joakim; Hedenstierna, Göran; Larsson, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Endotracheal intubation in critically ill patients is associated with severe life-threatening complications in about 20%, mainly due to hypoxemia. We hypothesized that apneic oxygenation via a pharyngeal catheter during the endotracheal intubation procedure would prevent or increase the time to life-threatening hypoxemia and tested this hypothesis in an acute lung injury animal model. Methods Eight anesthetized piglets with collapse-prone lungs induced by lung lavage were ventila...

  2. A recommendation to perform a blood culture before the administration of intravenous antibiotics increased the detection of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    OpenAIRE

    Jogenfors, A.; Stark, L.; Svefors, J.; Löfgren, S; Malmvall, B.-E.; Matussek, A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2004, the Surviving Sepsis Campaign was launched to increase awareness and improve the outcome of severe sepsis. Accordingly, in Jönköping County, Sweden, a strong recommendation to perform a blood culture before the start of intravenous antibiotic treatment was introduced in 2007. Moreover, a reminder was included in the laboratory report to consult an infectious disease specialist when Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from a blood culture. Retrospectively, patients with at least one bl...

  3. A High-Fat Meal, or Intraperitoneal Administration of a Fat Emulsion, Increases Extracellular Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartley G. Hoebel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence links dopamine (DA in the nucleus accumbens (NAc shell to the ingestion of palatable diets. Less is known, however, about the specific relation of DA to dietary fat and circulating triglycerides (TG, which are stimulated by fat intake and promote overeating. The present experiments tested in Sprague-Dawley rats whether extracellular levels of NAc DA increase in response to acute access to fat-rich food or peripheral injection of a fat emulsion and, if so, whether this is related to caloric intake or elevated circulating lipids. When rats consumed more calories of a high-fat meal compared with a low-fat meal, there was a significant increase in extracellular accumbens DA (155% vs. 119%. Systemic injection of a fat emulsion, which like a high-fat diet raises circulating TG but eliminates the factor of taste and allows for the control of caloric intake, also significantly increased extracellular levels of DA (127% compared to an equicaloric glucose solution (70% and saline (85%. Together, this suggests that a rise in circulating TG may contribute to the stimulatory effect of a high-fat diet on NAc DA.

  4. Administration of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen increases macrophage concentrations but reduces necrosis during modified muscle use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, E. V.; Tidball, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that ibuprofen administration during modified muscle use reduces muscle necrosis and invasion by select myeloid cell populations. METHODS: Rats were subjected to hindlimb unloading for 10 days, after which they experienced muscle reloading by normal weight-bearing to induce muscle inflammation and necrosis. Some animals received ibuprofen by intraperitoneal injection 8 h prior to the onset of muscle reloading, and then again at 8 and 16 h following the onset of reloading. Other animals received buffer injection at 8 h prior to reloading and then ibuprofen at 8 and 16 h following the onset of reloading. Control animals received buffer only at each time point. Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis was used to assess the presence of necrotic muscle fibers, total inflammatory infiltrate, neutrophils, ED1+ macrophages and ED2+ macrophages at 24 h following the onset of reloading. RESULT: Administration of ibuprofen beginning 8 h prior to reloading caused significant reduction in the concentration of necrotic fibers, but increased the concentration of inflammatory cells in muscle. The increase in inflammatory cells was attributable to a 2.6-fold increase in the concentration of ED2+ macrophages. Animals treated with ibuprofen 8 h following the onset of reloading showed no decrease in muscle necrosis or increase in ED2+ macrophage concentrations. CONCLUSION: Administration of ibuprofen prior to increased muscle loading reduces muscle damage, but increases the concentration of macrophages that express the ED2 antigen. The increase in ED2+ macrophage concentration and decrease in necrosis may be mechanistically related because ED2+ macrophages have been associated with muscle regeneration and repair.

  5. Activation of the Endogenous Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System or Aldosterone Administration Increases Urinary Exosomal Sodium Channel Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ying; Wang, Xiaojing; Rose, Kristie L; MacDonald, W Hayes; Zhang, Bing; Schey, Kevin L; Luther, James M

    2016-02-01

    Urinary exosomes secreted by multiple cell types in the kidney may participate in intercellular signaling and provide an enriched source of kidney-specific proteins for biomarker discovery. Factors that alter the exosomal protein content remain unknown. To determine whether endogenous and exogenous hormones modify urinary exosomal protein content, we analyzed samples from 14 mildly hypertensive patients in a crossover study during a high-sodium (HS, 160 mmol/d) diet and low-sodium (LS, 20 mmol/d) diet to activate the endogenous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. We further analyzed selected exosomal protein content in a separate cohort of healthy persons receiving intravenous aldosterone (0.7 μg/kg per hour for 10 hours) versus vehicle infusion. The LS diet increased plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration, whereas aldosterone infusion increased only aldosterone concentration. Protein analysis of paired urine exosome samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based multidimensional protein identification technology detected 2775 unique proteins, of which 316 exhibited significantly altered abundance during LS diet. Sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) and α- and γ-epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) subunits from the discovery set were verified using targeted multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry quantified with isotope-labeled peptide standards. Dietary sodium restriction or acute aldosterone infusion similarly increased urine exosomal γENaC[112-122] peptide concentrations nearly 20-fold, which correlated with plasma aldosterone concentration and urinary Na/K ratio. Urine exosomal NCC and αENaC concentrations were relatively unchanged during these interventions. We conclude that urinary exosome content is altered by renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation. Urinary measurement of exosomal γENaC[112-122] concentration may provide a useful biomarker of ENaC activation in future clinical studies.

  6. Continuous administration of heparin in patients with deep vein thrombosis can increase plasma levels of diamine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocker, Josef; Perkmann, Reinhold; Klein-Weigel, Peter; Mörsdorf, Gabriele; Drasche, Astrid; Klingler, Anton; Fraedrich, Gustav; Schwelberger, Hubert G

    2004-01-01

    Besides its anticoagulant activity, the sulfated polysaccharide heparin has numerous other biological effects. Especially the antiinflammatory and immunoregulatory properties of heparin may be associated with its ability to release the histamine-degrading enzyme diamine oxidase (DAO) from tissue-bound sites into the circulation. Whereas DAO activity is at the limits of detection in normal human plasma, the application of heparin leads to a significant increase of plasma DAO activity. However, previously, only the effect of bolus injection of unfractionated heparin (UFH) had been studied. To investigate DAO release during continuous heparin infusion, 28 patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) undergoing heparin therapy were analyzed. Whereas continuous heparin infusion did not lead to any increase of plasma DAO activity in 12 patients (43%), 6 patients (21%) showed a single elevated and 10 patients (36%) permanently elevated plasma DAO activity. The groups of patients exhibiting different DAO release responses did not differ in age, sex, body weight, concomitant diseases, heparin infusion rates, coagulation indices, location and extension of thrombosis, or clinical outcome. However, the rate of idiopathic DVT was significantly higher in the group of patients releasing DAO. This study shows, for the first time, that continuous heparin infusion can lead to DAO release and that individuals exhibit considerable differences in their release response. Although the significance of heparin-induced DAO release needs further clarification, our results indicate that postheparin plasma DAO activity could be an interesting parameter correlated with idiopathic DVT.

  7. Oral administration of O-2 lean, an anti-obesity herbal composition increased 5-HT metabolism, decreased food intake and body weight in overweight rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeding behavior is complex processes controlled by the neruroendocrine system.5-HT play an important role in regulation of energy balance by suppressing food intake. Depletion of brain serotonin increase feeding behavior and develop obesity. Many serotoninergic compounds are available in market for the management of body weight. 02-Lean is an anti-obesity herbal formulation prepared by combination of different herbs. Oral administration of aqueous suspension of 02-Lean caused a significant decrease in body weight, food intake, and increase in whole brain 5-HT 5HIAA, tryptophan and plasma tryptophan in over weight rats treated with 0.096g/2ml 02-Lean in comparison to control group. (author)

  8. Administration of soluble activin receptor 2B increases bone and muscle mass in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Douglas J DiGirolamo; Vandana Singhal; Xiaoli Chang; Se-Jin Lee; Emily L Germain-Lee

    2015-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a group of heritable connective tissue disorders generally defined by recurrent fractures, low bone mass, short stature and skeletal fragility. Beyond the skeletal complications of OI, many patients also report intolerance to physical activity, fatigue and muscle weakness. Indeed, recent studies have demonstrated that skeletal muscle is also negatively affected by OI, both directly and indirectly. Given the well-established interdependence of bone and skeletal muscle in both physiology and pathophysiology and the observations of skeletal muscle pathology in patients with OI, we investigated the therapeutic potential of simultaneous anabolic targeting of both bone and skeletal muscle using a soluble activin receptor 2B (ACVR2B) in a mouse model of type III OI (oim). Treatment of 12-week-old oim mice with ACVR2B for 4 weeks resulted in significant increases in both bone and muscle that were similar to those observed in healthy, wild-type littermates. This proof of concept study provides encouraging evidence for a holistic approach to treating the deleterious consequences of OI in the musculoskeletal system.

  9. Acute central neuropeptide Y administration increases food intake but does not affect hepatic very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL production in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine J Geerling

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Central neuropeptide Y (NPY administration stimulates food intake in rodents. In addition, acute modulation of central NPY signaling increases hepatic production of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-triglyceride (TG in rats. As hypertriglyceridemia is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis, for which well-established mouse models are available, we set out to validate the effect of NPY on hepatic VLDL-TG production in mice, to ultimately investigate whether NPY, by increasing VLDL production, contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Male C57Bl/6J mice received an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. cannula into the lateral (LV or third (3V ventricle of the brain. One week later, after a 4 h fast, the animals received an intravenous (i.v. injection of Tran(35S (100 µCi followed by tyloxapol (500 mg/kg body weight; BW, enabling the study of hepatic VLDL-apoB and VLDL-TG production, respectively. Immediately after the i.v. injection of tyloxapol, the animals received either an i.c.v. injection of NPY (0.2 mg/kg BW in artificial cerebrospinal fluid; aCSF, synthetic Y1 receptor antagonist GR231118 (0.5 mg/kg BW in aCSF or vehicle (aCSF, or an i.v. injection of PYY3-36 (0.5 mg/kg BW in PBS or vehicle (PBS. RESULTS: Administration of NPY into both the LV and 3V increased food intake within one hour after injection (+164%, p<0.001 and +367%, p<0.001, respectively. NPY administration neither in the LV nor in the 3V affected hepatic VLDL-TG or VLDL-apoB production. Likewise, antagonizing central NPY signaling by either PYY3-36 or GR231118 administration did not affect hepatic VLDL production. CONCLUSION: In mice, as opposed to rats, acute central administration of NPY increases food intake without affecting hepatic VLDL production. These results are of great significance when extrapolating findings on the central regulation of hepatic VLDL production between species.

  10. Leptin administration favors muscle mass accretion by decreasing FoxO3a and increasing PGC-1alpha in ob/ob mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neira Sáinz

    Full Text Available Absence of leptin has been associated with reduced skeletal muscle mass in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. The aim of our study was to examine the effect of leptin on the catabolic and anabolic pathways regulating muscle mass. Gastrocnemius, extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscle mass as well as fiber size were significantly lower in ob/ob mice compared to wild type littermates, being significantly increased by leptin administration (P<0.001. This effect was associated with an inactivation of the muscle atrophy-related transcription factor forkhead box class O3 (FoxO3a (P<0.05, and with a decrease in the protein expression levels of the E3 ubiquitin-ligases muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx (P<0.05 and muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1 (P<0.05. Moreover, leptin increased (P<0.01 protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha, a regulator of muscle fiber type, and decreased (P<0.05 myostatin protein, a negative regulator of muscle growth. Leptin administration also activated (P<0.01 the regulators of cell cycle progression proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and cyclin D1, and increased (P<0.01 myofibrillar protein troponin T. The present study provides evidence that leptin treatment may increase muscle mass of ob/ob mice by inhibiting myofibrillar protein degradation as well as enhancing muscle cell proliferation.

  11. Mitochondrial superoxide production and MnSOD activity following exposure to an agonist and antagonists of ionotropic receptors in rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenović Lidija Lj.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of NMDA and AMPA/kainate receptors in the induction of superoxide production in the rat brain was examined after intrahippocampal injection of kainate, a non-NMDA receptor agonist; kainate plus CNQX, a selective AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist; or kainate plus APV, a selective NMDA receptor antagonist. The measurements took place at different times in the ipsi- and contralateral hippocampus, forebrain cortex, striatum, and cerebellum homogenates. The used glutamate antagonists both ensured sufficient neuroprotection in the sense of lowering superoxide production and raising MnSOD levels, but in the mechanisms and time dynamics of their effects were different. Our findings suggest that NMDA and AMPA/kainate receptors are differentially involved in superoxide production. UDC 612.815 612.82.

  12. Peningkatan Produktivitas Ayam Petelur Melalui Pemberian Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kemangi (INCREASED LAYING HENS PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH THE ADMINISTRATION OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF KEMANGI LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriyanto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Empirically, kemangi leaves reported to increase health quality in human and livestock. Thepreliminary study was designed to explore the potency of ethanol extract of kemangi leaves to increaselaying hens performance. Sixteen laying hens (pullet were divided into 4 groups and repeated 4 times.Control group was laying hen administered aquadest orally, treated group was laying hen administeredextract of kemangi leaves orally at a dose of 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg BW, respectively. Every day, the experimentallaying hens were fed for 3 times and drinking water was provided ad libitum. Variables observed were thenumber of eggs, egg weight, time of first laying, egg laying intervals, egg quality ( water content, crudeprotein, and crude fat, and liver function (SGPT and SGOT values . Results of this research showed thatadministration of kemangi leaves extract at a dose of 3 mg/kg BW significantly increased the number ofegg production and egg weight (p<0.05. Time of first laying and laying interval did not show any significantdifference among treatments. Examination of moisture, crude protein, and crude fat content of the eggindicated that the administration of kemangi leaves extract did not affect egg quality. Extract of kemangileaves decreased SGPT and SGOT values that indicated improvement of liver function. It was concludedthat administration of ethanol extract of kemangi leaves could increase laying hens productivity byimprovement of liver function that is critical in vitellogenesis.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of repeated sodium salicylate administration to laying hens: evidence for time dependent increase in drug elimination from plasma and eggs.

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    Błażej Poźniak

    Full Text Available Salicylates were the first non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs to be used in any species and are still widely used in humans and livestock. However, the data on their pharmacokinetics in animals is limited, especially after repeated administration. Evidence exist that in chickens (Gallus gallus salicylate (SA may induce its own elimination. The aim of this study was to investigate salicylate pharmacokinetics and egg residues during repeated administration of sodium salicylate (SS to laying hens. Pharmacokinetics of SA was assessed during 14 d oral administration of SS at daily doses of 50 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight to laying hens. On the 1st, 7th and 14th d a 24 h-long pharmacokinetic study was carried out, whereas eggs were collected daily. Salicylate concentrations in plasma and eggs were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and pharmacokinetic variables were calculated using a non-compartmental model. Mean residence time (MRT, minimal plasma concentration (Cmin, C16h and elimination half-life (T1/2el of SA showed gradual decrease in layers administered with a lower dose. Total body clearance (ClB increased. Layers administered with the higher dose showed a decrease only in the T1/2el. In the low dose group, SA was found only in the egg white and was low throughout the experiment. Egg whites from the higher dose group showed initially high SA levels which significantly decreased during the experiment. Yolk SA levels were lower and showed longer periods of accumulation and elimination. Repeated administration of SS induces SA elimination, although this effect may differ depending on the dose and production type of a chicken. Decreased plasma drug concentration may have clinical implications during prolonged SS treatment.

  14. Increased Sensitivity to Cocaine Self-Administration in HIV-1 Transgenic Rats is Associated with Changes in Striatal Dopamine Transporter Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Scot; Sexton, Tammy; Pattison, Lindsey P; Childers, Steven R; Hemby, Scott E

    2015-09-01

    Cocaine abuse in HIV patients accelerates the progression and severity of neuropathology, motor impairment and cognitive dysfunction compared to non-drug using HIV patients. Cocaine and HIV interact with the dopamine transporter (DAT); however, the effect of their interaction on DAT binding remains understudied. The present study compared the dose-response functions for intravenous self-administration of cocaine and heroin between male HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1 Tg) and Fischer 344 rats. The cocaine and heroin dose-response functions exhibit an inverted U-shape for both HIV-1 Tg and F344 rats. For cocaine, the number of infusions for each dose on the ascending limb was greater for HIV-1 Tg versus F344 rats. No significant changes in the heroin dose-response function were observed in HIV-1 Tg animals. Following the conclusion of self-administration experiments, DAT binding was assessed in striatal membranes. Saturation binding of the cocaine analog [(125)I] 3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropan-2β-carboxylic acid methyl ester ([(125)I]RTI-55) in rat striatal membranes resulted in binding curves that were best fit to a two-site binding model, allowing for calculation of dissociation constant (Kd) and binding density (Bmax) values that correspond to high- and low-affinity DAT binding sites. Control HIV-1 Tg rats exhibited a significantly greater affinity (i.e., decrease in Kd value) in the low-affinity DAT binding site compared to control F344 rats. Furthermore, cocaine self-administration in HIV-1 Tg rats increased low-affinity Kd (i.e., decreased affinity) compared to levels observed in control F344 rats. Cocaine also increased low-affinity Bmax in HIV-1 Tg rats as compared to controls, indicating an increase in the number of low-affinity DAT binding sites. F344 rats did not exhibit any change in high- or low-affinity Kd or Bmax values following cocaine or heroin self-administration. The increase in DAT affinity in cocaine HIV-1 Tg rats is consistent with the leftward shift of the

  15. ADMINISTRATION OF CACAO BEANS (Theobroma cacao L. EXTRACTS DECREASE MALONDIALDEHYDE CONCENTRATION AND INCREASE BLOOD NOx CONCENTRATION IN WHITE RAT (Ra"us norvegicus INDUCED BY PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Wiryanthini IA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS causing accumulation of oxidative damage caused by exceeding anti oxidant capacity in the body. Psychological stress as psychosocial stress can induce oxidative stress which subsequently cause increase blood malondialdehyde (MDA and decrease blood nitrate and nitrite (NOx concentration as intermediate product of nitric oxide (NO. Cacao beans extracts contained anti oxidant flavanols consist of catechin, epicatechin and procyanidin. The aims of this study is to investigate the effect of cacao beans (Theobroma cacao L. extracts for decreasing MDA and increasing NOx concentration in white rat (Ra$us norvegicus blood in stress oxidative state induced by psychosocial stress. It is an experimental study with Pretest-Postest Control Group Design. This study revealed decrease MDA concentration in group P1 (11.47 vs 8.04, P2 (11.92 vs 5.44 and P3 (11.69 vs 2.87 with P = 0.000 and increase NOx concentration in oxidative stress white rat induced by psychosocial stress a[er administration of cacao beans extract in group P1 (1909.83 vs 2085.16, P2 (1912.5 vs 2231.83 and P3 (1871.5 vs 2339.83 with P = 0.005. This study showed that cacao beans extract can inhibit oxidative stress caused by psychosocial stress.

  16. Increased burst firing in substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons and enhanced response to selective D2 agonist in hemiparkinsonian rats after repeated administration of apomorphine.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, J. I.; Nam, D H; J.S. Kim; Hong, S.C.; Shin, H. J.; K. Park; Eoh, W.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, W.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Intermittent administrations of dopaminergic agents in hemiparkinsonian rat enhances the behavioral response to subsequent administration of the drugs. This phenomenon is known as "priming" and thought as comparable to drug-induced dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease. We investigated the behavioral and electrophysiological changes in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned hemiparkinsonian rats after repeated administrations of apomorphine. Administration of apomorphine (0.32 mg/kg, i...

  17. Nucleus accumbens shell excitability is decreased by methamphetamine self-administration and increased by 5-HT2C receptor inverse agonism and agonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Steven M.; Clark, Mary J.; Traynor, John R.; Hu, Xiu-Ti; Napier, T. Celeste

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine profoundly increases brain monoamines and is a widely abused psychostimulant. The effects of methamphetamine self-administration on neuron function are not known for the nucleus accumbens, a brain region involved in addictive behaviors, including drug-seeking. One therapeutic target showing preclinical promise at attenuating psychostimulant-seeking is 5-HT2C receptors; however, the effects of 5-HT2C receptor ligands on neuronal physiology are unclear. 5-HT2C receptor agonism decreases psychostimulant-mediated behaviors, and the putative 5-HT2C receptor inverse agonist, SB 206553, attenuates methamphetamine-seeking in rats. To ascertain the effects of methamphetamine, and 5-HT2C receptor inverse agonism and agonism, on neuronal function in the nucleus accumbens, we evaluated methamphetamine, SB 206553, and the 5-HT2C receptor agonist and Ro 60-0175, on neuronal excitability within the accumbens shell subregion using whole-cell current-clamp recordings in forebrain slices ex vivo. We reveal that methamphetamine self-administration decreased generation of evoked action potentials. In contrast, SB 206553 and Ro 60-0175 increased evoked spiking, effects that were prevented by the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, SB 242084. We also assessed signaling mechanisms engaged by 5-HT2C receptors, and determined that accumbal 5-HT2C receptors stimulated Gq, but not Gi/o. These findings demonstrate that methamphetamine-induced decreases in excitability of neurons within the nucleus accumbens shell were abrogated by both 5-HT2C inverse agonism and agonism, and this effect likely involved activation of Gq–mediated signaling pathways. PMID:25229719

  18. Oral administration of copper to rats leads to increased lymphocyte cellular DNA degradation by dietary polyphenols: implications for a cancer preventive mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Husain Y; Zubair, Haseeb; Ullah, Mohd F; Ahmad, Aamir; Hadi, Sheikh M

    2011-12-01

    To account for the observed anticancer properties of plant polyphenols, we have earlier proposed a mechanism which involves the mobilization of endogenous copper ions by polyphenols leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that serve as proximal DNA cleaving agents and lead to cell death. Over the last decade we have proceeded to validate our hypothesis with considerable success. As a further confirmation of our hypothesis, in this paper we first show that oral administration of copper to rats leads to elevated copper levels in lymphocytes. When such lymphocytes with a copper overload were isolated and treated with polyphenols EGCG, genistein and resveratrol, an increased level of DNA breakage was observed. Further, preincubation of lymphocytes having elevated copper levels with the membrane permeable copper chelator neocuproine, resulted in inhibition of polyphenol induced DNA degradation. However, membrane impermeable chelator of copper bathocuproine, as well as iron and zinc chelators were ineffective in causing such inhibition in DNA breakage, confirming the involvement of endogenous copper in polyphenol induced cellular DNA degradation. It is well established that serum and tissue concentrations of copper are greatly increased in various malignancies. In view of this fact, the present results further confirm our earlier findings and strengthen our hypothesis that an important anticancer mechanism of plant polyphenols could be the mobilization of intracellular copper leading to ROS-mediated cellular DNA breakage. In this context, it may be noted that cancer cells are under considerable oxidative stress and increasing such stress to cytotoxic levels could be a successful anticancer approach.

  19. Alleviation of insulin resistance and liver damage by oral administration of Imm124-E is mediated by increased Tregs and associated with increased serum GLP-1 and adiponectin: results of a phase I/II clinical trial in NASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizrahi M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Meir Mizrahi,1 Yehudit Shabat,1 Ami Ben Ya'acov,1 Gadi Lalazar,1 Tomer Adar,1 Victor Wong,2 Brian Muller,2 Grant Rawlin,2 Yaron Ilan11Liver Unit, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; 2Immuron Limited, North Melbourne, AustraliaBackground: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is considered to be part of the nonalcoholic fatty liver disorders and its incidence is increasing. Imm124-E (Immuron Ltd, Melbourne, Australia, containing hyperimmune bovine colostrum, has been shown to exert an immunomodulatory effect and to alleviate target organ damage in animal models of NASH. The aim of our study was to determine the safety and efficacy of oral administration of Imm124-E to patients with insulin resistance and NASH.Methods: In an open-label trial, ten patients with biopsy-proven NASH and insulin resistance were orally treated with Imm124-E for 30 days.Results: Oral administration of Imm124-E was safe, and no side effects were noted. Alleviation of insulin resistance was reflected by significantly improved hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c values in all ten treated patients. For between five and eight responders, the following effects were noted: a decrease in fasting glucose levels; improved oral glucose tolerance test (OGGT and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA scores; and alleviation in lipid profile. These effects were accompanied by increased serum levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1, adiponectin and T regulatory cells.Conclusion: Hyperimmune colostrum alleviates NASH.Keywords: NASH, anti-LPS, diabetes, adipokines, regulatory T cells

  20. Oral Administration of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Decreased the Incidence of Severe Diarrhea and Related Mortality Rate and Increased Weight Gain in Preweaned Dairy Heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foditsch, Carla; Pereira, Richard Van Vleck; Ganda, Erika Korzune; Gomez, Marilia Souza; Marques, Eduardo Carvalho; Santin, Thiago; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are a promising alternative to improve food animal productivity and health. However, scientific evidence that specific microbes can be used to benefit animal health and performance is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of administering a live culture of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii to newborn dairy calves on subsequent growth, health, and fecal microbiome. Initially, a safety trial was conducted using 30 newborn bull calves to assess potential adverse effects of the oral and rectal administration of F. prausnitzii to neonatal calves. No adverse reactions, such as increased body temperature or heart and respiratory rates, were observed after the administration of the treatments. All calves survived the experimental period, and there was no difference in fecal consistency score, attitude, appetite or dehydration between the treatment groups. The rectal route was not an efficient practice while the oral route ensures that the full dose is administered to the treated calves. Subsequently, a randomized field trial was completed in a commercial farm with preweaned calves. A total of 554 Holstein heifers were assigned to one of two treatment groups: treated calves (FPTRT) and non-treated calves (control). Treated calves received two oral doses of F. prausnitzii, one at treatment assignment (1st week) and another one week later. The FPTRT group presented significantly lower incidence of severe diarrhea (3.1%) compared with the control group (6.8%). Treated calves also had lower mortality rate associated with severe diarrhea (1.5%) compared to control calves (4.4%). Furthermore, FPTRT calves gained significantly more weight, 4.4 kg over the preweaning period, than controls calves. The relative abundance of F. prausnitzii in the fecal microbiota was significantly higher in the 3rd and 5th weeks of life of FPTRT calves than of the control calves, as revealed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our findings showed that oral

  1. Oral Administration of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Decreased the Incidence of Severe Diarrhea and Related Mortality Rate and Increased Weight Gain in Preweaned Dairy Heifers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Foditsch

    Full Text Available Probiotics are a promising alternative to improve food animal productivity and health. However, scientific evidence that specific microbes can be used to benefit animal health and performance is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of administering a live culture of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii to newborn dairy calves on subsequent growth, health, and fecal microbiome. Initially, a safety trial was conducted using 30 newborn bull calves to assess potential adverse effects of the oral and rectal administration of F. prausnitzii to neonatal calves. No adverse reactions, such as increased body temperature or heart and respiratory rates, were observed after the administration of the treatments. All calves survived the experimental period, and there was no difference in fecal consistency score, attitude, appetite or dehydration between the treatment groups. The rectal route was not an efficient practice while the oral route ensures that the full dose is administered to the treated calves. Subsequently, a randomized field trial was completed in a commercial farm with preweaned calves. A total of 554 Holstein heifers were assigned to one of two treatment groups: treated calves (FPTRT and non-treated calves (control. Treated calves received two oral doses of F. prausnitzii, one at treatment assignment (1st week and another one week later. The FPTRT group presented significantly lower incidence of severe diarrhea (3.1% compared with the control group (6.8%. Treated calves also had lower mortality rate associated with severe diarrhea (1.5% compared to control calves (4.4%. Furthermore, FPTRT calves gained significantly more weight, 4.4 kg over the preweaning period, than controls calves. The relative abundance of F. prausnitzii in the fecal microbiota was significantly higher in the 3rd and 5th weeks of life of FPTRT calves than of the control calves, as revealed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our findings showed that oral

  2. Non-invasive administration of 17β-estradiol rapidly increases aggressive behavior in non-breeding, but not breeding, male song sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimovics, Sarah A; Ferris, Jennifer K; Soma, Kiran K

    2015-03-01

    17β-Estradiol (E2) acts in the brain via genomic and non-genomic mechanisms to influence physiology and behavior. There is seasonal plasticity in the mechanisms by which E2 activates aggression, and non-genomic mechanisms appear to predominate during the non-breeding season. Male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) display E2-dependent territorial aggression throughout the year. Field studies show that song sparrow aggression during a territorial intrusion is similar in the non-breeding and breeding seasons, but aggression after an intrusion ends differs seasonally. Non-breeding males stop behaving aggressively within minutes whereas breeding males remain aggressive for hours. We hypothesize that this seasonal plasticity in the persistence of aggression relates to seasonal plasticity in E2 signaling. We used a non-invasive route of E2 administration to compare the non-genomic (within 20min) effects of E2 on aggressive behavior in captive non-breeding and breeding season males. E2 rapidly increased barrier contacts (attacks) during an intrusion by 173% in non-breeding season males only. Given that these effects were observed within 20min of E2 administration, they likely occurred via a non-genomic mechanism of action. The present data, taken together with past work, suggest that environmental cues associated with the non-breeding season influence the molecular mechanisms through which E2 influences behavior. In song sparrows, transient expression of aggressive behavior during the non-breeding season is highly adaptive: it minimizes energy expenditure and maximizes the amount of time available for foraging. In all, these data suggest the intriguing possibility that aggression in the non-breeding season may be activated by a non-genomic E2 mechanism due to the fitness benefits associated with rapid and transient expression of aggression.

