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Sample records for administration increases mnsod

  1. AMP-activated protein kinase controls exercise training- and AICAR-induced increases in SIRT3 and MnSOD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandauer, Josef; Andersen, Marianne A; Kellezi, Holti; Risis, Steve; Frøsig, Christian; Vienberg, Sara G; Treebak, Jonas Thue

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial protein deacetylase sirtuin (SIRT) 3 may mediate exercise training-induced increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and improvements in reactive oxygen species (ROS) handling. We determined the requirement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) for exercise training-induced increases...... in skeletal muscle abundance of SIRT3 and other mitochondrial proteins. Exercise training for 6.5 weeks increased SIRT3 (p < 0.01) and superoxide dismutase 2 (MnSOD; p < 0.05) protein abundance in quadriceps muscle of wild-type (WT; n = 13-15), but not AMPK α2 kinase dead (KD; n = 12-13) mice. We......-carboxamide (AICAR). Four weeks of daily AICAR injections (500 mg/kg) resulted in AMPK-dependent increases in SIRT3 (p < 0.05) and MnSOD (p < 0.01) in WT, but not AMPK α2 KD mice. We also tested the effect of repeated AICAR treatment on mitochondrial protein levels in mice lacking the transcriptional...

  2. Proton pump inhibitors suppress iNOS-dependent DNA damage in Barrett’s esophagus by increasing Mn-SOD expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Inflammation by Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is a risk factor of its adenocarcinoma (BEA). ► 8-Nitroguanine and 8-oxodG are inflammation-related DNA lesions. ► DNA lesions and iNOS expression were higher in the order, BEA > BE > normal tissues. ► Proton pump inhibitors suppress DNA damage by increasing Mn-SOD via Nrf2 activation. ► DNA lesions can be useful biomarkers to predict risk of BEA in BE patients. -- Abstract: Barrett’s esophagus (BE), an inflammatory disease, is a risk factor for Barrett’s esophageal adenocarcinoma (BEA). Treatment of BE patients with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is expected to reduce the risk of BEA. We performed an immunohistochemical study to examine the formation of nitrative and oxidative DNA lesions, 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxygaunosine (8-oxodG), in normal esophageal, BE with pre- and post-treatment by PPIs and BEA tissues. We also observed the expression of an oxidant-generating enzyme (iNOS) and its transcription factor NF-κB, an antioxidant enzyme (Mn-SOD), its transcription factor (Nrf2) and an Nrf2 inhibitor (Keap1). The immunoreactivity of DNA lesions was significantly higher in the order of BEA > BE > normal tissues. iNOS expression was significantly higher in the order of BEA > BE > normal tissues, while Mn-SOD expression was significantly lower in the order of BEA < BE < normal tissues. Interestingly, Mn-SOD expression and the nuclear localization of Nrf2 were significantly increased, and the formation of DNA lesions was significantly decreased in BE tissues after PPIs treatment for 3–6 months. Keap1 and iNOS expression was not significantly changed by the PPIs treatment in BE tissues. These results indicate that 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG play a role in BE-derived BEA. Additionally, PPIs treatment may trigger the activation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2 resulting in the expression of antioxidant genes, leading to DNA damage suppression. These DNA lesions can be useful

  3. Proton pump inhibitors suppress iNOS-dependent DNA damage in Barrett's esophagus by increasing Mn-SOD expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanan, Raynoo [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie 513-8670 (Japan); Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Ma, Ning [Faculty of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie 513-0293 (Japan); Iijima, Katsunori; Abe, Yasuhiko; Koike, Tomoyuki; Shimosegawa, Tooru [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Miyaki 980-8574 (Japan); Pinlaor, Somchai [Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Hiraku, Yusuke; Oikawa, Shinji; Murata, Mariko [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Kawanishi, Shosuke, E-mail: kawanisi@suzuka-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie 513-8670 (Japan)

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inflammation by Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a risk factor of its adenocarcinoma (BEA). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 8-Nitroguanine and 8-oxodG are inflammation-related DNA lesions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA lesions and iNOS expression were higher in the order, BEA > BE > normal tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proton pump inhibitors suppress DNA damage by increasing Mn-SOD via Nrf2 activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA lesions can be useful biomarkers to predict risk of BEA in BE patients. -- Abstract: Barrett's esophagus (BE), an inflammatory disease, is a risk factor for Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma (BEA). Treatment of BE patients with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is expected to reduce the risk of BEA. We performed an immunohistochemical study to examine the formation of nitrative and oxidative DNA lesions, 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 Prime -deoxygaunosine (8-oxodG), in normal esophageal, BE with pre- and post-treatment by PPIs and BEA tissues. We also observed the expression of an oxidant-generating enzyme (iNOS) and its transcription factor NF-{kappa}B, an antioxidant enzyme (Mn-SOD), its transcription factor (Nrf2) and an Nrf2 inhibitor (Keap1). The immunoreactivity of DNA lesions was significantly higher in the order of BEA > BE > normal tissues. iNOS expression was significantly higher in the order of BEA > BE > normal tissues, while Mn-SOD expression was significantly lower in the order of BEA < BE < normal tissues. Interestingly, Mn-SOD expression and the nuclear localization of Nrf2 were significantly increased, and the formation of DNA lesions was significantly decreased in BE tissues after PPIs treatment for 3-6 months. Keap1 and iNOS expression was not significantly changed by the PPIs treatment in BE tissues. These results indicate that 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG play a role in BE-derived BEA. Additionally, PPIs treatment may trigger the activation and

  4. Peroxynitrite induced mitochondrial biogenesis following MnSOD knockdown in normal rat kidney (NRK cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Marine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide is widely regarded as the primary reactive oxygen species (ROS which initiates downstream oxidative stress. Increased oxidative stress contributes, in part, to many disease conditions such as cancer, atherosclerosis, ischemia/reperfusion, diabetes, aging, and neurodegeneration. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide into hydrogen peroxide which can then be further detoxified by other antioxidant enzymes. MnSOD is critical in maintaining the normal function of mitochondria, thus its inactivation is thought to lead to compromised mitochondria. Previously, our laboratory observed increased mitochondrial biogenesis in a novel kidney-specific MnSOD knockout mouse. The current study used transient siRNA mediated MnSOD knockdown of normal rat kidney (NRK cells as the in vitro model, and confirmed functional mitochondrial biogenesis evidenced by increased PGC1α expression, mitochondrial DNA copy numbers and integrity, electron transport chain protein CORE II, mitochondrial mass, oxygen consumption rate, and overall ATP production. Further mechanistic studies using mitoquinone (MitoQ, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant and L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor demonstrated that peroxynitrite (at low micromolar levels induced mitochondrial biogenesis. These findings provide the first evidence that low levels of peroxynitrite can initiate a protective signaling cascade involving mitochondrial biogenesis which may help to restore mitochondrial function following transient MnSOD inactivation.

  5. Age-Related Hearing Loss in Mn-SOD Heterozygous Knockout Mice

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    Makoto Kinoshita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related hearing loss (AHL reduces the quality of life for many elderly individuals. Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD, one of the antioxidant enzymes acting within the mitochondria, plays a crucial role in scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS. To determine whether reduction in Mn-SOD accelerates AHL, we evaluated auditory function in Mn-SOD heterozygous knockout (HET mice and their littermate wild-type (WT C57BL/6 mice by means of auditory brainstem response (ABR. Mean ABR thresholds were significantly increased at 16 months when compared to those at 4 months in both WT and HET mice, but they did not significantly differ between them at either age. The extent of hair cell loss, spiral ganglion cell density, and thickness of the stria vascularis also did not differ between WT and HET mice at either age. At 16 months, immunoreactivity of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was significantly greater in the SGC and SV in HET mice compared to WT mice, but that of 4-hydroxynonenal did not differ between them. These findings suggest that, although decrease of Mn-SOD by half may increase oxidative stress in the cochlea to some extent, it may not be sufficient to accelerate age-related cochlear damage under physiological aging process.

  6. Barley beta-glucan promotes MnSOD expression and enhances angiogenesis under oxidative microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Silvia; Chiavacci, Elena; Matteucci, Marco; Torelli, Michele; Pitto, Letizia; Lionetti, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), a foremost antioxidant enzyme, plays a key role in angiogenesis. Barley-derived (1.3) β-d-glucan (β-d-glucan) is a natural water-soluble polysaccharide with antioxidant properties. To explore the effects of β-d-glucan on MnSOD-related angiogenesis under oxidative stress, we tested epigenetic mechanisms underlying modulation of MnSOD level in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Long-term treatment of HUVECs with 3% w/v β-d-glucan significantly increased the level of MnSOD by 200% ± 2% compared to control and by 50% ± 4% compared to untreated H2O2-stressed cells. β-d-glucan-treated HUVECs displayed greater angiogenic ability. In vivo, 24 hrs-treatment with 3% w/v β-d-glucan rescued vasculogenesis in Tg (kdrl: EGFP) s843Tg zebrafish embryos exposed to oxidative microenvironment. HUVECs overexpressing MnSOD demonstrated an increased activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), reduced load of superoxide anion (O2−) and an increased survival under oxidative stress. In addition, β-d-glucan prevented the rise of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)1-α under oxidative stress. The level of histone H4 acetylation was significantly increased by β-d-glucan. Increasing histone acetylation by sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of class I histone deacetylases (HDACs I), did not activate MnSOD-related angiogenesis and did not impair β-d-glucan effects. In conclusion, 3% w/v β-d-glucan activates endothelial expression of MnSOD independent of histone acetylation level, thereby leading to adequate removal of O2−, cell survival and angiogenic response to oxidative stress. The identification of dietary β-d-glucan as activator of MnSOD-related angiogenesis might lead to the development of nutritional approaches for the prevention of ischemic remodelling and heart failure. PMID:25388628

  7. A Comparison of Two Yeast MnSODs: Mitochondrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae versus Cytosolic Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human MnSOD is significantly more product-inhibited than bacterial MnSODs at high concentrations of superoxide (O2-). This behavior limits the amount of H2O2 produced at high [O2-]; its desirability can be explained by the multiple roles of H2O2 in mammalian cells, particularly its role in signaling. To investigate the mechanism of product inhibition in MnSOD, two yeast MnSODs, one from Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria (ScMnSOD) and the other from Candida albicans cytosol (CaMnSODc), were isolated and characterized. ScMnSOD and CaMnSODc are similar in catalytic kinetics, spectroscopy, and redox chemistry, and they both rest predominantly in the reduced state (unlike most other MnSODs). At high [O2-], the dismutation efficiencies of the yeast MnSODs surpass those of human and bacterial MnSODs, due to very low level of product inhibition. Optical and parallel-mode electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra suggest the presence of two Mn3+ species in yeast Mn3+SODs, including the well-characterized 5-coordinate Mn3+ species and a 6-coordinate L-Mn3+ species with hydroxide as the putative sixth ligand (L). The first and second coordination spheres of ScMnSOD are more similar to bacterial than to human MnSOD. Gln154, an H-bond donor to the Mn-coordinated solvent molecule, is slightly further away from Mn in yeast MnSODs, which may result in their unusual resting state. Mechanistically, the high efficiency of yeast MnSODs could be ascribed to putative translocation of an outer-sphere solvent molecule, which could destabilize the inhibited complex and enhance proton transfer from protein to peroxide. Our studies on yeast MnSODs indicate the unique nature of human MnSOD in that it predominantly undergoes the inhibited pathway at high [O2-].

  8. The Functional Role of MnSOD as a Biomarker of Human Diseases and Therapeutic Potential of a New Isoform of a Human Recombinant MnSOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Borrelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are generated as a consequence of metabolic reactions in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. This work describes the role of the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD as a biomarker of different human diseases and proposes a new therapeutic application for the prevention of cancer and its treatment. The paper also describes how a new form of human MnSOD was discovered, its initial application, and its clinical potentials. The MnSOD isolated from a human liposarcoma cell line (LSA was able to kill cancer cells expressing estrogen receptors, but it did not have cytotoxic effects on normal cells. Together with its oncotoxic activity, the recombinant MnSOD (rMnSOD exerts a radioprotective effect on normal cells irradiated with X-rays. The rMnSOD is characterized by the presence of a leader peptide, which allows the protein to enter cells: this unique property can be used in the radiodiagnosis of cancer or chemotherapy, conjugating radioactive substances or chemotherapic drugs to the leader peptide of the MnSOD. Compared to traditional chemotherapic agents, the drugs conjugated with the leader peptide of MnSOD can selectively reach and enter cancer cells, thus reducing the side effects of traditional treatments.

  9. A manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) from ark shell, Scapharca broughtonii: Molecular characterization, expression and immune activity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Libing; Wu, Biao; Liu, Zhihong; Tian, Jiteng; Yu, Tao; Zhou, Liqing; Sun, Xiujun; Yang, Aiguo

    2015-08-01

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is one of the key members of the antioxidant defense enzyme family, however, data regarding to the immune function of MnSOD in mollusks still remain limited now. In this study, a full-length MnSOD cDNA was identified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method from cDNA library of ark shell Scapharca broughtonii (termed SbMnSOD). The cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 696 bp which encoded a polypeptide of 232 amino acids, a 5'-UTR with length of 32 bp and a 3'-UTR of 275 bp. Four putative amino acid residues (His-57, His-105, Asp-190 and His-194) responsible for manganese coordination were located in the most highly conserved regions of SbMnSOD and the signature sequence (DVWEHAYY) also existed in SbMnSOD. The deduced amino acid sequence of SbMnSOD shared high homology to MnSOD from other species. All those data revealed that the SbMnSOD was a novel member of the MnSOD family. The mRNA expression profiles of SbMnSOD in tissues of foot, gill, mantle, adductor muscle, hemocytes and hepatopancreas analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) suggested the mRNA transcripts of SbMnSOD distributed in all the examined tissues. Importantly, Vibrio anguillarum challenge resulted in the increased expression of SbMnSOD mRNA with a regular change trend in all examined tissues, indicating SbMnSOD actively participated in the immune response process. What's more, further analysis on the antibacterial activity of the recombinant SbMnSOD showed that the fusion protein could remarkably inhibit growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The present results clearly suggested that SbMnSOD was an acute phase protein involved in the immune reaction in S. broughtonii. PMID:25980798

  10. A Comparison of Two Yeast MnSODs: Mitochondrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae versus Cytosolic Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Y.; Cabelli D.; Stich, T.A.; Barnese, K.; Gralla, E.B.; Cascio, D.; Britt, R.D.; Valentine, J.S.

    2011-12-28

    Human MnSOD is significantly more product-inhibited than bacterial MnSODs at high concentrations of superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup -}). This behavior limits the amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} produced at high [O{sub 2}{sup -}]; its desirability can be explained by the multiple roles of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in mammalian cells, particularly its role in signaling. To investigate the mechanism of product inhibition in MnSOD, two yeast MnSODs, one from Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria (ScMnSOD) and the other from Candida albicans cytosol (CaMnSODc), were isolated and characterized. ScMnSOD and CaMnSODc are similar in catalytic kinetics, spectroscopy, and redox chemistry, and they both rest predominantly in the reduced state (unlike most other MnSODs). At high [O{sub 2}{sup -}], the dismutation efficiencies of the yeast MnSODs surpass those of human and bacterial MnSODs, due to very low level of product inhibition. Optical and parallel-mode electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra suggest the presence of two Mn{sup 3+} species in yeast Mn{sup 3+}SODs, including the well-characterized 5-coordinate Mn{sup 3+} species and a 6-coordinate L-Mn{sup 3+} species with hydroxide as the putative sixth ligand (L). The first and second coordination spheres of ScMnSOD are more similar to bacterial than to human MnSOD. Gln154, an H-bond donor to the Mn-coordinated solvent molecule, is slightly further away from Mn in yeast MnSODs, which may result in their unusual resting state. Mechanistically, the high efficiency of yeast MnSODs could be ascribed to putative translocation of an outer-sphere solvent molecule, which could destabilize the inhibited complex and enhance proton transfer from protein to peroxide. Our studies on yeast MnSODs indicate the unique nature of human MnSOD in that it predominantly undergoes the inhibited pathway at high [O{sub 2}{sup -}].

  11. Bioavailability of Praziquantel Increases with Concomitant Administration of Food

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Nelly; Medina, Roberto; Sotelo, Julio; Jung, Helgi

    2000-01-01

    In the present study we found that after a single oral dose of 1,800 mg of praziquantel, following a high-lipid diet and a high-carbohydrate diet, the maximum levels in plasma increased 243 and 515% and the area under the plasma concentration curve from 0 to 8 h increased 180 and 271%, respectively.

  12. Gene × Gene interaction between MnSOD and GPX-1 and breast cancer risk: a nested case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germ-line mutations in genes such as BRCA1, BRCA2, and ATM can cause a substantial increase in risk of breast cancer. However, these mutations are rare in the general population, and account for little of the incidence of sporadic breast cancer in the general population. Therefore, research has been focused on examining associations between common polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. To date, few associations have been described. This has led to the hypothesis that breast cancer is a complex disease, whereby a constellation of very low penetrance alleles need to be carried to present a risk phenotype. Polymorphisms in the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX-1) genes have been proposed as low penetrance alleles, and have not been clearly associated with breast cancer. We investigated whether variants at both polymorphisms, while not independently associated with breast cancer risk, could influence breast cancer risk when considered together. A case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study was performed comparing 1262 women diagnosed with breast cancer to 1533 disease free women. The MnSOD (Val16Ala, rs1799725) and GPX-1 (Pro198Leu, rs1050450) were genotyped via TaqMan assay. Disease risk was evaluated using logistic regression. While neither allele alone shows any change in breast cancer risk, an increase in the risk of breast cancer (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.09 – 3.19) is observed in individuals who carry both the Ala16Ala genotype of MnSOD and the Leu198Leu genotype of GPX-1. Polymorphisms in the GPX-1 and MnSOD genes are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer

  13. Intranasal administration of oxytocin increases compassion toward women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palgi, Sharon; Klein, Ehud; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2015-03-01

    It has been suggested that the degree of compassion-the feeling of warmth, understanding and kindness that motivates the desire to help others, is modulated by observers' views regarding the target's vulnerability and suffering. This study tested the hypothesis that as compassion developed to protect vulnerable kinships, hormones such as oxytocin, which have been suggested as playing a key role in 'tend-and-befriend' behaviors among women, will enhance compassion toward women but not toward men. Thirty subjects participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study. Following administration of oxytocin/placebo, participants listened to recordings of different female/male protagonists describing distressful emotional conflicts and were then asked to provide compassionate advice to the protagonist. The participants' responses were coded according to various components of compassion by two clinical psychologists who were blind to the treatment. The results showed that in women and men participants oxytocin enhanced compassion toward women, but did not affect compassion toward men. These findings indicate that the oxytocinergic system differentially mediates compassion toward women and toward men, emphasizing an evolutionary perspective that views compassion as a caregiving behavior designed to help vulnerable individuals. PMID:24711542

  14. Cloning and differential expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) of Trichinella pseudospiralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W K; Mak, C H; Ko, R C

    2008-01-01

    The complete coding sequence of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) of Trichinella pseudospiralis (Tp) was obtained and characterized for the first time by degenerative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends (RACE) reactions. The open reading frame of Tp Mn-SOD contained 663 nucleotides, encoding 220 amino acid residues. This included the conserved histidine and aspartate residues for metal binding, cysteine residues for disulfide bond formation, and arginine residue for directing the superoxide ion to the protein. The presence of mitochondrial transit peptides and maturation cleavage site suggest that the cloned Tp Mn-SOD gene is a mitochondrial enzyme. It is a single copy gene containing three introns. Northern blotting suggested that the expression level of Mn-SOD is lower than Cu/Zn SOD in infective stage larvae. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that a single dominant transcript of Tp Mn-SOD was highly expressed in the infective-stage larvae but not in adult worms. The information provides a better understanding of the highly compartmentalized superoxide dismutases of adenophorean nematodes. PMID:17955260

  15. Irradiation increases manganese superoxide dismutase gene in human fibroblasts. Possible mechanisms for its accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibroblasts are one of the mesenchymal cells and constitute a major element of components in bone marrow stroma as well as submucosal and subcutaneous tissue. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a mitochondrial enzyme involved in scavenging of superoxide radicals (O2-). In this study, we examined the regulation of MnSOD gene by irradiation in WI38 human fibroblasts. We found that fibroblasts constitutively produced MnSOD; irradiation significantly increased the activity of MnSOD. The increase in MnSOD transcripts by irradiation was both time- and dose-dependent. Pretreatment with cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, did not change accumulation of MnSOD mRNA by irradiation. WI38 fibroblasts constitutively produce low levels of IL-1. Induction of MnSOD mRNA by irradiation was blocked by anti-IL-1 antibodies. Inhibition of the cyclooxygenase pathway with indomethacin caused augmentation in the irradiation-induced MnSOD mRNA. These results suggest that induction of MnSOD gene after irradiation is regulated, at least in part, by IL-1 production, and increased levels of MnSOD transcripts also occur through a pathway of prostaglandin inhibition. (author)

  16. Manganese deficiency in Chlamydomonas results in loss of photosystem II and MnSOD function, sensitivity to peroxides, and secondary phosphorus and iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael D; Kropat, Janette; Tottey, Stephen; Del Campo, José A; Merchant, Sabeeha S

    2007-01-01

    For photoheterotrophic growth, a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cell requires at least 1.7 x 10(7) manganese ions in the medium. At lower manganese ion concentrations (typically OEE proteins from the membrane. Assay of Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) indicates loss of activity of two isozymes in proportion to the Mn deficiency. The expression of MSD3 through MSD5, encoding various isoforms of the MnSODs, is up-regulated severalfold in Mn-deficient cells, but neither expression nor activity of the plastid Fe-containing superoxide dismutase is changed, which contrasts with the dramatically increased MSD3 expression and plastid MnSOD activity in Fe-deficient cells. Mn-deficient cells are selectively sensitive to peroxide but not methyl viologen or Rose Bengal, and GPXs, APX, and MSRA2 genes (encoding glutathione peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and methionine sulfoxide reductase 2) are slightly up-regulated. Elemental analysis indicates that the Mn, Fe, and P contents of cells in the Mn-deficient cultures were reduced in proportion to the deficiency. A natural resistance-associated macrophage protein homolog and one of five metal tolerance proteins were induced in Mn-deficient cells but not in Fe-deficient cells, suggesting that the corresponding gene products may be components of a Mn(2+)-selective assimilation pathway. PMID:17085511

  17. Genetic polymorphisms of MPO, COMT, MnSOD, NQO1, interactions with environmental exposures and bladder cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Rayjean J; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Malaveille, Christian; Gelatti, Umberto; Placidi, Donatella; Carta, Angela; Hautefeuille, Agnès; Porru, Stefano

    2004-06-01

    Tobacco smoking and occupational exposure are major risk factors of bladder cancer via exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic amines, which lead to oxidative stress and DNA damage. Several enzymes, which play key roles in oxidative stress are polymorphic in humans. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) produces a strong oxidant for microbicidal activity, and activates carcinogens in tobacco smoke. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes the methylation of endo- and xenobiotics and prevents redox cycling. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) catalyzes the two-electron reduction of quinoid compounds, which also protects cells from redox cycling. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protects cells from free radical injury. To test the hypothesis that the risk of bladder cancer can be influenced by polymorphisms in the genes that modulate oxidative stress, in particular by interacting with environmental carcinogens, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study among men in Brescia, Northern Italy. We recruited and interviewed 201 incident cases and 214 controls from 1997 to 2000. Occupational exposures to PAHs and aromatic amines were coded blindly by occupational physicians. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression was applied to model the association between genetic polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk and the effect of modifications of smoking and occupational exposures were evaluated. MPO G-463A homozygous variant was associated with a reduced risk of bladder cancer with an OR of 0.31 (95% CI = 0.12-0.80). MnSOD Val/Val genotype increased the risk of bladder cancer with OR of 1.91 (95% CI = 1.20-3.04), and there was a combined effect with smoking (OR = 7.20, 95% CI = 3.23-16.1) and PAH (OR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.35-6.74). We did not observe an effect of COMT Val108Met polymorphism. These findings suggest that individual susceptibility of bladder cancer may be modulated by MPO and MnSOD polymorphisms, and that the combination of genetic

  18. Competitive dopamine receptor antagonists increase the equiactive cocaine concentration during self-administration

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, Andrew B.; Norman, Mantana K.; Tabet, Michael R.; Tsibulsky, Vladimir L.; Pesce, Amadeo J

    2010-01-01

    Competitive dopamine receptor antagonists increase the rate of cocaine self-administration. As the rate of self-administration at a particular unit dose is determined by the satiety threshold and the elimination half-life (t1/2) of cocaine, we investigated whether dopamine receptor antagonists altered these parameters. The plasma cocaine concentration at the time of each self-administration was constant during a session demonstrating that this satiety threshold concentration represents an equ...

  19. Long-term testosterone administration increases visceral fat in female to male transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbers, J M; Asscheman, H; Seidell, J C; Megens, J A; Gooren, L J

    1997-07-01

    The amount of intraabdominal (visceral) fat is an important determinant of disturbances in lipid and glucose metabolism. Cross-sectional studies in women have found associations between high androgen levels and visceral fat accumulation. The causal relation between these phenomena is unknown. We, therefore, studied prospectively the effect of testosterone administration on body fat distribution in 10 young, nonobese, female to male transsexuals undergoing sex reassignment. Before, after 1 yr, and after 3 yr of testosterone administration, magnetic resonance images were obtained at the level of the abdomen, hip, and thigh to quantify both sc and visceral fat depots. After 1 yr of testosterone administration, sc fat depots at all levels showed significant reductions compared to baseline measurements. The mean visceral fat area did not change significantly, but subjects who gained weight in the first year after testosterone administration showed an increase in visceral fat. After 3 yr of testosterone administration, sc fat depots were no longer significantly lower compared to pretreatment measurements, but the mean visceral fat depot had increased significantly by 13 cm2 (95% confidence interval, 4-22 cm2), a relative increase of 47% (95% confidence interval, 8-91%) from baseline. The increase in visceral fat was most pronounced in those subjects who had gained weight. We conclude that long term testosterone administration in young, nonobese, female subjects increases the amount of visceral fat. In addition, an increase in weight in this hyperandrogenic state leads to a preferential storage of fat in the visceral depot. PMID:9215270

  20. MnSOD upregulation induces autophagic programmed cell death in senescent keratinocytes.

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    Emeric Deruy

    Full Text Available Senescence is a state of growth arrest resulting mainly from telomere attrition and oxidative stress. It ultimately leads to cell death. We have previously shown that, in keratinocytes, senescence is induced by NF-kappaB activation, MnSOD upregulation and H(2O(2 overproduction. We have also shown that senescent keratinocytes do not die by apoptosis but as a result of high macroautophagic activity that targets the primary vital cell components. Here, we investigated the mechanisms that activate this autophagic cell death program. We show that corpses occurring at the senescence plateau display oxidatively-damaged mitochondria and nucleus that colocalize with autophagic vacuoles. The occurrence of such corpses was decreased by specifically reducing the H(2O(2 level with catalase, and, conversely, reproduced by overexpressing MnSOD or applying subtoxic doses of H(2O(2. This H(2O(2-induced cell death did occur through autophagy since it was accompanied by an accumulation of autophagic vesicles as evidenced by Lysotracker staining, LC3 vesiculation and transmission electron microscopy. Most importantly, it was partly abolished by 3-methyladenine, the specific inhibitor of autophagosome formation, and by anti-Atg5 siRNAs. Taken together these results suggest that autophagic cell death is activated in senescent keratinocytes because of the upregulation of MnSOD and the resulting accumulation of oxidative damages to nucleus and mitochondria.

  1. Increased bioprotein production in rats with tumors induced by radon inhalation and benzonaphtoflavone administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serial determinations of urinary biopterin were performed in rats during the development of lung tumors induced by radon inhalation and 5,6-benzonaphtoflavone administration. A striking increase in biopterin levels was observed in animals which developed single or multiple epidermoid carcinoma of the lung and this increase occurred several weeks before tumors could be detected radiographically. (author)

  2. Intravaginal Administration of Sildenafil Citrate Increases Blood Flow in the Bovine Uterus

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    Dzięcioł Michał

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of sildenafil citrate administrated intravaginaly on the blood flow in the bovine uterus during dioestrus. Uterine blood flow was examined in six healthy adult cows. Sildenafil was administrated intravaginaly to each co w between the 6th and 8th d of the ovarian cycle, in the form of vaginal suppositories containing 100 mg of active substance at a dose of 100, 200, or 300 mg per animal. Uterine perfusion was estimated by the colour Doppler examination, and obtained results were analysed with the Pixel Flux Software (Chameleon, Germany. Moreover, cardiovascular parameters were also evaluated. Animals were examined before and five times after drug application (two times at 15 min intervals, and three times at 2 h intervals. A placebo suppository was also given to the cows. The analysis of the intensity and velocity of blood flow in the uterus proved that sildenafil administrated intravaginaly significantly increased blood flow in the uterus and the effect of increased perfusion was observed for 4 h and 30 min after administration. The effect of increased uterine perfusion was observed after low as well as high doses of sildenafil. Significant changes in the cardio-vascular parameters were not detected. There were no changes in the uterine perfusion as well as in cardiovascular parameters after placebo administration.

  3. Recombinant acylation stimulating protein administration to C3-/- mice increases insulin resistance via adipocyte inflammatory mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Nancy Munkonda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complement 3 (C3, a key component of the innate immune system, is involved in early inflammatory responses. Acylation stimulating protein (ASP; aka C3adesArg, a C3 cleavage product, is produced in adipose tissue and stimulates lipid storage. We hypothesized that, depending on the diet, chronic ASP administration in C3(-/- mice would affect lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity via an adaptive adipose tissue inflammatory response. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: C3(-/- mice on normal low fat diet (ND or high fat diet (HFD were chronically administered recombinant ASP (rASP for 25 days via an osmotic mini-pump. While there was no effect on food intake, there was a decrease in activity, with a relative increase in adipose tissue weight on ND, and a shift in adipocyte size distribution. While rASP administration to C3(-/- mice on a ND increased insulin sensitivity, on a HFD, rASP administration had the opposite effect. Specifically, rASP administration in C3(-/- HFD mice resulted in decreased gene expression of IRS1, GLUT4, SREBF1 and NFκB in muscle, and decreased C5L2 but increased JNK, CD36, CD11c, CCR2 and NFκB gene expression in adipose tissue as well as increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (Rantes, KC, MCP-1, IL-6 and G-CSF. In adipose tissue, although IRS1 and GLUT4 mRNA were unchanged, insulin response was reduced. CONCLUSION: The effects of chronic rASP administration are tissue and diet specific, rASP administration enhances the HFD induced inflammatory response leading to an insulin-resistant state. These results suggest that, in humans, the increased plasma ASP associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease could be an additional factor directly contributing to development of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and diabetes.

  4. MnSOD downregulation induced by extremely low 0.1 mGy single and fractionated X-rays and microgravity treatment in human neuroblastoma cell line, NB-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indo, Hiroko P.; Tomiyoshi, Tsukasa; Suenaga, Shigeaki; Tomita, Kazuo; Suzuki, Hiromi; Masuda, Daisuke; Terada, Masahiro; Ishioka, Noriaki; Gusev, Oleg; Cornette, Richard; Okuda, Takashi; Mukai, Chiaki; Majima, Hideyuki J.

    2015-01-01

    A human neuroblastoma cell line, NB-1, was treated with 24 h of microgravity simulation by clinostat, or irradiated with extremely small X-ray doses of 0.1 or 1.0 mGy using single and 10 times fractionation regimes with 1 and 2 h time-intervals. A quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) examination was performed for apoptosis related factors (BAX, CYTC, APAF1, VDAC1–3, CASP3, CASP8, CASP9 P53, AIF, ANT1 and 2, BCL2, MnSOD, autophagy related BECN and necrosis related CYP-40. The qRT-PCR results revealed that microgravity did not result in significant changes except for a upregulation of proapoptotic VDAC2, and downregulations of proapoptotic CASP9 and antiapoptotic MnSOD. After 0.1 mGy fractionation irradiation, there was increased expression of proapoptotic APAF1 and downregulation of proapoptotic CYTC, VDAC2, VDAC3, CASP8, AIF, ANT1, and ANT2, as well as an increase in expression of antiapoptotic BCL2. There was also a decrease in MnSOD expression with 0.1 mGy fractionation irradiation. These results suggest that microgravity and low-dose radiation may decrease apoptosis but may potentially increase oxidative stress. PMID:26388666

  5. The Leadership Roles of Distance Learning Administrators (DLAs) in Increasing Educational Value and Quality Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Donovan A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the leadership roles of distance learning administrators (DLAs) in light of the demand and need for value and quality in educational distance learning programs and schools. The author explores the development of distance learning using available and emerging technologies in relation to increased demand for education, training,…

  6. Expression of Cu,Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and GST-pi in oral cancer treated with preoperative radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terakado, N; Shintani, S; Nakahara, Y; Mihara, M; Tomizawa, K; Suzuki, K; Taniguchi, N; Matsumura, T

    2000-01-01

    Radical scavengers play an important role in cancer cells defending themselves against free radicals which occur with irradiation. SOD (Cu,Zn, Mn-) and GST-pi are radical scavengers with an effect on radiation therapy. We investigated the correlation between radiation effects and expression of Cu,Zn-, Mn-SOD and GST-pi in 34 cases of oral cancer, treated with preoperative radiation therapy. In this study, 22 cases out of 34 were classified as effective and 12 cases as non-effective. Expression of Cu,Zn, Mn-SOD and GST-pi were observed in 13 (38.2%), 10 (29.4%) and 20 (58.8%) cases, respectively. Regarding the value of radiation sensitivity from expression of these proteins in the biopsy samples, no significant correlation was found between those expressions and histological effectiveness of preoperative radiation therapy. But interestingly, in 11 out of 12 of the non-effective cases, strong staining of Cu, Zn-SOD and GST-pi were shown at the residual cancer cells after preoperative radiation therapy. These results suggested that the expression of SOD (Cu,Zn-, and Mn-) and GST-pi may be not useful markers for predicting the effects of radiation therapy. However, Cu, Zn-SOD and GST-pi were increased by irradiation and may play an important role in radiation resistance and cancer cell regeneration after radiation therapy. PMID:10948348

  7. Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen handler om den praksis, vi kalder administration. Vi er i den offentlige sektor i Danmark hos kontorfolkene med deres sagsmapper, computere, telefoner,, lovsamlinger,, retningslinier og regneark. I bogen udfoldes en mangfoldighed af konkrete historier om det administrative arbejde fra...... forskellige områder i den offentlige sektor. Hensigten er at forstå den praksis og faglighed der knytter sig til det administrative arbejde...

  8. Gender Differences in Protection Against Angiotensin II-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction by MnSOD in the Cerebral Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrissobolis, Sophocles; Faraci, Frank M.

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) produces oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in blood vessels. The vasculature from females may be protected against deleterious effects of Ang II. We tested the hypothesis that manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protects against Ang II-induced endothelial dysfunction. Experiments were performed in C57Bl/6, wild-type (MnSOD+/+) and MnSOD deficient (MnSOD+/−) mice treated systemically with vehicle or Ang II. Basilar arteries were isolated from C57Bl/6 mice treated for one week with a non-pressor dose of Ang II (0.28 mg/kg × day). Ang II treatment produced superoxide-mediated impairment of responses to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (Ach)(P<0.05). In male, but not female MnSOD+/+ mice, Ang II modestly inhibited responses to ACh (P<0.05). In contrast, Ang II selectively impaired these responses by up to 70% in male MnSOD+/− mice (P<0.05) and this effect was reversed by tempol (P<0.05). Ang II had no effect on ACh responses in MnSOD+/− female mice. Vascular superoxide levels following treatment with an inhibitor of CuZn- and extracellular-SOD, were higher in Ang II-treated vs vehicle-treated MnSOD+/− mice. Thus, a non-pressor dose of Ang II produces endothelial dysfunction in male mice only, suggesting that the female vasculature is protected from Ang II. In male, but not female mice, MnSOD deficiency enhanced endothelial dysfunction, suggesting that MnSOD normally protects the vasculature during disease states in which Ang II contributes to vascular dysfunction. PMID:20194298

  9. Oral administration of antimicrobials increase antimicrobial resistance in E. coli from chicken--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, C; Burow, E; Tenhagen, B-A; Käsbohrer, A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobials play an important role in animal and human health care. It was the aim of this systematic review to assess the effects of oral administration of antimicrobials on the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Escherichia coli (E. coli) from chickens. Moreover, the effects of the administration of more than one antimicrobial and of different dosages were studied. Literature was searched in November 2012 from the electronic databases ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus and a national literature database (DIMDI) as well as the database ProQuest LLC. The search was updated in March 2014. Original studies describing a treatment (A) and a control group of either non-treatment (C) or initial value (0) and determining AMR in E. coli at different sample points (SP) were included. The literature search resulted in 35 full text articles on the topic, seven (20%) of which contained sufficient information on the administered antimicrobial and the impact of treatment on AMR. Most papers described the use of more than one antimicrobial, several dosages, controls (non-treatment or pre-treatment) and measured AMR at different SPs leading to a total of 227 SPs on the impact of the use of antimicrobials on AMR in chickens. 74% of the SPs (168/227) described a higher AMR-rate in E. coli from treated animals than from controls. After the administration of a single antimicrobial, AMR increased at 72% of the SPs. Administration of more than one antimicrobial increased AMR at 82% of the SPs. Higher dosages were associated with similar or higher AMR rates. The limited number of studies for each antimicrobial agent and the high variability in the resistance effect call for more well designed studies on the impact of oral administration on AMR development and spread. PMID:25433717

  10. Insufficient insulin administration to diabetic rats increases substrate utilization and maintains lactate production in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Lipsø, Kasper; Ostergaard, Jakob Appel; Nørregaard, Rikke; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Pedersen, Michael; Palm, Fredrik; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2014-12-01

    Good glycemic control is crucial to prevent the onset and progression of late diabetic complications, but insulin treatment often fails to achieve normalization of glycemic control to the level seen in healthy controls. In fact, recent experimental studies indicate that insufficient treatment with insulin, resulting in poor glycemic control, has an additional effect on progression of late diabetic complications, than poor glycemic control on its own. We therefore compared renal metabolic alterations during conditions of poor glycemic control with and without suboptimal insulin administration, which did not restore glycemic control, to streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats using noninvasive hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) (1)H-MRI to determine renal metabolic flux and oxygen availability, respectively. Suboptimal insulin administration increased pyruvate utilization and metabolic flux via both anaerobic and aerobic pathways in diabetic rats even though insulin did not affect kidney oxygen availability, HbA1c, or oxidative stress. These results imply direct effects of insulin in the regulation of cellular substrate utilization and metabolic fluxes during conditions of poor glycemic control. The study demonstrates that poor glycemic control in combination with suboptimal insulin administration accelerates metabolic alterations by increasing both anaerobic and aerobic metabolism resulting in increased utilization of energy substrates. The results demonstrate the importance of tight glycemic control in insulinopenic diabetes, and that insulin, when administered insufficiently, adds an additional burden on top of poor glycemic control. PMID:25501426

  11. Chronic central administration of Ghrelin increases bone mass through a mechanism independent of appetite regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Jin Choi

    Full Text Available Leptin plays a critical role in the central regulation of bone mass. Ghrelin counteracts leptin. In this study, we investigated the effect of chronic intracerebroventricular administration of ghrelin on bone mass in Sprague-Dawley rats (1.5 μg/day for 21 days. Rats were divided into control, ghrelin ad libitum-fed (ghrelin ad lib-fed, and ghrelin pair-fed groups. Ghrelin intracerebroventricular infusion significantly increased body weight in ghrelin ad lib-fed rats but not in ghrelin pair-fed rats, as compared with control rats. Chronic intracerebroventricular ghrelin infusion significantly increased bone mass in the ghrelin pair-fed group compared with control as indicated by increased bone volume percentage, trabecular thickness, trabecular number and volumetric bone mineral density in tibia trabecular bone. There was no significant difference in trabecular bone mass between the control group and the ghrelin ad-lib fed group. Chronic intracerebroventricular ghrelin infusion significantly increased the mineral apposition rate in the ghrelin pair-fed group as compared with control. In conclusion, chronic central administration of ghrelin increases bone mass through a mechanism that is independent of body weight, suggesting that ghrelin may have a bone anabolic effect through the central nervous system.

