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  1. Leptin administration favors muscle mass accretion by decreasing FoxO3a and increasing PGC-1alpha in ob/ob mice.

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    Neira Sáinz

    Full Text Available Absence of leptin has been associated with reduced skeletal muscle mass in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. The aim of our study was to examine the effect of leptin on the catabolic and anabolic pathways regulating muscle mass. Gastrocnemius, extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscle mass as well as fiber size were significantly lower in ob/ob mice compared to wild type littermates, being significantly increased by leptin administration (P<0.001. This effect was associated with an inactivation of the muscle atrophy-related transcription factor forkhead box class O3 (FoxO3a (P<0.05, and with a decrease in the protein expression levels of the E3 ubiquitin-ligases muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx (P<0.05 and muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1 (P<0.05. Moreover, leptin increased (P<0.01 protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha, a regulator of muscle fiber type, and decreased (P<0.05 myostatin protein, a negative regulator of muscle growth. Leptin administration also activated (P<0.01 the regulators of cell cycle progression proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and cyclin D1, and increased (P<0.01 myofibrillar protein troponin T. The present study provides evidence that leptin treatment may increase muscle mass of ob/ob mice by inhibiting myofibrillar protein degradation as well as enhancing muscle cell proliferation.

  2. Changes in skeletal muscle gene expression following clenbuterol administration

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    McIntyre Lauren M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta-adrenergic receptor agonists (BA induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy, yet specific mechanisms that lead to this effect are not well understood. The objective of this research was to identify novel genes and physiological pathways that potentially facilitate BA induced skeletal muscle growth. The Affymetrix platform was utilized to identify gene expression changes in mouse skeletal muscle 24 hours and 10 days after administration of the BA clenbuterol. Results Administration of clenbuterol stimulated anabolic activity, as indicated by decreased blood urea nitrogen (BUN; P P Conclusion Global evaluation of gene expression after administration of clenbuterol identified changes in gene expression and overrepresented functional categories of genes that may regulate BA-induced muscle hypertrophy. Changes in mRNA abundance of multiple genes associated with myogenic differentiation may indicate an important effect of BA on proliferation, differentiation, and/or recruitment of satellite cells into muscle fibers to promote muscle hypertrophy. Increased mRNA abundance of genes involved in the initiation of translation suggests that increased levels of protein synthesis often associated with BA administration may result from a general up-regulation of translational initiators. Additionally, numerous other genes and physiological pathways were identified that will be important targets for further investigations of the hypertrophic effect of BA on skeletal muscle.

  3. Private AdministrationFavorable Environment for Implementing Programs and Campaigns of Public Relations?

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    Simona HAIDAU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper refer to decision of the private administration organizations from the region northeast of Romania to implement programs and public relations campaigns from the socio-economic context in the current period. This decision of organizations above mentioned is strongly influenced by nature non-profit purposes they have, more precisely, to be involved in carrying out the public interest or community.

  4. Favorable response to subcutaneous administration of infliximab in rats with experimental colitis

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    John K Triantafillidis; Helen Sotiriou; Apostolos E Papalois; Aikaterini Parasi; Emmanuel Anagnostakis; Stavros Burnazos; Aristofanis Gikas; Emmanuel G Merikas; Emmanuel Douzinas; Maria Karagianni

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the influence of infliximab (Remicade)on experimental colitis produced by 2,4,6,trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats.METHODS: Thirty-six Wistar rats were allocated into four groups (three groups of six animals each and a fourth of 12 animals). Six more healthy animals served as normal controls (Group 5). Group 1:colitis was induced by intracolonic installation of 25 mg of TNBS dissolved in 0.25 mL of 50% ethanol and infliximab was subcutaneously administered at a dose of 5 mg/kg BW; Group 2: colitis was induced and infliximab was subcutaneously administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg BW; Group 3: colitis was induced and infliximab was subcutaneously administered at a dose of 15 mg/kg BW; Group 4: colitis was induced without treatment with infliximab. Infliximab was administered on d 2-6. On the 7th d, all animals were killed. The colon was fixed in 10%buffered formalin and examined by light microscopy for the presence and activity of colitis and the extent of tissue damage. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were also measured.RESULTS: Significant differences concerning the presence of reparable lesions and the extent of bowel mucosa without active inflammation in all groups of animals treated with infliximab compared with controls were found. Significant reduction of the tissue levels of TNF-α in all groups of treated animals as compared withthe untreated ones was found (0.47±0.44, 1.09±0.86,0.43±0.31 vs 18.73±10.53 respectively). Significant reduction in the tissue levels of MDA was noticed in group 1 as compared to group 4, as well as between groups 2 and 4.CONCLUSION: Subcutaneous administration of infliximab reduces the inflammatory activity as well as tissue TNF-α and MDA levels in chemical colitis in rats.Infliximab at a dose of 5 mg/kg BW achieves better histological results and produces higher reduction of the levels of TNF-α than at a dose of 10 mg/kg BW.Infliximab at a dose of 5 mg/kg BW produces

  5. (−)-Epicatechin administration and exercising skeletal muscle vascular control and microvascular oxygenation in healthy rats

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    Copp, Steven W.; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; White, Michael J.; Hirai, Daniel M.; Ferguson, Scott K.; Holdsworth, Clark T.; Sims, Gabrielle E.; Poole, David C.; Musch, Timothy I.

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of the dietary flavanol (−)-epicatechin (EPI) is associated with enhanced endothelial function and augmented skeletal muscle capillarity and mitochondrial volume density. The potential for EPI to improve peripheral vascular function and muscle oxygenation during exercise is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that EPI administration in healthy rats would improve treadmill exercise performance secondary to elevated skeletal muscle blood flow and vascular conductance [VC, blood flow/m...

  6. Losartan administration reduces fibrosis but hinders functional recovery after volumetric muscle loss injury.

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    Garg, Koyal; Corona, Benjamin T; Walters, Thomas J

    2014-11-15

    Losartan is a Food and Drug Administration approved antihypertensive medication that is recently emerging as an antifibrotic therapy. Previously, losartan has been successfully used to reduce fibrosis and improve both muscle regeneration and function in several models of recoverable skeletal muscle injuries, such as contusion and laceration. In this study, the efficacy of losartan treatment in reducing fibrosis and improving regeneration was determined in a Lewis rat model of volumetric muscle loss (VML) injury. VML has been defined as the traumatic or surgical loss of skeletal muscle with resultant functional impairment. It is among the top 10 causes for wounded service members to be medically retired from the military. This study shows that, after several weeks of recovery, VML injury results in little to no muscle regeneration, but is marked by persistent inflammation, chronic upregulation of profibrotic markers and extracellular matrix (i.e., collagen type I), and fat deposition at the defect site, which manifest irrecoverable deficits in force production. Losartan administration at 10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) was able to modulate the gene expression of fibrotic markers and was also effective at reducing fibrosis (i.e., the deposition of collagen type I) in the injured muscle. However, there were no improvements in muscle regeneration, and deleterious effects on muscle function were observed instead. We propose that, in the absence of regeneration, reduction in fibrosis worsens the ability of the VML injured muscle to transmit forces, which ultimately results in decreased muscle function.

  7. Effects of tetracycline administration on the proteomic profile of pig muscle samples (L. dorsi)

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    Gratacos-Cubarsi, M.; Castellari, M.; Hortos, M.;

    2008-01-01

    Effect of tetracycline (TC) administration on the proteomic profile of pig muscle was evaluated by 2D electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The TC content at slaughter was determined in L. dorsi samples by HPLC-DAD. Mean residual concentration of TC in the muscle of treated animals......, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (G3PD1), phosphoglycerate kinase 1, novelprotein (0610037L13Rik), leucine aminopeptidase 3 (LAP), and hypothetical protein isoform 2. Results show that proteomics could be a useful tool to reveal pharmacological treatments with TC, even if the possible uses...

  8. (-)-Epicatechin administration and exercising skeletal muscle vascular control and microvascular oxygenation in healthy rats.

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    Copp, Steven W; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; White, Michael J; Hirai, Daniel M; Ferguson, Scott K; Holdsworth, Clark T; Sims, Gabrielle E; Poole, David C; Musch, Timothy I

    2013-01-15

    Consumption of the dietary flavanol (-)-epicatechin (EPI) is associated with enhanced endothelial function and augmented skeletal muscle capillarity and mitochondrial volume density. The potential for EPI to improve peripheral vascular function and muscle oxygenation during exercise is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that EPI administration in healthy rats would improve treadmill exercise performance secondary to elevated skeletal muscle blood flow and vascular conductance [VC, blood flow/mean arterial pressure (MAP)] and improved skeletal muscle microvascular oxygenation. Rats received water (control, n = 12) or 4 mg/kg EPI (n = 12) via oral gavage daily for 24 days. Exercise endurance capacity and peak O(2) uptake (Vo(2) peak) were measured via treadmill runs to exhaustion. MAP (arterial catheter) and blood flow (radiolabeled microspheres) were measured and VC was calculated during submaximal treadmill exercise (25 m/min, 5% grade). Spinotrapezius muscle microvascular O(2) pressure (Po(2mv)) was measured (phosphorescence quenching) during electrically induced twitch (1 Hz) contractions. In conscious rats, EPI administration resulted in lower (↓~5%) resting (P = 0.03) and exercising (P = 0.04) MAP. There were no differences in exercise endurance capacity, Vo(2) peak, total exercising hindlimb blood flow (control, 154 ± 13; and EPI, 159 ± 8 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1), P = 0.68), or VC (control, 1.13 ± 0.10; and EPI, 1.24 ± 0.08 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1)·mmHg(-1), P = 0.21) between groups. Following anesthesia, EPI resulted in lower MAP (↓~16%) but did not impact resting Po(2mv) or any kinetics parameters (P > 0.05 for all) during muscle contractions compared with control. EPI administration (4 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) improved modestly cardiovascular function (i.e., ↓MAP) with no impact on exercise performance, total exercising skeletal muscle blood flow and VC, or contracting muscle microvascular oxygenation in healthy rats. PMID:23144313

  9. Ginseng administration protects skeletal muscle from oxidative stress induced by acute exercise in rats

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    J. Voces

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic activity was analyzed in the soleus, gastrocnemius (red and white and plantaris muscles of acutely exercised rats after long-term administration of Panax ginseng extract in order to evaluate the protective role of ginseng against skeletal muscle oxidation. Ginseng extract (3, 10, 100, or 500 mg/kg was administered orally for three months to male Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 50 g before exercise and to non-exercised rats (N = 8/group. The results showed a membrane stabilizing capacity of the extract since mitochondrial function measured on the basis of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities was reduced, on average, by 20% (P < 0.05 after exercise but the activities remained unchanged in animals treated with a ginseng dose of 100 mg/kg. Glutathione status did not show significant changes after exercise or treatment. Lipid peroxidation, measured on the basis of malondialdehyde levels, was significantly higher in all muscles after exercise, and again was reduced by about 74% (P < 0.05 by the use of ginseng extract. The administration of ginseng extract was able to protect muscle from exercise-induced oxidative stress irrespective of fiber type.

  10. Exercise training favors increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle in contrast to adipose tissue: a randomized study using FDG PET imaging

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    Reichkendler, M. H.; Auerbach, P.; Rosenkilde, M.;

    2013-01-01

    Physical exercise increases peripheral insulin sensitivity, but regional differences are poorly elucidated in humans. We investigated the effect of aerobic exercise training on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in five individual femoral muscle groups and four different adipose tissue regions...... was highest in femoral skeletal muscle followed by intraperitoneal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), retroperitoneal VAT, abdominal (anterior + posterior) subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and femoral SAT (P tissues). Metabolic rate of glucose increased similarly (∼30%) in the two exercise...... abdominal SAT compared with CON but not in either intra- or retroperitoneal VAT. Total adipose tissue mass decreased in both exercise groups, and the decrease was distributed equally among subcutaneous and intra-abdominal depots. In conclusion, aerobic exercise training increases insulin-stimulated glucose...

  11. Prevention of muscle fibers atrophy during gravitational unloading: The effect of L-arginine administration

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    Kartashkina, N.; Lomonosova, Y.; Shevchenko, T. F.; Bugrova, A. E.; Turtikova, O. V.; Kalamkarov, G. R.; Nemirovskaya, T. L.

    2011-05-01

    Gravitational unloading results in pronounced atrophy of m.soleus. Probably, the output of NO is controlled by the muscle activity. We hypothesized that NO may be involved in the protein metabolism and increase of its concentration in muscle can prevent atrophic changes induced by gravitational unloading. In order to test the hypothesis we applied NO donor L-arginine during gravitational unloading. 2.5-month-old male Wistar rats weighing 220-230g were divided into sedentary control group (CTR, n=7), 14-day hindlimb suspension (HS, n=7), 14 days of hindlimb suspension+ L-arginine (HSL, n=7) (with a daily supplementation of 500 mg/kg wt L-arginine) and 14 days of hindlimb suspension+ L-NAME (HSN, n=7) (90 mg/kg wt during 14 days). Cross sectional area (CSA) of slow twitch (ST) and fast twitch (FT) soleus muscle fibers decreased by 45% and 28% in the HS group ( pHSL group in comparison with the HS group ( pHSL group was completely prevented since FT fiber CSA had no significant differences from the CTR group. In HS group, the percentage of fibers revealing either gaps/disruption of the dystrophin layer of the myofiber surface membrane increased by 27% and 17%, respectively, as compared to the controls (CTR group, pHSL group. NO concentration decreased by 60% in the HS group (as well as HSN group) and at the same time no changes were detectable in the HSL group. This fact indicates the compensation of NO content in the unloaded muscle under L-arginine administration. The levels of atrogin-1 mRNA were considerably altered in suspended animals (HS group: plus 27%, HSL group: minus 13%) as compared to the control level. Conclusion: L-arginine administration allows maintaining NO concentration in m.soleus at the level of cage control group, prevents from dystrophin layer destruction, decreases the atrogin mRNA concentration in the muscle and atrophy level under gravitational unloading.

  12. BTX-A administration to the target muscle affects forces of all muscles within an intact compartment and epimuscular myofascial force transmission.

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    Yucesoy, Can A; Emre Arıkan, Önder; Ateş, Filiz

    2012-11-01

    Measurement of forces of mono- and bi-articular muscles of an entire intact muscle compartment can allow for a comprehensive assessment of the effects of Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) both at and beyond the injection site, and in conditions close to those in vivo. The goal was to test the hypotheses that BTX-A affects (1) the forces of not only the injected but also the noninjected muscles of the compartment, and (2) epimuscular myofascial force transmission (EMFT). Two groups of Wistar rats were tested: Control (no BTX-A injected) and BTX (0.1 units of BTX-A were injected exclusively to the mid-belly of TA). Isometric forces were measured simultaneously at the distal tendons of the tibialis anterior (TA) at different lengths, the restrained extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and the extensor hallucis longus (EHL) muscles and at the proximal tendon of EDL. Five days post-injection, BTX-A did affect the total forces of all muscles significantly: (1) The TA force decreased differentially (by 46.6%-55.9%) for most lengths such that a significant negative correlation was found between force reductions and increased muscle length. The maximum TA force decreased by 47.3%. However, the muscle's length range of force production did not change significantly. (2) Distal and proximal EDL forces decreased (on average by 67.8% and 62.9%, respectively). (3) The EHL force also decreased (on average by 9.2%). The passive forces of only the TA showed a significant increase at higher lengths. EMFT effects were shown for the control group: (1) at the shortest TA lengths, the EDL proximo-distal force differences were in favor of the distal force, which was reversed at higher lengths. (2) the EHL force measured at the shortest TA length decreased (by 34%) as a function of TA lengthening. After BTX-A exposure, such EMFT effects disappeared for the EDL, whereas they remained as profound for the EHL. Exposure to BTX-A does affect forces of all muscles operating in an intact compartment. For

  13. Combining a micro/nano-hierarchical scaffold with cell-printing of myoblasts induces cell alignment and differentiation favorable to skeletal muscle tissue regeneration.

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    Yeo, Miji; Lee, Hyeongjin; Kim, Geun Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical scaffolds must be used in tissue engineering to provide physical stability and topological/biochemical properties that directly affect tissue regeneration. In this study, a new cell-laden scaffold was developed that supplies micro/nano-topological cues and promotes efficient release of cells. The hierarchical structure consisted of poly(ε-caprolactone) macrosized struts for sustaining a three-dimensional structural shape, aligned nanofibers obtained with optimized electrospinning, and cell-printed myoblasts. Importantly, the printed myoblasts were fully safe and were efficiently released from the cell-laden struts to neighboring nanofiber networks. The incorporation of micro/nanofibers in the hierarchical scaffold significantly affected myoblast proliferation, alignment, and even facilitated the formation of myotubes. We observed that myosin heavy chain expression and the expression levels of various myogenic genes (MyoD, myogenin, and troponin T) were significantly affected by the fiber alignment achieved in our hierarchical cell-laden structure. We believe that the combination of cell-printing and a hierarchical scaffold that encourages fiber alignment is a highly promising technique for skeletal muscle tissue engineering. PMID:27634918

  14. Combining a micro/nano-hierarchical scaffold with cell-printing of myoblasts induces cell alignment and differentiation favorable to skeletal muscle tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Miji; Lee, Hyeongjin; Kim, Geun Hyung

    2016-09-16

    Biomedical scaffolds must be used in tissue engineering to provide physical stability and topological/biochemical properties that directly affect tissue regeneration. In this study, a new cell-laden scaffold was developed that supplies micro/nano-topological cues and promotes efficient release of cells. The hierarchical structure consisted of poly(ε-caprolactone) macrosized struts for sustaining a three-dimensional structural shape, aligned nanofibers obtained with optimized electrospinning, and cell-printed myoblasts. Importantly, the printed myoblasts were fully safe and were efficiently released from the cell-laden struts to neighboring nanofiber networks. The incorporation of micro/nanofibers in the hierarchical scaffold significantly affected myoblast proliferation, alignment, and even facilitated the formation of myotubes. We observed that myosin heavy chain expression and the expression levels of various myogenic genes (MyoD, myogenin, and troponin T) were significantly affected by the fiber alignment achieved in our hierarchical cell-laden structure. We believe that the combination of cell-printing and a hierarchical scaffold that encourages fiber alignment is a highly promising technique for skeletal muscle tissue engineering.