  3. Higher frequency of administration of biotherapic T. cruzi 17DH decreases parasitemia and increases survival in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áurea Regina Telles Pupulin

    2011-09-01

    highly diluted in water had lower level of total parasitemia and a lower peak of parasites compared to animals treated by gavage, or control group of infection (p = 0.0103 p = 0.0008. In the group treated by gavage both the total parasitemia and the peak of parasites were higher than the control group. Survival was greater in animals treated with biotherapic diluted with water (p = 0.0003 and by gavage (p = 0.0016 when compared with the control group. Among the different ways of treatment the use of medication diluted in water increased the survival of animals (p = 0.0013. The treatment by gavage once a day until the 9th day of infection increase the parasitemia and survival. The medication diluted in water showed better results with significant reduction of parasitemia and an increase of survival. This result may be related to the frequency with which the medication diluted in water was ingested by each animal, and the lower stress that this form of administration provides the animals. Figure 1: Parasitemic curve of animals infected with Y strain of T. cruzi and treated with medication highly diluted 17DH T. cruzi. CONTROL: mice treated with alcohol 7%; GAVAGE: treated with medication highly diluted 17DH T. cruzi by gavage; WATER: treated with medication highly diluted 17dH T. cruzi in water. Conclusion: There is a difference in the effect of the medication highly diluted depending on the way of treatment used. For mice, the use of drug diluted in water offered frequently, results in better benefits. The clinical use of these results in humans, should consider the allometric system medication dosage which takes into account the metabolic rate of each organism.

  4. Repeated administration of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists, but not positive allosteric modulators, increases alpha7 nAChR levels in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ditte Z; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Hansen, Henrik H;

    2010-01-01

    -induced phosphorylation of Erk2 in the prefrontal cortex occurs following acute, but not repeated administration. Our results demonstrate that repeated agonist administration increases the number of alpha7 nAChRs in the brain, and leads to coupling versus uncoupling of specific intracellular signaling....... Here we investigate the effects of repeated agonism on alpha7 nAChR receptor levels and responsiveness in vivo in rats. Using [(125)I]-alpha-bungarotoxin (BTX) autoradiography we show that acute or repeated administration with the selective alpha7 nAChR agonist A-582941 increases the number of alpha7 n......-120596 and NS1738 do not increase [(125)I]-BTX binding. Furthermore, A-582941-induced increase in Arc and c-fos mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex is enhanced and unaltered, respectively, after repeated administration, demonstrating that the alpha7 nAChRs remain responsive. Contrarily, A-582941...

  5. A therapeutic combination of metyrapone and oxazepam increases brain levels of GABA-active neurosteroids and decreases cocaine self-administration in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoutz, Christopher D; Guerin, Glenn F; Runyon, Scott P; Dhungana, Suraj; Goeders, Nicholas E

    2015-09-15

    In rodents, the behavioral and neurochemical effects resulting from the pharmacological blockade of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are unclear. Metyrapone, a corticosterone synthesis inhibitor, has been demonstrated to reduce cocaine-related behaviors, especially in a low-dose combination with oxazepam, a benzodiazepine. Although this combination therapy (MET/OX) also reduces drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors in both rodents and cocaine-dependent humans, these effects are not correlated with plasma glucocorticoid levels. In this brief report, we present data demonstrating that this MET/OX combination enhances brain levels of the GABA-active steroid metabolites, tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC) and allopregnanolone. Male rats, trained to self-administer cocaine or that received yoked-saline infusions, were pretreated with MET/OX, at doses that reduced cocaine-motivated responding, or vehicle. Allopregnanolone and THDOC were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala in the brains from these rats. THDOC levels were enhanced following MET/OX pretreatment in both brain regions, regardless of cocaine self-administration experience. However, allopregnanolone was selectively enhanced in the rats that self-administered cocaine, but not in rats in the yoked-saline group. Thus, the MET/OX combination increased neurosteroid content in brain regions important for drug addiction. These neurosteroids have been shown to reduce cocaine-related behaviors and may contribute to the behavioral effects of MET/OX combination therapy. PMID:26003946

  6. Intranasal Administration of Type V Collagen Reduces Lung Carcinogenesis through Increasing Endothelial and Epithelial Apoptosis in a Urethane-Induced Lung Tumor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Edwin Roger; Alveno, Renata Antunes; Faustino, Carolina Brito; Corrêa, Paula Yume Sato Serzedello; Vargas, Camilla Mutai; de Morais, Jymenez; Rangel, Maristela Peres; Velosa, Ana Paula Pereira; Fabro, Alexandre Todorovic; Teodoro, Walcy Rosolia; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza

    2016-08-01

    Type V collagen (Col V) is a "minor" component of normal lung extracellular matrix, which is subjected to decreased and abnormal synthesis in human lung infiltrating adenocarcinoma. We previously reported that a direct link between low amounts of Col V and decreased cell apoptosis may favor cancer cell growth in the mouse lung after chemical carcinogenesis. Moreover, this collagen species was able to trigger DNA fragmentation and impair survival of neoplastic cells. In this study, we have extended our investigation with the aim to obtain further evidence that the death induced by Col V-treatment is of the caspase-9 apoptotic type. We used (1) optical and electron microscopy, (2) quantitation of TUNEL-labeled cells and (3) analysis of the expression levels of Col V and selected genes coding for apoptosis-linked factors, by conventional RT-PCR. BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with 1.5 g/kg body weight of urethane. After urethane injection, the animals received intranasal administration of 20 µg/20 µl of Col V every day during 2 months. We report here that Col V treatment was able to determine significant increase in Col V protein and gene expression and in the percentage of TUNEL-positive cells, to up-regulate caspase-9, resulting in low growth of tumor cells. Our data validate chemical carcinogenesis as a suitable "in vivo" model for further and more detailed studies on the molecular mechanisms of the death response induced by Col V in lung infiltrating adenocarcinoma opening new strategies for treatment. PMID:27020095

  7. Intranasal Administration of Type V Collagen Reduces Lung Carcinogenesis through Increasing Endothelial and Epithelial Apoptosis in a Urethane-Induced Lung Tumor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Edwin Roger; Alveno, Renata Antunes; Faustino, Carolina Brito; Corrêa, Paula Yume Sato Serzedello; Vargas, Camilla Mutai; de Morais, Jymenez; Rangel, Maristela Peres; Velosa, Ana Paula Pereira; Fabro, Alexandre Todorovic; Teodoro, Walcy Rosolia; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza

    2016-08-01

    Type V collagen (Col V) is a "minor" component of normal lung extracellular matrix, which is subjected to decreased and abnormal synthesis in human lung infiltrating adenocarcinoma. We previously reported that a direct link between low amounts of Col V and decreased cell apoptosis may favor cancer cell growth in the mouse lung after chemical carcinogenesis. Moreover, this collagen species was able to trigger DNA fragmentation and impair survival of neoplastic cells. In this study, we have extended our investigation with the aim to obtain further evidence that the death induced by Col V-treatment is of the caspase-9 apoptotic type. We used (1) optical and electron microscopy, (2) quantitation of TUNEL-labeled cells and (3) analysis of the expression levels of Col V and selected genes coding for apoptosis-linked factors, by conventional RT-PCR. BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with 1.5 g/kg body weight of urethane. After urethane injection, the animals received intranasal administration of 20 µg/20 µl of Col V every day during 2 months. We report here that Col V treatment was able to determine significant increase in Col V protein and gene expression and in the percentage of TUNEL-positive cells, to up-regulate caspase-9, resulting in low growth of tumor cells. Our data validate chemical carcinogenesis as a suitable "in vivo" model for further and more detailed studies on the molecular mechanisms of the death response induced by Col V in lung infiltrating adenocarcinoma opening new strategies for treatment.

  8. The pro-oxidant gene p66shc increases nicotine exposure-induced lipotoxic oxidative stress in renal proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arany, Istvan; Hall, Samuel; Reed, Dustin K; Dixit, Mehul

    2016-09-01

    Nicotine (NIC) exposure augments free fatty acid (FFA) deposition and oxidative stress, with a concomitant increase in the expression of the pro-oxidant p66shc. In addition, a decrease in the antioxidant manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) has been observed in the kidneys of mice fed a high‑fat diet. The present study aimed to determine whether the pro‑oxidant p66shc mediates NIC‑dependent increases in renal oxidative stress by augmenting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and suppressing the FFA‑induced antioxidant response in cultured NRK52E renal proximal tubule cells. Briefly, NRK52E renal proximal tubule cells were treated with 200 µM NIC, 100 µM oleic acid (OA), or a combination of NIC and OA. The expression levels of p66shc and MnSOD were modulated according to genetic methods. ROS production and cell injury, in the form of lactate dehydrogenase release, were subsequently detected. Promoter activity of p66shc and MnSOD, as well as forkhead box (FOXO)‑dependent transcription, was investigated using reporter luciferase assays. The results demonstrated that NIC exacerbated OA‑mediated intracellular ROS production and cell injury through the transcriptional activation of p66shc. NIC also suppressed OA‑mediated induction of the antioxidant MnSOD promoter activity through p66shc‑dependent inactivation of FOXO activity. Overexpression of p66shc and knockdown of MnSOD had the same effect as treatment with NIC on OA‑mediated lipotoxicity. These data may be used to generate a therapeutic means to ameliorate renal lipotoxicity in obese smokers.

  9. GLP-2 administration results in increased proliferation but paradoxically an adverse outcome in a juvenile piglet model of short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira-Fantini, Prue M; Nagy, Eva S; Thomas, Sarah L;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) administration in a piglet, juvenile model of short bowel syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four-week-old piglets underwent either a sham operation or 75% small bowel resection. Postoperative...

  10. Effect of fluoride on oxidative stress and Mn-SOD expression in rats with endemic fluorosis of coal burning%燃煤污染型氟中毒大鼠Mn-超氧化物歧化酶mRNA和蛋白水平的改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠兰; 于燕妮; 陈扬; 黄林

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of fluoride on the oxidative stress of the rats in endemic fluorosis of coal buruing and Mn-SOD expression at mRNA and protein levels.Methods SD rats were divided into 2 groups (the number of female and male in each group was the same):control group and fluorosis group.All rats of the fluorosis group were fed corn dried by burning coal from endemic fluorosis areas with high fluoride content (fluoride 17 mg/kg in feed) to establish an animal model of fluorosis.In these rats,dental fluorosis was evaluated.The fluoride content in the urine was measured by fluorine ion-elective electrode method.The hepatic tissue and serum level of malonaldehyde (MDA) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathion reductase (GR) were measured by biochemical methods.The index signs of liver function were also measured from the serum.Reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot were performed to detect the alterations of Mn-SOD expression in the liver at mRNA and protein levels.Results The dental fluorosis was observed in the fluorosis group,and the incidence was 11/11.The fluoride contents [(3.50 ± 2.58) mg/L] in the urine of fluorosisrats were increased as compared with the control [(1.42 ±0.38) mg/L] (P <0.05).AST [(223.74 ± 71.51) U/L] and total protein [(72.43 ± 5.59) g/L] of the hepatic function index in fluorosis rats showed obviously abnormal as compared with the control [(169.28 ± 53.74) U/L and (82.36 ±7.31) g/L],respectively (P < 0.05).In the liver the content of MDA [(10.41 ± 0.59)μmol/g protein] increased as compared to the control [(5.80 ± 1.31) μmol/g protein,P <0.01],and the activities of SOD [(62.60 ± 8.65) U/mg protein] and GR [(1.17 ± 0.66) U/g protein] markedly decreased in the fluorosis group compared to the control [SOD (117.28 ± 8.64) U/mg protein and GR [(8.80±1.59) U/g protein; P<0.05,P<0.01].The level of Mn-SOD in the liver was markedly decreased in the fluorosis

  11. Higher frequency of administration of biotherapic T. cruzi 17DH decreases parasitemia and increases survival in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    OpenAIRE

    ÃÂurea Regina Telles Pupulin; Silvana Marques Araujo; Mônica Lúcia Gomes; Camila Fernanda Brustolin; Caroline Felicio Braga; Erika Cristina Ferreira; Denise Lessa Aleixo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The study of the effect of different ways of treatment using highly diluted substances is rare in the literature. Some authors consider the dose irrelevant, justifying that the action of the medication highly diluted is qualitative [1-3]. Others emphasize the importance of quantity and frequency of administration of the highly diluted substance for a successful treatment [4,5]. The model of murine infection by T. cruzi is widely studied and it is an excellent tool to study the e...

  12. [Depression of an increase of fatty acids in the blood of monkeys during stress by means of the administration of prostaglandin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaĭlov, M L; Beger, Kh M; Gnauk, G

    1975-04-01

    In examining the level and composition of free fatty acids in the blood plasma of monkeys there were revealed distinct shifts following stress (immobilization) which were prevented by a single administration of prostaglandine E2 directly before the stress. The authors analyze the role of prostaglandines in the capacity of a factor participating in the mechanism of a reverse association, and thus, limiting the lipolytic effect of neuromediators and hormones markedly secreted in case of stress.

  13. [Increased manganese superoxide dismutase and cyclin B1 expression in carnosine-induced inhibition of glioblastoma cell proliferation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakova, Yu S; Kalen, A L; Eckers, J C; Fedorova, T N; Goswami, P C; Sarsour, E H

    2015-01-01

    Carnosine is an endogenous dipeptide with antiproliferative properties. Here we show that carnosine selectively inhibits proliferation of human glioblastoma cells (U-118-MG) compared to breast (MB231) and oral (Cal27 and FaDu) cancer cells. Carnosine-induced inhibition of U-118-MG proliferation is associated with a significant: decrease in cellular reactive oxygen species levels, increase in manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and increase in cyclin B1 expression resulting in G2-block. We conclude that the antiproliferative property of carnosine is due to its ability to enhance MnSOD and cyclin B1 expression. These results will be of significance to the potential application of carnosine in brain cancer therapy. PMID:26350743

  14. Repeated administration of almonds increases brain acetylcholine levels and enhances memory function in healthy rats while attenuates memory deficits in animal model of amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Zehra; Sadir, Sadia; Liaquat, Laraib; Tabassum, Saiqa; Madiha, Syeda; Rafiq, Sahar; Tariq, Sumayya; Batool, Tuba Sharf; Saleem, Sadia; Naqvi, Fizza; Perveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida

    2016-01-01

    Dietary nutrients may play a vital role in protecting the brain from age-related memory dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases. Tree nuts including almonds have shown potential to combat age-associated brain dysfunction. These nuts are an important source of essential nutrients, such as tocopherol, folate, mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenols. These components have shown promise as possible dietary supplements to prevent or delay the onset of age-associated cognitive dysfunction. This study investigated possible protective potential of almond against scopolamine induced amnesia in rats. The present study also investigated a role of acetylcholine in almond induced memory enhancement. Rats in test group were orally administrated with almond suspension (400 mg/kg/day) for four weeks. Both control and almond-treated rats were then divided into saline and scopolamine injected groups. Rats in the scopolamine group were injected with scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg) five minutes before the start of each memory test. Memory was assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM), Morris water maze (MWM) and novel object recognition (NOR) task. Cholinergic function was determined in terms of hippocampal and frontal cortical acetylcholine content and acetylcholinesterase activity. Results of the present study suggest that almond administration for 28 days significantly improved memory retention. This memory enhancing effect of almond was also observed in scopolamine induced amnesia model. Present study also suggests a role of acetylcholine in the attenuation of scopolamine induced amnesia by almond. PMID:26548495

  15. Co-administration of live measles and yellow fever vaccines and inactivated pentavalent vaccines is associated with increased mortality compared with measles and yellow fever vaccines only. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Ravn, Henrik Bylling; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2014-01-01

    Studies from low-income countries indicate that co-administration of inactivated diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine and live attenuated measles vaccine (MV) is associated with increased mortality compared with receiving MV only. Pentavalent (DTP-H. Influenza type B-Hepatitis B) vaccine...... is replacing DTP in many low-income countries and yellow fever vaccine (YF) has been introduced to be given together with MV. Pentavalent and YF vaccines were introduced in Guinea-Bissau in 2008. We investigated whether co-administration of pentavalent vaccine with MV and yellow fever vaccine has similar...

  16. Modifications in rat testicular morphology and increases in IFN-gamma serum levels by the oral administration of subtoxic doses of mercuric chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Salvador; Pocino, Marisol; Marval, Maria Josefina; Lloreta, José; Gallardo, Luis; Vila, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Mercury induces structural and functional damage in several organs, however the effects of subtoxic doses of the metal on the male reproductive system are not well defined. In order to analyze testicular and epididymal morphological alterations and changes in IL-4 or IFN-gamma serum levels, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received 0.01, 0.05 or 0.1 microg/ml of mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)) in deionized water for 1 to 7 months by oral route. Controls received deionized water alone. Twenty rats, separated in four groups of five animals each, were used per time of exposure. Progressive degenerative lesions consisting of lack of germ cell cohesion and desquamation, arrest at spermatocyte stage and hypospermatogenesis were observed in seminiferous epithelium by light and electron microscopy. Leydig cells showed cytoplasmic vacuolation and nuclear signs of cell death. Loss of peritubular cell aggregation was evidenced in the epididymis. Mercury accumulation was detected in both organs by mass spectroscopy. Rats showed enhanced IFN-gamma serum levels as compared to controls but only reached significance after 7 months of mercury administration. Subtoxic doses of inorganic mercury could lead to reproductive and immunological alterations. The results demonstrate that sublethal concentrations of mercuric chloride are enough to induce morphological and ultrastructural modifications in male reproductive organs. These contribute to functional alterations of spermatogenesis with arrest at spermatocyte stage, hypospermatogenesis and possibly impaired steroidogenesis which together could affect male fertility. PMID:19462287

  17. Oral Administration of L-Arginine in Patients With Angina or Following Myocardial Infarction May Be Protective By Increasing Plasma Superoxide Dismutase and Total Thiols With Reduction in Serum Cholesterol and Xanthine Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Tripathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Administration of L-arginine has been shown to control ischemic injury by producing nitric oxide which dilates the vessels and thus maintains proper blood flow to the myocardium. In the present study attempt has been made to determine whether oral administration of L-arginine has any effect on oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis in ischemic myocardial patients [represented by the patients of acute angina (AA and acute myocardial infarction (MI]. L-arginine has antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties, decreases endothelin-1 expression and improves endothelial function, thereby controlling oxidative injury caused during myocardial ischemic syndrome. Effect of L-arginine administration on the status of free radical scavenging enzymes, pro-oxidant enzyme and antioxidants viz. total thiols, carbonyl content and plasma ascorbic acid levels in the patients has been evaluated. We have observed that L-arginine administration (three grams per day for 15 days resulted in increased activity of free radical scavenging enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD and increase in the levels of total thiols (T-SH and ascorbic acid with concomitant decrease in lipid per-oxidation, carbonyl content, serum cholesterol and the activity of proxidant enzyme, xanthine oxidase (XO. These findings suggest that the supplementation of L-arginine along with regular therapy may be beneficial to the patients of ischemic myocardial syndromes.

  18. Sports Need You. A Working Model for the Equity Professional. How to Increase the Number of Women and Minorities in Athletic Coaching, Officiating, Administration, and Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Susan P.

    This manual is designed for the equity professional who wishes to increase the participation of women and minority groups in leadership roles in athletics. The model was developed by Educators for Athletic Equity (EAE) and provides a data and knowledge base necessary for implementing a successful athletic equity project. The specific goals…

  19. Lithium chloride administration prevents spatial learning and memory impairment in repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion mice by depressing apoptosis and increasing BDNF expression in hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Mingyue; Jin, Wei; Zhao, Haifeng; Xiao, Yining; Jia, Yanqiu; Yin, Yu; Jiang, Xin; Xu, Jing; Meng, Nan; Lv, Peiyuan

    2015-09-15

    Lithium has been reported to have neuroprotective effects, but the preventive and treated role on cognition impairment and the underlying mechanisms have not been determined. In the present study, C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to repeated bilateral common carotid artery occlusion to induce the learning and memory deficits. 2 mmol/kg or 5 mmol/kg of lithium chloride (LiCl) was injected intraperitoneally per day before (for 7 days) or post (for 28 days) the operation. This repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR) induced dynamic overexpression of ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and BDNF in hippocampus of mice. LiCl pretreatment and treatment significantly decreased the escape latency and increased the percentage of time that the mice spent in the target quadrant in Morris water maze. 2 mmol/kg LiCl evidently reversed the morphologic changes, up-regulated the survival neuron count and increased the BDNF gene and protein expression. 5 mmol/kg pre-LiCl significantly increased IR-stimulated reduce of Bcl-2/Bax and p-CREB/CREB. These results described suggest that pre-Li and Li treatment may induce a pronounced prevention on cognitive impairment. These effects may relay on the inhibition of apoptosis and increasing BDNF and p-CREB expression.

  20. Peningkatan Produktivitas Ayam Petelur Melalui Pemberian Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kemangi (INCREASED LAYING HENS PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH THE ADMINISTRATION OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF KEMANGI LEAVES)

    OpenAIRE

    Andriyanto; Ridi Arif; Mohammad Miftahurrohman; Yayuk Sri Rahayu; Erli Chandra; Alifiana Fitrianingrum; Risna Anggraeni; Diah Nugrahani Pristihadi; Aulia Andi Mustika; Wasmen Manalu

    2014-01-01

    Empirically, kemangi leaves reported to increase health quality in human and livestock. Thepreliminary study was designed to explore the potency of ethanol extract of kemangi leaves to increaselaying hens performance. Sixteen laying hens (pullet) were divided into 4 groups and repeated 4 times.Control group was laying hen administered aquadest orally, treated group was laying hen administeredextract of kemangi leaves orally at a dose of 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg BW, respectively. Every day, the exper...

  1. Magnolol administration in normotensive young spontaneously hypertensive rats postpones the development of hypertension: role of increased PPAR gamma, reduced TRB3 and resultant alleviative vascular insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyan Liang

    Full Text Available Patients with prehypertension are more likely to progress to manifest hypertension than those with optimal or normal blood pressure. However, the mechanisms underlying the development from prehypertension to hypertension still remain largely elusive and the drugs for antihypertensive treatment in prehypertension are absent. Here we determined the effects of magnolol (MAG on blood pressure and aortic vasodilatation to insulin, and investigated the underlying mechanisms. Four-week-old male spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR and age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY control rats were used. Our results shown that treatment of young SHRs with MAG (100 mg/kg/day, o.g. for 3 weeks decreased blood pressure, improved insulin-induced aorta vasodilation, restored Akt and eNOS activation stimulated by insulin, and increased PPARγ and decreased TRB3 expressions. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, MAG incubation increased PPARγ, decreased TRB3 expressions, and restored insulin-induced phosphorylated Akt and eNOS levels and NO production, which was blocked by both PPARγ antagonist and siRNA targeting PPARγ. Improved insulin signaling in HUVECs by MAG was abolished by upregulating TRB3 expression. In conclusion, treatment of young SHRs with MAG beginning at the prehypertensive stage decreases blood pressure via improving vascular insulin resistance that is at least partly attributable to upregulated PPARγ, downregulated TRB3 and consequently increased Akt and eNOS activations in blood vessels in SHRs.

  2. Administrating Solr

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, Surendra

    2013-01-01

    A fast-paced, example-based guide to learning how to administrate, monitor, and optimize Apache Solr.""Administrating Solr"" is for developers and Solr administrators who have a basic knowledge of Solr and who are looking for ways to keep their Solr server healthy and well maintained. A basic working knowledge of Apache Lucene is recommended, but this is not mandatory.

  3. Chronic Administration of Benzo(a)pyrene Induces Memory Impairment and Anxiety-Like Behavior and Increases of NR2B DNA Methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenping; Tian, Fengjie; Zheng, Jinping; Li, Senlin; Qiang, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, an increasing number of human and animal studies have reported that exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induces neurological abnormalities and is also associated with adverse effects, such as tumor formation, immunosuppression, teratogenicity, and hormonal disorders. However, the exact mechanisms underlying BaP-induced impairment of neurological function remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the regulating mechanisms underlying the impact of chronic BaP exposure on neurobehavioral performance. Methods C57BL mice received either BaP in different doses (1.0, 2.5, 6.25 mg/kg) or olive oil twice a week for 90 days. Memory and emotional behaviors were evaluated using Y-maze and open-field tests, respectively. Furthermore, levels of mRNA expression were measured by using qPCR, and DNA methylation of NMDA receptor 2B subunit (NR2B) was examined using bisulfate pyrosequencing in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Results Compared to controls, mice that received BaP (2.5, 6.25 mg/kg) showed deficits in short-term memory and an anxiety-like behavior. These behavioral alterations were associated with a down-regulation of the NR2B gene and a concomitant increase in the level of DNA methylation in the NR2B promoter in the two brain regions. Conclusions Chronic BaP exposure induces an increase in DNA methylation in the NR2B gene promoter and down-regulates NR2B expression, which may contribute to its neurotoxic effects on behavioral performance. The results suggest that NR2B vulnerability represents a target for environmental toxicants in the brain. PMID:26901155

  4. Chronic Administration of Benzo(apyrene Induces Memory Impairment and Anxiety-Like Behavior and Increases of NR2B DNA Methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Zhang

    Full Text Available Recently, an increasing number of human and animal studies have reported that exposure to benzo(apyrene (BaP induces neurological abnormalities and is also associated with adverse effects, such as tumor formation, immunosuppression, teratogenicity, and hormonal disorders. However, the exact mechanisms underlying BaP-induced impairment of neurological function remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the regulating mechanisms underlying the impact of chronic BaP exposure on neurobehavioral performance.C57BL mice received either BaP in different doses (1.0, 2.5, 6.25 mg/kg or olive oil twice a week for 90 days. Memory and emotional behaviors were evaluated using Y-maze and open-field tests, respectively. Furthermore, levels of mRNA expression were measured by using qPCR, and DNA methylation of NMDA receptor 2B subunit (NR2B was examined using bisulfate pyrosequencing in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.Compared to controls, mice that received BaP (2.5, 6.25 mg/kg showed deficits in short-term memory and an anxiety-like behavior. These behavioral alterations were associated with a down-regulation of the NR2B gene and a concomitant increase in the level of DNA methylation in the NR2B promoter in the two brain regions.Chronic BaP exposure induces an increase in DNA methylation in the NR2B gene promoter and down-regulates NR2B expression, which may contribute to its neurotoxic effects on behavioral performance. The results suggest that NR2B vulnerability represents a target for environmental toxicants in the brain.

  5. Catalase, but not MnSOD, inhibits glucose deprivation-activated ASK1-MEK-MAPK signal transduction pathway and prevents relocalization of Daxx: hydrogen peroxide as a major second messenger of metabolic oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae J; Lee, Yong J

    2003-10-01

    Overexpression of catalase, but not manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), inhibited glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) activation in human prostate adenocarcinoma DU-145 cells. Suppression of JNK1 activation by catalase overexpression resulted from inhibition of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) activation by preventing dissociation of thioredoxin (TRX) from ASK1. Overexpression of catalase also inhibited relocalization of Daxx from the nucleus to the cytoplasm as well as association of Daxx with ASK1 during glucose deprivation. Taken together, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) rather than superoxide anion (O(2) (*-)) acts as a second messenger of metabolic oxidative stress to activate the ASK1-MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway.