  12. Immunoreactive Cu-SOD and Mn-SOD in lymphocytes sub-populations from normal and trisomy 21 subjects according to age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper and manganese superoxide dismutases (Cu-SOD and Mn-SOD) were measured by radioimmunoassay in B and T lymphocytes and macrophages, in patients with trisomy 21 and in matched controls. In the controls, Cu-SOD was present in greater amounts than Mn-SOD and there were quantitative differences in the distribution in the three cellular sub-populations. In trisomy 21, levels of Cu-SOD were raised, with no change in levels of Mn-SOD, supporting the theory of a gene dosage effect. There were significant positive and negative correlations between age and Cu-SOD levels in controls, and a correlation approaching significance for Mn-SOD. In trisomy 21, there was no correlation between age and Cu-SOD levels, and the only significant correlation for Mn-SOD was for B lymphocytes

  13. Chronic cladribine administration increases amyloid beta peptide generation and plaque burden in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal D Hayes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The clinical uses of 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine (2-CDA or cladribine which was initially prescribed to patients with hematological and lymphoid cancers is now extended to treat patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Previous data has shown that 2-CDA has high affinity to the brain and readily passes through the blood brain barrier reaching CSF concentrations 25% of that found in plasma. However, whether long-term administration of 2-CDA can lead to any adverse effects in patients or animal models is not yet clearly known. METHODOLOGY: Here we show that exposure of 2-CDA to CHO cells stably expressing wild-type APP751 increased generation and secretion of amyloid β peptide (Aβ in to the conditioned medium. Interestingly, increased Aβ levels were noticed even at non-toxic concentrations of 2-CDA. Remarkably, chronic treatment of APdE9 mice, a model of Alzheimer's disease with 2-CDA for 60 days increased amyloid plaque burden by more than 1-fold. Increased Aβ generation appears to result from increased turnover of APP as revealed by cycloheximide-chase experiments. Additionally, surface labeling of APP with biotin and immunoprecipitation of surface labeled proteins with anti-biotin antibody also indicated increased APP at the cell surface in 2-CDA treated cells compared to controls. Increased turnover of APP by 2-CDA in turn might be a consequence of decreased protein levels of PIN 1, which is known to regulate cis-trans isomerization and phosphorylation of APP. Most importantly, like many other oncology drugs, 2-CDA administration led to significant delay in acquiring a reward-based learning task in a T maze paradigm. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data provide compelling evidence for the first time that chronic 2-CDA administration can increase amyloidogenic processing of APP leading to robustly increased plaque burden which may be responsible for the observed deficits in learning skills. Thus chronic treatment of mice with 2

  14. Effect of N-acetylcasteine on expression and activity of MnSOD in chronically hypoxic and normoxic rat hearts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balková, P.; Nováková, O.; Novák, F.; Neckář, Jan; Milerová, Marie; Kolář, František

    Elsevier. Roč. 42, č. 6 (2007), S191-S191. ISSN 0022-2828. [World Congress of the ISHR /19./. 22.06.2007-26.06.2007, Bologna] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/07/0875 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : MnSOD * hypoxia * cardioprotection Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  15. Prolonged withdrawal following cocaine self-administration increases resistance to punishment in a cocaine binge

    OpenAIRE

    Gancarz-Kausch, Amy M; Adank, Danielle N.; Dietz, David M

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction is characterized by compulsive drug-taking behaviors and a high propensity to relapse following drug cessation. Drug craving and seeking can increase during a period of abstinence, but this phenomenon is not observed in drug-induced reinstatement models. To investigate the effect of withdrawal on cocaine relapse, rats were exposed to extended-access cocaine self-administration and subjected to either 1 or 30 d of withdrawal. When tested during 12 h unlimited access to cocaine (...

  16. Prolonged ethanol administration depletes mitochondrial DNA in MnSOD-overexpressing transgenic mice, but not in their wild type littermates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcohol consumption increases reactive oxygen species formation and lipid peroxidation, whose products can damage mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and alter mitochondrial function. A possible role of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) on these effects has not been investigated. To test whether MnSOD overexpression modulates alcohol-induced mitochondrial alterations, we added ethanol to the drinking water of transgenic MnSOD-overexpressing (TgMnSOD) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates for 7 weeks. In TgMnSOD mice, alcohol administration further increased the activity of MnSOD, but decreased cytosolic glutathione as well as cytosolic glutathione peroxidase activity and peroxisomal catalase activity. Whereas ethanol increased cytochrome P-450 2E1 and mitochondrial ROS generation in both WT and TgMnSOD mice, hepatic iron, lipid peroxidation products and respiratory complex I protein carbonyls were only increased in ethanol-treated TgMnSOD mice but not in WT mice. In ethanol-fed TgMnSOD mice, but not ethanol-fed WT mice, mtDNA was depleted, and mtDNA lesions blocked the progress of polymerases. The iron chelator, DFO prevented hepatic iron accumulation, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl formation and mtDNA depletion in alcohol-treated TgMnSOD mice. Alcohol markedly decreased the activities of complexes I, IV and V of the respiratory chain in TgMnSOD, with absent or lesser effects in WT mice. There was no inflammation, apoptosis or necrosis, and steatosis was similar in ethanol-treated WT and TgMnSOD mice. In conclusion, prolonged alcohol administration selectively triggers iron accumulation, lipid peroxidation, respiratory complex I protein carbonylation, mtDNA lesions blocking the progress of polymerases, mtDNA depletion and respiratory complex dysfunction in TgMnSOD mice but not in WT mice

  17. Free fatty acids, lipopolysaccharide and IL-1α induce adipocyte manganese superoxide dismutase which is increased in visceral adipose tissues of obese rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Krautbauer

    Full Text Available Excess fat storage in adipocytes is associated with increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and impaired activity of antioxidant mechanisms. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD is a mitochondrial enzyme involved in detoxification of ROS, and objective of the current study is to analyze expression and regulation of MnSOD in obesity. MnSOD is increased in visceral but not subcutaneous fat depots of rodents kept on high fat diets (HFD and ob/ob mice. MnSOD is elevated in visceral adipocytes of fat fed mice and exposure of differentiating 3T3-L1 cells to lipopolysaccharide, IL-1α, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated free fatty acids (FFA upregulates its level. FFA do not alter cytochrome oxidase 4 arguing against overall induction of mitochondrial enzymes. Upregulation of MnSOD in fat loaded cells is not mediated by IL-6, TNF or sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 which are induced in these cells. MnSOD is similarly abundant in perirenal fat of Zucker diabetic rats and non-diabetic animals with similar body weight and glucose has no effect on MnSOD in 3T3-L1 cells. To evaluate whether MnSOD affects adipocyte fat storage, MnSOD was knocked-down in adipocytes for the last three days of differentiation and in mature adipocytes. Knock-down of MnSOD does neither alter lipid storage nor viability of these cells. Heme oxygenase-1 which is induced upon oxidative stress is not altered while antioxidative capacity of the cells is modestly reduced. Current data show that inflammation and excess triglyceride storage raise adipocyte MnSOD which is induced in epididymal adipocytes in obesity.

  18. Administration of MPTP acutely increases glucose utilization in the substantia nigra of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombo, E; Porrino, L J; Bankiewicz, K S; Crane, A M; Kopin, I J; Sokoloff, L

    1988-06-21

    The quantitative 2-[14C]deoxyglucose autoradiographic method was used to map the regional distribution of the acute effects of administration of the neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), on local cerebral glucose utilization in rhesus monkeys. Metabolic activity was increased (+80%) in the substantia nigra pars compacta, which has been shown to be the main target site of MPTP toxicity. Metabolic activity was also increased in the nucleus paranigralis, nucleus parabrachialis pigmentosus, and ventral lamella of the inferior olive. In contrast, substantial decreases in glucose utilization were found diffusely distributed throughout many of the other structures examined, most prominently in portions of the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum. PMID:3261197

  19. Heat increases MDMA-enhanced NAcc 5-HT and body temperature, but not MDMA self-administration

    OpenAIRE

    Feduccia, Allison A.; Kongovi, Nundhun; Duvauchelle, Christine L.

    2010-01-01

    There is concern that hot environments enhance adverse effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “Ecstasy”). In this study, long-term (4-wks) daily MDMA self-administration sessions and an MDMA challenge test were conducted with rats under normal and high thermal conditions (23° or 32° C). During MDMA self-administration sessions, activity and body temperature were increased by heat or MDMA experience, while MDMA self-administration rates increased with experience, but were compar...

  20. Glycogen overload by postexercise insulin administration abolished the exercise-induced increase in GLUT4 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Hau; Tsai, Yin-Lan; Hou, Chien-Wen; Lee, Hsing-Hao; Chang, Wei-Hsiang; Lin, Tzi-Wen; Hsu, Tung-Hsiung; Huang, Yi-Jen; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2005-12-01

    To elucidate the role of muscle glycogen storage on regulation of GLUT4 protein expression and whole-body glucose tolerance, muscle glycogen level was manipulated by exercise and insulin administration. Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were evenly separated into three groups: control (CON), immediately after exercise (EX0), and 16 h after exercise (EX16). Rats from each group were further divided into two groups: saline- and insulin-injected. The 2-day exercise protocol consisted of 2 bouts of 3-h swimming with 45-min rest for each day, which effectively depleted glycogen in both red gastrocnemius (RG) and plantaris muscles. EX0 rats were sacrificed immediately after the last bout of exercise on second day. CON and EX16 rats were intubated with 1 g/kg glucose solution following exercise and recovery for 16 h before muscle tissue collection. Insulin (0.5 microU/kg) or saline was injected daily at the time when glucose was intubated. Insulin injection elevated muscle glycogen levels substantially in both muscles above saline-injected group at CON and EX16. With previous day insulin injection, EX0 preserved greater amount of postexercise glycogen above their saline-injected control. In the saline-injected rats, EX16 significantly increased GLUT4 protein level above CON, concurrent with muscle glycogen supercompensation. Insulin injection for EX16 rats significantly enhanced muscle glycogen level above their saline-injected control, but the increases in muscle GLUT4 protein and whole-body glucose tolerance were attenuated. In conclusion, the new finding of the study was that glycogen overload by postexercise insulin administration significantly abolished the exercise-induced increases in GLUT4 protein and glucose tolerance. PMID:16319996

  1. Insufficient insulin administration to diabetic rats increases substrate utilization and maintains lactate production in the kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Lipsø, Hans Kasper Wigh; Østergaard, Jakob Appel;

    2014-01-01

    did not restore glycemic control, to streptozotocin (STZ)‐diabetic rats using noninvasive hyperpolarized 13C‐pyruvate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and blood oxygenation level–dependent (BOLD) 1H‐MRI to determine renal metabolic flux and oxygen availability, respectively. Suboptimal insulin...... administration increased pyruvate utilization and metabolic flux via both anaerobic and aerobic pathways in diabetic rats even though insulin did not affect kidney oxygen availability, HbA1c, or oxidative stress. These results imply direct effects of insulin in the regulation of cellular substrate utilization......Good glycemic control is crucial to prevent the onset and progression of late diabetic complications, but insulin treatment often fails to achieve normalization of glycemic control to the level seen in healthy controls. In fact, recent experimental studies indicate that insufficient treatment with...

  2. Prolonged withdrawal following cocaine self-administration increases resistance to punishment in a cocaine binge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancarz-Kausch, Amy M; Adank, Danielle N; Dietz, David M

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction is characterized by compulsive drug-taking behaviors and a high propensity to relapse following drug cessation. Drug craving and seeking can increase during a period of abstinence, but this phenomenon is not observed in drug-induced reinstatement models. To investigate the effect of withdrawal on cocaine relapse, rats were exposed to extended-access cocaine self-administration and subjected to either 1 or 30 d of withdrawal. When tested during 12 h unlimited access to cocaine (binge), the duration of the withdrawal did not influence cocaine intake. However, using a histamine punishment procedure that greatly suppresses drug-taking behavior, we demonstrate that longer periods of abstinence from cocaine induce a greater persistence in responding for drug in the face of negative consequences. PMID:25363133

  3. Survey for the Federal Energy Administration, July 1977. [Survey on electricity, gasoline, heating fuel price increases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-08-01

    This volume provides detailed computer tabulations of a survey conducted by The Gallup Organization for the Federal Energy Administration to determine the general public's attitude toward a proposed price rise for electricity, heating fuels, and gasoline as a means for increasing conservation efforts. The survey was also designed to obtain information about actions taken by the public to save energy, including the temperature in the home in relation to the outside temperature at the time the study was conducted, ownership of an air conditioner, and the degree of cooling obtained when the air conditioner was in use. This study is based on personal interviews with a national sample of 1516 adults, 18 years of age and older. The interviewing was conducted during the period from July 21--July 24, 1977.

  4. Increased ventilatory response to carbon dioxide in COPD patients following vitamin C administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara E. Hartmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD have decreased ventilatory and cerebrovascular responses to hypercapnia. Antioxidants increase the ventilatory response to hypercapnia in healthy humans. Cerebral blood flow is an important determinant of carbon dioxide/hydrogen ion concentration at the central chemoreceptors and may be affected by antioxidants. It is unknown whether antioxidants can improve the ventilatory and cerebral blood flow response in individuals in whom these are diminished. Thus, we aimed to determine the effect of vitamin C administration on the ventilatory and cerebrovascular responses to hypercapnia during healthy ageing and in COPD. Using transcranial Doppler ultrasound, we measured the ventilatory and cerebral blood flow responses to hyperoxic hypercapnia before and after an intravenous vitamin C infusion in healthy young (Younger and older (Older subjects and in moderate COPD. Vitamin C increased the ventilatory response in COPD patients (mean (95% CI 1.1 (0.9–1.1 versus 1.5 (1.1–2.0 L·min−1·mmHg−1, p0.05 or Older (1.3 (1.0–1.7 versus 1.3 (1.0–1.7 L·min−1·mmHg−1, p>0.05 healthy subjects. Vitamin C did not affect the cerebral blood flow response in the young or older healthy subjects or COPD subjects (p>0.05. Vitamin C increases the ventilatory but not cerebrovascular response to hyperoxic hypercapnia in patients with moderate COPD.

  5. Increased cocaine self-administration in M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lene Sørensen; Thomsen, Morgane; Weikop, Pia;

    2011-01-01

    Rationale The reinforcing effects of cocaine are mediated by the mesolimbic dopamine system. Behavioral and neurochemical studies have shown that the cholinergic muscarinic M4 receptor subtype plays an important role in regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Objectives Here we investigated...... for the first time the involvement of M4 receptors in the reinforcing effects of cocaine using chronic intravenous cocaine self-administration in extensively backcrossed M4 receptor knockout (M4 -/-) mice. Methods We evaluated acquisition of cocaine self-administration in experimentally naïve mice....... Both cocaine self-administration and food-maintained operant behavior were evaluated under fixed ratio 1 (FR 1) and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. In addition, cocaine-induced dopamine release and cocaine-induced hyperactivity were evaluated. Results M4 -/- mice earned significantly...

  6. Real estate capitalization of Public Administration Institutions - a chance to stimulate investment and increase economic competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Constantin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The divide in the development of the different European space regions, is exemplified by the different ability to attract investments between rural and urban areas. Urban areas usually assure to investors a broad availability of structures and services that rural areas cannot offer. Another limiting factor for rural areas is the difficulty the enterprises which want to localize their structures outside the urban area meet when they try to find information about the quantity and the quality of the available structures. This penalization affects also the unused real estates of the public administration institutions; these real estates could represent for the investors an important opportunity to improve area’s resources, meeting some forms of converging collaboration with the public administration institutions. POLYINVEST project aims at improving conditions for investment in the rural areas, directly tackling the development gap between the regions of the South East Europe and to develop an information system useful for those public administration institutions.

  7. Implication of Mn-SOD in radio-resistance of Rubrobacter radiotolerans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Rubrobacter radiotolerans is the most radio-resistant bacterium among known eubacteria without sporulation. D37 for gamma-rays is 16,000 Gy. We previously reported that it had no significant recovery of DNA damage after ionizing irradiation. It suggests that the activity to remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by ionizing radiation is more important than DNA repair for the radio-resistance of this species. In this study, we purified, characterized, and cloned a superoxide dismutase (SOD) of this organism, and also examined the implication in the radio-resistance. The cell pellets of this organism were lysed by treatment with lysozyme and achromopeptidase, and sonication. A supernatant after centrifugation was recovered as crude cell extract. The crude cell extract was subjected to DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, showing one major and another minor SOD fractions. The major one was further subjected to hydroxyapatite, gel-filtration and second DEAE-cellulose chromatographies. After these chromatography steps, SOD was purified showing a single band on silver-stained gel of SDS-PAGE. This SOD seems to form a tetramer constructed by 24,000 Da-monomers. Both KCN and H2O2did not inhibit activity of the enzyme. The sequence of the limited region of the protein was determined, and the gene was cloned using the sequences. The result of homology search showed that the SOD belongs to Mn-SOD family. The amino acid sequence identity and similarity to the most closed species of SOD was 64.7% and 88.4%, respectively. To elucidate the implication of SOD in the radio-resistance, the SOD gene is introduced into E. coli strains, and the radio-sensitivity of the transformants are evaluated

  8. U.S. Public Administration Programs: Increasing Academic Achievement by Identifying and Utilizing Student Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Lorenda A; Wooldridge, Blue; Lyles, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Global economic shifts are forcing universities to become more competitive and operationally efficient. As a result, universities emphasize access, affordability, and achievement. More specifically, U.S. universities have responded by emphasizing course assessment, retention rates, and graduation rates. Both university administrators and faculty…

  9. E-Administration as a Way of Increasing the Managerial Capacity in Public Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Matei, Ani; Iancu, Diana Camelia

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with a developing concept, that of public sector reform, and explores it within the boundaries of e-administration practices. International competition and internal raising expectations have lead governments across the world to reconfigure their relationships with the surrounding environments. In doing so, they mostly switched to a newer paradigm, based not on affirmation and mechanical theories, but on the concept of a living, biological system. Following this trend, many go...

  10. Cocaine Self-Administration Produces a Persistent Increase in Dopamine D2High Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Briand, Lisa A.; Flagel, Shelly B.; Seeman, Philip; ROBINSON, TERRY E.

    2008-01-01

    Cocaine addicts are reported to have decreased numbers of striatal dopamine D2 receptors. However, in rodents, repeated cocaine administration consistently produces hypersensitivity to the psychomotor activating effects of both indirect dopamine agonists, such as cocaine itself, and importantly, to direct-acting D2 receptor agonists. The current study reports a possible resolution to this long-standing paradox. The dopamine D2 receptor exists in both a low and a high affinity state, and dopam...

  11. Neuropeptide-Y in the paraventricular nucleus increases ethanol self-administration

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, Stephen P; Nannini, Michelle A.; Bratt, Alison M.; Hodge, Clyde W.

    2001-01-01

    The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is known to modulate feeding, obesity, and ethanol intake. Neuropeptide-Y (NPY), which is released endogenously by neurons projecting from the arcuate nucleus to the PVN, is one of the most potent stimulants of feeding behavior known. The role of NPY in the PVN on ethanol self-administration is unknown. To address this issue, rats were trained to self-administer ethanol via a sucrose fading procedure and injector guide cannulae aimed at th...

  12. Ways to Increase the Effectiveness of Financial Control in Local Public Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Ciurlãu Loredana

    2012-01-01

    Financial control in local public administration must be efficient and effective. Now the question arises whether it should be cost-effective. When it discusses the effectiveness of financial control, place, often equate efficient and cost-effective, which give rise to perplexity among those involved in the Organization and functioning of the control. Up to a point, the two concepts have the same content, the efforts made for the Organization, operation and control of the financial cover with...

  13. Increasing the Quality of the Public Administration by Computerizing the Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena HLACIUC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The last decades of the previous century weremarked by a series of major changes in the informationaltechnique domain, leading to the creation and development of anew type of society, the informational one.The essence of the informational society consists in theintegrated, massive and generalized use of the informationaland communication technologies in all the domains of theeconomical and social life, including the public administration,material and artistic production, services, leisure spending etc.

  14. Increased tritiated thymidine-labeling index of bone marrow myeloblasts following BCG administration in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in vitro (3H)thymidine-labeling index of bone marrow myeloblasts was determined in eight hematologically normal individuals before and after the administration of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin twice weekly for 2 weeks. The mean labeling indexes of meyloblasts were 30.5 and 45.2% (P<0.004). Further characterization of this stimulation of proliferation of bone marrow myeloblasts could provide some rationale for combining cytotoxic drugs and immunotherapy in cancer patients. (orig./AJ)

  15. Late administration of surfactant replacement therapy increases surfactant protein-B content: a randomized pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Roberta L; MERRILL, JEFFREY D.; Black, Dennis M.; Steinhorn, Robin H.; Eichenwald, Eric C.; Durand, David J.; RYAN, RITA M.; Truog, William E; Courtney, Sherry E.; Ballard, Philip L.; Ballard, Roberta A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Surfactant dysfunction may contribute to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in persistently ventilated preterm infants. We conducted a multicenter randomized, blinded, pilot study to assess the safety and efficacy of late administration of doses of a surfactant protein-B (SP-B)-containing surfactant (calfactant) in combination with prolonged inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in infants ≤1,000 g birth weight (BW). Methods: We randomized 85 preterm infants ventilated at 7–...

  16. Post-conditioning exacerbates the MnSOD immune-reactivity after experimental cerebral global ischemia and reperfusion in the rat brain hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemethova, Miroslava; Danielisova, Viera; Gottlieb, Miroslav; Burda, Jozef

    2008-01-01

    This study monitored the effects of sub-lethal ischemia (post-conditioning) applied after a previous ischemic attack by way of the MnSOD immune-reactivity examined in CA1 and dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampus. The experimental 10 min transient cerebral ischemia was followed by 2 days of reperfusion, the rats then underwent a second ischemia (4 or 6 min post-conditioning). MnSOD immune-reactivity was evaluated after 5 h, 1 and 2 days. Results obtained by computer microdensitometric image analysis indicated that 4 min of ischemic post-conditioning caused higher MnSOD immune-reactivity than 6 min. However, higher viability of CA1 neurons after stronger (6 min) post-conditioning when production of MnSOD is lower, as well as differences between MnSOD in CA1 and dentate gyrus indicates another mechanism switching pro-apoptotic destination of CA1 neurons to anti-apoptotic. PMID:17936646

  17. Abrupt suspension of probiotics administration may increase host pathogen susceptibility by inducing gut dysbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Liu, Wenshu; Ran, Chao; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the risk associated with suspension of probiotics administration in tilapia, an animal model that may mimic immune-compromised conditions in humans. Tilapias were fed for 14 days using a probiotics-supplemented diet, followed by a three-day suspension of probiotics treatment and a subsequent challenge by Aeromonas hydrophila. Unexpectedly, the suspension of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum JCM1149 significantly triggered susceptibility of the host to A. hydrophila. We further observed that suspension of JCM1149 resulted in host gut microbiota dysbiosis and the subsequent disorder in the intestinal metabolites (bile acids, amino acids, and glucose) and damage in the intestinal epithelium, giving rise to a condition similar to antibiotics-induced gut dysbiosis, which collectively impaired tilapia's gut health and resistance to pathogenic challenges. Additionally, we determined that JCM1149 adhered relatively poorly to tilapia intestinal mucosa and was rapidly released from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) after suspension, with the rapid loss of probiotic strain probably being the direct cause of gut dysbiosis. Finally, three other probiotic Lactobacillus strains with low intestinal mucosa binding activity showed similar rapid loss phenotype following administration suspension, and induced higher host susceptibility to infection, indicating that the risk is a generic phenomenon in Lactobacillus. PMID:26983596

  18. Abrupt suspension of probiotics administration may increase host pathogen susceptibility by inducing gut dysbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Liu, Wenshu; Ran, Chao; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the risk associated with suspension of probiotics administration in tilapia, an animal model that may mimic immune-compromised conditions in humans. Tilapias were fed for 14 days using a probiotics-supplemented diet, followed by a three-day suspension of probiotics treatment and a subsequent challenge by Aeromonas hydrophila. Unexpectedly, the suspension of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum JCM1149 significantly triggered susceptibility of the host to A. hydrophila. We further observed that suspension of JCM1149 resulted in host gut microbiota dysbiosis and the subsequent disorder in the intestinal metabolites (bile acids, amino acids, and glucose) and damage in the intestinal epithelium, giving rise to a condition similar to antibiotics-induced gut dysbiosis, which collectively impaired tilapia’s gut health and resistance to pathogenic challenges. Additionally, we determined that JCM1149 adhered relatively poorly to tilapia intestinal mucosa and was rapidly released from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) after suspension, with the rapid loss of probiotic strain probably being the direct cause of gut dysbiosis. Finally, three other probiotic Lactobacillus strains with low intestinal mucosa binding activity showed similar rapid loss phenotype following administration suspension, and induced higher host susceptibility to infection, indicating that the risk is a generic phenomenon in Lactobacillus. PMID:26983596

  19. Nitrate administration increases blood flow in dysfunctional but viable myocardium, leading to improved assessment of myocardial viability : A PET study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Agool, Ali; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Bax, Jeroen J.

    2006-01-01

    SPECT with Tc-99m-labeled agents is better able to detect viability after nitrate administration. Nitrates induce vasoclilation and may increase blood flow to severely hypoperfused but viable myocardium, thereby enhancing tracer delivery and improving the detection of viability. Quantitative data on

  20. Increase of radioresistance of hemopoietic stem cells (CFUs) of femoral bone marrow in mice after administration of dextran sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of a single i.p. injection of dextran sulfate (DS) on the radiosensitivity of the hemopoietic stem cells (CFUs) of the femoral bone marrow of mice was investigated. The administration of DS induced an increase of the proliferative activity and the number of CFUs in the spleen and femoral bone marrow, and an elevation of the number of CFUs in the circulatory blood. An enhanced survival of CFUs in the femoral bone marrow and increased numbers of endogenous colonies of the hemopoietic tissue in the spleens were found after the administration of DS 24 and 72 hours before sublethal irradiation. The dose reduction factor of the substance calculated from the equieffective exposure for the decrease of CFUs in the femoral bone marrow was for both intervals of DS injection 2.2. DS increased the radioresistance of mice which is manifested by an increased survival of the animals after lethal whole-body gamma irradiation. (author)

  1. Liposomal Formulation of Bevasizuamb for Intravitreal Administration: Increased Half-Life, Decreased Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Zarei Ghanavati

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Intravitreal injection is the common method for treatment of the posterior segment eye diseases. The advantage of intravitreal injection is achieving the desired concentration of drug inside the eye and reduction of drug side effects. Unfortunately, repeated intravitreal injections can cause several ocular complications including; vitreous hemorrhage, endophthalmitis, retinal detachment and cataract. For this reason, it seems the usage of sustained release drug delivery systems is helpful. Bevacizumab (Avastin®, antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF monoclonal antibody, is used for the treatment of different ocular diseases such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration, neovascular glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusions, etc. For reduction of drug side effects and improvement of drug half-life after intravitreal administration, we suggest preparation of liposomal bevacizumab as novel drug delivery system and comparison of this new formulation with conventional formulation in the market.

  2. Increased Seizure Latency and Decreased Severity of Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizures in Mice after Essential Oil Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Koutroumanidou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ- induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of a lethal dose of PTZ to eight respective groups of Balb-c mice. Control group received only one i.p. PTZ injection. Motor and behavioral activity of the animals after EOs administration, development of tonic-clonic seizures, seizure latency and severity, and percentage of survival after PTZ administration were determined for each group. All groups of mice treated with the EOs showed reduced activity and stability after the administration of the oil, except for those treated with O. vulgare (100% mortality after the administration of the oil. After PTZ administration, mice from the different groups showed increased latency and reduced severity of seizures (ranging from simple twitches to complete seizures. Mice who had received M. piperita demonstrated no seizures and 100% survival. The different drastic component and its concentration could account for the diversity of anticonvulsant effects.

  3. Increased seizure latency and decreased severity of pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice after essential oil administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroumanidou, Eleni; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Kortsaris, Alexandros; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Polissiou, Moschos; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos; Pagonopoulou, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs) from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ-) induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a lethal dose of PTZ to eight respective groups of Balb-c mice. Control group received only one i.p. PTZ injection. Motor and behavioral activity of the animals after EOs administration, development of tonic-clonic seizures, seizure latency and severity, and percentage of survival after PTZ administration were determined for each group. All groups of mice treated with the EOs showed reduced activity and stability after the administration of the oil, except for those treated with O. vulgare (100% mortality after the administration of the oil). After PTZ administration, mice from the different groups showed increased latency and reduced severity of seizures (ranging from simple twitches to complete seizures). Mice who had received M. piperita demonstrated no seizures and 100% survival. The different drastic component and its concentration could account for the diversity of anticonvulsant effects. PMID:23819045

  4. Increased latencies to initiate cocaine self-administration following laterodorsal tegmental nucleus lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steidl, Stephan; Cardiff, Katherine M.; Wise, Roy A.

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic input to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), origin of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system that is critical for cocaine reward, is important for both cocaine seeking and cocaine taking. The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDTg) provides one of the two major sources of excitatory cholinergic input to the VTA, but little is known of the role of the LDTg in cocaine reward. LDTg cholinergic cells express urotensin-II receptors and here we used local microinjections of a conjugate of the endogenous ligand for these receptors with diphtheria toxin (Dtx::UII) to lesion the cholinergic cells of the LDTg in rats previously trained to self-administer cocaine (1 mg/kg/infusion, i.v.). Lesioned rats showed long latencies to initiate cocaine self-administration after treatment with the toxin, which resulted in a reduction in cocaine intake per session. Priming injections reduced latencies to initiate responding for cocaine in lesioned rats, and once they began to respond the rats regulated their moment-to-moment cocaine intake within normal limits. Thus we conclude that while LDTg cholinergic cell loss does not significantly alter the rewarding effects of cocaine, LDTg lesions can reduce the rat’s responsiveness to cocaine-predictive stimuli. PMID:25746513

  5. Administration of URB597, Oleoylethanolamide or Palmitoylethanolamide Increases Waking and Dopamine in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Palomero-Rivero, Marcela; Millán-Aldaco, Diana; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Drucker-Colín, René

    2011-01-01

    Background Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) are amides of fatty acids and ethanolamine named N-acylethanolamines or acylethanolamides. The hydrolysis of OEA and PEA is catalyzed by the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). A number of FAAH inhibitors that increase the levels of OEA and PEA in the brain have been developed, including URB597. In the present report, we examined whether URB597, OEA or PEA injected into wake-related brain areas, such as lateral hypothalamus (L...

  6. Cortisol administration increases hippocampal activation to infant crying in males depending on childhood neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Peter A; Montoya, Estrella R; Terburg, David; van Honk, Jack

    2014-10-01

    Animal studies show that exposure to parental neglect alters stress regulation and can lead to neural hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity in response to cortisol, most pronounced in the hippocampus. Cortisol, the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, has also been related to parenting more directly, for example, in both sexes, cortisol levels increase when listening to infants crying, possibly to activate and facilitate effective care behavior. Severe trauma is known to negatively affect the HPA-axis in humans; however, it is unknown whether normal variation in parental care in the healthy population can alter sensitivity of the hippocampus to cortisol. Here, we investigate whether variation in experienced neglect changes neural sensitivity to cortisol when humans listen to infant crying, which is an unequivocal signal relevant for care behavior. In a placebo-controlled, within-subject neuroimaging study, we administered 40 mg cortisol to 21 healthy young males without children and used a validated task for measuring neural responses to infant crying. The Dutch version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to index participants' early exposure to abuse and neglect. The data show that cortisol markedly increased hippocampal activation toward crying infants, and this effect varied significantly with parental neglect, even in our nonclinical subject sample. Without exposure to severe trauma or neglect, reduced self-experienced quality of parental care in the normal range already substantially increased hippocampal responsivity to cortisol. Altered hippocampal sensitivity to cortisol might be a cross-species marker for the risk of developing later life psychopathology. PMID:24757127

  7. Constitutive Knockout of Kalirin-7 Leads to Increased Rates of Cocaine Self-Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Kiraly, Drew D.; Nemirovsky, Natali E.; Larese, Taylor P.; Tomek, Seven E; Yahn, Stephanie L.; Olive, M Foster; Eipper, Betty A.; Mains, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    Kalirin-7 (Kal7) is a Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is localized in neuronal postsynaptic densities. Kal7 interacts with the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor and regulates aspects of dendritic spine dynamics both in vitro and in vivo. Chronic treatment with cocaine increases dendritic spine density in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rodents and primates. Kal7 mRNA and protein are upregulated in the NAc following cocaine treatment, and the presence of Kal7 is necessary for the no...

  8. Oral administration of lactulose: a novel therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dan-Feng; Hu, Hui-Jun; Sun, Xue-Jun; Meng, Xiang-En; Zhang, Yu; Pan, Shu-Yi

    2016-01-01

    It has been known that the pathophysiology of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is related to hypoxia, the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Studies have shown that the novel, safe and effective free radical scavenger, hydrogen, has neuroprotective effects in both acute CO poisoning and delayed neuropsychological sequelae in CO poisoning. Orally administered lactulose, which may be used by some intestinal bacteria as a food source to produce endogenous hydrogen, can ameliorate oxidative stress. Based on the available findings, we hypothesize that oral administration of lactulose may be a novel therapy for acute CO poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production. PMID:27000012

  9. Transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 is increased following abstinence from cocaine self-administration, but not cocaine sensitization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M Gancarz-Kausch

    Full Text Available The addicted phenotype is characterized as a long-lasting, chronically relapsing disorder that persists following long periods of abstinence, suggesting that the underlying molecular changes are stable and endure for long periods even in the absence of drug. Here, we investigated Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Type I receptor (TGF-β R1 expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc following periods of withdrawal from cocaine self-administration (SA and a sensitizing regimen of non-contingent cocaine. Rats were exposed to either (i repeated systemic injections (cocaine or saline, or (ii self-administration (cocaine or saline and underwent a period of forced abstinence (either 1 or 7 days of drug cessation. Withdrawal from cocaine self-administration resulted in an increase in TGF-β R1 protein expression in the NAc compared to saline controls. This increase was specific for volitional cocaine intake as no change in expression was observed following a sensitizing regimen of experimenter-administered cocaine. These findings implicate TGF-β signaling as a novel potential therapeutic target for treating drug addiction.

  10. Increased selective 10B-uptake by malignant melanoma using systemic administration of 10B1-BPA·fructose complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    10B1-para-Boronophenylalanine (10B1-BPA) has selective affinity for malignant melanoma. In the authors' first human case, they succeeded in obtaining complete regression of a metastatic subcutaneous melanoma lesion by neutron capture therapy (NCT) using distant perilesional injections of 10B1-BPA hydrochloride. Furthermore, they have cured primary cutaneous melanoma lesions of various types in 5 additional patients by single or one repeated NCT using a combination of oral administration, subcutaneous and distant perilesional injections of 10B1-BPA·fructose complex at around pH 7.4. They have been pursuing NCT using increased systemic administration of 10B1-BPA, which can lead to cure of multiple (widely-distributed) melanoma lesions. In this study, they analyzed boron dynamics in melanoma, skin and blood in tumor-bearing hamsters and a human patient after intravenous (i.v.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of 10B1-BPA·fructose complex

  11. [Rapid construction of full-length MnSOD cDNA of chickens by one-step 3'RACE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, You-Quan; Luo, Xu-Gang; Liu, Bin; Li, Su-Fen

    2004-07-01

    RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) is a popular technique to rapidly obtain the full-length cDNA. After obtaining the 3' cDNA and 5' cDNA fragments with a overlapped region by 3' RACE and 5' RACE, the full-length cDNA could be generated by end-to-end PCR or subcloning. In this study, 3' RACE combined with touch-down PCR was successfully used for the rapid construction of full-length MnSOD cDNA of chickens. Compared with the conventional end-to-end PCR or subcloning, this method, called one-step 3' RACE, is fast, economical and highly specific. It especially fits the rapid construction of full-length cDNA by RACE method. PMID:15640053

  12. Co-administration of GF120918 significantly increases the systemic exposure to oral paclitaxel in cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Malingré, M M; Beijnen, J H; Rosing, H; Koopman, F J; Jewell, R C; Paul, E M; Huinink, W W ten Bokkel; Schellens, J H M

    2001-01-01

    Oral bioavailability of paclitaxel is very low, which is due to efficient transport of the drug by the intestinal drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp). We have recently demonstrated that the oral bioavailability of paclitaxel can be increased at least 7-fold by co-administration of the P-gp blocker cyclosporin A (CsA). Now we tested the potent alternative orally applicable non-immunosuppressive P-gp blocker GF120918. Six patients received one course of oral paclitaxel of 120 mg/m2 in combin...

  13. Trans-stilbene oxide administration increased hepatic glucuronidation of morphine but decreased biliary excretion of morphine glucuronide in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the inducing agent trans-stilbene oxide (TSO) on the metabolism and biliary excretion of [14C]morphine was studied in the isolated in situ perfused rat liver. After administration of morphine by intraportal injection or by the segmented retrograde intrabiliary injection technique, the TSO-treated group showed a marked decrease in the biliary recovery of morphine as its glucuronide conjugate [morphine-3-glucuronide (MG)]. However, recovery of MG in the venous outflow of the single pass perfusate was greatly increased. These findings suggested that TSO treatment enhanced the formation of MG from morphine and changed the primary route of hepatic elimination of MG. TSO treatment also decreased the excretion of morphine (as MG) in the bile of anesthetized renal-ligated rats. This decreased biliary function required several days to develop and appeared closely associated with the inductive effect of TSO. After i.v. administration of [14C]MG itself, biliary recovery was also markedly decreased in TSO-treated rats. It is postulated that the effect of the TSO treatment led to either a decrease in canalicular transport of MG into bile or an increase in the efficiency of transfer of MG to the blood at the sinusoidal side of the hepatocyte. Regardless of the mechanism, the results indicate the need to study compartmentalization of drug transport and metabolism functions

  14. Trans-stilbene oxide administration increased hepatic glucuronidation of morphine but decreased biliary excretion of morphine glucuronide in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhrman-Lane, C.; Fujimoto, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    The effect of the inducing agent trans-stilbene oxide (TSO) on the metabolism and biliary excretion of (/sup 14/C)morphine was studied in the isolated in situ perfused rat liver. After administration of morphine by intraportal injection or by the segmented retrograde intrabiliary injection technique, the TSO-treated group showed a marked decrease in the biliary recovery of morphine as its glucuronide conjugate (morphine-3-glucuronide (MG)). However, recovery of MG in the venous outflow of the single pass perfusate was greatly increased. These findings suggested that TSO treatment enhanced the formation of MG from morphine and changed the primary route of hepatic elimination of MG. TSO treatment also decreased the excretion of morphine (as MG) in the bile of anesthetized renal-ligated rats. This decreased biliary function required several days to develop and appeared closely associated with the inductive effect of TSO. After i.v. administration of (/sup 14/C)MG itself, biliary recovery was also markedly decreased in TSO-treated rats. It is postulated that the effect of the TSO treatment led to either a decrease in canalicular transport of MG into bile or an increase in the efficiency of transfer of MG to the blood at the sinusoidal side of the hepatocyte. Regardless of the mechanism, the results indicate the need to study compartmentalization of drug transport and metabolism functions.