  15. Effects of decreased lactate accumulation after dichloroacetate administration on exercise training–induced mitochondrial adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle

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    Hoshino, Daisuke; TAMURA, Yuki; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Yutaka; Hatta, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that lactate accumulation can be a signal for mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. We investigated whether reductions in lactate concentrations in response to dichloroacetate (DCA), an activator of pyruvate dehydrogenase, attenuate mitochondrial adaptations after exercise training in mice. We first confirmed that DCA administration (200 mg/kg BW by i.p. injection) 10 min before exercise decreased muscle and blood lactate concentrations after high-intensity int...

  16. The Effect of Anabolic Steroid Administration on Passive Stretching-Induced Expression of Mechano-Growth Factor in Skeletal Muscle

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    Satoshi Ikeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Stretching of skeletal muscle induces expression of the genes which encode myogenic transcription factors or muscle contractile proteins and results in muscle growth. Anabolic steroids are reported to strengthen muscles. We have previously studied the effects of muscle stretching on gene expression. Here, we studied the effect of a combination of passive stretching and the administration of an anabolic steroid on mRNA expression of a muscle growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I autocrine variant, or mechano-growth factor (MGF. Methods. Twelve 8-week-old male Wistar rats were used. Metenolone was administered and passive repetitive dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of the ankle joint performed under deep anesthesia. After 24 h, the gastrocnemius muscles were removed and the mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor-I autocrine variant was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results. Repetitive stretching in combination with metenolone, but not stretching alone, significantly increased MGF mRNA expression. Conclusion. Anabolic steroids enhance the effect of passive stretching on MGF expression in skeletal muscle.

  17. Effects of chronic administration of clenbuterol on contractile properties and calcium homeostasis in rat extensor digitorum longus muscle.

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    Pascal Sirvent

    Full Text Available Clenbuterol, a β2-agonist, induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and a shift from slow-oxidative to fast-glycolytic muscle fiber type profile. However, the cellular mechanisms of the effects of chronic clenbuterol administration on skeletal muscle are not completely understood. As the intracellular Ca2+ concentration must be finely regulated in many cellular processes, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic clenbuterol treatment on force, fatigue, intracellular calcium (Ca2+ homeostasis and Ca2+-dependent proteolysis in fast-twitch skeletal muscles (the extensor digitorum longus, EDL, muscle, as they are more sensitive to clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy. Male Wistar rats were chronically treated with 4 mg.kg-1 clenbuterol or saline vehicle (controls for 21 days. Confocal microscopy was used to evaluate sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ load, Ca2+-transient amplitude and Ca2+ spark properties. EDL muscles from clenbuterol-treated animals displayed hypertrophy, a shift from slow to fast fiber type profile and increased absolute force, while the relative force remained unchanged and resistance to fatigue decreased compared to control muscles from rats treated with saline vehicle. Compared to control animals, clenbuterol treatment decreased Ca2+-transient amplitude, Ca2+ spark amplitude and frequency and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ load was markedly reduced. Conversely, calpain activity was increased by clenbuterol chronic treatment. These results indicate that chronic treatment with clenbuterol impairs Ca2+ homeostasis and this could contribute to the remodeling and functional impairment of fast-twitch skeletal muscle.

  18. Evaluation of skeletal and cardiac muscle function after chronic administration of thymosin beta-4 in the dystrophin deficient mouse.

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    Christopher F Spurney

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta-4 (Tbeta4 is a ubiquitous protein with many properties relating to cell proliferation and differentiation that promotes wound healing and modulates inflammatory mediators. We studied the effects of chronic administration of Tbeta4 on the skeletal and cardiac muscle of dystrophin deficient mdx mice, the mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Female wild type (C57BL10/ScSnJ and mdx mice, 8-10 weeks old, were treated with 150 microg of Tbeta4 twice a week for 6 months. To promote muscle pathology, mice were exercised for 30 minutes twice a week. Skeletal and cardiac muscle function were assessed via grip strength and high frequency echocardiography. Localization of Tbeta4 and amount of fibrosis were quantified using immunohistochemistry and Gomori's tri-chrome staining, respectively. Mdx mice treated with Tbeta4 showed a significant increase in skeletal muscle regenerating fibers compared to untreated mdx mice. Tbeta4 stained exclusively in the regenerating fibers of mdx mice. Although untreated mdx mice had significantly decreased skeletal muscle strength compared to untreated wild type, there were no significant improvements in mdx mice after treatment. Systolic cardiac function, measured as percent shortening fraction, was decreased in untreated mdx mice compared to untreated wild type and there was no significant difference after treatment in mdx mice. Skeletal and cardiac muscle fibrosis were also significantly increased in untreated mdx mice compared to wild type, but there was no significant improvement in treated mdx mice. In exercised dystrophin deficient mice, chronic administration of Tbeta4 increased the number of regenerating fibers in skeletal muscle and could have a potential role in treatment of skeletal muscle disease in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  19. Smith Predictor and Self-Tuning Control of Muscle Relaxant Drug Administration

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    Linkens, D A; Menad, M; Asbury, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    In certain operations, such as brain and eye surgery, involuntary muscle movements can be disastrous. Such operations require that steady levels of patient drug-induced muscle relaxation (or paralysis) be maintained. The provision of muscle relaxation allows the surgeon to make best use of a small incision and gain access to deep structures with minimal tissue damage.

  20. Effects of Growth Hormone Administration on Muscle Strength in Men over 50 Years Old

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    A. B. W. Tavares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH use has been speculated to improve physical capacity in subjects without GH deficiency (GHD through stimulation of collagen synthesis in the tendon and skeletal muscle, which leads to better exercise training and increased muscle strength. In this context, the use of GH in healthy elderly should be an option for increasing muscle strength. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of GH therapy on muscle strength in healthy men over 50 years old. Fourteen healthy men aged 50–70 years were evaluated at baseline for body composition and muscle strength (evaluated by leg press and bench press exercises, which focus primarily on quadriceps—lower body part and pectoralis major—upper body part—muscles, resp.. Subjects were randomised into 2 groups: GH therapy (7 subjects and placebo (7 subjects and reevaluated after 6 months of therapy. Thirteen subjects completed the study (6 subjects in the placebo group and 7 subjects in the GH group. Subjects of both groups were not different at baseline. After 6 months of therapy, muscle strength in the bench press responsive muscles did not increase in both groups and showed a statistically significant increase in the leg press responsive muscles in the GH group. Our study demonstrated an increase in muscle strength in the lower body part after GH therapy in healthy men. This finding must be considered and tested in frail older populations, whose physical incapacity is primarily caused by proximal muscle weakness. The trial was registered with NCT01853566.

  1. GH receptor blocker administration and muscle-tendon collagen synthesis in humans

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    Nielsen, Rie Harboe; Doessing, Simon; Goto, Kazushige;

    2011-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis stimulates collagen synthesis in tendon and skeletal muscle, but no studies have investigated the effect of reducing IGF-I on collagen synthesis in healthy humans.......The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis stimulates collagen synthesis in tendon and skeletal muscle, but no studies have investigated the effect of reducing IGF-I on collagen synthesis in healthy humans....

  2. Red and Infrared Low-Level Laser Therapy Prior to Injury with or without Administration after Injury Modulate Oxidative Stress during the Muscle Repair Process

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Beatriz Guimarães; Alves, Agnelo Neves; dos Santos, Lucas Andreo Dias; Cantero, Tatiane Matarazzo; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Bernardes, Nathalia; De Angelis, Kátia; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Muscle injury is common among athletes and amateur practitioners of sports. Following an injury, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs, which can harm healthy muscle fibers (secondary damage) and delay the repair process. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) administered prior to or following an injury has demonstrated positive and protective effects on muscle repair, but the combination of both administration times together has not been clarified. Aim To evaluate the ...

  3. Effects of prolonged recombinant human erythropoietin administration on muscle membrane transport systems and metabolic marker enzymes

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    Juel, C; Thomsen, J J; Rentsch, R L;

    2007-01-01

    on the expression of muscle membrane transport proteins. Likewise, improvements in performance may involve upregulation of metabolic enzymes. Since Epo is known to augment performance we tested the effect of rHuEpo on some marker enzymes that are related to aerobic capacity. For these purposes eight subjects...... with the treatment. In conclusion, changes in muscle membrane transport proteins and selected muscle enzymes do not contribute to the Epo-induced improvement in performance.......Adaptations to chronic hypoxia involve changes in membrane transport proteins. The underlying mechanism of this response may be related to concomitant occurring changes in erythropoietin (Epo) levels. We therefore tested the direct effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) treatment...

  4. Impairment of Electron Transfer Chain Induced by Acute Carnosine Administration in Skeletal Muscle of Young Rats

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    José Roberto Macarini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum carnosinase deficiency is an inherited disorder that leads to an accumulation of carnosine in the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, skeletal muscle, and other tissues of affected patients. Considering that high levels of carnosine are associated with neurological dysfunction and that the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in serum carnosinase deficiency remain poorly understood, we investigated the in vivo effects of carnosine on bioenergetics parameters, namely, respiratory chain complexes (I–III, II, and II-III, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase activities and the expression of mitochondrial-specific transcription factors (NRF-1, PGC-1α, and TFAM in skeletal muscle of young Wistar rats. We observed a significant decrease of complexes I–III and II activities in animals receiving carnosine acutely, as compared to control group. However, no significant alterations in respiratory chain complexes, citric acid cycle enzymes, and creatine kinase activities were found between rats receiving carnosine chronically and control group animals. As compared to control group, mRNA levels of NRF-1, PGC-1α, and TFAM were unchanged. The present findings indicate that electron transfer through the respiratory chain is impaired in skeletal muscle of rats receiving carnosine acutely. In case these findings are confirmed by further studies and ATP depletion is also observed, impairment of bioenergetics could be considered a putative mechanism responsible for the muscle damage observed in serum carnosinase-deficient patients.

  5. Effects of acute and 2-week administration of oral salbutamol on exercise performance and muscle strength in athletes

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    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Auchenberg, Michael;

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate effects of acute and 2-week administration of oral salbutamol on repeated sprint ability, exercise performance, and muscle strength in elite endurance athletes. Twenty male elite athletes [VO2max : 69.4 ± 1.8 (Mean ± SE) mL/min/kg], aged 25.9 ± 1.4 years, were...... benefits athletes' sprint ability. Thus, the present study supports the restriction of oral salbutamol in competitive sports....

  6. Administration of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen increases macrophage concentrations but reduces necrosis during modified muscle use

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    Cheung, E. V.; Tidball, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that ibuprofen administration during modified muscle use reduces muscle necrosis and invasion by select myeloid cell populations. METHODS: Rats were subjected to hindlimb unloading for 10 days, after which they experienced muscle reloading by normal weight-bearing to induce muscle inflammation and necrosis. Some animals received ibuprofen by intraperitoneal injection 8 h prior to the onset of muscle reloading, and then again at 8 and 16 h following the onset of reloading. Other animals received buffer injection at 8 h prior to reloading and then ibuprofen at 8 and 16 h following the onset of reloading. Control animals received buffer only at each time point. Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis was used to assess the presence of necrotic muscle fibers, total inflammatory infiltrate, neutrophils, ED1+ macrophages and ED2+ macrophages at 24 h following the onset of reloading. RESULT: Administration of ibuprofen beginning 8 h prior to reloading caused significant reduction in the concentration of necrotic fibers, but increased the concentration of inflammatory cells in muscle. The increase in inflammatory cells was attributable to a 2.6-fold increase in the concentration of ED2+ macrophages. Animals treated with ibuprofen 8 h following the onset of reloading showed no decrease in muscle necrosis or increase in ED2+ macrophage concentrations. CONCLUSION: Administration of ibuprofen prior to increased muscle loading reduces muscle damage, but increases the concentration of macrophages that express the ED2 antigen. The increase in ED2+ macrophage concentration and decrease in necrosis may be mechanistically related because ED2+ macrophages have been associated with muscle regeneration and repair.

  7. Impairment of Electron Transfer Chain Induced by Acute Carnosine Administration in Skeletal Muscle of Young Rats

    OpenAIRE

    José Roberto Macarini; Soliany Grassi Maravai; José Henrique Cararo; Nádia Webber Dimer; Cinara Ludvig Gonçalves; Luiza Wilges Kist; Mauricio Reis Bogo; Patrícia Fernanda Schuck; Emilio Luiz Streck; Gustavo Costa Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Serum carnosinase deficiency is an inherited disorder that leads to an accumulation of carnosine in the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, skeletal muscle, and other tissues of affected patients. Considering that high levels of carnosine are associated with neurological dysfunction and that the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in serum carnosinase deficiency remain poorly understood, we investigated the in vivo effects of carnosine on bioenergetics parameters, namely, respiratory chain ...

  8. Effects of acute and 2-week administration of oral salbutamol on exercise performance and muscle strength in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostrup, M; Kalsen, A; Auchenberg, M; Bangsbo, J; Backer, V

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate effects of acute and 2-week administration of oral salbutamol on repeated sprint ability, exercise performance, and muscle strength in elite endurance athletes. Twenty male elite athletes [VO2max: 69.4 ± 1.8 (Mean ± SE) mL/min/kg], aged 25.9 ± 1.4 years, were included in a randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled parallel study. At baseline, after acute administration, and again after 2-week administration of the study drugs (8 mg salbutamol or placebo), subjects' maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of m. quadriceps and isometric endurance of m. deltoideus were measured, followed by three repeated Wingate tests. Exercise performance at 110% of VO2max was determined on a bike ergometer. Acute administration of salbutamol increased peak power during first Wingate test by 4.1 ± 1.7% (P sports. PMID:25077918

  9. High Fat Diet-Induced Skeletal Muscle Wasting Is Decreased by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Administration: Implications on Oxidative Stress, Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway Activation, and Myonuclear Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena, Javier; Cabrera, Daniel; Simon, Felipe; Ezquer, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Obesity can lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterized by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is a decrease of myofibrillar proteins as a result of ubiquitin proteasome pathway overactivation, as evidenced by increased expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Additionally, other mechanisms are related to muscle wasting, including oxidative stress, myonuclear apoptosis, and autophagy. Stem cells are an emerging therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases such as high fat diet-induced obesity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a population of self-renewable and undifferentiated cells present in the bone marrow and other mesenchymal tissues of adult individuals. The present study is the first to analyze the effects of systemic MSC administration on high fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in the tibialis anterior of mice. Treatment with MSCs reduced losses of muscle strength and mass, decreases of fiber diameter and myosin heavy chain protein levels, and fiber type transitions. Underlying these antiatrophic effects, MSC administration also decreased ubiquitin proteasome pathway activation, oxidative stress, and myonuclear apoptosis. These results are the first to indicate that systemically administered MSCs could prevent muscle wasting associated with high fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes. PMID:27579157

  10. High Fat Diet-Induced Skeletal Muscle Wasting Is Decreased by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Administration: Implications on Oxidative Stress, Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway Activation, and Myonuclear Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Abrigo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity can lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterized by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is a decrease of myofibrillar proteins as a result of ubiquitin proteasome pathway overactivation, as evidenced by increased expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Additionally, other mechanisms are related to muscle wasting, including oxidative stress, myonuclear apoptosis, and autophagy. Stem cells are an emerging therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases such as high fat diet-induced obesity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are a population of self-renewable and undifferentiated cells present in the bone marrow and other mesenchymal tissues of adult individuals. The present study is the first to analyze the effects of systemic MSC administration on high fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in the tibialis anterior of mice. Treatment with MSCs reduced losses of muscle strength and mass, decreases of fiber diameter and myosin heavy chain protein levels, and fiber type transitions. Underlying these antiatrophic effects, MSC administration also decreased ubiquitin proteasome pathway activation, oxidative stress, and myonuclear apoptosis. These results are the first to indicate that systemically administered MSCs could prevent muscle wasting associated with high fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes.

  11. GH administration changes myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle but does not augment muscle strength or hypertrophy, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training in healthy elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Beyer, Nina;

    2002-01-01

    GH administration, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training (RT), has attracted interest as a means of increasing muscle mass and strength in the elderly. In the present study, 31 healthy, elderly men [age, 74 +/- 1 yr (mean +/- SEM)] were assigned to either RT [3 sessions/wk, 3......) quadriceps muscle power; 3) quadriceps muscle fiber type, size, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition; 4) quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) [nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI)]; 5) body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning); and 6) GH-related serum markers were performed...... at baseline and after 12 wk. The final GH dose was 1.77 +/- 0.18 IU x d(-1) (approximately 7.2 +/- 0.8 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1)). GH alone had no effect on isokinetic quadriceps muscle strength, power, CSA, or fiber size. However, a substantial increase in MHC 2X isoform was observed with GH administration...