  6. Chronic administration of cholesterol oximes in mice increases transcription of cytoprotective genes and improves transcriptome alterations induced by alpha-synuclein overexpression in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Franziska; Gao, Fuying; Medvedeva, Vera; Lee, Patrick; Bove, Nicholas; Fleming, Sheila M; Michaud, Magali; Lemesre, Vincent; Patassini, Stefano; De La Rosa, Krystal; Mulligan, Caitlin K; Sioshansi, Pedrom C; Zhu, Chunni; Coppola, Giovanni; Bordet, Thierry; Pruss, Rebecca M; Chesselet, Marie-Françoise

    2014-09-01

    Cholesterol-oximes TRO19622 and TRO40303 target outer mitochondrial membrane proteins and have beneficial effects in preclinical models of neurodegenerative diseases leading to their advancement to clinical trials. Dopaminergic neurons degenerate in Parkinson's disease (PD) and are prone to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. In order to provide insights into the neuroprotective potential of TRO19622 and TRO40303 for dopaminergic neurons in vivo, we assessed their effects on gene expression in laser captured nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons of wildtype mice and of mice that over-express alpha-synuclein, a protein involved in both familial and sporadic forms of PD (Thy1-aSyn mice). Young mice were fed the drugs in food pellets or a control diet from 1 to 4months of age, approximately 10months before the appearance of striatal dopamine loss in this model. Unbiased weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) of transcriptional changes revealed effects of cholesterol oximes on transcripts related to mitochondria, cytoprotection and anti-oxidant response in wild-type and transgenic mice, including increased transcription of stress defense (e.g. Prdx1, Prdx2, Glrx2, Hspa9, Pink1, Drp1, Trak1) and dopamine-related (Th, Ddc, Gch1, Dat, Vmat2, Drd2, Chnr6a) genes. Even at this young age transgenic mice showed alterations in transcripts implicated in mitochondrial function and oxidative stress (e.g. Bcl-2, Bax, Casp3, Nos2), and both drugs normalized about 20% of these alterations. Young Thy1-aSyn mice exhibit motor deficits that differ from parkinsonism and are established before the onset of treatment; these deficits were not improved by cholesterol oximes. However, high doses of TRO40303 improved olfaction and produced the same effects as dopamine agonists on a challenging beam test, specifically an increase in footslips, an observation congruent with its effects on transcripts involved in dopamine synthesis. High doses of TRO19622 increased alpha

  7. Activity increase in EpoR and Epo expression by intranasal recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEpo) administration in ischemic hippocampi of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Arellano, R; Feria-Velasco, A I; Rivera-Cervantes, M C

    2014-11-01

    Erythropoietin in the nervous system is a potential neuroprotective factor for cerebral ischemic damage due to specific-binding to the erythropoietin receptor, which is associated with survival mechanisms. However, the role of its receptor is unclear. Thus, this work assessed whether a low dose (500UI/Kg) of intranasal recombinant human erythropoietin administered 3h after ischemia induced changes in the activation of its receptor at the Tyr456-phosphorylated site in ischemic hippocampi in rats. The results showed that recombinant human erythropoietin after injury maintained cell survival and was associated with an increase in receptor phosphorylation at the Tyr456 site as an initial signaling step, which correlated with a neuroprotective effect. PMID:25219375

  8. Administrative Circulars

    CERN Multimedia

    Département des Ressources humaines

    2004-01-01

    Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 2) - May 2004 Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff members This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 3) - May 2004 Staff members contracts This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 4) - May 2004 Procedure governing the career evolution of staff members This circular has also been revised. It Administrative Circulars Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 3) - December 2001 and brings up to date the French version (Rev. 4) published on the HR Department Web site in January 2004. Operational Circular N° 7 - May 2004 Work from home This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 8 - May 2004 Dealing with alcohol-related problems...

  9. Administration of granulocyte colony stimulating factor after liver transplantation leads to an increased incidence and severity of ischemic biliary lesions in the rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olaf Dirsch; Haidong Chi; Yuan Ji; Yan Li Gu; Christoph E Broelsch; Uta Dahmen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: Recently it has been reported that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) can induce hypercoagulability in healthy bone marrow donors. It is conceivable that the induction of a prothrombotic state in a recipient of an organ graft with already impaired perfusion might cause further deterioration in the transplanted organ. This study evaluated whether G-CSF treatment worsens liver perfusion following liver transplantation in the rat model.METHODS: A non-arterialized rat liver transplantation model was employed to evaluate the effect of G-CSF treatment on the liver in a syngeneic and allogeneic strain combination. Study outcomes included survival time and liver damage as investigated by liver enzymes and liver histology. Observation times were 1 d, 1 wk and 12 wk.RESULTS: Rats treated with G-CSF had increased incidence and severity of biliary damage following liver transplantation. In these animals, hepatocellular necrosis was accentuated in the centrilobular region. These lesions are indicative of impaired perfusion in G-CSF treated animals.CONCLUSION: G-CSF should be used with caution in recipients of liver transplantation, as treatment might enhance preexisting, undetected perfusion problems and ultimately lead to ischemia induced biliary complications.

  10. What Is the Most Effective Way of Increasing the Bioavailability of Dietary Long Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids—Daily vs. Weekly Administration of Fish Oil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Ghasemifard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The recommendations on the intake of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA vary from eating oily fish (“once to twice per week” to consuming specified daily amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (“250–500 mg per day”. It is not known if there is a difference in the uptake/bioavailability between regular daily consumption of supplementsvs. consuming fish once or twice per week. In this study, the bioavailability of a daily dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Constant treatment, representing supplements, vs. a large weekly dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Spike treatment, representing consuming once or twice per week, was assessed. Six-week old healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a Constant treatment, a Spike treatment or Control treatment (no n-3 LC-PUFA, for six weeks. The whole body, tissues and faeces were analysed for fatty acid content. The results showed that the major metabolic fate of the n-3 LC-PUFA (EPA+docosapentaenoic acid (DPA + DHA was towards catabolism (β-oxidation accounting for over 70% of total dietary intake, whereas deposition accounted less than 25% of total dietary intake. It was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were β-oxidised when originating from the Constant treatment (84% of dose, compared with the Spike treatment (75% of dose. Conversely, it was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were deposited when originating from the Spike treatment (23% of dose, than from the Constant treatment (15% of dose. These unexpected findings show that a large dose of n-3 LC-PUFA once per week is more effective in increasing whole body n-3 LC-PUFA content in rats compared with a smaller dose delivered daily.

  11. Administrative Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  12. Administrative Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Beh, LooSee

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to develop an understanding of the issues that public administrators should strive to provide in ethical practices and governance thus allowing distinctive administrative and social traditions that each country possess to flourish. Significant changes and continuities in the realm of government in contemporary China and Malaysia will be drawn upon. Recent developments have brought a sense of urgency in contrast to complacency with the status quo. This paper reviews pertinent ...

  13. Offentlig administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elof Nellemann; Rehr, Preben René

    En undervisningsbog der henvender sig til administrationsbacheloruddannelsen. Kapitlerne er inddelt efter modulerne på uddannelsen og indeholder derfor elementer af administration, forvaltning, økonomistyring, innovation, samfundsvidenskabelige metoder og politisk styrede organisationer.......En undervisningsbog der henvender sig til administrationsbacheloruddannelsen. Kapitlerne er inddelt efter modulerne på uddannelsen og indeholder derfor elementer af administration, forvaltning, økonomistyring, innovation, samfundsvidenskabelige metoder og politisk styrede organisationer....

  14. SAT administrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SAT Administrator is the Information System for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training Program Design. It supports the design of training programs in the following phases: job analysis; task analysis; competency analysis; task competency association; definition of learning objectives to competencies; training program design; definition of test items. The general structure of the database and management software supports application of the SAT Administrator in any nuclear power installation

  15. The Effects of Administration of Mangosteen Pericap's Ethanolic Extract and Xanthone on Angiogenesis of Gastric Ulcer Healing in Wistar Rats Observed Through the Increase in the level of NO and VEGF and CD-31 Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Kustiyah Oktaviyanti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: NSAIDs can cause gastric ulcer or may delay the healing of it. Upon exposure to indomethacin, gastric ulcer can occur due to oxidants. Mangosteen rind contains xanthone, which is a natural antioxidant. Administration of this antioxidant may increase angiogenesis that can accelerate healing of gastric ulcer. METHODS: This study used an experimental method with randomized post test control only design using Wistar rats. The rats were put on fasting for 24 hours, then a single dose of 30mg/kg body weight (BW Indomethacine was given. The rats were divided into control group and treatment group. The treatment group was further divided into two subgroups: one group was given a daily 200 mg/kg BW mangosteen pericap extract, and the other group was given 35 mg/kg BW Xanthone. Both the control group and treatment group were decapitated on the 3rd day, 6th day and 12th day, respectively. After decapitation, the stomach of each rat was taken and divided into two portions, one portion was used for NO examination by ELISA, and the other portion for hispathological examination and immunohistochemical analysis for assessing CD 31 and VEGF expressions. RESULTS: Administration of mangoosteen pericap and xanthone could accelerate healing of gastric ulcers as compared with the control, as shown by the decrease in the severity level of the ulcers. Mangoosteen pericap and xanthone could also increase NO, VEGF expression, and CD-31 as compared with the control, especially on the 3rd day of treatment. Explanation of this finding might be that the antioxidants contained in the mangoosteen pericap or in xanthone could bind with radical superoxide and accelerate release of free NO. The increase of NO caused increase of VEGF and CD-31 that could accelerate angiogenesis, which eventually could accelerate healing of the gastric ulcers. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of mangosteen pericap's extract and xanthone can improve healing of gastric ulcers by increasing nitric

  16. Decrease of D2 receptor binding but increase in D2-stimulated G-protein activation, dopamine transporter binding and behavioural sensitization in brains of mice treated with a chronic escalating dose 'binge' cocaine administration paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, A; Metaxas, A; Yoo, J H; McGee, T; Kitchen, I

    2008-08-01

    Understanding the neurobiology of the transition from initial drug use to excessive drug use has been a challenge in drug addiction. We examined the effect of chronic 'binge' escalating dose cocaine administration, which mimics human compulsive drug use, on behavioural responses and the dopaminergic system of mice and compared it with a chronic steady dose (3 x 15 mg/kg/day) 'binge' cocaine administration paradigm. Male C57BL/6J mice were injected with saline or cocaine in an escalating dose paradigm for 14 days. Locomotor and stereotypy activity were measured and quantitative autoradiographic mapping of D(1) and D(2) receptors, dopamine transporters and D(2)-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding was performed in the brains of mice treated with this escalating and steady dose paradigm. An initial sensitization to the locomotor effects of cocaine followed by a dose-dependent increase in the duration of the locomotor effect of cocaine was observed in the escalating but not the steady dose paradigm. Sensitization to the stereotypy effect of cocaine and an increase in cocaine-induced stereotypy score was observed from 3 x 20 to 3 x 25 mg/kg/day cocaine. There was a significant decrease in D(2) receptor density, but an increase in D(2)-stimulated G-protein activity and dopamine transporter density in the striatum of cocaine-treated mice, which was not observed in our steady dose paradigm. Our results document that chronic 'binge' escalating dose cocaine treatment triggers profound behavioural and neurochemical changes in the dopaminergic system, which might underlie the transition from drug use to compulsive drug use associated with addiction, which is a process of escalation.

  17. Prophylactic Subacute Administration of Zinc Increases CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 Expression and Prevents the Long-Term Memory Loss in a Rat Model of Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manuel Blanco-Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prophylactic subacute administration of zinc decreases lipoperoxidation and cell death following a transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, thus suggesting neuroprotective and preconditioning effects. Chemokines and growth factors are also involved in the neuroprotective effect in hypoxia-ischemia. We explored whether zinc prevents the cerebral cortex-hippocampus injury through regulation of CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 expression following a 10 min of common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO. Male rats were grouped as follows: (1 Zn96h, rats injected with ZnCl2 (one dose every 24 h during four days; (2 Zn96h + CCAO, rats treated with ZnCl2 before CCAO; (3 CCAO, rats with CCAO only; (4 Sham group, rats with mock CCAO; and (5 untreated rats. The cerebral cortex-hippocampus was dissected at different times before and after CCAO. CCL2/CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 expression was assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Learning in Morris Water Maze was achieved by daily training during 5 days. Long-term memory was evaluated on day 7 after learning. Subacute administration of zinc increased expression of CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 in the early and late phases of postreperfusion and prevented the CCAO-induced memory loss in the rat. These results might be explained by the induction of neural plasticity because of the expression of CCL2 and growth factors.

  18. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting......, implied in the reform, is analysed as a technology of accounting. A technology producing ‘the professional nursery teacher' as a reflective daily researcher, who outlives her pedagogical desire as an analytical care of the optimisation of ‘the learning child'. Thus, the paper analyses the micro physics...

  19. Database Administrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  20. Administrative IT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  1. Adipocyte-Specific Deletion of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Protects From Diet-Induced Obesity Through Increased Mitochondrial Uncoupling and Biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong Hwan; Buffolo, Márcio; Pires, Karla Maria; Pei, Shaobo; Scherer, Philipp E; Boudina, Sihem

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with oxidative stress (OS). The causal role of adipose OS in the pathogenesis of these conditions is unknown. To address this issue, we generated mice with an adipocyte-selective deletion of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). When fed a high-fat diet (HFD), the AdSod2 knockout (KO) mice exhibited less adiposity, reduced adipocyte hypertrophy, and decreased circulating leptin. The resistance to diet-induced adiposity was the result of an increased metabolic rate and energy expenditure. Furthermore, palmitate oxidation was elevated in the white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue of AdSod2 KO mice fed an HFD, and the expression of key fatty acid oxidation genes was increased. To gain mechanistic insight into the increased fat oxidation in HFD-fed AdSod2 KO mice, we quantified the mitochondrial function and mitochondrial content in WAT and found that MnSOD deletion increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption and induced mitochondrial biogenesis. This effect was preserved in cultured adipocytes from AdSod2 KO mice in vitro. As expected from the enhanced fat oxidation, circulating levels of free fatty acids were reduced in the HFD-fed AdSod2 KO mice. Finally, HFD-fed AdSod2 KO mice were protected from hepatic steatosis, adipose tissue inflammation, and glucose and insulin intolerance. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MnSOD deletion in adipocytes triggered an adaptive stress response that activated mitochondrial biogenesis and enhanced mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, thereby preventing diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:27284109

  2. Nucleus accumbens injections of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 increase cue-induced sucrose seeking following adult, but not adolescent sucrose self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myal, S; O'Donnell, P; Counotte, D S

    2015-10-01

    Adolescence is often portrayed as a period of enhanced sensitivity to reward, with long-lasting neurobiological changes upon reward exposure. However, we previously found that time-dependent increases in cue-induced sucrose seeking were more pronounced in rats trained to self-administer sucrose as adults than as adolescents. In addition, adult, but not adolescent sucrose self-administration led to a decreased α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid/N-Methyl-D-aspartate (AMPA/NMDA) ratio in the nucleus accumbens core, suggesting that long-lasting changes in glutamatergic transmission may affect adult processing of natural rewards. Here we tested whether altering glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus accumbens core via local injection of an mGluR2/3 agonist and antagonist affects cue-induced sucrose seeking following abstinence and whether this is different in the two age groups. Rats began oral sucrose self-administration training (10 days) on postnatal day (P) 35 (adolescents) or P70 (adults). Following 21 days of abstinence, rats received microinjections of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 (0.3 or 1.0 μg/side) or vehicle into the nucleus accumbens core, and 15 min later cue-induced sucrose seeking was assessed. An additional group of rats trained as adults received nucleus accumbens core microinjections of the mGluR2/3 antagonist (RS)-α-Methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (MPPG) (0.12 or 0.5 μg/side). Confirming our previous results, adult rats earned more sucrose reinforcers, while sucrose intake per body weight was similar across ages. On abstinence day 22, local injection of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 increased cue-induced sucrose seeking only in adult rats, and had no effect in adolescents. Local injections of the mGluR2/3 antagonist MPPG had no effect on sucrose seeking in adult rats. These data suggest an important developmental difference in the neural substrates of natural reward, specifically a difference in glutamatergic transmission in

  3. Nucleus accumbens injections of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 increase cue-induced sucrose seeking following adult, but not adolescent sucrose self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myal, S; O'Donnell, P; Counotte, D S

    2015-10-01

    Adolescence is often portrayed as a period of enhanced sensitivity to reward, with long-lasting neurobiological changes upon reward exposure. However, we previously found that time-dependent increases in cue-induced sucrose seeking were more pronounced in rats trained to self-administer sucrose as adults than as adolescents. In addition, adult, but not adolescent sucrose self-administration led to a decreased α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid/N-Methyl-D-aspartate (AMPA/NMDA) ratio in the nucleus accumbens core, suggesting that long-lasting changes in glutamatergic transmission may affect adult processing of natural rewards. Here we tested whether altering glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus accumbens core via local injection of an mGluR2/3 agonist and antagonist affects cue-induced sucrose seeking following abstinence and whether this is different in the two age groups. Rats began oral sucrose self-administration training (10 days) on postnatal day (P) 35 (adolescents) or P70 (adults). Following 21 days of abstinence, rats received microinjections of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 (0.3 or 1.0 μg/side) or vehicle into the nucleus accumbens core, and 15 min later cue-induced sucrose seeking was assessed. An additional group of rats trained as adults received nucleus accumbens core microinjections of the mGluR2/3 antagonist (RS)-α-Methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (MPPG) (0.12 or 0.5 μg/side). Confirming our previous results, adult rats earned more sucrose reinforcers, while sucrose intake per body weight was similar across ages. On abstinence day 22, local injection of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 increased cue-induced sucrose seeking only in adult rats, and had no effect in adolescents. Local injections of the mGluR2/3 antagonist MPPG had no effect on sucrose seeking in adult rats. These data suggest an important developmental difference in the neural substrates of natural reward, specifically a difference in glutamatergic transmission in

  4. Exposição repetida à cafeína aumenta a atividade locomotora induzida pelo femproporex em ratos adolescentes e adultos Repeated administration of caffeine increases femproporex-induced locomotor activity in adolescent and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Helena Paro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A cafeína e o femproporex são substâncias psicoestimulantes. O femproporex é muito utilizado no Brasil como anorexígeno enquanto a cafeína é amplamente consumida como constituinte regular da dieta. A administração repetida de psicoestimulantes induz sensibilização comportamental que se caracteriza pelo aumento progressivo dos seus efeitos locomotores. Pode ocorrer ainda sensibilização cruzada entre essas substâncias. Investigamos se a administração repetida de cafeína aumenta a locomoção induzida pelo femproporex em ratos adolescentes e adultos. Quarenta e oito ratos adolescentes (dia pós-natal 27 e 32 adultos (dia pós-natal 60 foram distribuídos em dois grupos que receberam injeção intra-peritoneal de 10,0 mg/kg de cafeína (CAF (adolescentes N = 24; adultos N = 16 ou salina (SAL (adolescentes N = 24; adultos N = 16 diariamente durante 10 dias. Três dias após a última injeção, cada grupo CAF ou SAL foi subdividido em dois subgrupos que receberam injeção i.p. de salina (SAL (1 mL/kg ou femproporex (FEM (2,0 mg/kg. Após as injeções, a atividade locomotora foi avaliada automaticamente em intervalos de 5 minutos durante 1 hora. Nossos resultados demonstraram que em ratos adolescentes e adultos o pré-tratamento com CAF aumenta a atividade locomotora induzida pela administração aguda de FEM, sugerindo que a cafeína causa sensibilização aos efeitos locomotores desse derivado anfetamínico.Caffeine and femproporex are psychostimulants drugs widely consumed in Brazil. Behavioral sensitization is defined as an augmentation in the behavioral effect of a psychostimulant upon re-administration. Repeated administration of a psychostimulant produces behavioral sensitization to that drug and cross-sensitization to other drugs. We investigated whether repeated administration of caffeine increases femproporex-induced locomotor activity in adolescent and adult rats. Forty-eight adolescent (postnatal day 27 and 32 adult

  5. Administrative decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews relevant administrative decisions that have been taken in various countries during the last semester of 1999 and the first one of 2000. In Argentina, an inter-ministerial commission has been settled to examine the prospects of completing the construction of the Atucha-2 unit. In Sweden, an agreement has been signed between Sydkraft, Vattenfall and the Swedish government on a compensation plan for the early shutdown of the Barsebaeck unit 1. In Switzerland, the government of the canton of Bern has rejected a constitutional initiative requesting the shutdown of the Muehleberg nuclear power plant. (A.C.)

  6. ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULARS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff membersN° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000Staff members contractsN° 16 (Rev. 2) - January 2000TrainingN° 30 (Rev. 1) - January 2000Indemnities and reimbursements upon taking up appointment and termination of contractN° 32 - February 2000Principles and procedures governing complaints of harassmentThese circular have been amended (No 2, N° 9, N° 16 and N° 30) or drawn up (N° 32).Copies are available in the Divisional Secretariats.Note:\tAdministrative and operational circulars, as well as the lists of those in force, are available for consultation in the server SRV4_Home in the Appletalk zone NOVELL (as GUEST or using your Novell username and password), volume PE Division Data Disk.The Word files are available in the folder COM, folder Public, folder ADM.CIRC.docHuman Resources DivisionTel. 74128

  7. Pro Python System Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Sileika, R

    2010-01-01

    As time goes on, system administrators are presented with increasingly complicated challenges. In the early days, a team of engineers might have had to look after one or two systems. These days, one engineer can administer hundreds or thousands of systems. System administrators are gradually replacing their tools with more advanced and flexible ones. One of the choices is Python. Structurally, Python is a modern, high-level language with a very clean syntax. Python comes with many built-in libraries that can make automation tasks easier. It also has extensive set of third-party libraries and a

  8. ROLE OF HOSPITAL ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    UDAYSINH R. MANEPATIL

    2013-01-01

    Hospital administration is the management of the hospital as a business. The administration is made up of medical and health services managers (sometimes called health care executives and health care administrators) and assistant administrators. Administrations range in size and the duties of the administrator depends on the size of the administration.

  9. Co-Administration of CpG Oligonucleotides and Chenopodium album Extract Reverse IgG2a/IgG1 Ratios and Increase IFN-Gamma and IL-10 Productions in a Murine Model of Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Mousavi

    2008-03-01

    We conclude that Co- administration of Ch.a. allergen and CpG ODN prevents the development of TH2-mediated response probably through the IL-10 regulatory effects. Thus, these components could be used with the other allergens in order to induce the prevention of inflammatory conditions. We suggest further studies are necessary to identify the potential effects of CpG-ODNs administration in conjunction with other antigens prepared from the regional allergens in Iran. Taken together, we suppose that the results obtained in this study in animal models may be useful in human trials conducted by other investigators

  10. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial H2O2 emission increases with immobilization and decreases after aerobic training in young and older men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Martin; Vigelsø, Andreas; Yokota, Takashi;

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction, defined as increased oxidative stress and lower capacity for energy production, may be seen with aging and may cause frailty, or it could be that it is secondary to physical inactivity. We studied the effect of two weeks of one-leg immobilization followed by six weeks...... two protocols pyruvate+malate (PM) and succinate+rotenone (SR). This allowed measurement of leak and ATP generating respiration from which the coupling efficiency can be calculated. Protein content of the antioxidants manganese superoxide dismuthase (MnSOD), CuZn-superoxide dismuthase (Cu...

  11. Administrative Appeals and ADR in Danish Administrative Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Inger Marie; Gøtze, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Administrative Appeals, review, administrative tribunals, ombudsman, alternative dispute resolution......Administrative Appeals, review, administrative tribunals, ombudsman, alternative dispute resolution...

  12. Retraction: Radenović L, Selaković V. Mitochondrial superoxide production and MnSOD activity following exposure to an agonist and antagonists of ionotropic receptors in rat brain, Arch Biol Sci. 2005; 57(1:1-10, DOI:10.2298/ABS0501001R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a notice of retraction of the article: Mitochondrial superoxide production and MnSOD activity following exposure to an agonist and antagonists of ionotropic glutamate receptors in rat brain, published in the Archives of Biological Sciences in 2005, Vol. 57, Issue 1. The Editor-in-Chief has been informed that this paper plagiarizes an earlier paper: Radenović L, Selaković V, Kartelija G, Todorović N, Nedeljković M. Differential effects of NMDA and AMPA/kainate receptor antagonists on superoxide production and MnSOD activity in rat brain following intrahippocampal injection. Brain Res Bull, 2004, 64(1:85-93. This claim is correct and almost the entire paper is a verbatim copy of the earlier one. After confirmation of this fact, the Editor-in-Chief of the Archives of Biological Sciences has decided to retract the paper immediately. We apologize to the readers of the journal that it took so many years to notice this error and to retract the paper. We request readers of the journal to directly get in touch with the editorial office and the editors of the journal for similar cases in the future, so that they can be handled promptly. Link to the retracted article 10.2298/ABS0501001R

  13. Managerial Techniques in Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John J.

    1983-01-01

    Management techniques developed during the past 20 years assume the rational bureaucratic model. School administration requires contingent techniques. Quality Circle, Theory Z, and the McKenzie 7-Framework are discussed as techniques to increase school productivity. (MD)

  14. Decreased SIRT3 in aged human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells increases cellular susceptibility to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Qing; Shao, Yong; Ma, Chong-Yi; Chen, Wei; Sun, Lu; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Dong-Yang; Fu, Bi-Cheng; Liu, Kai-Yu; Jia, Zhi-Bo; Xie, Bao-Dong; Jiang, Shu-Lin; Li, Ren-Ke; Tian, Hai

    2014-11-01

    Sirtuin3 (SIRT3) is an important member of the sirtuin family of protein deacetylases that is localized to mitochondria and linked to lifespan extension in organisms ranging from yeast to humans. As aged cells have less regenerative capacity and are more susceptible to oxidative stress, we investigated the effect of ageing on SIRT3 levels and its correlation with antioxidant enzyme activities. Here, we show that severe oxidative stress reduces SIRT3 levels in young human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (hMSCs). Overexpression of SIRT3 improved hMSCs resistance to the detrimental effects of oxidative stress. By activating manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase (CAT), SIRT3 protects hMSCs from apoptosis under stress. SIRT3 expression, levels of MnSOD and CAT, as well as cell survival showed little difference in old versus young hMSCs under normal growth conditions, whereas older cells had a significantly reduced capacity to withstand oxidative stress compared to their younger counterparts. Expression of the short 28 kD SIRT3 isoform was higher, while the long 44 kD isoform expression was lower in young myocardial tissues compared with older ones. These results suggest that the active short isoform of SIRT3 protects hMSCs from oxidative injury by increasing the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes. The expression of this short isoform decreases in cardiac tissue during ageing, leading to a reduced capacity for the heart to withstand oxidative stress. PMID:25210848

  15. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  16. The most important direction of Internet plus development is to increase the efficiency of administration, business and livelihood%互联网+的重要发展方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊岭

    2015-01-01

    本文从互联网、移动互联网的发展、应用中,分析、梳理出存在的组织、策略、覆盖、共享、资源、考核等不足,再结合国家行政、行业、家庭个人的特点,提出了建立分类简单、指导具体、推动有力的机制,互联网+等信息技术的发展方向是强政、兴业、惠民。%This paper analyzes the defi ciency in organization, strategy, coverage, resources sharing and assessment through the research in the development and application of Internet and mobile Internet. And then put forward an idea of establishing a mechanism to effi cient classifi cation, guidance and promotion which is to strengthen the application of Internet in administration, business and livelihood in order to accelerate the development of transformation and innovation combing the characteristics of state administration, industry and individual.

  17. Lesions of the lateral habenula increase voluntary ethanol consumption and operant self-administration, block yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking, and attenuate ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K Haack

    Full Text Available The lateral habenula (LHb plays an important role in learning driven by negative outcomes. Many drugs of abuse, including ethanol, have dose-dependent aversive effects that act to limit intake of the drug. However, the role of the LHb in regulating ethanol intake is unknown. In the present study, we compared voluntary ethanol consumption and self-administration, yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking, and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in rats with sham or LHb lesions. In rats given home cage access to 20% ethanol in an intermittent access two bottle choice paradigm, lesioned animals escalated their voluntary ethanol consumption more rapidly than sham-lesioned control animals and maintained higher stable rates of voluntary ethanol intake. Similarly, lesioned animals exhibited higher rates of responding for ethanol in operant self-administration sessions. In addition, LHb lesion blocked yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking after extinction. Finally, LHb lesion significantly attenuated an ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion. Our results demonstrate an important role for the LHb in multiple facets of ethanol-directed behavior, and further suggest that the LHb may contribute to ethanol-directed behaviors by mediating learning driven by the aversive effects of the drug.