  15. Increased sexual desire with exogenous testosterone administration in men with obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melehan, K L; Hoyos, C M; Yee, B J; Wong, K K; Buchanan, P R; Grunstein, R R; Liu, P Y

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone (T) deficiency, sexual dysfunction, obesity and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are common and often coexist. T prescriptions have increased worldwide during the last decade, including to those with undiagnosed or untreated OSA. The effect of T administration on sexual function, neurocognitive performance and quality of life in these men is poorly defined. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of T administration on sexual function, quality of life and neurocognitive performance in obese men with OSA. We also secondarily examined whether baseline T might modify the effects of T treatment by dichotomizing on baseline T levels pre-specified at 8, 11 and 13 nmol/L. This was a randomized placebo-controlled study in which 67 obese men with OSA (mean age 49 ± 1.3 years) were randomized to receive intramuscular injections of either 1000 mg T undecanoate or placebo at baseline, week 6 and week 12. All participants were concurrently enrolled in a weight loss program. General and sleep-related quality of life, neurocognitive performance and subjective sexual function were assessed before and 6, 12 and 18 weeks after therapy. T compared to placebo increased sexual desire (p = 0.004) in all men, irrespective of baseline T levels. There were no differences in erectile function, frequency of sexual attempts, orgasmic ability, general or sleep-related quality of life or neurocognitive function (all p = NS). In those with baseline T levels below 8 nmol/L, T increased vitality (p = 0.004), and reduced reports of feeling down (p = 0.002) and nervousness (p = 0.03). Our findings show that 18 weeks of T therapy increased sexual desire in obese men with OSA independently of baseline T levels whereas improvements in quality of life were evident only in those with T levels below 8 nmol/L. These small improvements would need to be balanced against potentially more serious adverse effects of T therapy on breathing. PMID:26610430

  16. Mechanisms of Withdrawal-Associated Increases in Heroin Self-Administration: Pharmacologic Modulation of Heroin vs. Food Choice in Heroin-Dependent Rhesus Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Negus, S. Stevens; Rice, Kenner C.

    2008-01-01

    Opioid withdrawal can produce a constellation of physiological and behavioral signs, including an increase in opioid self-administration. Different mechanisms mediate different withdrawal signs, and the present study used pharmacologic tools to assess mechanisms underlying withdrawal-associated increases in opioid reinforcement. Five rhesus monkeys were rendered heroin dependent via daily 21-hr heroin self-administration sessions. One hr after each heroin self-administration session, monkeys ...

  17. Increased salt sensitivity induced by sensory denervation:role of superoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-zhong SONG; Alex F CHEN; Donna H WANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To test the hypothesis that production of superoxide in mesenteric resistance arteries is increased and contributes to the development of hypertension induced by sensory denervation plus high salt intake. METHODS:Newborn Wistar rats were given capsaicin 50mg/kg sc on the 1st and 2nd d of life. After weaning, male rats were grouped as follows and treated for 3 weeks with: capsaicin pretreatment plus normal sodium diet (0.5%, CAP-NS),CAP plus high sodium diet (4%, CAP-HS), control plus NS (CON-NS), or CON-HS. Both tail-cuff systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured in each of the groups. Western blot analysis was used for measurement of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the mesenteric resistance arteries. Lucigenin chemiluminescence assay was used for superoxide production in the mesenteric resistance arteries. The Griess method was used for measurement of nitrite/nitrate levels in plasma.RESULTS: Both tail-cuff pressure and MAP were higher in CAP-HS compared with CAP-NS, CON-HS, and CONNS rats (P<0.05). Both MnSOD and eNOS in the mesenteric resistance arteries were increased in CAP-HS compared with CAP-NS, CON-HS, and CON-NS (P<0.05). However, nitrite/nitrate levels in plasma were not different among 4 groups. Acute iv administration of tempol, a membrane-permeable superoxide scavenger, decreased MAP in both CAP-HS and CON-HS when compared with their respective controls. However, the decreases of MAP between these two groups were not different. Chronic treatment with tempol failed to prevent the development of hypertension in CAP-HS rats. Superoxide production in the mesenteric resistance arteries was increased in CAP-HS compared with CAP-NS, CON-HS, and CON-NS (P<0.05). However, chronic treatment with tempol did not prevent the increase of mesenteric superoxide production in CAP-HS rats. CONCLUSIONS:Regardless of increased vascular MnSOD levels, salt sensitive hypertension

  18. Repeated oral administration of capsaicin increases anxiety-like behaviours with prolonged stress-response in rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y-J Choi; J Y Kim; S B Yoo; J-H Lee; J W Jahng

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine the psycho-emotional effects of repeated oral exposure to capsaicin, the principal active component of chili peppers. Each rat received 1 mL of 0.02% capsaicin into its oral cavity daily, and was subjected to behavioural tests following 10 daily administrations of capsaicin. Stereotypy counts and rostral grooming were significantly increased, and caudal grooming decreased, in capsaicin-treated rats during the ambulatory activity test. In elevated plus maze test, not only the time spent in open arms but also the percent arm entry into open arms was reduced in capsaicin-treated rats compared with control rats. In forced swim test, although swimming duration was decreased, struggling increased in the capsaicin group, immobility duration did not differ between the groups. Repeated oral capsaicin did not affect the basal levels of plasma corticosterone; however, the stress-induced elevation of plasma corticosterone was prolonged in capsaicin treated rats. Oral capsaicin exposure significantly increased c-Fos expression not only in the nucleus tractus of solitarius but also in the paraventricular nucleus. Results suggest that repeated oral exposure to capsaicin increases anxiety-like behaviours in rats, and dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may play a role in its pathophysiology.

  19. Increased serum bile acid concentration following low-dose chronic administration of thioacetamide in rats, as evidenced by metabolomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Sook; Kim, Gabin; Shin, Ho Jung; Park, Se-Myo; Oh, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Yong-Bum; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Jeong, Jayoung; Shin, Jae-Gook; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2015-10-15

    A liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOF-MS)-based metabolomics approach was employed to identify endogenous metabolites as potential biomarkers for thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver injury. TAA (10 and 30mg/kg), a well-known hepatotoxic agent, was administered daily to male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 28days. We then conducted untargeted analyses of endogenous serum and liver metabolites. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was performed on serum and liver samples to evaluate metabolites associated with TAA-induced perturbation. TAA administration resulted in altered levels of bile acids, acyl carnitines, and phospholipids in serum and in the liver. We subsequently demonstrated and confirmed the occurrence of compromised bile acid homeostasis. TAA treatment significantly increased serum levels of conjugated bile acids in a dose-dependent manner, which correlated well with toxicity. However, hepatic levels of these metabolites were not substantially changed. Gene expression profiling showed that the hepatic mRNA levels of Ntcp, Bsep, and Oatp1b2 were significantly suppressed, whereas those of basolateral Mrp3 and Mrp4 were increased. Decreased levels of Ntcp, Oatp1b2, and Ostα proteins in the liver were confirmed by western blot analysis. These results suggest that serum bile acids might be increased due to the inhibition of bile acid enterohepatic circulation rather than increased endogenous bile acid synthesis. Moreover, serum bile acids are a good indicator of TAA-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:26222700

  20. Effectiveness of increasing the frequency of posaconazole syrup administration to achieve optimal plasma concentrations in patients with haematological malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wan Beom; Cho, Joo-Youn; Park, Sang-In; Kim, Eun Jung; Yoon, Seonghae; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Youngil; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Kim, Eu Suk; Bang, Su Mi; Kim, Nam Joong; Kim, Inho; Oh, Myoung-Don; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Sang Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Few data are available on whether adjusting the dose of posaconazole syrup is effective in patients receiving anti-cancer chemotherapy. The aim of this prospective study was to analyse the impact of increasing the frequency of posaconazole administration on optimal plasma concentrations in adult patients with haematological malignancy. A total of 133 adult patients receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who received posaconazole syrup 200 mg three times daily for fungal prophylaxis were enrolled in this study. Drug trough levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In 20.2% of patients (23/114) the steady-state concentration of posaconazole was suboptimal (syrup is effective for achieving optimal levels in patients with haematological malignancy undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:27234674

  1. Chronic ethanol administration increases the binding of 3H Ro-15-4513 in primary cultured spinal cord neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro 15-4513 (ethyl-8-azido-5, 6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo [1,5α], [1,4] benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate) is reported to be a selective ethanol antagonist in biochemical and behavioral studies. The effect of chronic ethanol treatment on the binding of [3H]Ro 15-4513 was investigated in cultured spinal cord neurons, which are shown to possess all the elements of GABA benzodiazepine receptor complex. Chronic ethanol treatment (50 mM for 6 hr, 12 hr, 18 hr, 3 days, and 53 days) produced an increase in the specific binding of [3H]Ro 15-4513. The increase in binding in these neurons was due to an increase in the number (Bmax) of receptor sites. This effect was specific for Ro 15-4513, since identical ethanol treatment did not alter the binding of benzodiazepine antagonist [3H]Ro 15-1788 or agonist [3H]flunitrazepam or inverse agonist [3H]methyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylate. Similar results have been reported following chronic ethanol treatment to rats. These results suggest that the Ro 15-4513 binding sites on the oligomeric GABA receptor complex are altered following chronic ethanol administration, and support the notion of a unique role of Ro 15-4513 as an ethanol antagonist

  2. Perceptual distortions and delusional thinking following ketamine administration are related to increased pharmacological MRI signal changes in the parietal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James; Kotoula, Vasileia; Dietrich, Craige; De Simoni, Sara; Krystal, John H; Mehta, Mitul A

    2015-09-01

    Ketamine produces effects in healthy humans that resemble the positive, negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. We investigated the effect of ketamine administration on brain activity as indexed by blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal change response, and its relationship to ketamine-induced subjective changes, including perceptual distortion. Thirteen healthy participants volunteered for the study. All underwent a 15-min functional MRI acquisition with a ketamine infusion commencing after 5 min (approx 0.26 mg/kg over 20s followed by an infusion of approx. 0.42 mg/kg/h). Following the scan, participants self-rated ketamine-induced effects using the Psychotomimetic States Inventory. Ketamine led to widespread cortical and subcortical increases in BOLD response (FWE-corrected p distortions and delusional thoughts correlated with increased BOLD response in the paracentral lobule (FWE-corrected p < 0.01). The findings suggest that BOLD increases in parietal cortices reflect ketamine effects on circuits that contribute to its capacity to produce perceptual alterations and delusional interpretations. PMID:26152321

  3. Increased intravenous morphine self-administration following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in dietary obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegler, Jessica M; Freet, Christopher S; Horvath, Nelli; Rogers, Ann M; Hajnal, Andras

    2016-05-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is a commonly performed and very effective method to achieve significant, long-term weight loss. Opioid analgesics are primarily used to manage postoperative pain as fewer alternative medication options are available for bariatric surgery patients than for the general population. Recent clinical studies support a greater risk for substance use following bariatric surgery, including an increased use of opioid medications. The present study is the first to study morphine self-administration in a rat model of RYGB. High fat diet-induced obese (HFD-DIO) rats underwent RYGB (n=14) or sham-surgery with ad libitum HFD (SHAM, n=14) or a restricted amount that resulted in weight matched to the RYGB cohort (SHAM-WM, n=8). An additional normal-diet (ND, n=7), intact (no surgery) group of rats was included. Two months after the surgeries, rats were fitted with jugular catheters and trained on a fixed ratio-2 lick task to obtain morphine intravenously. Both morphine-seeking (number of licks on an empty spout to obtain morphine infusion) and consumption (number of infusion) were significantly greater in RYGB than any control group beginning on day 3 and reached a two-fold increase over a period of two weeks. These findings demonstrate that RYGB increases motivation for taking morphine and that this effect is independent of weight loss. Further research is warranted to reveal the underlying mechanisms and to determine whether increased morphine use represents a risk for opioid addiction following RYGB. Identifying risk factors preoperatively could help with personalized postoperative care to prevent opioid abuse and addiction. PMID:26304761

  4. Characterization of the aodA, dnmA, mnSOD and pimA genes in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Éva; Park, Hee-Soo; Kwon, Nak-Jung; Han, Kap-Hoon; Emri, Tamás; Oláh, Viktor; Mészáros, Ilona; Dienes, Beatrix; Vincze, János; Csernoch, László; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Pócsi, István

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria play key roles in cellular energy generation and lifespan of most eukaryotes. To understand the functions of four nuclear-encoded genes predicted to be related to the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and function in Aspergillus nidulans, systematic characterization was carried out. The deletion and overexpression mutants of aodA, dnmA, mnSOD and pimA encoding alternative oxidase, dynamin related protein, manganese superoxide dismutase and Lon protease, respectively, were generated and examined for their growth, stress tolerances, respiration, autolysis, cell death, sterigmatocystin production, hyphal morphology and size, and mitochondrial superoxide production as well as development. Overall, genetic manipulation of these genes had less effect on cellular physiology and ageing in A. nidulans than that of their homologs in another fungus Podospora anserina with a well-characterized senescence. The observed interspecial phenotypic differences can be explained by the dissimilar intrinsic stabilities of the mitochondrial genomes in A. nidulans and P. anserina. Furthermore, the marginally altered phenotypes observed in A. nidulans mutants indicate the presence of effective compensatory mechanisms for the complex networks of mitochondrial defense and quality control. Importantly, these findings can be useful for developing novel platforms for heterologous protein production, or on new biocontrol and bioremediation technologies based on Aspergillus species. PMID:26846452

  5. Repeated Administration of Korea Red Ginseng Extract Increases Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep via GABAAergic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chung-Il; Kim, Chung-Soo; Han, Jin-Yi; Oh, Eun-Hye; Oh, Ki-Wan; Eun, Jae Soon

    2012-01-01

    The current inquiry was conducted to assess the change in sleep architecture after long periods of administration to determine whether ginseng can be used in the therapy of sleeplessness. Following post-surgical recovery, red ginseng extract (RGE, 200 mg/ kg) was orally administrated to rats for 9 d. Data were gathered on the 1st, 5th, and 9th day, and an electroencephalogram was recorded 24 h after RGE administration. Polygraphic signs of unobstructed sleep-wake activities were simultaneousl...

  6. Mitochondrial protein oxidation in yeast mutants lacking manganese-(MnSOD) or copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD): evidence that MnSOD and CuZnSOD have both unique and overlapping functions in protecting mitochondrial proteins from oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kristin M; Dirmeier, Reinhard; Engle, Marcella; Poyton, Robert O

    2004-12-10

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae expresses two forms of superoxide dismutase (SOD): MnSOD, encoded by SOD2, which is located within the mitochondrial matrix, and CuZnSOD, encoded by SOD1, which is located in both the cytosol and the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Because two different SOD enzymes are located in the mitochondrion, we examined the relative roles of each in protecting mitochondria against oxidative stress. Using protein carbonylation as a measure of oxidative stress, we have found no correlation between overall levels of respiration and the level of oxidative mitochondrial protein damage in either wild type or sod mutant strains. Moreover, mitochondrial protein carbonylation levels in sod1, sod2, and sod1sod2 mutants are not elevated in cells harvested from mid-logarithmic and early stationary phases, suggesting that neither MnSOD nor CuZnSOD is required for protecting the majority of mitochondrial proteins from oxidative damage during these early phases of growth. During late stationary phase, mitochondrial protein carbonylation increases in all strains, particularly in sod1 and sod1sod2 mutants. By using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we have found that specific proteins become carbonylated in sod1 and sod2 mutants. We identified six mitochondrial protein spots representing five unique proteins that become carbonylated in a sod1 mutant and 19 mitochondrial protein spots representing 11 unique proteins that become carbonylated in a sod2 mutant. Although some of the same proteins are carbonylated in both mutants, other proteins are not. These findings indicate that MnSOD and CuZnSOD have both unique and overlapping functions in the mitochondrion. PMID:15385544

  7. Increasing compliance with mass drug administration programs for lymphatic filariasis in India through education and lymphedema management programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Cantey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nearly 45% of people living at risk for lymphatic filariasis (LF worldwide live in India. India has faced challenges obtaining the needed levels of compliance with its mass drug administration (MDA program to interrupt LF transmission, which utilizes diethylcarbamazine (DEC or DEC plus albendazole. Previously identified predictors of and barriers to compliance with the MDA program were used to refine a pre-MDA educational campaign. The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of these refinements and of a lymphedema morbidity management program on MDA compliance. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A randomized, 30-cluster survey was performed in each of 3 areas: the community-based pre-MDA education plus community-based lymphedema management education (Com-MDA+LM area, the community-based pre-MDA education (Com-MDA area, and the Indian standard pre-MDA education (MDA-only area. Compliance with the MDA program was 90.2% in Com-MDA+LM, 75.0% in Com-MDA, and 52.9% in the MDA-only areas (p<0.0001. Identified barriers to adherence included: 1 fear of side effects and 2 lack of recognition of one's personal benefit from adherence. Multivariable predictors of adherence amenable to educational intervention were: 1 knowing about the MDA in advance of its occurrence, 2 knowing everyone is at risk for LF, 3 knowing that the MDA was for LF, and 4 knowing at least one component of the lymphedema management techniques taught in the lymphedema management program. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study confirmed previously identified predictors of and barriers to compliance with India's MDA program for LF. More importantly, it showed that targeting these predictors and barriers in a timely and clear pre-MDA educational campaign can increase compliance with MDA programs, and it demonstrated, for the first time, that lymphedema management programs may also increase compliance with MDA programs.

  8. Increasing Coverage in Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination in an Urban Setting: a Study of Malindi Town, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njomo, Doris W.; Mukoko, Dunstan A.; Nyamongo, Nipher K.; Karanja, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Implementation of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) in urban settings is an obstacle to Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) elimination. No urban-specific guidelines on MDA in urban areas exist. Malindi district urban area had received 4 MDA rounds by the time the current study was implemented. Programme data showed average treatment coverage of 28.4% (2011 MDA), far below recommended minimum of 65–80%. Methods To identify, design and test strategies for increased treatment coverage in urban areas, a quasi-experimental study was conducted in Malindi urban area. Three sub-locations with lowest treatment coverage in 2011 MDA were purposively selected. In the pre-test phase, 947 household heads sampled using systematic random method were interviewed for quantitative data. For qualitative data, 12 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with single sex adult and youth male and female groups and 3 with community drug distributors (CDDs) were conducted. Forty in-depth interviews with opinion leaders and self-administered questionnaires with District Public Health officers purposively selected were carried out. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and statistical significance assessed by χ2 test.The qualitative data were analyzed manually according to study's themes. Results and Discussion The identified strategies were implemented prior to and during 2012 MDA in two sub-locations (experimental) while in the third (control), usual MDA strategies were applied. In the post-test phase, 2012 MDA coverage in experimental and control sub-locations was comparatively assessed for effect of the newly designed strategies on urban MDA. Results indicated improved treatment coverage in experimental sub-locations, 77.1% in Shella and 66.0% in Barani. Central (control) sub-location also attained high coverage, 70.4% indicating average treatment coverage of 71%. Conclusion The identified strategies contributed to increased treatment coverage in experimental sites and

  9. Increasing coverage in mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis elimination in an urban setting: a study of Malindi Town, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris W Njomo

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Implementation of Mass Drug Administration (MDA in urban settings is an obstacle to Lymphatic Filariasis (LF elimination. No urban-specific guidelines on MDA in urban areas exist. Malindi district urban area had received 4 MDA rounds by the time the current study was implemented. Programme data showed average treatment coverage of 28.4% (2011 MDA, far below recommended minimum of 65-80%. METHODS: To identify, design and test strategies for increased treatment coverage in urban areas, a quasi-experimental study was conducted in Malindi urban area. Three sub-locations with lowest treatment coverage in 2011 MDA were purposively selected. In the pre-test phase, 947 household heads sampled using systematic random method were interviewed for quantitative data. For qualitative data, 12 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs with single sex adult and youth male and female groups and 3 with community drug distributors (CDDs were conducted. Forty in-depth interviews with opinion leaders and self-administered questionnaires with District Public Health officers purposively selected were carried out. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and statistical significance assessed by χ(2 test.The qualitative data were analyzed manually according to study's themes. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The identified strategies were implemented prior to and during 2012 MDA in two sub-locations (experimental while in the third (control, usual MDA strategies were applied. In the post-test phase, 2012 MDA coverage in experimental and control sub-locations was comparatively assessed for effect of the newly designed strategies on urban MDA. Results indicated improved treatment coverage in experimental sub-locations, 77.1% in Shella and 66.0% in Barani. Central (control sub-location also attained high coverage, 70.4% indicating average treatment coverage of 71%. CONCLUSION: The identified strategies contributed to increased treatment coverage in experimental

  10. The administration of dextrose during in-hospital cardiac arrest is associated with increased mortality and neurologic morbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Teng J; Andersen, Lars W.; Saindon, Brian Z.; Giberson, Tyler A; Kim, Won Young; Berg, Katherine; Novack, Victor; Donnino, Michael W; ,

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Dextrose may be used during cardiac arrest resuscitation to prevent or reverse hypoglycemia. However, the incidence of dextrose administration during cardiac arrest and the association of dextrose administration with survival and other outcomes are unknown. Methods We used the Get With The Guidelines®-Resuscitation national registry to identify adult patients with an in-hospital cardiac arrest between the years 2000 and 2010. To assess the adjusted effects of dextrose administrat...

  11. Increased orbitofrontal brain activation after administration of a selective adenosine A2A antagonist in cocaine dependent subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gerard eMoeller

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Positron Emission Tomography imaging studies provide evidence of reduced dopamine function in cocaine dependent subjects in the striatum, which is correlated with prefrontal cortical glucose metabolism, particularly in the orbitofrontal cortex. However, whether enhancement of dopamine in the striatum in cocaine dependent subjects would be associated with changes in prefrontal cortical brain activation is unknown. One novel class of medications that enhance dopamine function via heteromer formation with dopamine receptors in the striatum is the selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonists. This study sought to determine the effects administration of the selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist SYN115 on brain function in cocaine dependent subjects. Methodology/Principle Findings: Twelve cocaine dependent subjects underwent two fMRI scans (one after a dose of placebo and one after a dose of 100 mg of SYN115 while performing a working memory task with 3 levels of difficulty (3, 5, and 7 digits. fMRI results showed that for 7-digit working memory activation there was significantly greater activation from SYN115 compared to placebo in portions of left (L lateral orbitofrontal cortex, L insula, and L superior and middle temporal pole. Conclusion/Significance: These findings are consistent with enhanced dopamine function in the striatum in cocaine dependent subjects via blockade of adenosine A2A receptors producing increased brain activation in the orbitofrontal cortex and other cortical regions. This suggests that at least some of the changes in brain activation in prefrontal cortical regions in cocaine dependent subjects may be related to altered striatal dopamine function, and that enhancement of dopamine function via adenosine A2A receptor blockade could be explored further for amelioration of neurobehavioral deficits associated with chronic cocaine use.

  12. Increased 5-HT Levels Following Repeated Administration of Nigella sativa L. (Black Seed) Oil Produce Antidepressant Effects in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Perveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Saleem, Sadia; Sadaf, Sana; Batool, Zehra

    2013-01-01

    The seeds of Nigella sativa L., commonly known as black seed or black cumin, and its extracts are used in folk medicine in the Middle East and in Asian countries for the promotion of good health and as a remedy for many ailments. These seeds have many acclaimed medicinal properties such as broncho-dilatory, immunopotentiating, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and hypotensive. In the present study, the antidepressant activity following the repeated administration of Nigella sativa L. oil has been...

  13. Subacute Zinc Administration and L-NAME Caused an Increase of NO, Zinc, Lipoperoxidation, and Caspase-3 during a Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia Process in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manuel Blanco-Alvarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc or L-NAME administration has been shown to be protector agents, decreasing oxidative stress and cell death. However, the treatment with zinc and L-NAME by intraperitoneal injection has not been studied. The aim of our work was to study the effect of zinc and L-NAME administration on nitrosative stress and cell death. Male Wistar rats were treated with ZnCl2 (2.5 mg/kg each 24 h, for 4 days and N-ω-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 mg/kg on the day 5 (1 hour before a common carotid-artery occlusion (CCAO. The temporoparietal cortex and hippocampus were dissected, and zinc, nitrites, and lipoperoxidation were assayed at different times. Cell death was assayed by histopathology using hematoxylin-eosin staining and caspase-3 active by immunostaining. The subacute administration of zinc before CCAO decreases the levels of zinc, nitrites, lipoperoxidation, and cell death in the late phase of the ischemia. L-NAME administration in the rats treated with zinc showed an increase of zinc levels in the early phase and increase of zinc, nitrites, and lipoperoxidation levels, cell death by necrosis, and the apoptosis in the late phase. These results suggest that the use of these two therapeutic strategies increased the injury caused by the CCAO, unlike the alone administration of zinc.

  14. NucleoRed - Computerized system for increasing the effectiveness of the technical administrative conduct of the Laguna Verde Central

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The on-line systems for the management of the Laguna Verde Central (CLV) have had the challenge to evolve from the PC's of first generation until emigrate to the new Internet technologies, so that they allow to the diverse work groups to have the computer tool that allows them to gather the necessary data and to carry out efficiently the analysis of their results. To confront the previous challenge, in the CLV it has been developed and implemented the Nucleo Red that is an on-line system with the objective of providing in it lines strategic information for the Technician-administrative management of the plant in the nuclear context. The Nucleo Red is the computational tool that reflects the technical administrative processes implemented by personnel of the different Operative departments, it seeks to cooperate to the reliable and efficient operation of the first nucleo electric central of Mexico, with technology and Mexican personnel the one which already it had received international recognitions. The perspective of this computer system is to continue inside the process of continuous improvement and that although it was designed for a nucleo electric plant it can also be taken to the conventional plants of generation of electric power, so that this technology can be taken advantage of in other non nuclear facilities. The objective of the present work, is to show the new modules that have been developed in the Nucleo Red, its operation in general, and the benefits that it presents its use. (Author)

  15. Acute Central Neuropeptide Y Administration Increases Food Intake but Does Not Affect Hepatic Very Low-Density Lipoprotein (Vldl) Production in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerling, J.J.; Wang, Y.; Havekes, L.M.; Romijn, J.A.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Central neuropeptide Y (NPY) administration stimulates food intake in rodents. In addition, acute modulation of central NPY signaling increases hepatic production of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride (TG) in rats. As hypertriglyceridemia is an important risk factor for athe

  16. The Mine Safety and Health Administration's criterion threshold value policy increases miners' risk of pneumoconiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, J.L. [United Mine Workers America, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Background The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) proposes to issue citations for non-compliance with the exposure limit for respirable coal mine dust when measured exposure exceeds the exposure limit with a 'high degree of confidence.' This criterion threshold value (CTV) is derived from the sampling and analytical error of the measurement method. This policy is based on a combination of statistical and legal reasoning: the one-tailed 95% confidence limit of the sampling method, the apparent principle of due process and a standard of proof analogous to 'beyond a reasonable doubt.' This policy raises the effective exposure limit, it is contrary to the precautionary principle, it is not a fair sharing of the burden of uncertainty, and it employs an inappropriate standard of proof. Its own advisory committee and NIOSH have advised against this policy. For longwall mining sections, it results in a failure to issue citations for approximately 36% of the measured values that exceed the statutory exposure limit. Citations for non-compliance with the respirable dust standard should be issued for any measure exposure that exceeds the exposure limit.

  17. A High-Fat Meal, or Intraperitoneal Administration of a Fat Emulsion, Increases Extracellular Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens

    OpenAIRE

    Hoebel, Bartley G.; Barson, Jessica R.; Pedro Rada; Leibowitz, Sarah F.; Avena, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence links dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell to the ingestion of palatable diets. Less is known, however, about the specific relation of DA to dietary fat and circulating triglycerides (TG), which are stimulated by fat intake and promote overeating. The present experiments tested in Sprague-Dawley rats whether extracellular levels of NAc DA increase in response to acute access to fat-rich food or peripheral injection of a fat emulsion and, if so, whether this is related t...

  18. Chronic Aldosterone Administration Causes NOX2-Mediated Increases In Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Endothelial Dysfunction in the Cerebral Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHRISSOBOLIS, Sophocles; DRUMMOND, Grant R.; FARACI, Frank M.; SOBEY, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective An elevated plasma aldosterone level is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Although excess aldosterone promotes cardiovascular disease, no studies have examined the effect of increased plasma aldosterone on the cerebral circulation. A major source of vascular reactive oxygen species (ROS) during cardiovascular disease is the NADPH oxidases. Because NOX2-containing NADPH oxidase (NOX2 oxidase) is highly expressed in cerebral endothelium, we postulated that it might contribute to ROS generation and vascular dysfunction in response to aldosterone. Here we examined the effect of aldosterone and NOX2 oxidase on ROS production and endothelial dysfunction in the cerebral circulation, and whether the effects of aldosterone are exacerbated in aged mice. Methods and Results In adult (average age ~24–25 wk) wild-type (WT) and Nox2-deficient (Nox2−/y) mice, neither vehicle nor aldosterone (0.28 mg/kg/day for 14 days) affected blood pressure (measured using tail-cuff). By contrast, aldosterone treatment reduced dilation of the basilar artery (measured using myography) to the endothelium-dependent agonist acetylcholine in WT mice (P0.05). Aldosterone increased basal and phorbol-dibutyrate stimulated superoxide production (measured using L-012-enhanced chemiluminesence) in cerebral arteries from WT but not Nox2−/y mice. In aged WT mice (average age ~70 wk), aldosterone treatment increased blood pressure, but had a similar effect on cerebral artery superoxide levels as in adult WT mice. Conclusions These data indicate that NOX2 oxidase mediates aldosterone-induced increases in ROS production and endothelial dysfunction in cerebral arteries from adult mice independently of blood pressure changes. Aldosterone-induced hypertension is augmented during aging. PMID:24991871

  19. A recommendation to perform a blood culture before the administration of intravenous antibiotics increased the detection of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    OpenAIRE

    Jogenfors, A.; Stark, L.; Svefors, J.; Löfgren, S; Malmvall, B.-E.; Matussek, A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2004, the Surviving Sepsis Campaign was launched to increase awareness and improve the outcome of severe sepsis. Accordingly, in Jönköping County, Sweden, a strong recommendation to perform a blood culture before the start of intravenous antibiotic treatment was introduced in 2007. Moreover, a reminder was included in the laboratory report to consult an infectious disease specialist when Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from a blood culture. Retrospectively, patients with at least one bl...

  20. Pharyngeal oxygen administration increases the time to serious desaturation at intubation in acute lung injury: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Joakim; Hedenstierna, Göran; Larsson, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Endotracheal intubation in critically ill patients is associated with severe life-threatening complications in about 20%, mainly due to hypoxemia. We hypothesized that apneic oxygenation via a pharyngeal catheter during the endotracheal intubation procedure would prevent or increase the time to life-threatening hypoxemia and tested this hypothesis in an acute lung injury animal model. Methods Eight anesthetized piglets with collapse-prone lungs induced by lung lavage were ventila...

  1. A High-Fat Meal, or Intraperitoneal Administration of a Fat Emulsion, Increases Extracellular Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartley G. Hoebel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence links dopamine (DA in the nucleus accumbens (NAc shell to the ingestion of palatable diets. Less is known, however, about the specific relation of DA to dietary fat and circulating triglycerides (TG, which are stimulated by fat intake and promote overeating. The present experiments tested in Sprague-Dawley rats whether extracellular levels of NAc DA increase in response to acute access to fat-rich food or peripheral injection of a fat emulsion and, if so, whether this is related to caloric intake or elevated circulating lipids. When rats consumed more calories of a high-fat meal compared with a low-fat meal, there was a significant increase in extracellular accumbens DA (155% vs. 119%. Systemic injection of a fat emulsion, which like a high-fat diet raises circulating TG but eliminates the factor of taste and allows for the control of caloric intake, also significantly increased extracellular levels of DA (127% compared to an equicaloric glucose solution (70% and saline (85%. Together, this suggests that a rise in circulating TG may contribute to the stimulatory effect of a high-fat diet on NAc DA.

  2. Central amygdala opioid transmission is necessary for increased high-fat intake following 24-h food deprivation, but not following intra-accumbens opioid administration

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Kyle E.; Johns, Howard W.; Floros, Ted G.; Will, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a dissociation of certain neural mediators that contribute to the increased consumption of a high-fat diet that follows intra-accumbens (Acb) administration of µ-opioid receptor agonists vs. 24-h food deprivation. These two models, both which induce rapid consumption of the diet, have been shown to involve a distributed corticolimbic circuitry, including the amygdala. Specifically, the central amygdala (CeA) has been shown to be involved in high-fat feeding ...

  3. Repeated administration of aripiprazole produces a sensitization effect in the suppression of avoidance responding and phencyclidine-induced hyperlocomotion and increases D2 receptor-mediated behavioral function

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Jun; Qin, Rongyin; LI Ming

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how repeated administration of aripiprazole (a novel antipsychotic drug) alters its behavioral effects in two behavioral tests of antipsychotic activity and whether this alteration is correlated with an increase in dopamine D2 receptor function. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were first repeatedly tested with aripiprazole (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, subcutaneously (sc)) or vehicle in a conditioned avoidance response (CAR) test or a phencyclidine (PCP) (3.20 mg/kg, sc)-...

  4. Administration of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen increases macrophage concentrations but reduces necrosis during modified muscle use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, E. V.; Tidball, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that ibuprofen administration during modified muscle use reduces muscle necrosis and invasion by select myeloid cell populations. METHODS: Rats were subjected to hindlimb unloading for 10 days, after which they experienced muscle reloading by normal weight-bearing to induce muscle inflammation and necrosis. Some animals received ibuprofen by intraperitoneal injection 8 h prior to the onset of muscle reloading, and then again at 8 and 16 h following the onset of reloading. Other animals received buffer injection at 8 h prior to reloading and then ibuprofen at 8 and 16 h following the onset of reloading. Control animals received buffer only at each time point. Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis was used to assess the presence of necrotic muscle fibers, total inflammatory infiltrate, neutrophils, ED1+ macrophages and ED2+ macrophages at 24 h following the onset of reloading. RESULT: Administration of ibuprofen beginning 8 h prior to reloading caused significant reduction in the concentration of necrotic fibers, but increased the concentration of inflammatory cells in muscle. The increase in inflammatory cells was attributable to a 2.6-fold increase in the concentration of ED2+ macrophages. Animals treated with ibuprofen 8 h following the onset of reloading showed no decrease in muscle necrosis or increase in ED2+ macrophage concentrations. CONCLUSION: Administration of ibuprofen prior to increased muscle loading reduces muscle damage, but increases the concentration of macrophages that express the ED2 antigen. The increase in ED2+ macrophage concentration and decrease in necrosis may be mechanistically related because ED2+ macrophages have been associated with muscle regeneration and repair.

  5. 3'-5' cyclic-guanosine monophosphate increase in rat brain hippocampus after gamma-hydroxybutyrate administration. Prevention by valproate and naloxone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vayer, P.; Gobaille, S.; Mandel, P.; Maitre, M.

    1987-08-03

    An increase (123%) of cyclic GMP (cGMP) was observed in the hippocampus of the rat killed by microwave irradiation 45 min after administration of 500 mg/kg el-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) IP. This increase is time and dose dependent. No modification in cyclic nucleotide content was observed in striatum and in cerebellum. As the role of GHB has been implicated in neurotransmission, the fact that this compound increases cyclic GMP accumulation in hippocampus in vivo may represent a mechanism by which the actions of GHB are mediated at the cellular level. Valproate (400 mg/kg) or naloxone (10 mg/kg) pretreatment completely abolish the cGMP increase due to GHB. A GABAergic and/or opiate phenomenon may be involved in the mechanism of GHB induced increase of cGMP. 34 references, 4 figures.

  6. Oral administration of O-2 lean, an anti-obesity herbal composition increased 5-HT metabolism, decreased food intake and body weight in overweight rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeding behavior is complex processes controlled by the neruroendocrine system.5-HT play an important role in regulation of energy balance by suppressing food intake. Depletion of brain serotonin increase feeding behavior and develop obesity. Many serotoninergic compounds are available in market for the management of body weight. 02-Lean is an anti-obesity herbal formulation prepared by combination of different herbs. Oral administration of aqueous suspension of 02-Lean caused a significant decrease in body weight, food intake, and increase in whole brain 5-HT 5HIAA, tryptophan and plasma tryptophan in over weight rats treated with 0.096g/2ml 02-Lean in comparison to control group. (author)

  7. Administration of soluble activin receptor 2B increases bone and muscle mass in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Douglas J DiGirolamo; Vandana Singhal; Xiaoli Chang; Se-Jin Lee; Emily L Germain-Lee

    2015-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a group of heritable connective tissue disorders generally defined by recurrent fractures, low bone mass, short stature and skeletal fragility. Beyond the skeletal complications of OI, many patients also report intolerance to physical activity, fatigue and muscle weakness. Indeed, recent studies have demonstrated that skeletal muscle is also negatively affected by OI, both directly and indirectly. Given the well-established interdependence of bone and skeletal muscle in both physiology and pathophysiology and the observations of skeletal muscle pathology in patients with OI, we investigated the therapeutic potential of simultaneous anabolic targeting of both bone and skeletal muscle using a soluble activin receptor 2B (ACVR2B) in a mouse model of type III OI (oim). Treatment of 12-week-old oim mice with ACVR2B for 4 weeks resulted in significant increases in both bone and muscle that were similar to those observed in healthy, wild-type littermates. This proof of concept study provides encouraging evidence for a holistic approach to treating the deleterious consequences of OI in the musculoskeletal system.

  8. Acute central neuropeptide Y administration increases food intake but does not affect hepatic very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL production in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine J Geerling

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Central neuropeptide Y (NPY administration stimulates food intake in rodents. In addition, acute modulation of central NPY signaling increases hepatic production of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-triglyceride (TG in rats. As hypertriglyceridemia is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis, for which well-established mouse models are available, we set out to validate the effect of NPY on hepatic VLDL-TG production in mice, to ultimately investigate whether NPY, by increasing VLDL production, contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Male C57Bl/6J mice received an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. cannula into the lateral (LV or third (3V ventricle of the brain. One week later, after a 4 h fast, the animals received an intravenous (i.v. injection of Tran(35S (100 µCi followed by tyloxapol (500 mg/kg body weight; BW, enabling the study of hepatic VLDL-apoB and VLDL-TG production, respectively. Immediately after the i.v. injection of tyloxapol, the animals received either an i.c.v. injection of NPY (0.2 mg/kg BW in artificial cerebrospinal fluid; aCSF, synthetic Y1 receptor antagonist GR231118 (0.5 mg/kg BW in aCSF or vehicle (aCSF, or an i.v. injection of PYY3-36 (0.5 mg/kg BW in PBS or vehicle (PBS. RESULTS: Administration of NPY into both the LV and 3V increased food intake within one hour after injection (+164%, p<0.001 and +367%, p<0.001, respectively. NPY administration neither in the LV nor in the 3V affected hepatic VLDL-TG or VLDL-apoB production. Likewise, antagonizing central NPY signaling by either PYY3-36 or GR231118 administration did not affect hepatic VLDL production. CONCLUSION: In mice, as opposed to rats, acute central administration of NPY increases food intake without affecting hepatic VLDL production. These results are of great significance when extrapolating findings on the central regulation of hepatic VLDL production between species.

  9. Peningkatan Produktivitas Ayam Petelur Melalui Pemberian Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kemangi (INCREASED LAYING HENS PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH THE ADMINISTRATION OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF KEMANGI LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriyanto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Empirically, kemangi leaves reported to increase health quality in human and livestock. Thepreliminary study was designed to explore the potency of ethanol extract of kemangi leaves to increaselaying hens performance. Sixteen laying hens (pullet were divided into 4 groups and repeated 4 times.Control group was laying hen administered aquadest orally, treated group was laying hen administeredextract of kemangi leaves orally at a dose of 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg BW, respectively. Every day, the experimentallaying hens were fed for 3 times and drinking water was provided ad libitum. Variables observed were thenumber of eggs, egg weight, time of first laying, egg laying intervals, egg quality ( water content, crudeprotein, and crude fat, and liver function (SGPT and SGOT values . Results of this research showed thatadministration of kemangi leaves extract at a dose of 3 mg/kg BW significantly increased the number ofegg production and egg weight (p<0.05. Time of first laying and laying interval did not show any significantdifference among treatments. Examination of moisture, crude protein, and crude fat content of the eggindicated that the administration of kemangi leaves extract did not affect egg quality. Extract of kemangileaves decreased SGPT and SGOT values that indicated improvement of liver function. It was concludedthat administration of ethanol extract of kemangi leaves could increase laying hens productivity byimprovement of liver function that is critical in vitellogenesis.