  12. Favorable Financial Turf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Tianjin's Binhai New Area lures the financial industry with preferential treatment If you were thinking about doing financial business in Shanghai, Hong Kong or Beijing, think again. Early in June this year, the State Council approved the establishment of a financial experimental zone for Tianjin's Binhai New Area, which will get preferential treatment that other cities can hardly expect to attain. While for a time the area's administration had to actively court financial institu-

  13. Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen handler om den praksis, vi kalder administration. Vi er i den offentlige sektor i Danmark hos kontorfolkene med deres sagsmapper, computere, telefoner,, lovsamlinger,, retningslinier og regneark. I bogen udfoldes en mangfoldighed af konkrete historier om det administrative arbejde fra...... forskellige områder i den offentlige sektor. Hensigten er at forstå den praksis og faglighed der knytter sig til det administrative arbejde...

  14. Chronic administration of a leupeptin-derived calpain inhibitor fails to ameliorate severe muscle pathology in a canine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K Childers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Calpains likely play a role in the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. Accordingly, calpain inhibition may provide therapeutic benefit to DMD patients. In the present study, we sought to measure benefit from administration of a novel calpain inhibitor, C101, in a canine muscular dystrophy model. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that treatment with C101 mitigates progressive weakness and severe muscle pathology observed in young dogs with golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD. Young (6 week-old GRMD dogs were treated daily with either C101 (17mg/kg twice daily oral dose, n=9 or placebo (vehicle only, n=7 for 8 weeks. A battery of functional tests, including tibiotarsal joint angle, muscle/fat composition, and pelvic limb muscle strength were performed at baseline and every two weeks during the 8-week study. Results indicate that C101-treated GRMD dogs maintained strength in their cranial pelvic limb muscles (tibiotarsal flexors while placebo-treated dogs progressively lost strength. However, concomitant improvement was not observed in posterior pelvic limb muscles (tibiotarsal extensors. C101 treatment did not mitigate force drop following repeated eccentric contractions and no improvement was seen in the development of joint contractures, lean muscle mass or muscle histopathology. Taken together, these data do not support the hypothesis that treatment with C101 mitigates progressive weakness or ameliorates severe muscle pathology observed in young dogs with GRMD.

  15. Red and Infrared Low-Level Laser Therapy Prior to Injury with or without Administration after Injury Modulate Oxidative Stress during the Muscle Repair Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Muscle injury is common among athletes and amateur practitioners of sports. Following an injury, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs, which can harm healthy muscle fibers (secondary damage) and delay the repair process. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) administered prior to or following an injury has demonstrated positive and protective effects on muscle repair, but the combination of both administration times together has not been clarified. Aim To evaluate the effect of LLLT (660 nm and 780 nm, 10 J/cm², 40 mW, 3.2 J) prior to injury with or without the administration after injury on oxidative stress during the muscle repair process. Methods Wistar rats were divided into following groups: control; muscle injury alone; LLLT 660 nm + injury; LLLT 780 nm + injury; LLLT 660 nm before and after injury; and LLLT 780 nm before and after injury. The rats were euthanized on days 1, 3 and 7 following cryoinjury of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle, which was then removed for analysis. Results Lipid peroxidation decreased in the 660+injury group after one day. Moreover, red and infrared LLLT employed at both administration times induced a decrease in lipid peroxidation after seven days. CAT activity was altered by LLLT in all periods evaluated, with a decrease after one day in the 780+injury+780 group and after seven days in the 780+injury group as well as an increase in the 780+injury and 780+injury+780 groups after three days. Furthermore, increases in GPx and SOD activity were found after seven days in the 780+injury+780 group. Conclusion The administration of red and infrared laser therapy at different times positively modulates the activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduces stress markers during the muscle repair process. PMID:27082964

  16. GH administration changes myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle but does not augment muscle strength or hypertrophy, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training in healthy elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Beyer, Nina;

    2002-01-01

    GH administration, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training (RT), has attracted interest as a means of increasing muscle mass and strength in the elderly. In the present study, 31 healthy, elderly men [age, 74 +/- 1 yr (mean +/- SEM)] were assigned to either RT [3 sessions/wk, 3...

  17. GH receptor blocker administration and muscle-tendon collagen synthesis in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rie Harboe; Doessing, Simon; Goto, Kazushige;

    2011-01-01

    Collagen is the predominant structural protein in tendons and ligaments, and can be controlled by hormonal changes. In animals, injections of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has been shown to increase collagen synthesis in tendons and ligaments and to improve structural tissue healing......, but the effect of local IGF-I administration on tendon collagen synthesis in human has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to study whether local injections of IGF-I would have a stimulating effect on tendon collagen synthesis. Twelve healthy nonsmoking men [age 62 ± 1 years (mean ± SEM), BMI 27 ± 1......] participated. Two injections of either human recombinant IGF-I (0.1 mL Increlex©) or saline (control) into each patellar tendon were performed 24-h apart, respectively. Tendon collagen fractional synthesis rate (FSR) was measured by stable isotope technique in the hours after the second injection...

  18. Nano-Nutrition of Chicken Embryos. The Effect of in Ovo Administration of Diamond Nanoparticles and l-Glutamine on Molecular Responses in Chicken Embryo Pectoral Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Grodzik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that the content of certain amino acids in eggs is not sufficient to fully support embryonic development. One possibility to supply the embryo with extra nutrients and energy is in ovo administration of nutrients. Nanoparticles of diamond are highly biocompatible non-toxic carbonic structures, and we hypothesized that bio-complexes of diamond nanoparticles with l-glutamine may affect molecular responses in breast muscle. The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the effect of diamond nanoparticle (ND and l-glutamine (Gln on expression of growth and differentiation factors of chicken embryo pectoral muscles. ND, Gln, and Gln/ND solutions (50 mg/L were injected into fertilized broiler chicken eggs at the beginning of embryogenesis. Muscle tissue was dissected at day 20 of incubation and analysed for gene expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and MyoD1. ND and especially Gln/ND up-regulated expression of genes related to muscle cell proliferation (FGF2 and differentiation (MyoD1. Furthermore, the ratio between FGF2 and MyoD1 was highest in the Gln/ND group. At the end of embryogenesis, Gln/ND enhanced both proliferation and differentiation of pectoral muscle cells and differentiation dominated over proliferation. These preliminary results suggest that the bio-complex of glutamine and diamond nanoparticles may accelerate growth and maturation of muscle cells.

  19. Effects of intramuscular administration of 1α,25(OH)2D3 during skeletal muscle regeneration on regenerative capacity, muscular fibrosis, and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikuea, Ratchakrit; Hirunsai, Muthita

    2016-06-15

    The recent discovery of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in regenerating muscle raises the question regarding the action of vitamin D3 on skeletal muscle regeneration. To investigate the action of vitamin D3 on this process, the tibialis anterior muscle of male C57BL/6 mice (10 wk of age) was injected with 1.2% BaCl2 to induce extensive muscle injury. The bioactive form of vitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2D3] was administered daily via intramuscular injections during the regenerative phase (days 4-7 postinjury). Physiological and supraphysiological doses of 1α,25(OH)2D3 relative to 1 μg/kg muscle wet weight and mouse body weight were investigated. Muscle samples were collected on day 8 postinjury to examine proteins related to vitamin D3 metabolism (VDR, CYP24A1, and CYP27B1), satellite cell differentiation and regenerative muscle fiber formation [myogenin and embryonic myosin heavy chain (EbMHC)], protein synthesis signaling (Akt, p70 S6K1, 4E-BP1, and myostatin), fiber-type composition (fast and slow MHCs), fibrous formation (vimentin), and angiogenesis (CD31). Administration of 1α,25(OH)2D3 at physiological and supraphysiological doses enhanced VDR expression in regenerative muscle. Moreover, CYP24A1 and vimentin expression was increased, accompanying decreased myogenin and EbMHC expression at the supraphysiological dose. However, there was no change in CYP27B1, Akt, p70 S6K1, 4E-BP1, myostatin, fast and slow MHCs, or CD31 expression at any dose investigated. Taken together, administration of 1α,25(OH)2D3 at a supraphysiological dose decreased satellite cell differentiation, delayed regenerative muscle fiber formation, and increased muscular fibrosis. However, protein synthesis signaling, fiber-type composition, and angiogenesis were not affected by either 1α,25(OH)2D3 administration at a physiological or supraphysiological dose. PMID:27032903

  20. Erythropoietin administration alone or in combination with endurance training affects neither skeletal muscle morphology nor angiogenesis in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Mads S; Vissing, Kristian; Thams, Line; Sieljacks, Peter; Dalgas, Ulrik; Nellemann, Birgitte; Christensen, Britt

    2014-10-01

    The aim was to investigate the ability of an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), alone or in combination with endurance training, to induce changes in human skeletal muscle fibre and vascular morphology. In a comparative study, 36 healthy untrained men were randomly dispersed into the following four groups: sedentary-placebo (SP, n = 9); sedentary-ESA (SE, n = 9); training-placebo (TP, n = 10); or training-ESA (TE, n = 8). The ESA or placebo was injected once weekly. Training consisted of progressive bicycling three times per week for 10 weeks. Before and after the intervention period, muscle biopsies and magnetic resonance images were collected from the thigh muscles, blood was collected, body composition measured and endurance exercise performance evaluated. The ESA treatment (SE and TE) led to elevated haematocrit, and both ESA treatment and training (SE, TP and TE) increased maximal O2 uptake. With regard to skeletal muscle morphology, TP alone exhibited increases in whole-muscle cross-sectional area and fibre diameter of all fibre types. Also exclusively for TP was an increase in type IIa fibres and a corresponding decrease in type IIx fibres. Furthermore, an overall training effect (TP and TE) was statistically demonstrated in whole-muscle cross-sectional area, muscle fibre diameter and type IIa and type IIx fibre distribution. With regard to muscle vascular morphology, TP and TE both promoted a rise in capillary to muscle fibre ratio, with no differences between the two groups. There were no effects of ESA treatment on any of the muscle morphological parameters. Despite the haematopoietic effects of ESA, we provide novel evidence that endurance training rather than ESA treatment induces adaptational changes in angiogenesis and muscle morphology.

  1. Administration of Recombinant Heat Shock Protein 70 Delays Peripheral Muscle Denervation in the SOD1G93A Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Gifondorwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A prominent clinical feature of ALS is muscle weakness due to dysfunction, denervation and degeneration of motoneurons (MNs. While MN degeneration is a late stage event in the ALS mouse model, muscle denervation occurs significantly earlier in the disease. Strategies to prevent this early denervation may improve quality of life by maintaining muscle control and slowing disease progression. The precise cause of MN dysfunction and denervation is not known, but several mechanisms have been proposed that involve potentially toxic intra- and extracellular changes. Many cells confront these changes by mounting a stress response that includes increased expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70. MNs do not upregulate Hsp70, and this may result in a potentially increased vulnerability. We previously reported that recombinant human hsp70 (rhHsp70 injections delayed symptom onset and increased lifespan in SOD1G93A mice. The exogenous rhHsp70 was localized to the muscle and not to spinal cord or brain suggesting it modulates peripheral pathophysiology. In the current study, we focused on earlier administration of Hsp70 and its effect on initial muscle denervation. Injections of the protein appeared to arrest denervation with preserved large myelinated peripheral axons, and reduced glial activation.

  2. Chronic administration of a leupeptin-derived calpain inhibitor fails to ameliorate severe muscle pathology in a canine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    MartinKChilders; DanielJBogan; MelanieHolder; HanselGreiner; RobertGrange

    2012-01-01

    Calpains likely play a role in the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Accordingly, calpain inhibition may provide therapeutic benefit to DMD patients. In the present study, we sought to measure benefit from administration of a novel calpain inhibitor, C101, in a canine muscular dystrophy model. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that treatment with C101 mitigates progressive weakness and severe muscle pathology observed in young dogs with golden retriever muscular dystroph...

  3. Systemic administration of β2-adrenoceptor agonists, formoterol and salmeterol, elicit skeletal muscle hypertrophy in rats at micromolar doses

    OpenAIRE

    Ryall, James G.; Sillence, Martin N.; Lynch, Gordon S.

    2006-01-01

    β2-Adrenoceptor agonists provide a potential therapy for muscle wasting and weakness, but their use may be limited by adverse effects on the heart, mediated in part, by β1-adrenoceptor activation.Two β2-agonists, formoterol and salmeterol, are approved for treating asthma and have an extended duration of action and increased safety, associated with greater β2-adrenoceptor selectivity.The pharmacological profiles of formoterol and salmeterol and their effects on skeletal and cardiac muscle mas...

  4. Administration of soluble activin receptor 2B increases bone and muscle mass in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Douglas J DiGirolamo; Vandana Singhal; Xiaoli Chang; Se-Jin Lee; Emily L Germain-Lee

    2015-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a group of heritable connective tissue disorders generally defined by recurrent fractures, low bone mass, short stature and skeletal fragility. Beyond the skeletal complications of OI, many patients also report intolerance to physical activity, fatigue and muscle weakness. Indeed, recent studies have demonstrated that skeletal muscle is also negatively affected by OI, both directly and indirectly. Given the well-established interdependence of bone and skeletal muscle in both physiology and pathophysiology and the observations of skeletal muscle pathology in patients with OI, we investigated the therapeutic potential of simultaneous anabolic targeting of both bone and skeletal muscle using a soluble activin receptor 2B (ACVR2B) in a mouse model of type III OI (oim). Treatment of 12-week-old oim mice with ACVR2B for 4 weeks resulted in significant increases in both bone and muscle that were similar to those observed in healthy, wild-type littermates. This proof of concept study provides encouraging evidence for a holistic approach to treating the deleterious consequences of OI in the musculoskeletal system.

  5. Effects of GHRP-2 and Cysteamine Administration on Growth Performance, Somatotropic Axis Hormone and Muscle Protein Deposition in Yaks (Bos grunniens) with Growth Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rui; Wang, Zhisheng; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Wang, Hongze; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Jing, Xiaoping; Wang, Yixin; Cao, Binghai; Bao, Shanke; Zhang, Wenhua; Zhao, Suonan; Ji, Hanzhong; Kong, Xiangying; Niu, Quanxi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2) and cysteamine (CS) administration on growth performance in yaks with growth retardation and try to elucidate its regulatory mechanisms. Trial 1, thirty-six 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks (body weight 38–83.2 kg) were randomly chosen for body weight and jugular blood samples collection. The relationship between body weight and serum GHRH (P < 0.05, R = 0.45), GH (P < 0.05, R = 0.47), IGF-1 (P < 0.05, R = 0.62) was significantly correlated in yaks colonies with lighter body weights. Trial 2, fifteen 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks with growth retardation (average body weight 54.8 ± 8.24 kg) were randomly selected and assigned to negative control group (NG), GHRP-2 injection group (GG) and cysteamine feeding group (CG), with 5 yaks per group. Another five 1-year-old Qinghai high plateau yaks with normal growth performance (average body weight 75.3 ± 2.43 kg) were selected as positive control group (PG). The average daily gain (ADG) of the GG and CG were significantly higher than those in the PG and NG (P < 0.05). Both GHRP-2 and CS administration significantly enhanced the myofiber diameter and area of skeletal muscle (P<0.05). GHRP-2 significantly enhanced the serum GH and IGF-1 levels (P < 0.05), and up-regulated GHR, IGF-1 and IGF-1R mRNA expression in the liver and skeletal muscle (P < 0.05), enhanced the mRNA expression of PI3K, AKt and mTOR in the skeletal muscle (P<0.05). CS significantly reduced the serum SS levels and the hypothalamus SS mRNA expression (P < 0.05), and enhanced GHR and IGF-1 mRNA expression in the liver (P < 0.05), decreased the mRNA expression of muscle atrophy F-box (Atrogin-1) and muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) mRNA (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Growth retardation in yaks was primarily due to somatotropic axis hormones secretion deficiency. Both GHRP-2 and CS administration can accelerate growth performance and GH, IGF-1

  6. Cross-Generational trans Fat Consumption Favors Self-Administration of Amphetamine and Changes Molecular Expressions of BDNF, DAT, and D1/D2 Receptors in the Cortex and Hippocampus of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Fábio Teixeira; Dias, Verônica Tironi; Roversi, Karine; Vey, Luciana Taschetto; de Freitas, Daniele Leão; Pase, Camila Simonetti; Roversi, Katiane; Veit, Juliana Cristina; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Bürger, Marilise Escobar

    2015-11-01

    Amphetamine (AMPH) is an addictive psychostimulant drug whose use has been related to neurotoxicity. Experimentally, AMPH increases anxiety-like symptoms, showing addictive properties. In the last decades, the growing consumption of processed foods has provided an excess of saturated and trans fats in detriment of essential fatty acids, which may modify the lipid profile of brain membranes, thus modifying its permeability and dopaminergic neurotransmission. Here, we assessed the influence of brain incorporation of different fatty acids (FA) on AMPH self-administration. Three groups of young male rats were orally supplemented from weaning with a mixture of soybean oil (SO, rich in n-6 FA) and fish oil (FO, rich in n-3 FA), hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF, rich in trans fatty acids--TFA), or water (control group). These animals were born from dams that were supplemented with the same fat from pregnancy to lactation. Anxiety-like symptoms and locomotor index were assessed in elevated plus maze and open-field (OF), respectively, while brain molecular expressions of dopaminergic receptors, dopamine transporter (DAT), and BDNF were determined in the cortex and hippocampus. HVF increased the frequency of AMPH self-administration and was associated with reinforcement and withdrawal signs as observed by increased anxiety-like symptoms. Contrarily, SO/FO decreased these parameters. Increased BDNF protein together with decreased DAT expression was observed in the hippocampus of HVF group. Based on these findings, our study points to a harmful influence of trans fats on drug addiction and craving symptoms, whose mechanism may be related to changes in the dopaminergic neurotransmission.