  18. NucleoRed - Computerized system for increasing the effectiveness of the technical administrative conduct of the Laguna Verde Central; NucleoRed - Sistema computarizado para incrementar la efectividad de la gestion tecnico-administrativa de la Central Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna D, J. [Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera cardel-Nautla Km. 42.5 Veracruz (Mexico)]. e-mail: jluna@cfe.gob.mx

    2003-07-01

    The on-line systems for the management of the Laguna Verde Central (CLV) have had the challenge to evolve from the PC's of first generation until emigrate to the new Internet technologies, so that they allow to the diverse work groups to have the computer tool that allows them to gather the necessary data and to carry out efficiently the analysis of their results. To confront the previous challenge, in the CLV it has been developed and implemented the Nucleo Red that is an on-line system with the objective of providing in it lines strategic information for the Technician-administrative management of the plant in the nuclear context. The Nucleo Red is the computational tool that reflects the technical administrative processes implemented by personnel of the different Operative departments, it seeks to cooperate to the reliable and efficient operation of the first nucleo electric central of Mexico, with technology and Mexican personnel the one which already it had received international recognitions. The perspective of this computer system is to continue inside the process of continuous improvement and that although it was designed for a nucleo electric plant it can also be taken to the conventional plants of generation of electric power, so that this technology can be taken advantage of in other non nuclear facilities. The objective of the present work, is to show the new modules that have been developed in the Nucleo Red, its operation in general, and the benefits that it presents its use. (Author)

  19. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its analogues increase catalase at the mRNA, protein and activity level in a canine transitional carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, R P; Nelson, R; Li, Q; Blanton, A; Labuda, J A; Vitt, J; Inpanbutr, N

    2015-12-01

    Antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase, superoxide dismutases (SOD), MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD, protect cells by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Numerous studies have reported the anti-cancer effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) and its related analogues, seocalcitol and analogue V. In this study, canine bladder transitional cell carcinoma (cbTCC) cells were used to determine effects of calcitriol and its related analogues on antioxidant enzyme gene expression, protein expression and activity. Catalase mRNA was increased in response to calcitriol (10(-7) M), and seocalcitol (10(-7) and 10(-9) M). MnSOD mRNA was decreased in response to calcitriol at 10(-7) M. Catalase was significantly increased in response to calcitriol (10(-7) and 10(-9) M), and seocalcitol (10(-9) M). Catalase enzymatic activity increased in response to calcitriol, seocalcitol and analogue V (10(-9) M). In addition, global gene expression analysis identified the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling in cbTCC's response to calcitriol and seocalcitol treatment.

  20. Administrative Data Repository (ADR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Administrative Data Repository (ADR) was established to provide support for the administrative data elements relative to multiple categories of a person entity...

  1. EPA Administrative Enforcement Dockets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Administrative Enforcement Dockets database contains the electronic dockets for administrative penalty cases filed by EPA Regions and Headquarters. Visitors...

  2. Use of administrative data in healthcare research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzali, Cristina; Duca, Piergiorgio

    2015-06-01

    Health research based on administrative data and the availability of regional or national administrative databases has been increasing in recent years. We will discuss the general characteristics of administrative data and specific aspects of their use for health research purposes, indicating their advantages and disadvantages. Some fields of application will be discussed and described through examples.

  3. Organization/Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing 26 syllabi for courses on organization and administration in higher education are discussed, and six sample syllabi are presented. The syllabi focused more on organization than administration. Of the 26 syllabi, 19 dealt with organization and administration generally; 5 with administration in a specific…

  4. Retraction: Radenović L. Effect of 7-nitroindazole on superoxide production and MnSOD activity in the rat brain following kainate-induced neurotoxicity. Arch biol sci, 2008, 60(1:25-32. DOI: 10.2298/ABS0801025R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a notice of retraction of the article: Effect of 7-nitroindazole on superoxide production and MnSOD activity in the rat brain following kainate-induced neurotoxicity, published in the Archives of Biological Sciences in 2008, Vol. 60, Issue 1. The Editor-in-Chief has been informed that this paper plagiarizes an earlier paper: Radenovic L, Selakovic V, Kartelija G, Todorovic N, Nedeljkovic M. Differential effects of NMDA and AMPA/kainate receptor antagonists on superoxide production and MnSOD activity in rat brain following intrahippocampal injection. Brain Res Bull, 2004, 64(1:85-93. The results in the article being retracted were presented as findings obtained from novel research. Inspection of the results has revealed that they were part of research already presented in the original article without appropriate justification or cross-referencing. The Editor-in-Chief considered publishing a notice of redundancy specifying the elements published previously. However, since the original article had already been autoplagiarized by the same corresponding author in the same journal (retraction DOI:10.2298/ABS150318026E, the article is being retracted in accordance with the publishing ethics of the Archives of Biological Sciences in order to preserve the integrity of scientific research. We apologize to the journal's readers that it took so long to notice this error and instigate retraction of the paper. We request our readers to contact the editorial office and editors of the journal directly should similar cases occur in the future, so that the necessary action can be taken more promptly. Link to the retracted article 10.2298/ABS0801025R

  5. ORGANIZATION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mrkša, Jožica

    2012-01-01

    In the thesis titled Organization of Public Administration I concentrated in the review of national and foreign literature. My decision for this topic is based on the personal interest and relevance of the topic in this particular period of time. The purpose of my work was to present the public administration in general, with focus in public administration of Slovenia. At first, the theoretical background of public administration is presented, with following topics addressed: public administr...

  6. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  7. Impaired inflammatory response and increased oxidative stress and neurodegeneration after brain injury in interleukin-6-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Giralt, M; Carrasco, J;

    2000-01-01

    freeze lesion. In normal mice, the brain injury was followed by reactive astrogliosis and recruitment of macrophages from 1 day postlesion (dpl), peaking at 3-10 dpl, and by 20 dpl the transient immunoreactions were decreased, and a glial scar was present. In IL-6KO mice, the reactive astrogliosis...... and recruitment of macrophages were decreased throughout the experimental period. The expression of the antioxidant and anti-apoptotic factors metallothionein I+II (MT-I+II) was increased prominently by the freeze lesion, but this response was significantly reduced in the IL-6 KO mice. By contrast, the expression...... of the antioxidants Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), Mn-SOD, and catalase remained unaffected by the IL-6 deficiency. The lesioned mice showed increased oxidative stress, as judged by malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrotyrosine (NITT) levels and by formation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). IL-6KO mice...

  8. Transportation Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration A - Z Index What Can I Bring? Search form Apples Main menu Administrator Travel Security Screening Special Procedures TSA Pre✓® Passenger Support Travel ...

  9. Cloudera administration handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow Apache Hadoop administrator's guide filled with practical screenshots and explanations for each step and configuration. This book is great for administrators interested in setting up and managing a large Hadoop cluster. If you are an administrator, or want to be an administrator, and you are ready to build and maintain a production-level cluster running CDH5, then this book is for you.

  10. Understanding land administration systems

    OpenAIRE

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy; Rajabifard, Abbas

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of ...

  11. Refinement for administrative policies

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, S.

    2007-01-01

    Flexibility of management is an important requisite for access control systems as it allows users to adapt the access control system in accordance with practical requirements. This paper builds on earlier work where we defined administrative policies for a general class of RBAC models. We present a formal definition of administrative refinnement and we show that there is an ordering for administrative privileges which yields administrative refinements of policies. We argue (by giving an examp...

  12. Financial Management in School Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronc, Keith, Ed.

    Because Australian school principals are being given increasing autonomy, knowledge of basic accounting principles and skill in elementary financial management are becoming more necessary. This book attempts to supply school administrators with information needed to handle new accounting duties and to lay a foundation for future fuller involvement…

  13. CHINA INCREASED PETROLEUM TAX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Xueping

    2005-01-01

    @@ After half a year's gestation and adjustment, the State Administration of Taxation finally set new tax rate of petroleum resources. Notification issued by the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation said the petroleum resources tax standard would be lifted nationwide, after the tax rate adjustment, tax on crude oil would be increased to RMB 14-30 yuan per ton and that on natural gas to RMB 7-15 yuan per thousand cubic meters. The new tax rate has been effective nationwide since July 1.

  14. Quality improvement methodologies increase autologous blood product administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Ashley B; Preston, Thomas J; Fitch, Jill A; Harrison, Sheilah K; Hersey, Diane K; Nicol, Kathleen K; Naguib, Aymen N; McConnell, Patrick I; Galantowicz, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Whole blood from the heart-lung (bypass) machine may be processed through a cell salvaging device (i.e., cell saver [CS]) and subsequently administered to the patient during cardiac surgery. It was determined at our institution that CS volume was being discarded. A multidisciplinary team consisting of anesthesiologists, perfusionists, intensive care physicians, quality improvement (QI) professionals, and bedside nurses met to determine the challenges surrounding autologous blood delivery in its entirety. A review of cardiac surgery patients' charts (n = 21) was conducted for analysis of CS waste. After identification of practices that were leading to CS waste, interventions were designed and implemented. Fishbone diagram, key driver diagram, Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles, and data collection forms were used throughout this QI process to track and guide progress regarding CS waste. Of patients under 6 kg (n = 5), 80% had wasted CS blood before interventions, whereas those patients larger than 36 kg (n = 8) had 25% wasted CS before interventions. Seventy-five percent of patients under 6 kg who had wasted CS blood received packed red blood cell transfusions in the cardiothoracic intensive care unit within 24 hours of their operation. After data collection and didactic education sessions (PDSA Cycle I), CS blood volume waste was reduced to 5% in all patients. Identification and analysis of the root cause followed by implementation of education, training, and management of change (PDSA Cycle II) resulted in successful use of 100% of all CS blood volume.

  15. Increased accuracy in heparin and protamine administration decreases bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runge, Marx; Møller, Christian H; Steinbrüchel, Daniel A

    2009-01-01

    Three to 5 percent of the patients undergoing cardiac surgery are reoperated because of bleeding. When a surgical cause can be excluded, heparin/protamine mismatch may be considered. Insufficient reversal of heparin and overdosing of protamine may cause postoperative bleeding. The purpose...... of the study was to evaluate whether a heparin-protamine titration system, Hemochron RxDx, could reduce postoperative bleeding and blood transfusion. Fifty-three patients were included prospectively over a 6-month period. The test group (RxDx group; 28 patients) received heparin and protamine doses calculated...... using the Hemochron RxDx system, which performs a baseline activated clotting time (ACT) value together with a heparin response test. An accurate heparin dose was calculated based on the Bull dose/response curve. Protamine doses were calculated by the same method. In the control group (25 patients...

  16. Quality improvement methodologies increase autologous blood product administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Ashley B; Preston, Thomas J; Fitch, Jill A; Harrison, Sheilah K; Hersey, Diane K; Nicol, Kathleen K; Naguib, Aymen N; McConnell, Patrick I; Galantowicz, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Whole blood from the heart-lung (bypass) machine may be processed through a cell salvaging device (i.e., cell saver [CS]) and subsequently administered to the patient during cardiac surgery. It was determined at our institution that CS volume was being discarded. A multidisciplinary team consisting of anesthesiologists, perfusionists, intensive care physicians, quality improvement (QI) professionals, and bedside nurses met to determine the challenges surrounding autologous blood delivery in its entirety. A review of cardiac surgery patients' charts (n = 21) was conducted for analysis of CS waste. After identification of practices that were leading to CS waste, interventions were designed and implemented. Fishbone diagram, key driver diagram, Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles, and data collection forms were used throughout this QI process to track and guide progress regarding CS waste. Of patients under 6 kg (n = 5), 80% had wasted CS blood before interventions, whereas those patients larger than 36 kg (n = 8) had 25% wasted CS before interventions. Seventy-five percent of patients under 6 kg who had wasted CS blood received packed red blood cell transfusions in the cardiothoracic intensive care unit within 24 hours of their operation. After data collection and didactic education sessions (PDSA Cycle I), CS blood volume waste was reduced to 5% in all patients. Identification and analysis of the root cause followed by implementation of education, training, and management of change (PDSA Cycle II) resulted in successful use of 100% of all CS blood volume. PMID:24783313

  17. Capacity Building in Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Williamson, I

    2004-01-01

    Capacity building increasingly seen as a key component of land administration projects in developing and countries in transition undertaken by the international development banks and individual country development assistance agencies. However, the capacity building concept is often used within...... infrastructures for implementing land policies in a sustainable way. Where a project is established to create land administration infrastructures in developing or transition countries, it is critical that capacity building is a mainstream component, not as an add-on, which is often the case. In fact such projects...... should be dealt with as capacity building projects in themselves.    The article introduces a conceptual analytical framework that provides some guidance when dealing with capacity building for land administration in support of a broader land policy agenda....

  18. Personality Traits and Administrators

    OpenAIRE

    Anitha V

    2008-01-01

    Administration is the art of getting tasks done by utilizing the resources and coordinating the people. Administrators give trigger to the administration by coordinating, and directing all parts of an organization by managing the tangible and intangible resources of the organization. The qualities of leadership are therefore a critical determinant of organizational success. The theories of leadership (Trait to Transformational leadership theory) have strived to look into the aspects that make...

  19. Veterans Administration Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  20. Marketing as support tool for public administration

    OpenAIRE

    Elena ENACHE; Morozan, Cristian

    2010-01-01

    The reality of public administration system in Romania shows that, in addition to normal and fair activities, negative aspects are to be noticed. Whatever the degree of truth in these assessments, the process of public administration in our country should be continuously adjusted and improved. As the debates on the role of marketing in society have increased in recent years, the tendency to extend its application areas seems to be evident; one of these is the public administration, where the ...

  1. CDS - Database Administrator's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J. P.

    This guide aims to instruct the CDS database administrator in: o The CDS file system. o The CDS index files. o The procedure for assimilating a new CDS tape into the database. It is assumed that the administrator has read SUN/79.

  2. Webmin administrator's cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Karzynski, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Written in a cookbook format with practical recipes this book helps you to perform various administrative tasks using Webmin and enables you to perform common jobs more efficiently.This book is perfect for System administrators who want to learn more advanced concepts of Webmin and how it can help to set up a server for development, testing or deployment.

  3. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy;

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems. Readers may recall the first part of the paper in October issue of Coordinates. Here is the concluding part that focuses on the changing...... role of ownership and the role of land markets. Udgivelsesdato: November...

  4. Oral administration of taxanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malingré, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Oral treatment with cytotoxic agents is to be preferred as this administration route is convenient to patients, reduces administration costs and facilitates the use of more chronic treatment regimens. For the taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel, however, low oral bioavailability has limited development

  5. Administration for Student Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, J. J., Ed.

    This collection of papers focuses on school administration and its relation to students. It is contended that toay's student matures earlier; has higher expectations; is more affluent; is more isolated from adults; is more critical and outspoken; and, therefore, must be heard by teachers and administrators. A related document is EA 001578.…

  6. The School Personnel Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Rodney F.

    This paper provides an overview of the development of the school-personnel administrator role. It first describes the influence of the science-management and human-relations movements and the behavioral sciences on personnel administration and human resource management. It next discusses the role of the personnel-performance-appraisal system and…

  7. Postmodern Public Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogason, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Discussion of the trends towards more uses of postmodern analysis within the discipline of public administration, particularly in the USA......Discussion of the trends towards more uses of postmodern analysis within the discipline of public administration, particularly in the USA...

  8. Centos system administration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallett, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Linux administrator who is looking to gain knowledge that differentiates yourself from the crowd, then this is the book for you. Beginners who have a keen interest to learn more about Linux administration will also progress quickly with this resourceful learning guide.

  9. UML IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ionita

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article elaborates weather UML, primarily used in software engineering, can be a useful tool in business modeling and administration. By analyzing the advantages the modeling language has to offer we find that UML is visual and object oriented and that it is useful in expressing structure, interaction and behavior as well. With its help managers and business people can build models and diagrams to help put things into perspective. “Case Study 1” shows UML can be used as an analysis tool in business modeling to help increase the complexity and depth of the event or project that is being developed. “Case Study 2” attempts to prove that UML can also be efficiently used in finding solutions to newly appeared problems in a business environment. Despite the practicality of the Unified Modeling Language there is still some criticism brought to it. Some programmers consider it to be hard to learn and some developers claim that it is too abstract. The article concludes that despite the minor drawbacks; due to its adaptability and complex visual models, it is a very useful tool that adds value to the modeling of business structures and processes.

  10. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  11. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  12. Administration and Jurisdictional Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Hernando Nieto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available To what extent does studying jurisdictional politics need the knowledge of different administrative theories in general and the science of public administration in particular? This small text proposes such reflection and comes to the conclusion that it is impossible to propose a new approximation to this topic without considering the administrative theory, for that the specialists and thinkers will get more with the contact of this discipline from what it is called a multidisciplinary approach.

  13. Publication of administrative circular

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR NO. 23 (REV. 2) – SPECIAL WORKING HOURS Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 2) entitled "Special working hours", approved following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee on 9 December 2008, will be available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department as from 19 December 2008: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 1) entitled "Stand-by duty" of April 1988. A "Frequently Asked Questions" information document on special working hours will also be available on this site. Paper copies of this circular will shortly be available in Departmental Secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  14. PUBLICATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR NO. 23 (REV. 2) – SPECIAL WORKING HOURS Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 2) entitled "Special working hours", approved following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 9 December 2008, will be available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department as from 19 December 2008: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 1) entitled "Stand-by duty" of April 1988. A "Frequently Asked Questions" information document on special working hours will also be available on this site. Paper copies of this circular will shortly be available in departmental secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  15. 5 CFR 534.604 - Pay administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the dollar value of the employee's next within-grade increase, the agency must set the employee's... hiring agency, or having an outstanding reputation among others in the field. (c) Administrative...

  16. Veterans Health Administration (VHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The purpose of this agreement is for SSA to verify SSNs and other identifying information for the Department of Veterans Affairs, VHA. DVA will use the information...

  17. Humanism, Administration and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, this paper analyses the emergence of a new pedagogical desire related to administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Two arguments are made: first......, it is argued that the changes in administrative practices during the last decade constitute a transformation, but also a reproduction of relations between knowledge and governing that goes back to the big expansion of the welfare state. Second, it is argued that these relations between knowledge and governing...... are not restricted to the administrative practices, but are part of education and its humanistic legacy as well. As such, the administrative demand of documentation becomes possible and recognisable through its reproductive elements. Elements that are constituted in a transformative conjunction in which...

  18. Administrative & Operational Circulars - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    All Administrative and Operational Circulars are available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department at the following address: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp Department Head Office  

  19. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy;

    2008-01-01

    in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...... part focuses on the changing  role of ownership and the role of land markets, and a land management vision will be published in November issue of Coordinates. Udgivelsesdato: Oktober......This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...

  20. Social Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Languages Sign in / up The United States Social Security Administration Cost-Of-Living Adjustment (COLA) Information about ... replacement Medicare card Change of Address my Social Security Check out your Social Security Statement , change your ...

  1. Administrative Discretionary Grant Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — This dataset of administrative records contains discretionary grant recipients who were awarded funds by the Institute of Museum and Library Services from fiscal...

  2. Spatially enabled land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    enabling of land administration systems managing tenure, valuation, planning, and development will allow the information generated by these activities to be much more useful. Also, the services available to private and public sectors and to community organisations should commensurably improve. Knowledge....... In other words: Good governance and sustainable development is not attainable without sound land administration or - more broadly – sound land management. The paper presents a land management vision that incorporates the benefits of ICT enabled land administration functions. The idea is that spatial...... the communication between administrative systems and also establish more reliable data due to the use the original data instead of copies. In Denmark, such governmental guidelines for a service-oriented ITarchitecture in support of e-government are recently adopted. Finally, the paper presents the role of FIG...

  3. SELinux policy administration

    CERN Document Server

    Vermeulen, Sven

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step guide to learn how to set up security on Linux servers by taking SELinux policies into your own hands.Linux administrators will enjoy the various SELinux features that this book covers and the approach used to guide the admin into understanding how SELinux works. The book assumes that you have basic knowledge in Linux administration, especially Linux permission and user management.

  4. Learning Cassandra for administrators

    CERN Document Server

    Parthasarathy, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on guide, taking the reader from the basics of using Cassandra though to the installation and the running.Learning Cassandra for Administrators is for administrators who manage a large deployment of Cassandra clusters, and support engineers who would like to install the monitoring tools and who are also in charge of making sure the cluster stays the same, ensuring that the service is always up and running.

  5. Education of System Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Feyrer, Hubert

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses education of system administration. Theoretical foundations cover psychology, learning theory, instruction theory, and instructional design, leading to an ideal progression for education, and related tools. The main part describes an existing class on system administration as given at the University of Applied Sciences (Fachhochschule, FH) Regensburg, Germany. It is analyzed for its history and target audience, the current curriculum, course layout, and for the didac...

  6. Administration for Defence Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Gale

    1953-01-01

    Full Text Available All scientific work must be carried out against a background of adequate administrative support if it is to become effective and produce useful results. Administration is not a job for which we, as scientists, are particularly trained; and it is a thing of which we tend to fight shy, partly because, author suppose, most Of peoples are associate the administrator with highly unpleasant matters such as income tax, delays in getting our pay cheques, and so on - For that reason we do not feel, always pay  sufficient attention to administrative affairs ; rather like the ostrich, we try to escape from them by merely ignoring them. But that is a wrong and unfruitful attitude to adopt. All live so much under the activities of the trained administrator that should, if, it  give a great deal of thought to our own administrative problems deliberate and conscious thought to them-and make an honest and heart-searching self analysis regarding our own possible failings.

  7. Strengthening Quality Assurance: The Role of University Administrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akua Ahyia Adu-Oppong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern-day university administrators, in Ghana, seem to have found themselves in a changed environment, with increased and increasing challenges, to operate and achieve success. Several calls have been made on university administrators as important stakeholders in the effective and efficient management of the system in that regard. Roles of administrators are often overlooked when discussing the quality assurance issues in higher education. Administrators have pivotal influence on university policies, faculty morale and general functioning of the system. Considering the role of the university administrator, in the management of the higher education systems in Ghana, this study examines university administrators’ role in ensuring quality of administration in the universities.

  8. Behavioral Public Administration: Combining Insights from Public Administration and Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan; Jilke, Sebastian; Olsen, Asmus Leth; Tummers, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We propose behavioral public administration as a designated subfield in public administration which explicitly deals with the integration of theories and methods from psychology into the study of public administration. We discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw on both methodological and theoretical innovations in psychology and point to research questions in public administration which could benefit from further integration. Behavioral public administration cannot, and s...

  9. Practical JIRA Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Doar, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    If you're familiar with JIRA for issue tracking, bug tracking, and other uses, you know it can sometimes be tricky to set up and manage. In this concise book, software toolsmith Matt Doar clarifies some of the more confusing aspects by answering difficult and frequently asked questions about JIRA administration. Practical JIRA Administration shows you how JIRA is intended to be used, making it an ideal supplement to the extensive documentation already available. The book's chapters are loosely connected, so you can go straight to the information that best serves your needs. Understand the di

  10. Computer hardware fault administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  11. Linux System Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Adelstein, Tom

    2007-01-01

    If you're an experienced system administrator looking to acquire Linux skills, or a seasoned Linux user facing a new challenge, Linux System Administration offers practical knowledge for managing a complete range of Linux systems and servers. The book summarizes the steps you need to build everything from standalone SOHO hubs, web servers, and LAN servers to load-balanced clusters and servers consolidated through virtualization. Along the way, you'll learn about all of the tools you need to set up and maintain these working environments. Linux is now a standard corporate platform with user

  12. Renal Inhibition of Heme Oxygenase-1 Increases Blood Pressure in Angiotensin II-Dependent Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Csongradi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that renal medullary heme oxygenase (HO acts as a buffer against Ang-II dependent hypertension. To test this hypothesis, renal medullary HO activity was blocked using QC-13, an imidazole-dioxolane HO-1 inhibitor, or SnMP, a classical porphyrin based HO inhibitor. HO inhibitors were infused via IRMI catheters throughout the study starting 3 days prior to implantation of an osmotic minipump which delivered Ang II or saline vehicle. MAP was increased by Ang II infusion and further increased by IRMI infusion of QC-13 or SnMP. MAP averaged 113±3, 120±7, 141±2, 153±2, and 154±3 mmHg in vehicle, vehicle + IRMI QC-13, Ang II, Ang II + IRMI QC-13, and Ang II + IRMI SnMP treated mice, respectively (n=6. Inhibition of renal medullary HO activity with QC-13 in Ang II infused mice was also associated with a significant increase in superoxide production as well as significant decreases in antioxidant enzymes catalase and MnSOD. These results demonstrate that renal inhibition of HO exacerbates Ang II dependent hypertension through a mechanism which is associated with increases in superoxide production and decreases in antioxidant enzymes.

  13. Administration for Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Releases RSS Feeds Speeches Videos What is the Administration for Children & Families? The Administration for Children and Families (ACF) is a division ... more about the 100-day challenge Visit the Administration on Children, Youth and Families Website The Family ...

  14. Refinement for administrative policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, S.

    2007-01-01

    Flexibility of management is an important requisite for access control systems as it allows users to adapt the access control system in accordance with practical requirements. This paper builds on earlier work where we defined administrative policies for a general class of RBAC models. We present a

  15. Refinement for Administrative Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, S.

    2007-01-01

    Flexibility of management is an important requisite for access control systems as it allows users to adapt the access control system in accordance with practical requirements. This paper builds on earlier work where we defined administrative policies for a general class of RBAC models. We present a

  16. United States Fire Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reduction: Getting the Most From the U.S. Fire Administration’s Daily National Operations Brief PDF 127 KB There ... staff. Follow us: Twitter Facebook YouTube U.S. Fire Administration 16825 S. Seton Ave. , Emmitsburg , MD 21727 USA 800‑ ...

  17. Educational Administration's Weber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronn, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Max Weber's importance in Greenfield's work, particularly in Greenfield and Ribbins'"Greenfield on Educational Administration" (1993). In concentrating on human actors' subjective understanding, Greenfield was a faithful Weberian. However, he deviated from Weber by disavowing structural explanations of social and organizational…

  18. Urban School Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Troy V., Ed.; Swanson, Austin D., Ed.

    This document contains 12 papers presented at an institute for urban school administrators designed to deal with the contemporary urban educational problems incident to school desegregation, social integration, and the equality of educational opportunity. The authors of the papers relate recent research findings to practical field experience, and…

  19. IVA: Improving Vocational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPD Consortium D, Richardson, TX.

    These six instructional units are intended to provide instructors of vocational education administration with a systematic package of materials for their programs of preservice and/or inservice instruction and to provide materials which could be reproduced for learner use. These units cover the following subject matter: (1) federal legislation…

  20. Administrators Confront Student "Sexting"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    Cellphone-savvy students have created instructional and disciplinary challenges for educators for years. But the recent emergence of "sexting" by adolescents over their mobile phones caught many school administrators off guard, and the practice is prompting efforts around the country to craft policy responses. Students' sharing of nude or…

  1. A Treatise on Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    Expands Henri Fayol's definition of the administrative process to include a humanistic approach involving planning, organizing, implementing, controlling, evaluating, and satisfying functions. This empirical definition differs from some theoretical approaches by looking beyond resource consumption to consider ecological effects on the environment…

  2. Enterprise Mac administrators guide

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, William

    2015-01-01

    IT departments everywhere will be integrating Macs and Mac OS X into their IT infrastructure and this book will tell them how to do it. It will serve as an authoritative, useful and frequently referenced book on Mac OS X administration.

  3. Professional and career issues in administrative medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Lazarus

    2009-01-01

    Arthur LazarusSenior Director, Global Clinical Development, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE, USAAbstract: Administrative medicine is not recognized as a medical specialty in the United States, but increasingly, management-trained physicians are being recruited to fill important roles in hospitals and the life sciences industry. While the opportunities may be substantial, physicians who are interested in pursuing an administrative career should be aware of the challenges e...

  4. Behavioral Public Administration: Combining Insights from Public Administration and Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan; Jilke, Sebastian; Olsen, Asmus Leth;

    2015-01-01

    We propose behavioral public administration as a designated subfield in public administration which explicitly deals with the integration of theories and methods from psychology into the study of public administration. We discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw on both...... methodological and theoretical innovations in psychology and point to research questions in public administration which could benefit from further integration. Behavioral public administration cannot, and should not, replace ‘conventional’ public administration, but it is complementary to it. Importantly......, behavioral public administration represents a two-way street in which public administration scholars use theories and methods from psychology, and psychologists, in turn, learn from our setting of political-administrative contexts to refine their theories and methods. Finally, we propose four principals...

  5. 40 CFR 86.422-78 - Administrator's fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrator's fleet. 86.422-78... 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.422-78 Administrator's fleet. The Administrator... accordance with § 86.421. The number of vehicles selected shall not increase the size of the test fleet...

  6. School Choice and Administrators: Will Principals Become Marketers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robenstine, Clark

    2000-01-01

    Argues that school choice, with its reliance on market forces, has serious implications for what goes on inside the school and the principal's role. Looks at changes in administrative focus and management style; at administrators and school marketing, with image management increasingly preoccupying school administrators; and the almost exclusive…

  7. Factors That Impact Administrator-Teacher Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Patrick Sean

    2013-01-01

    Retaining teachers continues to be problematic for educational leaders across the country. With these numbers steadily increasing, one must examine the reasons as to why teachers are leaving the profession and how school administrators can address these problems if schools are going to maintain and increase their levels of success. Reasons…

  8. Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Land administration systems are the operational tool for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) in land. Each of the rights, restrictions and responsibilities encompasses a human rights dimension that relates to the overall national land policies and should be unfolded as...... more than just rhetoric. This paper attempts to analyse the aspects of human rights in relation to land administration systems with a special focus on developing countries struggling to build adequate systems for governing the rights, restrictions and responsibilities in land. Human rights are the...... of being alive. Of special interest in relation to land and property is the right to own things and the right of food and adequate housing for all. More generally, human rights should be seen as an ethical responsibility of government to ensure that people enjoy some basic rights as human beings...