  10. Repeated administration of aripiprazole produces a sensitization effect in the suppression of avoidance responding and phencyclidine-induced hyperlocomotion and increases D2 receptor-mediated behavioral function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Qin, Rongyin; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated how repeated administration of aripiprazole (a novel antipsychotic drug) alters its behavioral effects in two behavioral tests of antipsychotic activity and whether this alteration is correlated with an increase in dopamine D2 receptor function. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were first repeatedly tested with aripiprazole (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, subcutaneously (sc)) or vehicle in a conditioned avoidance response (CAR) test or a phencyclidine (PCP) (3.20 mg/kg, sc)-induced hyperlocomotion test daily for five consecutive days. After 2–3 days of drug-free retraining or resting, all rats were then challenged with aripiprazole (1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg, sc). Repeated administration of aripiprazole progressively increased its inhibition of avoidance responding and PCP-induced hyperlocomotion. More importantly, rats previously treated with aripiprazole showed significantly lower avoidance response and lower PCP-induced hyperlocomotion than those previously treated with vehicle in the challenge tests. An increased sensitivity to quinpirole (a selective D2/3 agonist) in prior aripiprazole-treated rats was also found in the quinpirole-induced hyperlocomotion test, suggesting an enhanced D2/3-mediated function. These findings suggest that aripiprazole, despite its distinct receptor mechanisms of action, induces a sensitization effect similar to those induced by other antipsychotic drugs and this effect may be partially mediated by brain plasticity involving D2/3 receptor systems. PMID:25586399

  11. Basolateral amygdala opioids contribute to increased high-fat intake following intra-accumbens opioid administration, but not following 24-hr food deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Kyle E.; McCall, Jordan G.; Will, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that administration of μ-opioid receptor agonists into the nucleus accumbens increases high-fat diet consumption in sated rats and has shown a role of basolateral amygdala (BLA) activity in mediating this response. The present experiments were conducted to examine the role of BLA opioid transmission in mediating high-fat feeding driven by either intra-accumbens opioid activation or 24-hr home cage food deprivation. Injection of the μ-opioid agonist, D-Ala2-N...

  12. Pharmacokinetics of Repeated Sodium Salicylate Administration to Laying Hens: Evidence for Time Dependent Increase in Drug Elimination from Plasma and Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poźniak, Błażej; Grabowski, Tomasz; Motykiewicz-Pers, Karolina; Bobrek, Kamila; Rak, Lech; Bobusia, Katarzyna; Gaweł, Andrzej; Świtała, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Salicylates were the first non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to be used in any species and are still widely used in humans and livestock. However, the data on their pharmacokinetics in animals is limited, especially after repeated administration. Evidence exist that in chickens (Gallus gallus) salicylate (SA) may induce its own elimination. The aim of this study was to investigate salicylate pharmacokinetics and egg residues during repeated administration of sodium salicylate (SS) to laying hens. Pharmacokinetics of SA was assessed during 14 d oral administration of SS at daily doses of 50 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight to laying hens. On the 1st, 7th and 14th d a 24 h-long pharmacokinetic study was carried out, whereas eggs were collected daily. Salicylate concentrations in plasma and eggs were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and pharmacokinetic variables were calculated using a non-compartmental model. Mean residence time (MRT), minimal plasma concentration (Cmin, C16h) and elimination half-life (T1/2el) of SA showed gradual decrease in layers administered with a lower dose. Total body clearance (ClB) increased. Layers administered with the higher dose showed a decrease only in the T1/2el. In the low dose group, SA was found only in the egg white and was low throughout the experiment. Egg whites from the higher dose group showed initially high SA levels which significantly decreased during the experiment. Yolk SA levels were lower and showed longer periods of accumulation and elimination. Repeated administration of SS induces SA elimination, although this effect may differ depending on the dose and production type of a chicken. Decreased plasma drug concentration may have clinical implications during prolonged SS treatment. PMID:25893240

  13. Pharmacokinetics of repeated sodium salicylate administration to laying hens: evidence for time dependent increase in drug elimination from plasma and eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Poźniak

    Full Text Available Salicylates were the first non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs to be used in any species and are still widely used in humans and livestock. However, the data on their pharmacokinetics in animals is limited, especially after repeated administration. Evidence exist that in chickens (Gallus gallus salicylate (SA may induce its own elimination. The aim of this study was to investigate salicylate pharmacokinetics and egg residues during repeated administration of sodium salicylate (SS to laying hens. Pharmacokinetics of SA was assessed during 14 d oral administration of SS at daily doses of 50 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight to laying hens. On the 1st, 7th and 14th d a 24 h-long pharmacokinetic study was carried out, whereas eggs were collected daily. Salicylate concentrations in plasma and eggs were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and pharmacokinetic variables were calculated using a non-compartmental model. Mean residence time (MRT, minimal plasma concentration (Cmin, C16h and elimination half-life (T1/2el of SA showed gradual decrease in layers administered with a lower dose. Total body clearance (ClB increased. Layers administered with the higher dose showed a decrease only in the T1/2el. In the low dose group, SA was found only in the egg white and was low throughout the experiment. Egg whites from the higher dose group showed initially high SA levels which significantly decreased during the experiment. Yolk SA levels were lower and showed longer periods of accumulation and elimination. Repeated administration of SS induces SA elimination, although this effect may differ depending on the dose and production type of a chicken. Decreased plasma drug concentration may have clinical implications during prolonged SS treatment.

  14. Early increase in dopamine release in the ipsilateral striatum after unilateral intranigral administration of lactacystin produces spontaneous contralateral rotations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczny, J; Lenda, T; Czarnecka, A

    2016-06-01

    Since the discovery of the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, UPS inhibitors, such as lactacystin have been used to investigate the relationship between UPS impairment and degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons. However, mostly long-term neurotoxic effects of lactacystin have been studied in animal models. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate behavioral and biochemical changes related to the DA system during the first week following unilateral intranigral injection of lactacystin to rats. We found that lactacystin produced early spontaneous contralateral rotations which were inhibited by combined administration of DA D1 and D2 receptor antagonists. Simultaneously, an increase in the extracellular level of DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanilic acid (HVA) was found in the ipsilateral striatum. In contrast, one week after lesion, when turning behavior was no longer visible, a decrease in the extracellular level of DA, DOPAC and HVA was demonstrated. It was accompanied by a substantial reduction in the tissue levels of DA and its metabolites in the lesioned substantia nigra and striatum. We concluded that unilateral intranigral administration of lactacystin produces an early increase in DA neurotransmission which precedes a decrease in the striatal and nigral tissue DA content. It is manifested by the appearance of spontaneous contralateral rotations and an elevation of the extracellular DA level in the ipsilateral striatum. Since similar behavior was previously observed after intranigral administration of rotenone and MPP(+) but not 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), it may indicate a common mechanism of action shared by these neurotoxins. PMID:26964686

  15. ADMINISTRATION OF CACAO BEANS (Theobroma cacao L. EXTRACTS DECREASE MALONDIALDEHYDE CONCENTRATION AND INCREASE BLOOD NOx CONCENTRATION IN WHITE RAT (Ra"us norvegicus INDUCED BY PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Wiryanthini IA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS causing accumulation of oxidative damage caused by exceeding anti oxidant capacity in the body. Psychological stress as psychosocial stress can induce oxidative stress which subsequently cause increase blood malondialdehyde (MDA and decrease blood nitrate and nitrite (NOx concentration as intermediate product of nitric oxide (NO. Cacao beans extracts contained anti oxidant flavanols consist of catechin, epicatechin and procyanidin. The aims of this study is to investigate the effect of cacao beans (Theobroma cacao L. extracts for decreasing MDA and increasing NOx concentration in white rat (Ra$us norvegicus blood in stress oxidative state induced by psychosocial stress. It is an experimental study with Pretest-Postest Control Group Design. This study revealed decrease MDA concentration in group P1 (11.47 vs 8.04, P2 (11.92 vs 5.44 and P3 (11.69 vs 2.87 with P = 0.000 and increase NOx concentration in oxidative stress white rat induced by psychosocial stress a[er administration of cacao beans extract in group P1 (1909.83 vs 2085.16, P2 (1912.5 vs 2231.83 and P3 (1871.5 vs 2339.83 with P = 0.005. This study showed that cacao beans extract can inhibit oxidative stress caused by psychosocial stress.

  16. Increased burst firing in substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons and enhanced response to selective D2 agonist in hemiparkinsonian rats after repeated administration of apomorphine.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, J. I.; Nam, D H; J.S. Kim; Hong, S.C.; Shin, H. J.; K. Park; Eoh, W.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, W.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Intermittent administrations of dopaminergic agents in hemiparkinsonian rat enhances the behavioral response to subsequent administration of the drugs. This phenomenon is known as "priming" and thought as comparable to drug-induced dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease. We investigated the behavioral and electrophysiological changes in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned hemiparkinsonian rats after repeated administrations of apomorphine. Administration of apomorphine (0.32 mg/kg, i...

  17. Nucleus accumbens shell excitability is decreased by methamphetamine self-administration and increased by 5-HT2C receptor inverse agonism and agonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Steven M.; Clark, Mary J.; Traynor, John R.; Hu, Xiu-Ti; Napier, T. Celeste

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine profoundly increases brain monoamines and is a widely abused psychostimulant. The effects of methamphetamine self-administration on neuron function are not known for the nucleus accumbens, a brain region involved in addictive behaviors, including drug-seeking. One therapeutic target showing preclinical promise at attenuating psychostimulant-seeking is 5-HT2C receptors; however, the effects of 5-HT2C receptor ligands on neuronal physiology are unclear. 5-HT2C receptor agonism decreases psychostimulant-mediated behaviors, and the putative 5-HT2C receptor inverse agonist, SB 206553, attenuates methamphetamine-seeking in rats. To ascertain the effects of methamphetamine, and 5-HT2C receptor inverse agonism and agonism, on neuronal function in the nucleus accumbens, we evaluated methamphetamine, SB 206553, and the 5-HT2C receptor agonist and Ro 60-0175, on neuronal excitability within the accumbens shell subregion using whole-cell current-clamp recordings in forebrain slices ex vivo. We reveal that methamphetamine self-administration decreased generation of evoked action potentials. In contrast, SB 206553 and Ro 60-0175 increased evoked spiking, effects that were prevented by the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, SB 242084. We also assessed signaling mechanisms engaged by 5-HT2C receptors, and determined that accumbal 5-HT2C receptors stimulated Gq, but not Gi/o. These findings demonstrate that methamphetamine-induced decreases in excitability of neurons within the nucleus accumbens shell were abrogated by both 5-HT2C inverse agonism and agonism, and this effect likely involved activation of Gq–mediated signaling pathways. PMID:25229719

  18. Intrathecal Administration of Tempol Reduces Chronic Constriction Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats by Increasing SOD Activity and Inhibiting NGF Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baisong; Pan, Yongying; Wang, Zixin; Tan, Yonghong; Song, Xingrong

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the antinociceptive effect of intrathecal and intraperitoneal tempol administration in a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain and explore the underlying antinociceptive mechanisms of tempol. Rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 8 per group): sham group, CCI group, Tem1 group (intrathecal injection of tempol), and Tem2 group (intraperitoneal injection of tempol). Neuropathic pain was induced by CCI of the sciatic nerve. Tempol was intrathecally or intraperitoneally administered daily for 7 days beginning on postoperative day one. The mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency were tested on preoperative day 3 and postoperative days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21. Structural changes were examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining, toluidine blue staining, and electron microscopy. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were determined using the thiobarbituric acid and nitroblue tetrazolium methods, respectively. Nerve growth factor (NGF) expression levels were determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Intrathecal, but not intraperitoneal, injection of tempol produced a persistent antinociceptive effect. Intraperitoneal injection of tempol did not result in high enough concentration of tempol in the cerebrospinal fluid. Intrathecal, but not intraperitoneal, injection of tempol inhibited CCI-induced structural damage in the spinal cord reduced MDA levels, and increased SOD activities in the spinal cord. Furthermore, intrathecal, but not intraperitoneal, injection of tempol further downregulated the expression of NGF in the spinal cord following CCI, and this effect was blocked by p38MAPK inhibitor. Intrathecal injection of tempol produces antinociceptive effects and reduces CCI-induced structural damage in the spinal cord by increasing SOD activities and downregulating the expression of NGF via the p38MAPK pathway. Intraperitoneal administration of tempol does

  19. Alleviation of insulin resistance and liver damage by oral administration of Imm124-E is mediated by increased Tregs and associated with increased serum GLP-1 and adiponectin: results of a phase I/II clinical trial in NASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizrahi M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Meir Mizrahi,1 Yehudit Shabat,1 Ami Ben Ya'acov,1 Gadi Lalazar,1 Tomer Adar,1 Victor Wong,2 Brian Muller,2 Grant Rawlin,2 Yaron Ilan11Liver Unit, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; 2Immuron Limited, North Melbourne, AustraliaBackground: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is considered to be part of the nonalcoholic fatty liver disorders and its incidence is increasing. Imm124-E (Immuron Ltd, Melbourne, Australia, containing hyperimmune bovine colostrum, has been shown to exert an immunomodulatory effect and to alleviate target organ damage in animal models of NASH. The aim of our study was to determine the safety and efficacy of oral administration of Imm124-E to patients with insulin resistance and NASH.Methods: In an open-label trial, ten patients with biopsy-proven NASH and insulin resistance were orally treated with Imm124-E for 30 days.Results: Oral administration of Imm124-E was safe, and no side effects were noted. Alleviation of insulin resistance was reflected by significantly improved hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c values in all ten treated patients. For between five and eight responders, the following effects were noted: a decrease in fasting glucose levels; improved oral glucose tolerance test (OGGT and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA scores; and alleviation in lipid profile. These effects were accompanied by increased serum levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1, adiponectin and T regulatory cells.Conclusion: Hyperimmune colostrum alleviates NASH.Keywords: NASH, anti-LPS, diabetes, adipokines, regulatory T cells

  20. Oral Administration of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Decreased the Incidence of Severe Diarrhea and Related Mortality Rate and Increased Weight Gain in Preweaned Dairy Heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foditsch, Carla; Pereira, Richard Van Vleck; Ganda, Erika Korzune; Gomez, Marilia Souza; Marques, Eduardo Carvalho; Santin, Thiago; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are a promising alternative to improve food animal productivity and health. However, scientific evidence that specific microbes can be used to benefit animal health and performance is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of administering a live culture of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii to newborn dairy calves on subsequent growth, health, and fecal microbiome. Initially, a safety trial was conducted using 30 newborn bull calves to assess potential adverse effects of the oral and rectal administration of F. prausnitzii to neonatal calves. No adverse reactions, such as increased body temperature or heart and respiratory rates, were observed after the administration of the treatments. All calves survived the experimental period, and there was no difference in fecal consistency score, attitude, appetite or dehydration between the treatment groups. The rectal route was not an efficient practice while the oral route ensures that the full dose is administered to the treated calves. Subsequently, a randomized field trial was completed in a commercial farm with preweaned calves. A total of 554 Holstein heifers were assigned to one of two treatment groups: treated calves (FPTRT) and non-treated calves (control). Treated calves received two oral doses of F. prausnitzii, one at treatment assignment (1st week) and another one week later. The FPTRT group presented significantly lower incidence of severe diarrhea (3.1%) compared with the control group (6.8%). Treated calves also had lower mortality rate associated with severe diarrhea (1.5%) compared to control calves (4.4%). Furthermore, FPTRT calves gained significantly more weight, 4.4 kg over the preweaning period, than controls calves. The relative abundance of F. prausnitzii in the fecal microbiota was significantly higher in the 3rd and 5th weeks of life of FPTRT calves than of the control calves, as revealed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our findings showed that oral

  1. Surface expression of GABAA receptors in the rat nucleus accumbens is increased in early but not late withdrawal from extended-access cocaine self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purgianto, Anthony; Loweth, Jessica A; Miao, Julia J; Milovanovic, Mike; Wolf, Marina E

    2016-07-01

    It is well established that cocaine-induced changes in glutamate receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) play a significant role in animal models of cocaine addiction. Far less is known about cocaine-induced changes in GABA transmission, despite its importance in regulating NAc output via local interneurons and medium spiny neuron (MSN) axon collaterals (GABA 'microcircuit'). Here we investigated whether GABAA receptor surface or total expression is altered following an extended-access cocaine self-administration regimen that produces a time-dependent intensification (incubation) of cue-induced cocaine craving in association with strengthening of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) transmission onto MSN. Rats self-administered cocaine or saline (control condition) 6h/day for 10 days. NAc tissue was obtained and surface proteins biotinylated on three withdrawal days (WD) chosen to span incubation of craving and associated AMPAR plasticity: WD2, WD25 and WD48. Immunoblotting was used to measure total and surface expression of three GABAA receptor subunits (α1, α2, and α4) that are strongly expressed in the NAc. We found a transient increase in surface, but not total, expression of the α2 subunit on WD2 from cocaine self-administration, an effect that was no longer observed by WD25. The expression of α1 and α4 subunits was not altered at these withdrawal times. On WD48, when AMPAR transmission is significantly potentiated, we did not find any alteration in GABAA receptor surface or total expression. Our findings suggest that the strengthening of AMPAR-mediated glutamate transmission in the NAc is not accompanied by compensatory strengthening of GABAergic transmission through insertion of additional GABAA receptors. PMID:27060767

  2. Higher frequency of administration of biotherapic T. cruzi 17DH decreases parasitemia and increases survival in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áurea Regina Telles Pupulin

    2011-09-01

    highly diluted in water had lower level of total parasitemia and a lower peak of parasites compared to animals treated by gavage, or control group of infection (p = 0.0103 p = 0.0008. In the group treated by gavage both the total parasitemia and the peak of parasites were higher than the control group. Survival was greater in animals treated with biotherapic diluted with water (p = 0.0003 and by gavage (p = 0.0016 when compared with the control group. Among the different ways of treatment the use of medication diluted in water increased the survival of animals (p = 0.0013. The treatment by gavage once a day until the 9th day of infection increase the parasitemia and survival. The medication diluted in water showed better results with significant reduction of parasitemia and an increase of survival. This result may be related to the frequency with which the medication diluted in water was ingested by each animal, and the lower stress that this form of administration provides the animals. Figure 1: Parasitemic curve of animals infected with Y strain of T. cruzi and treated with medication highly diluted 17DH T. cruzi. CONTROL: mice treated with alcohol 7%; GAVAGE: treated with medication highly diluted 17DH T. cruzi by gavage; WATER: treated with medication highly diluted 17dH T. cruzi in water. Conclusion: There is a difference in the effect of the medication highly diluted depending on the way of treatment used. For mice, the use of drug diluted in water offered frequently, results in better benefits. The clinical use of these results in humans, should consider the allometric system medication dosage which takes into account the metabolic rate of each organism.

  3. Increased brain metabolism after acute administration of the synthetic cannabinoid HU210: a small animal PET imaging study with 18F-FDG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu H; Verdurand, Mathieu; Dedeurwaerdere, Stefanie; Wang, Hongqin; Zahra, David; Gregoire, Marie-Claude; Zavitsanou, Katerina

    2012-02-10

    Cannabis use has been shown to alter brain metabolism in both rat models and humans although the observations between both species are conflicting. In the present study, we examined the short term effects of a single-dose injection of the synthetic cannabinoid agonist HU210 on glucose metabolism in the rat brain using small animal (18)F-2-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) 15 min (Day 1) and 24h (Day 2) post-injection of the agonist in the same animal. Young adult male Wistar rats received an intra-peritoneal injection of HU210 (100 μg/kg, n=7) or vehicle (n=5) on Day 1. Approximately 1mCi of (18)F-FDG was injected intravenously into each animal at 15 min (Day 1) and 24h (Day 2) post-injection of HU210. A 5-min Computer Tomography (CT) scan followed by a 20-min PET scan was performed 40 min after each (18)F-FDG injection. Standardised Uptake Values (SUVs) were calculated for 10 brain regions of interest (ROIs). Global increased SUVs in the whole brain, hence global brain metabolism, were observed following HU210 treatment on Day 1 compared to the controls (21%, PHU210 treated group returned to control levels (21-30% decrease compared to Day 1), in all ROIs investigated (PHU210 increases brain glucose metabolism in the rat brain shortly after administration, in line with normalised human in vivo studies, an effect that was no longer apparent 24 h later. PMID:22155282

  4. GLP-2 administration results in increased proliferation but paradoxically an adverse outcome in a juvenile piglet model of short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira-Fantini, Prue M; Nagy, Eva S; Thomas, Sarah L;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) administration in a piglet, juvenile model of short bowel syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four-week-old piglets underwent either a sham operation or 75% small bowel resection. Postoperatively......-2 administration resulted in decreased weight gain, serum albumin, and disaccharidases in both sham and small bowel resection piglets (P administration...... in a juvenile short bowel syndrome model. Contrary to adult rodent studies, administration of GLP-2 resulted in adverse outcomes including reduced ability to gain weight; decreased serum albumin, tissue maltase, and sucrase; and villous atrophy. We anticipate this information will have important implications...

  5. Intranasal Administration of Type V Collagen Reduces Lung Carcinogenesis through Increasing Endothelial and Epithelial Apoptosis in a Urethane-Induced Lung Tumor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Edwin Roger; Alveno, Renata Antunes; Faustino, Carolina Brito; Corrêa, Paula Yume Sato Serzedello; Vargas, Camilla Mutai; de Morais, Jymenez; Rangel, Maristela Peres; Velosa, Ana Paula Pereira; Fabro, Alexandre Todorovic; Teodoro, Walcy Rosolia; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza

    2016-08-01

    Type V collagen (Col V) is a "minor" component of normal lung extracellular matrix, which is subjected to decreased and abnormal synthesis in human lung infiltrating adenocarcinoma. We previously reported that a direct link between low amounts of Col V and decreased cell apoptosis may favor cancer cell growth in the mouse lung after chemical carcinogenesis. Moreover, this collagen species was able to trigger DNA fragmentation and impair survival of neoplastic cells. In this study, we have extended our investigation with the aim to obtain further evidence that the death induced by Col V-treatment is of the caspase-9 apoptotic type. We used (1) optical and electron microscopy, (2) quantitation of TUNEL-labeled cells and (3) analysis of the expression levels of Col V and selected genes coding for apoptosis-linked factors, by conventional RT-PCR. BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with 1.5 g/kg body weight of urethane. After urethane injection, the animals received intranasal administration of 20 µg/20 µl of Col V every day during 2 months. We report here that Col V treatment was able to determine significant increase in Col V protein and gene expression and in the percentage of TUNEL-positive cells, to up-regulate caspase-9, resulting in low growth of tumor cells. Our data validate chemical carcinogenesis as a suitable "in vivo" model for further and more detailed studies on the molecular mechanisms of the death response induced by Col V in lung infiltrating adenocarcinoma opening new strategies for treatment. PMID:27020095

  6. Obesity augments the age-induced increase in mitochondrial capacity for H(2) O(2) release in Zucker fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey-Mogensen, Martin; Jeppesen, J; Madsen, K;

    2012-01-01

    Zucker diabetic fatty rats and their lean littermates. Methods: Thirty-four rats were used in this study. Rats were either lean or obese Zucker rats killed at 5-6 (young) or 12-14 (adults) weeks of age. Mitochondria were isolated from soleus muscles; respiration and release of hydrogenperoxide were...... determined and related to citrate synthase activity to determine intrinsic mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial-specific superoxide dismuthase (MnSOD) protein content was determined in isolated mitochondria and muscle homogenate. Catalase protein content was determined in muscle homogenate. Results: Young...... associated with increased mitochondrial hydrogenperoxide release. MnSOD tended to be higher in the obese strain in the isolated mitochondria. Regardless of age, catalase protein content was significantly lower in the obese rats. Conclusions: This study shows that the augmented increase in obesity and insulin...

  7. [Increased manganese superoxide dismutase and cyclin B1 expression in carnosine-induced inhibition of glioblastoma cell proliferation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakova, Yu S; Kalen, A L; Eckers, J C; Fedorova, T N; Goswami, P C; Sarsour, E H

    2015-01-01

    Carnosine is an endogenous dipeptide with antiproliferative properties. Here we show that carnosine selectively inhibits proliferation of human glioblastoma cells (U-118-MG) compared to breast (MB231) and oral (Cal27 and FaDu) cancer cells. Carnosine-induced inhibition of U-118-MG proliferation is associated with a significant: decrease in cellular reactive oxygen species levels, increase in manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and increase in cyclin B1 expression resulting in G2-block. We conclude that the antiproliferative property of carnosine is due to its ability to enhance MnSOD and cyclin B1 expression. These results will be of significance to the potential application of carnosine in brain cancer therapy. PMID:26350743

  8. FRACTAL PROPERTY OF ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatko Brnjas

    2014-01-01

    To understand the constant increase in administration, we need a new approach to the administration. For many years, the administration has intensified as a closed science, associated only with economics, law and political science. However, this approach did not bring anything good, because almost nothing in the administration has improved. Therefore, it is necessary to connect the administration with the natural sciences which give the best description of the world around us. Because of this...

  9. Higher frequency of administration of biotherapic T. cruzi 17DH decreases parasitemia and increases survival in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    OpenAIRE

    ÃÂurea Regina Telles Pupulin; Silvana Marques Araujo; Mônica Lúcia Gomes; Camila Fernanda Brustolin; Caroline Felicio Braga; Erika Cristina Ferreira; Denise Lessa Aleixo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The study of the effect of different ways of treatment using highly diluted substances is rare in the literature. Some authors consider the dose irrelevant, justifying that the action of the medication highly diluted is qualitative [1-3]. Others emphasize the importance of quantity and frequency of administration of the highly diluted substance for a successful treatment [4,5]. The model of murine infection by T. cruzi is widely studied and it is an excellent tool to study the e...

  10. Repeated administration of almonds increases brain acetylcholine levels and enhances memory function in healthy rats while attenuates memory deficits in animal model of amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Zehra; Sadir, Sadia; Liaquat, Laraib; Tabassum, Saiqa; Madiha, Syeda; Rafiq, Sahar; Tariq, Sumayya; Batool, Tuba Sharf; Saleem, Sadia; Naqvi, Fizza; Perveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida

    2016-01-01

    Dietary nutrients may play a vital role in protecting the brain from age-related memory dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases. Tree nuts including almonds have shown potential to combat age-associated brain dysfunction. These nuts are an important source of essential nutrients, such as tocopherol, folate, mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenols. These components have shown promise as possible dietary supplements to prevent or delay the onset of age-associated cognitive dysfunction. This study investigated possible protective potential of almond against scopolamine induced amnesia in rats. The present study also investigated a role of acetylcholine in almond induced memory enhancement. Rats in test group were orally administrated with almond suspension (400 mg/kg/day) for four weeks. Both control and almond-treated rats were then divided into saline and scopolamine injected groups. Rats in the scopolamine group were injected with scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg) five minutes before the start of each memory test. Memory was assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM), Morris water maze (MWM) and novel object recognition (NOR) task. Cholinergic function was determined in terms of hippocampal and frontal cortical acetylcholine content and acetylcholinesterase activity. Results of the present study suggest that almond administration for 28 days significantly improved memory retention. This memory enhancing effect of almond was also observed in scopolamine induced amnesia model. Present study also suggests a role of acetylcholine in the attenuation of scopolamine induced amnesia by almond. PMID:26548495

  11. Co-administration of live measles and yellow fever vaccines and inactivated pentavalent vaccines is associated with increased mortality compared with measles and yellow fever vaccines only. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Ravn, Henrik Bylling; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2014-01-01

    Studies from low-income countries indicate that co-administration of inactivated diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine and live attenuated measles vaccine (MV) is associated with increased mortality compared with receiving MV only. Pentavalent (DTP-H. Influenza type B-Hepatitis B) vaccine is...

  12. Oral Administration of L-Arginine in Patients With Angina or Following Myocardial Infarction May Be Protective By Increasing Plasma Superoxide Dismutase and Total Thiols With Reduction in Serum Cholesterol and Xanthine Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Tripathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Administration of L-arginine has been shown to control ischemic injury by producing nitric oxide which dilates the vessels and thus maintains proper blood flow to the myocardium. In the present study attempt has been made to determine whether oral administration of L-arginine has any effect on oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis in ischemic myocardial patients [represented by the patients of acute angina (AA and acute myocardial infarction (MI]. L-arginine has antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties, decreases endothelin-1 expression and improves endothelial function, thereby controlling oxidative injury caused during myocardial ischemic syndrome. Effect of L-arginine administration on the status of free radical scavenging enzymes, pro-oxidant enzyme and antioxidants viz. total thiols, carbonyl content and plasma ascorbic acid levels in the patients has been evaluated. We have observed that L-arginine administration (three grams per day for 15 days resulted in increased activity of free radical scavenging enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD and increase in the levels of total thiols (T-SH and ascorbic acid with concomitant decrease in lipid per-oxidation, carbonyl content, serum cholesterol and the activity of proxidant enzyme, xanthine oxidase (XO. These findings suggest that the supplementation of L-arginine along with regular therapy may be beneficial to the patients of ischemic myocardial syndromes.

  13. Oral tylosin administration is associated with an increase of faecal enterococci and lactic acid bacteria in dogs with tylosin-responsive diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpinen, Susanne; Rantala, Merja; Spillmann, Thomas; Björkroth, Johanna; Westermarck, Elias

    2015-09-01

    The term tylosin-responsive diarrhoea (TRD) is used for canine recurrent diarrhoea cases for which no underlying cause can be found after extensive diagnostic investigations, but which show a response to the antibiotic tylosin in a few days. The objective of this prospective, one-arm longitudinal trial was to assess the effects of oral tylosin administration on the faecal levels of potentially probiotic bacteria, such as Enterococcus spp. and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), in dogs with TRD. This trial included 14 client-owned suspected TRD dogs that were on tylosin treatment and had firm faeces. Treatment was then terminated and dogs were followed up for up to 2 months to determine the recurrence of diarrhoea. Once diarrhoea started, dogs received tylosin (orally, 25 mg/kg, once daily for 7 days). At the end of the treatment period, stools were firm again in 11 dogs (TRD dogs); three dogs continued having diarrhoea and were excluded from the study. Faecal samples were collected at all three time-points for culture of LAB and enterococci. In TRD dogs, the colony counts of Enterococcus spp. (P = 0.003), LAB (P = 0.037), tylosin-resistant Enterococcus spp. (P <0.001) and LAB (P <0.001) were significantly higher when the dogs were on tylosin treatment and had normal faecal consistency compared to when they had diarrhoea following discontinuation of tylosin. In conclusion, cessation of diarrhoea in TRD dogs with tylosin treatment could be mediated by selection of a specific lactic acid population, the Enterococcus spp., due to their potential probiotic properties. PMID:26049259

  14. Thyroid function during normal and increased iodine supply as a basis for assessing the hazards of iodide tablet administration for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the authors' own investigations on 45 voluntary probands, three inquiries at German clinics, measurement of iodine excretion in urine in 1048 persons and recent literature, a comparison of the radiation hazards and the biochemical hazards of iodine is carried out. Mineral water, ''Mexaform S'', PVP-iodine and iodine-containing X-ray contrast media were found to be essential sources of increased iodine supply. Their contribution to the population's iodine contamination amounts to between 70 and 50,000 μg/day. According to the results of this study, some 10 million cases of increased iodine supply must be expected in Germany every year. These figures were confirmed by an analysis of the frequency distribution of iodine excretions in 1048 urine samples. The inquiries at German clinics with regard to the frequency of thyroid disorders following increased iodine supply, in combination with the number of persons exposed to increased iodine supply, yielded a fifth order risk for triggering off a thyreotoxic iodine crisis. From recent literature the radiation hazards for the thyroid were assessed. A critical comparison of radiation hazard and biochemical risk through iodine indicated, with regard to areas of insufficient iodine supply, a possible threshold value for the radiation dose in the thyroid above which the distribution and intake of iodide tablets seem worth-while. The dose recommended is 100 rem. From that dose upward, the radiation hazard outweighs the biochemical risk of iodine. (orig./MG)

  15. Peningkatan Produktivitas Ayam Petelur Melalui Pemberian Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kemangi (INCREASED LAYING HENS PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH THE ADMINISTRATION OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF KEMANGI LEAVES)

    OpenAIRE

    Andriyanto; Ridi Arif; Mohammad Miftahurrohman; Yayuk Sri Rahayu; Erli Chandra; Alifiana Fitrianingrum; Risna Anggraeni; Diah Nugrahani Pristihadi; Aulia Andi Mustika; Wasmen Manalu

    2014-01-01

    Empirically, kemangi leaves reported to increase health quality in human and livestock. Thepreliminary study was designed to explore the potency of ethanol extract of kemangi leaves to increaselaying hens performance. Sixteen laying hens (pullet) were divided into 4 groups and repeated 4 times.Control group was laying hen administered aquadest orally, treated group was laying hen administeredextract of kemangi leaves orally at a dose of 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg BW, respectively. Every day, the exper...

  16. Magnolol administration in normotensive young spontaneously hypertensive rats postpones the development of hypertension: role of increased PPAR gamma, reduced TRB3 and resultant alleviative vascular insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyan Liang

    Full Text Available Patients with prehypertension are more likely to progress to manifest hypertension than those with optimal or normal blood pressure. However, the mechanisms underlying the development from prehypertension to hypertension still remain largely elusive and the drugs for antihypertensive treatment in prehypertension are absent. Here we determined the effects of magnolol (MAG on blood pressure and aortic vasodilatation to insulin, and investigated the underlying mechanisms. Four-week-old male spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR and age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY control rats were used. Our results shown that treatment of young SHRs with MAG (100 mg/kg/day, o.g. for 3 weeks decreased blood pressure, improved insulin-induced aorta vasodilation, restored Akt and eNOS activation stimulated by insulin, and increased PPARγ and decreased TRB3 expressions. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, MAG incubation increased PPARγ, decreased TRB3 expressions, and restored insulin-induced phosphorylated Akt and eNOS levels and NO production, which was blocked by both PPARγ antagonist and siRNA targeting PPARγ. Improved insulin signaling in HUVECs by MAG was abolished by upregulating TRB3 expression. In conclusion, treatment of young SHRs with MAG beginning at the prehypertensive stage decreases blood pressure via improving vascular insulin resistance that is at least partly attributable to upregulated PPARγ, downregulated TRB3 and consequently increased Akt and eNOS activations in blood vessels in SHRs.

  17. Cannabinoid administration increases 5HT1A receptor binding and mRNA expression in the hippocampus of adult but not adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavitsanou, K; Wang, H; Dalton, V S; Nguyen, V

    2010-08-11

    The endocannabinoid and serotonin systems share a high level of overlap in terms of the physiological processes that they regulate, however, little is known about their functional interactions particularly during adolescence, a vulnerable period for both the development of psychosis and for initiation to substance use. In the present study, the effects of cannabinoid treatment on serotonin 5HT1A receptor density and mRNA expression were investigated in two age groups: Adolescent (postnatal day 35) and adult (postnatal day 70) rats were injected with the synthetic cannabinoid HU210 (25, 50 or 100 microg/kg) or vehicle for 1, 4 or 14 days and sacrificed 24 h after the last injection. 5HT1A receptor density was measured in different brain regions using [(3)H]8-OH-DPAT quantitative autoradiography whereas mRNA expression was measured in adjacent brain sections. Higher levels of both serotonin 5HT1A receptor binding and mRNA expression were observed in limbic regions in adolescent control animals compared to adults. 5HT1A receptor density was increased by 23% in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of adult rats treated with 100 microg/kg HU210 for 4 days compared to vehicle treated controls. The same treatment increased mRNA expression by 27% and by 14% in the CA1 region and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus respectively. 5HT1A receptor density was increased by 22% in the CA1 of adult animals treated with 50 microg HU210, by 26% in the dentate gurus of adult rats treated with 100 microg for 14 days. By contrast, 5HT1A receptor density or mRNA expression was not affected in the brain of adolescent animals in any of the brain regions examined. These results suggest that cannabinoid treatment has differential effects on serotonin-related neurochemistry in adolescent compared to adult rats. The effects in the adult brain may compromise hippocampal function and could account for the cognitive deficits seen in habitual heavy cannabis users. PMID:20438810

  18. Chronic administration of cholesterol oximes in mice increases transcription of cytoprotective genes and improves transcriptome alterations induced by alpha-synuclein overexpression in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Franziska; Gao, Fuying; Medvedeva, Vera; Lee, Patrick; Bove, Nicholas; Fleming, Sheila M; Michaud, Magali; Lemesre, Vincent; Patassini, Stefano; De La Rosa, Krystal; Mulligan, Caitlin K; Sioshansi, Pedrom C; Zhu, Chunni; Coppola, Giovanni; Bordet, Thierry; Pruss, Rebecca M; Chesselet, Marie-Françoise

    2014-09-01

    Cholesterol-oximes TRO19622 and TRO40303 target outer mitochondrial membrane proteins and have beneficial effects in preclinical models of neurodegenerative diseases leading to their advancement to clinical trials. Dopaminergic neurons degenerate in Parkinson's disease (PD) and are prone to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. In order to provide insights into the neuroprotective potential of TRO19622 and TRO40303 for dopaminergic neurons in vivo, we assessed their effects on gene expression in laser captured nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons of wildtype mice and of mice that over-express alpha-synuclein, a protein involved in both familial and sporadic forms of PD (Thy1-aSyn mice). Young mice were fed the drugs in food pellets or a control diet from 1 to 4months of age, approximately 10months before the appearance of striatal dopamine loss in this model. Unbiased weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) of transcriptional changes revealed effects of cholesterol oximes on transcripts related to mitochondria, cytoprotection and anti-oxidant response in wild-type and transgenic mice, including increased transcription of stress defense (e.g. Prdx1, Prdx2, Glrx2, Hspa9, Pink1, Drp1, Trak1) and dopamine-related (Th, Ddc, Gch1, Dat, Vmat2, Drd2, Chnr6a) genes. Even at this young age transgenic mice showed alterations in transcripts implicated in mitochondrial function and oxidative stress (e.g. Bcl-2, Bax, Casp3, Nos2), and both drugs normalized about 20% of these alterations. Young Thy1-aSyn mice exhibit motor deficits that differ from parkinsonism and are established before the onset of treatment; these deficits were not improved by cholesterol oximes. However, high doses of TRO40303 improved olfaction and produced the same effects as dopamine agonists on a challenging beam test, specifically an increase in footslips, an observation congruent with its effects on transcripts involved in dopamine synthesis. High doses of TRO19622 increased alpha

  19. Administrating Solr

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, Surendra

    2013-01-01

    A fast-paced, example-based guide to learning how to administrate, monitor, and optimize Apache Solr.""Administrating Solr"" is for developers and Solr administrators who have a basic knowledge of Solr and who are looking for ways to keep their Solr server healthy and well maintained. A basic working knowledge of Apache Lucene is recommended, but this is not mandatory.

  20. Administrative Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  1. Administration of granulocyte colony stimulating factor after liver transplantation leads to an increased incidence and severity of ischemic biliary lesions in the rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olaf Dirsch; Haidong Chi; Yuan Ji; Yan Li Gu; Christoph E Broelsch; Uta Dahmen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: Recently it has been reported that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) can induce hypercoagulability in healthy bone marrow donors. It is conceivable that the induction of a prothrombotic state in a recipient of an organ graft with already impaired perfusion might cause further deterioration in the transplanted organ. This study evaluated whether G-CSF treatment worsens liver perfusion following liver transplantation in the rat model.METHODS: A non-arterialized rat liver transplantation model was employed to evaluate the effect of G-CSF treatment on the liver in a syngeneic and allogeneic strain combination. Study outcomes included survival time and liver damage as investigated by liver enzymes and liver histology. Observation times were 1 d, 1 wk and 12 wk.RESULTS: Rats treated with G-CSF had increased incidence and severity of biliary damage following liver transplantation. In these animals, hepatocellular necrosis was accentuated in the centrilobular region. These lesions are indicative of impaired perfusion in G-CSF treated animals.CONCLUSION: G-CSF should be used with caution in recipients of liver transplantation, as treatment might enhance preexisting, undetected perfusion problems and ultimately lead to ischemia induced biliary complications.