  7. Establishment of an animal model of a pasteurized bone graft, with a preliminary analysis of muscle coverage or FGF-2 administration to the graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama Koichi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pasteurized bone grafting is used following the excision of a bone tumor for the purpose of eliminating neoplastic cells while preserving bone-inducing ability. In the hopes of guaranteeing the most favourable results, the establishment of an animal model has been urgently awaited. In the course of establishing such a model, we made a preliminary examination of the effect of muscle coverage or fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2 administration radiographically. Methods Forty pasteurized intercalary bone grafts of the Wistar rat femur treated at 60°C for 30 min were reimplanted and stabilized with an intramedullary nail (1.1 mm in diameter. Some grafts were not covered by muscle after the implantation, so that they could act as a clinical model for wide resection, and/or these were soaked with FGF-2 solution prior to implantation. The grafts were then divided into 3 groups, comprising 12 grafts with muscle-covering but without FGF-2 (MC+; FGF2-, 12 grafts without muscle-covering and without FGF-2 (MC-; FGF2- and 16 grafts without muscle covering but with FGF-2 (MC-; FGF2+. Results At 2 weeks after grafting, the pasteurized bone model seemed to be successful in terms of eliminating living cells, including osteocytes. At 4 weeks after grafting, partial bone incorporation was observed in half the (MC+; FGF2- cases and in half the (MC-; FGF2+ cases, but not in any of the (MC-; FGF2- cases. At 12 weeks after grafting, bone incorporation was seen in 3 out of 4 in the (MC+; FGF2- group (3/4: 75% and in 3 out of 8 in the (MC-; FGF2+ group (3/8: 38%. However, most of the grafted bones without FGF-2 were absorbed in all the cases, massively, regardless of whether there had been muscle-covering (MC+; FGF2-; 4/4: 100% or no muscle-covering (MC-; FGF2-; 4/4: 100%, while bone absorption was noted at a lower frequency (2/8: 25% and to a lower degree in the (MC-; FGF2+ group. Conclusion In conclusion, we have established an animal pasteurized

  8. The antioxidant status and oxidative stability of muscle from lambs receiving oral administration of Artemisia herba alba and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouadi, Dorra; Luciano, Giuseppe; Vasta, Valentina; Nasri, Saida; Brogna, Daniela M R; Abidi, Sourour; Priolo, Alessandro; Salem, Hichem Ben

    2014-06-01

    The effect of the dietary supplementation to lambs of essential oils (EOs) from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and artemisia (Artemisia herba alba) on the antioxidant status of muscle and on meat oxidative stability was studied. Eighteen Barbarine lambs were divided into 3 groups and for 95days received oat hay and concentrates. One group (C) was not supplemented, while the other two groups received 400mg/kg of EOs from rosemary (R400) or artemisia (A400). Both EOs possessed antioxidant properties and their oral administration improved the reducing and radical scavenging capacity of the muscle compared to the C treatment (P<0.01). Nevertheless, supplementing EOs did not exert protection against lipid oxidation and did not affect the colour stability in meat over 7days of aerobic storage. PMID:24583334

  9. Acute interleukin-6 administration does not impair muscle glucose uptake or whole-body glucose disposal in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensberg, Adam; Fischer, Christian P; Sacchetti, Massimo;

    2003-01-01

    for HiIL-6 and LoIL-6, respectively), followed by a rapid decline (P < 0.05) during the recovery period. Subjects experienced clinical symptoms such as shivering and discomfort during HiIL-6 administration, but were asymptomatic during LoIL-6 administration. In addition, only HiIL-6 elevated (P < 0...

  10. Effects of Phellinus linteus administration on serotonin synthesis in the brain and expression of monocarboxylate transporters in the muscle during exhaustive exercise in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin-Hee; Sung, Yun-Hee; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Shin, Mal-Soon; Lee, Eun-Kyu; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of Phellinus linteus (PL) on serotonin synthesis in the brain and on the expression of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) in muscles during exhaustive exercise in rats. In this study, 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following 6 groups: control; exercise; exercise and 50 mg/kg of PL treatment; exercise and 100 of mg/kg PL treatment; exercise and 200 mg/kg of PL treatment; and exercise and 100 mg/kg of caffeine treatment. Treatment with 200 mg/kg of PL led to a significant increase in the time to exhaustion in response to running on a treadmill and a significant decrease in 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in the dorsal raphe of rats. MCT1 and MCT4 expression of the gastrocnemius muscles was also increased in response to treatment with 200 mg/kg of PL. The results of the present study demonstrated that the administration of PL increased endurance exercise performance through inhibition of serotonin production in the brain and increased the expression of MCT1 and MCT4 in muscles. These results suggest that PL exerts an ergogenic effect. PMID:21512297

  11. Pharmacokinetics and lung and muscle concentrations of tulathromycin following subcutaneous administration in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachtold, K A; Alcorn, J M; Boison, J O; Matus, J L; Woodbury, M R

    2016-06-01

    Respiratory tract infections are common in farmed North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Tulathromycin is approved for use in cattle but not deer but is often employed to treat deer. The pharmacokinetic properties and lung and muscle concentrations of tulathromycin in white-tailed deer were investigated. Tulathromycin was administered to 10 deer, and then, serum, lung, and muscle tulathromycin concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The mean maximal serum tulathromycin concentration in deer was 359 ng/mL at 1.3 h postinjection. The mean area under the serum concentration-time curve, apparent volume of distribution, apparent clearance, and half-life was 4883 ng·h/mL, 208 L/kg, 0.5 L/h/kg, and 281 h (11.7 days), respectively. The maximal tulathromycin concentration in lung and muscle homogenate from a single animal was 4657 ng/g (14 days) and 2264 ng/g (7 days), respectively. The minimum concentrations in lung and muscle were 39.4 ng/g (56 days) and 9.1 ng/g (56 days), respectively. Based on similarity in maximal serum concentrations between deer and cattle and high lung concentrations in deer, we suggest the recommended cattle dosage is effective in deer. Tissue concentrations persisted for 56 days, suggesting a need for longer withdrawal times in deer than cattle. Further tissue distribution and depletion studies are necessary to understand tulathromycin persistence in deer tissue; clinical efficacy studies are needed to confirm the appropriate dosage regimen in deer. PMID:26669905

  12. Danish holsteins favor bull offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose;

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model...... and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference...... with no farmer assistance or with veterinary assistance during the most recent calving produced less milk. There were also indications that dams would favor a bull fetus by decreasing milk production during the second pregnancy if the calf born in the first parity was a heifer. We hypothesize that size of calves...

  13. FAVORED ZODIAC FOR CELEBRITY BIRTHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miah M. Adel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To find any favored zodiac sign for celebrity births, a sample of 100 celebrities were randomly selected from people of different walks of life. The sample contained politicians, natural scientists, social scientists, Authors of literary works, social workers, humanitarian workers, business personnel, sports icons, singers, actors, actresses, etc. etc. from history and from the current time. The zodiac signs for the celebrities were found from their known dates of births. In the analysis of data, zodiac signs and the number of celebrities were represented as the independent x and the dependent y variables, respectively. For academic interests for the 9th grade high school juniors (at the time of the project performance, the co-authors of this article, as well as for the potentially illustrative uses in high school mathematics textbooks, bar and scatter plots were made, the line of best-fit and the equation of the line were found, probabilities of occurrences of celebrities for each of the zodiac signs were calculated and the correlation coefficients between the variables were determined for the sample. It was found that the zodiac Aquarius has the largest number of celebrities in the sample and that the two variables are moderately correlated. The sample sizes which were increased to 200 and then 300. By including another 100 more celebrities to find if the trend remains unchanged. In all the three cases, Aquarius turned out to be the zodiac when most of the celebrities are born.

  14. 45 CFR 73.735-503 - Criminal provisions relating to gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., entertainment, and favors. 73.735-503 Section 73.735-503 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Gifts, Entertainment, and Favors § 73.735-503 Criminal provisions relating to gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) The law provides criminal penalties for...

  15. Administration of Mycobacterium phlei cell wall-nucleic acid complex in the immediate postoperative period for the treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Álvaro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This review sought to investigate the safety of intravesical administration of Mycobacterium phlei cell wall-nucleic acid (MCNA) in the immediate postoperative period after biopsy/resection for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Methods: Patients with NMIBC who failed bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy and at high risk of recurrence and progression participated in this study. Treatment involved an induction phase of six weeks and maintenance of three weekly instillations every six months for two years. Biopsies were mandatory at six months and resections/biopsies as indicated. Of the 129 patients enrolled, 18 (14%) received one or more instillations of MCNA within 24 hours of an endoscopic procedure for a total of 32 instillations. Results: Fourteen patients (78%) received MCNA in the immediate postoperative period. Two (11%) received treatment the day after surgery, but a second treatment immediately after a transurethral resection of the bladder tumour (TURBT). The remaining two patients received an instillation each the day after surgery. Adverse events (AEs) occurred in 31.3% of those treated immediately after the procedure; they were mild, limited to the lower urinary tract, and not drug-related. Only one patient experienced systemic symptoms of moderate severity. None of the AEs resulted in postponement of treatment. There were no AEs among those receiving MCNA the day after surgery. Conclusions: The dual mechanism of action of MCNA suggests that early treatment would take advantage of its chemotherapeutic (pro-apoptotic) activity. Concerns about early administration due to the presence of live bacteria are circumvented with this sterile preparation. These preliminary results warrant further investigation to confirm the safety of perioperative administration of MCNA. PMID:27800054

  16. 45 CFR 73.735-502 - Permissible acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible acceptance of gifts, entertainment... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Gifts, Entertainment, and Favors § 73.735-502 Permissible acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) An employee may accept a gift, gratuity,...

  17. 45 CFR 73.735-501 - Prohibited acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and... ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Gifts, Entertainment, and Favors § 73.735-501 Prohibited acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) Except as provided in §§ 73.735-502 and 73.735-506, an employee shall...

  18. Muscle biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the removal of a small piece of muscle tissue for examination. ... dystrophy Myopathic changes (destruction of the muscle) Necrosis (tissue death) of muscle Necrotizing vasculitis Traumatic muscle damage Polymyositis Additional conditions ...

  19. Muscle Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  20. Muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle wasting; Wasting; Atrophy of the muscles ... There are two types of muscle atrophy: disuse and neurogenic. Disuse atrophy is caused by not using the muscles enough . This type of atrophy can often be ...

  1. Muscle Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after exercise or at night, ... to several minutes. It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves ...

  2. Oral administration of amino acidic supplements improves protein and energy profiles in skeletal muscle of aged rats: elongation of functional performance and acceleration of mitochondrial recovery in adenosine triphosphate after exhaustive exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen Scarabelli, Carol; McCauley, Roy B; Yuan, Zhaokan; Di Rezze, Justin; Patel, David; Putt, Jeff; Raddino, Riccardo; Allebban, Zuhair; Abboud, John; Scarabelli, Gabriele M; Chilukuri, Karuna; Gardin, Julius; Saravolatz, Louis; Faggian, Giuseppe; Mazzucco, Alessandro; Scarabelli, Tiziano M

    2008-06-01

    Sarcopenia is an inevitable age-related degenerative process chiefly characterized by decreased synthesis of muscle proteins and impaired mitochondrial function, leading to progressive loss of muscle mass. Here, we sought to probe whether long-term administration of oral amino acids (AAs) can increase protein and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content in the gastrocnemius muscle of aged rats, enhancing functional performance. To this end, 6- and 24-month-old male Fisher 344 rats were divided into 3 groups: group A (6-month-old rats) and group B (24-month-old rats) were used as adult and senescent control group, respectively, while group C (24-month-old rats) was used as senescent treated group and underwent 1-month oral treatment with a mixture of mainly essential AAs. Untreated senescent animals exhibited a 30% reduction in total and fractional protein content, as well as a 50% reduction in ATP content and production, compared with adult control rats (p supplementation with mixed AAs significantly improved protein and high-energy phosphate content, as well as the rate of mitochondrial ATP production, conforming their values to those of adult control animals (p energy substrates in the gastrocnemius muscle of treated aged rats paralleled a significant enhancement in functional performance assessed by swim test, with dramatic elongation of maximal exertion times compared with untreated senescent rats (p supplementation with oral AAs improved protein and energy profiles in the gastrocnemius of treated rats, enhancing functional performance and accelerating high-energy phosphate recovery after exhaustive exertion.

  3. Generation Favorable Institutional Configuration Regional Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Zinovievna Solodilova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the theoretical issues of creating an enabling business environment, which is the base platform for the successful development of entrepreneurship in the regions. Provides A definition of a favorable institutional configuration of the regional business environment, which refers to forms of implementing the basic institutions and other regional institutions, taking into account existing regional system of formal and informal interaction between economic actors. States that despite the measures taken, the landscape of the Russian business community in terms of regions, remains uneven, with different indices of investment and business attractiveness, there is differentiation in business conditions in the regions with similar natural and geographical conditions and resource potential, which is primarily determined by , differences in the institutional configuration of the regional business environment and quality of interaction among the business community of the region. Hypothesis about the impossibility of creating a favorable business environment, institutional configurations at the same time in all regions of the country, as well as its limited duration. Conducted theoretical and probabilistic analysis of the parameters of creating an enabling institutional configuration of the business environment in the Russian regions. Grounded approach whereby institutional configuration of regional business environment, may be subject to management and control actions through targeted by the regional authorities can accept the specified (favorable to the business community parameters. The necessity of planning and effective management of a favorable institutional configuration of the business environment by regional authorities to increase the period of its existence.

  4. To Form a Favorable Idea of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Henry W.

    2010-01-01

    "To confess the truth, Mrs. B., I am not disposed to form a very favorable idea of chemistry, nor do I expect to derive much entertainment from it." That 200-year-old statement by Caroline to Mrs. Bryan, her teacher, appeared on the first page of Jane Marcet's pioneering secondary school textbook, "Conversations on Chemistry". It was published 17…

  5. Acute administration of ivacaftor to people with cystic fibrosis and a G551D-CFTR mutation reveals smooth muscle abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Ryan J.; Hisert, Katherine B.; Dodd, Jonathan D.; Grogan, Brenda; Launspach, Janice L.; Barnes, Janel K.; Gallagher, Charles G.; Sieren, Jered P.; Gross, Thomas J.; Fischer, Anthony J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Singh, Pradeep K.; Welsh, Michael J.; McKone, Edward F.; Stoltz, David A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Airflow obstruction is common in cystic fibrosis (CF), yet the underlying pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. People with CF often exhibit airway hyperresponsiveness, CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is present in airway smooth muscle (ASM), and ASM from newborn CF pigs has increased contractile tone, suggesting that loss of CFTR causes a primary defect in ASM function. We hypothesized that restoring CFTR activity would decrease smooth muscle tone in people with CF. METHODS. To increase or potentiate CFTR function, we administered ivacaftor to 12 adults with CF with the G551D-CFTR mutation; ivacaftor stimulates G551D-CFTR function. We studied people before and immediately after initiation of ivacaftor (48 hours) to minimize secondary consequences of CFTR restoration. We tested smooth muscle function by investigating spirometry, airway distensibility, and vascular tone. RESULTS. Ivacaftor rapidly restored CFTR function, indicated by reduced sweat chloride concentration. Airflow obstruction and air trapping also improved. Airway distensibility increased in airways less than 4.5 mm but not in larger-sized airways. To assess smooth muscle function in a tissue outside the lung, we measured vascular pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index, which both decreased following CFTR potentiation. Finally, change in distensibility of <4.5-mm airways correlated with changes in PWV. CONCLUSIONS. Acute CFTR potentiation provided a unique opportunity to investigate CFTR-dependent mechanisms of CF pathogenesis. The rapid effects of ivacaftor on airway distensibility and vascular tone suggest that CFTR dysfunction may directly cause increased smooth muscle tone in people with CF and that ivacaftor may relax smooth muscle. FUNDING. This work was funded in part from an unrestricted grant from the Vertex Investigator-Initiated Studies Program. PMID:27158673

  6. When and why are reliable organizations favored?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethiraj, Sendil; Yi, Sangyoon

    In the 1980s, organization theory witnessed a decade long debate about the incentives and consequences of organizational change. Though the fountainhead of this debate was the observation that reliable organizations are the “consequence” rather than the “cause” of selection forces, much...... of change following a large, exogenous shock to the prevailing environment. We show that reliable organizations have the potential to search and learn differently than less reliable organizations. Whereas reliability favors distant search, variability favors local search. Thus, following large, exogenous...... shocks, reliable organizations can in fact outperform their less reliable counterparts if they can take advantage of the knowledge resident in their historical choices. While these results are counter-intuitive, the caveat is that our results are only an existence proof for our theory rather than...

  7. Skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  8. Muscle disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...

  9. Distribution of veterinary drug residues among muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration sets tolerances for veterinary drug residues in muscle, but does not specify which muscle should be sampled for analysis. The goal of this research was to determine if antibiotic residue levels are dependent on muscle type. In this study, penicillin G (Pen G) d...

  10. Modeling Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…

  11. 19 CFR 200.735-105 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gifts, entertainment, and favors. 200.735-105...-105 Gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, no employee may solicit or accept, directly or indirectly, any gift, gratuity, favor, entertainment, loan,...

  12. 25 CFR 700.519 - Gifts, entertainment and favors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gifts, entertainment and favors. 700.519 Section 700.519... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.519 Gifts, entertainment and favors. (a) Acceptance of gratuities, including gifts, entertainment and favors, (no matter how innocently tendered or received) from those...