  9. Law Tackling Administrative Monopolies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN LIXIN

    2006-01-01

    @@ The long-anticipated anti-monopoly law needs to better address the crucial distinction between administrative and economic monopolies The first five months of 2oo6 saw a surge in the profits achieved by key State enterprises, especially in the eight sectors including petroleum, telecommunication and electricity, which achieved 285 billion yuan (US$36 billion) in profits, accounting for about 86 percent of the total, according to a July report. From the Stateowned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State (SASAC). This news was both heartening and disquieting, for the most profitable sectors happen to be monopolistic enterprises, mostly upstream the production chain, who achieve their profitability at the expense of those companies further downstream. For years these sectors have been at the centre of the "bust-the-trust" storm.

  10. ATLAS TDAQ System Administration:

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Christopher Jon; The ATLAS collaboration; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Ballestrero, Sergio; Contescu, Alexandru Cristian; Dubrov, Sergei; Fazio, Daniel; Korol, Aleksandr; Scannicchio, Diana; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Voronkov, Artem

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system is responsible for the online processing of live data, streaming from the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The online farm is composed of ̃3000 servers, processing the data readout from ̃100 million detector channels through multiple trigger levels. During the two years of the first Long Shutdown (LS1) there has been a tremendous amount of work done by the ATLAS TDAQ System Administrators, implementing numerous new software applications, upgrading the OS and the hardware, changing some design philosophies and exploiting the High Level Trigger farm with different purposes. During the data taking only critical security updates are applied and broken hardware is replaced to ensure a stable operational environment. The LS1 provided an excellent opportunity to look into new technologies and applications that would help to improve and streamline the daily tasks of not only the System Administrators, but also of the scientists who wil...

  11. Moodle administration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Henrick, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    If you are an experienced system administrator and know how to manage servers and set up web environments but now want to explore Moodle, this book is perfect for you. You'll get to grips with the basics and learn to manage Moodle quickly, focusing on essential tasks. Having prior knowledge of virtual learning environments would be beneficial, but is not mandatory to make the most of this book.

  12. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  13. IPv6 Network Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Niall Richard

    2009-01-01

    This essential guide explains what works, what doesn't, and most of all, what's practical about IPv6--the next-generation Internet standard. A must-have for network administrators everywhere looking to fix their network's scalability and management problems. Also covers other IPv6 benefits, such as routing, integrated auto-configuration, quality-of-services (QoS), enhanced mobility, and end-to-end security.

  14. Genesis of tax administration

    OpenAIRE

    Myskin, Y. I.

    2014-01-01

    The history of formation and development of tax administration is studied. The stages of genesis of tax administration are identified and described. The historically caused major trends in tax administration which are based on knowledge of the nature of causality are formulated. Досліджено історію становлення та розвитку управління оподаткуванням. Визначено та охарактеризовано етапи генезису управління оподаткуванням. На основі пізнання природи причинно-наслідкових зв’язків сфо...

  15. Factors predictive of intravenous fluid administration errors in Australian surgical care wards

    OpenAIRE

    Han, P; Coombes, I.; B. Green

    2005-01-01

    Background: Intravenous (IV) fluid administration is an integral component of clinical care. Errors in administration can cause detrimental patient outcomes and increase healthcare costs, although little is known about medication administration errors associated with continuous IV infusions.

  16. 76 FR 61366 - Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative: Draft Proposals for Public Comment to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative: Draft Proposals for Public Comment to Increase Transparency By Promoting Greater Access to the Agency's Compliance and Enforcement Data; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ] ACTION: Notice...

  17. The Administration of Tax Systems

    OpenAIRE

    John Hasseldine

    2010-01-01

    This chapter analyses recent developments in tax administration and best practice. The chapter begins by contextualizing tax administration through a discussion on the necessary separation between the operational tasks performed in tax administration and the more generic, but nevertheless crucial, issues of organization, strategy and internal management required in tax administration. The chapter then describes the recent genesis and the current context of tax administration - especially in E...

  18. Increased oxidative stress and severe arterial remodeling induced by permanent high-flow challenge in experimental pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadel Elie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Involvement of inflammation in pulmonary hypertension (PH has previously been demonstrated and recently, immune-modulating dendritic cells (DCs infiltrating arterial lesions in patients suffering from idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH and in experimental monocrotaline-induced PH have been reported. Occurrence of perivascular inflammatory cells could be linked to local increase of oxidative stress (OS, as it has been shown for systemic atherosclerosis. The impact of OS on vascular remodeling in PH is still to be determined. We hypothesized, that augmented blood-flow could increase OS and might thereby contribute to DC/inflammatory cell-recruitment and smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation. Methods We applied a monocrotaline-induced PH-model and combined it with permanent flow-challenge. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to following groups: control, monocrotaline-exposure (MCT, monocrotaline-exposure/pneumonectomy (MCT/PE. Results Hemodynamic exploration demonstrated most severe effects in MCT/PE, corresponding in histology to exuberant medial and adventitial remodeling of pulmonary muscular arteries, and intimal remodeling of smaller arterioles; lung-tissue PCR evidenced increased expression of DCs-specific fascin, CD68, proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, RANTES, fractalkine in MCT/PE and to a lesser extent in MCT. Major OS enzyme NOX-4 was maximal in MCT/PE. Antioxidative stress enzymes Mn-SOD and glutathion-peroxidase-1 were significantly elevated, while HO-1 showed maximal expression in MCT with significant decrease in MCT/PE. Catalase was decreased in MCT and MCT/PE. Expression of NOX-4, but also of MN-SOD in MCT/PE was mainly attributed to a highly increased number of interstitial and perivascular CXCR4/SDF1 pathway-recruited mast-cells. Stress markers malonedialdehyde and nitrotyrosine were produced in endothelial cells, medial smooth muscle and perivascular leucocytes of hypertensive vasculature

  19. UML IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Ionita

    2010-01-01

    The article elaborates weather UML, primarily used in software engineering, can be a useful tool in business modeling and administration. By analyzing the advantages the modeling language has to offer we find that UML is visual and object oriented and that it is useful in expressing structure, interaction and behavior as well. With its help managers and business people can build models and diagrams to help put things into perspective. “Case Study 1” shows UML can be used as an analysis tool i...

  20. THE UNDERSTANDING OF NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil I. ULKER

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Neo-liberal system has formed a new world order in order to overcome the last crisis, it experienced in 1980. This new formation –that is called globalization is basically the struggle of overcoming the recession in the world economy. The main tools that are used by globalization for solving the crisis are the followings; minimal state, privatization, de-regulation policies, international corporations, and so on. Globalization has reduced the area of public administration by proposing a minimal state and has opened the public spear to the private sector. Increasing public duties and expenses of prosperous state have been shown as the reason of 1980 crisis that is characterized by recession and stagflation. Thus, public services have been decreased to minimum, the duties that were done by government in the past have been opened to the private sector and the moving area of the capital has been widened. The basic qualifications of new public administration can be categorized as follows: - Government is a force that steer, not a force that row. It should be director instead of an actor. - Public duties should be reduced. - Good governance should absolutely be provided. This administrative method is formed by local administrator, the civil public agents, and entrepreneur community. - Citizen should be regarded as customer and customer satisfaction should be adapted. - The authorities of central administration should be transferred to local administrations. - Public administration should be transparent, countable, effective and efficient. - Total Quality, localness, customer oriented, legitimacy and propriety are the inalienable parts of the public duties. In conclusion, public administration has transformed to public management. This is a mentality in which consumer is more important than producers. This is the implementation of a public administration in which economy controls politics and social life.

  1. Administration of Educational Services: A Glossary of Basic Administration Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelbarger, J. J.

    From "achievement motivation" and "administration" to "Theory Z" and "viscidity and hedonic tone," this glossary defines 87 terms as they are used in educational administration. The terms include philosophical, psychological, organizational, and social concepts, but they all are employed in the theory and practice of administration. A short…

  2. MAPK pathway activation by chronic lead-exposure increases vascular reactivity through oxidative stress/cyclooxygenase-2-dependent pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simões, Maylla Ronacher, E-mail: yllars@hotmail.com [Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES CEP 29040-091 (Brazil); Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain); Aguado, Andrea [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain); Fiorim, Jonaína; Silveira, Edna Aparecida; Azevedo, Bruna Fernandes; Toscano, Cindy Medice [Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES CEP 29040-091 (Brazil); Zhenyukh, Olha; Briones, Ana María [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, María Jesús [Dept. of Biochemistry, Physiology and Molecular Genetics, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Alcorcón (Spain); Vassallo, Dalton Valentim [Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES CEP 29040-091 (Brazil); Health Science Center of Vitória-EMESCAM, Vitória, ES CEP 29045-402 (Brazil); Salaices, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.salaices@uam.es [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain)

    2015-03-01

    Chronic exposure to low lead concentration produces hypertension; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We analyzed the role of oxidative stress, cyclooxygenase-2-dependent pathways and MAPK in the vascular alterations induced by chronic lead exposure. Aortas from lead-treated Wistar rats (1st dose: 10 μg/100 g; subsequent doses: 0.125 μg/100 g, intramuscular, 30 days) and cultured aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from Sprague Dawley rats stimulated with lead (20 μg/dL) were used. Lead blood levels of treated rats attained 21.7 ± 2.38 μg/dL. Lead exposure increased systolic blood pressure and aortic ring contractile response to phenylephrine, reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation and did not affect sodium nitroprusside relaxation. Endothelium removal and L-NAME left-shifted the response to phenylephrine more in untreated than in lead-treated rats. Apocynin and indomethacin decreased more the response to phenylephrine in treated than in untreated rats. Aortic protein expression of gp91(phox), Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and COX-2 increased after lead exposure. In cultured VSMCs lead 1) increased superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity and gene and/or protein levels of NOX-1, NOX-4, Mn-SOD, EC-SOD and COX-2 and 2) activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Both antioxidants and COX-2 inhibitors normalized superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity and mRNA levels of NOX-1, NOX-4 and COX-2. Blockade of the ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways abolished lead-induced NOX-1, NOX-4 and COX-2 expression. Results show that lead activation of the MAPK signaling pathways activates inflammatory proteins such as NADPH oxidase and COX-2, suggesting a reciprocal interplay and contribution to vascular dysfunction as an underlying mechanisms for lead-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • Lead-exposure increases oxidative stress, COX-2 expression and vascular reactivity. • Lead exposure activates MAPK signaling pathway. • ROS and COX-2 activation by

  3. Increasing Responsibility towards Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Comanescu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the international climate of the early millennium, the need for reconciliation between economic and social development, on one hand, and the environment, on the other hand, is essential. Therefore, sustainable development must be promoted, because it integrates economic growth, improved quality of life, health, education, social development and environmental protection.Environmental issues are particularly complex as their causes are interdependent. This requires actions at all levels: local, national, regional as well as at the European Union level, each with its own role in increasing responsibility for the environmental protection.It is widely recognized that to obtain successful results an integrated approach has to be used to manage the environment, by adopting long-term strategies and action plans. It requires a detailed analysis of the links between different policies and responsibilities, including the links between different administrative levels.

  4. Increasing Responsibility towards Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela COMĂNESCU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the international climate of the early millennium, the need for reconciliation between economic and social development, on one hand, and the environment, on the other hand, is essential. Therefore, sustainable development must be promoted, because it integrates economic growth, improves quality of life, health, education, social development and environmental protection. Environmental issues are particularly complex as their causes are interdependent. This requires actions at all levels: local, national, regional as well as at the European Union level, each with its own role in increasing responsibility for the environmental protection. It is widely recognized that to obtain successful results an integrated approach has to be used to manage the environment, by adopting long-term strategies and action plans. It requires a detailed analysis of the links between different policies and responsibilities, including the links between different administrative levels.

  5. Contact Center Manager Administration (CCMA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — CCMA is the server that provides a browser-based tool for contact center administrators and supervisors. It is used to manage and configure contact center resources...

  6. Administrative Law and Organization Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, William M.

    1977-01-01

    Considered are some trends in American administrative law, some trends in organization theory, a model of the administrative process, and several potentially useful research strategies. The analysis has implications for comparative research on legal systems. (Author/LBH)

  7. Administrative Implications of Curriculum Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Max G.; Eidell, Terry L.

    1970-01-01

    The director of the Center for the Advanced Study of Educational Administration at the University of Oregon and one of his associates discuss the new role of administration in an individual-oriented educational system. (AA)

  8. Functions Of Land Administration System

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Sakal

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical basis and essence of some common and specific functions of land administration system as an integral mechanism of effective land use and land administration levels (case-study for forest and other land available for afforestation) are analysed.

  9. Administrative Dimensions of Tax Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    The best tax policy in the world is worth little if it cannot be implemented effectively. Tax policy design in developing countries must therefore take the administrative dimension of taxation carefully into account. What can be done may to a considerable extent determine what is done in any country. This paper discusses the relationship between tax policy and tax administration. When can policy lead administration? When must policy initiatives wait on administrative reform? How exactly can b...

  10. The interpretation of administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the principles of interpretation for administrative contracts, in French law and in Romanian law. In the article are highlighted derogations from the rules of contract interpretation in common law. Are examined the exceptions to the principle of good faith, the principle of common intention (willingness of the parties, the principle of good administration, the principle of extensive interpretation of the administrative contract. The article highlights the importance and role of the interpretation in administrative contracts.

  11. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  12. Control over Administrative Contract Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frane Staničić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Administrative contracts in Croatian legislation represent a novelty introduced into the General Administration Procedure Act in 2010. This is a novelty which has not proved to be successful in practice. Control over administrative contract formation is inevitable and is very significant for a number of reasons. Firstly, public legal bodies which form them do so by exercising their own public powers which are without doubt subject to legality control; secondly, in forming administrative contracts, public funds are used which must be controlled; thirdly, forming administrative contracts often touches on using public goods. Due to the restrictive interpretation of administrative contracts in Croatian legislation, this institute is indisputably only regulated in the General Taxation Act. However, for more than two decades contracts which satisfy all presumptions have existed in our law in order to be considered as administrative contracts. It is for this reason that control over contracts will be dealt with for contracts considered by the author to be administrative contracts. These are contracts on concessions and contracts on public procurement. How inadequate today’s regulation of control of administrative contract formation is will be demonstrated, particularly regarding contracts on concession and public procurement. Legislative changes will be proposed which should result in a more quality system of control over administrative contract formation. How control over administrative contract formation cannot be considered as separate from control over administrative contract execution will also be shown.

  13. An Analysis of Administrative Corruption (Administrative Organizations of Yazd City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Haghighatian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   Administrative corruption is a complicated and multi-faceted phenomenon that has many causes and ramifications, which manifest themselves in different forms in various countries and appear to be endemic of all social systems where authority is delegated. Although there might be different definitions of and approaches towards administrative corruption, the definition that has been put forward by the World Bank and Transparency International appears to be more general and comprehensive. It defines corruption as the abuse of public power, office, or resources by public or elected governmental officials for personal gain, e.g. by extortion, soliciting or offering bribes. Recent research findings indicate that organizational commitment and work satisfaction on the part of employees could be an effective antidote to administrative corruption. On the other hand, employee sense of equity and fairness also has been shown to be effective in enhancing organizational commitment. Last but not least, employee financial needs could play a significant part in their vulnerability to corruption. Therefore, the main aim of this paper is as follows: by utilizing the ideas of Selznick on organizational commitment, Merton's views on work satisfaction, Taylor's and Schwartz's ideas on financial needs, and Barnard's views on managerial capabilities, the relationships of these variables on administrative corruption were studied. The other purpose of the paper is to examine the effects of some other related variables like age, sex, level of education, job seniority, and marital status on administrative corruption.     Material and Methods   The research method was quantitative, data collection technique was survey, and the tool of data collection was questionnaire. The research population of the study consisted of all 44116 employees of public organizations of the city of Yazd. Using a stratified sampling technique, 16 administrative organizations

  14. Internet administration of the Edinburgh Depression Scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, V.; Nyklicek, I.; Cuijpers, P.; Pop, V.

    2008-01-01

    Background Internet-based screening for depression is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study is to validate the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) for internet administration. Methods In 407 participants (64% women; 36% men) with subthreshold depression (mean age = 55 years; S.D. = 4.9

  15. Key Obama officials leave administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar is one of the latest members of the Obama administration to announce that he is leaving his position near the start of President Obama's second term in office. Salazar, who has served as interior secretary since January 2009, intends to leave the department by the end of March, the department noted on 16 January. Salazar joins a number of other key officials who are planning to leave the administration. They include Environmental Protection Agency administrator Lisa Jackson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator Jane Lubchenco, and U.S. Geological Survey director Marcia McNutt.

  16. Views of Teachers, Administrators and Supervisors Regarding the Technological Leadership Standards for Administrators

    OpenAIRE

    Hacıfazlıoğlu, Özge; Karadeniz, Şirin; Dalgıç, Gülay

    2010-01-01

    Background. As the demand for building more effective and efficient learning communities is growing, the need for the school administrators who are aware of their instrumental roles in using and implementing technology has increased considerably (Afshari, Bakar, Luan, Samah & Fooi, 2009; Akbaba-Altun & Gürer, 2008; Yalın, Karadeniz & Şahin, 2007; Anderson & Dexter, 2005). Moreover, with the integration of technology into education, the administrators have been ...

  17. Depuration: An administrative overview

    OpenAIRE

    Somerset, I

    1992-01-01

    At the 1964 National Shellfish Sanitation Workshop, Mr. Eugene Jensen presented a thought-provoking paper outlining the rationale for the depuration of shellfish. Mr. Jensen noted that "we are committed to the principal that shellfish must be as safe to eat as other ordinary food" and that "the problems of assuring the sanitary quality of coastal areas will increase rather than diminish. This is not the same as saying that pollution will increase" (Jensen, 1964). It is recognised that additio...

  18. Human Rights in National Administrative Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsborg-Andersen, Ayo

    Human rights are increasingly debated in the public sphere, yet discussions of human rights law are traditionally all but invisible in the discussions on national administrative law. This is at least the case in Denmark. This book sets out to analyse if, and in what way, the application of human...... developed using the theory of legal capability and communication theories. Discussing new ways of analysing the application of human rights, this book is relevant for scholars and professionals primarily working with human rights law, but also administrative law, both nationally and internationally....... rights law is visible in the case-law of institutions performing reviews of Danish administrative decisions. The book consists of three parts. The first part contains the introduction, research question, methodological considerations and delimitations. The second part is an in-depth look at the theory...

  19. Virtual Reality and Public Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Tózsa, István

    2013-01-01

    This study serves as an introduction to how virtual reality systems could be applied in public administration and what research tasks would be necessary to accomplish a project. E-government solutions began to emerge in public administration approximately a decade ago all over the developed world. Administration service facilities via the Internet did not attract many customers, because of the digital divide. E-government solutions were extended to mobile devices as well, but the expected bre...

  20. Administrative Experiments: Unlocking What Works Better and What Works for Whom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Scott; Perez-Johnson, Irma; Joyce, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Administrative experiments are increasingly available for public programs with high-quality administrative data to identify what changes make programs and services more effective. Program administrators can run short-term experiments to test improvements in programs and have causally valid impact estimates within a year. Administrative experiments…

  1. 78 FR 68133 - Cost-of-Living Increases and Other Determinations for 2014; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Cost-of-Living Increases and Other Determinations for 2014; Correction AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice; Correction. SUMMARY: The Social Security Administration published a document...

  2. Increasing Possibilities of Nanosuspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Bishwajit Sutradhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a very large proportion of new drug candidates emerging from drug discovery programmes are water insoluble and thus poorly bioavailable. To avoid this problem, nanotechnology for drug delivery has gained much interest as a way to improve the solubility problems. Nano refers to particles size range of 1–1000 nm. The reduction of drug particles into the submicron range leads to a significant increase in the dissolution rate and therefore enhances bioavailability. Nanosuspensions are part of nanotechnology. This interacts with the body at subcellular (i.e., molecular scales with a high degree of specificity and can be potentially translated into targeted cellular and tissue-specific clinical applications designed to achieve maximal therapeutic efficacy with minimal side effects. Production of drugs as nanosuspensions can be developed for drug delivery systems as an oral formulation and nonoral administration. Here, this review describes the methods of pharmaceutical nanosuspension production including advantages and disadvantages, potential benefits, characterization tests, and pharmaceutical applications in drug delivery.

  3. PATRAM '89 Administrative Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PATRAM is an acronym for Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials. The purpose of these symposia is to bring together, on an international basis, representative experts from industry, government, and research organizations to exchange scientific and technical information relating to all aspects of the packaging, testing, and transporting of radioactive materials. Through the sustained excellence of their programs, these symposia have become the premier domestic and international forums for this purpose in this increasingly important scientific field. PATRAM is the only symposia in the world that is devoted entirely to this subject

  4. Coaches Guide to Sport Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, Larry M.

    This guide for athletic coaches offers a practical approach to the administrative functions of organizing, planning, leading, and controlling. Included are chapters on coaching administration, fund raising, organizing competitions, and designing effective budgets and controls. The guide addresses the following topics: (1) the categories of…

  5. Postmodernism in Higher Educational Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaris, Michalyn C.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    Postmodernism has many inferences that can be applied to the theory and practice of higher educational administration. Today, in higher education administrators are continuously focused on strategies that will ensure the future of minority educational institutions. As a result postmodernism is an important factor in the future of higher…

  6. Administrative Approaches to Educational Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, William S.; Levin, Henry M.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an institutional framework for raising higher education productivity through administrative and organizational devices: first, by examining two theories for explaining rising higher education costs and their different policy consequences, and then by presenting an administrative process for improving productivity that focuses on…

  7. Toward an Applied Administrative Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Roger L. M.

    1983-01-01

    A study of 65 articles from the 1981 volumes of "Administrative Science Quarterly" and "Harvard Business Review," using smallest space analysis, found that the few studies adopting subjective (instead of objective) approaches to analyzing organizational change were most likely to provide a basis for an applied administrative science. (Author/RW)

  8. Emotional Intelligence in School Administrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine BABAOĞLAN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the variables that affects success in business life is emotional intelligence of working people. The purpose of this research is to identify whether the school administrators’ emotional intelligence scores differ meaningfully according to their gender, marital status, branch, being a principal or assistant principal, being elementary school administrator or high school administrator, having manegerial education course or not, educational background, period of occupational service, age, length of administration service, number of children. 180 administrators working as a principals and vise principals who worked in 2005 in Düzce elementary schools and high schools were surveyed in line with this aim. Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal Wallis test and ANOVA were used in order to find out groups that differ from others. It has been found that school administrators’ emotional intelligence scores differ meaningfully in terms of administrators’ branch and being elementary school administrator or high school.

  9. Administration on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Home > Programs & Activities > Administration on Disabilities > AIDD Administration on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AIDD) Realizing the ... AIDD has a new address and phone number: Administration for Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Administration for Community ...

  10. Peculiarities of territorial governing in the area of increased risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area of Ignalina NPP can be evaluated from the standpoint of governing as the area of increased risk territory (zone), so the local administration should acquire a specific status. The results of expert examination show insufficient efficiency of the administration's activity, it's orientation to quantitative results. An objective fund is necessary for the supporting the local administration and population of this area. (author)

  11. Increased oxidative stress and antioxidant expression in mouse keratinocytes following exposure to paraquat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) is a widely used herbicide known to induce skin toxicity. This is thought to be due to oxidative stress resulting from the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) during paraquat redox cycling. The skin contains a diverse array of antioxidant enzymes which protect against oxidative stress including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), metallothionein-2 (MT-2), and glutathione-S-transferases (GST). In the present studies we compared paraquat redox cycling in primary cultures of undifferentiated and differentiated mouse keratinocytes and determined if this was associated with oxidative stress and altered expression of antioxidant enzymes. We found that paraquat readily undergoes redox cycling in both undifferentiated and differentiated keratinocytes, generating superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide as well as increased protein oxidation which was greater in differentiated cells. Paraquat treatment also resulted in increased expression of HO-1, Cu,Zn-SOD, catalase, GSTP1, GSTA3 and GSTA4. However, no major differences in expression of these enzymes were evident between undifferentiated and differentiated cells. In contrast, expression of GSTA1-2 was significantly greater in differentiated relative to undifferentiated cells after paraquat treatment. No changes in expression of MT-2, Mn-SOD, GPx-1, GSTM1 or the microsomal GST's mGST1, mGST2 and mGST3, were observed in response to paraquat. These data demonstrate that paraquat induces oxidative stress in keratinocytes leading to increased expression of antioxidant genes. These intracellular proteins may be important in protecting the skin from paraquat-mediated cytotoxicity

  12. An Analysis of Administrative Corruption (Administrative Organizations of Yazd City)

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Haghighatian; Somayeh Karimizadeh; Javad Nazari

    2013-01-01

    Introduction   Administrative corruption is a complicated and multi-faceted phenomenon that has many causes and ramifications, which manifest themselves in different forms in various countries and appear to be endemic of all social systems where authority is delegated. Although there might be different definitions of and approaches towards administrative corruption, the definition that has been put forward by the World Bank and Transparency International appears to be more general and compreh...

  13. Digitale kort og administrative registre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H. S.; Skov-Petersen, H.

    Rapporten indeholder dels en beskrivelse af de vigtigste nationale databaser med stedfæstet information og dels en vejledning i sammenstilling imellem digitale kort og administrative registre. Rapportens første del beskriver de enkelte databaser med hensyn til bl.a. adgangsforhold, indhold og...... nøgler, hvoraf sidstnævnte spiller en afgørende rolle i forbindelse med sammenstilling af digitale kort og administrative registre. Rapportens anden del fokuserer på praktiske forsøg med sammenstilling af digitale kort og administrative register. Der gives anvisninger på sammenstilling af Bygnings- og...

  14. Transcultural perspectives in nursing administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, M M

    1998-11-01

    Population demographics are reshaping the healthcare work force with respect to race, ethnicity, gender, national origin, sexual orientation, age, handicap, disability, and related factors as national sensitivity to various forms of diversity grows. Given the demographic trends, it is inevitable that nurse administrators will need skill in transcultural administration as they manage diversity and identify the cultural origins of conflict in the multicultural workplace. Culture influences the manner in which administrators, staff and patients perceive, identify, define and solve problems. In this article, the complex and interrelated factors that influence workplace diversity are examined. PMID:9824983

  15. Environmental recordkeeping: The administrative record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprouse, B.S.

    1991-08-01

    This document provides information on an environmental records management system. It includes information on environmental recordkeeping; environmental regulations with emphasis on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); and the administrative record including a case study of the Hanford Site's administrative record system. This paper will focus on the following objectives: (1) Identify resources that can be used as reference tools; (2) understand the reasons for developing and maintaining an administrative record; and, (3) evaluate an existing system and identify means of complying with the regulations. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Cultural Issues in Psychiatric Administration and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses cultural issues in psychiatric administration and leadership through two issues: (1) the changing culture of psychiatric practice based on new clinician performance metrics and (2) the culture of psychiatric administration and leadership in light of organizational cultural competence. Regarding the first issue, some observers have discussed the challenges of creating novel practice environments that balance business values of efficient performance with fiduciary values of treatment competence. This paper expands upon this discussion, demonstrating that some metrics from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the nation's largest funder of postgraduate medical training, may penalize clinicians for patient medication behaviors that are unrelated to clinician performance. A focus on pharmacotherapy over psychotherapy in these metrics has unclear consequences for the future of psychiatric training. Regarding the second issue, studies of psychiatric administration and leadership reveal a disproportionate influence of older men in positions of power despite efforts to recruit women, minorities, and immigrants who increasingly constitute the psychiatric workforce. Organizational cultural competence initiatives can diversify institutional cultures so that psychiatric leaders better reflect the populations they serve. In both cases, psychiatric administrators and leaders play critical roles in ensuring that their organizations respond to social challenges.

  17. NSF and NASA budgets increased

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Research budgets of several of the federal government agencies were increased significantly over the Reagan administration's requests in the House of Representative's appropriations bill H.R. 4034. These budgets had been removed from the Reagan administration's omnibus reconciliation bill, and thus there were worries expressed that certain research funding could be in jeopardy. The rationale was that because the requests were voted on individually on the floor of the House, many sections of the budgets would be subjected to extra scrutiny, which would lead to more cuts.The National Science Foundation (NSF) budget request had been cut and reordered by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) by making sharp reductions in programs of the social sciences and in programs of science and engineering education. There were fears that these programs would be reinstated to the original request level, at the expense of the budgets of other research activities. These fears materialized, but only momentarily. Efforts to cut the research activities by the House Appropriations Committee were soundly defeated. The budget was supported, with additional increases to provide for the education programs, by a high margin, which included most Republican and Democratic members of the House of Representatives. The overall NSF budget, as passed, has a total appropriation of $1103.5 million, compared with the Administration's request of $1033.5 million (the Fiscal Year 1981 appropriation for the NSF was $1022.4 million). The House approved budget included increases of $44.9 million in research and $25.1 million in science and engineering education. Included in the research budget increase were recommendations by the House Appropriations Committee for support of the social sciences and for the international affairs programs. Also included in the recommendations was support of interdisciplinary research programs that cut across the directorates of the NSF.