  2. What Is the Most Effective Way of Increasing the Bioavailability of Dietary Long Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids—Daily vs. Weekly Administration of Fish Oil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Ghasemifard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The recommendations on the intake of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA vary from eating oily fish (“once to twice per week” to consuming specified daily amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (“250–500 mg per day”. It is not known if there is a difference in the uptake/bioavailability between regular daily consumption of supplementsvs. consuming fish once or twice per week. In this study, the bioavailability of a daily dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Constant treatment, representing supplements, vs. a large weekly dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Spike treatment, representing consuming once or twice per week, was assessed. Six-week old healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a Constant treatment, a Spike treatment or Control treatment (no n-3 LC-PUFA, for six weeks. The whole body, tissues and faeces were analysed for fatty acid content. The results showed that the major metabolic fate of the n-3 LC-PUFA (EPA+docosapentaenoic acid (DPA + DHA was towards catabolism (β-oxidation accounting for over 70% of total dietary intake, whereas deposition accounted less than 25% of total dietary intake. It was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were β-oxidised when originating from the Constant treatment (84% of dose, compared with the Spike treatment (75% of dose. Conversely, it was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were deposited when originating from the Spike treatment (23% of dose, than from the Constant treatment (15% of dose. These unexpected findings show that a large dose of n-3 LC-PUFA once per week is more effective in increasing whole body n-3 LC-PUFA content in rats compared with a smaller dose delivered daily.

  3. Administrative Circulars

    CERN Multimedia

    Département des Ressources humaines

    2004-01-01

    Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 2) - May 2004 Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff members This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 3) - May 2004 Staff members contracts This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 4) - May 2004 Procedure governing the career evolution of staff members This circular has also been revised. It Administrative Circulars Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 3) - December 2001 and brings up to date the French version (Rev. 4) published on the HR Department Web site in January 2004. Operational Circular N° 7 - May 2004 Work from home This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 8 - May 2004 Dealing with alcohol-related problems...

  4. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting, in this...

  5. Oral Administration of EC-12 Increases the Baseline Gene Expression of Antiviral Cytokine Genes, IFN-γ and TNF-α, in Splenocytes and Mesenteric Lymph Node Cells of Weaning Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    TSURUTA, Takeshi; INOUE, Ryo; TSUSHIMA, Toshiki; WATANABE, Takumi; TSUKAHARA, Takamitsu; USHIDA, Kazunari

    2013-01-01

    Weaning piglets are continuously exposed to various viruses. The antiviral effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been confirmed mainly in humans and mice, while few studies have been conducted in livestock. In this study, we evaluated the effect of oral administration of Enterococcus faecalis strain EC-12 (EC-12) on the gene expressions of antiviral cytokines in weaning piglets. Piglets were allocated to the EC-12-administered group (E group) and the no-treatment control group (C group). The small intestinal tissue, the mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells and the splenocytes were collected from the piglets. The tissue and cells were co-cultured with a live vaccine of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus or EC-12. After the incubation, the gene expressions of IFN-γ and TNF-α in the tissue and cells were evaluated. The gene expressions of IFN-γ in the MLN cells and TNF-α in the splenocytes were significantly higher in the E group than in the C group. However, the increase in the gene expression of antiviral cytokines was observed independently of the antigen treatments. The results of the present study suggest that oral administration of EC-12 did not increase the response of immune cells to specific viral antigens but increased the baseline gene expression of antiviral cytokines. PMID:24936371

  6. Administrative Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  7. Test Administration Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kirk A.; Bergstrom, Betty A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for increased exam security, improved test formats, more flexible scheduling, better measurement, and more efficient administrative processes has caused testing agencies to consider converting the administration of their exams from paper-and-pencil to computer-based testing (CBT). Many decisions must be made in order to provide an optimal…

  8. Administrative Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Beh, LooSee

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to develop an understanding of the issues that public administrators should strive to provide in ethical practices and governance thus allowing distinctive administrative and social traditions that each country possess to flourish. Significant changes and continuities in the realm of government in contemporary China and Malaysia will be drawn upon. Recent developments have brought a sense of urgency in contrast to complacency with the status quo. This paper reviews pertinent ...

  9. Offentlig administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elof Nellemann; Rehr, Preben René

    En undervisningsbog der henvender sig til administrationsbacheloruddannelsen. Kapitlerne er inddelt efter modulerne på uddannelsen og indeholder derfor elementer af administration, forvaltning, økonomistyring, innovation, samfundsvidenskabelige metoder og politisk styrede organisationer.......En undervisningsbog der henvender sig til administrationsbacheloruddannelsen. Kapitlerne er inddelt efter modulerne på uddannelsen og indeholder derfor elementer af administration, forvaltning, økonomistyring, innovation, samfundsvidenskabelige metoder og politisk styrede organisationer....

  10. SAT administrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SAT Administrator is the Information System for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training Program Design. It supports the design of training programs in the following phases: job analysis; task analysis; competency analysis; task competency association; definition of learning objectives to competencies; training program design; definition of test items. The general structure of the database and management software supports application of the SAT Administrator in any nuclear power installation

  11. Prophylactic Subacute Administration of Zinc Increases CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 Expression and Prevents the Long-Term Memory Loss in a Rat Model of Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manuel Blanco-Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prophylactic subacute administration of zinc decreases lipoperoxidation and cell death following a transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, thus suggesting neuroprotective and preconditioning effects. Chemokines and growth factors are also involved in the neuroprotective effect in hypoxia-ischemia. We explored whether zinc prevents the cerebral cortex-hippocampus injury through regulation of CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 expression following a 10 min of common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO. Male rats were grouped as follows: (1 Zn96h, rats injected with ZnCl2 (one dose every 24 h during four days; (2 Zn96h + CCAO, rats treated with ZnCl2 before CCAO; (3 CCAO, rats with CCAO only; (4 Sham group, rats with mock CCAO; and (5 untreated rats. The cerebral cortex-hippocampus was dissected at different times before and after CCAO. CCL2/CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 expression was assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Learning in Morris Water Maze was achieved by daily training during 5 days. Long-term memory was evaluated on day 7 after learning. Subacute administration of zinc increased expression of CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 in the early and late phases of postreperfusion and prevented the CCAO-induced memory loss in the rat. These results might be explained by the induction of neural plasticity because of the expression of CCL2 and growth factors.

  12. Adipocyte-Specific Deletion of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Protects From Diet-Induced Obesity Through Increased Mitochondrial Uncoupling and Biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong Hwan; Buffolo, Márcio; Pires, Karla Maria; Pei, Shaobo; Scherer, Philipp E; Boudina, Sihem

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with oxidative stress (OS). The causal role of adipose OS in the pathogenesis of these conditions is unknown. To address this issue, we generated mice with an adipocyte-selective deletion of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). When fed a high-fat diet (HFD), the AdSod2 knockout (KO) mice exhibited less adiposity, reduced adipocyte hypertrophy, and decreased circulating leptin. The resistance to diet-induced adiposity was the result of an increased metabolic rate and energy expenditure. Furthermore, palmitate oxidation was elevated in the white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue of AdSod2 KO mice fed an HFD, and the expression of key fatty acid oxidation genes was increased. To gain mechanistic insight into the increased fat oxidation in HFD-fed AdSod2 KO mice, we quantified the mitochondrial function and mitochondrial content in WAT and found that MnSOD deletion increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption and induced mitochondrial biogenesis. This effect was preserved in cultured adipocytes from AdSod2 KO mice in vitro. As expected from the enhanced fat oxidation, circulating levels of free fatty acids were reduced in the HFD-fed AdSod2 KO mice. Finally, HFD-fed AdSod2 KO mice were protected from hepatic steatosis, adipose tissue inflammation, and glucose and insulin intolerance. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MnSOD deletion in adipocytes triggered an adaptive stress response that activated mitochondrial biogenesis and enhanced mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, thereby preventing diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:27284109

  13. ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRUCE, ROBERT L.; CARTER, G.L., JR.

    IN THE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, STYLES OF LEADERSHIP PROFOUNDLY AFFECT THE QUALITY OF THE SERVICE RENDERED. ACCORDINGLY, MAJOR INFLUENCES ON ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE AND EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY ARE EXAMINED IN ESSAYS ON (1) SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION, (2) MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES BASED ON JOB-RELATED SATISFACTIONS AND NEEDS,…

  14. Database Administrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  15. Nucleus accumbens injections of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 increase cue-induced sucrose seeking following adult, but not adolescent sucrose self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myal, S; O'Donnell, P; Counotte, D S

    2015-10-01

    Adolescence is often portrayed as a period of enhanced sensitivity to reward, with long-lasting neurobiological changes upon reward exposure. However, we previously found that time-dependent increases in cue-induced sucrose seeking were more pronounced in rats trained to self-administer sucrose as adults than as adolescents. In addition, adult, but not adolescent sucrose self-administration led to a decreased α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid/N-Methyl-D-aspartate (AMPA/NMDA) ratio in the nucleus accumbens core, suggesting that long-lasting changes in glutamatergic transmission may affect adult processing of natural rewards. Here we tested whether altering glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus accumbens core via local injection of an mGluR2/3 agonist and antagonist affects cue-induced sucrose seeking following abstinence and whether this is different in the two age groups. Rats began oral sucrose self-administration training (10 days) on postnatal day (P) 35 (adolescents) or P70 (adults). Following 21 days of abstinence, rats received microinjections of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 (0.3 or 1.0 μg/side) or vehicle into the nucleus accumbens core, and 15 min later cue-induced sucrose seeking was assessed. An additional group of rats trained as adults received nucleus accumbens core microinjections of the mGluR2/3 antagonist (RS)-α-Methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (MPPG) (0.12 or 0.5 μg/side). Confirming our previous results, adult rats earned more sucrose reinforcers, while sucrose intake per body weight was similar across ages. On abstinence day 22, local injection of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 increased cue-induced sucrose seeking only in adult rats, and had no effect in adolescents. Local injections of the mGluR2/3 antagonist MPPG had no effect on sucrose seeking in adult rats. These data suggest an important developmental difference in the neural substrates of natural reward, specifically a difference in glutamatergic transmission in

  16. Administrative decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews relevant administrative decisions that have been taken in various countries during the last semester of 1999 and the first one of 2000. In Argentina, an inter-ministerial commission has been settled to examine the prospects of completing the construction of the Atucha-2 unit. In Sweden, an agreement has been signed between Sydkraft, Vattenfall and the Swedish government on a compensation plan for the early shutdown of the Barsebaeck unit 1. In Switzerland, the government of the canton of Bern has rejected a constitutional initiative requesting the shutdown of the Muehleberg nuclear power plant. (A.C.)

  17. Administrative building

    OpenAIRE

    Vokatá, Kateřina

    2015-01-01

    The task of my master´s thesis was to work up a project and a check of a bearing steel construction the multi-storey office building with a garage in Brno. The building is composed of five storey office section and two storey of garage. Ground dimension of administrative part is 38,8m x 35m with distance of pillars 7m,6m and 6,4m. The structural height of floor is 3,5m.Garage is designed with dimensions 36m x 24,8m with structural height of floor 3,5m. Distance of pillars is 5,6m, 6,4m and 7,...

  18. ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULARS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff membersN° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000Staff members contractsN° 16 (Rev. 2) - January 2000TrainingN° 30 (Rev. 1) - January 2000Indemnities and reimbursements upon taking up appointment and termination of contractN° 32 - February 2000Principles and procedures governing complaints of harassmentThese circular have been amended (No 2, N° 9, N° 16 and N° 30) or drawn up (N° 32).Copies are available in the Divisional Secretariats.Note:\tAdministrative and operational circulars, as well as the lists of those in force, are available for consultation in the server SRV4_Home in the Appletalk zone NOVELL (as GUEST or using your Novell username and password), volume PE Division Data Disk.The Word files are available in the folder COM, folder Public, folder ADM.CIRC.docHuman Resources DivisionTel. 74128

  19. Pro Python System Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Sileika, R

    2010-01-01

    As time goes on, system administrators are presented with increasingly complicated challenges. In the early days, a team of engineers might have had to look after one or two systems. These days, one engineer can administer hundreds or thousands of systems. System administrators are gradually replacing their tools with more advanced and flexible ones. One of the choices is Python. Structurally, Python is a modern, high-level language with a very clean syntax. Python comes with many built-in libraries that can make automation tasks easier. It also has extensive set of third-party libraries and a

  20. Co-Administration of CpG Oligonucleotides and Chenopodium album Extract Reverse IgG2a/IgG1 Ratios and Increase IFN-Gamma and IL-10 Productions in a Murine Model of Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Mousavi

    2008-03-01

    We conclude that Co- administration of Ch.a. allergen and CpG ODN prevents the development of TH2-mediated response probably through the IL-10 regulatory effects. Thus, these components could be used with the other allergens in order to induce the prevention of inflammatory conditions. We suggest further studies are necessary to identify the potential effects of CpG-ODNs administration in conjunction with other antigens prepared from the regional allergens in Iran. Taken together, we suppose that the results obtained in this study in animal models may be useful in human trials conducted by other investigators

  1. Chronic L-DOPA administration increases the firing rate but does not reverse enhanced slow frequency oscillatory activity and synchronization in substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons from 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristieta, A; Ruiz-Ortega, J A; Miguelez, C; Morera-Herreras, T; Ugedo, L

    2016-05-01

    The pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) and of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) is associated with dysfunctional neuronal activity in several nuclei of the basal ganglia. Moreover, high levels of oscillatory activity and synchronization have also been described in both intra- and inter-basal ganglia nuclei and the cerebral cortex. However, the relevance of these alterations in the motor symptomatology related to Parkinsonism and LID is not fully understood. Recently, we have shown that subthalamic neuronal activity correlates with axial abnormal movements and that a subthalamic nucleus (STN) lesion partially reduces LID severity as well as the expression of some striatal molecular modifications. The aim of the present study was to assess, through single-unit extracellular recording techniques under urethane anaesthesia, neuronal activity of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and its relationship with LID and STN hyperactivity together with oscillatory and synchronization between these nuclei and the cerebral cortex in 6-OHDA-lesioned and dyskinetic rats. Twenty-four hours after the last injection of L-DOPA the firing rate and the inhibitory response to an acute challenge of L-DOPA of SNr neurons from dyskinetic animals were increased with respect to those found in intact and 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between the mean firing rate of SNr neurons and the severity of the abnormal movements (limb and orolingual subtypes). There was also a significant correlation between the firing activity of SNr and STN neurons recorded from dyskinetic rats. In addition, low frequency band oscillatory activity and synchronization both within the SNr or STN and with the cerebral cortex were enhanced in 6-OHDA-lesioned animals and not or slightly affected by chronic treatment with L-DOPA. Altogether, these results indicate that neuronal SNr firing activity is relevant in dyskinesia and may be driven by STN hyperactivity. Conversely

  2. Otters Increasing - Threats Increasing

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Kranz

    1994-01-01

    In some parts of Central Europe populations of otters are apparently increasing. Until recently, no research was being conducted on the ecology of otters in mainly artificial habitats like fish farms. Otters are not only a new source of conflict requiring species management, but appear once again threatened by illegal hunting. Austria is dealing with this problem using compensation for otter damage, electric fencing and translocation of problem otters. Despite a rise in illegal killing, Austr...

  3. ROLE OF HOSPITAL ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    UDAYSINH R. MANEPATIL

    2013-01-01

    Hospital administration is the management of the hospital as a business. The administration is made up of medical and health services managers (sometimes called health care executives and health care administrators) and assistant administrators. Administrations range in size and the duties of the administrator depends on the size of the administration.

  4. Angiotensin 1-7 receptor and angiotensin ii receptor 2 blockades prevent the increased serum and kidney nitric oxide levels in response to angiotensin ii administration: Gender-related difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Safari

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The renal vasculature of male rats may provide more response to Ang II administration-induced NO, which is dependent on masR and AT2R. During dual masR + AT2R blockades, the kidney NO formation wasreduced in a non-gender related manner.

  5. Lesions of the Lateral Habenula Increase Voluntary Ethanol Consumption and Operant Self-Administration, Block Yohimbine-Induced Reinstatement of Ethanol Seeking, and Attenuate Ethanol-Induced Conditioned Taste Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Haack, Andrew K.; Sheth, Chandni; Schwager, Andrea L.; Sinclair, Michael S.; Tandon, Shashank; Taha, Sharif A.; ,

    2014-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) plays an important role in learning driven by negative outcomes. Many drugs of abuse, including ethanol, have dose-dependent aversive effects that act to limit intake of the drug. However, the role of the LHb in regulating ethanol intake is unknown. In the present study, we compared voluntary ethanol consumption and self-administration, yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking, and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in rats with sham or LHb lesions...

  6. Decreased SIRT3 in aged human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells increases cellular susceptibility to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Qing; Shao, Yong; Ma, Chong-Yi; Chen, Wei; Sun, Lu; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Dong-Yang; Fu, Bi-Cheng; Liu, Kai-Yu; Jia, Zhi-Bo; Xie, Bao-Dong; Jiang, Shu-Lin; Li, Ren-Ke; Tian, Hai

    2014-11-01

    Sirtuin3 (SIRT3) is an important member of the sirtuin family of protein deacetylases that is localized to mitochondria and linked to lifespan extension in organisms ranging from yeast to humans. As aged cells have less regenerative capacity and are more susceptible to oxidative stress, we investigated the effect of ageing on SIRT3 levels and its correlation with antioxidant enzyme activities. Here, we show that severe oxidative stress reduces SIRT3 levels in young human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (hMSCs). Overexpression of SIRT3 improved hMSCs resistance to the detrimental effects of oxidative stress. By activating manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase (CAT), SIRT3 protects hMSCs from apoptosis under stress. SIRT3 expression, levels of MnSOD and CAT, as well as cell survival showed little difference in old versus young hMSCs under normal growth conditions, whereas older cells had a significantly reduced capacity to withstand oxidative stress compared to their younger counterparts. Expression of the short 28 kD SIRT3 isoform was higher, while the long 44 kD isoform expression was lower in young myocardial tissues compared with older ones. These results suggest that the active short isoform of SIRT3 protects hMSCs from oxidative injury by increasing the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes. The expression of this short isoform decreases in cardiac tissue during ageing, leading to a reduced capacity for the heart to withstand oxidative stress. PMID:25210848

  7. Administrative Appeals and ADR in Danish Administrative Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Inger Marie; Gøtze, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Administrative Appeals, review, administrative tribunals, ombudsman, alternative dispute resolution......Administrative Appeals, review, administrative tribunals, ombudsman, alternative dispute resolution...

  8. NucleoRed - Computerized system for increasing the effectiveness of the technical administrative conduct of the Laguna Verde Central; NucleoRed - Sistema computarizado para incrementar la efectividad de la gestion tecnico-administrativa de la Central Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna D, J. [Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera cardel-Nautla Km. 42.5 Veracruz (Mexico)]. e-mail: jluna@cfe.gob.mx

    2003-07-01

    The on-line systems for the management of the Laguna Verde Central (CLV) have had the challenge to evolve from the PC's of first generation until emigrate to the new Internet technologies, so that they allow to the diverse work groups to have the computer tool that allows them to gather the necessary data and to carry out efficiently the analysis of their results. To confront the previous challenge, in the CLV it has been developed and implemented the Nucleo Red that is an on-line system with the objective of providing in it lines strategic information for the Technician-administrative management of the plant in the nuclear context. The Nucleo Red is the computational tool that reflects the technical administrative processes implemented by personnel of the different Operative departments, it seeks to cooperate to the reliable and efficient operation of the first nucleo electric central of Mexico, with technology and Mexican personnel the one which already it had received international recognitions. The perspective of this computer system is to continue inside the process of continuous improvement and that although it was designed for a nucleo electric plant it can also be taken to the conventional plants of generation of electric power, so that this technology can be taken advantage of in other non nuclear facilities. The objective of the present work, is to show the new modules that have been developed in the Nucleo Red, its operation in general, and the benefits that it presents its use. (Author)

  9. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  10. Administrative Data Repository (ADR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Administrative Data Repository (ADR) was established to provide support for the administrative data elements relative to multiple categories of a person entity...

  11. Capacity Building in Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Williamson, I

    2004-01-01

    Capacity building increasingly seen as a key component of land administration projects in developing and countries in transition undertaken by the international development banks and individual country development assistance agencies. However, the capacity building concept is often used within a...... should be dealt with as capacity building projects in themselves.    The article introduces a conceptual analytical framework that provides some guidance when dealing with capacity building for land administration in support of a broader land policy agenda....

  12. Privacy Decisionmaking in Administrative Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Mulligan, Deirdre; Bamberger, Kenneth a.

    2008-01-01

    Administrative agencies increasingly rely on technology to achieve substantive goals. Often this technology is employed to collect, exchange, manipulate and store personally identifiable information, raising serious concerns about the erosion of personal privacy. Congress has recognized this problem. In the E-Government Act of 2002, it required administrative agencies to conduct privacy impact assessments (PIAs) when developing or procuring technology systems that handle personal inf...

  13. Organization/Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing 26 syllabi for courses on organization and administration in higher education are discussed, and six sample syllabi are presented. The syllabi focused more on organization than administration. Of the 26 syllabi, 19 dealt with organization and administration generally; 5 with administration in a specific…

  14. ORGANIZATION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mrkša, Jožica

    2012-01-01

    In the thesis titled Organization of Public Administration I concentrated in the review of national and foreign literature. My decision for this topic is based on the personal interest and relevance of the topic in this particular period of time. The purpose of my work was to present the public administration in general, with focus in public administration of Slovenia. At first, the theoretical background of public administration is presented, with following topics addressed: public administr...

  15. Case of administrative dispute

    OpenAIRE

    Xhemazie Ibraimi

    2015-01-01

    The activity of administrative bodies includes big numbers of various acts and actions, through which the will of public administration is formed. The will of public administration bodies, expressed in administrative individual and normative acts, in administrative contracts and real acts, finds its reflection in the Constitution, laws and other provisions of legal character. All this activity is not inerrant and therefore, it is not uncontrollable. The supervision of executive activity is su...

  16. Case of administrative dispute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhemazie Ibraimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The activity of administrative bodies includes big numbers of various acts and actions, through which the will of public administration is formed. The will of public administration bodies, expressed in administrative individual and normative acts, in administrative contracts and real acts, finds its reflection in the Constitution, laws and other provisions of legal character. All this activity is not inerrant and therefore, it is not uncontrollable. The supervision of executive activity is subject to political control of administrative acts through authorities designated for this purpose, as well as internal control and the judicial control. The institution of judicial control of administrative acts and actions appears as very important and widely treated in the legal doctrine. The protection of constitutional and legal rights of private persons is accomplished by subjecting administrative activity both to internal administrative control, as well as to the judicial control in accordance with legal provisions. The judicial control of administrative acts represents a constitutional guarantee for citizens to protect their rights through public and fair trial by an independent and impartial court. In this way, the Constitution empowers the common administrative court that invalidates an action or administrative act, but not all administrative acts may be subject to administrative dispute, with the exception of cases against which the administrative conflict cannot be carried out (negative enumeration.

  17. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  18. β-asarone and levodopa co-administration increase striatal dopamine level in 6-hydroxydopamine induced rats by modulating P-glycoprotein and tight junction proteins at the blood-brain barrier and promoting levodopa into the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liping; Deng, Minzhen; He, Yuping; Lu, Shiyao; Ma, Ruanxin; Fang, Yongqi

    2016-06-01

    Levodopa (L-dopa) is widely considered as one of the most effective drug constituents in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of L-dopa is dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), S100β and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) levels were subsequently determined. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp), zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), claudin-5, occludin and actin expression was also assessed in cortex. Changes in BBB ultrastructure were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Our results showed that the co-administered treatment increased levels of L-dopa, DA, DOPAC and HVA in striatum, and S100β in plasma, but down-regulated NSE, P-gp, ZO-1, occludin, actin and claudin-5 in cortex. Crevices were observed between capillary endothelial cells at intercellular tight junction of the striatum in co-administered-treated group, while the endothelial cells in untreated group were tightly jointing each other. In addition, the correlations of L-dopa or DA and P-gp or tight junction proteins respectively were significantly negative in co-administered- and β-asarone-treated groups. These findings suggest that co-administered treatment may enhance the L-dopa BBB permeability and attenuate brain injury, which may be beneficial to PD treatment. PMID:26991136

  19. Transportation Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security CSS for FAQ Transportation Security Administration Search When I fly can I bring ... to know if you could bring through the security checkpoint. Main menu Administrator Travel Security Screening Special ...

  20. Administration on Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Federal Initiatives Career Opportunities Contact Us Administration on Aging (AoA) The Administration on Aging (AOA) is the ... themselves. Back to top Older Americans Act and Aging Network To meet the diverse needs of the ...

  1. Understanding land administration systems

    OpenAIRE

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy; Rajabifard, Abbas

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of ...

  2. Refinement for administrative policies

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, S.

    2007-01-01

    Flexibility of management is an important requisite for access control systems as it allows users to adapt the access control system in accordance with practical requirements. This paper builds on earlier work where we defined administrative policies for a general class of RBAC models. We present a formal definition of administrative refinnement and we show that there is an ordering for administrative privileges which yields administrative refinements of policies. We argue (by giving an examp...

  3. Development of administrative justice

    OpenAIRE

    Švancrová, Dominika

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor's Thesis deals with a development of administrative justice. The first part of the paper defines the term of administrative justice in general and then describes various types. The second part is focused on the history of administrative justice in our country. The third part describes the current legislation in the Czech Republic. The fourth section is entirely devoted to the Supreme Administrative Court. Define the function and organization at first and then there are analyzed speci...

  4. Improvement of tax administration

    OpenAIRE

    Joppe, Aina

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the promotion work, based on the result analysis of the specific economical literature and tax administration praxis worldwide and in Latvia, is to elaborate proposals for the development of tax administration in Latvia. The work consists of three chapters. In the first chapter of the work viewpoints on the essence and functions of tax administration encountered in the scientific literature have been researched and factors affecting tax administration have been analyzed. T...

  5. Cloudera administration handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow Apache Hadoop administrator's guide filled with practical screenshots and explanations for each step and configuration. This book is great for administrators interested in setting up and managing a large Hadoop cluster. If you are an administrator, or want to be an administrator, and you are ready to build and maintain a production-level cluster running CDH5, then this book is for you.

  6. CHINA INCREASED PETROLEUM TAX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Xueping

    2005-01-01

    @@ After half a year's gestation and adjustment, the State Administration of Taxation finally set new tax rate of petroleum resources. Notification issued by the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation said the petroleum resources tax standard would be lifted nationwide, after the tax rate adjustment, tax on crude oil would be increased to RMB 14-30 yuan per ton and that on natural gas to RMB 7-15 yuan per thousand cubic meters. The new tax rate has been effective nationwide since July 1.

  7. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial H2O2 emission increases with immobilization and decreases after aerobic training in young and older men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Martin; Vigelsø, Andreas; Yokota, Takashi;

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction, defined as increased oxidative stress and lower capacity for energy production, may be seen with aging and may cause frailty, or it could be that it is secondary to physical inactivity. We studied the effect of two weeks of one-leg immobilization followed by six weeks of......ZnSOD), catalase and gluthathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) were measured by Western Blotting. Immobilization decreased ATP generating respiration using PM and increased H2O2 emission using both PM and SR similarly in young and older men. Both were restored to baseline after the training period. Furthermore, MnSOD and...... catalase content increased with endurance training. The young men had a higher leak respiration at inclusion using PM and a higher membrane potential in state 3 using both substrate combinations. Collectively, this study supports the notion that increased mitochondrial ROS mediates the detrimental effects...

  8. Impaired inflammatory response and increased oxidative stress and neurodegeneration after brain injury in interleukin-6-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Giralt, M; Carrasco, J;

    2000-01-01

    In order to determine the role of the neuropoietic cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) during the first 3 weeks after a focal brain injury, we examined the inflammatory response, oxidative stress and neuronal survival in normal and interleukin-6-deficient (knockout, IL-6KO) mice subjected to a cortical...... of the antioxidants Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), Mn-SOD, and catalase remained unaffected by the IL-6 deficiency. The lesioned mice showed increased oxidative stress, as judged by malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrotyrosine (NITT) levels and by formation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (i...... freeze lesion. In normal mice, the brain injury was followed by reactive astrogliosis and recruitment of macrophages from 1 day postlesion (dpl), peaking at 3-10 dpl, and by 20 dpl the transient immunoreactions were decreased, and a glial scar was present. In IL-6KO mice, the reactive astrogliosis and...

  9. Increased accuracy in heparin and protamine administration decreases bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runge, Marx; Møller, Christian H; Steinbrüchel, Daniel A

    2009-01-01

    Three to 5 percent of the patients undergoing cardiac surgery are reoperated because of bleeding. When a surgical cause can be excluded, heparin/protamine mismatch may be considered. Insufficient reversal of heparin and overdosing of protamine may cause postoperative bleeding. The purpose of the...... ACT values were obtained in both groups. Using the Hemochron RxDx, we observed a significant reduction in postoperative blood loss, as well as the amount of heparin and initial doses of protamine used during CPB. Individual patient managed anticoagulation during cardiac surgery using dose...

  10. Personality Traits and Administrators

    OpenAIRE

    Anitha V

    2008-01-01

    Administration is the art of getting tasks done by utilizing the resources and coordinating the people. Administrators give trigger to the administration by coordinating, and directing all parts of an organization by managing the tangible and intangible resources of the organization. The qualities of leadership are therefore a critical determinant of organizational success. The theories of leadership (Trait to Transformational leadership theory) have strived to look into the aspects that make...

  11. Marketing as support tool for public administration

    OpenAIRE

    Elena ENACHE; Morozan, Cristian

    2010-01-01

    The reality of public administration system in Romania shows that, in addition to normal and fair activities, negative aspects are to be noticed. Whatever the degree of truth in these assessments, the process of public administration in our country should be continuously adjusted and improved. As the debates on the role of marketing in society have increased in recent years, the tendency to extend its application areas seems to be evident; one of these is the public administration, where the ...

  12. Veterans Administration Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  13. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  14. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  15. CDS - Database Administrator's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J. P.

    This guide aims to instruct the CDS database administrator in: o The CDS file system. o The CDS index files. o The procedure for assimilating a new CDS tape into the database. It is assumed that the administrator has read SUN/79.

  16. Koncepcja lean administration

    OpenAIRE

    Czekaj, Janusz

    2010-01-01

    The article presents an attempt of description of Lean Administration concept. The pre- requisites and principles of Lean Administration system is given. Next, the functions and perspectives of “lean” activities are discussed together with methodological framework. The steps and auxiliary methods are also defined.

  17. Webmin administrator's cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Karzynski, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Written in a cookbook format with practical recipes this book helps you to perform various administrative tasks using Webmin and enables you to perform common jobs more efficiently.This book is perfect for System administrators who want to learn more advanced concepts of Webmin and how it can help to set up a server for development, testing or deployment.

  18. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy;

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems. Readers may recall the first part of the paper in October issue of Coordinates. Here is the concluding part that focuses on the changing...

  19. Postmodern Public Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogason, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Discussion of the trends towards more uses of postmodern analysis within the discipline of public administration, particularly in the USA......Discussion of the trends towards more uses of postmodern analysis within the discipline of public administration, particularly in the USA...

  20. Centos system administration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallett, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Linux administrator who is looking to gain knowledge that differentiates yourself from the crowd, then this is the book for you. Beginners who have a keen interest to learn more about Linux administration will also progress quickly with this resourceful learning guide.

  1. Administration for Student Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, J. J., Ed.

    This collection of papers focuses on school administration and its relation to students. It is contended that toay's student matures earlier; has higher expectations; is more affluent; is more isolated from adults; is more critical and outspoken; and, therefore, must be heard by teachers and administrators. A related document is EA 001578.…

  2. Oral administration of taxanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malingré, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Oral treatment with cytotoxic agents is to be preferred as this administration route is convenient to patients, reduces administration costs and facilitates the use of more chronic treatment regimens. For the taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel, however, low oral bioavailability has limited development

  3. UML IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ionita

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article elaborates weather UML, primarily used in software engineering, can be a useful tool in business modeling and administration. By analyzing the advantages the modeling language has to offer we find that UML is visual and object oriented and that it is useful in expressing structure, interaction and behavior as well. With its help managers and business people can build models and diagrams to help put things into perspective. “Case Study 1” shows UML can be used as an analysis tool in business modeling to help increase the complexity and depth of the event or project that is being developed. “Case Study 2” attempts to prove that UML can also be efficiently used in finding solutions to newly appeared problems in a business environment. Despite the practicality of the Unified Modeling Language there is still some criticism brought to it. Some programmers consider it to be hard to learn and some developers claim that it is too abstract. The article concludes that despite the minor drawbacks; due to its adaptability and complex visual models, it is a very useful tool that adds value to the modeling of business structures and processes.

  4. Quality and Performance in Public Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Cîrnu Doru; Todorut Amalia Venera; Banta Victor

    2011-01-01

    The national context in which change and reforming government is synthesized in any government program, based on new principles, which includes the following objectives: Public administration reform, based on increasing local autonomy and the financial and economic; restructure the central and local government, aiming to achieve an effective organizational model of administrative structures, while drastically reducing public expenditure; reducing bureaucracy and streamlining public services. ...

  5. PUBLICATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR NO. 23 (REV. 2) – SPECIAL WORKING HOURS Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 2) entitled "Special working hours", approved following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 9 December 2008, will be available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department as from 19 December 2008: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 1) entitled "Stand-by duty" of April 1988. A "Frequently Asked Questions" information document on special working hours will also be available on this site. Paper copies of this circular will shortly be available in departmental secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  6. Publication of administrative circular

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR NO. 23 (REV. 2) – SPECIAL WORKING HOURS Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 2) entitled "Special working hours", approved following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee on 9 December 2008, will be available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department as from 19 December 2008: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 1) entitled "Stand-by duty" of April 1988. A "Frequently Asked Questions" information document on special working hours will also be available on this site. Paper copies of this circular will shortly be available in Departmental Secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  7. Pro Linux System Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Turnbull, James

    2009-01-01

    We can all be Linux experts, provided we invest the time in learning the craft of Linux administration. Pro Linux System Administration makes it easy for small to medium--sized businesses to enter the world of zero--cost software running on Linux and covers all the distros you might want to use, including Red Hat, Ubuntu, Debian, and CentOS. Authors, and systems infrastructure experts James Turnbull, Peter Lieverdink, and Dennis Matotek take a layered, component--based approach to open source business systems, while training system administrators as the builders of business infrastructure. If

  8. Humanism, Administration and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    2012-01-01

    argued that the changes in administrative practices during the last decade constitute a transformation, but also a reproduction of relations between knowledge and governing that goes back to the big expansion of the welfare state. Second, it is argued that these relations between knowledge and governing...... are not restricted to the administrative practices, but are part of education and its humanistic legacy as well. As such, the administrative demand of documentation becomes possible and recognisable through its reproductive elements. Elements that are constituted in a transformative conjunction in...

  9. 5 CFR 534.604 - Pay administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the dollar value of the employee's next within-grade increase, the agency must set the employee's... hiring agency, or having an outstanding reputation among others in the field. (c) Administrative...

  10. Administration for Community Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 04/30/2016) New CDC Autism Data Highlights Importance of Long-term Services and Supports, Cultural Competency ( ... STAY CONNECTED Facebook Twitter YouTube E-mail Updates Administration for Community Living • Washington, DC 20201 Last Modified: ...

  11. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy;

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...... in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...... part focuses on the changing  role of ownership and the role of land markets, and a land management vision will be published in November issue of Coordinates. Udgivelsesdato: Oktober...

  12. Veterans Health Administration (VHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The purpose of this agreement is for SSA to verify SSNs and other identifying information for the Department of Veterans Affairs, VHA. DVA will use the information...

  13. Scientists vs. the administration

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Article denouncing the supposed impartiality of signatories of a report released by the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), which accused the Bush administration of systemically suborning objective science to a political agenda (1 page).

  14. Administrative Discretionary Grant Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — This dataset of administrative records contains discretionary grant recipients who were awarded funds by the Institute of Museum and Library Services from fiscal...

  15. Education of System Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Feyrer, Hubert

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses education of system administration. Theoretical foundations cover psychology, learning theory, instruction theory, and instructional design, leading to an ideal progression for education, and related tools. The main part describes an existing class on system administration as given at the University of Applied Sciences (Fachhochschule, FH) Regensburg, Germany. It is analyzed for its history and target audience, the current curriculum, course layout, and for the didac...

  16. SELinux policy administration

    CERN Document Server

    Vermeulen, Sven

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step guide to learn how to set up security on Linux servers by taking SELinux policies into your own hands.Linux administrators will enjoy the various SELinux features that this book covers and the approach used to guide the admin into understanding how SELinux works. The book assumes that you have basic knowledge in Linux administration, especially Linux permission and user management.

  17. Corruption in public administration

    OpenAIRE

    Rosecký, Radek

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the topic of the corruption in a public administration. It is aimed at an identification of key corruption threats which are typical for a public administration, further at an analysis of the corruption causes and its forms, an identification of its developmental stages, including the analysis of current anti-corruption measures and drafts to an optimal answer within the Czech Republic. The theoretical part of this dissertation in its indroduction contents the ...

  18. Learning Cassandra for administrators

    CERN Document Server

    Parthasarathy, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on guide, taking the reader from the basics of using Cassandra though to the installation and the running.Learning Cassandra for Administrators is for administrators who manage a large deployment of Cassandra clusters, and support engineers who would like to install the monitoring tools and who are also in charge of making sure the cluster stays the same, ensuring that the service is always up and running.

  19. Active City Administration

    OpenAIRE

    M .R. Sindhu; Viraj M. Jamle; Pramod M. Shelke; Shrikant G. Baheti

    2012-01-01

    The basic and universal corner stone of good governance are quality of service, quick response mechanisms and above all accountable and transparent process mechanism. The active city administration initiatives resulted in computerization of the legacy systems in government with limited ability to internalize the advances in information and communication technologies.By using active city administration services we able to know real time, quantitative and basic approach of the government servic...

  20. Administration for Defence Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Gale

    1953-01-01

    Full Text Available All scientific work must be carried out against a background of adequate administrative support if it is to become effective and produce useful results. Administration is not a job for which we, as scientists, are particularly trained; and it is a thing of which we tend to fight shy, partly because, author suppose, most Of peoples are associate the administrator with highly unpleasant matters such as income tax, delays in getting our pay cheques, and so on - For that reason we do not feel, always pay  sufficient attention to administrative affairs ; rather like the ostrich, we try to escape from them by merely ignoring them. But that is a wrong and unfruitful attitude to adopt. All live so much under the activities of the trained administrator that should, if, it  give a great deal of thought to our own administrative problems deliberate and conscious thought to them-and make an honest and heart-searching self analysis regarding our own possible failings.

  1. 77 FR 15358 - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Seats for the Monitor National Marine...), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Notice and... sanctuary environment; and (4)developing an informed constituency to increase awareness and understanding...

  2. Renal Inhibition of Heme Oxygenase-1 Increases Blood Pressure in Angiotensin II-Dependent Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csongradi, Eva; Storm, Megan V; Stec, David E

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that renal medullary heme oxygenase (HO) acts as a buffer against Ang-II dependent hypertension. To test this hypothesis, renal medullary HO activity was blocked using QC-13, an imidazole-dioxolane HO-1 inhibitor, or SnMP, a classical porphyrin based HO inhibitor. HO inhibitors were infused via IRMI catheters throughout the study starting 3 days prior to implantation of an osmotic minipump which delivered Ang II or saline vehicle. MAP was increased by Ang II infusion and further increased by IRMI infusion of QC-13 or SnMP. MAP averaged 113 ± 3, 120 ± 7, 141 ± 2, 153 ± 2, and 154 ± 3 mmHg in vehicle, vehicle + IRMI QC-13, Ang II, Ang II + IRMI QC-13, and Ang II + IRMI SnMP treated mice, respectively (n = 6). Inhibition of renal medullary HO activity with QC-13 in Ang II infused mice was also associated with a significant increase in superoxide production as well as significant decreases in antioxidant enzymes catalase and MnSOD. These results demonstrate that renal inhibition of HO exacerbates Ang II dependent hypertension through a mechanism which is associated with increases in superoxide production and decreases in antioxidant enzymes. PMID:22164328

  3. Behavioral Public Administration: Combining Insights from Public Administration and Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan; Jilke, Sebastian; Olsen, Asmus Leth; Tummers, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We propose behavioral public administration as a designated subfield in public administration which explicitly deals with the integration of theories and methods from psychology into the study of public administration. We discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw on both methodological and theoretical innovations in psychology and point to research questions in public administration which could benefit from further integration. Behavioral public administration cannot, and s...