  13. The study of cell and tissue mechanisms of the homeostasis of "helminth-host" system at muscle trichinellosis before and after the administration of a herb biostimulator and anthelminthic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsessian, Sergei; Goncharova, Galina; Asatrian, Ashot; Nikoghossian, Mania; Malczewski, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    Results of micromorphological and histological studies of larvae of Trichinella spiralis and T. pseudospiralis, as well as, muscles, liver and small intestine of the rat-host before and after biostimulator administration of phytohemagglutinin and phytoanthelminthic were presented. It has been established that rats with Trichinella larvae of both species developed unspecific allergic angiomyositis, hepatitis, cholangitis, and erosio-haemorrhagic enterocolitis in the host's organism on the 35th day after infection. Furthermore, processes of compensatory hypertrophy, that support the host's (rats) homeostasis, on cell and tissue levels, were observed at histodestructional and morpho functional deficiency. It has been revealed that phytohemagglutinin, biostimulator injected into the host's organism before infection, is of immunostimulating nature and partially destroys the larvae of Trichinella. The phytoanthelminthic produces a significant trichinellocide effect: RNA synthesis and glycogen is intensified in the organs of the treated animals, their pathomicromorphogenesis weakened, and their compensatory and regenerative processes were observed. The combined use of the phytohemagglutinin and phytoanthelminthic fails to intensify the mentioned effect. PMID:16889026

  14. 11 CFR 7.8 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Constitution and in section 7342 of title 5, United States Code. (e) Neither this section nor 11 CFR 7.7... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gifts, entertainment, and favors. 7.8 Section 7... Employees or Commissioners § 7.8 Gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) A Commissioner or employee of...

  15. 36 CFR 905.735-202 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., entertainment, and favors. Pursuant to paragraph (b) of 5 CFR 735.202, the following exceptions to the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gifts, entertainment, and favors. 905.735-202 Section 905.735-202 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA...

  16. 18 CFR 706.202 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gifts, entertainment..., entertainment, and favors. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, an employee shall not solicit or accept, directly or indirectly, any gift, gratuity, favor, entertainment, loan, or...

  17. Low-level laser therapy (808 nm) contributes to muscle regeneration and prevents fibrosis in rat tibialis anterior muscle after cryolesion

    OpenAIRE

    Assis, Lívia; Moretti, Ana Iochabel Soares; Abrahão, Thalita Balsamo; de Souza, Heraldo Possolo; Hamblin, Michael R.; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Muscle regeneration is a complex phenomenon, involving replacement of damaged fibers by new muscle fibers. During this process, there is a tendency to form scar tissue or fibrosis by deposition of collagen that could be detrimental to muscle function. New therapies that could regulate fibrosis and favor muscle regeneration would be important for physical therapy. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been studied for clinical treatment of skeletal muscle injuries and disorders, even though the m...

  18. Why Koreans are More Likely to Favor "Apology," While Americans are More Likely to Favor "Thank You"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Eun; Park, Hee Sun

    2011-01-01

    Two studies investigated whether apologies or thanks are preferred in asking favors in the United States and Korea, and how this relates to perceptions of reduction in positive and negative face threats. In the first study (n = 224), participants composed an e-mail message where a favor was asked. In the second (n = 807), participants completed…

  19. Effective fiber hypertrophy in satellite cell-depleted skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, John J.; Mula, Jyothi; Miyazaki, Mitsunori; Erfani, Rod; Garrison, Kelcye; Farooqui, Amreen B.; Srikuea, Ratchakrit; Lawson, Benjamin A.; Grimes, Barry; Keller, Charles; Zant, Gary Van; Campbell, Kenneth S.; Esser, Karyn A.; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.; Peterson, Charlotte A.

    2011-01-01

    An important unresolved question in skeletal muscle plasticity is whether satellite cells are necessary for muscle fiber hypertrophy. To address this issue, a novel mouse strain (Pax7-DTA) was created which enabled the conditional ablation of >90% of satellite cells in mature skeletal muscle following tamoxifen administration. To test the hypothesis that satellite cells are necessary for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the plantaris muscle of adult Pax7-DTA mice was subjected to mechanical overl...

  20. 18 CFR 706.303 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... solicit from a person having business with the Council anything of value as a gift, gratuity, loan, entertainment, or favor for himself or another person, particularly one with whom he has family, business,...

  1. MOC: Reducing Favorable Balance, 2007's Highest Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shuang

    2007-01-01

    @@ When attending the National Working Conference on Commerce on January 15th, Mr. Bo Xilai, the Minister of Commerce, said that the highest priority for China's international trade in 2007 is to reduce the favorable balance.

  2. Social Capital and Social Quilts: Network Patterns of Favor Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Matthew O.; Tomas Rodriguez-Barraquer; Xu Tan

    2012-01-01

    We examine the informal exchange of favors in societies such that any two individuals interact too infrequently to sustain exchange, but such that the social pressure of the possible loss of multiple relationships can sustain exchange. Patterns of exchange that are locally enforceable and renegotiation-proof necessitate that all links are "supported": any two individuals exchanging favors have a common friend. In symmetric settings, such robust networks are "social quilts": tree-like unions o...

  3. Complement activation promotes muscle inflammation during modified muscle use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenette, J.; Cai, B.; Tidball, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    Modified muscle use can result in muscle inflammation that is triggered by unidentified events. In the present investigation, we tested whether the activation of the complement system is a component of muscle inflammation that results from changes in muscle loading. Modified rat hindlimb muscle loading was achieved by removing weight-bearing from the hindlimbs for 10 days followed by reloading through normal ambulation. Experimental animals were injected with the recombinant, soluble complement receptor sCR1 to inhibit complement activation. Assays for complement C4 or factor B in sera showed that sCR1 produced large reductions in the capacity for activation of the complement system through both the classical and alternative pathways. Analysis of complement C4 concentration in serum in untreated animals showed that the classical pathway was activated during the first 2 hours of reloading. Analysis of factor B concentration in untreated animals showed activation of the alternative pathway at 6 hours of reloading. Administration of sCR1 significantly attenuated the invasion of neutrophils (-49%) and ED1(+) macrophages (-52%) that occurred in nontreated animals after 6 hours of reloading. The presence of sCR1 also reduced significantly the degree of edema by 22% as compared to untreated animals. Together, these data show that increased muscle loading activated the complement system which then briefly contributes to the early recruitment of inflammatory cells during modified muscle loading.

  4. The most-favored nation rule in club enlargement negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Edwin L.-C. Lai

    2008-01-01

    We study the effects of the Most-Favored Nation rule in an applicant's negotiation to join a club. When the applicant has to carry out a series of bilateral bargains with the existing members, we find that there are two effects of the MFN rule, viz. the hardened bargainer effect and the free-rider effect. The former effect tends to favor the applicant, while the latter effect tends to hurt the applicant. We find that the free-rider effect is stronger the more asymmetric are the members. The h...

  5. Muscle strain (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  6. Favorable Policy for Foreign Investors in Dagang Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Mingfa

    1995-01-01

    @@ Apart from series kinds of good products, advanced techniques, convenient communications and electric power and water supply in Dagand Oilfield, foreign investors who have investment in New Industrial Area of Dagang Oilfield will enjoy the same favourable policies as Tianjin Economic Develoment Zone. Main favorable policies are follows:

  7. 11 CFR 7.20 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Special Commission Employees § 7.20 Gifts, entertainment, and favors. Except as provided at 11 CFR..., particularly one with whom the employee has family, business, or financial ties. ..., shall not receive or solicit from a person having business with the Commission anything of value such...

  8. Alkaline diets favor lean tissue mass in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maintaining muscle mass in aging is important to prevent falls and fractures. The net acid load from diets that are rich in acidogenic protein and cereal grains relative to their content of alkalinogenic fruits and vegetables may contribute to reduced lean tissue mass in older adults. This analysis ...

  9. HOW MUCH FAVORABLE SELECTION IS LEFT IN MEDICARE ADVANTAGE?

    OpenAIRE

    Newhouse, Joseph P.; Mary Price; J. Michael McWilliams; John Hsu; Thomas McGuire

    2015-01-01

    The health economics literature contains two models of selection, one with endogenous plan characteristics to attract good risks and one with fixed plan characteristics; neither model contains a regulator. Medicare Advantage, a principal example of selection in the literature, is, however, subject to anti-selection regulations. Because selection causes economic inefficiency and because the historically favorable selection into Medicare Advantage plans increased government cost, the effectiven...

  10. Children in Foster Care and the Development of Favorable Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Healey, Cynthia V.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2011-01-01

    Young foster children have invariably faced a variety of risks that are strongly linked to long-term deficits in functioning across multiple developmental domains. Despite these risks, however, some children demonstrate more favorable outcomes and exhibit adaptation and the development of assets. In the present study, the relationship of early childhood factors (e.g., maltreatment history, placement history, parenting practices, environmental stress, developmental status, and attachment behav...

  11. Menor valor: ¿oferta más favorable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Alirio Ramírez Rusinque

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available La más importante transformación establecida por la Ley 1150 de 2007 en la contratación estatal radicó en la determinación del menor valor como la oferta más favorable para las entidades estatales, cuando se trate de la adquisición o suministro de bienes y servicios de características técnicas uniformes y de común utilización. Por ello, reviste de gran importancia realizar un análisis desde el punto de vista jurídico y normativo, que permita establecer si la mutación sufrida al concepto de oferta más favorable trajo consigo los fines perseguidos por la reforma, o en su defecto fue perjudicial la solución, al afectar el deber de selección objetiva, los principios de la contratación estatal de igualdad, eficacia, transparencia, planeación y equilibrio financiero del contrato y el principio constitucional de la libre competencia. Para de esta forma establecer si el modelo del menor valor como criterio de la oferta más favorable resulta eficiente jurídicamente en el campo de la contratación estatal, y si las reglas establecidas en la actualidad permiten el desarrollo armónico del sistema establecido por la Ley 1150 de 2007.

  12. Favorable results with syringosubarachnoid shunts for treatment of syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tator, C H; Meguro, K; Rowed, D W

    1982-04-01

    From 1969 to 1979, 20 patients with syringomyelia were treated with a syringosubarachnoid shunt. The principal indications for this procedure were: significant progressive neurological deterioration and absent or minimal tonsillar ectopia. There were 15 patients with idiopathic syringomyelia, four with posttraumatic syringomyelia, and one with syringomyelia secondary to spinal arachnoiditis. The operations were performed with an operating microscope, and attention was directed to preserving thearachnoid membrane to ensure proper placement of the distal end of the shunt in an intact subarachnoid space. In all cases, a silicone rubber ventricular catheter was inserted into the syrinx through a posterior midline myelotomy. The average follow-up period was 5 years. A favorable result was obtained in 15 of the 20 patients (75%), including an excellent result with improvement of neurological deficit in 11 patients and a good result with cessation of progression in four patients. In the remaining five patients the result was poor with further progression of neurological deficit. A short duration of preoperative symptoms was usually a favorable prognostic feature. Four patients with a history of less than 6 months all had excellent results. Thirteen patients had a syringosubarachnoid shunt only, and all had good or excellent results. Seven patients had other surgical procedures, before, accompanying, or after shunt placement, and two had favorable results. Thus, the syringosubarachnoid shunt is an effective therapeutic modality for many patients with syringomyelia, particularly if there is little or no tonsillar herniation.

  13. ESTIMATING VITICULTURAL FAVORABILITY OF COTNARI VINEYARD AREA AND IDENTIFYING LIMITING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Chiriac

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For estimating the favorability of agricultural lands for vine in Cotnari vineyard area, we used 16 indicators provided in the Methodology of Soil Survey (Second part and third part - 1986. To determine the average coefficient of evaluation, respectively the class of favorability for the vine in Cotnari Vineyard, we calculated the notes of evaluation for 10 administrative units from Cotnari Vineyard: Flămânzi, Frumuşica, Deleni, Hârlău, Scobinţi, Cepleniţa, Cotnari, Cucuteni, Todireşti, Târgu Frumos. For each administrative unit were selected the territorial units of soil (U.S. within Cotnari Vineyard, from which we extracted only the ecological homogeneous territories (TEO's that are planted with vine. Among the limiting factors identified in Cotnari Vineyard we mention the geomorphologic factor (slope, landslides, the pedological factor (gleying, stagnogleying,salinization/alkalization, texture, reaction, humus content, edaphic volume and the hydrological factor (groundwater depth, excess moisture in surface, flooding by overflow.

  14. Administrating Solr

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, Surendra

    2013-01-01

    A fast-paced, example-based guide to learning how to administrate, monitor, and optimize Apache Solr.""Administrating Solr"" is for developers and Solr administrators who have a basic knowledge of Solr and who are looking for ways to keep their Solr server healthy and well maintained. A basic working knowledge of Apache Lucene is recommended, but this is not mandatory.

  15. Skeletal muscle: an endocrine organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratesi, Alessandra; Tarantini, Francesca; Di Bari, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Tropism and efficiency of skeletal muscle depend on the complex balance between anabolic and catabolic factors. This balance gradually deteriorates with aging, leading to an age-related decline in muscle quantity and quality, called sarcopenia: this condition plays a central role in physical and functional impairment in late life. The knowledge of the mechanisms that induce sarcopenia and the ability to prevent or counteract them, therefore, can greatly contribute to the prevention of disability and probably also mortality in the elderly. It is well known that skeletal muscle is the target of numerous hormones, but only in recent years studies have shown a role of skeletal muscle as a secretory organ of cytokines and other peptides, denominated myokines (IL6, IL8, IL15, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and leukaemia inhibitory factor), which have autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine actions and are deeply involved in inflammatory processes. Physical inactivity promotes an unbalance between these substances towards a pro-inflammatory status, thus favoring the vicious circle of sarcopenia, accumulation of fat - especially visceral - and development of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, dementia and depression, according to what has been called "the diseasome of physical inactivity". PMID:23858303

  16. Administrative Circulars

    CERN Multimedia

    Département des Ressources humaines

    2004-01-01

    Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 2) - May 2004 Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff members This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 3) - May 2004 Staff members contracts This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 4) - May 2004 Procedure governing the career evolution of staff members This circular has also been revised. It Administrative Circulars Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 3) - December 2001 and brings up to date the French version (Rev. 4) published on the HR Department Web site in January 2004. Operational Circular N° 7 - May 2004 Work from home This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 8 - May 2004 Dealing with alcohol-related problems...

  17. High nevus counts confer a favorable prognosis in melanoma patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ribero, Simone; Davies, John R; Requena, Celia; Carrera, Cristina; Glass, Daniel; Rull, Ramon; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Vilalta, Antonio; Alos, Lucia; Soriano, Virtudes; Quaglino, Pietro; Traves, Victor; Newton-Bishop, Julia A; Nagore, Eduardo; Malvehy, Josep

    2015-01-01

    A high number of nevi is the most significant phenotypic risk factor for melanoma and is in part genetically determined. The number of nevi decreases from middle age onward but this senescence can be delayed in patients with melanoma. We investigated the effects of nevus number count on sentinel node status and melanoma survival in a large cohort of melanoma cases. Out of 2,184 melanoma cases, 684 (31.3%) had a high nevus count (>50). High nevus counts were associated with favorable progno...

  18. Observations favor the crossing of phantom divide lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Using three different parameterized dark energy models, we reconstruct the properties of dark energy from the latest 397 Sne Ia, CMB and BAO with the present matter density, Ωm0, given prior. We find that, when Ωm0 is not small, for example, Ωm0 = 0.28 or 0.32, an evolving dark energy with a crossing of phantom divide line is favored and this conclusion seems to be model independent. We also find that the evolving properties of dark energy become more and more evident with the increase of Ωm0 given prior.

  19. The Uneasy Case for Favoring Long-Term Shareholders

    OpenAIRE

    Jesse M. Fried

    2015-01-01

    This paper challenges a persistent and pervasive view in corporate law and corporate governance: that a firm’s managers should favor long-term shareholders over short-term shareholders, and maximize long-term shareholders’ returns rather than the short-term stock price. Underlying this view is a strongly-held intuition that taking steps to increase long-term shareholder returns will generate a larger economic pie over time. But this intuition, I show, is flawed. Long-term shareholders, like s...

  20. Potato: A Favorable Crop for Plant Molecular Farming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Kumar G B; Ganapathi T R; Bapat V A

    2006-01-01

    Potato is one of the important food crops with a high yield potential and nutritional value. It has been used extensively for molecular farming to produce vaccines, antibodies and industrial enzymes. It has several desirable attributes as a favorable crop for the production of recombinant proteins. Potato tubers were employed for bulk production of recombinant antibodies. Vaccine production in potato has progressed to human clinical trials. Human milk proteins were successfully expressed in potato tubers. Potato hairy roots offer as another attractive system for the production of useful recombinant proteins both as intra cellular and secreted forms. This review describes the use of potato as a prospective host for plant molecular farming.