  18. Put Teachers on Your Administrative Cabinet, and Restore Labor Harmony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Bill D.

    1982-01-01

    In Whithall (Michigan) schools, a teacher representative is included on the superintendent's administrative cabinet. Teacher participation has improved internal communication, aided in a campaign for a tax millage increase, and helped solve problems with teacher transfers. (MLF)

  19. Phosphodiesterase 10A Regulates Alcohol and Saccharin Self-Administration in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Logrip, Marian L.; Leandro F Vendruscolo; Schlosburg, Joel E.; Koob, George F.; Zorrilla, Eric P.

    2014-01-01

    A history of stress produces increases in rodent relapse-like alcohol self-administration behavior and regional brain gene expression of phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A), a dual-specificity cyclic adenosine monophosphate/cyclic guanosine monophosphate-inhibiting enzyme. Here, we tested the hypothesis that administration of TP-10, a specific PDE10A inhibitor, would reduce alcohol self-administration in conditions predisposing to elevated self-administration. TP-10 administration dose-dependently...

  20. Nursing Academic Administrators' Lived Experiences With Incivility and Bullying From Faculty: Consequences and Outcomes Demanding Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSala, Kathleen B; Wilson, Vicki; Sprunk, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    There are an increasing number of nursing academic administrators who identify themselves as victims of faculty incivility. This study examined experiences that academic administrators encountered with faculty incivility using a phenomenological research design. Three major themes emerged: faculty inappropriate behaviors, consequences of faculty behaviors on administrator targets, and administrators call for action. Findings revealed that incivility had devastating effects on administrators personally and professionally. PMID:26673315

  1. Medicare Administrative Contractor Performance Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has compiled a summary of overall Medicare Administrative Contractor (MAC) performance information as measured...

  2. Case and Administrative Support Tools

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Case and Administrative Support Tools (CAST) is the secure portion of the Office of General Counsel (OGC) Dashboard business process automation tool used to help...

  3. State Lands by Administrator - County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — DNR land ownership and administrative interest mapped to the PLS forty level. This layer merges the DNR Control Point Generated PLS layer with IBM mainframe-based...

  4. State Lands by Administrator - Wildlife

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — DNR land ownership and administrative interest mapped to the PLS forty level. This layer merges the DNR Control Point Generated PLS layer with IBM mainframe-based...

  5. The Land Administration Domain Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, C.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Bennett, R.

    2015-01-01

    Societal drivers including poverty eradication, gender equality, indigenous recognition, adequate housing, sustainable agriculture, food security, climate change response, and good governance, influence contemporary land administration design. Equally, the opportunities provided by technological dev

  6. US Fire Administration Fire Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Fire Administration collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United...

  7. HUD Administrative Law Judges Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This site contains substantive and precedential decisions issued by the Office of Administrative Law Judges. The site does not contain subsequent rulings or...

  8. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Instagram RSS Subscribe Occupational Safety and Health Administration About OSHA A to Z Index Contact Us FAQs What's New English | Spanish MENU OSHA Search For Workers File a Complaint OSHA 10-Hour Card Personal Protective ...

  9. State Lands by Administrator - Forestry

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — DNR land ownership and administrative interest mapped to the PLS forty level. This layer merges the DNR Control Point Generated PLS layer with IBM mainframe-based...

  10. State Lands by Administrator - Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — DNR land ownership and administrative interest mapped to the PLS forty level. This layer merges the DNR Control Point Generated PLS layer with IBM mainframe-based...

  11. PostgreSQL administration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Schönig, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    If you are a database administrator who needs to get to grips with PostgreSQL quickly and efficiently, then this book is for you. This book will also be highly beneficial if you are a project leader or a developer who is interested in knowing more about database systems or bottleneck detection, as it will enable you to work more closely and cooperatively with your administrators.

  12. Administrative bias in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Nwauche

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the interpretation of section 6(2(aii of the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act which makes an administrator “biased or reasonably suspected of bias” a ground of judicial review. In this regard, the paper reviews the determination of administrative bias in South Africa especially highlighting the concept of institutional bias. The paper notes that inspite of the formulation of the bias ground of review the test for administrative bias is the reasonable apprehension test laid down in the case of President of South Africa v South African Rugby Football Union(2 which on close examination is not the same thing. Accordingly the paper urges an alternative interpretation that is based on the reasonable suspicion test enunciated in BTR Industries South Africa (Pty Ltd v Metal and Allied Workers Union and R v Roberts. Within this context, the paper constructs a model for interpreting the bias ground of review that combines the reasonable suspicion test as interpreted in BTR Industries and R v Roberts, the possibility of the waiver of administrative bias, the curative mechanism of administrative appeal as well as some level of judicial review exemplified by the jurisprudence of article 6(1 of the European Convention of Human Rights, especially in the light of the contemplation of the South African Magistrate Court as a jurisdictional route of judicial review.

  13. Administration of punishment in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Nataša Z.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Giving consideration to punishment, one of the inevitable elements of school discipline, always reactivates the issue of punishment administration and its effects in school setting. Punishment is administered by a beforehand-determined intention, its general and final goal being the attempt to make a child change his/her behavior so as to more successfully take part in school life. The issue of how much it is justifiable to administer punishment, as a way of directing child’s behavior, is not only raised in professional discussions but occurs as a personal dilemma with parents, teachers and all those involved in child upbringing. The definition of punishment contains certain incompatible elements in attitudes, which is reflected in punishment administration within different social contexts. Based on the analysis of research results, the paper discusses all the elements the teacher should be well acquainted with, influencing the effectiveness of punishment. The effects of punishment administration depend, among other things, on the type of punishment, way in which a person experiences and perceives punishment and the way of administering it. Prior to punishment administration, as a means of directing child’s behavior factors influencing successfulness of punishment should be established consistency in punishment administration, postponement of punishment intensity of punishment, explanation for punishment administration, nature of interrelations between a child and a person punishing him/her.

  14. 77 FR 69441 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Cost Accounting Standards Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... estimated annual reporting burden is increased from that published in the Federal Register at 75 FR 3236, on... Regulation; Information Collection; Cost Accounting Standards Administration AGENCY: Department of Defense... approved information collection requirement concerning cost accounting standards administration....

  15. Caloric restriction shortens lifespan through an increase in lipid peroxidation, inflammation and apoptosis in the G93A mouse, an animal model of ALS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkha P Patel

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction (CR extends lifespan through a reduction in oxidative stress, delays the onset of morbidity and prolongs lifespan. We previously reported that long-term CR hastened clinical onset, disease progression and shortened lifespan, while transiently improving motor performance in G93A mice, a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS that shows increased free radical production. To investigate the long-term CR-induced pathology in G93A mice, we assessed the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and oxidative capacity (CS--citrate synthase content and activity, cytochrome c oxidase--COX activity and protein content of COX subunit-I and IV and UCP3-uncoupling protein 3, oxidative damage (MDA--malondialdehyde and PC--protein carbonyls, antioxidant enzyme capacity (Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD and catalase, inflammation (TNF-alpha, stress response (Hsp70 and markers of apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2, caspase 9, cleaved caspase 9 in their skeletal muscle. At age 40 days, G93A mice were divided into two groups: Ad libitum (AL; n = 14; 7 females or CR (n = 13; 6 females, with a diet equal to 60% of AL. COX/CS enzyme activity was lower in CR vs. AL male quadriceps (35%, despite a 2.3-fold higher COX-IV/CS protein content. UCP3 was higher in CR vs. AL females only. MnSOD and Cu/Zn-SOD were higher in CR vs. AL mice and CR vs. AL females. MDA was higher (83% in CR vs. AL red gastrocnemius. Conversely, PC was lower in CR vs. AL red (62% and white (30% gastrocnemius. TNF-alpha was higher (52% in CR vs. AL mice and Hsp70 was lower (62% in CR vs. AL quadriceps. Bax was higher in CR vs. AL mice (41% and CR vs. AL females (52%. Catalase, Bcl-2 and caspases did not differ. We conclude that CR increases lipid peroxidation, inflammation and apoptosis, while decreasing mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency, protein oxidation and stress response in G93A mice.

  16. Oblique Photogrammetry and Usage on Land Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisa, A.; Ozmus, L.; Erkek, B.; Ates, H. B.; Bakici, S.

    2013-08-01

    Projects based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have started within the body of the General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre (GDLRC) by the Land Registry and Cadastre Information System (LRCIS) in the beginning of 2000s. LRCIS was followed by other projects which are Turkish National Geographic Information System (TNGIS), Continuously Operating GPS Reference Stations (CORS-TR), Geo Metadata Portal (GMP), Orthophoto Web Services, Completion of Initial Cadastre, Cadastre Renovation Project (CRP), 2B and Land Registry Achieve Information System (LRAIS). When examining the projects generated by GDLRC, it is realized that they include basic functions of land administration required for sustainable development. Sustainable development is obtained through effective land administration as is known. Nowadays, land use becomes more intense as a result of rapid population increase. The importance of land ownership has increased accordingly. At this point, the necessity of cadastre appears. In Turkey, cadastral registration is carried out by the detection of parcels. In other words, it is obtained through the division of land surface into 2D boundaries and mapping of them. However, existing land administration systems have begun to lose their efficiency while coping with rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) belonging to land which become more complicated day by day. Overlapping and interlocking constructions appear particularly in urban areas with dense housing and consequently, the problem of how to project these structures onto the surface in 2D cadastral systems has arisen. Herein, the necessity of 3D cadastre concept and 3D property data is confronted. In recent years, oblique photogrammetry, whose applications are gradually spreading, is used as an effective method for producing 3D data. In this study, applications of oblique photogrammetry and usability of oblique images as base for 3D Cadastre and Land Administration projects are examined.

  17. 48 CFR 702.170-2 - Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrator. 702.170-2... DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions 702.170-2 Administrator. Administrator means the Administrator or Deputy Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development....

  18. 7 CFR 1000.25 - Market administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Market administrator. 1000.25 Section 1000.25... Rules of Practice and Procedure Governing Market Administrators § 1000.25 Market administrator. (a) Designation. The agency for the administration of the order shall be a market administrator selected by...

  19. 7 CFR 1700.26 - Deputy Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deputy Administrator. 1700.26 Section 1700.26... AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Agency Organization and Functions § 1700.26 Deputy Administrator. The Deputy Administrator aids and assists the Administrator. The Deputy Administrator provides overall policy direction...

  20. 45 CFR 1336.71 - Administrative costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative costs. 1336.71 Section 1336.71... Administrative costs. Reasonable administrative costs of the RLF may be paid out of the loan fund. The grant award agreement between the Loan Administrator and ANA will set forth the allowable administrative...

  1. INFORMATION IN THE SYSTEM OF STATE ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kalytych, G.; Litosh, G.

    2009-01-01

    The article analyses the approaches to the notions of "information", "state administration system", "administrative information". The article considers the importance of of information for the whole state administration system and reveals the criteria which provide the information with administrative status. Special attention is paid to making of administrative decisions on the level of the sate which are based on effective information management.

  2. 5 CFR 831.101 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 831.101 Section 831.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Administration and General Provisions § 831.101 Administration. (a) OPM has charge of...

  3. 7 CFR 56.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 56.3 Section 56.3 Agriculture... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs General § 56.3 Administration. The Administrator shall perform, for and... administration of the provisions of the Act and the regulations in this part. The Administrator is authorized...

  4. Meritocratic administration and democratic stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornell, Agnes; Lapuente, Victor

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a hypothesis for understanding democratic stability based on the distinction between politicized and meritocratic bureaucracies. We argue that in a politicized administration, the professional careers of large numbers of government officials depend directly upon which party wins......, in democracies with meritocratic administrations, incumbents are credibly constrained from undertaking partial policies because their hands are tied in terms of managing the staff policy of the state apparatus. Consequently, countries with meritocratic bureaucracies have greater prospects for democratic...... stability. Empirically, we illustrate the mechanisms with two well-documented cases of democratic transitions that enshrined a politicized administration – Spain (1876–1936) and Venezuela (1958–1998) – and one transition that kept a meritocratic bureaucracy, Spain (1975–)....

  5. Policy and Public Administration, Educational Policy and Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos-Monzon, Ivan Luis

    This paper attempts to clean up some of the muddled thinking that obscures the distinction between theory and practice in educational administration. The author also applies his argument to the issue of possible gaps between policy formulation and policy implementation. The author begins by noting that there is a common misapprehension that in…

  6. TWRS information locator database system administrator`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, B.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-13

    This document is a guide for use by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Information Locator Database (ILD) System Administrator. The TWRS ILD System is an inventory of information used in the TWRS Systems Engineering process to represent the TWRS Technical Baseline. The inventory is maintained in the form of a relational database developed in Paradox 4.5.

  7. Teacher and Administrator Perceptions of Bullying In Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom D. Kennedy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to explore the differences between teacher and administrator perceptions of bullying. Data were collected from 139 practicing educators and administrators who completed a survey regarding their perceptions of bullying in schools. Mann Whitney U tests were conducted to determine if perceptions of bullying varied with occupation and gender. Bonferroni adjustments were made for the multiple pairwise comparisons. There were statistically significant differences between the perceptions of teachers and administrators regarding their role in bullying prevention. Teachers felt more strongly that educators played an important role in bullying prevention; however, administrators felt more comfortable communicating with the parents of bullying victims. Interestingly, teachers were significantly more likely than administrators to perceive a need for increased bullying prevention training. Significant gender differences concerning the inclusion of bullying prevention in school curriculum were also found.

  8. THE ROLE OF DECENTRALIZATION FOR EFFICIENT PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Cornelia STOICA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A modern public administration is focused on meeting the needs of citizens, provides comprehensive information on matters concerning their community with full cooperate with citizens and public control exercised carefully and neutral on the achievement of public services.Modern public administration seeks to determine how greater participation of civil society in decision-making process that local corporate and also provides administrative transparency and direct communication with citizens as possible. In this sense, decentralization of public administration, involving public services decentralization and strengthening local autonomy in administrative and financial point of view, realizing and working to enhance local involvement in management issues they face and to build policy own - in the context of overall national economic and social development - to increase economic performance and to improve the social life of local citizens by defining and local responsibilities regarding local services and financial performance, for their accomplishment.

  9. Professional SQL Server 2005 administration

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, Brian; Snyder, Wayne; Armand, Jean-Claude; LoForte, Ross; Ji, Haidong

    2007-01-01

    SQL Server 2005 is the largest leap forward for SQL Server since its inception. With this update comes new features that will challenge even the most experienced SQL Server DBAs. Written by a team of some of the best SQL Server experts in the industry, this comprehensive tutorial shows you how to navigate the vastly changed landscape of the SQL Server administration. Drawing on their own first-hand experiences to offer you best practices, unique tips and tricks, and useful workarounds, the authors help you handle even the most difficult SQL Server 2005 administration issues, including blockin

  10. Administration in an operating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of strict administrative procedures in the daily work is being demonstrated by commenting on events that occured in the operation of German nuclear power plants. The procedure for working in an area of the plant (pressurized medium, high-radioactive level, explosive of flammable mediums), where special measures for safe working have to be taken, is discussed in detail. The administrative problems during refuelling time are further on mentioned, especially the problems connected with administering more than 1,000 people with respect to health protection and sabotage protection. Some general comments on the influences from external causes (authorities, courts, etc.) are given. (orig./ORU)

  11. Beginning SQL Server 2008 Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Walters, R

    2009-01-01

    Beginning SQL Server 2008 Administration is essential for anyone wishing to learn about implementing and managing SQL Server 2008 database. From college students, to experienced database administrators from other platforms, to those already familiar with SQL Server and wanting to fill in some gaps of knowledge, this book will bring all readers up to speed on the enterprise platform Microsoft SQL Server 2008. * Clearly describes relational database concepts* Explains the SQL Server database engine and supporting tools* Shows various database maintenance scenarios What you'll learn* Understand c

  12. 5 CFR 9701.342 - Performance pay increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance pay increases. 9701.342... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Performance-Based Pay § 9701.342 Performance pay increases. (a) Overview. (1) The DHS pay system provides employees in a Full Performance...

  13. 76 FR 45621 - Employment and Training Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Extension of Information Collection (Without... Temporary Employment Certification AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Training Administration (ETA) is soliciting comments concerning the extension of the approval for...

  14. 75 FR 6433 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment and Public...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental... Chicago, Illinois. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) proposes to fund, construct,...

  15. 76 FR 5212 - Employment and Training Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Internal Fraud and...: Employment and Training Administration (ETA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of.... Currently, the Employment and Training Administration is soliciting comments concerning the Office...

  16. 76 FR 77302 - Federal Transit Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... Federal Transit Administration FY 2011 Discretionary Sustainability Funding Opportunity; Transit... Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: FTA...'s (DOT) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) announces the selection of Fiscal Year (FY)...

  17. 76 FR 78966 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Kona International Airport at Keahole, Keahole, North Kona, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its findings on the noise compatibility...

  18. 75 FR 12809 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, DFW Airport, Texas AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aviation Administration, Southwest Region, Airports Division, Texas Airports Development Office,...

  19. 75 FR 18014 - Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...: Federal Highway Administration, Kentucky Division: Mr. Greg Rawlings, Transportation Specialist, 330...

  20. 78 FR 32470 - Employment and Training Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment..., the Director of the Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance, Employment and Training Administration, has... Trade Adjustment Assistance, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, Room...

  1. POLITICS-ADMINISTRATION DICHOTOMY: A CENTURY DEBATE

    OpenAIRE

    Reza TAHMASEBI; Seyyed Mohammad Mahdi MUSAVI

    2011-01-01

    The issue of politics-administration dichotomy as one of the five great issues in the field of public administration has had a strange history. For more than a century it has been one of the most disreputable notions in the field of public administration. At the heart of the public administration is the relationship between administrators, on one hand, and politicians and the public on the other hand. The nature of that relationship and the proper role of political leaders and administrators ...

  2. The Study on Privilege in Administrative Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于韬文

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous development of management methods, as the implementation means of administrative policy and social management ideal, the administrative contract has been widely accepted. Administrative areas contract to become the focus of people's attention. Administrative priority in administrative contract is to distinguish between private rights contract with the most critical characteristics of administrative contracts. But there are many problems of administrative priority in practice. In this paper, writer begins from the content of administrative priority and put forward myself proposals for the improvement of power supervision.

  3. Philippines - Revenue Administration Reform Project (RARP) Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Challenge Account-Philippines' (MCA-P) implementation of the Revenue Administration Reform Project (RARP) is expected to improve tax administration,...

  4. 78 FR 29245 - U.S. General Services Administration Federal Property Management Regulations; Administrative Wage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... Administration Federal Property Management Regulations; Administrative Wage Garnishment AGENCY: Office of the... amending the U.S. General Services Administration Property Management Regulation (GSPMR) to remove... telephone number. The Administrative Wage Garnishment Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts affected...

  5. Novel Approaches to Surfactant Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Samir Gupta; Donn, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Surfactant replacement therapy has been the mainstay of treatment for preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome for more than twenty years. For the most part, surfactant is administered intratracheally, followed by mechanical ventilation. In recent years, the growing interest in noninvasive ventilation has led to novel approaches of administration. This paper will review these techniques and the associated clinical evidence.

  6. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  7. RARE II: The Administration's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, M. Rupert

    1977-01-01

    RARE II is a new Roadless Area Review and Evaluation of the National Forest system. Administrators are attempting to inventory existing wilderness areas and to determine criteria for setting aside additional ones. This information will be used for the required 1980 update of the national assessment of forests and rangelands. (MA)

  8. Women Administrators as Instructional Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Women are under-represented in educational research and are much less likely to hold administrative positions than are men. This study, using the Liberal Feminist Theory and Structural Barrier Theory, proffers possible explanations for this phenomenon. Four women leaders were interviewed to gain insight into their instructional leadership…

  9. Instructional Technology and Administrative Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eye, Glen G.; and others

    1969-01-01

    "Concerned with the spiraling problems of technology and its impact on instruction, the American Association of School Administrators (AASA) two years ago created the Committee on Technology and Instruction. Since that time the Committee has been active in investigating a number of areas relevant to the impact of technology on the public schools. …

  10. Educational Administration and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Richard

    2006-01-01

    After observing that texts in educational administration have largely failed to address the problem of the justice and fairness of social and educational arrangements, this article goes on to examine the necessary relationships between ethical leadership, community and the notion of social justice. Such relationships are argued to be necessarily…

  11. Innovating Traditional Nursing Administration Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, M Lindell; Fowler, Debra

    2016-03-01

    The evolving and complex practice environment calls for new mindsets among nurse leaders, academics, and nurse innovators to envision innovative ways to manage and optimize traditional tasks and processes in nursing administration. The purpose of this article is to present 3 case studies that used linear programming and simulation to innovate staffing enterprises, financial management of healthcare systems, and curricula development.

  12. The Administration's Crisis Multiplied by the Crisis of the Administrated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Livia NICU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of this work is the idea that the concept of “crisis” should be approached with no fear. It is necessary to understand it as the signal which attracts attention upon the fact that some changes are appropriate and that some rationally thought actions ought to be taken in order to soften the social phenomena occurring within a crisis period. We may say that in the core of the crisis lies impregnated the basic substance of progress and that the moment when a crisis is declared is as well the moment of a new start. It is necessary to anticipate the crisis, in order to prepare the adequate means able to soften up the shocks created by its incipit and to bring forward the progress through its action itself. One of the most necessary and useful instruments able to smooth down the crisis' effects is the early education provided to the citizens concerning the frame of the behavior to be adopted in case of crisis. The officials and the public servants are the social actors who constitute the interface between the citizen who is going to suffer the crisis and this latter's exerted pressure. The personnel from the public administration has to assume the hardest role in reducing the most possible the crisis' effects. Some possibilities are analysed that could reduce the effects of the economical, social and political crises, among which the most important is the quality of juridical norms. The Romanian legislation concerning the public charge is studied, in respect to its capacity to motivate the public servant to perform at his up most level, during crisis periods but not only then. The idea is emphasized that panic and uncontrolled social movements in case of a crisis might lead to the multiplying of the negative effects. The personnel from the public administration comes to a direct confrontation with the pressure of the negative effect of the crisis, as it is received by the public administration - understood as a structure

  13. Methamphetamine self-administration acutely decreases monoaminergic transporter function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Lisa M; Stout, Kristen A; Vieira-Brock, Paula L; Allen, Scott C; Nielsen, Shannon M; Wilkins, Diana G; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2012-03-01

    Numerous preclinical studies have demonstrated that noncontingent methamphetamine (METH) administration rapidly decreases both dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine-2 transporter (VMAT-2) function. Because of the importance of transporter function to the abuse and neurotoxic liabilities of METH, and previous research indicating that the effects of noncontingent METH treatment do not necessarily predict effects of contingent exposure, the present study examined the acute impact of METH self-administration on these transporters. Results revealed that five days of METH self-administration (4 h/session; 0.06 mg/infusion) decreased DAT and VMAT-2 activity, as assessed in synaptosomes and vesicles, respectively, prepared from striatal tissue 1 h after the final self-administration session. METH self-administration increased core body temperatures as well. Brain METH and amphetamine (AMPH) levels, assessed 1 h after the final self-administration session, were approximately twice greater in high-pressing rats compared to low-pressing rats despite similar changes in DAT function. In conclusion, the present manuscript is the first to describe transporter function and METH/AMPH levels after self-administration in rodents. These data provide a foundation to investigate complex questions including how the response of dopaminergic systems to METH self-administration contributes to contingent-related processes such as dependence. PMID:22120988

  14. Alterations in energy balance following exenatide administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, David P; Kulstad, Roger; Racine, Natalie; Shenker, Yoram; Meredith, Melissa; Schoeller, Dale A

    2012-10-01

    Exenatide is a medication similar in structure and effect to native glucagon-like peptide-1, an incretin hormone with glucose-lowering properties. The aim of the study was to measure the change in total energy expenditure (TEE) and body composition during exenatide administration and by deduction the relative contributions of energy expenditure and energy intake to exenatide-induced weight loss. Forty-five obese (body mass index, 30-40 kg·m⁻²) subjects were identified. After exclusion criteria application, 28 subjects entered into the study and 18 subjects (12 female, 6 male) completed the study, which consisted of 6 visits over 14 weeks and injection of exenatide for an average of 84 ± 5 days. Respiratory gas analysis and doubly labeled water measurements were performed before initiation of exenatide and after approximately 3 months of exenatide administration. The average weight loss from the beginning of injection period to the end of the study in completed subjects was 2.0 ± 2.8 kg (p = 0.01). Fat mass declined by 1.3 ± 1.8 kg (p = 0.01) while the fat-free mass trended downward but was not significant (0.8 ± 2.2 kg, p = 0.14). There was no change in weight-adjusted TEE (p = 0.20), resting metabolic rate (p = 0.51), or physical activity energy expenditure (p = 0.38) and no change in the unadjusted thermic effect of a meal (p = 0.37). The significant weight loss because of exenatide administration was thus the result of decreasing energy intake. In obese nondiabetic subjects, exenatide administration did not increase TEE and by deduction the significant weight loss and loss of fat mass was due to decreased energy intake. PMID:22735035

  15. Nickel Excretion in Urine after Oral Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menne, T.; Mikkelsen, H. I.; Solgaard, Per Bent

    1978-01-01

    In recent years the importance of internal exposure to nickel in patients with recurrent hand eczema and nickel allergy has become evident. The present study was performed in order to investigate the value of urinary nickel determinations as an index of oral nickel intake. After oral administration...... of 5.6 mg nickel (as the sulfate), increased nickel excretion was found over the following 2-3 days. We conclude that consecutive urinary nickel determinations are able to disclose variations in oral intake of nickel....

  16. Administrator of the China Meteorological Administration Zheng Guoguang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Zheng Guoguang,Secretary of CPC Leadership Group,Administrator of the China Meteorological Administration,Doctor of Physics,University of Toronto,Canada,Adjunct Professor and Doctoral tutor of Beijing University,Chairman of the National Climate Committee,Chairman of Chinese Committee of the Global Climate Observing System (CGOS),Member of the National Leading Working Group on Addressing Climate Change,Energy Saving,and Emission Reduction,Deputy Director of the Office of the National Leading Group on Addressing Climate Change,Member of UN Secretary General's High-level Panel on Global Sustainability Permanent Representative of China in WMO,Member of WMO Executive Council,and Chief Representative of China in ITCC.

  17. Endogenous production of tumour necrosis factor is required for manganese superoxide dismutase expression by irradiation in the human monocytic cell line THP-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a mitochondrial enzyme that scavenges superoxide (O2-) ions. We studied the regulation of MnSOD gene expression by irradiation and the mechanisms in human monocytic cell line THP-1. We found that irradiation induced expression of the MnSOD gene through the autocrine mechanism, involving the production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF). Irradiation increased TNF production in THP-1 cells, and TNF increased the levels of MnSOD transcripts. Supernatant from irradiated THP-1 cells induced the expression of MnSOD mRNA, and anti-TNF antibody blocked the induction of MnSOD mRNA. Irradiation also increased the levels of MnSOD mRNA in other myelocytic cell lines, HL60 and KG-1, and the ovarian cancer cell line SK-OV-3. Our results indicate that the endogenous production of TNF is required, at least in part, for the induction of MnSOD mRNA expression by irradiation in THP-1 cells, and the increased levels of MnSOD transcripts on irradiation occur through a pathway involving protein kinase C activation. Our results also indicate that the increase in MnSOD mRNA caused by irradiation is regulated by both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. (author)

  18. School administration in a different voice : the careers of women administrators in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Tabin, Yvonne Emilie

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if and how the experiences of recent women appointees to the principalship differ from those of earlier appointees. Given the rather recent increase in the number of women assuming administrative posts in British Columbia, it is possible that conditions for women may have changed. Interviews with nine new and eight experienced women principals revealed some differences between the two groups in their careers and experiences. Although recent women ...

  19. Deployment of Open Standards in the Public Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Dorin IRIMESCU

    2008-01-01

    Open Source Software is receiving an increasing attention in the public administration. The aim of the paper is to discuss the deployment of open source software for office automation and to present a synthesis of the up to date status. It is intended to sensitize provosts and policy makers regarding the value and benefits of open standards in public administration. The article explains why anyone would choose an open standard format for office documents, instead of the obsolete binary format...

  20. Interest in Long-Term Care among Health Services Administration Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, April; Thompson, Jon M.