  4. Spatially enabled land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    other words: Good governance and sustainable development is not attainable without sound land administration or - more broadly – sound land management. The paper presents a land management vision that incorporates the benefits of ICT enabled land administration functions. The idea is that spatial......Good governance is a qualitative term or an ideal which may be difficult to achieve. Different people, organisations, and government authorities will define “good governance” according to their own experience and interests. In any case, almost all kind of government includes a spatial component. In...... enabling of land administration systems managing tenure, valuation, planning, and development will allow the information generated by these activities to be much more useful. Also, the services available to private and public sectors and to community organisations should commensurably improve. Knowledge...

  5. Linux System Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Adelstein, Tom

    2007-01-01

    If you're an experienced system administrator looking to acquire Linux skills, or a seasoned Linux user facing a new challenge, Linux System Administration offers practical knowledge for managing a complete range of Linux systems and servers. The book summarizes the steps you need to build everything from standalone SOHO hubs, web servers, and LAN servers to load-balanced clusters and servers consolidated through virtualization. Along the way, you'll learn about all of the tools you need to set up and maintain these working environments. Linux is now a standard corporate platform with user

  6. Computer hardware fault administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  7. Practical JIRA Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Doar, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    If you're familiar with JIRA for issue tracking, bug tracking, and other uses, you know it can sometimes be tricky to set up and manage. In this concise book, software toolsmith Matt Doar clarifies some of the more confusing aspects by answering difficult and frequently asked questions about JIRA administration. Practical JIRA Administration shows you how JIRA is intended to be used, making it an ideal supplement to the extensive documentation already available. The book's chapters are loosely connected, so you can go straight to the information that best serves your needs. Understand the di

  8. United States Fire Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reduction: Getting the Most From the U.S. Fire Administration’s Daily National Operations Brief PDF 127 KB There ... staff. Follow us: Twitter Facebook YouTube U.S. Fire Administration 16825 S. Seton Ave. , Emmitsburg , MD 21727 USA 800‑ ...

  9. Student Panels, Business Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    the Head of MSc programmes, the MSc coordinator as well as the administrative secretary. A student panel meets with the department twice in the first year: Early in February to sum up experience from the first semester and in early in June to sum up experience from the second semester. At semester...

  10. The persuasive administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidhizar, Ruth

    2002-01-01

    The art of being persuasive involves use of selected persuasive techniques appropriate to the individual and situation. Persuasive techniques are powerful tools of communication and productivity. Effective use of persuasive techniques can provide motivation to others and can mobilize them toward action that you, as an administrator, desire. PMID:11962076

  11. Enterprise Mac administrators guide

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, William

    2015-01-01

    IT departments everywhere will be integrating Macs and Mac OS X into their IT infrastructure and this book will tell them how to do it. It will serve as an authoritative, useful and frequently referenced book on Mac OS X administration.

  12. Tullock contests under committee administration

    OpenAIRE

    Simiao Li

    2013-01-01

    Much of the Tullock contest (Tullock 1980) literature analyzes rent-seeking efforts under the assumption of a single prize administrator. Here, I allow a committee to decide the winner of the rent-seeking contest according to simple majority voting rule, and study the impact of committee size on rent-seeking expenditures. I find that increasing the size of the committee produces an ambiguous impact on total rent-seeking efforts, with the heterogeneity of the contestants acting as the factor d...

  13. THE QUALITY OF PUBLIC SERVICES IN ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Banta; Doru Cîrnu

    2010-01-01

    Is to show a model of good practice in public management by implementing a quality system in Prefecture. The national context in which change and reforming government is synthesized in any government program, based on new principles, which includes the following objectives: Public administration reform, based on increasing local autonomy and the financial and economic; restructure the central and local government, aiming to achieve an effective organizational model of administrative structure...

  14. Professional and career issues in administrative medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Lazarus

    2009-01-01

    Arthur LazarusSenior Director, Global Clinical Development, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE, USAAbstract: Administrative medicine is not recognized as a medical specialty in the United States, but increasingly, management-trained physicians are being recruited to fill important roles in hospitals and the life sciences industry. While the opportunities may be substantial, physicians who are interested in pursuing an administrative career should be aware of the challenges e...

  15. Composite Procedures in the EU Administrative LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    Administrative procedures in the sphere of EU law are increasingly integrated. In many cases, both Member State authorities as well as EU institutions and bodies contribute to a single procedure, irrespective of whether the final decision is taken on the national or the European level. Such procedures are referred to here as composite procedures. This chapter is about the legal problems resulting from such procedural administrative integration.

  16. Behavioral Public Administration: Combining Insights from Public Administration and Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan; Jilke, Sebastian; Olsen, Asmus Leth;

    2015-01-01

    We propose behavioral public administration as a designated subfield in public administration which explicitly deals with the integration of theories and methods from psychology into the study of public administration. We discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw on both...... methodological and theoretical innovations in psychology and point to research questions in public administration which could benefit from further integration. Behavioral public administration cannot, and should not, replace ‘conventional’ public administration, but it is complementary to it. Importantly......, behavioral public administration represents a two-way street in which public administration scholars use theories and methods from psychology, and psychologists, in turn, learn from our setting of political-administrative contexts to refine their theories and methods. Finally, we propose four principals to...

  17. 40 CFR 86.422-78 - Administrator's fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrator's fleet. 86.422-78... 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.422-78 Administrator's fleet. The Administrator... accordance with § 86.421. The number of vehicles selected shall not increase the size of the test fleet...

  18. School Choice and Administrators: Will Principals Become Marketers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robenstine, Clark

    2000-01-01

    Argues that school choice, with its reliance on market forces, has serious implications for what goes on inside the school and the principal's role. Looks at changes in administrative focus and management style; at administrators and school marketing, with image management increasingly preoccupying school administrators; and the almost exclusive…

  19. Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Land administration systems are the operational tool for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) in land. Each of the rights, restrictions and responsibilities encompasses a human rights dimension that relates to the overall national land policies and should be unfolded as...... more than just rhetoric. This paper attempts to analyse the aspects of human rights in relation to land administration systems with a special focus on developing countries struggling to build adequate systems for governing the rights, restrictions and responsibilities in land. Human rights are the...... of being alive. Of special interest in relation to land and property is the right to own things and the right of food and adequate housing for all. More generally, human rights should be seen as an ethical responsibility of government to ensure that people enjoy some basic rights as human beings...

  20. ATLAS TDAQ System Administration:

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Christopher Jon; The ATLAS collaboration; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Ballestrero, Sergio; Contescu, Alexandru Cristian; Dubrov, Sergei; Fazio, Daniel; Korol, Aleksandr; Scannicchio, Diana; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Voronkov, Artem

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system is responsible for the online processing of live data, streaming from the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The online farm is composed of ̃3000 servers, processing the data readout from ̃100 million detector channels through multiple trigger levels. During the two years of the first Long Shutdown (LS1) there has been a tremendous amount of work done by the ATLAS TDAQ System Administrators, implementing numerous new software applications, upgrading the OS and the hardware, changing some design philosophies and exploiting the High Level Trigger farm with different purposes. During the data taking only critical security updates are applied and broken hardware is replaced to ensure a stable operational environment. The LS1 provided an excellent opportunity to look into new technologies and applications that would help to improve and streamline the daily tasks of not only the System Administrators, but also of the scientists who wil...

  1. Law Tackling Administrative Monopolies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN LIXIN

    2006-01-01

    @@ The long-anticipated anti-monopoly law needs to better address the crucial distinction between administrative and economic monopolies The first five months of 2oo6 saw a surge in the profits achieved by key State enterprises, especially in the eight sectors including petroleum, telecommunication and electricity, which achieved 285 billion yuan (US$36 billion) in profits, accounting for about 86 percent of the total, according to a July report. From the Stateowned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State (SASAC). This news was both heartening and disquieting, for the most profitable sectors happen to be monopolistic enterprises, mostly upstream the production chain, who achieve their profitability at the expense of those companies further downstream. For years these sectors have been at the centre of the "bust-the-trust" storm.

  2. IPv6 Network Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Niall Richard

    2009-01-01

    This essential guide explains what works, what doesn't, and most of all, what's practical about IPv6--the next-generation Internet standard. A must-have for network administrators everywhere looking to fix their network's scalability and management problems. Also covers other IPv6 benefits, such as routing, integrated auto-configuration, quality-of-services (QoS), enhanced mobility, and end-to-end security.

  3. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  4. Moodle administration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Henrick, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    If you are an experienced system administrator and know how to manage servers and set up web environments but now want to explore Moodle, this book is perfect for you. You'll get to grips with the basics and learn to manage Moodle quickly, focusing on essential tasks. Having prior knowledge of virtual learning environments would be beneficial, but is not mandatory to make the most of this book.

  5. Increased oxidative stress and severe arterial remodeling induced by permanent high-flow challenge in experimental pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadel Elie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Involvement of inflammation in pulmonary hypertension (PH has previously been demonstrated and recently, immune-modulating dendritic cells (DCs infiltrating arterial lesions in patients suffering from idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH and in experimental monocrotaline-induced PH have been reported. Occurrence of perivascular inflammatory cells could be linked to local increase of oxidative stress (OS, as it has been shown for systemic atherosclerosis. The impact of OS on vascular remodeling in PH is still to be determined. We hypothesized, that augmented blood-flow could increase OS and might thereby contribute to DC/inflammatory cell-recruitment and smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation. Methods We applied a monocrotaline-induced PH-model and combined it with permanent flow-challenge. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to following groups: control, monocrotaline-exposure (MCT, monocrotaline-exposure/pneumonectomy (MCT/PE. Results Hemodynamic exploration demonstrated most severe effects in MCT/PE, corresponding in histology to exuberant medial and adventitial remodeling of pulmonary muscular arteries, and intimal remodeling of smaller arterioles; lung-tissue PCR evidenced increased expression of DCs-specific fascin, CD68, proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, RANTES, fractalkine in MCT/PE and to a lesser extent in MCT. Major OS enzyme NOX-4 was maximal in MCT/PE. Antioxidative stress enzymes Mn-SOD and glutathion-peroxidase-1 were significantly elevated, while HO-1 showed maximal expression in MCT with significant decrease in MCT/PE. Catalase was decreased in MCT and MCT/PE. Expression of NOX-4, but also of MN-SOD in MCT/PE was mainly attributed to a highly increased number of interstitial and perivascular CXCR4/SDF1 pathway-recruited mast-cells. Stress markers malonedialdehyde and nitrotyrosine were produced in endothelial cells, medial smooth muscle and perivascular leucocytes of hypertensive vasculature

  6. Genesis of tax administration

    OpenAIRE

    Myskin, Y. I.

    2014-01-01

    The history of formation and development of tax administration is studied. The stages of genesis of tax administration are identified and described. The historically caused major trends in tax administration which are based on knowledge of the nature of causality are formulated. Досліджено історію становлення та розвитку управління оподаткуванням. Визначено та охарактеризовано етапи генезису управління оподаткуванням. На основі пізнання природи причинно-наслідкових зв’язків сфо...

  7. Factors predictive of intravenous fluid administration errors in Australian surgical care wards

    OpenAIRE

    Han, P; Coombes, I.; B. Green

    2005-01-01

    Background: Intravenous (IV) fluid administration is an integral component of clinical care. Errors in administration can cause detrimental patient outcomes and increase healthcare costs, although little is known about medication administration errors associated with continuous IV infusions.

  8. The Administration of Tax Systems

    OpenAIRE

    John Hasseldine

    2010-01-01

    This chapter analyses recent developments in tax administration and best practice. The chapter begins by contextualizing tax administration through a discussion on the necessary separation between the operational tasks performed in tax administration and the more generic, but nevertheless crucial, issues of organization, strategy and internal management required in tax administration. The chapter then describes the recent genesis and the current context of tax administration - especially in E...

  9. Judicial Control over Public Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Fadil ZENDELI; Memet MEMETI; Agron RUSTEMI

    2012-01-01

    Judicial control of administration and installation of courts as specialized institutions for resolving administrative disputes (conflicts) strengthened legitimacy, efficiency and accountability of the administrative bodies and this contributed to strengthening the protection of human rights against administrative bodies. The paper attempts to address the administrative disputes (conflict) in general hence giving specific data for some European countries and USA. Access to thesis topic is ana...

  10. MAPK pathway activation by chronic lead-exposure increases vascular reactivity through oxidative stress/cyclooxygenase-2-dependent pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simões, Maylla Ronacher, E-mail: yllars@hotmail.com [Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES CEP 29040-091 (Brazil); Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain); Aguado, Andrea [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain); Fiorim, Jonaína; Silveira, Edna Aparecida; Azevedo, Bruna Fernandes; Toscano, Cindy Medice [Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES CEP 29040-091 (Brazil); Zhenyukh, Olha; Briones, Ana María [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, María Jesús [Dept. of Biochemistry, Physiology and Molecular Genetics, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Alcorcón (Spain); Vassallo, Dalton Valentim [Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES CEP 29040-091 (Brazil); Health Science Center of Vitória-EMESCAM, Vitória, ES CEP 29045-402 (Brazil); Salaices, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.salaices@uam.es [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain)

    2015-03-01

    Chronic exposure to low lead concentration produces hypertension; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We analyzed the role of oxidative stress, cyclooxygenase-2-dependent pathways and MAPK in the vascular alterations induced by chronic lead exposure. Aortas from lead-treated Wistar rats (1st dose: 10 μg/100 g; subsequent doses: 0.125 μg/100 g, intramuscular, 30 days) and cultured aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from Sprague Dawley rats stimulated with lead (20 μg/dL) were used. Lead blood levels of treated rats attained 21.7 ± 2.38 μg/dL. Lead exposure increased systolic blood pressure and aortic ring contractile response to phenylephrine, reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation and did not affect sodium nitroprusside relaxation. Endothelium removal and L-NAME left-shifted the response to phenylephrine more in untreated than in lead-treated rats. Apocynin and indomethacin decreased more the response to phenylephrine in treated than in untreated rats. Aortic protein expression of gp91(phox), Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and COX-2 increased after lead exposure. In cultured VSMCs lead 1) increased superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity and gene and/or protein levels of NOX-1, NOX-4, Mn-SOD, EC-SOD and COX-2 and 2) activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Both antioxidants and COX-2 inhibitors normalized superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity and mRNA levels of NOX-1, NOX-4 and COX-2. Blockade of the ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways abolished lead-induced NOX-1, NOX-4 and COX-2 expression. Results show that lead activation of the MAPK signaling pathways activates inflammatory proteins such as NADPH oxidase and COX-2, suggesting a reciprocal interplay and contribution to vascular dysfunction as an underlying mechanisms for lead-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • Lead-exposure increases oxidative stress, COX-2 expression and vascular reactivity. • Lead exposure activates MAPK signaling pathway. • ROS and COX-2 activation by

  11. MAPK pathway activation by chronic lead-exposure increases vascular reactivity through oxidative stress/cyclooxygenase-2-dependent pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic exposure to low lead concentration produces hypertension; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We analyzed the role of oxidative stress, cyclooxygenase-2-dependent pathways and MAPK in the vascular alterations induced by chronic lead exposure. Aortas from lead-treated Wistar rats (1st dose: 10 μg/100 g; subsequent doses: 0.125 μg/100 g, intramuscular, 30 days) and cultured aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from Sprague Dawley rats stimulated with lead (20 μg/dL) were used. Lead blood levels of treated rats attained 21.7 ± 2.38 μg/dL. Lead exposure increased systolic blood pressure and aortic ring contractile response to phenylephrine, reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation and did not affect sodium nitroprusside relaxation. Endothelium removal and L-NAME left-shifted the response to phenylephrine more in untreated than in lead-treated rats. Apocynin and indomethacin decreased more the response to phenylephrine in treated than in untreated rats. Aortic protein expression of gp91(phox), Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and COX-2 increased after lead exposure. In cultured VSMCs lead 1) increased superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity and gene and/or protein levels of NOX-1, NOX-4, Mn-SOD, EC-SOD and COX-2 and 2) activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Both antioxidants and COX-2 inhibitors normalized superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity and mRNA levels of NOX-1, NOX-4 and COX-2. Blockade of the ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways abolished lead-induced NOX-1, NOX-4 and COX-2 expression. Results show that lead activation of the MAPK signaling pathways activates inflammatory proteins such as NADPH oxidase and COX-2, suggesting a reciprocal interplay and contribution to vascular dysfunction as an underlying mechanisms for lead-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • Lead-exposure increases oxidative stress, COX-2 expression and vascular reactivity. • Lead exposure activates MAPK signaling pathway. • ROS and COX-2 activation by

  12. Increasing Responsibility towards Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Comanescu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the international climate of the early millennium, the need for reconciliation between economic and social development, on one hand, and the environment, on the other hand, is essential. Therefore, sustainable development must be promoted, because it integrates economic growth, improved quality of life, health, education, social development and environmental protection.Environmental issues are particularly complex as their causes are interdependent. This requires actions at all levels: local, national, regional as well as at the European Union level, each with its own role in increasing responsibility for the environmental protection.It is widely recognized that to obtain successful results an integrated approach has to be used to manage the environment, by adopting long-term strategies and action plans. It requires a detailed analysis of the links between different policies and responsibilities, including the links between different administrative levels.

  13. Increasing Responsibility towards Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela COMĂNESCU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the international climate of the early millennium, the need for reconciliation between economic and social development, on one hand, and the environment, on the other hand, is essential. Therefore, sustainable development must be promoted, because it integrates economic growth, improves quality of life, health, education, social development and environmental protection. Environmental issues are particularly complex as their causes are interdependent. This requires actions at all levels: local, national, regional as well as at the European Union level, each with its own role in increasing responsibility for the environmental protection. It is widely recognized that to obtain successful results an integrated approach has to be used to manage the environment, by adopting long-term strategies and action plans. It requires a detailed analysis of the links between different policies and responsibilities, including the links between different administrative levels.

  14. AIS, ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION SUPPORT

    CERN Multimedia

    AS-DB/AS-SU

    1999-01-01

    The AS-DB and AS-SU groups within the Administrative Support division now offer a central entry point to the computer based Information Services under their responsibilities: the AIS Web site at http://ais.cern.ch.It features comprehensive search and navigation facilities as well as an activity based business map to guide AIS users to the information they want. Users will be able to launch any AIS WEB application from its desktop.Enjoy a visit of the site, we value your feedback at ais.webmaster@cern.ch!AS-DB/AS-SU

  15. UML IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Ionita

    2010-01-01

    The article elaborates weather UML, primarily used in software engineering, can be a useful tool in business modeling and administration. By analyzing the advantages the modeling language has to offer we find that UML is visual and object oriented and that it is useful in expressing structure, interaction and behavior as well. With its help managers and business people can build models and diagrams to help put things into perspective. “Case Study 1” shows UML can be used as an analysis tool i...

  16. Enterprise Mac Administrator's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Edge, Charles; Hunter, Beau

    2009-01-01

    Charles Edge, Zack Smith, and Beau Hunter provide detailed explanations of the technology required for large-scale Mac OS X deployments and show you how to integrate it with other operating systems and applications. Enterprise Mac Administrator's Guide addresses the growing size and spread of Mac OS X deployments in corporations and institutions worldwide. In some cases, this is due to the growth of traditional Mac environments, but for the most part it has to do with "switcher" campaigns, where Windows and/or Linux environments are migrating to Mac OS X. However, there is a steep cu

  17. NASA budget increases for 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leath, Audrey T.

    The fiscal year 1994 budget request for NASA is $15.3 billion, an increase of $934.6 million, or 6.5%, above the 1993 appropriation of $14.3 billion. Within this first budget request developed under NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin, the emphasis has changed and some details remain unresolved. At the agency's budget briefing, Goldin echoed Clinton's mantra for change and increased investment in new technologies. Saying that NASA was “too much into human space flight,” Goldin has proposed increased funding for technology development at the expense of the space station. He has also made reductions in some existing programs and increased funding for others.

  18. Administration of Educational Services: A Glossary of Basic Administration Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelbarger, J. J.

    From "achievement motivation" and "administration" to "Theory Z" and "viscidity and hedonic tone," this glossary defines 87 terms as they are used in educational administration. The terms include philosophical, psychological, organizational, and social concepts, but they all are employed in the theory and practice of administration. A short…

  19. Judicial Control over Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadil ZENDELI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Judicial control of administration and installation of courts as specialized institutions for resolving administrative disputes (conflicts strengthened legitimacy, efficiency and accountability of the administrative bodies and this contributed to strengthening the protection of human rights against administrative bodies. The paper attempts to address the administrative disputes (conflict in general hence giving specific data for some European countries and USA. Access to thesis topic is analytical and contributes to the recognition of administrative disputes as legal and functional mechanism in building the rule of law. The paper will result with appropriate conclusions that reflect the work of institutions and administrative disputes (conflict itself as a legal instrument and will help the concerned parties, officials, judges, researchers for theoretical and practical importance of administrative disputes (conflict.

  20. Administrative Implications of Curriculum Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Max G.; Eidell, Terry L.

    1970-01-01

    The director of the Center for the Advanced Study of Educational Administration at the University of Oregon and one of his associates discuss the new role of administration in an individual-oriented educational system. (AA)

  1. Administrative Law and Organization Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, William M.

    1977-01-01

    Considered are some trends in American administrative law, some trends in organization theory, a model of the administrative process, and several potentially useful research strategies. The analysis has implications for comparative research on legal systems. (Author/LBH)

  2. Functions Of Land Administration System

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Sakal

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical basis and essence of some common and specific functions of land administration system as an integral mechanism of effective land use and land administration levels (case-study for forest and other land available for afforestation) are analysed.

  3. Contact Center Manager Administration (CCMA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — CCMA is the server that provides a browser-based tool for contact center administrators and supervisors. It is used to manage and configure contact center resources...

  4. College Administrators: The Shoemaker's Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joyce S.

    1984-01-01

    Argues that theories of management and administration should be put into practice in the same academic institutions in which they were born, as they have the same applicability for college administrators as corporate managers. (DMM)

  5. Infringement proceedings of administrative bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Šimek, Roman

    2013-01-01

    The subject of the thesis is the legal definition of the proceedings for minor offence which falls within the area of administrative punishment on the issue of pardon of the oral proceedings on the part of the accused and the tutoring of the administrative authorities. Proceedings for minor offences is governed by the administrative regulations and the law the on misdemeanors. The administrative authorities must follow the basic principles of its activities which does not stem only from these...

  6. Administrative Dimensions of Tax Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    The best tax policy in the world is worth little if it cannot be implemented effectively. Tax policy design in developing countries must therefore take the administrative dimension of taxation carefully into account. What can be done may to a considerable extent determine what is done in any country. This paper discusses the relationship between tax policy and tax administration. When can policy lead administration? When must policy initiatives wait on administrative reform? How exactly can b...

  7. European Principles for Public Administration

    OpenAIRE

    OECD

    1999-01-01

    This paper attempts to identify the standards to which EU candidate countries are expected to conform in order to align their public administrations with those of EU Member States. Originating from SIGMA’s work on public administration reform in central and eastern European countries, in particular civil service development and administrative control, the paper describes an important part of the basis of the SIGMA methodology for assessing candidate countries’ public administration capacities...

  8. The interpretation of administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the principles of interpretation for administrative contracts, in French law and in Romanian law. In the article are highlighted derogations from the rules of contract interpretation in common law. Are examined the exceptions to the principle of good faith, the principle of common intention (willingness of the parties, the principle of good administration, the principle of extensive interpretation of the administrative contract. The article highlights the importance and role of the interpretation in administrative contracts.

  9. CITIZEN PROTECTION IN FRONT OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    POPESCU Maria

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the legal instruments available to the citizen to fight against government abuses. These tools, some of them published and recently developed, is a natural part of the evolution of government and the relationship between administration and citizens. Increasing citizen involvement in administration is reflected precisely by giving increasing importance in legal research to this phenomenon.

  10. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  11. Internet administration of the Edinburgh Depression Scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, V.; Nyklicek, I.; Cuijpers, P.; Pop, V.

    2008-01-01

    Background Internet-based screening for depression is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study is to validate the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) for internet administration. Methods In 407 participants (64% women; 36% men) with subthreshold depression (mean age = 55 years; S.D. = 4.9

  12. A Proposed Framework of Test Administration Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nathan A.

    2008-01-01

    The widespread application of personal computers to educational and psychological testing has substantially increased the number of test administration methodologies available to testing programs. Many of these mediums are referred to by their acronyms, such as CAT, CBT, CCT, and LOFT. The similarities between the acronyms and the methods…

  13. Views of Teachers, Administrators and Supervisors Regarding the Technological Leadership Standards for Administrators

    OpenAIRE

    Hacıfazlıoğlu, Özge; Karadeniz, Şirin; Dalgıç, Gülay

    2010-01-01

    Background. As the demand for building more effective and efficient learning communities is growing, the need for the school administrators who are aware of their instrumental roles in using and implementing technology has increased considerably (Afshari, Bakar, Luan, Samah & Fooi, 2009; Akbaba-Altun & Gürer, 2008; Yalın, Karadeniz & Şahin, 2007; Anderson & Dexter, 2005). Moreover, with the integration of technology into education, the administrators have been ...

  14. Depuration: An administrative overview

    OpenAIRE

    Somerset, I

    1992-01-01

    At the 1964 National Shellfish Sanitation Workshop, Mr. Eugene Jensen presented a thought-provoking paper outlining the rationale for the depuration of shellfish. Mr. Jensen noted that "we are committed to the principal that shellfish must be as safe to eat as other ordinary food" and that "the problems of assuring the sanitary quality of coastal areas will increase rather than diminish. This is not the same as saying that pollution will increase" (Jensen, 1964). It is recognised that additio...

  15. ADMINISTRATIVE ACTS EXTEMPTED FROM JUDICIAL REVIEW BY ADMINISTRATIVE COURTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta-Claudia CLIZA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian legislation, meaning by this Law no. 554/2004, creates in article no. 5 a special regime for some administrative acts which will be considered as exceptions from the “common administrative procedure”. These acts are not subject to the review of the courts, the exception being a total one or a partial one as it will be described in this study. The existence of the administrative procedure does not mean an absolute control on the administration. This is in fact the main reason why this article was included in Law no. 554/2004 and all implications will be described in this study.

  16. ADMINISTRATIVE ACTS EXTEMPTED FROM JUDICIAL REVIEW BY ADMINISTRATIVE COURTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta – Claudia CLIZA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian legislation, meaning by this Law no. 554/2004, creates in article no. 5 a special regime for some administrative acts which will be considered as exceptions from the „common administrative procedure”. These acts are not subject to the review of the courts, the exception being a total one or a partial one as it will be described in this study. The existence of the administrative procedure does not mean an absolute control on the administration. This is in fact the main reason why this article was included in Law no. 554/2004 and all implications will be described in this study.

  17. ADMINISTRATIVE ACTS EXTEMPTED FROM JUDICIAL REVIEW BY ADMINISTRATIVE COURTS

    OpenAIRE

    Marta-Claudia CLIZA

    2014-01-01

    The Romanian legislation, meaning by this Law no. 554/2004, creates in article no. 5 a special regime for some administrative acts which will be considered as exceptions from the „common administrative procedure”. These acts are not subject to the review of the courts, the exception being a total one or a partial one as it will be described in this study. The existence of the administrative procedure does not mean an absolute control on the administration. This is in fact the main reason why ...

  18. Human Rights in National Administrative Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsborg-Andersen, Ayo

    Human rights are increasingly debated in the public sphere, yet discussions of human rights law are traditionally all but invisible in the discussions on national administrative law. This is at least the case in Denmark. This book sets out to analyse if, and in what way, the application of human...... rights law is visible in the case-law of institutions performing reviews of Danish administrative decisions. The book consists of three parts. The first part contains the introduction, research question, methodological considerations and delimitations. The second part is an in-depth look at the theory of...... developed using the theory of legal capability and communication theories. Discussing new ways of analysing the application of human rights, this book is relevant for scholars and professionals primarily working with human rights law, but also administrative law, both nationally and internationally....

  19. Information Systems in Public Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Kánský, Václav

    2013-01-01

    My final thesis is dedicated to information systems in public administration, focused on one of the key information systems for the area of authority punishment within the competence of Customs Administration of the Czech Republic. On this information system there can be clearly qualitatively described essential elements affecting not just the creation and development but mainly the future growth and importance of it self within other systems of customs administration. This thesis is also d...

  20. Virtual Reality and Public Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Tózsa, István

    2013-01-01

    This study serves as an introduction to how virtual reality systems could be applied in public administration and what research tasks would be necessary to accomplish a project. E-government solutions began to emerge in public administration approximately a decade ago all over the developed world. Administration service facilities via the Internet did not attract many customers, because of the digital divide. E-government solutions were extended to mobile devices as well, but the expected bre...

  1. PATRAM '89 Administrative Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PATRAM is an acronym for Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials. The purpose of these symposia is to bring together, on an international basis, representative experts from industry, government, and research organizations to exchange scientific and technical information relating to all aspects of the packaging, testing, and transporting of radioactive materials. Through the sustained excellence of their programs, these symposia have become the premier domestic and international forums for this purpose in this increasingly important scientific field. PATRAM is the only symposia in the world that is devoted entirely to this subject

  2. Increased oxidative stress and antioxidant expression in mouse keratinocytes following exposure to paraquat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) is a widely used herbicide known to induce skin toxicity. This is thought to be due to oxidative stress resulting from the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) during paraquat redox cycling. The skin contains a diverse array of antioxidant enzymes which protect against oxidative stress including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), metallothionein-2 (MT-2), and glutathione-S-transferases (GST). In the present studies we compared paraquat redox cycling in primary cultures of undifferentiated and differentiated mouse keratinocytes and determined if this was associated with oxidative stress and altered expression of antioxidant enzymes. We found that paraquat readily undergoes redox cycling in both undifferentiated and differentiated keratinocytes, generating superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide as well as increased protein oxidation which was greater in differentiated cells. Paraquat treatment also resulted in increased expression of HO-1, Cu,Zn-SOD, catalase, GSTP1, GSTA3 and GSTA4. However, no major differences in expression of these enzymes were evident between undifferentiated and differentiated cells. In contrast, expression of GSTA1-2 was significantly greater in differentiated relative to undifferentiated cells after paraquat treatment. No changes in expression of MT-2, Mn-SOD, GPx-1, GSTM1 or the microsomal GST's mGST1, mGST2 and mGST3, were observed in response to paraquat. These data demonstrate that paraquat induces oxidative stress in keratinocytes leading to increased expression of antioxidant genes. These intracellular proteins may be important in protecting the skin from paraquat-mediated cytotoxicity

  3. Postmodernism in Higher Educational Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaris, Michalyn C.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    Postmodernism has many inferences that can be applied to the theory and practice of higher educational administration. Today, in higher education administrators are continuously focused on strategies that will ensure the future of minority educational institutions. As a result postmodernism is an important factor in the future of higher…

  4. Child Nutrition Programs. Administrative Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    Recognizing the importance of efficient and effective program administration for the success of Utah's Child Nutrition Programs, the State Office of Education developed a manual to assist local program administrators in using the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) programs. This document contains Part 1 of the manual's four interrelated…

  5. Toward an Applied Administrative Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Roger L. M.

    1983-01-01

    A study of 65 articles from the 1981 volumes of "Administrative Science Quarterly" and "Harvard Business Review," using smallest space analysis, found that the few studies adopting subjective (instead of objective) approaches to analyzing organizational change were most likely to provide a basis for an applied administrative science. (Author/RW)

  6. The Enigma of Administrative Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchler, Merv

    1981-01-01

    Writers attempting to describe administration have approached the subject from a number of perspectives. Researchers such as Gulick (1937) identified planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting as functional elements of administration. Hemphill, Griffiths, and Fredericksen (1962), using simulated job settings,…

  7. Career Patterns among School Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covel, Janice; Ortiz, Flora Ida

    1979-01-01

    From 1870 to 1975, three types of school administrators were identified: the plateau administrators who remained at initial entry level assignments; vertical aspirants who actively sought advancement; and place-holders who began as vertical aspirants but for one reason or another were placed in non-decision-making positions. (Author/GDC)

  8. Peculiarities of territorial governing in the area of increased risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area of Ignalina NPP can be evaluated from the standpoint of governing as the area of increased risk territory (zone), so the local administration should acquire a specific status. The results of expert examination show insufficient efficiency of the administration's activity, it's orientation to quantitative results. An objective fund is necessary for the supporting the local administration and population of this area. (author)

  9. Virtual Reality and Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István TÓZSA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study serves as an introduction to how virtual reality systems could be applied in public administration and what research tasks would be necessary to accomplish a project. E-government solutions began to emerge in public administration approximately a decade ago all over the developed world. Administration service facilities via the Internet did not attract many customers, because of the digital divide. E-government solutions were extended to mobile devices as well, but the expected breakthrough of usage has not ensued. The virtual reality form of public administration services recommended in this study has the most attractive outlay and the simplest navigation tools if compared to ‘traditional’ Internet based e-government. Thus, in accordance with the worldwide amazingly quick spread of the virtual reality systems of Second Life and 3 D types of entertainment, virtual reality applications in public administration could rely on a wide range of acceptance as well.

  10. Emotional Intelligence in School Administrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine BABAOĞLAN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the variables that affects success in business life is emotional intelligence of working people. The purpose of this research is to identify whether the school administrators’ emotional intelligence scores differ meaningfully according to their gender, marital status, branch, being a principal or assistant principal, being elementary school administrator or high school administrator, having manegerial education course or not, educational background, period of occupational service, age, length of administration service, number of children. 180 administrators working as a principals and vise principals who worked in 2005 in Düzce elementary schools and high schools were surveyed in line with this aim. Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal Wallis test and ANOVA were used in order to find out groups that differ from others. It has been found that school administrators’ emotional intelligence scores differ meaningfully in terms of administrators’ branch and being elementary school administrator or high school.

  11. NSF and NASA budgets increased

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Research budgets of several of the federal government agencies were increased significantly over the Reagan administration's requests in the House of Representative's appropriations bill H.R. 4034. These budgets had been removed from the Reagan administration's omnibus reconciliation bill, and thus there were worries expressed that certain research funding could be in jeopardy. The rationale was that because the requests were voted on individually on the floor of the House, many sections of the budgets would be subjected to extra scrutiny, which would lead to more cuts.The National Science Foundation (NSF) budget request had been cut and reordered by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) by making sharp reductions in programs of the social sciences and in programs of science and engineering education. There were fears that these programs would be reinstated to the original request level, at the expense of the budgets of other research activities. These fears materialized, but only momentarily. Efforts to cut the research activities by the House Appropriations Committee were soundly defeated. The budget was supported, with additional increases to provide for the education programs, by a high margin, which included most Republican and Democratic members of the House of Representatives. The overall NSF budget, as passed, has a total appropriation of $1103.5 million, compared with the Administration's request of $1033.5 million (the Fiscal Year 1981 appropriation for the NSF was $1022.4 million). The House approved budget included increases of $44.9 million in research and $25.1 million in science and engineering education. Included in the research budget increase were recommendations by the House Appropriations Committee for support of the social sciences and for the international affairs programs. Also included in the recommendations was support of interdisciplinary research programs that cut across the directorates of the NSF.

  12. Public administration role in infrastructure development

    OpenAIRE

    Grigorescu, Adriana

    2006-01-01

    The infrastructure (transport) is essential for the economic development of a region. If we are taking into consideration the tourism industry and other tourist activities, the importance of the infrastructure is higher, due to the fact that the attractiveness is increased by the comfort and the easiness of reaching the targeted places. The public administration plays a huge role in developing projects for improving the infrastructure or for rehabilitating it. We are presenting different sit...

  13. Internet administration of the Edinburgh Depression Scale.

    OpenAIRE

    Spek, V.; Nyklicek, I.; Cuijpers, P.; Pop, V.

    2008-01-01

    Background Internet-based screening for depression is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study is to validate the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) for internet administration. Methods In 407 participants (64% women; 36% men) with subthreshold depression (mean age = 55 years; S.D. = 4.9) positive predictive values for a syndromal CIDI diagnosis of clinical depression were calculated and compared to those from paper and pencil validation studies. At one-year follow-up, internal co...

  14. Context Matters: Pedagogy and Comparative Public Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Suess Kennedy, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Those who teach public management increasingly encourage students to consult resources from countries other than their own, and to look around the globe as well as around the corner for answers to local problems of service delivery and agency administration. While the reference to »best practices« has much to recommend it, it should not be allowed to obscure important differences in national legal and constitutional cultures – differences that reflect the specific valu...

  15. An Analysis of Administrative Corruption (Administrative Organizations of Yazd City)

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Haghighatian; Somayeh Karimizadeh; Javad Nazari

    2013-01-01

    Introduction   Administrative corruption is a complicated and multi-faceted phenomenon that has many causes and ramifications, which manifest themselves in different forms in various countries and appear to be endemic of all social systems where authority is delegated. Although there might be different definitions of and approaches towards administrative corruption, the definition that has been put forward by the World Bank and Transparency International appears to be more general and compreh...

  16. Digitale kort og administrative registre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H. S.; Skov-Petersen, H.

    Rapporten indeholder dels en beskrivelse af de vigtigste nationale databaser med stedfæstet information og dels en vejledning i sammenstilling imellem digitale kort og administrative registre. Rapportens første del beskriver de enkelte databaser med hensyn til bl.a. adgangsforhold, indhold og...... nøgler, hvoraf sidstnævnte spiller en afgørende rolle i forbindelse med sammenstilling af digitale kort og administrative registre. Rapportens anden del fokuserer på praktiske forsøg med sammenstilling af digitale kort og administrative register. Der gives anvisninger på sammenstilling af Bygnings- og...

  17. Transcultural perspectives in nursing administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, M M

    1998-11-01

    Population demographics are reshaping the healthcare work force with respect to race, ethnicity, gender, national origin, sexual orientation, age, handicap, disability, and related factors as national sensitivity to various forms of diversity grows. Given the demographic trends, it is inevitable that nurse administrators will need skill in transcultural administration as they manage diversity and identify the cultural origins of conflict in the multicultural workplace. Culture influences the manner in which administrators, staff and patients perceive, identify, define and solve problems. In this article, the complex and interrelated factors that influence workplace diversity are examined. PMID:9824983

  18. The new technologies in the tributary administrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Armas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This research has as an objective to study the of information and communication technologies applied by the Tributary Administrations. For that purpose, the performance of the Tributary Administrations of Chile (SII, Colombia (DIAN and Spain (State Tributary Agency, was checked, in terms of the used strategies to improve the tax collecting and avoid the tax evasion, looking out the technological advance of Chile known for international organizations as Centro Interamericano de Administraciones Tributarias (CIAT and Organization for the Cooperation and the Economic Development (OCDE. The some way, was analyzed in detailed the Venezuelan Tax Administration, where the strategies employed were described, to reach its purposes, increase the tax collecting and avoid fiscal fraud, in internal taxes, as well as in customs, showing the implemented technological advances and the regulations developed oriented to gain taxpayers through the website. Also a revision of the laws stated in order to give security to the communications for the net, the mentioning the most important ones.Key words: tributary administration, technology, information, communication.