  1. Catalytically favorable surface patterns in Pt-Au nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by recent experimental demonstrations of novel PtAu nanoparticles with highly enhanced catalytic properties, we present a systematic theoretical study that explores principal catalytic indicators as a function of the particle size and composition. We find that Pt electronic states in the vicinity of the Fermi level combined with a modified electron distribution in the nanoparticle due to Pt-to-Au charge transfer are the origin of the outstanding catalytic properties. From our model we deduce the catalytically favorable surface patterns that induce ensemble and ligand effects. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  2. Action of obestatin in skeletal muscle repair: stem cell expansion, muscle growth, and microenvironment remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurriarán-Rodríguez, Uxía; Santos-Zas, Icía; González-Sánchez, Jessica; Beiroa, Daniel; Moresi, Viviana; Mosteiro, Carlos S; Lin, Wei; Viñuela, Juan E; Señarís, José; García-Caballero, Tomás; Casanueva, Felipe F; Nogueiras, Rubén; Gallego, Rosalía; Renaud, Jean-Marc; Adamo, Sergio; Pazos, Yolanda; Camiña, Jesús P

    2015-06-01

    The development of therapeutic strategies for skeletal muscle diseases, such as physical injuries and myopathies, depends on the knowledge of regulatory signals that control the myogenic process. The obestatin/GPR39 system operates as an autocrine signal in the regulation of skeletal myogenesis. Using a mouse model of skeletal muscle regeneration after injury and several cellular strategies, we explored the potential use of obestatin as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of trauma-induced muscle injuries. Our results evidenced that the overexpression of the preproghrelin, and thus obestatin, and GPR39 in skeletal muscle increased regeneration after muscle injury. More importantly, the intramuscular injection of obestatin significantly enhanced muscle regeneration by simulating satellite stem cell expansion as well as myofiber hypertrophy through a kinase hierarchy. Added to the myogenic action, the obestatin administration resulted in an increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and the consequent microvascularization, with no effect on collagen deposition in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, the potential inhibition of myostatin during obestatin treatment might contribute to its myogenic action improving muscle growth and regeneration. Overall, our data demonstrate successful improvement of muscle regeneration, indicating obestatin is a potential therapeutic agent for skeletal muscle injury and would benefit other myopathies related to muscle regeneration.

  3. Muscle strain treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treatment - muscle strain ... Question: How do you treat a muscle strain ? Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen ( ...

  4. Transduction of skeletal muscles with common reporter genes can promote muscle fiber degeneration and inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Winbanks

    Full Text Available Recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAV vectors are promising tools for delivering transgenes to skeletal muscle, in order to study the mechanisms that control the muscle phenotype, and to ameliorate diseases that perturb muscle homeostasis. Many studies have employed rAAV vectors carrying reporter genes encoding for β-galactosidase (β-gal, human placental alkaline phosphatase (hPLAP, and green fluorescent protein (GFP as experimental controls when studying the effects of manipulating other genes. However, it is not clear to what extent these reporter genes can influence signaling and gene expression signatures in skeletal muscle, which may confound the interpretation of results obtained in experimentally manipulated muscles. Herein, we report a strong pro-inflammatory effect of expressing reporter genes in skeletal muscle. Specifically, we show that the administration of rAAV6:hPLAP vectors to the hind limb muscles of mice is associated with dose- and time-dependent macrophage recruitment, and skeletal muscle damage. Dose-dependent expression of hPLAP also led to marked activity of established pro-inflammatory IL-6/Stat3, TNFα, IKKβ and JNK signaling in lysates obtained from homogenized muscles. These effects were independent of promoter type, as expression cassettes featuring hPLAP under the control of constitutive CMV and muscle-specific CK6 promoters both drove cellular responses when matched for vector dose. Importantly, the administration of rAAV6:GFP vectors did not induce muscle damage or inflammation except at the highest doses we examined, and administration of a transgene-null vector (rAAV6:MCS did not cause damage or inflammation at any of the doses tested, demonstrating that GFP-expressing, or transgene-null vectors may be more suitable as experimental controls. The studies highlight the importance of considering the potential effects of reporter genes when designing experiments that examine gene manipulation in vivo.

  5. Reticulate evolution is favored in influenza niche switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Eric J; Hill, Nichola J; Zabilansky, Justin; Yuan, Kyle; Runstadler, Jonathan A

    2016-05-10

    Reticulate evolution is thought to accelerate the process of evolution beyond simple genetic drift and selection, helping to rapidly generate novel hybrids with combinations of adaptive traits. However, the long-standing dogma that reticulate evolutionary processes are likewise advantageous for switching ecological niches, as in microbial pathogen host switch events, has not been explicitly tested. We use data from the influenza genome sequencing project and a phylogenetic heuristic approach to show that reassortment, a reticulate evolutionary mechanism, predominates over mutational drift in transmission between different host species. Moreover, as host evolutionary distance increases, reassortment is increasingly favored. We conclude that the greater the quantitative difference between ecological niches, the greater the importance of reticulate evolutionary processes in overcoming niche barriers. PMID:27114508

  6. The Pilates Method increases respiratory muscle strength and performance as well as abdominal muscle thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Mateus Beltrame; da Silva, Antônio Marcos Vargas; Weber, Laura Menezes; Monteiro, Mariane Borba

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the Pilates Method (PM) training program on the thickness of the abdominal wall muscles, respiratory muscle strength and performance, and lung function. This uncontrolled clinical trial involved 16 sedentary women who were assessed before and after eight weeks of PM training. The thickness of the transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) muscles was assessed. The respiratory muscle strength was assessed by measuring the maximum inspiratory (MIP) and expiratory (MEP) pressure. The lung function and respiratory muscle performance were assessed by spirometry. An increase was found in MIP (p = 0.001), MEP (p = 0.031), maximum voluntary ventilation (p = 0.020) and the TrA (p < 0.001), IO (p = 0.002) and EO (p < 0.001) thickness after the PM program. No alterations in lung function were found. These findings suggest that the PM program promotes abdominal wall muscle hypertrophy and an increase in respiratory muscle strength and performance, preventing weakness in abdominal muscles and dysfunction in ventilatory mechanics, which could favor the appearance of illnesses. PMID:27210841

  7. Administrative Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  8. Expression of mRNAs for PPT, CGRP, NF-200, and MAP-2 in cocultures of dissociated DRG neurons and skeletal muscle cells in administration of NGF or NT-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Both neurotrophins (NTs and target skeletal muscle (SKM cells are essential for the maintenance of the function of neurons and nerve-muscle communication. However, much less is known about the association of target SKM cells with distinct NTs on the expression of mRNAs for preprotachykinin (PPT, calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP, neurofilament 200 (NF-200, and microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP-2 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG sensory neurons. In the present study, a neuromuscular coculture model of dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and SKM cells was established. The morphology of DRG neurons and SKM cells in coculture was observed with an inverted phase contrast microscope. The effects of nerve growth factor (NGF or neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 on the expression of mRNAs for PPT, CGRP, NF-200, and MAP-2 was analyzed by real time-PCR assay. The morphology of DRG neuronal cell bodies and SKM cells in neuromuscular coculture at different conditions was similar. The neurons presented evidence of dense neurite outgrowth in the presence of distinct NTs in neuromuscular cocultures. NGF and NT-3 increased mRNA levels of PPT, CGRP, and NF-200, but not MAP-2, in neuromuscular cocultures. These results offer new clues towards a better understanding of the association of target SKM cells with distinct NTs on the expression of mRNAs for PPT, CGRP, NF-200 and MAP-2, and implicate the association of target SKM cells and NTs with DRG sensory neuronal phenotypes.

  9. Favorable Policies for Copper Imported processing trade Formulated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The Ministry of Finance and State Administration of Taxation issued "Circular about the Value-added Tax (VAT) and Consumption Tax Policies on Export Goods and Labor Services" (Caishui〔2012〕No.39) in September,indicating that the imported processing trade policy related to copper concentrate changed again.As a result,export taxes on refined copper have been significantly reduced,and smelters’ enthusiasm has been aroused.Under the general term of

  10. Favorable Outcome in Open Globe Injuries with Low OTS Score

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cillino Giovanni; Ferraro Lucia; Casuccio Alessandra; Cillino Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:.Open globe eye injuries can have profound social and economic consequences. Here, we describe two cases of war and outdoor activity open globe eye injury where, despite a low OTS score,.current microsurgical technology allowed for a favorable outcome.Case report 1: A 33-year-old Libyan soldier had been treated for an open-globe grenade blast trauma to his left eye, which showed light perception and OTS score 2..He had undergone a lensectomy and PPV with silicone oil tamponade. Surgical treatment included scleral buckling,.cornea trephination, tem-porary Eckardt keratoprosthesis, PPV revision, intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, and corneal grafting. Six months later, his VA was improved to 20 / 70.Case report 2:.A 35-year-old man presented with a corneal laceration in his left eye from a meat skewer,.with marked hypotony and LP..After primary corneal wound closure,.B-scan ultrasonography revealed massive vitreous hemorrhage (OTS score 2). The patient underwent open cataract extraction with IOL implantation, 23 gauge PPV, laser photocoagulation of the retinochoroidal laceration, and a gas tamponade. After three weeks,.the patient underwent a 2nd 23G PPV due to a fibrinous reaction. Six month later, the patients exhibited 20 /25 VA.Conclusion:.These cases confirm that even for patients with a low OTS and poor visual prognosis,.an up-to-date surgery protocol may achieve visual results adequate for leading an autonomous daily life. (Eye Science 2014; 29:170-173)

  11. Ecological conditions favoring budding in colonial organisms under environmental disturbance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuko Nakamaru

    Full Text Available Dispersal is a topic of great interest in ecology. Many organisms adopt one of two distinct dispersal tactics at reproduction: the production of small offspring that can disperse over long distances (such as seeds and spawned eggs, or budding. The latter is observed in some colonial organisms, such as clonal plants, corals and ants, in which (superorganisms split their body into components of relatively large size that disperse to a short distance. Contrary to the common dispersal viewpoint, short-dispersal colonial organisms often flourish even in environments with frequent disturbances. In this paper, we investigate the conditions that favor budding over long-distance dispersal of small offspring, focusing on the life history of the colony growth and the colony division ratio. These conditions are the relatively high mortality of very small colonies, logistic growth, the ability of dispersers to peacefully seek and settle unoccupied spaces, and small spatial scale of environmental disturbance. If these conditions hold, budding is advantageous even when environmental disturbance is frequent. These results suggest that the demography or life history of the colony underlies the behaviors of the colonial organisms.

  12. Musical FAVORS: Reintroducing music to adult cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Geoff

    2015-09-01

    Music represents a considerable challenge for many adult users of cochlear implants (CIs). Around half of adult CI users report that they do not find music enjoyable, and, in some cases, despite enhanced speech perception skills, this leads to considerable frustration and disappointment for the CI user. This paper presents suggestions to improve the musical experiences of deafened adults with CIs. Interviews with a number of adult CI users revealed that there were a number of factors which could lead to enhanced music experiences. The acronym FAVORS (familiar music, auditory-visual access, open-mindedness, and simple arrangements) summarizes the factors that have been identified, which can help CI users in their early music listening experiences. Each of these factors is discussed in detail, along with suggestions for how they can be used in therapy sessions. The use of a group approach (music focus groups) is also discussed and an overview of the approach and exercises used is presented. The importance of live music experiences is also discussed.

  13. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerstrom, Thorbjorn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth; Brand, Christian Lehn; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Lindqvist, Anna Kaufmann; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Hellsten, Ylva

    2014-12-15

    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. Therefore, we investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity. Skeletal muscle-specific angiogenesis was induced by adding the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin to the drinking water of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 33), whereas 34 rats served as controls. Insulin sensitivity was measured ≥40 h after termination of the 3-wk prazosin treatment, which ensured that prazosin was cleared from the blood stream. Whole body insulin sensitivity was measured in conscious, unrestrained rats by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Tissue-specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by administration of 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose during the plateau phase of the clamp. Whole body insulin sensitivity increased by ∼24%, and insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose disposal increased by ∼30% concomitant with an ∼20% increase in skeletal muscle capillarization. Adipose tissue insulin sensitivity was not affected by the treatment. Insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake was enhanced independent of improvements in skeletal muscle insulin signaling to glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, suggesting that the improvement in insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake could be due to improved diffusion conditions for glucose in the muscle. The prazosin treatment did not affect the rats on any other parameters measured. We conclude that an increase in skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with increased insulin sensitivity. These data point toward the importance of increasing skeletal muscle capillarization for prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25352432

  14. Administrative Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Beh, LooSee

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to develop an understanding of the issues that public administrators should strive to provide in ethical practices and governance thus allowing distinctive administrative and social traditions that each country possess to flourish. Significant changes and continuities in the realm of government in contemporary China and Malaysia will be drawn upon. Recent developments have brought a sense of urgency in contrast to complacency with the status quo. This paper reviews pertinent ...

  15. Offentlig administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elof Nellemann; Rehr, Preben René

    En undervisningsbog der henvender sig til administrationsbacheloruddannelsen. Kapitlerne er inddelt efter modulerne på uddannelsen og indeholder derfor elementer af administration, forvaltning, økonomistyring, innovation, samfundsvidenskabelige metoder og politisk styrede organisationer.......En undervisningsbog der henvender sig til administrationsbacheloruddannelsen. Kapitlerne er inddelt efter modulerne på uddannelsen og indeholder derfor elementer af administration, forvaltning, økonomistyring, innovation, samfundsvidenskabelige metoder og politisk styrede organisationer....

  16. SAT administrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SAT Administrator is the Information System for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training Program Design. It supports the design of training programs in the following phases: job analysis; task analysis; competency analysis; task competency association; definition of learning objectives to competencies; training program design; definition of test items. The general structure of the database and management software supports application of the SAT Administrator in any nuclear power installation

  17. Determination of sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, and N(4) -acetyl-sulfadiazine in fish muscle plus skin by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Withdrawal-time calculation after in-feed administration in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) fed two different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonaras, V; Tyrpenou, A; Alexis, M; Koupparis, M

    2016-10-01

    This study presents a depletion study for sulfadiazine and trimethoprim in muscle plus skin of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.). N(4) -acetyl-sulfadiazine, the main metabolite of sulfadiazine (SDZ), was also examined. The fish were held in seawater at a temperature of 24-26 °C. SDZ and trimethoprim (TMP) were administered orally with medicated feed for five consecutive days at daily doses of 25 mg SDZ and 5 mg TMP per kg of fish body weight per day. Two different diets, fish oil- and plant oil-based diets, were investigated. Ten fish were sampled at each of the days 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 12 after the start of veterinary medicine administration. However for the calculation of the withdrawal periods, sampling day 1 was set as 24 h after the last dose of the treatment. Fish samples were analyzed for SDZ, TMP, and acetyl-sulfadiazine (AcSDZ) residues by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. SDZ and TMP concentrations declined rapidly from muscle plus skin. Considering a maximum residue limit of 100 μg/kg for the total of sulfonamides and 50 μg/kg for TMP residues in fish muscle plus skin, the withdrawal periods of the premix trimethoprim-sulfadiazine 50% were calculated as 5 and 6 days, at 24-26 °C, in fish oil (FO) and plant oil (PO) groups, respectively. The investigation of this work is important to protect consumers by controlling the undesirable residues in fish. PMID:26987772

  18. Muscle Mass and Weight Gain Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bill

    There are numerous sports supplements available that claim to increase lean body mass. However, for these sports supplements to exert any favorable changes in lean body mass, they must influence those factors regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy (i.e., satellite cell activity, gene transcription, protein translation). If a given sports supplement does favorably influence one of these regulatory factors, the result is a positive net protein balance (in which protein synthesis exceeds protein breakdown). Sports supplement categories aimed at eliciting a positive net protein balance include anabolic hormone enhancers, nutrient timing pre- and postexercise workout supplements, anticatabolic supplements, and nitric oxide boosters. Of all the sports supplements available, only a few have been subject to multiple clinical trials with repeated favorable outcomes relative to increasing lean body mass. This chapter focuses on these supplements and others that have a sound theoretical rationale in relation to increasing lean body mass.

  19. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting......, implied in the reform, is analysed as a technology of accounting. A technology producing ‘the professional nursery teacher' as a reflective daily researcher, who outlives her pedagogical desire as an analytical care of the optimisation of ‘the learning child'. Thus, the paper analyses the micro physics...