    2011-01-01

    The aging of the population has created increased opportunities for health administrators in long-term care. This study consisted of a cross-sectional survey of 68 undergraduate health services administration students to explore factors related to interest in a career in long-term care administration. One third expressed interest working in the…

  1. A mechanistic study to increase understanding of titanium dioxide nanoparticles-increased plasma glucose in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hailong; Li, Li; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Zhou, Ying; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong; Gu, Ning

    2016-09-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP) is an authorized food additive. Previous studies determined oral administration of TiO2 NPs increases plasma glucose in mice via inducing insulin resistance. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been considered the possible mechanism of increasing plasma glucose. However, persistently high plasma glucose is also a mechanism of increasing ROS. This study aims to explore whether TiO2 NPs increase plasma glucose via ROS. We found after oral administration of TiO2 NPs, an increase in ROS preceded an increase in plasma glucose. Subsequently, mice were treated with two antioxidants (resveratrol and vitamin E) at the same time as oral administration of TiO2 NPs. Results showed resveratrol and vitamin E reduced TiO2 NPs-increased ROS. An increase in plasma glucose was also inhibited. Further research showed resveratrol and vitamin E inhibited the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6, and the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, resulting in improved insulin resistance. These results suggest TiO2 NPs increased ROS levels, and then ROS activated inflammatory cytokines and phosphokinases, and thus induced insulin resistance, resulting in an increase in plasma glucose. Resveratrol and vitamin E can reduce TiO2 NPs-increased ROS and thereby inhibit an increase in plasma glucose in mice.

  2. A mechanistic study to increase understanding of titanium dioxide nanoparticles-increased plasma glucose in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hailong; Li, Li; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Zhou, Ying; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong; Gu, Ning

    2016-09-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP) is an authorized food additive. Previous studies determined oral administration of TiO2 NPs increases plasma glucose in mice via inducing insulin resistance. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been considered the possible mechanism of increasing plasma glucose. However, persistently high plasma glucose is also a mechanism of increasing ROS. This study aims to explore whether TiO2 NPs increase plasma glucose via ROS. We found after oral administration of TiO2 NPs, an increase in ROS preceded an increase in plasma glucose. Subsequently, mice were treated with two antioxidants (resveratrol and vitamin E) at the same time as oral administration of TiO2 NPs. Results showed resveratrol and vitamin E reduced TiO2 NPs-increased ROS. An increase in plasma glucose was also inhibited. Further research showed resveratrol and vitamin E inhibited the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6, and the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, resulting in improved insulin resistance. These results suggest TiO2 NPs increased ROS levels, and then ROS activated inflammatory cytokines and phosphokinases, and thus induced insulin resistance, resulting in an increase in plasma glucose. Resveratrol and vitamin E can reduce TiO2 NPs-increased ROS and thereby inhibit an increase in plasma glucose in mice. PMID:27430421

  3. Chapitre 4. Administrer les loteries

    OpenAIRE

    Legay, Marie-Laure

    2016-01-01

    1. Fermes ou régies ? Le mode d’administration de ces établissements n’avait rien d’anodin. Il relevait à la fois de considérations morales et économiques. Morales car les autorités de l’époque hésitaient à se compromettre dans l’administration d’un jeu par lequel on remettait sa fortune aux coups du sort. Les États pontificaux par exemple préférèrent s’en remettre à des particuliers au début de l’établissement du loto, avant de faire régir la loterie directement pour le compte de la Curie à ...

  4. Bureaucratic Administration in Modern Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goga Gina Livioara

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the European states, a responsible administration, from a political point of view,coordinated by law, competent and professional and neutral from a public point of view, has been thebasis for the European state for a long time and a dominant model of this type of administration isrepresented by the Weberian bureaucratic model, which emphasized the value of efficiency, consistency,continuity and predictability. Bureaucracy is indispensable in any state and very important in thedemocratic regimes. Weber asserted that the bureaucratic organisation obtained power in virtue of thedecrease of the economical and social differences. The modern state depends on a bureaucratic basis,but once established, bureaucracy is among the social structures that are most difficult to eliminate. Theemergence and development of the bureaucratic mechanisms has become a monster of the modernsociety, because the bureaucracy works in the opposite direction from democracy.

  5. IBM Sametime 852 Administration Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Gabriella; Duff, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The IBM Lotus Sametime 8.5.2 Administration Guide uses a practical, no-nonsense approach to give you the essential information you need. Using realistic scenarios, you learn how to configure and maintain your environment to meet your needs and take advantage of the flexibility offered in Sametime 8.5.2. If you are responsible for installing and administering Sametime 8.5.2, then this book is for you. If you're completely new to Sametime administration, this book will serve as your roadmap. If you're making the jump from a prior version of Sametime, then you'll see how Sametime 8.5.2 differs an

  6. 16 CFR 1.71 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 1.71 Section 1.71 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Administration of the Fair Credit Reporting Act § 1.71 Administration. The general administration of the...

  7. 40 CFR 142.24 - Administrator's rescission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrator's rescission. 142.24... Exemptions § 142.24 Administrator's rescission. If, upon notification of a finding by the Administrator under... revised schedule, the Administrator shall rescind the application of his finding to that...

  8. 42 CFR 405.1875 - Administrator review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrator review. 405.1875 Section 405.1875... Appeals § 405.1875 Administrator review. (a) Basic rule: Time limit for rendering Administrator decisions, Board decisions, and action subject to immediate review. The Administrator, at his or her...

  9. 7 CFR 868.5 - Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator. 868.5 Section 868.5 Agriculture... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Regulations Administration § 868.5 Administrator. The Administrator, under the authority delegated by the Secretary, is charged with administering the programs...

  10. 7 CFR 62.100 - Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator. 62.100 Section 62.100 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Definitions Administration § 62.100 Administrator. The LS Program Deputy Administrator is charged with...

  11. 7 CFR 1230.603 - Administrator, FSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, FSA. 1230.603 Section 1230.603... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.603 Administrator, FSA. The term Administrator, FSA, means the Administrator, of the Farm Service Agency, or any officer...

  12. 7 CFR 1220.602 - Administrator, FSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, FSA. 1220.602 Section 1220.602... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.602 Administrator, FSA. Administrator, FSA, means the Administrator, of the Farm Service Agency, or any officer or employee of USDA...

  13. 7 CFR 800.2 - Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... appear at part 68 of this title (7 CFR part 68). The Administrator is authorized by the Secretary to take... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator. 800.2 Section 800.2 Agriculture... § 800.2 Administrator. The Administrator is delegated, from the Secretary, responsibility...

  14. 7 CFR 1230.602 - Administrator, AMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1230.602 Section 1230.602... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.602 Administrator, AMS. The term Administrator, AMS, means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, or...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.601 - Administrator, AMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1220.601 Section 1220.601... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.601 Administrator, AMS. Administrator, AMS, means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, or any officer or employee...

  16. 7 CFR 1280.602 - Administrator, AMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1280.602 Section 1280.602... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.602 Administrator, AMS. Administrator, AMS, means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, or any officer or employee of...

  17. 7 CFR 201.3 - Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator. 201.3 Section 201.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS Administration § 201.3 Administrator. The Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service...

  18. 7 CFR 1280.603 - Administrator, FSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, FSA. 1280.603 Section 1280.603... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.603 Administrator, FSA. Administrator, FSA, means the Administrator, of the Farm Service Agency, or any officer or employee of USDA to...

  19. Chronicle 1998, Administrative law/Droit administratif

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bok, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    In this contribution, two recent developments in Dutch administrative law are discussed. The codification of administrative law in a General Administrative Law Act (1994) has contributed much to this field of law, but has also caused additional legal complications for the administration. In 1997 the

  20. 24 CFR 511.71 - Administrative costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative costs. 511.71... Administration § 511.71 Administrative costs. (a) Maximum amount. Any grantee may use not to exceed 10 percent of... years for administrative costs eligible under paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. Eligible...

  1. 24 CFR 583.135 - Administrative costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative costs. 583.135... Administrative costs. (a) General. Up to five percent of any grant awarded under this part may be used for the purpose of paying costs of administering the assistance. (b) Administrative costs. Administrative...

  2. 7 CFR 253.4 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 253.4 Section 253.4 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION ADMINISTRATION OF THE FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLDS ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 253.4 Administration. (a) Federal administration. Within the...

  3. 9 CFR 354.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 354.3 Section 354.3... CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Administration § 354.3 Administration... prescribed in the regulations in this part and as the Secretary may require in the administration of...

  4. 7 CFR 29.51 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 29.51 Section 29.51 Agriculture... INSPECTION Regulations Administration § 29.51 Administration. The Director is charged with the supervision of the Division and the performance of all duties assigned thereto in the administration of the...

  5. 14 CFR 1201.103 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 1201.103 Section 1201.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1201.103 Administration. (a) NASA is headed by an Administrator, who is...

  6. 7 CFR 30.61 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 30.61 Section 30.61 Agriculture... AND STANDARDS Administration § 30.61 Administration. The Director, Tobacco Division, Agricultural... the Division and the performance of all duties assigned thereto in the administration of the...

  7. 9 CFR 381.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 381.3 Section 381.3... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.3 Administration. (a) (b) The Administrator may in specific classes of cases waive...

  8. 7 CFR 29.9231 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 29.9231 Section 29.9231 Agriculture... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Administration § 29.9231 Administration. The Director... the administration of the act. The conduct of all services and the licensing or employment...

  9. 7 CFR 23.2 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 23.2 Section 23.2 Agriculture Office... Administration. (a) Title V will be administered by the Administrators of the Extension Service and the... Act of 1914 and the Hatch Act (as amended), August 11, 1955, the administration of the programs...

  10. 28 CFR 36.204 - Administrative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative methods. 36.204 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.204 Administrative methods... standards or criteria or methods of administration that have the effect of discriminating on the basis...

  11. Administrative processes in the enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Šišková, Barbora

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor thesis "Administrative processes in an enterprise" is focused on four selected processes. The main goal of this work is to propose solutions leading to efficiency improvement of the various processes. The proposed solution should contribute to simplifying of the implementation of selected processes, time and financial savings. The secondary aim is to evaluate the current implementation of the processes and create the theoretical basis of the problem. The work is divided into two par...

  12. Agritourism Rural Development Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria MORTAN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available For Romania agritourism development represents the opportunity to differentiate between the rural and urban environment, as well as the best way for the preservation of traditions and customs in the rural areas, supplying a sustainable rural development. This work portrays agritourism as an element of rural development and critically analyzes the way in which the public administration should become involved in sustaining rural development in general and in sustaining agritourism development in particular.

  13. Administration of punishment in school

    OpenAIRE

    Lalić Nataša Z.

    2003-01-01

    Giving consideration to punishment, one of the inevitable elements of school discipline, always reactivates the issue of punishment administration and its effects in school setting. Punishment is administered by a beforehand-determined intention, its general and final goal being the attempt to make a child change his/her behavior so as to more successfully take part in school life. The issue of how much it is justifiable to administer punishment, as a way of directing child’s behavior, is not...

  14. View from a regional administration

    OpenAIRE

    Onclincx, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    Note portant sur l’auteur INTRODUCTION The field of regional development is extremely extensive. Among all the subjects which could have been tackled, this paper presents just three which are directly linked to applied research: The organisation of information-gathering, i.e. requesting information. The organisation of what is supplied, i.e. producing documented data. Training data administrators. Some preliminary remarks: The Brussels-Capitale region is an institutional entity comprised of 1...

  15. Administrative Orientation and International Performance

    OpenAIRE

    William H Davidson

    1984-01-01

    A recent trend in international management research has been the development of contingency models that identify optimal planning and management modes for international business units, given key characteristics of the product, market, and industry. In practice, however, planning and management modes appear to be dictated not only by external market and industry conditions, but also by internal aspects of the firm’s administrative orientation. The intent of this paper is to examine how aspects...

  16. WordPress multisite administration

    CERN Document Server

    Longren, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    This is a simple, concise guide with a step-by-step approach, packed with screenshots and examples to set up and manage a network blog using WordPress.WordPress Multisite Administration is ideal for anyone wanting to familiarize themselves with WordPress Multisite. You'll need to know the basics about WordPress, and having at least a broad understanding of HTML, CSS, and PHP will help, but isn't required.

  17. Danish companies administration of telecommunications

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Martin; Ali, Ammar

    2014-01-01

    This project focuses on decision-making behavior within Danish companies in relation to the administration of their telecommunication. Surveys and industry-reports have found the telecommunication industry too complex and un-transparent, due to high competitiveness and convoluted product differentiation. According to several telecommunication-experts, Danish companies are missing out cost savings and quality improvements, which questions the rationality of neo-classical thinking. Therefore, w...

  18. The administrator's quest for quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A

    1988-01-01

    Times are tough and will become even tougher. Retrenchment issues will be foremost in many operational settings. Failure to understand baseline quality standards will make it extremely difficult to know where to cut and how to regroup without adversely affecting patient attitudes and service. Practice patterns are changing rapidly and the astute administrator needs to be prepared to participate freely in decisions affecting quality, service and costs.

  19. The administration of human services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenfeld, Y

    1985-05-01

    Human service programs have gone from a period of rapid growth in the 1960s and early 1970s to a period of retrenchment in the 1980s. The changing political and economic context has forced these programs to undergo major organizational transformations and to adopt different administrative strategies. These include degovernmentalization of social services, reliance on cutback management, and deprofessionalization of human-service workers. The article explores the implications of these developments on the delivery of services to the public.

  20. Discrete event simulation of administrative and medical processes: Diskretna dogodkovna simulacija administrativnih in medicinskih postopkov:

    OpenAIRE

    Accetto, Rok; Baggia, Alenka; Lazarevič, Zlatko; Leskovar, Robert; Požun, Peter; Goran VUKOVIČ

    2011-01-01

    Background: Medical processes are often obstructed by administrative ones. Themain issue in administrative processes is uneven workload resulting in an increased possibility of human errors. The system approach assures that medical and administrative processes are integrated. According to research reports and best practices, discrete event simulation is a proper method to implement the system approach. Methods: A detailed analysis of the administrative processes was performed using interviews...

  1. Medication administration errors for older people in long-term residential care

    OpenAIRE

    Szczepura Ala; Wild Deidre; Nelson Sara

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Older people in long-term residential care are at increased risk of medication prescribing and administration errors. The main aim of this study was to measure the incidence of medication administration errors in nursing and residential homes using a barcode medication administration (BCMA) system. Methods A prospective study was conducted in 13 care homes (9 residential and 4 nursing). Data on all medication administrations for a cohort of 345 older residents were recorde...

  2. 77 FR 20779 - Committee on Administration and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ...; ] ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES Committee on Administration and Management AGENCY: Administrative... public meeting of the Committee on Administration and Management of the Assembly of the Administrative... ``About,'' then on ``The Committees,'' and then on ``Committee on Administration and...

  3. ICT and Public Administration Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Dan ŞANDOR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of new ICTs brought a lot of new assumptions about radical changes in our society. In the context of the arrival of a new society, public administration was supposed to witness (and to address or implement changes at different levels, such as:• citizenship (citizens becoming participants in governance or even a shift to e-democracy;• the nature of public service jobs (in terms of skills, work processes and job design;• organizational changes (from a hierarchical to a more horizontal structure, to network or even virtual organizations; and• the entire government (from classic bureaucracy to New Public Management and to network and digital governance. Technological change cannot be judged outside the social, economic and political frameworks. The massive change in our society cannot be explained only by technological (especially ICT factors. Excluding other factors may help us predict easier (but not more accurately future evolutions but as a scientific effort it is a bad practice. Much of the assumptions about technological change came from hasty generalizations. The changing nature of some collective actions, jobs in certain areas of the economy or organizations were considered as optimal (and necessary paths for the entire society (from individual to national levels. Public administration reforms are far from being a consequence of new technologies. Moreover public administration reforms do not embed ICTs and do not have a happy marriage with e-government.

  4. Prophylactic Bacteriophage Administration More Effective than Post-infection Administration in Reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Shedding in Quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mosab; Karimi Torshizi, M. Amir; Rahimi, Shaban; Dennehy, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by Salmonella bacteria, often through poultry products, are a serious public health issue. Because of drawbacks associated with antibiotic prophylaxis, alternative treatments are sought. Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) may provide an effective alternative, but concerns remain with respect to bacteriophage stability and effectiveness. To this end, we assessed the stability of a novel bacteriophage isolated from poultry excreta, siphovirus PSE, and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we sought to determine how the timing (prophylactic or therapeutic) and route (oral gavage or vent lip) of PSE administration impacted its effectiveness. Here we report that significant quantities of viable PSE bacteriophages were recovered following exposure to high and low pH, high temperatures, and bile salts, testifying to its ability to survive extreme conditions. In addition, we found that ileal lactic acid bacteria and Streptococcus spp. counts increased, but colibacilli and total aerobe counts decreased, in quail receiving phage PSE through both oral gavage and vent lip routes. In other experiments, we assessed the efficiency of PSE administration, in both prophylactic and therapeutic contexts, via either oral gavage or vent lip administration, on S. Enteritidis colonization of quail cecal tonsils. Our results demonstrate that administration of PSE as a preventive agent could reduce the S. Enteritidis colonization more effectively than post-challenge administration. Furthermore, oral administration of PSE phage is a more effective prophylactic tool for reduction of S. Enteritidis shedding in poultry than is vent lip administration. PMID:27555842

  5. Prophylactic Bacteriophage Administration More Effective than Post-infection Administration in Reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Shedding in Quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mosab; Karimi Torshizi, M Amir; Rahimi, Shaban; Dennehy, John J

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by Salmonella bacteria, often through poultry products, are a serious public health issue. Because of drawbacks associated with antibiotic prophylaxis, alternative treatments are sought. Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) may provide an effective alternative, but concerns remain with respect to bacteriophage stability and effectiveness. To this end, we assessed the stability of a novel bacteriophage isolated from poultry excreta, siphovirus PSE, and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we sought to determine how the timing (prophylactic or therapeutic) and route (oral gavage or vent lip) of PSE administration impacted its effectiveness. Here we report that significant quantities of viable PSE bacteriophages were recovered following exposure to high and low pH, high temperatures, and bile salts, testifying to its ability to survive extreme conditions. In addition, we found that ileal lactic acid bacteria and Streptococcus spp. counts increased, but colibacilli and total aerobe counts decreased, in quail receiving phage PSE through both oral gavage and vent lip routes. In other experiments, we assessed the efficiency of PSE administration, in both prophylactic and therapeutic contexts, via either oral gavage or vent lip administration, on S. Enteritidis colonization of quail cecal tonsils. Our results demonstrate that administration of PSE as a preventive agent could reduce the S. Enteritidis colonization more effectively than post-challenge administration. Furthermore, oral administration of PSE phage is a more effective prophylactic tool for reduction of S. Enteritidis shedding in poultry than is vent lip administration. PMID:27555842

  6. Microsoft Windows Server Administration Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies you need to administer a Windows Server OS Administering a Windows operating system (OS) can be a difficult topic to grasp, particularly if you are new to the field of IT. This full-color resource serves as an approachable introduction to understanding how to install a server, the various roles of a server, and how server performance and maintenance impacts a network. With a special focus placed on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) certificate, the straightforward, easy-to-understand tone is ideal for anyone new to computer administration looking t

  7. Windows Vista Administrator's Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William R

    2007-01-01

    Portable and precise, this pocket-sized guide delivers immediate answers for the day-to-day administration of Windows Vista. Zero in on core support and maintenance tasks using quick-reference tables, instructions, and lists. You'll get the precise information you need to solve problems and get the job done-whether you're at your desk or in the field! Get fast facts to: Install and configure Windows Vista-and optimize the user workspaceMaintain operating system components, hardware devices, and driversCreate user and group accounts-and control rights and permissionsAdminister group policy se

  8. Optimization of administrative management costs

    OpenAIRE

    Podolchak, N.; Chepil, B.

    2015-01-01

    It is important to determine the optimal level of administrative costs in order to achieve main targets of any enterprise, to perform definite tasks, to implement these tasks and not to worsen condition and motivation of the workers. Also it is essential to remember about strategic goals in the area of HR on the long run. The refore, the main idea in using optimization model for assessing the effectiveness of management costs will be to find the minimum level of expenses within the given l...

  9. SolidWorks Administration Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Lombard, Matt

    2009-01-01

    What you need to prepare, install, and maintain SolidWorks. It's not enough to know how to use SolidWorks, if your job also requires you to install or maintain it, train new users, and implement standards. This in-depth guide was written for those of you who have to actually manage your company's SolidWorks system. From hardware selection to helping users to licensing and more, this is the everyday, bread-and-butter SolidWorks administration resource that IT and CAD managers have been seeking.:; SolidWorks is a powerful 3D solid modeling system that is popular with CAD users everywhere, but of

  10. TCP/IP Network Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Craig

    2002-01-01

    This complete guide to setting up and running a TCP/IP network is essential for network administrators, and invaluable for users of home systems that access the Internet. The book starts with the fundamentals -- what protocols do and how they work, how addresses and routing are used to move data through the network, how to set up your network connection -- and then covers, in detail, everything you need to know to exchange information via the Internet. Included are discussions on advanced routing protocols (RIPv2, OSPF, and BGP) and the gated software package that implements them, a tutorial

  11. Melatonin administration reduces inflammatory pain in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laste G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gabriela Laste,1–3 Isabel Cristina de Macedo,1,3 Joanna Ripoll Rozisky,1–3 Fernanda Ribeiro da Silva,1,3 Wolnei Caumo,1,2 Iraci LS Torres1–31Laboratório de Farmacologia da Dor, Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, 2Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina, Ciências Médicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 3Unidade de Experimentação Animal e Grupo de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, BrazilAbstract: In view of the broad range of effects attributed to melatonin, this study evaluated its analgesic effect on inflammatory pain induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA in Wistar rats. Inflammation was induced by intradermal CFA injection in the hind paw of all animals, which were then divided into two groups that received either 60 mg/kg of melatonin or vehicle (1% alcohol in saline, intraperitoneally, for three days. The analgesic effect of melatonin was assessed by the hot-plate test, immediately and thereafter at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after the first administration and 24 hours after once-daily administration for 2 more days. After CFA injection, melatonin administration increased withdrawal latency at 60 minutes after the first dose. After the end of treatment, melatonin showed a significant analgesic effect on inflammatory pain. This study paves the way for exploration of how brief courses of treatment could improve this analgesic effect in the late phases of inflammatory pain.Keywords: analgesic response, complete Freund's adjuvant, hot-plate test, inflammation, melatonin, nociception

  12. Increases in Problem Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Increases in Problem Drinking Join the Fight Against Superbugs Featured Website: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center ... Increases in Problem Drinking Join the Fight Against Superbugs Featured Website: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center ...

  13. [Heme oxygenase activity in rat organs during cadmium chloride administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strel'chenko, E V; Nikitchenko, I V; Kaliman, P A

    2002-01-01

    Heme oxygenase activity, the level of spontaneous and ascorbat-induced LPO in the liver, kidney and spleen homogenates of rats and blood serum absorption spectrum in the Soret region in different periods both after CdCl2 and prior alpha-tocopherol administration were studied. The increase in the hemolysis products content in the serum was observed in 15 min after CdCl2 injection and remained during 24 h. Heme oxygenase activity in the liver and kidney increased after 6 h and stayed at the same level 24 h after CdCl2 administration. The level of spontaneous LPO in the spleen increased after 6 h, and in the liver and kidney the level of spontaneous and ascorbat-induced LPO increased in 24 h after CdCl2 injection. The preliminary alpha-tocopherol administration did not prevent the accumulation of hemolysis products in the serum and the increase of heme oxygenase activity in the liver and kidney caused by CdCl2 administration. However, the increase in the ascorbat-induced LPO in these organs was completely blocked. The role of heme and LPO in the heme oxygenase induction by CdCl2 are discussed. PMID:12916165

  14. Effect of increased

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carreira , C.; Heldal, M.; Bratbak, G.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has increased since the pre-industrial period and is predicted to continue to increase throughout the twenty-first century. The ocean is a sink for atmospheric CO2 and increased CO2 concentration will change the carbonate equilibrium of seawater and result in lower c

  15. Up-regulated manganese superoxide dismutase expression increases apoptosis resistance in human esophageal squamous cell carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hai; WANG Ming-rong; LUO Man-li; DU Xiao-li; FENG Yan-bin; ZHANG Yu; SHEN Xiao-ming; XU Xin; CAI Yan; HAN Ya-ling

    2007-01-01

    Background Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world.In order to identify the proteins associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinomas(ESCC),we analyzed the protein profiles of ESCC cases with tumor and matched adjacent normal tissues.Methods Two-dimensional electrophoresis(2-DE)was carried out to analyze the protein profiles.Dysregulated protein spots were identified by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight(MALDI-TOF)and verified by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization ion trap-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry(LC-ESI-IT MS).RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray were performed to confirm the gene dysregulation in esophageal cancerous tissues.RNA interference (RNAi)was used to knock down the gene expression in ESCC cell lines.Apoptosis assay with annexin V-FITC/PI staining was conducted and cells were analyzed by flow cytometry.Results 2-DE showed that two protein spots with approximate molecular weights and different pl were elevated in 12 out of 18 ESCCs as compared to the corresponding normal tissues.Both the two spots were identified as MnSOD by MALDI-TOF and were verified by LC-ESI-IT MS.MnSOD overexpression was detected in 14 tumors out of 24 cases by RT-PCR and 52 tumors out of 116 cases by immunohistochemistry comparing to normal epithelia.siRNA-mediated silencing of MnSOD in KYSE450 and KYSE150 cell lines revealed that MnSOD protected ESCC cells from apoptosis induced by ultraviolet(UV)and doxorubicin(DOX).Conclusions These findings suggest that there existed two isoforms of MnSOD protein in normal and tumor esophageal tissues.MnSOD was overexpressed in ESCC and its up-regulation in esophageal cancer cells was associated with apoptosis resistance.

  16. SIS - Species and Stock Administrative Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Species and Stock Administrative data set within the Species Information System (SIS) defines entities within the database that serve as the basis for recording...

  17. Some Ethical-Moral Concerns in Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Frederick

    1981-01-01

    Presents and analyzes moral-ethical issues that arise in administration and concludes that past descriptive, objective, and scientific approaches to administration have failed to take full account of the moral-ethical dimension of human existence. (Author/WD)

  18. Wikipedia : ein Diktat der AdministratorInnen?

    OpenAIRE

    Auinger, Klemens

    2007-01-01

    Wikipedia: Dictatorship of the administrators? This text analyses a weak point of Wikipedia: the competence of the administrators. The article can be seen as a first approach towards the study of legitimacy and governance of the Wikipedia project.

  19. WWW - Administration and Government Exhibition LEPFest 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Governments communicate world-wide, even from tiny countries. Official information for immigrants or visitors is widely available. Cities construct digital equivalents of their administration for their citizens. CERN's administration is an example of a totally web-based service.

  20. 78 FR 25337 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance... Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance with the...

  1. 78 FR 13395 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... of October 23, 2012 (77 FR 64836) would require placement of fill on submerged lands jointly managed... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of Draft Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) Section 810 Subsistence Evaluation. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...

  2. 77 FR 64837 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 227, Standards of Navigation Performance AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... 15, 2012. Kathy Hitt, Management Analyst, Business Operations Group, Federal Aviation...

  3. 77 FR 25678 - International Trade Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders; Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998). The Notice of... International Trade Administration Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance Notification of Sunset Reviews AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...

  4. 78 FR 41183 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Meeting: RTCA Program Management Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Program Management.... Paige Williams, Management Analyst, NextGen, Business Operations Group, Federal Aviation...

  5. 48 CFR 3028.106 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration. 3028.106 Section 3028.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY... 3028.106 Administration....

  6. 76 FR 2745 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Eighty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special...

  7. The academic library administrator's field guide

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Bryce

    2014-01-01

    The daily administration of an academic library often leaves you needing quick advice on the topic at hand. Nelson, an experienced administrator writing from first-hand knowledge, delivers such advice in 30 topical chapters.

  8. 75 FR 31279 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Increase Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... disproportionately burdened. The Small Business Administration defines, in 13 CFR part 121, small agricultural... Business Administration. Most importers, first handlers, and exporters will not be classified as small... Spain, Germany, and Poland. Asian highbush blueberry production has increased during this...

  9. Software Architecture Patterns for System Administration Support

    OpenAIRE

    Bijvank, Ronald; Wiersema, Wiebe; Köppe, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Many quality aspects of software systems are addressed in the existing literature on software architecture patterns. But the aspect of system administration seems to be a bit overlooked, even though it is an important aspect too. In this work we present three software architecture patterns that, when applied by software architects, support the work of system administrators: PROVIDE AN ADMINISTRATION API, SINGLE FILE LOCATION, and CENTRALIZED SYSTEM LOGGING. PROVIDE AN ADMINISTRATION API shoul...

  10. From Colonial Administration to Development Management

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Bill

    2001-01-01

    This paper is about the field of development management (previously development administration) and its continuities with the processes of imperial rule known as colonial administration. Development administration/ management represents itself as a subset of public administration/ public sector management. However, this conceals its status as First World discourse about how the Third World should be managed. Moreover, while development management recognizes the continuity between itself and p...