  19. Cultural Issues in Psychiatric Administration and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses cultural issues in psychiatric administration and leadership through two issues: (1) the changing culture of psychiatric practice based on new clinician performance metrics and (2) the culture of psychiatric administration and leadership in light of organizational cultural competence. Regarding the first issue, some observers have discussed the challenges of creating novel practice environments that balance business values of efficient performance with fiduciary values of treatment competence. This paper expands upon this discussion, demonstrating that some metrics from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the nation's largest funder of postgraduate medical training, may penalize clinicians for patient medication behaviors that are unrelated to clinician performance. A focus on pharmacotherapy over psychotherapy in these metrics has unclear consequences for the future of psychiatric training. Regarding the second issue, studies of psychiatric administration and leadership reveal a disproportionate influence of older men in positions of power despite efforts to recruit women, minorities, and immigrants who increasingly constitute the psychiatric workforce. Organizational cultural competence initiatives can diversify institutional cultures so that psychiatric leaders better reflect the populations they serve. In both cases, psychiatric administrators and leaders play critical roles in ensuring that their organizations respond to social challenges. PMID:26071640

  20. Nursing Academic Administrators' Lived Experiences With Incivility and Bullying From Faculty: Consequences and Outcomes Demanding Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSala, Kathleen B; Wilson, Vicki; Sprunk, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    There are an increasing number of nursing academic administrators who identify themselves as victims of faculty incivility. This study examined experiences that academic administrators encountered with faculty incivility using a phenomenological research design. Three major themes emerged: faculty inappropriate behaviors, consequences of faculty behaviors on administrator targets, and administrators call for action. Findings revealed that incivility had devastating effects on administrators personally and professionally. PMID:26673315

  1. Phosphodiesterase 10A Regulates Alcohol and Saccharin Self-Administration in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Logrip, Marian L.; Leandro F Vendruscolo; Schlosburg, Joel E.; Koob, George F.; Zorrilla, Eric P.

    2014-01-01

    A history of stress produces increases in rodent relapse-like alcohol self-administration behavior and regional brain gene expression of phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A), a dual-specificity cyclic adenosine monophosphate/cyclic guanosine monophosphate-inhibiting enzyme. Here, we tested the hypothesis that administration of TP-10, a specific PDE10A inhibitor, would reduce alcohol self-administration in conditions predisposing to elevated self-administration. TP-10 administration dose-dependently...

  2. US Fire Administration Fire Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Fire Administration collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United...

  3. Case and Administrative Support Tools

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Case and Administrative Support Tools (CAST) is the secure portion of the Office of General Counsel (OGC) Dashboard business process automation tool used to help...

  4. HUD Administrative Law Judges Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This site contains substantive and precedential decisions issued by the Office of Administrative Law Judges. The site does not contain subsequent rulings or...

  5. The Land Administration Domain Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, C.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Bennett, R.

    2015-01-01

    Societal drivers including poverty eradication, gender equality, indigenous recognition, adequate housing, sustainable agriculture, food security, climate change response, and good governance, influence contemporary land administration design. Equally, the opportunities provided by technological dev

  6. State Lands by Administrator - Wildlife

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — DNR land ownership and administrative interest mapped to the PLS forty level. This layer merges the DNR Control Point Generated PLS layer with IBM mainframe-based...

  7. State Lands by Administrator - Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — DNR land ownership and administrative interest mapped to the PLS forty level. This layer merges the DNR Control Point Generated PLS layer with IBM mainframe-based...

  8. State Lands by Administrator - County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — DNR land ownership and administrative interest mapped to the PLS forty level. This layer merges the DNR Control Point Generated PLS layer with IBM mainframe-based...

  9. State Lands by Administrator - Forestry

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — DNR land ownership and administrative interest mapped to the PLS forty level. This layer merges the DNR Control Point Generated PLS layer with IBM mainframe-based...

  10. Medicare Administrative Contractor Performance Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has compiled a summary of overall Medicare Administrative Contractor (MAC) performance information as measured...

  11. CITIZEN PROTECTION IN FRONT OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU Maria

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the legal instruments available to the citizen to fight against government abuses. These tools, some of them published and recently developed, is a natural part of the evolution of government and the relationship between administration and citizens. Increasing citizen involvement in administration is reflected precisely by giving increasing importance in legal research to this phenomenon.

  12. Caloric restriction shortens lifespan through an increase in lipid peroxidation, inflammation and apoptosis in the G93A mouse, an animal model of ALS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkha P Patel

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction (CR extends lifespan through a reduction in oxidative stress, delays the onset of morbidity and prolongs lifespan. We previously reported that long-term CR hastened clinical onset, disease progression and shortened lifespan, while transiently improving motor performance in G93A mice, a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS that shows increased free radical production. To investigate the long-term CR-induced pathology in G93A mice, we assessed the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and oxidative capacity (CS--citrate synthase content and activity, cytochrome c oxidase--COX activity and protein content of COX subunit-I and IV and UCP3-uncoupling protein 3, oxidative damage (MDA--malondialdehyde and PC--protein carbonyls, antioxidant enzyme capacity (Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD and catalase, inflammation (TNF-alpha, stress response (Hsp70 and markers of apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2, caspase 9, cleaved caspase 9 in their skeletal muscle. At age 40 days, G93A mice were divided into two groups: Ad libitum (AL; n = 14; 7 females or CR (n = 13; 6 females, with a diet equal to 60% of AL. COX/CS enzyme activity was lower in CR vs. AL male quadriceps (35%, despite a 2.3-fold higher COX-IV/CS protein content. UCP3 was higher in CR vs. AL females only. MnSOD and Cu/Zn-SOD were higher in CR vs. AL mice and CR vs. AL females. MDA was higher (83% in CR vs. AL red gastrocnemius. Conversely, PC was lower in CR vs. AL red (62% and white (30% gastrocnemius. TNF-alpha was higher (52% in CR vs. AL mice and Hsp70 was lower (62% in CR vs. AL quadriceps. Bax was higher in CR vs. AL mice (41% and CR vs. AL females (52%. Catalase, Bcl-2 and caspases did not differ. We conclude that CR increases lipid peroxidation, inflammation and apoptosis, while decreasing mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency, protein oxidation and stress response in G93A mice.

  13. Modernism, postmodernism and public administration

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Yıldırım

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the impacts of modernism and postmodernism on public administration have been comperatively examined. This distinction between modernism and postmodernism also expresses different living and thinking ways in point of perceiving and giving meaning to social life. This situation naturally denotes in the field of administration. While bureaucratic organisations become experienced modernism, post-bureaucratic organisations reflect postmodern life in a way that postmodernism rejects...

  14. Teaching administrative terminology in Catalan

    OpenAIRE

    Montesinos López, Anna Isabel

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with terminology teaching in the administration field in Catalan language in the context of the specialisation subjects that are offered in the Public Administration Management Degree of the Universitat Politècnica de València (Polytechnic University of Valencia). In this sense, we start from the idea that in order to develop a good system for the teaching of terminological units, previous descriptive studies are required regarding the lexical and specialised combina...

  15. PostgreSQL administration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Schönig, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    If you are a database administrator who needs to get to grips with PostgreSQL quickly and efficiently, then this book is for you. This book will also be highly beneficial if you are a project leader or a developer who is interested in knowing more about database systems or bottleneck detection, as it will enable you to work more closely and cooperatively with your administrators.

  16. Administrative bias in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Nwauche

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the interpretation of section 6(2(aii of the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act which makes an administrator “biased or reasonably suspected of bias” a ground of judicial review. In this regard, the paper reviews the determination of administrative bias in South Africa especially highlighting the concept of institutional bias. The paper notes that inspite of the formulation of the bias ground of review the test for administrative bias is the reasonable apprehension test laid down in the case of President of South Africa v South African Rugby Football Union(2 which on close examination is not the same thing. Accordingly the paper urges an alternative interpretation that is based on the reasonable suspicion test enunciated in BTR Industries South Africa (Pty Ltd v Metal and Allied Workers Union and R v Roberts. Within this context, the paper constructs a model for interpreting the bias ground of review that combines the reasonable suspicion test as interpreted in BTR Industries and R v Roberts, the possibility of the waiver of administrative bias, the curative mechanism of administrative appeal as well as some level of judicial review exemplified by the jurisprudence of article 6(1 of the European Convention of Human Rights, especially in the light of the contemplation of the South African Magistrate Court as a jurisdictional route of judicial review.

  17. Administration of punishment in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Nataša Z.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Giving consideration to punishment, one of the inevitable elements of school discipline, always reactivates the issue of punishment administration and its effects in school setting. Punishment is administered by a beforehand-determined intention, its general and final goal being the attempt to make a child change his/her behavior so as to more successfully take part in school life. The issue of how much it is justifiable to administer punishment, as a way of directing child’s behavior, is not only raised in professional discussions but occurs as a personal dilemma with parents, teachers and all those involved in child upbringing. The definition of punishment contains certain incompatible elements in attitudes, which is reflected in punishment administration within different social contexts. Based on the analysis of research results, the paper discusses all the elements the teacher should be well acquainted with, influencing the effectiveness of punishment. The effects of punishment administration depend, among other things, on the type of punishment, way in which a person experiences and perceives punishment and the way of administering it. Prior to punishment administration, as a means of directing child’s behavior factors influencing successfulness of punishment should be established consistency in punishment administration, postponement of punishment intensity of punishment, explanation for punishment administration, nature of interrelations between a child and a person punishing him/her.

  18. Oblique Photogrammetry and Usage on Land Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisa, A.; Ozmus, L.; Erkek, B.; Ates, H. B.; Bakici, S.

    2013-08-01

    Projects based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have started within the body of the General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre (GDLRC) by the Land Registry and Cadastre Information System (LRCIS) in the beginning of 2000s. LRCIS was followed by other projects which are Turkish National Geographic Information System (TNGIS), Continuously Operating GPS Reference Stations (CORS-TR), Geo Metadata Portal (GMP), Orthophoto Web Services, Completion of Initial Cadastre, Cadastre Renovation Project (CRP), 2B and Land Registry Achieve Information System (LRAIS). When examining the projects generated by GDLRC, it is realized that they include basic functions of land administration required for sustainable development. Sustainable development is obtained through effective land administration as is known. Nowadays, land use becomes more intense as a result of rapid population increase. The importance of land ownership has increased accordingly. At this point, the necessity of cadastre appears. In Turkey, cadastral registration is carried out by the detection of parcels. In other words, it is obtained through the division of land surface into 2D boundaries and mapping of them. However, existing land administration systems have begun to lose their efficiency while coping with rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) belonging to land which become more complicated day by day. Overlapping and interlocking constructions appear particularly in urban areas with dense housing and consequently, the problem of how to project these structures onto the surface in 2D cadastral systems has arisen. Herein, the necessity of 3D cadastre concept and 3D property data is confronted. In recent years, oblique photogrammetry, whose applications are gradually spreading, is used as an effective method for producing 3D data. In this study, applications of oblique photogrammetry and usability of oblique images as base for 3D Cadastre and Land Administration projects are examined.

  19. 45 CFR 74.47 - Contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract administration. 74.47 Section 74.47 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... administration. A system for contract administration shall be maintained to ensure contractor conformance...

  20. 5 CFR 831.101 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 831.101 Section 831.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Administration and General Provisions § 831.101 Administration. (a) OPM has charge of...

  1. 7 CFR 56.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 56.3 Section 56.3 Agriculture... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs General § 56.3 Administration. The Administrator shall perform, for and... administration of the provisions of the Act and the regulations in this part. The Administrator is authorized...

  2. INFORMATION IN THE SYSTEM OF STATE ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kalytych, G.; Litosh, G.

    2009-01-01

    The article analyses the approaches to the notions of "information", "state administration system", "administrative information". The article considers the importance of of information for the whole state administration system and reveals the criteria which provide the information with administrative status. Special attention is paid to making of administrative decisions on the level of the sate which are based on effective information management.

  3. 75 FR 38817 - Administration for Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Administration for Native Americans AGENCY: Administration for Native Americans, ACF, HHS. ACTION: Notice to Award Five Urgent Single-Source Grants. CFDA... Administration for Children and Families (ACF), Administration for Native Americans (ANA) has awarded five...

  4. 48 CFR 702.170-2 - Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrator. 702.170-2... DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions 702.170-2 Administrator. Administrator means the Administrator or Deputy Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development....

  5. 7 CFR 1000.25 - Market administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Market administrator. 1000.25 Section 1000.25... Rules of Practice and Procedure Governing Market Administrators § 1000.25 Market administrator. (a) Designation. The agency for the administration of the order shall be a market administrator selected by...

  6. 7 CFR 1700.26 - Deputy Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deputy Administrator. 1700.26 Section 1700.26... AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Agency Organization and Functions § 1700.26 Deputy Administrator. The Deputy Administrator aids and assists the Administrator. The Deputy Administrator provides overall policy direction...

  7. Meritocratic administration and democratic stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornell, Agnes; Lapuente, Victor

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a hypothesis for understanding democratic stability based on the distinction between politicized and meritocratic bureaucracies. We argue that in a politicized administration, the professional careers of large numbers of government officials depend directly upon which party wins....... Conversely, in democracies with meritocratic administrations, incumbents are credibly constrained from undertaking partial policies because their hands are tied in terms of managing the staff policy of the state apparatus. Consequently, countries with meritocratic bureaucracies have greater prospects for...... democratic stability. Empirically, we illustrate the mechanisms with two well-documented cases of democratic transitions that enshrined a politicized administration – Spain (1876–1936) and Venezuela (1958–1998) – and one transition that kept a meritocratic bureaucracy, Spain (1975–)....

  8. TWRS information locator database system administrator`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, B.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-13

    This document is a guide for use by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Information Locator Database (ILD) System Administrator. The TWRS ILD System is an inventory of information used in the TWRS Systems Engineering process to represent the TWRS Technical Baseline. The inventory is maintained in the form of a relational database developed in Paradox 4.5.

  9. Teacher and Administrator Perceptions of Bullying In Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom D. Kennedy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to explore the differences between teacher and administrator perceptions of bullying. Data were collected from 139 practicing educators and administrators who completed a survey regarding their perceptions of bullying in schools. Mann Whitney U tests were conducted to determine if perceptions of bullying varied with occupation and gender. Bonferroni adjustments were made for the multiple pairwise comparisons. There were statistically significant differences between the perceptions of teachers and administrators regarding their role in bullying prevention. Teachers felt more strongly that educators played an important role in bullying prevention; however, administrators felt more comfortable communicating with the parents of bullying victims. Interestingly, teachers were significantly more likely than administrators to perceive a need for increased bullying prevention training. Significant gender differences concerning the inclusion of bullying prevention in school curriculum were also found.

  10. THE ROLE OF DECENTRALIZATION FOR EFFICIENT PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Cornelia STOICA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A modern public administration is focused on meeting the needs of citizens, provides comprehensive information on matters concerning their community with full cooperate with citizens and public control exercised carefully and neutral on the achievement of public services.Modern public administration seeks to determine how greater participation of civil society in decision-making process that local corporate and also provides administrative transparency and direct communication with citizens as possible. In this sense, decentralization of public administration, involving public services decentralization and strengthening local autonomy in administrative and financial point of view, realizing and working to enhance local involvement in management issues they face and to build policy own - in the context of overall national economic and social development - to increase economic performance and to improve the social life of local citizens by defining and local responsibilities regarding local services and financial performance, for their accomplishment.

  11. Professional SQL Server 2005 administration

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, Brian; Snyder, Wayne; Armand, Jean-Claude; LoForte, Ross; Ji, Haidong

    2007-01-01

    SQL Server 2005 is the largest leap forward for SQL Server since its inception. With this update comes new features that will challenge even the most experienced SQL Server DBAs. Written by a team of some of the best SQL Server experts in the industry, this comprehensive tutorial shows you how to navigate the vastly changed landscape of the SQL Server administration. Drawing on their own first-hand experiences to offer you best practices, unique tips and tricks, and useful workarounds, the authors help you handle even the most difficult SQL Server 2005 administration issues, including blockin

  12. Administration in an operating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of strict administrative procedures in the daily work is being demonstrated by commenting on events that occured in the operation of German nuclear power plants. The procedure for working in an area of the plant (pressurized medium, high-radioactive level, explosive of flammable mediums), where special measures for safe working have to be taken, is discussed in detail. The administrative problems during refuelling time are further on mentioned, especially the problems connected with administering more than 1,000 people with respect to health protection and sabotage protection. Some general comments on the influences from external causes (authorities, courts, etc.) are given. (orig./ORU)

  13. Beginning SQL Server 2008 Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Walters, R

    2009-01-01

    Beginning SQL Server 2008 Administration is essential for anyone wishing to learn about implementing and managing SQL Server 2008 database. From college students, to experienced database administrators from other platforms, to those already familiar with SQL Server and wanting to fill in some gaps of knowledge, this book will bring all readers up to speed on the enterprise platform Microsoft SQL Server 2008. * Clearly describes relational database concepts* Explains the SQL Server database engine and supporting tools* Shows various database maintenance scenarios What you'll learn* Understand c

  14. Endogenous production of tumour necrosis factor is required for manganese superoxide dismutase expression by irradiation in the human monocytic cell line THP-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a mitochondrial enzyme that scavenges superoxide (O2-) ions. We studied the regulation of MnSOD gene expression by irradiation and the mechanisms in human monocytic cell line THP-1. We found that irradiation induced expression of the MnSOD gene through the autocrine mechanism, involving the production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF). Irradiation increased TNF production in THP-1 cells, and TNF increased the levels of MnSOD transcripts. Supernatant from irradiated THP-1 cells induced the expression of MnSOD mRNA, and anti-TNF antibody blocked the induction of MnSOD mRNA. Irradiation also increased the levels of MnSOD mRNA in other myelocytic cell lines, HL60 and KG-1, and the ovarian cancer cell line SK-OV-3. Our results indicate that the endogenous production of TNF is required, at least in part, for the induction of MnSOD mRNA expression by irradiation in THP-1 cells, and the increased levels of MnSOD transcripts on irradiation occur through a pathway involving protein kinase C activation. Our results also indicate that the increase in MnSOD mRNA caused by irradiation is regulated by both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. (author)

  15. 76 FR 5212 - Employment and Training Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Internal Fraud and...: Employment and Training Administration (ETA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of.... Currently, the Employment and Training Administration is soliciting comments concerning the Office...

  16. 75 FR 12809 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, DFW Airport, Texas AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aviation Administration, Southwest Region, Airports Division, Texas Airports Development Office,...

  17. 75 FR 18014 - Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...: Federal Highway Administration, Kentucky Division: Mr. Greg Rawlings, Transportation Specialist, 330...

  18. 76 FR 78966 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Kona International Airport at Keahole, Keahole, North Kona, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its findings on the noise compatibility...

  19. 78 FR 9771 - Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Action on Proposed Transportation Project in Illinois and Indiana AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of limitation on..., Federal Highway Administration, 3250 Executive Park Drive, Springfield, Illinois 62703, Phone: (217)...

  20. 75 FR 6433 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment and Public...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental... Chicago, Illinois. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) proposes to fund, construct,...

  1. 77 FR 25678 - International Trade Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance Notification of Sunset Reviews AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce....

  2. POLITICS-ADMINISTRATION DICHOTOMY: A CENTURY DEBATE

    OpenAIRE

    Reza TAHMASEBI; Seyyed Mohammad Mahdi MUSAVI

    2011-01-01

    The issue of politics-administration dichotomy as one of the five great issues in the field of public administration has had a strange history. For more than a century it has been one of the most disreputable notions in the field of public administration. At the heart of the public administration is the relationship between administrators, on one hand, and politicians and the public on the other hand. The nature of that relationship and the proper role of political leaders and administrators ...

  3. Instructional Technology and Administrative Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eye, Glen G.; and others

    1969-01-01

    "Concerned with the spiraling problems of technology and its impact on instruction, the American Association of School Administrators (AASA) two years ago created the Committee on Technology and Instruction. Since that time the Committee has been active in investigating a number of areas relevant to the impact of technology on the public schools. …

  4. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  5. Improving Administrative Efficiency through Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Dennis R.

    1993-01-01

    Key adult education management functions (planning, directing personnel, organizing work, staffing, and evaluating) can be enhanced through appropriate technologies. Of particular interest to administrators are computer-based communications, management information systems, and desktop application software such as spreadsheets, groupware, and…

  6. Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration - SURAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Act specifies, among other things, responsibilities of the government in the field of safe disposal of radioactive wastes. To satisfy this responsibility, the Ministry of Industry and Trade has established the Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration (SURAO). SURAO's major responsibilities include: (a) the preparation, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of radioactive waste repositories and the monitoring of their environmental impacts; (b) radioactive waste management; (c) spent or irradiated nuclear fuel processing into a form suitable for storage/disposal or reuse; (d) record-keeping of received radioactive wastes and their producers; (e) administration of fund transfers as stipulated by the Atomic Act, Article 27; (f) development of proposals for specification of fees to be paid to the Nuclear Account; (g) responsibility for and coordination of research and development in the field of radioactive waste handling and management; (h) supervision of licensees' margin earmarked for the decommissioning of their facilities; (i) providing services in radioactive waste handling and management; (j) handling and management of radioactive wastes that have been transferred to the Czech Republic from abroad and cannot be sent back; (k) interim administration of radioactive wastes that have become state property. The Statute of the Administration is reproduced in full. (P.A.)

  7. RARE II: The Administration's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, M. Rupert

    1977-01-01

    RARE II is a new Roadless Area Review and Evaluation of the National Forest system. Administrators are attempting to inventory existing wilderness areas and to determine criteria for setting aside additional ones. This information will be used for the required 1980 update of the national assessment of forests and rangelands. (MA)

  8. Computerizing Tax and Customs Administrations

    OpenAIRE

    Engelschalk, Michael; Melhem, Samia; Weist, Dana

    2000-01-01

    Computerization is an important part of World Bank tax and customs projects. Revenue administration computerization projects should be seen in the broader context of public sector reforms. They touch on issues such as the government's overall strategy for information technology, the revenue agency's autonomy in maintaining information technology systems, civil service laws and procurement ...

  9. Innovating Traditional Nursing Administration Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, M Lindell; Fowler, Debra

    2016-03-01

    The evolving and complex practice environment calls for new mindsets among nurse leaders, academics, and nurse innovators to envision innovative ways to manage and optimize traditional tasks and processes in nursing administration. The purpose of this article is to present 3 case studies that used linear programming and simulation to innovate staffing enterprises, financial management of healthcare systems, and curricula development. PMID:26906516

  10. Novel Approaches to Surfactant Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Samir Gupta; Donn, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Surfactant replacement therapy has been the mainstay of treatment for preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome for more than twenty years. For the most part, surfactant is administered intratracheally, followed by mechanical ventilation. In recent years, the growing interest in noninvasive ventilation has led to novel approaches of administration. This paper will review these techniques and the associated clinical evidence.

  11. Philippines - Revenue Administration Reform Project (RARP) Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Challenge Account-Philippines' (MCA-P) implementation of the Revenue Administration Reform Project (RARP) is expected to improve tax administration,...

  12. 7 CFR 3431.20 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.20 Administration. The VMLRP will be administered by...

  13. The Study on Privilege in Administrative Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于韬文

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous development of management methods, as the implementation means of administrative policy and social management ideal, the administrative contract has been widely accepted. Administrative areas contract to become the focus of people's attention. Administrative priority in administrative contract is to distinguish between private rights contract with the most critical characteristics of administrative contracts. But there are many problems of administrative priority in practice. In this paper, writer begins from the content of administrative priority and put forward myself proposals for the improvement of power supervision.

  14. A mechanistic study to increase understanding of titanium dioxide nanoparticles-increased plasma glucose in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hailong; Li, Li; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Zhou, Ying; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong; Gu, Ning

    2016-09-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP) is an authorized food additive. Previous studies determined oral administration of TiO2 NPs increases plasma glucose in mice via inducing insulin resistance. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been considered the possible mechanism of increasing plasma glucose. However, persistently high plasma glucose is also a mechanism of increasing ROS. This study aims to explore whether TiO2 NPs increase plasma glucose via ROS. We found after oral administration of TiO2 NPs, an increase in ROS preceded an increase in plasma glucose. Subsequently, mice were treated with two antioxidants (resveratrol and vitamin E) at the same time as oral administration of TiO2 NPs. Results showed resveratrol and vitamin E reduced TiO2 NPs-increased ROS. An increase in plasma glucose was also inhibited. Further research showed resveratrol and vitamin E inhibited the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6, and the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, resulting in improved insulin resistance. These results suggest TiO2 NPs increased ROS levels, and then ROS activated inflammatory cytokines and phosphokinases, and thus induced insulin resistance, resulting in an increase in plasma glucose. Resveratrol and vitamin E can reduce TiO2 NPs-increased ROS and thereby inhibit an increase in plasma glucose in mice. PMID:27430421

  15. 78 FR 29245 - U.S. General Services Administration Federal Property Management Regulations; Administrative Wage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... Administration Federal Property Management Regulations; Administrative Wage Garnishment AGENCY: Office of the... amending the U.S. General Services Administration Property Management Regulation (GSPMR) to remove... telephone number. The Administrative Wage Garnishment Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts affected...

  16. Alterations in energy balance following exenatide administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, David P; Kulstad, Roger; Racine, Natalie; Shenker, Yoram; Meredith, Melissa; Schoeller, Dale A

    2012-10-01

    Exenatide is a medication similar in structure and effect to native glucagon-like peptide-1, an incretin hormone with glucose-lowering properties. The aim of the study was to measure the change in total energy expenditure (TEE) and body composition during exenatide administration and by deduction the relative contributions of energy expenditure and energy intake to exenatide-induced weight loss. Forty-five obese (body mass index, 30-40 kg·m⁻²) subjects were identified. After exclusion criteria application, 28 subjects entered into the study and 18 subjects (12 female, 6 male) completed the study, which consisted of 6 visits over 14 weeks and injection of exenatide for an average of 84 ± 5 days. Respiratory gas analysis and doubly labeled water measurements were performed before initiation of exenatide and after approximately 3 months of exenatide administration. The average weight loss from the beginning of injection period to the end of the study in completed subjects was 2.0 ± 2.8 kg (p = 0.01). Fat mass declined by 1.3 ± 1.8 kg (p = 0.01) while the fat-free mass trended downward but was not significant (0.8 ± 2.2 kg, p = 0.14). There was no change in weight-adjusted TEE (p = 0.20), resting metabolic rate (p = 0.51), or physical activity energy expenditure (p = 0.38) and no change in the unadjusted thermic effect of a meal (p = 0.37). The significant weight loss because of exenatide administration was thus the result of decreasing energy intake. In obese nondiabetic subjects, exenatide administration did not increase TEE and by deduction the significant weight loss and loss of fat mass was due to decreased energy intake. PMID:22735035

  17. School administration in a different voice : the careers of women administrators in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Tabin, Yvonne Emilie

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if and how the experiences of recent women appointees to the principalship differ from those of earlier appointees. Given the rather recent increase in the number of women assuming administrative posts in British Columbia, it is possible that conditions for women may have changed. Interviews with nine new and eight experienced women principals revealed some differences between the two groups in their careers and experiences. Although recent women ...

  18. Deployment of Open Standards in the Public Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Dorin IRIMESCU

    2008-01-01

    Open Source Software is receiving an increasing attention in the public administration. The aim of the paper is to discuss the deployment of open source software for office automation and to present a synthesis of the up to date status. It is intended to sensitize provosts and policy makers regarding the value and benefits of open standards in public administration. The article explains why anyone would choose an open standard format for office documents, instead of the obsolete binary format...

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON FINANCIAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE DECENTRALIZATION IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    BERCU Ana-Maria; Mihai-Bogdan PETRISOR

    2010-01-01

    Our paper proposes a comparative analysis of the degree of administrative and financial decentralization inthe European countries. Decoupling local government from a centralized system to a decentralized one involved withtheir investment decision-making powers backed by important financial resources. Increased local government capacityand accountability meant the effective and efficient management and administration of local public funds. However,most times their own financial resources prove...

  20. Interest in Long-Term Care among Health Services Administration Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, April; Thompson, Jon M.

    2011-01-01

    The aging of the population has created increased opportunities for health administrators in long-term care. This study consisted of a cross-sectional survey of 68 undergraduate health services administration students to explore factors related to interest in a career in long-term care administration. One third expressed interest working in the…

  1. An Analysis of Administrative Corruption (Administrative Organizations of Yazd City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Haghighatian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   Administrative corruption is a complicated and multi-faceted phenomenon that has many causes and ramifications, which manifest themselves in different forms in various countries and appear to be endemic of all social systems where authority is delegated. Although there might be different definitions of and approaches towards administrative corruption, the definition that has been put forward by the World Bank and Transparency International appears to be more general and comprehensive. It defines corruption as the abuse of public power, office, or resources by public or elected governmental officials for personal gain, e.g. by extortion, soliciting or offering bribes. Recent research findings indicate that organizational commitment and work satisfaction on the part of employees could be an effective antidote to administrative corruption. On the other hand, employee sense of equity and fairness also has been shown to be effective in enhancing organizational commitment. Last but not least, employee financial needs could play a significant part in their vulnerability to corruption. Therefore, the main aim of this paper is as follows: by utilizing the ideas of Selznick on organizational commitment, Merton's views on work satisfaction, Taylor's and Schwartz's ideas on financial needs, and Barnard's views on managerial capabilities, the relationships of these variables on administrative corruption were studied. The other purpose of the paper is to examine the effects of some other related variables like age, sex, level of education, job seniority, and marital status on administrative corruption.     Material and Methods   The research method was quantitative, data collection technique was survey, and the tool of data collection was questionnaire. The research population of the study consisted of all 44116 employees of public organizations of the city of Yazd. Using a stratified sampling technique, 16 administrative organizations

  2. Chapitre 4. Administrer les loteries

    OpenAIRE

    Legay, Marie-Laure

    2016-01-01

    1. Fermes ou régies ? Le mode d’administration de ces établissements n’avait rien d’anodin. Il relevait à la fois de considérations morales et économiques. Morales car les autorités de l’époque hésitaient à se compromettre dans l’administration d’un jeu par lequel on remettait sa fortune aux coups du sort. Les États pontificaux par exemple préférèrent s’en remettre à des particuliers au début de l’établissement du loto, avant de faire régir la loterie directement pour le compte de la Curie à ...

  3. IBM Sametime 852 Administration Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Gabriella; Duff, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The IBM Lotus Sametime 8.5.2 Administration Guide uses a practical, no-nonsense approach to give you the essential information you need. Using realistic scenarios, you learn how to configure and maintain your environment to meet your needs and take advantage of the flexibility offered in Sametime 8.5.2. If you are responsible for installing and administering Sametime 8.5.2, then this book is for you. If you're completely new to Sametime administration, this book will serve as your roadmap. If you're making the jump from a prior version of Sametime, then you'll see how Sametime 8.5.2 differs an

  4. 43 CFR 12.947 - Contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract administration. 12.947 Section 12.947 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT... Requirements § 12.947 Contract administration. A system for contract administration shall be maintained...

  5. 45 CFR 152.6 - Program administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program administration. 152.6 Section 152.6 Public... CONDITION INSURANCE PLAN PROGRAM PCIP Program Administration § 152.6 Program administration. (a) General... nonprofit private entities. (b) Administration by State. A State (or its designated non-profit...

  6. 36 CFR 1210.47 - Contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract administration. 1210.47 Section 1210.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION... § 1210.47 Contract administration. A system for contract administration shall be maintained to...

  7. 16 CFR 1.71 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 1.71 Section 1.71 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Administration of the Fair Credit Reporting Act § 1.71 Administration. The general administration of the...

  8. 14 CFR 1201.103 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 1201.103 Section 1201.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1201.103 Administration. (a) NASA is headed by an Administrator, who is...

  9. 7 CFR 29.51 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 29.51 Section 29.51 Agriculture... INSPECTION Regulations Administration § 29.51 Administration. The Director is charged with the supervision of the Division and the performance of all duties assigned thereto in the administration of the...

  10. 9 CFR 381.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 381.3 Section 381.3... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.3 Administration. (a) (b) The Administrator may in specific classes of cases waive...

  11. 7 CFR 29.9231 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 29.9231 Section 29.9231 Agriculture... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Administration § 29.9231 Administration. The Director... the administration of the act. The conduct of all services and the licensing or employment...

  12. 7 CFR 253.4 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 253.4 Section 253.4 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION ADMINISTRATION OF THE FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLDS ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 253.4 Administration. (a) Federal administration. Within the...

  13. 7 CFR 30.61 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 30.61 Section 30.61 Agriculture... AND STANDARDS Administration § 30.61 Administration. The Director, Tobacco Division, Agricultural... the Division and the performance of all duties assigned thereto in the administration of the...

  14. 28 CFR 36.204 - Administrative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative methods. 36.204 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.204 Administrative methods... standards or criteria or methods of administration that have the effect of discriminating on the basis...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.11 - Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator. 1205.11 Section 1205.11 Agriculture... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.11 Administrator. The term Administrator means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, or any officer or employee of USDA to...

  16. 40 CFR 142.24 - Administrator's rescission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrator's rescission. 142.24... Exemptions § 142.24 Administrator's rescission. If, upon notification of a finding by the Administrator under... revised schedule, the Administrator shall rescind the application of his finding to that...

  17. 42 CFR 405.1875 - Administrator review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrator review. 405.1875 Section 405.1875... Appeals § 405.1875 Administrator review. (a) Basic rule: Time limit for rendering Administrator decisions, Board decisions, and action subject to immediate review. The Administrator, at his or her...

  18. 7 CFR 868.5 - Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator. 868.5 Section 868.5 Agriculture... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Regulations Administration § 868.5 Administrator. The Administrator, under the authority delegated by the Secretary, is charged with administering the programs...

  19. 7 CFR 62.100 - Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator. 62.100 Section 62.100 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Definitions Administration § 62.100 Administrator. The LS Program Deputy Administrator is charged with...

  20. 7 CFR 1230.603 - Administrator, FSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, FSA. 1230.603 Section 1230.603... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.603 Administrator, FSA. The term Administrator, FSA, means the Administrator, of the Farm Service Agency, or any officer...

  1. 7 CFR 1220.602 - Administrator, FSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, FSA. 1220.602 Section 1220.602... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.602 Administrator, FSA. Administrator, FSA, means the Administrator, of the Farm Service Agency, or any officer or employee of USDA...

  2. 7 CFR 800.2 - Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... appear at part 68 of this title (7 CFR part 68). The Administrator is authorized by the Secretary to take... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator. 800.2 Section 800.2 Agriculture... § 800.2 Administrator. The Administrator is delegated, from the Secretary, responsibility...

  3. 7 CFR 1230.602 - Administrator, AMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1230.602 Section 1230.602... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.602 Administrator, AMS. The term Administrator, AMS, means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, or...

  4. 7 CFR 1220.601 - Administrator, AMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1220.601 Section 1220.601... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.601 Administrator, AMS. Administrator, AMS, means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, or any officer or employee...

  5. 7 CFR 1280.602 - Administrator, AMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, AMS. 1280.602 Section 1280.602... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.602 Administrator, AMS. Administrator, AMS, means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, or any officer or employee of...

  6. 7 CFR 201.3 - Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator. 201.3 Section 201.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS Administration § 201.3 Administrator. The Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service...

  7. 7 CFR 1280.603 - Administrator, FSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, FSA. 1280.603 Section 1280.603... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.603 Administrator, FSA. Administrator, FSA, means the Administrator, of the Farm Service Agency, or any officer or employee of USDA to...

  8. Small Business Administration Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Part XVI Small Business Administration Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (SBA) SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Ch. I Semiannual Regulatory Agenda AGENCY: U.S. Small... General Counsel for Legislation and Appropriations, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 Third...

  9. Descriptive Job Statements Rated by Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Malcolm F.

    To obtain the views of practitioners on the importance of statements found in administrative job descriptions, a 73-item questionnaire was sent to 340 school administrators in Georgia. Of those, 207 administrators responded. The questionnaire dealt with the tasks, functions, and responsibilities of administrators and supervisors found in job…

  10. The administration of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief history is given of the evolution of a system to approve the licensing of doctors and dentists to use radioactive medicinal products in man. Currently, the Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee (ARSAC) is appointed by UK Health Ministers to advise them on the granting, renewal, suspension, revocation and variation of certificates. The type of information requested on the application form for a certificate is outlined. (UK)

  11. View from a regional administration

    OpenAIRE

    Onclincx, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    Note portant sur l’auteur INTRODUCTION The field of regional development is extremely extensive. Among all the subjects which could have been tackled, this paper presents just three which are directly linked to applied research: The organisation of information-gathering, i.e. requesting information. The organisation of what is supplied, i.e. producing documented data. Training data administrators. Some preliminary remarks: The Brussels-Capitale region is an institutional entity comprised of 1...

  12. Administrative Orientation and International Performance

    OpenAIRE

    William H Davidson

    1984-01-01

    A recent trend in international management research has been the development of contingency models that identify optimal planning and management modes for international business units, given key characteristics of the product, market, and industry. In practice, however, planning and management modes appear to be dictated not only by external market and industry conditions, but also by internal aspects of the firm’s administrative orientation. The intent of this paper is to examine how aspects...

  13. Semantic Web for Program Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Qurban A. Memon; Shakeel Khoja

    2010-01-01

    Typically, administrative systems involving information in an academic environment are disjoint, spread across various departments and support independent queries. The objectives in this work include investigation on integrating these independent systems to provide support to intelligent queries run on the integrated platform. A framework is proposed that enriches data in the legacy systems to provide a value-added semantic layer where annotation, query and reasoning can be carried out to sup...

  14. Administrative processes in the enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Šišková, Barbora

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor thesis "Administrative processes in an enterprise" is focused on four selected processes. The main goal of this work is to propose solutions leading to efficiency improvement of the various processes. The proposed solution should contribute to simplifying of the implementation of selected processes, time and financial savings. The secondary aim is to evaluate the current implementation of the processes and create the theoretical basis of the problem. The work is divided into two par...

  15. VAT replacement or better administration?

    OpenAIRE

    Vitaliy Bigdai; Richard Frensch; Natalie Leschenko

    2004-01-01

    VAT revenues in Ukraine are undermined by numerous privileges and low tax compliance due to manipulations and/or outright fraud causing inadequate tax collection and high tax refunds claims. Besides, there are both strong concerns about the vulnerability of the VAT system to corruption and complaints from businesses about delays in refunding. Feasible options to overcome the low VAT revenue problem include replacing VAT, e.g., with a general sales tax (GST), or improving VAT administration. W...

  16. WordPress multisite administration

    CERN Document Server

    Longren, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    This is a simple, concise guide with a step-by-step approach, packed with screenshots and examples to set up and manage a network blog using WordPress.WordPress Multisite Administration is ideal for anyone wanting to familiarize themselves with WordPress Multisite. You'll need to know the basics about WordPress, and having at least a broad understanding of HTML, CSS, and PHP will help, but isn't required.

  17. Agritourism Rural Development Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria MORTAN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available For Romania agritourism development represents the opportunity to differentiate between the rural and urban environment, as well as the best way for the preservation of traditions and customs in the rural areas, supplying a sustainable rural development. This work portrays agritourism as an element of rural development and critically analyzes the way in which the public administration should become involved in sustaining rural development in general and in sustaining agritourism development in particular.

  18. Administration of punishment in school

    OpenAIRE

    Lalić Nataša Z.

    2003-01-01

    Giving consideration to punishment, one of the inevitable elements of school discipline, always reactivates the issue of punishment administration and its effects in school setting. Punishment is administered by a beforehand-determined intention, its general and final goal being the attempt to make a child change his/her behavior so as to more successfully take part in school life. The issue of how much it is justifiable to administer punishment, as a way of directing child’s behavior, is not...

  19. Agritourism Rural Development Public Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Maria MORTAN

    2006-01-01

    For Romania agritourism development represents the opportunity to differentiate between the rural and urban environment, as well as the best way for the preservation of traditions and customs in the rural areas, supplying a sustainable rural development. This work portrays agritourism as an element of rural development and critically analyzes the way in which the public administration should become involved in sustaining rural development in general and in sustaining agritourism development i...

  20. Danish companies administration of telecommunications

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Martin; Ali, Ammar

    2014-01-01

    This project focuses on decision-making behavior within Danish companies in relation to the administration of their telecommunication. Surveys and industry-reports have found the telecommunication industry too complex and un-transparent, due to high competitiveness and convoluted product differentiation. According to several telecommunication-experts, Danish companies are missing out cost savings and quality improvements, which questions the rationality of neo-classical thinking. Therefore, w...