  20. Charcoal kiln relicts - a favorable site for tree growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buras, Allan; Hirsch, Florian; van der Maaten, Ernst; Takla, Melanie; Räbiger, Christin; Cruz Garcia, Roberto; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Soils with incompletely combusted organic material (aka 'black carbon') are considered fertile for plant growth. Considerable enrichment of soils with black carbon is known from Chernozems, from anthropogenic induced altering of soils like the 'Terra Preta' in South America (e.g. Glaser, 2001), and from charcoal kiln relicts. Recent studies have reported a high spatial frequency of charcoal kiln relicts in the Northeastern German lowlands (Raab et al., 2015), which today are often overgrown by forest plantations. In this context the question arises whether these sites are favorable for tree growth. Here we compare the performance of 22 Pinus sylvestris individuals - a commonly used tree species in forestry - growing on charcoal kiln relicts with 22 control trees. Growth performance (height growth and diameter growth) of the trees was determined using dendrochronological techniques, i.e. standard ring-width measurements were undertaken on each two cores per tree and tree height was measured in the field. Several other wood properties such as annual wood density, average resin content, as well as wood chemistry were analyzed. Our results indicate that trees growing on charcoal kiln relicts grow significantly less and have a significantly lower wood density in comparison with control trees. Specific chemical components such as Manganese as well as resin contents were significantly higher in kiln trees. These results highlight that tree growth on charcoal kiln relicts is actually hampered instead of enhanced. Possibly this is a combined effect of differing physical soil properties which alter soil water accessibility for plants and differing chemical soil properties which may negatively affect tree growth either if toxic limits are surpassed or if soil nutrient availability is decreased. Additional soil analyses with respect to soil texture and soil chemistry shall reveal further insight into this hypothesis. Given the frequent distribution of charcoal kiln relicts in

  1. 氟比洛芬酯静脉注射后在大鼠手术切口部位肌肉组织中的分布%Distribution of flurbiprofen axetil in the muscle tissue in surgical field after Intravenous administration in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雄刚; 林财珠

    2009-01-01

    目的 评价氟比洛芬酯静脉注射后在大鼠手术切口部位肌肉组织中的分布.方法 清洁级雄性SD大鼠40只,体重240~260 g,随机分为5组(n=8):切口痛组(IP组)和不同剂量氟比洛芬酯组(F_(1~4)组).建立大鼠切口痛模型后20 min时IP组经尾静脉注射生理盐水0.5 ml,F_(1~4)组经尾静脉分别注射氟比洛芬酯2、4、8和16 mg/kg.于尾静脉注射结束后2 h时,采用反相高效液相色谱法测定肌肉氟比洛芬含量,采用ELISA法测定前列腺素E_2 (PGE_2)含量.结果 与非手术侧比较,F_(1~4)组手术侧足底肌肉组织氟比洛芬和PGE_2含量、IP组手术侧PGE_2含量升高(P0.05);F_1组、F_2组、F_3组和F_4组手术侧足底肌肉组织氟比洛芬和PGE_2含量依次升高,F_4组非手术侧足底肌肉组织氟比洛芬和PGE_2含量高于F_1组、F_2组和F_3组(P0.05).结论 氟比洛芬酯静脉注射后在大鼠手术切口部位肌肉组织中的分布高于非手术侧,提示氟比洛芬酯具有靶向镇痛作用.%Objective To determine the distribution of flurbiprofen axetil in the muscle tissue in the surgical field after intravenous administration in rats. Methods Forty pathogen-free male SD rats weighing 240-260 g were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=8 each) : Ⅰ control group (group C) and Ⅱ-Ⅴ flurbiprofen groups received iv flurbiprofen axetil 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/kg respectively (group F_1, F_2, F_3, F_4). An 1 cm long incision was made in the right plantar surface from the heel to the toes according to the method described by Brennen under isoflurane anesthesia. The muscle was cut through in the incision but not severed. Flurbiprofen axetil was injected iv via the vein in the tail at 20 min after plantar incision was made in group Ⅱ-Ⅴ . At 2 h after iv flurbiprofen axetil administration, the animals were anesthetized with intraperitoneal 3% pentobarbital 100 mg/kg. The muscles of both hindpaws were dissected, homogenized and centrifuged. The supernatant

  2. Database Administrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  3. Administrative IT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  4. Muscle strain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, W E

    1996-01-01

    One of the most common injuries seen in the office of the practicing physician is the muscle strain. Until recently, little data were available on the basic science and clinical application of this basic science for the treatment and prevention of muscle strains. Studies in the last 10 years represent action taken on the direction of investigation into muscle strain injuries from the laboratory and clinical fronts. Findings from the laboratory indicate that certain muscles are susceptible to strain injury (muscles that cross multiple joints or have complex architecture). These muscles have a strain threshold for both passive and active injury. Strain injury is not the result of muscle contraction alone, rather, strains are the result of excessive stretch or stretch while the muscle is being activated. When the muscle tears, the damage is localized very near the muscle-tendon junction. After injury, the muscle is weaker and at risk for further injury. The force output of the muscle returns over the following days as the muscle undertakes a predictable progression toward tissue healing. Current imaging studies have been used clinically to document the site of injury to the muscle-tendon junction. The commonly injured muscles have been described and include the hamstring, the rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, and adductor longus muscles. Injuries inconsistent with involvement of a single muscle-tendon junction proved to be at tendinous origins rather than within the muscle belly. Important information has also been provided regarding injuries with poor prognosis, which are potentially repairable surgically, including injuries to the rectus femoris muscle, the hamstring origin, and the abdominal wall. Data important to the management of common muscle injuries have been published. The risks of reinjury have been documented. The early efficacy and potential for long-term risks of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents have been shown. New data can also be applied to the field

  5. Recovery of skeletal muscle mass after extensive injury: positive effects of increased contractile activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Richard-Bulteau, Hélène; Serrurier, Bernard; Crassous, Brigitte; Banzet, Sébastien; Peinnequin, André; Bigard, Xavier; Koulmann, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that increasing physical activity by running exercise could favor the recovery of muscle mass after extensive injury and to determine the main molecular mechanisms involved. Left soleus muscles of female Wistar rats were degenerated by notexin injection before animals were assigned to either a sedentary group or an exercised group. Both regenerating and contralateral intact muscles from active and sedentary rats were removed 5, 7, 14, 21, ...

  6. Muscles of the Trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... four muscle pairs, arranged in layers, and the fascia that envelops them. The abdominal wall muscles are ... formed by two muscular sheets and their associated fascia. « Previous (Head and Neck) Next (Upper Extremity) » Contact ...

  7. Healthy Muscles Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body? These muscles help you move, lift things, pump blood through your body, and even help you breathe. ... is a specialized type of involuntary muscle. It pumps blood through your body, changing its speed to keep ...

  8. Oxidative metabolism in muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, M; Binzoni, T.; Quaresima, V.

    1997-01-01

    Oxidative metabolism is the dominant source of energy for skeletal muscle. Near-infrared spectroscopy allows the non-invasive measurement of local oxygenation, blood flow and oxygen consumption. Although several muscle studies have been made using various near-infrared optical techniques, it is still difficult to interpret the local muscle metabolism properly. The main findings of near-infrared spectroscopy muscle studies in human physiology and clinical medicine are summarized. The advantage...

  9. Muscle Session Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Kenneth; Feeback, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Presentations from the assembled group of investigators involved in specific research projeects related to skeletal muscle in space flight can categorized in thematic subtopics: regulation of contractile protein phenotypes, muscle growth and atrophy, muscle structure: injury, recovery,and regeneration, metabolism and fatigue, and motor control and loading factors.

  10. Mechanisms of cisplatin-induced muscle atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Hiroyasu, E-mail: sakai@hoshi.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Division of Pharmacy Professional Development and Research, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Sagara, Atsunobu; Arakawa, Kazuhiko; Sugiyama, Ryoto; Hirosaki, Akiko; Takase, Kazuhide; Jo, Ara [Department of Pharmacology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Sato, Ken [Department of Pharmacology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Division of Pharmacy Professional Development and Research, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Chiba, Yoshihiko [Department of Biology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Yamazaki, Mitsuaki [Department of Anesthesiology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama-shi, Toyama 9300194 (Japan); Matoba, Motohiro [Department of Palliative Medicine and Psychooncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 1040045 (Japan); Narita, Minoru, E-mail: narita@hoshi.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    Fatigue is the most common side effect of chemotherapy. However, the mechanisms of “muscle fatigue” induced by anti-cancer drugs are not fully understood. We therefore investigated the muscle-atrophic effect of cisplatin, a platinum-based anti-cancer drug, in mice. C57BL/6J mice were treated with cisplatin (3 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 4 consecutive days. On Day 5, hindlimb and quadriceps muscles were isolated from mice. The loss of body weight and food intake under the administration of cisplatin was the same as those in a dietary restriction (DR) group. Under the present conditions, the administration of cisplatin significantly decreased not only the muscle mass of the hindlimb and quadriceps but also the myofiber diameter, compared to those in the DR group. The mRNA expression levels of muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx), muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF1) and forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) were significantly and further increased by cisplatin treated group, compared to DR. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of myostatin and p21 were significantly upregulated by the administration of cisplatin, compared to DR. On the other hand, the phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO3a, which leads to the blockade of the upregulation of MuRF1 and MAFbx, was significantly and dramatically decreased by cisplatin. These findings suggest that the administration of cisplatin increases atrophic gene expression, and may lead to an imbalance between protein synthesis and protein degradation pathways, which would lead to muscle atrophy. This phenomenon could, at least in part, explain the mechanism of cisplatin-induced muscle fatigue. - Highlights: • Cisplatin decreased mass and myofiber diameter in quadriceps muscle. • The mRNA of MAFbx, MuRF1 and FOXO3 were increased by the cisplatin. • The mRNA of myostatin and p21 were upregulated by cisplatin. • The phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO3a was decreased by cisplatin.

  11. Modulation of the cytosolic androgen receptor in striated muscle by sex steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, N. E.; Max, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of orchiectomy (GDX) and steroid administration on the level of the cytosolic androgen receptor in the rat levator ani muscle and in rat skeletal muscles (tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus) was studied. Androgen receptor binding to muscle cytosol was measured using H-3 methyltrienolone (R1881) as ligand, 100 fold molar excess unlabeled R1881 to assess nonspecific binding, and 500 fold molar excess of triamcinolone acetonide to prevent binding to glucocorticoid and progestin receptors. Results demonstrate that modification of the levels of sex steroids can alter the content of androgen receptors of rat striated muscle. Data suggest that: (1) cytosolic androgen receptor levels increase after orchiectomy in both levator ani muscle and skeletal muscle; (2) the acute increase in receptor levels is blocked by an inhibitor of protein synthesis; and (3) administration of estradiol-17 beta to castrated animals increases receptor binding in levator ani muscle but not in skeletal muscle.

  12. Administrative decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews relevant administrative decisions that have been taken in various countries during the last semester of 1999 and the first one of 2000. In Argentina, an inter-ministerial commission has been settled to examine the prospects of completing the construction of the Atucha-2 unit. In Sweden, an agreement has been signed between Sydkraft, Vattenfall and the Swedish government on a compensation plan for the early shutdown of the Barsebaeck unit 1. In Switzerland, the government of the canton of Bern has rejected a constitutional initiative requesting the shutdown of the Muehleberg nuclear power plant. (A.C.)

  13. Retaining experts: administrators' views on retention incentives and older employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Tara C; Beck, Susan; Laudicina, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    A survey of members of the American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science (ASCLS) in 2012 examined laboratory administrators' views on retention incentives and older Clinical Laboratory Professionals (CLP). Results indicated that retention strategies currently in place are not concordant with the ones CLP think are important. Further, with the exception of ergonomic equipment, administrators reported low feasibility for the workplace changes favored by practitioners. While all administrators attributed positive traits to older CLP, older administrators held more favorable views. Administrators perceived older CLP as productive, having a high level of technical skills and loyal. The combination of technical competence and work ethic make retention of older CLP attractive to laboratory administrators and advantageous for combatting workforce shortages. This study highlights the discordance between the retention incentives valued by CLP and those viewed as feasible by administrators. Findings should be used by administrators to refine incentive packages that better reflect the desires of CLP. PMID:25219073

  14. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Emerson Randolph

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies, such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some muscular dystrophies. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on their embryologic origins and the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease.

  15. Preventive Effects of Antioxidants and Exercise on Muscle Atrophy Induced by Ischemic Reperfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Umei, Namiko; Ono, Takeya; Oki, Sadaaki; Otsuka, Akira; Otao, Hiroshi; Tsumiyama, Wakako; Tasaka, Atsushi; Ishikura, Hideki; Aihara, Kazuki; Sato, Yuta; Shimizu, Michele Eisemann

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine whether muscle atrophy induced by ischemic reperfusion injury in rats can be prevented by the administration of antioxidants and exercise. [Subjects] Rats were randomly divided into five groups: non-treated, ischemic, exercise, ascorbic acid and exercise, and tocopherol and exercise. [Methods] The relative weight ratio of the soleus muscle and the length of the soleus muscle fiber cross-section minor axis were used for the evaluation of muscle atrophy. ...

  16. Systemic delivery of genes to striated muscles using adeno-associated viral vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorevic, Paul; Blankinship, Michael J; Allen, James M.; Robert W Crawford; Meuse, Leonard; Miller, Daniel G.; Russell, David W.; Jeffrey S. Chamberlain

    2004-01-01

    A major obstacle limiting gene therapy for diseases of the heart and skeletal muscles is an inability to deliver genes systemically to muscles of an adult organism. Systemic gene transfer to striated muscles is hampered by the vascular endothelium, which represents a barrier to distribution of vectors via the circulation. Here we show the first evidence of widespread transduction of both cardiac and skeletal muscles in an adult mammal, after a single intravenous administration of recombinant ...

  17. ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULARS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff membersN° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000Staff members contractsN° 16 (Rev. 2) - January 2000TrainingN° 30 (Rev. 1) - January 2000Indemnities and reimbursements upon taking up appointment and termination of contractN° 32 - February 2000Principles and procedures governing complaints of harassmentThese circular have been amended (No 2, N° 9, N° 16 and N° 30) or drawn up (N° 32).Copies are available in the Divisional Secretariats.Note:\tAdministrative and operational circulars, as well as the lists of those in force, are available for consultation in the server SRV4_Home in the Appletalk zone NOVELL (as GUEST or using your Novell username and password), volume PE Division Data Disk.The Word files are available in the folder COM, folder Public, folder ADM.CIRC.docHuman Resources DivisionTel. 74128

  18. Muscle glycogenolysis during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ruderman, N B; Gavras, H;

    1982-01-01

    The interaction of epinephrine and contractions on muscle metabolism was studied in the isolated perfused rat hindquarter. Subtetanic contractions (180/min) through 20 min elicited glycogenolysis and increased phosphorylase a activity. In the soleus, a slow-twitch red muscle, these effects were...... transient, but when epinephrine at a physiological concentration (2.4 X 10(-8) M) was added to the perfusate, glycogenolysis and phosphorylase activity were sustained throughout contractions. At this high frequency of contractions, the effect of epinephrine was much smaller in the fast-twitch red fibers...... and not significant in the fast-twitch white fibers of the gastrocnemius muscle. However, during less frequent contractions (30/min) epinephrine increased glycogenolysis and phosphorylase a activity in fast-twitch muscle. The data suggest that epinephrine and muscle contractions exert a dual control of muscle...

  19. Right sternalis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jetti R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge regarding the muscular variations of the chest and their identification for the proper dissection planes through radiological examination is important. Sternalis is an occasional muscle, which lies along the side of the sternum. It may be confused as a tumor. The existence of sternalis muscle, its location, orientation and early identification are necessary in breast surgeries. Presence of sternalis muscle adjacent to the breast is of clinical importance.

  20. High procedural fairness heightens the effect of outcome favorability on self-evaluations : An attributional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brockner, J.; Heuer, L.; Magner, N.; Folger, R.; Umphress, E.; Bos, K. van den; Vermunt, Riël; Magner, M; Siegel, P.

    2003-01-01

    Previous research has shown that outcome favorability and procedural fairness often interact to influence employees work attitudes and behaviors. Moreover, the form of the interaction effect depends upon the dependent variable. Relative to when procedural fairness is low, high procedural fairness: (a) reduces the effect of outcome favorability on employees appraisals of the system (e.g., organizational commitment), and (b) heightens the effect of outcome favorability on employees evaluations ...

  1. Skeletal muscle development and regeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefte, S.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Torensma, R.; Hoff, J.W. Von den

    2007-01-01

    In the late stages of muscle development, a unique cell population emerges that is a key player in postnatal muscle growth and muscle regeneration. The location of these cells next to the muscle fibers triggers their designation as satellite cells. During the healing of injured muscle tissue, satell

  2. Passive Muscle-Tendon Unit Gearing is Joint Dependent in Human Medial Gastrocnemius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma F Hodson-Tole

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscles change length and develop force both passively and actively. Gearing allows muscle fibre length changes to be uncoupled from those of the whole muscle-tendon unit. During active contractions this process allows muscles to operate at mechanically favorable conditions for power or economical force production. Here we ask whether gearing is constant in passive muscle; determining the relationship between fascicle and muscle-tendon unit length change in the bi-articular medial gastrocnemius and investigating the influence of whether motion occurs at the knee or ankle joint. Specifically, the same muscle-tendon unit length changes were elicited by rotating either the ankle or knee joint whilst simultaneously measuring fascicle lengths in proximal and distal muscle regions using B-mode ultrasound. In both the proximal and distal muscle region, passive gearing values differed depending on whether ankle or knee motion occurred. Fascicle length changes were greater with ankle motion, likely reflecting anatomical differences in proximal and distal passive tendinous tissues, as well as shape changes of the adjacent mono-articular soleus. This suggests that there is joint-dependent dissociation between the mechanical behaviour of muscle fibres and the muscle-tendon unit during passive joint motions that may be important to consider when developing accurate models of bi-articular muscles.

  3. ROLE OF HOSPITAL ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    UDAYSINH R. MANEPATIL

    2013-01-01

    Hospital administration is the management of the hospital as a business. The administration is made up of medical and health services managers (sometimes called health care executives and health care administrators) and assistant administrators. Administrations range in size and the duties of the administrator depends on the size of the administration.

  4. Muscles, exercise and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K; Febbraio, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ. Accordingly, we have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibres and exert either autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as myokines...

  5. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A;

    2012-01-01

    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  6. Turning Marrow into Muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ In unexpected testimony2 to the versatility3 of the body's cells,researchers have found they can make bone marrow cells turn into muscle, causing mice with muscular dystrophy4 to produce correctly working muscle cells. The experiment suggests that a form of bone marrow transplant- - a well established surgical procedure5- - could in principle treat patients with a variety of diseases.

  7. SMOOTH MUSCLE STEM CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) originate from multiple types of progenitor cells. In the embryo, the most well-studied SMC progenitor is the cardiac neural crest stem cell. Smooth muscle differentiation in the neural crest lineage is controlled by a combination of cell intrinsic factors, includ...