  11. Career management perspective in public administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia-Olivia ILIES

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An innovative public organization must be capable to access, internalize and implement the newest forms of knowledge and capitalize efficiently and effectively the potential of human resources available to it. Economic, political, social, administrative, organizational changes in the context of the global crisis impose permanent efforts aimed to ensure flexibility and to redesign the public organizational architecture, adaptation of career management systems to new conditions. Public organisational entities make substantial efforts to increase the quality of public services, performances and their innovative capacity, using as much as possible the employers’ potential and talent. The paper explores the importance of the concept, role, objectives and management of career from both individual and public organizational perspective. We try to identify the career features and its innovative role in the knowledge-based economy during the crisis, considering the fact that public services have in fact the ultimate responsibility for managing their own careers.

  12. Forestry administration and policies in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Eric L.

    1983-11-01

    This article begins by summarizing the importance of the forestry sector in the Philippine economy It provides an overview of the multiplicity of Philippine governmental institutions involved in forestry in 1982 Then it discusses forestry laws in the country and concludes by examining fifteen critical forest policy issues: sustained yield management; area-specific logging bans; increased use of wood wastes; revision of forest charges; unprocessed log export ban; rationalization of the forest industry, acceleration of reforestation; protection of watersheds; recognition of the social dimensions of slash- and-burn agriculture; fuelwood supply; public land classification for forestry and agriculture, development of plantations for dendrothermal electricity; multiple-use management; preservation of mangrove areas, and improvements in administration and implementation.

  13. Administration Réseaux informatiques

    OpenAIRE

    LAHFA, NADIR

    2014-01-01

    L’administration réseau est en passe de devenir l’un des profils les plus demandés dans le monde du travail, car pas une société, organisme, banque, université, usine, ou autre ne peut plus se passer d’un réseau informatique reliant tous ses postes de travail, en vue de partager, collaborer, échanger et travailler en réseau, et surtout accéder à internet. Qui dit réseau, dit tous les services qu’il offre comme le mail, le web, le transfert de fichiers, la prise de commande à distance, la T...

  14. Case law and administrative decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About the case law we find four parts, one concerns France and the judgement of the council of state on an application for annulment of the decree of 10 january 2003 authorizing Cogema to modify a major nuclear installation, a second one is in relation with the Usa through the ruling in relation to the sale of uranium enrichment services in the united States, decision concerning the Yucca mountain repository, Indiana michigan power company v. United States, natural resources defense council, snake river alliance, confederated tribes and bands of the Yakama indian Nation, Shoshone Bannock Tribes v. Abraham. For the third part devoted to European union it is question of the judgement of the European Court of justice in European union v. UK, the fourth part concerns administrative decisions with the early shutdown of Barsebaeck-2 in Sweden. (N.C.)

  15. Public Administration reforms and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Helgi Kristinsson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on administrative reforms during the past thirty years indicates that reform efforts of countries differ. The Anglo Saxon states were at the forefront of the New Public Management movement while countries on mainland Europe were more hesitant and moved further towards the Neo-Weberian state. Academics have tried to explain different reform efforts within countries by looking at political, historical and cultural issues, values and economic factors to name just a few. Three hypotheses are put forward to explain reform efforts in different states. This research involves analysing the implementation of two different reform trends, New Public Management and the Neo-Weberian tradition. The analysis indicates that countries vary in their commitment to reform rather than in the emphasis on either New Public Management or the Neo-Weberian State. Decentralization, clear objectives and consultation with communities and experts are closely related to national reform efforts. However, Iceland does distinguish itself from Europe and the Nordic countries. The analysis reveals that although decentralization is high in the Icelandic system, autonomy of agencies does not have a strong relation to a varied use of administrative instruments. The second part of the article focuses on the results and achievements of reform programmes. The achievement of reform programmes are examined in relation to theories of bounded rationality, street level bureaucracy (bottom up and consensus decision making. Three hypotheses are presented and tested to explain what causes reforms programmes to be successful in some countries and not in others. The analysis reveals that countries are more likely to succeed if bounded rationality is applied with careful preparation and when stakeholders are consulted.

  16. 10 CFR 851.44 - Administrative appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative appeal. 851.44 Section 851.44 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Enforcement Process § 851.44 Administrative appeal. (a... calendar days from receipt of the final notice. (b) In order to exhaust administrative remedies...

  17. 5 CFR 179.307 - Administrative offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... administrative offset regulations, and the applicable provisions of 4 CFR part 102 with respect to providing the debtor with due process. (c) Request for offset from a Federal agency: When administrative offset is... administrative offset regulations and with the applicable provisions of 4 CFR part 102, including providing...

  18. Database Administration: Concepts, Tools, Experiences, and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong-Hong, Belkis; Marron, Beatrice

    The concepts of data base administration, the role of the data base administrator (DBA), and computer software tools useful in data base administration are described in order to assist data base technologists and managers. A study of DBA's in the Federal Government is detailed in terms of the functions they perform, the software tools they use,…

  19. Examining Academic and Administrative Productivity Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middaugh, Michael F.; Hollowell, David E.

    1992-01-01

    The "academic ratchet and administrative lattice" framework for examining costs and productivity in college administration is applied to the University of Delaware. The productivity of academic units is analyzed quantitatively and issues in overstaffing and overbudgeting of administrative units are discussed. Faculty staffing trends from 1984-85…

  20. 48 CFR 19.812 - Contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., unless the Administrator of the SBA waives the requirement for contract termination (13 CFR 124.515). The... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract administration... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting With the Small Business Administration (the...

  1. 48 CFR 619.812 - Contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract administration... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting with the Small Business Administration (The 8(a) Program) 619.812 Contract administration. (d) The head of the contracting activity is the agency head for...

  2. 48 CFR 2919.812 - Contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract administration... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS AND SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS CONCERNS Contracting with the Small Business Administration (The 8(a) Program) 2919.812 Contract administration. (a) Contracting officers, or designees,...

  3. 48 CFR 1319.812 - Contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract administration... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting With the Small Business Administration (the 8(a) Program) 1319.812 Contract administration. Awards under the Partnership Agreement are subject to 15 U.S.C....

  4. 7 CFR 1205.11 - Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.11 Administrator. The term Administrator means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, or any officer or employee of USDA to...

  5. 29 CFR 1903.21 - State administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State administration. 1903.21 Section 1903.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.21 State administration. Nothing in this part 1903...

  6. 7 CFR 550.33 - Administrative supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative supervision. 550.33 Section 550.33... Agreements Program Management § 550.33 Administrative supervision. REE employees are prohibited from engaging... management issues. The cooperator is solely responsible for the administrative supervision of its employees....

  7. 76 FR 72328 - Miscellaneous Administrative Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Part 1850 and 1852 RIN 2700-AD36 Miscellaneous Administrative Changes AGENCY... amends the NASA FAR Supplement (NFS) to make miscellaneous non-substantive administrative changes to be... Headquarters, 300 E Street SW., Office of Procurement, Contract Management Division, Washington, DC...

  8. ROMANIAN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION-FUTURE PROSPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Maria IVANESCU

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of the European Union triggered a distinctive opportunity for the integration and convergence of legal cultures among the EU Member States. However, the constant disparities between Member States does not necessary mean an overall administrative convergence. This paper will analyze the present and future relations between Romanian public administration and the EU administration systems.

  9. 30 CFR 775.11 - Administrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., assignment, or sale of permit rights shall be of record and governed by 5 U.S.C. 554 and 43 CFR part 4. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative review. 775.11 Section 775.11... ADMINISTRATIVE AND JUDICIAL REVIEW OF DECISIONS § 775.11 Administrative review. (a) General. Within 30 days...

  10. IVA. Improving Vocational Administration. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPD Consortium D, Richardson, TX.

    The Texas Improving Vocational Administration (IVA) project was conceived to improve preservice and inservice programs for vocational education administrators. Primary objectives were to (1) develop a method, including a survey, to determine existing inservice and preservice administrative training program competencies; (2) determine, using the…

  11. 48 CFR 243.204 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration. 243.204... OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT MODIFICATIONS Change Orders 243.204 Administration. Follow the procedures at PGI 243.204 for administration of change orders....

  12. 7 CFR 12.6 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 12.6 Section 12.6 Agriculture Office....6 Administration. (a) General. A determination of ineligibility for benefits in accordance with the... making such determinations, as provided in this section. (b) Administration by FSA. (1) The provisions...

  13. 10 CFR 725.24 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 725.24 Section 725.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA Permits § 725.24 Administration. With respect to each permit... designate a DOE or National Nuclear Security Administration office which will: (a) Process all...

  14. 7 CFR 227.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 227.3 Section 227.3 Agriculture... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM General § 227.3 Administration. (a) Within the Department, FNS shall act on behalf of the Department in the administration of the Program....

  15. 32 CFR 552.18 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Administration. 552.18 Section 552.18 National... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Post Commander § 552.18 Administration. (a) Purpose... economical operation, administration, service, and supply of all individuals, units, and activities...

  16. 50 CFR 401.1 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration. 401.1 Section 401.1... INTERIOR AND NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.1 Administration. The Director of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and...

  17. 7 CFR 70.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 70.3 Section 70.3 Agriculture... PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products General § 70.3 Administration... Secretary may require in the enforcement or administration of the provisions of the Act and the...

  18. 7 CFR 633.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 633.3 Section 633.3 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.3 Administration. (a) The regulations in this part... administration and related policy matters. No determination by the State Technical Committee shall compel...

  19. 7 CFR 235.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... programs in accordance with the applicable requirements of this part, 7 CFR parts 210, 215, 220, 225, 226... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 235.3 Section 235.3 Agriculture... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS STATE ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSE FUNDS § 235.3 Administration. (a) Within...

  20. 20 CFR 416.105 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administration. 416.105 Section 416.105 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Introduction, General Provisions and Definitions § 416.105 Administration. The...

  1. 33 CFR 5.07 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administration. 5.07 Section 5.07... § 5.07 Administration. Any authority vested in the Commandant by this part may be delegated by him to... appropriate for the functioning, organization, and internal administration of the Auxiliary....

  2. 7 CFR 1467.2 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 1467.2 Section 1467.2 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.2 Administration. (a) The... organizations in program administration. No determination by these agencies or organizations shall compel...

  3. 20 CFR 628.310 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administration. 628.310 Section 628.310 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE II OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT State Programs § 628.310 Administration. Funds provided to...

  4. 7 CFR 652.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 652.3 Section 652.3 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES TECHNICAL SERVICE PROVIDER ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 652.3 Administration... requirements of this part. (b) The Chief, NRCS, will direct and supervise the administration of the...

  5. 7 CFR 634.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 634.3 Section 634.3 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM General § 634.3 Administration. At the national.... The Secretary of Agiculture has delegated responsibility for administration of the program (43 FR...

  6. 7 CFR 250.2 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 250.2 Section 250.2 Agriculture... TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS AND AREAS UNDER ITS JURISDICTION General § 250.2 Administration. (a) Delegation to FNS. Within the Department, FNS shall act on behalf of the Department in the administration of...

  7. 7 CFR 251.2 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 251.2 Section 251.2 Agriculture... Administration. (a) Food and Nutrition Service. Within the United States Department of Agriculture (the... this section, any information on changes in program administration, including any changes...

  8. 7 CFR 57.10 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 57.10 Section 57.10 Agriculture... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs General § 57.10 Administration. The... require in the enforcement or administration of the provisions of the act and the regulations in this...

  9. 4 CFR 83.2 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 83.2 Section 83.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PRIVACY PROCEDURES FOR PERSONNEL RECORDS § 83.2 Administration. The administration of this part is the duty and responsibility of the Director, Personnel, U.S....

  10. 7 CFR 631.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 631.3 Section 631.3 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 631.3 Administration. (a) NRCS is responsible for the administration of the Great Plains Conservation Program (GPCP)....

  11. 7 CFR 1465.2 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 1465.2 Section 1465.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 1465.2 Administration. (a) Administration and implementation of AMA's conservation provisions for...

  12. 7 CFR 210.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 210.3 Section 210.3 Agriculture... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NATIONAL SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM General § 210.3 Administration. (a) FNS. FNS will act on behalf of the Department in the administration of the Program. Within FNS, the CND will...

  13. 7 CFR 281.2 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 281.2 Section 281.2 Agriculture... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION OF THE FOOD STAMP PROGRAM ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 281.2 Administration. (a) Qualification. (1) The appropriate ITO of an established...

  14. 78 FR 25524 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to Release Airport Property..., Airports Compliance Specialist, Federal Aviation Administration, Airports Division, ACE- 610C, 901...

  15. 11 CFR 9007.7 - Administrative record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... administrative record for final determinations under 11 CFR 9004.9 and 9005.1, and for repayment determinations... the administrative record by submitting them within the time periods set forth at 11 CFR 9004.9(f)(2... administrative record for determinations under 11 CFR 9004.9, 9005.1 and 9007.2 does not include: (1)...

  16. Increasing SLEDed Linac Gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Zoltan D

    2001-11-08

    This note will show how to increase the SLED [1] gradient by varying Q{sub e}, the external Q of the SLED cavity, by increasing its Q{sub 0} and by increasing the compression ratio. If varying the external Q is to be effective, then the copper losses should be small so that Q{sub 0} >> Q{sub e}. Methods of varying Q{sub e} will be indicated but no experimental data will be presented. If we increase the klystron pulse width from 3.5 to 5 {micro}S and increase Q{sub 0} from the present 100000 to 300000, then the gradient increases by 19% and the beam energy increases from 50 to 60 GeV. This note will also discuss SLED operation at 11424 MHz, the NLC frequency. Without Q{sub e} switching, using SLED at 11424 MHz increases the SLAC gradient from 21 MV/m to 34 MV/m, and at the same repetition rate, uses about 1/5 of rf average power. If we also double the compression ratio, we reach 47 MV/m and over 100 GeV beam energy.

  17. Power Subscription Strategy: Administrator`s Record of Decision.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1998-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to adopt a Power Subscription Strategy for entering into new power sales contracts with its Pacific Northwest customers. The Strategy equitably distributes the electric power generated by the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) within the framework of existing law. The Power Subscription Strategy addresses the availability of power; describes power products; lays out strategies for pricing, including risk management; and discusses contract elements. In proceeding with this Subscription Strategy, BPA is guided by and committed to the Fish and Wildlife funding Principles for the BPA announced by the Vice President of the US in September 1998. This Record of Decision (ROD) addresses the issues raised by commenters who responded to BPA`s Power Subscription Strategy Proposal during and after the comment period that began with the release of the Proposal on September 18, 1998. The ROD is organized in approximately the same way as the Proposal and the Power Subscription Strategy that BPA developed based on the comments received. Abbreviations of party names used in citations appear in the section just preceding this introduction; a list of all the commenters follows the text of the ROD.

  18. Increased accuracy in heparin and protamine administration decreases bleeding: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runge, Marx; Møller, Christian H; Steinbrüchel, Daniel A

    2009-01-01

    Three to 5 percent of the patients undergoing cardiac surgery are reoperated because of bleeding. When a surgical cause can be excluded, heparin/protamine mismatch may be considered. Insufficient reversal of heparin and overdosing of protamine may cause postoperative bleeding. The purpose...... of the study was to evaluate whether a heparin-protamine titration system, Hemochron RxDx, could reduce postoperative bleeding and blood transfusion. Fifty-three patients were included prospectively over a 6-month period. The test group (RxDx group; 28 patients) received heparin and protamine doses calculated...... using the Hemochron RxDx system, which performs a baseline activated clotting time (ACT) value together with a heparin response test. An accurate heparin dose was calculated based on the Bull dose/response curve. Protamine doses were calculated by the same method. In the control group (25 patients...

  19. Increased oxytocin concentrations and prosocial feelings in humans after ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, G J H; Sweep, F C G J; van der Steen, R; Hermsen, R; Donders, A R T; Touw, D J; van Gerven, J M A; Buitelaar, J K; Verkes, R J

    2009-01-01

    MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or "ecstasy") is a recreationally used drug with remarkable and characteristic prosocial effects. In spite of abundant attention in the scientific literature, the mechanism of its prosocial effects has not been elucidated in humans. Recently, research in anima

  20. The Incidence of Necrotizing Enterocolitis Is Increased Following Probiotic Administration to Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Thymann, Thomas; Boye, Mette;

    2011-01-01

    enzyme activities, and gut barrier function were lower in the ProDead group compared with the other groups (P gut colonization, except that live probiotics......Preterm birth and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with inappropriate gut colonization and immunity, which may be improved by probiotic bacteria. Using a preterm pig model of NEC, we investigated the effects of probiotics on intestinal structure, function, microbiology, and immunology...... immature gut immune system and low NEC incidence in the control group. It remains to be determined whether similar adverse responses to probiotics occur in preterm infants...

  1. Prolonged administration of recombinant human erythropoietin increases submaximal performance more than maximal aerobic capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, J J; Rentsch, R L; Robach, P;

    2007-01-01

    The effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) treatment on aerobic power (VO2max) are well documented, but little is known about the effects of rHuEpo on submaximal exercise performance. The present study investigated the effect on performance (ergometer cycling, 20-30 min at 80% of...

  2. Topical Administration of Pirfenidone Increases Healing of Chronic Diabetic Foot Ulcers: A Randomized Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Janka-Zires

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Only 30 percent of chronic diabetic foot ulcers heal after 20 weeks of standard treatment. Pirfenidone is a drug with biological, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical pirfenidone added to conventional treatment in noninfected chronic diabetic foot ulcers. This was a randomized crossover study. Group 1 received topical pirfenidone plus conventional treatment for 8 weeks; after this period, they were switched to receive conventional treatment only for 8 more weeks. In group 2, the order of the treatments was the opposite. The end points were complete ulcer healing and size reduction. Final data were obtained from 35 ulcers in 24 patients. Fifty-two percent of ulcers treated with pirfenidone healed before 8 weeks versus 14.3% treated with conventional treatment only (P=0.025. Between 8 and 16 weeks, 30.8% ulcers that received pirfenidone healed versus 0% with conventional treatment (P=0.081. By week 8, the reduction in ulcer size was 100% [73–100] with pirfenidone versus 57.5% with conventional treatment [28.9–74] (P=0.011. By week 16, the reduction was 93% [42.7–100] with pirfenidone and 21.8% [8–77.5] with conventional treatment (P=0.050. The addition of topical pirfenidone to conventional treatment significantly improves the healing of chronic diabetic noninfected foot ulcers.

  3. Increased Protection against Pneumococcal Disease by Mucosal Administration of Conjugate Vaccine plus Interleukin-12

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Joyce M.; Briles, David E.; Metzger, Dennis W.

    2003-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of respiratory tract infections, its main entry route being the nasal mucosa. The recent development of pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines has led to a dramatic improvement in protection against invasive disease in infants and children, but these vaccines have been found to be only 50 to 60% protective against bacterial carriage. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of intranasal (i.n.) conjugate vaccine delivery using interleukin-...

  4. Intra-operative colloid administration increases the clearance of a post-operative fluid load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Tine; Hahn, Robert; Holte, K;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether an intra-operative colloid infusion alters the dynamics of a crystalloid load administered post-operatively. METHODS: Ten patients received 12.5 ml/kg of Ringer's lactate over 30 min 1-3 days before and 4 h after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, during which 10 ml....../kg of a colloid solution, hydroxyethylstarch (HES 130/0.4), was infused. The total body clearance of the pre- and post-operative test infusions was taken as the ratio between the urinary excretion and the Hb-derived dilution of venous plasma over 150 min. The plasma clearance of the infused fluid was calculated...... using volume kinetics based on the plasma dilution alone. The pre-operative plasma clearance was compared with the post-operative plasma clearance and patients served as their own control. RESULTS: The urinary excretion averaged 350 ml for the pre-operative infusion and 612 ml post-operatively, which...

  5. Chronic Ritalin Administration during Adulthood Increases Serotonin Pool in Rat Medial Frontal Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Daniali, Samira; Nahavandi, Arezo; Madjd, Zahra; Shahbazi, Ali; Niknazar, Somayeh; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ritalin has high tendency to be abused. It has been the main indication to control attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The college students may seek for it to improve their memory, decrease the need for sleep (especially during exams), which at least partially, can be related to serotonergic system. Therefore, it seems worthy to evaluate the effect of Ritalin intake on mature brain. There are many studies on Ritalin effect on developing brain, but only few studies on adults ...

  6. The Incidence of Necrotizing Enterocolitis Is Increased Following Probiotic Administration to Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Thymann, Thomas; Siggers, Richard;

    2011-01-01

    in the immediate postnatal period. Just after birth, caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were inoculated with Lactobacillus paracasei, Bifidobacteria animalis, and Streptococcus thermophilus (total 2.4 x 1010/d) either as live (ProLive, n = 14) or gamma-irradiated dead bacteria (ProDead, n = 12) and compared......Preterm birth and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with inappropriate gut colonization and immunity, which may be improved by probiotic bacteria. Using a preterm pig model of NEC, we investigated the effects of probiotics on intestinal structure, function, microbiology, and immunology...

  7. Insufficient insulin administration to diabetic rats increases substrate utilization and maintains lactate production in the kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Lipsø, Hans Kasper Wigh; Østergaard, Jakob Appel; Nørregaard, Rikke; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Pedersen, Michael; Palm, Fredrik; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Good glycemic control is crucial to prevent the onset and progression of late diabetic complications, but insulin treatment often fails to achieve normalization of glycemic control to the level seen in healthy controls. In fact, recent experimental studies indicate that insufficient treatment with insulin, resulting in poor glycemic control, has an additional effect on progression of late diabetic complications, than poor glycemic control on its own. We therefore compared renal metab...

  8. Increased cocaine self-administration in M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lene Sørensen; Thomsen, Morgane; Weikop, Pia;

    2011-01-01

    Rationale The reinforcing effects of cocaine are mediated by the mesolimbic dopamine system. Behavioral and neurochemical studies have shown that the cholinergic muscarinic M4 receptor subtype plays an important role in regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Objectives Here we investigated...

  9. Acute hypothalamic administration of L-arginine increases feed intake in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Ricardo Maneck Malfatti; Luiz Augusto da Silva; Ricardo Aparecido Pereira; Renan Garcia Michel; André Luiz Snak; Fabio Seidel dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the chronic (oral) and acute (hypothalamic infusion) effects of L-arginine supplementation on feed intake, body composition, and behavioral changes in rats. Methods: Twenty rats were divided into two groups treated orally for 60 days; one group received L-arginine (1 g/kg body weight) and one group received saline (1 mL/NaCl ...

  10. Antibody administration in experimental influenza increases survival and enhances the effect of oseltamivir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pourroy, Brit Naldahl; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Kolmos, Hans Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Anti-viral chemotherapy plays an important part in treating and preventing influenza illness. However, its effectiveness in severe infections can be debated and a reoccurring problem is the emergence of resistant virus. Passive immunisation has for a long time been and is still used for prophylax...

  11. Busulfan administration flexibility increases the applicability of scid repopulating cell assay in NSG mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Chevaleyre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Xenotransplantation models allowing the identification and quantification of human Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC in immunodeficient mice remain the only way to appropriately address human HSC function despite the recent progress in phenotypic characterization. However, these in vivo experiments are technically demanding, time consuming and expensive. Indeed, HSCs engraftment in mouse requires pre-conditioning of animals either by irradiation or cytotoxic drugs to allow homing of injected cells in specific stem cell niches and their subsequent expansion and differentiation in bone marrow. Recently, the development of busulfan pre-conditioning of animals improved the flexibility of experimentation in comparison with irradiation. DESIGN AND METHODS: In order to further facilitate the organization of these complex experiments we investigated the effect of extending the period between mice pre-conditioning and cell injection on the engraftment efficiency. In the meantime, we also explored the role of busulfan doses, mouse gender and intravenous injection route (caudal or retro orbital on engraftment efficiency. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We showed that a period of up to 7 days did not modify engraftment efficiency of human HSCs in NSG model. Moreover, retro orbital cell injection to female mice pre-conditioned with 2x25 mg/kg of busulfan seems to be the best adapted schema to detect the human HSC in xenotransplantation experiments.

  12. Topical Administration of Pirfenidone Increases Healing of Chronic Diabetic Foot Ulcers: A Randomized Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janka-Zires, Marcela; Uribe-Wiechers, Ana Cecilia; Juárez-Comboni, Sonia Citlali; López-Gutiérrez, Joel; Escobar-Jiménez, Jarod Jazek; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Only 30 percent of chronic diabetic foot ulcers heal after 20 weeks of standard treatment. Pirfenidone is a drug with biological, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical pirfenidone added to conventional treatment in noninfected chronic diabetic foot ulcers. This was a randomized crossover study. Group 1 received topical pirfenidone plus conventional treatment for 8 weeks; after this period, they were switched to receive conventional treatment only for 8 more weeks. In group 2, the order of the treatments was the opposite. The end points were complete ulcer healing and size reduction. Final data were obtained from 35 ulcers in 24 patients. Fifty-two percent of ulcers treated with pirfenidone healed before 8 weeks versus 14.3% treated with conventional treatment only (P = 0.025). Between 8 and 16 weeks, 30.8% ulcers that received pirfenidone healed versus 0% with conventional treatment (P = 0.081). By week 8, the reduction in ulcer size was 100% [73–100] with pirfenidone versus 57.5% with conventional treatment [28.9–74] (P = 0.011). By week 16, the reduction was 93% [42.7–100] with pirfenidone and 21.8% [8–77.5] with conventional treatment (P = 0.050). The addition of topical pirfenidone to conventional treatment significantly improves the healing of chronic diabetic noninfected foot ulcers. PMID:27478849

  13. Replacement-ready? Succession planning tops health care administrators' priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husting, P M; Alderman, M

    2001-09-01

    Nurses' increasing age coupled with health care's rapidly changing environment moves succession planning, originally only a business sector tool, to a top administrative priority. Through active support of your facility's executive leadership and a clear linkage to long range organization objectives, you can implement this progressive procedure.

  14. ARESEARCH ON CORPORATE SOCIALRESPONSIBILITY PERCEPTIONS OFFACULTYOFECONOMICS AND ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCES STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Inan Ozalp; Zumrut Tonus; Muammer Sarikaya

    2008-01-01

    Importance of social responsibility in businesses success increases day by day.. Social responsibilities perception of Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences students as prospective stakeholders like business owners, shareholders, managers, accountants, marketing expert, or customers, will be essential in the settlement of responsibility consciousness in business world. Existing research shows that students reach social responsibility awareness through issues and discussions in unde...

  15. Enhancing Effective Administration at Faculty Level through Shared Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afful, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    We live in the world of knowledge, and knowledge keeps increasing in shape and complexity. As a result, no single individual has the repository of knowledge required to effectively manage an organisation all alone to affect organisational performance positively. This explains why administration is explained as doing things through the efforts of…

  16. Public Administration Teaching and Interdisciplinarity: Considering the Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waldt, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Public administration is a highly diverse and evolving field of scientific inquiry. The study domain is characterised further by often-competing paradigmatic perspectives and seemingly endless teaching modalities. There seems to be an increasing realisation that answers to complex societal challenges cannot be solved within the knowledge…

  17. 31 CFR 901.9 - Interest, penalties, and administrative costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and loan guaranties. The cost of living adjustment is the percentage by which the Consumer Price Index for the month of June of the calendar year preceding the adjustment exceeds the Consumer Price Index.... Increases to administrative debts shall be computed annually. Agencies should use this alternative only...

  18. 10 CFR 1015.212 - Interest, penalties and administrative costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... percentage by which the Consumer Price Index for the month of June of the calendar year preceding the adjustment exceeds the Consumer Price Index for the month of June of the calendar year in which the debt was determined or last adjusted. Increases to administrative debts shall be computed annually. DOE will use...

  19. Expert Oracle database 11g administration

    CERN Document Server

    Alapati, Sam R

    2008-01-01

    Sam Alapati s Expert Oracle Database 11g Administration is a comprehensive handbook for Oracle database administrators (DBAs) using the latest release of the Oracle Database (Oracle Database 11g). All key aspects of database administration are covered, including backup and recovery, day to day administration and monitoring, performance tuning, and more. This is the one book to have on your desk as a continual reference. Refer to it frequently. It ll help you get the job done. * Comprehensive handbook for Oracle DBAs. Covers all major aspects of database administration. * Tests and explains in detail key DBA commands. * Offers primers on Linux/Unix, data modeling, SQL, and PL/SQL.

  20. Motivating administrative acts - doctrinal and jurisprudential issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Cristian APOSTOLACHE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article approaches the topic of administrative acts motivation, analyzed from the doctrinal and jurisprudential perspective. If at first, motivation was considered merely a formal condition of the administrative act, as a result of the national and European, doctrinal and jurisprudential evolution, motivation is now regarded as one of the most important conditions of validity for the administrative act. Motivating administrative acts represents also a manifestation of the right to information, sealed by the Romanian Constitution, and a dimension of the right to a good administration, as stipulated in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.