  1. Discrete event simulation of administrative and medical processes: Diskretna dogodkovna simulacija administrativnih in medicinskih postopkov:

    OpenAIRE

    Accetto, Rok; Baggia, Alenka; Lazarevič, Zlatko; Leskovar, Robert; Požun, Peter; Goran VUKOVIČ

    2011-01-01

    Background: Medical processes are often obstructed by administrative ones. Themain issue in administrative processes is uneven workload resulting in an increased possibility of human errors. The system approach assures that medical and administrative processes are integrated. According to research reports and best practices, discrete event simulation is a proper method to implement the system approach. Methods: A detailed analysis of the administrative processes was performed using interviews...

  2. Medication administration errors for older people in long-term residential care

    OpenAIRE

    Szczepura Ala; Wild Deidre; Nelson Sara

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Older people in long-term residential care are at increased risk of medication prescribing and administration errors. The main aim of this study was to measure the incidence of medication administration errors in nursing and residential homes using a barcode medication administration (BCMA) system. Methods A prospective study was conducted in 13 care homes (9 residential and 4 nursing). Data on all medication administrations for a cohort of 345 older residents were recorde...

  3. Increases in Problem Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Increases in Problem Drinking Join the Fight Against Superbugs Featured Website: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center ... Increases in Problem Drinking Join the Fight Against Superbugs Featured Website: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center ...

  4. INITIATION AND CONDUCT OF ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE

    OpenAIRE

    Stipić, Milan

    2013-01-01

    General administrative procedure act contains legal norms that are valid for all identical cases. In addition to the general, there are special administrative procedures, customized to the specific administrative areas. Procedure initiation is regulated. Administrative procedure can be initiated at the request of the proponent and ex officio. When the official determines that the conditions for the conduct of administrative procedure are met, before making a decision, all the f...

  5. 77 FR 20779 - Committee on Administration and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ...; ] ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES Committee on Administration and Management AGENCY: Administrative... public meeting of the Committee on Administration and Management of the Assembly of the Administrative... ``About,'' then on ``The Committees,'' and then on ``Committee on Administration and...

  6. [Heme oxygenase activity in rat organs during cadmium chloride administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strel'chenko, E V; Nikitchenko, I V; Kaliman, P A

    2002-01-01

    Heme oxygenase activity, the level of spontaneous and ascorbat-induced LPO in the liver, kidney and spleen homogenates of rats and blood serum absorption spectrum in the Soret region in different periods both after CdCl2 and prior alpha-tocopherol administration were studied. The increase in the hemolysis products content in the serum was observed in 15 min after CdCl2 injection and remained during 24 h. Heme oxygenase activity in the liver and kidney increased after 6 h and stayed at the same level 24 h after CdCl2 administration. The level of spontaneous LPO in the spleen increased after 6 h, and in the liver and kidney the level of spontaneous and ascorbat-induced LPO increased in 24 h after CdCl2 injection. The preliminary alpha-tocopherol administration did not prevent the accumulation of hemolysis products in the serum and the increase of heme oxygenase activity in the liver and kidney caused by CdCl2 administration. However, the increase in the ascorbat-induced LPO in these organs was completely blocked. The role of heme and LPO in the heme oxygenase induction by CdCl2 are discussed. PMID:12916165

  7. Prophylactic Bacteriophage Administration More Effective than Post-infection Administration in Reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Shedding in Quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mosab; Karimi Torshizi, M Amir; Rahimi, Shaban; Dennehy, John J

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by Salmonella bacteria, often through poultry products, are a serious public health issue. Because of drawbacks associated with antibiotic prophylaxis, alternative treatments are sought. Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) may provide an effective alternative, but concerns remain with respect to bacteriophage stability and effectiveness. To this end, we assessed the stability of a novel bacteriophage isolated from poultry excreta, siphovirus PSE, and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we sought to determine how the timing (prophylactic or therapeutic) and route (oral gavage or vent lip) of PSE administration impacted its effectiveness. Here we report that significant quantities of viable PSE bacteriophages were recovered following exposure to high and low pH, high temperatures, and bile salts, testifying to its ability to survive extreme conditions. In addition, we found that ileal lactic acid bacteria and Streptococcus spp. counts increased, but colibacilli and total aerobe counts decreased, in quail receiving phage PSE through both oral gavage and vent lip routes. In other experiments, we assessed the efficiency of PSE administration, in both prophylactic and therapeutic contexts, via either oral gavage or vent lip administration, on S. Enteritidis colonization of quail cecal tonsils. Our results demonstrate that administration of PSE as a preventive agent could reduce the S. Enteritidis colonization more effectively than post-challenge administration. Furthermore, oral administration of PSE phage is a more effective prophylactic tool for reduction of S. Enteritidis shedding in poultry than is vent lip administration. PMID:27555842

  8. Prophylactic Bacteriophage Administration More Effective than Post-infection Administration in Reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Shedding in Quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mosab; Karimi Torshizi, M. Amir; Rahimi, Shaban; Dennehy, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by Salmonella bacteria, often through poultry products, are a serious public health issue. Because of drawbacks associated with antibiotic prophylaxis, alternative treatments are sought. Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) may provide an effective alternative, but concerns remain with respect to bacteriophage stability and effectiveness. To this end, we assessed the stability of a novel bacteriophage isolated from poultry excreta, siphovirus PSE, and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we sought to determine how the timing (prophylactic or therapeutic) and route (oral gavage or vent lip) of PSE administration impacted its effectiveness. Here we report that significant quantities of viable PSE bacteriophages were recovered following exposure to high and low pH, high temperatures, and bile salts, testifying to its ability to survive extreme conditions. In addition, we found that ileal lactic acid bacteria and Streptococcus spp. counts increased, but colibacilli and total aerobe counts decreased, in quail receiving phage PSE through both oral gavage and vent lip routes. In other experiments, we assessed the efficiency of PSE administration, in both prophylactic and therapeutic contexts, via either oral gavage or vent lip administration, on S. Enteritidis colonization of quail cecal tonsils. Our results demonstrate that administration of PSE as a preventive agent could reduce the S. Enteritidis colonization more effectively than post-challenge administration. Furthermore, oral administration of PSE phage is a more effective prophylactic tool for reduction of S. Enteritidis shedding in poultry than is vent lip administration. PMID:27555842

  9. Melatonin administration reduces inflammatory pain in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laste G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gabriela Laste,1–3 Isabel Cristina de Macedo,1,3 Joanna Ripoll Rozisky,1–3 Fernanda Ribeiro da Silva,1,3 Wolnei Caumo,1,2 Iraci LS Torres1–31Laboratório de Farmacologia da Dor, Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, 2Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina, Ciências Médicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 3Unidade de Experimentação Animal e Grupo de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, BrazilAbstract: In view of the broad range of effects attributed to melatonin, this study evaluated its analgesic effect on inflammatory pain induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA in Wistar rats. Inflammation was induced by intradermal CFA injection in the hind paw of all animals, which were then divided into two groups that received either 60 mg/kg of melatonin or vehicle (1% alcohol in saline, intraperitoneally, for three days. The analgesic effect of melatonin was assessed by the hot-plate test, immediately and thereafter at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after the first administration and 24 hours after once-daily administration for 2 more days. After CFA injection, melatonin administration increased withdrawal latency at 60 minutes after the first dose. After the end of treatment, melatonin showed a significant analgesic effect on inflammatory pain. This study paves the way for exploration of how brief courses of treatment could improve this analgesic effect in the late phases of inflammatory pain.Keywords: analgesic response, complete Freund's adjuvant, hot-plate test, inflammation, melatonin, nociception

  10. Windows Vista Administrator's Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William R

    2007-01-01

    Portable and precise, this pocket-sized guide delivers immediate answers for the day-to-day administration of Windows Vista. Zero in on core support and maintenance tasks using quick-reference tables, instructions, and lists. You'll get the precise information you need to solve problems and get the job done-whether you're at your desk or in the field! Get fast facts to: Install and configure Windows Vista-and optimize the user workspaceMaintain operating system components, hardware devices, and driversCreate user and group accounts-and control rights and permissionsAdminister group policy se

  11. Optimization of administrative management costs

    OpenAIRE

    Podolchak, N.; Chepil, B.

    2015-01-01

    It is important to determine the optimal level of administrative costs in order to achieve main targets of any enterprise, to perform definite tasks, to implement these tasks and not to worsen condition and motivation of the workers. Also it is essential to remember about strategic goals in the area of HR on the long run. The refore, the main idea in using optimization model for assessing the effectiveness of management costs will be to find the minimum level of expenses within the given l...

  12. SolidWorks Administration Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Lombard, Matt

    2009-01-01

    What you need to prepare, install, and maintain SolidWorks. It's not enough to know how to use SolidWorks, if your job also requires you to install or maintain it, train new users, and implement standards. This in-depth guide was written for those of you who have to actually manage your company's SolidWorks system. From hardware selection to helping users to licensing and more, this is the everyday, bread-and-butter SolidWorks administration resource that IT and CAD managers have been seeking.:; SolidWorks is a powerful 3D solid modeling system that is popular with CAD users everywhere, but of

  13. TCP/IP Network Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Craig

    2002-01-01

    This complete guide to setting up and running a TCP/IP network is essential for network administrators, and invaluable for users of home systems that access the Internet. The book starts with the fundamentals -- what protocols do and how they work, how addresses and routing are used to move data through the network, how to set up your network connection -- and then covers, in detail, everything you need to know to exchange information via the Internet. Included are discussions on advanced routing protocols (RIPv2, OSPF, and BGP) and the gated software package that implements them, a tutorial

  14. Microsoft Windows Server Administration Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies you need to administer a Windows Server OS Administering a Windows operating system (OS) can be a difficult topic to grasp, particularly if you are new to the field of IT. This full-color resource serves as an approachable introduction to understanding how to install a server, the various roles of a server, and how server performance and maintenance impacts a network. With a special focus placed on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) certificate, the straightforward, easy-to-understand tone is ideal for anyone new to computer administration looking t

  15. Naloxone Administration in US Emergency Departments, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Joseph W; Levy, Cari; Calcaterra, Susan L; Hoppe, Jason A; Binswanger, Ingrid A

    2016-06-01

    Rates of opioid overdose and opioid-related emergency department (ED) visits have increased dramatically. Naloxone is an effective antidote to potentially fatal opioid overdose, but little is known about naloxone administration in ED settings. We examined trends and correlates of naloxone administration in ED visits nationally from 2000 to 2011. Using data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, we examined ED visits involving (1) the administration of naloxone or (2) a diagnosis of opioid overdose, abuse, or dependence. We assessed patient characteristics in these visits, including concomitant administration of prescription opioid medications. We used logistic regression to identify correlates of naloxone administration. From 2000 to 2011, naloxone was administered in an estimated 1.7 million adult ED visits nationally; 19 % of these visits recorded a diagnosis of opioid overdose, abuse, or dependence. An estimated 2.9 million adult ED visits were related to opioid overdose, abuse, or dependence; 11 % of these visits involved naloxone administration. In multivariable logistic regression models, patient age, race, and insurance and non-rural facility location were independently associated with naloxone administration. An opioid medication was provided in 14 % of visits involving naloxone administration. Naloxone was administered in a minority of ED visits related to opioid overdose, abuse, or dependence. Among all ED visits involving naloxone administration, prescription opioids were also provided in one in seven visits. Further work should explore the provider decision-making in the management of opioid overdose in ED settings and examine patient outcomes following these visits. PMID:26621354

  16. GH administration and discontinuation in healthy elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, K H; Isaksson, F; Rasmussen, M H;

    2001-01-01

    GH administration results in increased lean body mass (LBM), decreased fat mass (FM) and increased energy expenditure (EE). GH therapy may therefore have potential benefits, especially in the elderly, who are known to have decreased function of the GH/IGF-I axis. Several studies have focused on...... effects of GH administration in the elderly in the last decade. However, very limited information is available regarding changes in body composition and EE upon GH discontinuation in the elderly. The present study therefore investigated the effects of 12 weeks of GH administration and subsequent...... discontinuation on body composition, resting oxygen uptake (VO2), resting heart rate (HR) and GH related serum markers in healthy elderly men....

  17. LAWS AND PRINCIPLS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Golushko, A.

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses the main laws and principles at public administration. The author considers the main activities areas and authorities of Rostov Government and Legislative Assembly. The paper presents the central problems of public administration and their solutions.

  18. 77 FR 64837 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 227, Standards of Navigation Performance AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... 15, 2012. Kathy Hitt, Management Analyst, Business Operations Group, Federal Aviation...

  19. 48 CFR 3028.106 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration. 3028.106 Section 3028.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY... 3028.106 Administration....

  20. 78 FR 41183 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Meeting: RTCA Program Management Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Program Management.... Paige Williams, Management Analyst, NextGen, Business Operations Group, Federal Aviation...

  1. 78 FR 25337 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance... Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance with the...

  2. 78 FR 13395 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... of October 23, 2012 (77 FR 64836) would require placement of fill on submerged lands jointly managed... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of Draft Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) Section 810 Subsistence Evaluation. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...

  3. 76 FR 2745 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Eighty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special...

  4. Wikipedia : ein Diktat der AdministratorInnen?

    OpenAIRE

    Auinger, Klemens

    2007-01-01

    Wikipedia: Dictatorship of the administrators? This text analyses a weak point of Wikipedia: the competence of the administrators. The article can be seen as a first approach towards the study of legitimacy and governance of the Wikipedia project.

  5. The academic library administrator's field guide

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Bryce

    2014-01-01

    The daily administration of an academic library often leaves you needing quick advice on the topic at hand. Nelson, an experienced administrator writing from first-hand knowledge, delivers such advice in 30 topical chapters.

  6. WWW - Administration and Government Exhibition LEPFest 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Governments communicate world-wide, even from tiny countries. Official information for immigrants or visitors is widely available. Cities construct digital equivalents of their administration for their citizens. CERN's administration is an example of a totally web-based service.

  7. SIS - Species and Stock Administrative Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Species and Stock Administrative data set within the Species Information System (SIS) defines entities within the database that serve as the basis for recording...

  8. Some Ethical-Moral Concerns in Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Frederick

    1981-01-01

    Presents and analyzes moral-ethical issues that arise in administration and concludes that past descriptive, objective, and scientific approaches to administration have failed to take full account of the moral-ethical dimension of human existence. (Author/WD)

  9. Career management perspective in public administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia-Olivia ILIES

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An innovative public organization must be capable to access, internalize and implement the newest forms of knowledge and capitalize efficiently and effectively the potential of human resources available to it. Economic, political, social, administrative, organizational changes in the context of the global crisis impose permanent efforts aimed to ensure flexibility and to redesign the public organizational architecture, adaptation of career management systems to new conditions. Public organisational entities make substantial efforts to increase the quality of public services, performances and their innovative capacity, using as much as possible the employers’ potential and talent. The paper explores the importance of the concept, role, objectives and management of career from both individual and public organizational perspective. We try to identify the career features and its innovative role in the knowledge-based economy during the crisis, considering the fact that public services have in fact the ultimate responsibility for managing their own careers.

  10. Forestry administration and policies in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Eric L.

    1983-11-01

    This article begins by summarizing the importance of the forestry sector in the Philippine economy It provides an overview of the multiplicity of Philippine governmental institutions involved in forestry in 1982 Then it discusses forestry laws in the country and concludes by examining fifteen critical forest policy issues: sustained yield management; area-specific logging bans; increased use of wood wastes; revision of forest charges; unprocessed log export ban; rationalization of the forest industry, acceleration of reforestation; protection of watersheds; recognition of the social dimensions of slash- and-burn agriculture; fuelwood supply; public land classification for forestry and agriculture, development of plantations for dendrothermal electricity; multiple-use management; preservation of mangrove areas, and improvements in administration and implementation.

  11. Analysis on Open Government Information Under the Perspective of Administrative Power and Administrative System

    OpenAIRE

    Qingyong TAN

    2016-01-01

    This paper starts from administrative power and administrative system and believes that the tradition of administrative power, administrative power distribution and operation system, administrative power self-isolation and alienation tendencies, administrative structure and traditional bureaucratic system have a significant impact on the construction of open government information system. At the same time, it analyzes the beneficial factors to the open government information and believes that...

  12. REASONS OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS' PREFERENCES TO BE ADMINISTRATOR AND LEAVING A QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Erginer, Aysun; Köse, Mehmet Fatih

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to define the reasons of school administrators' preferences to be administrator and leaving administration and develop solutions by setting light to some flaws in the functioning of system. Such research goals as school administrators' preferences for administrative work, their reasons to return to teaching, and the effects of the administrative experience on their professional lives were identified through interviews, for data analysis content analysis method have been utiliz...

  13. Guarantees of the Legality of Administration and Administrative Procedure in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Paulovics

    2011-01-01

    The legality of administration is a fundamental constitutional requirement in a constitutional government. For this reason, modern laws regulating administrative procedure provide for different guarantees of the legality of administration. The Administrative Procedure Act in force in Hungary (Act No. CXL. of 2004) contains a wide range of rules aimed at guaranteeing the legality of the administrative action in all phases of the administrative procedure. The most important of them is the judic...

  14. Increasing productivity: Another approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, F.J.

    1996-06-10

    An engineering information (EI) and information technology (IT) organization that must improve its productivity should work to further its business goals. This paper explores a comprehensive model for increasing EI/IT productivity by supporting organizational objectives.

  15. CHANGES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia DRAGOMIR STEFANESCU

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyses the determining role that the management of public administration has in the modern society. It also discusses the concepts, traits, functions and principles of the management of public administration. Finally, assessments are made with regard to the conception and practice of the management of public administration in Romania. The study has implications in the organizational sector of the public administration institutions and in the process of the specialists’ training in...

  16. From Colonial Administration to Development Management

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Bill

    2001-01-01

    This paper is about the field of development management (previously development administration) and its continuities with the processes of imperial rule known as colonial administration. Development administration/ management represents itself as a subset of public administration/ public sector management. However, this conceals its status as First World discourse about how the Third World should be managed. Moreover, while development management recognizes the continuity between itself and p...

  17. Software Architecture Patterns for System Administration Support

    OpenAIRE

    Bijvank, Ronald; Wiersema, Wiebe; Köppe, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Many quality aspects of software systems are addressed in the existing literature on software architecture patterns. But the aspect of system administration seems to be a bit overlooked, even though it is an important aspect too. In this work we present three software architecture patterns that, when applied by software architects, support the work of system administrators: PROVIDE AN ADMINISTRATION API, SINGLE FILE LOCATION, and CENTRALIZED SYSTEM LOGGING. PROVIDE AN ADMINISTRATION API shoul...

  18. INSOLVENCY OF ADMINISTRATIVE-TERRITORIAL UNITS

    OpenAIRE

    Verginia VEDINAS

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to carry out an analysis of the regulation of insolvency procedures applicable to the administrative-territorial units. It addresses, in terms of content, three major issues. The first is related to the current constitutional status regarding the manner of administrative-territorial organization of Romania, and the organization and functioning of public administration in the administrative-territorial units.The second issue concerns the analysis of the legal regulations regard...

  19. Concept of administrative procedures of state registration

    OpenAIRE

    Качура, О. А.

    2015-01-01

    The paper clarified the term "administrative procedure of state registration" and made proposals for legislative consolidation. It is stated that definitions of "administrative procedure" the literature has not developed a single point of view,  although the specified term investigated known Ukrainian experts. As for normative fixing of concept of "administrative procedure", it is absent in the legislation of Ukraine. Suggested definition of administrative procedure: it is part of the not jud...

  20. INSOLVENCY OF ADMINISTRATIVE-TERRITORIAL UNITS

    OpenAIRE

    Verginia VEDINAS; Daniela CIOCHINA

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to carry out an analysis of the regulation of insolvency procedures applicable to the administrative-territorial units. It addresses, in terms of content, three major issues. The first is related to the current constitutional status regarding the manner of administrative-territorial organization of Romania, and the organization and functioning of public administration in the administrative-territorial units. The second issue concerns the analysis of the legal regulations regar...

  1. Administration Réseaux informatiques

    OpenAIRE

    LAHFA, NADIR

    2014-01-01

    L’administration réseau est en passe de devenir l’un des profils les plus demandés dans le monde du travail, car pas une société, organisme, banque, université, usine, ou autre ne peut plus se passer d’un réseau informatique reliant tous ses postes de travail, en vue de partager, collaborer, échanger et travailler en réseau, et surtout accéder à internet. Qui dit réseau, dit tous les services qu’il offre comme le mail, le web, le transfert de fichiers, la prise de commande à distance, la T...

  2. Case law and administrative decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About the case law we find four parts, one concerns France and the judgement of the council of state on an application for annulment of the decree of 10 january 2003 authorizing Cogema to modify a major nuclear installation, a second one is in relation with the Usa through the ruling in relation to the sale of uranium enrichment services in the united States, decision concerning the Yucca mountain repository, Indiana michigan power company v. United States, natural resources defense council, snake river alliance, confederated tribes and bands of the Yakama indian Nation, Shoshone Bannock Tribes v. Abraham. For the third part devoted to European union it is question of the judgement of the European Court of justice in European union v. UK, the fourth part concerns administrative decisions with the early shutdown of Barsebaeck-2 in Sweden. (N.C.)

  3. Case law and administrative decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some extracts of case law: ruling of the Supreme Administrative Court on the decision to shut units 3 and 4 of Kozloduy nuclear power plant (Bulgaria), judgement of the County Court of Cherbourg concerning the import of spent fuel to La Hague (France), judgement of the Nagoya High Court on the invalidity of the licence to establish the Monju reactor, judgement of the Mito District Court issuing penalties in respect of the Tokai-Mura accident, the Principle of justification: the application of the Principle to the Manufacture of MOX fuel in the UK, Ruling of the US Court of International trade in relation to the sale of uranium enrichment services in the United States, Commission v Council Accession of the Community to the Convention on nuclear safety, government decision not to appeal court ruling on the continued operation of the Borssele nuclear power plant. (N.C.)

  4. Acute hypothalamic administration of L-arginine increases feed intake in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Ricardo Maneck Malfatti; Luiz Augusto da Silva; Ricardo Aparecido Pereira; Renan Garcia Michel; André Luiz Snak; Fabio Seidel dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the chronic (oral) and acute (hypothalamic infusion) effects of L-arginine supplementation on feed intake, body composition, and behavioral changes in rats. Methods: Twenty rats were divided into two groups treated orally for 60 days; one group received L-arginine (1 g/kg body weight) and one group received saline (1 mL/NaCl ...

  5. Prolonged administration of recombinant human erythropoietin increases submaximal performance more than maximal aerobic capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, J J; Rentsch, R L; Robach, P;

    2007-01-01

    The effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) treatment on aerobic power (VO2max) are well documented, but little is known about the effects of rHuEpo on submaximal exercise performance. The present study investigated the effect on performance (ergometer cycling, 20-30 min at 80% of...

  6. Topical Administration of Pirfenidone Increases Healing of Chronic Diabetic Foot Ulcers: A Randomized Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Janka-Zires

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Only 30 percent of chronic diabetic foot ulcers heal after 20 weeks of standard treatment. Pirfenidone is a drug with biological, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical pirfenidone added to conventional treatment in noninfected chronic diabetic foot ulcers. This was a randomized crossover study. Group 1 received topical pirfenidone plus conventional treatment for 8 weeks; after this period, they were switched to receive conventional treatment only for 8 more weeks. In group 2, the order of the treatments was the opposite. The end points were complete ulcer healing and size reduction. Final data were obtained from 35 ulcers in 24 patients. Fifty-two percent of ulcers treated with pirfenidone healed before 8 weeks versus 14.3% treated with conventional treatment only (P=0.025. Between 8 and 16 weeks, 30.8% ulcers that received pirfenidone healed versus 0% with conventional treatment (P=0.081. By week 8, the reduction in ulcer size was 100% [73–100] with pirfenidone versus 57.5% with conventional treatment [28.9–74] (P=0.011. By week 16, the reduction was 93% [42.7–100] with pirfenidone and 21.8% [8–77.5] with conventional treatment (P=0.050. The addition of topical pirfenidone to conventional treatment significantly improves the healing of chronic diabetic noninfected foot ulcers.

  7. Insufficient insulin administration to diabetic rats increases substrate utilization and maintains lactate production in the kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Lipsø, Hans Kasper Wigh; Østergaard, Jakob Appel; Nørregaard, Rikke; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Pedersen, Michael; Palm, Fredrik; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Good glycemic control is crucial to prevent the onset and progression of late diabetic complications, but insulin treatment often fails to achieve normalization of glycemic control to the level seen in healthy controls. In fact, recent experimental studies indicate that insufficient treatment with insulin, resulting in poor glycemic control, has an additional effect on progression of late diabetic complications, than poor glycemic control on its own. We therefore compared renal metab...

  8. Chronic Ritalin Administration during Adulthood Increases Serotonin Pool in Rat Medial Frontal Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Daniali, Samira; Nahavandi, Arezo; Madjd, Zahra; Shahbazi, Ali; Niknazar, Somayeh; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ritalin has high tendency to be abused. It has been the main indication to control attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The college students may seek for it to improve their memory, decrease the need for sleep (especially during exams), which at least partially, can be related to serotonergic system. Therefore, it seems worthy to evaluate the effect of Ritalin intake on mature brain. There are many studies on Ritalin effect on developing brain, but only few studies on adults ...

  9. Topical Administration of Pirfenidone Increases Healing of Chronic Diabetic Foot Ulcers: A Randomized Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janka-Zires, Marcela; Uribe-Wiechers, Ana Cecilia; Juárez-Comboni, Sonia Citlali; López-Gutiérrez, Joel; Escobar-Jiménez, Jarod Jazek; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Only 30 percent of chronic diabetic foot ulcers heal after 20 weeks of standard treatment. Pirfenidone is a drug with biological, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical pirfenidone added to conventional treatment in noninfected chronic diabetic foot ulcers. This was a randomized crossover study. Group 1 received topical pirfenidone plus conventional treatment for 8 weeks; after this period, they were switched to receive conventional treatment only for 8 more weeks. In group 2, the order of the treatments was the opposite. The end points were complete ulcer healing and size reduction. Final data were obtained from 35 ulcers in 24 patients. Fifty-two percent of ulcers treated with pirfenidone healed before 8 weeks versus 14.3% treated with conventional treatment only (P = 0.025). Between 8 and 16 weeks, 30.8% ulcers that received pirfenidone healed versus 0% with conventional treatment (P = 0.081). By week 8, the reduction in ulcer size was 100% [73–100] with pirfenidone versus 57.5% with conventional treatment [28.9–74] (P = 0.011). By week 16, the reduction was 93% [42.7–100] with pirfenidone and 21.8% [8–77.5] with conventional treatment (P = 0.050). The addition of topical pirfenidone to conventional treatment significantly improves the healing of chronic diabetic noninfected foot ulcers. PMID:27478849

  10. Androgen Administration to Aged Male Mice Increases Anti-Anxiety Behavior and Enhances Cognitive Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Frye, Cheryl A.; Edinger, Kassandra; Sumida, Kanako

    2007-01-01

    Although androgen secretion is reduced with aging, and may underlie decrements in cognitive and affective performance, the effects and mechanisms of androgens to mediate these behaviors are not well understood. Testosterone (T), the primary male androgen, is aromatized to estrogen (E2), and reduced to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is converted to 5α-androstane, 3α, 17β-diol (3α-diol). To ascertain whether actions of the neuroactive metabolite of T, 3α-diol, mediates cognitive and affective...

  11. The Incidence of Necrotizing Enterocolitis Is Increased Following Probiotic Administration to Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Thymann, Thomas; Siggers, Richard;

    2011-01-01

    Preterm birth and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with inappropriate gut colonization and immunity, which may be improved by probiotic bacteria. Using a preterm pig model of NEC, we investigated the effects of probiotics on intestinal structure, function, microbiology, and immunology...... in the immediate postnatal period. Just after birth, caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were inoculated with Lactobacillus paracasei, Bifidobacteria animalis, and Streptococcus thermophilus (total 2.4 x 1010/d) either as live (ProLive, n = 14) or gamma-irradiated dead bacteria (ProDead, n = 12) and...

  12. The Incidence of Necrotizing Enterocolitis Is Increased Following Probiotic Administration to Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Thymann, Thomas; Boye, Mette;

    2011-01-01

    Preterm birth and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with inappropriate gut colonization and immunity, which may be improved by probiotic bacteria. Using a preterm pig model of NEC, we investigated the effects of probiotics on intestinal structure, function, microbiology, and immunology...... in the immediate postnatal period. Just after birth, caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were inoculated with Lactobacillus paracasei, Bifidobacteria animalis, and Streptococcus thermophilus (total 2.4 × 1010/d) either as live (ProLive, n = 14) or gamma-irradiated dead bacteria (ProDead, n = 12) and...... live probiotics induced a higher density of B. animalis and lower bacterial diversity in the distal intestinal mucosa and lower SCFA concentrations in the colon (P < 0.05). The detrimental effects of probiotic bacteria in this study may relate to the specific strain and dose combination and may have...

  13. Increased Protection against Pneumococcal Disease by Mucosal Administration of Conjugate Vaccine plus Interleukin-12

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Joyce M.; Briles, David E.; Metzger, Dennis W.

    2003-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of respiratory tract infections, its main entry route being the nasal mucosa. The recent development of pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines has led to a dramatic improvement in protection against invasive disease in infants and children, but these vaccines have been found to be only 50 to 60% protective against bacterial carriage. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of intranasal (i.n.) conjugate vaccine delivery using interleukin-...

  14. Increased antitumor efficacy by the combined administration of swainsonine and cisplatin in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swainsonine is a natural alpha-mannosidase inhibitor found in numerous poisonous plants, such as Astragalus lentiginosus. Its mechanism of action is through the inhibition of Golgi alpha-mannosidase II activity in the N-glycan biosynthesis pathway. As a result, swainsonine inhibits the production of...

  15. Substantially increased sildenafil bioavailability after sublingual administration in children with congenital heart disease: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Carls, Alexandra; Winter, Julia; Enderle, Yeliz; Burhenne, Jürgen; Gorenflo, Matthias; Haefeli, Walter E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary hypertension is a progressive disease of diverse origin with devastating consequences in adults as well as in children. The phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor sildenafil successfully lowers pulmonary vascular resistance. However, because of its poor enteral absorption, resulting in ineffective plasma concentrations, responses in infants and children are often erratic. Case presentations We report the cases of two Caucasian boys, one born at term (case 1) and one aged 2.5 yea...

  16. Increased accuracy in heparin and protamine administration decreases bleeding: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runge, Marx; Møller, Christian H; Steinbrüchel, Daniel A

    2009-01-01

    Three to 5 percent of the patients undergoing cardiac surgery are reoperated because of bleeding. When a surgical cause can be excluded, heparin/protamine mismatch may be considered. Insufficient reversal of heparin and overdosing of protamine may cause postoperative bleeding. The purpose of the ...

  17. 22 CFR 62.10 - Program administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program administration. 62.10 Section 62.10 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM General Provisions § 62.10 Program administration. Sponsors are responsible for the effective administration of...

  18. 20 CFR 416.105 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administration. 416.105 Section 416.105 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Introduction, General Provisions and Definitions § 416.105 Administration. The...

  19. Database Administration: Concepts, Tools, Experiences, and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong-Hong, Belkis; Marron, Beatrice

    The concepts of data base administration, the role of the data base administrator (DBA), and computer software tools useful in data base administration are described in order to assist data base technologists and managers. A study of DBA's in the Federal Government is detailed in terms of the functions they perform, the software tools they use,…

  20. 50 CFR 401.1 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration. 401.1 Section 401.1... INTERIOR AND NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.1 Administration. The Director of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and...

  1. 7 CFR 1467.2 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 1467.2 Section 1467.2 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.2 Administration. (a) The... organizations in program administration. No determination by these agencies or organizations shall compel...

  2. 32 CFR 552.18 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Administration. 552.18 Section 552.18 National... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Post Commander § 552.18 Administration. (a) Purpose... economical operation, administration, service, and supply of all individuals, units, and activities...

  3. 78 FR 25524 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to Release Airport Property..., Airports Compliance Specialist, Federal Aviation Administration, Airports Division, ACE- 610C, 901...

  4. 7 CFR 70.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 70.3 Section 70.3 Agriculture... PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products General § 70.3 Administration... Secretary may require in the enforcement or administration of the provisions of the Act and the...

  5. 7 CFR 634.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 634.3 Section 634.3 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM General § 634.3 Administration. At the national.... The Secretary of Agiculture has delegated responsibility for administration of the program (43 FR...

  6. 7 CFR 652.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 652.3 Section 652.3 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES TECHNICAL SERVICE PROVIDER ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 652.3 Administration... requirements of this part. (b) The Chief, NRCS, will direct and supervise the administration of the...

  7. 10 CFR 725.24 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 725.24 Section 725.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA Permits § 725.24 Administration. With respect to each permit... designate a DOE or National Nuclear Security Administration office which will: (a) Process all...

  8. 7 CFR 250.2 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 250.2 Section 250.2 Agriculture... TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS AND AREAS UNDER ITS JURISDICTION General § 250.2 Administration. (a) Delegation to FNS. Within the Department, FNS shall act on behalf of the Department in the administration of...

  9. 7 CFR 633.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 633.3 Section 633.3 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.3 Administration. (a) The regulations in this part... administration and related policy matters. No determination by the State Technical Committee shall compel...

  10. 7 CFR 226.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 226.3 Section 226.3 Agriculture... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM General § 226.3 Administration. (a) Within the Department, FNS shall act on behalf of the Department in the administration of the Program....

  11. 7 CFR 251.2 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 251.2 Section 251.2 Agriculture... Administration. (a) Food and Nutrition Service. Within the United States Department of Agriculture (the... this section, any information on changes in program administration, including any changes...

  12. 7 CFR 281.2 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 281.2 Section 281.2 Agriculture... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION OF THE FOOD STAMP PROGRAM ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 281.2 Administration. (a) Qualification. (1) The appropriate ITO of an established...

  13. 7 CFR 210.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 210.3 Section 210.3 Agriculture... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NATIONAL SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM General § 210.3 Administration. (a) FNS. FNS will act on behalf of the Department in the administration of the Program. Within FNS, the CND will...

  14. 20 CFR 628.310 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administration. 628.310 Section 628.310 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE II OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT State Programs § 628.310 Administration. Funds provided to...

  15. 7 CFR 12.6 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 12.6 Section 12.6 Agriculture Office....6 Administration. (a) General. A determination of ineligibility for benefits in accordance with the... making such determinations, as provided in this section. (b) Administration by FSA. (1) The provisions...

  16. 7 CFR 1465.2 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 1465.2 Section 1465.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 1465.2 Administration. (a) Administration and implementation of AMA's conservation provisions for...

  17. 7 CFR 1415.2 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 1415.2 Section 1415.2 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.2 Administration. (a) The... administration of GRP. This authority cannot be further delegated. No provision of this part which is required...

  18. 33 CFR 5.07 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administration. 5.07 Section 5.07... § 5.07 Administration. Any authority vested in the Commandant by this part may be delegated by him to... appropriate for the functioning, organization, and internal administration of the Auxiliary....

  19. 7 CFR 631.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 631.3 Section 631.3 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 631.3 Administration. (a) NRCS is responsible for the administration of the Great Plains Conservation Program (GPCP)....

  20. 7 CFR 57.10 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 57.10 Section 57.10 Agriculture... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs General § 57.10 Administration. The... require in the enforcement or administration of the provisions of the act and the regulations in this...

  1. 48 CFR 243.204 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration. 243.204... OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT MODIFICATIONS Change Orders 243.204 Administration. Follow the procedures at PGI 243.204 for administration of change orders....

  2. 4 CFR 83.2 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 83.2 Section 83.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PRIVACY PROCEDURES FOR PERSONNEL RECORDS § 83.2 Administration. The administration of this part is the duty and responsibility of the Director, Personnel, U.S....

  3. 7 CFR 235.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... programs in accordance with the applicable requirements of this part, 7 CFR parts 210, 215, 220, 225, 226... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 235.3 Section 235.3 Agriculture... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS STATE ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSE FUNDS § 235.3 Administration. (a) Within...

  4. Administrative Uses of Computers in the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluhm, Harry P.

    This book, intended for school administrators, provides a comprehensive account of how computer information systems can enable administrators at both middle and top management levels to manage the educational enterprise. It can be used as a textbook in an educational administration course emphasizing computer technology in education, an…

  5. 10 CFR 600.147 - Contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract administration. 600.147 Section 600.147 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform Administrative... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.147 Contract administration. A system for...

  6. 7 CFR 3019.47 - Contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract administration. 3019.47 Section 3019.47 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER... Standards § 3019.47 Contract administration. A system for contract administration shall be maintained...

  7. 76 FR 72328 - Miscellaneous Administrative Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Part 1850 and 1852 RIN 2700-AD36 Miscellaneous Administrative Changes AGENCY... amends the NASA FAR Supplement (NFS) to make miscellaneous non-substantive administrative changes to be... Headquarters, 300 E Street SW., Office of Procurement, Contract Management Division, Washington, DC...

  8. ROMANIAN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION-FUTURE PROSPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Maria IVANESCU

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of the European Union triggered a distinctive opportunity for the integration and convergence of legal cultures among the EU Member States. However, the constant disparities between Member States does not necessary mean an overall administrative convergence. This paper will analyze the present and future relations between Romanian public administration and the EU administration systems.

  9. 29 CFR 1903.21 - State administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State administration. 1903.21 Section 1903.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.21 State administration. Nothing in this part 1903...

  10. Academic Administration: Are There Differences That Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Cameron

    1982-01-01

    The differences between academic administration and business management and the distinctions between academic administration and public administration are addressed. Attention is directed to differences in purpose and internal organization; decisions and conflict resolution; environmental relations and internal affairs; and recruitment, selection,…

  11. 10 CFR 851.44 - Administrative appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative appeal. 851.44 Section 851.44 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Enforcement Process § 851.44 Administrative appeal. (a... calendar days from receipt of the final notice. (b) In order to exhaust administrative remedies...

  12. 75 FR 68416 - Administrative Wage Garnishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... 31 U.S.C. 3720D(h)) with respect to administrative wage garnishment. On May 6, 1998 (63 FR 25136... Federal agency debt by administrative wage garnishment. Wage garnishment is a process whereby an employer... 285.11. II. Overview of the Administrative Wage Garnishment Process Readers should refer to...

  13. 5 CFR 179.307 - Administrative offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... administrative offset regulations, and the applicable provisions of 4 CFR part 102 with respect to providing the debtor with due process. (c) Request for offset from a Federal agency: When administrative offset is... administrative offset regulations and with the applicable provisions of 4 CFR part 102, including providing...

  14. 42 CFR 412.278 - Administrator's review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrator's review. 412.278 Section 412.278... Review Board Composition and Procedures § 412.278 Administrator's review. (a) Hospitals requests for... designation may request the Administrator to review the MGCRB decision. (A hospital or group of hospitals...

  15. 7 CFR 550.33 - Administrative supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative supervision. 550.33 Section 550.33... Agreements Program Management § 550.33 Administrative supervision. REE employees are prohibited from engaging... management issues. The cooperator is solely responsible for the administrative supervision of its employees....

  16. 36 CFR 703.3 - Administration responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administration responsibilities. 703.3 Section 703.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS DISCLOSURE OR PRODUCTION OF RECORDS OR INFORMATION Availability of Library of Congress Records § 703.3 Administration responsibilities. The administration of this...

  17. 48 CFR 19.812 - Contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., unless the Administrator of the SBA waives the requirement for contract termination (13 CFR 124.515). The... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract administration... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting With the Small Business Administration (the...

  18. 48 CFR 619.812 - Contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract administration... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting with the Small Business Administration (The 8(a) Program) 619.812 Contract administration. (d) The head of the contracting activity is the agency head for...

  19. 48 CFR 2919.812 - Contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract administration... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS AND SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS CONCERNS Contracting with the Small Business Administration (The 8(a) Program) 2919.812 Contract administration. (a) Contracting officers, or designees,...

  20. 48 CFR 1319.812 - Contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract administration... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting With the Small Business Administration (the 8(a) Program) 1319.812 Contract administration. Awards under the Partnership Agreement are subject to 15 U.S.C....