  8. Chronic Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Induces Favorable Ceramide Profiles in Selectively Bred Alcohol-Preferring (P Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Godfrey

    Full Text Available Heavy alcohol consumption has detrimental neurologic effects, inducing widespread neuronal loss in both fetuses and adults. One proposed mechanism of ethanol-induced cell loss with sufficient exposure is an elevation in concentrations of bioactive lipids that mediate apoptosis, including the membrane sphingolipid metabolites ceramide and sphingosine. While these naturally-occurring lipids serve as important modulators of normal neuronal development, elevated levels resulting from various extracellular insults have been implicated in pathological apoptosis of neurons and oligodendrocytes in several neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Prior work has shown that acute administration of ethanol to developing mice increases levels of ceramide in multiple brain regions, hypothesized to be a mediator of fetal alcohol-induced neuronal loss. Elevated ceramide levels have also been implicated in ethanol-mediated neurodegeneration in adult animals and humans. Here, we determined the effect of chronic voluntary ethanol consumption on lipid profiles in brain and peripheral tissues from adult alcohol-preferring (P rats to further examine alterations in lipid composition as a potential contributor to ethanol-induced cellular damage. P rats were exposed for 13 weeks to a 20% ethanol intermittent-access drinking paradigm (45 ethanol sessions total or were given access only to water (control. Following the final session, tissues were collected for subsequent chromatographic analysis of lipid content and enzymatic gene expression. Contrary to expectations, ethanol-exposed rats displayed substantial reductions in concentrations of ceramides in forebrain and heart relative to non-exposed controls, and modest but significant decreases in liver cholesterol. qRT-PCR analysis showed a reduction in the expression of sphingolipid delta(4-desaturase (Degs2, an enzyme involved in de novo ceramide synthesis. These findings indicate that ethanol intake levels

  9. Onion artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen; Lai, Hsi-Mei; Chang, Shing-Yun; Huang, Pin-Chun; Jeng, Huai-An

    2015-05-01

    Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0-50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of -30 μm; at voltages of 50-1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 μN at 1000 V.

  10. The safety of liposome bupivacaine following various routes of administration in animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi GP

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Girish P Joshi,1 Gary Patou,2 Vladimir Kharitonov21Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX, 2Pacira Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Parsippany, NJ, USABackground: This report presents results from four preclinical studies evaluating safety and pharmacokinetics (PKs of liposome bupivacaine following intravascular (intravenous [IV], intra-arterial [IA], epidural, and intrathecal administration in dogs.Methods: Intravascular administration was initially tested in a pilot study to determine maximum tolerated doses, and then in an expanded study of systemic adverse effects and PKs. An epidural study compared properties of liposome bupivacaine alone and in combination with lidocaine/epinephrine vs bupivacaine HCl. Another study assessed effects after intrathecal administration.Results: In the initial intravascular studies, maximum doses at which no meaningful adverse events were observed with liposome bupivacaine were higher than for bupivacaine HCl (4.5 mg/kg IV vs 0.75 mg/kg IV, and 1.5 mg/kg IA vs 0.1 mg/kg IA, respectively. In the expanded intravascular study, there was no mortality or changes in pathology; adverse clinical signs included convulsions, lying on side, and decreased muscle tone (all were transient. In the epidural study, liposome bupivacaine was well tolerated at doses up to the highest dose tested (40 mg, with no evidence of spinal cord damage and with less motor blockade than bupivacaine HCl 15 mg. Intrathecal administration of liposome bupivacaine 40 mg was not associated with meaningful safety concerns and resulted in less motor blockade than bupivacaine HCl 15 mg. PK analyses showed that maximum plasma bupivacaine levels following administration of liposome bupivacaine (4.5 mg/kg IV and 40 mg epidural were similar to maximum plasma bupivacaine levels following a threefold lower dose of bupivacaine HCl (1.5 mg/kg IV and 15 mg epidural.Conclusion: Liposome bupivacaine

  11. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition reduces muscle inflammation and necrosis in modified muscle use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizza, F. X.; Hernandez, I. J.; Tidball, J. G.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the role of nitric oxide in muscle inflammation, fiber necrosis, and apoptosis of inflammatory cells in vivo. The effects of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition on the concentrations of neutrophils, ED1+ and ED2+ macrophages, apoptotic inflammatory cells, and necrotic muscle fibers in rats subjected to 10 days of hindlimb unloading and 2 days of reloading were determined. Administration of NOS inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) significantly reduced the concentrations of neutrophils, ED1+ and ED2+ macrophages, and necrotic fibers in soleus muscle relative to water-treated controls. The concentration of apoptotic inflammatory cells was also significantly lower for L-NAME-treated animals compared with water-treated controls. However, the proportion of the inflammatory cell population that was apoptotic did not differ between L-NAME-treated and control animals, suggesting that L-NAME treatment did not decrease inflammatory cell populations by increasing the frequency of apoptosis. Thus, nitric oxide or one of its intermediates promotes muscle inflammation and fiber necrosis during modified muscle use and plays no more than a minor role in the resolution of muscle inflammation by inducing apoptosis of inflammatory cells.

  12. Slipped and lost extraocular muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenart, T D; Lambert, S R

    2001-09-01

    A slipped or lost muscle should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with a marked limitation of duction and inability to rotate the eye beyond the midline. Loss of a rectus muscle can occur after strabismus surgery, trauma, paranasal sinus surgery, orbital surgery, or retinal detachment surgery. The extraocular rectus muscle most frequently slipped or lost is the medial rectus muscle. Forced ductions, active force generation, saccadic velocity studies, differential intraocular pressure measurements, and orbital imaging studies may aid in identifying a slipped or lost muscle. However, no single diagnostic test provides absolute reliability for determining a lost muscle. Slipped muscles develop when the muscular capsule is imbricated without including the muscle or muscle tendon during strabismus surgery. When the capsule is reattached to the sclera, the tendon and muscle are then free to slip posteriorally from the site of attachment. Slipped muscles are retrieved by following the thin avascular muscle capsule posteriorally until the muscle is identified. A lost muscle can be found using a traditional conjunctival approach, by an external orbitotomy, or by an endoscopic transnasal approach. Although many diagnostic maneuvers are useful in identifying a lost rectus muscle, the oculocardiac reflex is the most important. Once the lost muscle is identified, the muscle should be imbricated with a nonabsorbable synthetic suture and securely reattached to the globe. PMID:11705143

  13. Administrative Appeals and ADR in Danish Administrative Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Inger Marie; Gøtze, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Administrative Appeals, review, administrative tribunals, ombudsman, alternative dispute resolution......Administrative Appeals, review, administrative tribunals, ombudsman, alternative dispute resolution...

  14. Polymer artificial muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissaphern Mirfakhrai

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The various types of natural muscle are incredible material systems that enable the production of large deformations by repetitive molecular motions. Polymer artificial muscle technologies are being developed that produce similar strains and higher stresses using electrostatic forces, electrostriction, ion insertion, and molecular conformational changes. Materials used include elastomers, conducting polymers, ionically conducting polymers, and carbon nanotubes. The mechanisms, performance, and remaining challenges associated with these technologies are described. Initial applications are being developed, but further work by the materials community should help make these technologies applicable in a wide range of devices where muscle-like motion is desirable.

  15. Muscle regeneration after sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouglé, Adrien; Rocheteau, Pierre; Sharshar, Tarek; Chrétien, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Severe critical illness is often complicated by intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW), which is associated with increased ICU and post-ICU mortality, delayed weaning from mechanical ventilation and long-term functional disability. Several mechanisms have been implicated in the pathophysiology of ICU-AW, but muscle regeneration has not been investigated to any extent in this context, even though its involvement is suggested by the protracted functional consequences of ICU-AW. Recent data suggest that muscle regeneration could be impaired after sepsis, and that mesenchymal stem cell treatment could improve the post-injury muscle recovery. PMID:27193340

  16. Muscle contraction and force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Risbo, Jens; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.;

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction studies often focus solely on myofibres and the proteins known to be involved in the processes of sarcomere shortening and cross-bridge cycling, but skeletal muscle also comprises a very elaborate ancillary network of capillaries, which not only play a vital role in terms...... of nutrient delivery and waste product removal, but are also tethered to surrounding fibres by collagen "wires". This paper therefore addresses aspects of the ancillary network of skeletal muscle at both a microscopic and functional level in order to better understand its role holistically as a considerable...

  17. PNW cetacean muscle biochemistry - Muscle Myoglobin Content and Acid Buffering Capacity of Cetaceans from the Pacific Northwest to Assess Dive Capacity and the Development of Diving Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project assesses the development of two important skeletal muscle adaptations for diving (enhanced myoglobin content and acid buffering capacities) in a range...

  18. Muscle biopsy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A muscle biopsy involves removal of a plug of tissue usually by a needle to be later used for examination. Sometimes ... there is a patchy condition expected an open biopsy may be used. Open biopsy involves a small ...

  19. Muscles alive: ultrasound detects fibrillations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pillen, S.; Nienhuis, M.; Dijk, J.P. van; Arts, I.M.P.; Alfen, N. van; Zwarts, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Muscle ultrasound is capable of visualizing muscle movements. Recent improvements in ultrasound technology have raised the question whether it is also possible to detect small-scale spontaneous muscle activity such as denervation. In this study we investigated the ability of dynamic muscl

  20. ACE2 is augmented in dystrophic skeletal muscle and plays a role in decreasing associated fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Riquelme

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most common inherited neuromuscular disease and is characterized by absence of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin, muscle wasting, and fibrosis. We previously demonstrated that systemic infusion or oral administration of angiotensin-(1-7 (Ang-(1-7, a peptide with opposing effects to angiotensin II, normalized skeletal muscle architecture, decreased local fibrosis, and improved muscle function in mdx mice, a dystrophic model for DMD. In this study, we investigated the presence, activity, and localization of ACE2, the enzyme responsible for Ang-(1-7 production, in wild type (wt and mdx skeletal muscle and in a model of induced chronic damage in wt mice. All dystrophic muscles studied showed higher ACE2 activity than wt muscle. Immunolocalization studies indicated that ACE2 was localized mainly at the sarcolemma and, to a lesser extent, associated with interstitial cells. Similar results were observed in the model of chronic damage in the tibialis anterior (TA muscle. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of ACE2 overexpression in mdx TA muscle using an adenovirus containing human ACE2 sequence and showed that expression of ACE2 reduced the fibrosis associated with TA dystrophic muscles. Moreover, we observed fewer inflammatory cells infiltrating the mdx muscle. Finally, mdx gastrocnemius muscles from mice infused with Ang-(1-7, which decreases fibrosis, contain less ACE2 associated with the muscle. This is the first evidence supporting ACE2 as an important therapeutic target to improve the dystrophic skeletal muscle phenotype.

  1. Thermodynamics of calmodulin binding to cardiac and skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor ion channels

    OpenAIRE

    Meissner, Gerhard; Pasek, Daniel A.; Yamaguchi, Naohiro; Ramachandran, Srinivas; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Tripathy, Ashutosh

    2009-01-01

    The skeletal muscle (RyR1) and cardiac muscle (RyR2) ryanodine receptor calcium release channels contain a single, conserved calmodulin (CaM) binding domain, yet are differentially regulated by CaM. Here, we report that high-affinity [35S]CaM binding to RyR1 is driven by favorable enthalpic and entropic contributions at Ca2+ concentrations from

  2. Geothermal Favorability Map Derived From Logistic Regression Models of the Western United States (favorabilitysurface.zip)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a surface showing relative favorability for the presence of geothermal systems in the western United States. It is an average of 12 models that correlates...

  3. The novel AKT inhibitor afuresertib shows favorable safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical activity in multiple myeloma

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer, Andrew; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Harrison, Simon J.; Morris, Shannon R.; Smith, Deborah A.; Brigandi, Richard A.; Gauvin, Jennifer; Kumar, Rakesh; Opalinska, Joanna B.; Chen, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Afuresertib has a favorable safety profile with manageable side effects and demonstrates single-agent activity against hematologic malignancies.Inhibition of AKT with afuresertib may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for hematologic malignancies, especially for multiple myeloma.

  4. Impairment of ATP hydrolysis decreases adenosine A1 receptor tonus favoring cholinergic nerve hyperactivity in the obstructed human urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Ramos, M; Silva, I; Faria, M; Magalhães-Cardoso, M T; Correia, J; Ferreirinha, F; Correia-de-Sá, P

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether reduced adenosine formation linked to deficits in extracellular ATP hydrolysis by NTPDases contributes to detrusor neuromodulatory changes associated with bladder outlet obstruction in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The kinetics of ATP catabolism and adenosine formation as well as the role of P1 receptor agonists on muscle tension and nerve-evoked [(3)H]ACh release were evaluated in mucosal-denuded detrusor strips from BPH patients (n = 31) and control organ donors (n = 23). The neurogenic release of ATP and [(3)H]ACh was higher (P bladders. Relaxation of detrusor contractions induced by acetylcholine required 30-fold higher concentrations of adenosine. Despite VAChT-positive cholinergic nerves exhibiting higher A(1) immunoreactivity in BPH bladders, the endogenous adenosine tonus revealed by adenosine deaminase is missing. Restoration of A1 inhibition was achieved by favoring (1) ATP hydrolysis with apyrase (2 U mL(-1)) or (2) extracellular adenosine accumulation with dipyridamole or EHNA, as these drugs inhibit adenosine uptake and deamination, respectively. In conclusion, reduced ATP hydrolysis leads to deficient adenosine formation and A(1) receptor-mediated inhibition of cholinergic nerve activity in the obstructed human bladder. Thus, we propose that pharmacological manipulation of endogenous adenosine levels and/or A(1) receptor activation might be useful to control bladder overactivity in BPH patients. PMID:26521170

  5. Strategies of muscle training in very severe COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogiatzis, I

    2011-10-01

    There is strong evidence that exercise training, constituting the cornerstone of pulmonary rehabilitation, improves exercise tolerance, dyspnoea sensations, functional capacity and quality of life in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, intolerable sensations of breathlessness and/or peripheral muscle discomfort may prevent such patients from tolerating high-intensity exercise levels for sufficiently long periods of time to obtain true physiological training effects. Accordingly, the major issue that arises is the selection of the appropriate training strategy, which is tailored to the cardiovascular, pulmonary and peripheral muscle limitations of the individual patient and is aimed at maximising the effect of exercise conditioning. Within this context, the present article explores the application of strategies that optimise exercise tolerance by reducing dyspnoea sensations, namely noninvasive mechanical ventilation, oxygen and/or heliox supplementation. Administration of heliox or oxygen during exercise also increases peripheral muscle oxygen delivery, thereby delaying the onset of peripheral muscle fatigue. Particular emphasis is also given to interval exercise and resistance-muscle training as both modalities allow the application of intense loads on peripheral muscles with tolerable levels of dyspnoea sensations. In patients with profound muscle weakness and intense breathlessness upon physical exertion, execution of short bouts of interval or local muscle strength conditioning, along with oxygen breathing, may constitute a feasible and effective approach to pulmonary rehabilitation. PMID:21737548

  6. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  7. Uranium favorability of late Eocene through Pliocene rocks of the South Texas Coastal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Brogdon, L.D.; Jones, C.A.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-02-01

    The results of a subsurface uranium favorability study of Tertiary rocks (late Eocene through Pliocene) in the Coastal Plain of South Texas are given. In ascending order, these rock units include the Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand. The Vicksburg Group, Anahuac Formation, and Fleming Formation were not considered because they have unfavorable lithologies. The Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand contain sandstones that may be favorable uranium hosts under certain environmental and structural conditions. All except the Yegua are known to contain ore-grade uranium deposits. Yegua and Jackson sandstones are found in strand plain-barrier bar systems that are aligned parallel to depositional and structural strike. These sands grade into shelf muds on the east, and lagoonal sediments updip toward the west. The lagoonal sediments in the Jackson are interrupted by dip-aligned fluvial systems. In both units, favorable areas are found in the lagoonal sands and in sands on the updip side of the strand-plain system. Favorable areas are also found along the margins of fluvial systems in the Jackson. The Frio and Catahoula consist of extensive alluvial-plain deposits. Favorable areas for uranium deposits are found along the margins of the paleo-channels where favorable structural features and numerous optimum sands are present. The Oakville and Goliad Formations consist of extensive continental deposits of fluvial sandstones. In large areas, these fluvial sandstones are multistoried channel sandstones that form very thick sandstone sequences. Favorable areas are found along the margins of the channel sequences. In the Goliad, favorable areas are also found on the updip margin of strand-plain sandstones where there are several sandstones of optimum thickness.

  8. Integrated Theoretical Framework for a Homeowner's Decision in Favor of an Innovative Residential Heating System

    OpenAIRE

    Michelsen , Carl Christian; Madlener, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    Insight into the homeowner’s adoption decisions in favor of a specific innovative residential heating system (RHS) helps us to understand and assess the dynamics of the adoption and diffusion of such technological systems as a “social” phenomenon. This phenomenon emerges from the individual decisions of a set of heterogeneous actors on the market. In our research, we develop an integrated theoretical framework for assessing a homeowner’s adoption decision in favor of a specific innovative RHS...

  9. Loquat leaf extract enhances myogenic differentiation, improves muscle function and attenuates muscle loss in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Bokyung; Hwang, Seong Yeon; Kim, Min Jo; Kim, Minjung; Jeong, Ji Won; Kim, Cheol Min; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Nam Deuk

    2015-09-01

    A main characteristic of aging is the debilitating, progressive and generalized impairment of biological functions, resulting in an increased vulnerability to disease and death. Skeletal muscle comprises approximately 40% of the human body; thus, it is the most abundant tissue. At the age of 30 onwards, 0.5‑1% of human muscle mass is lost each year, with a marked acceleration in the rate of decline after the age of 65. Thus, novel strategies that effectively attenuate skeletal muscle loss and enhance muscle function are required to improve the quality of life of older subjects. The aim of the present study was to determine whether loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaf extract (LE) can prevent the loss of skeletal muscle function in aged rats. Young (5-month-old) and aged (18‑19-month-old) rats were fed LE (50 mg/kg/day) for 35 days and the changes in muscle mass and strength were evaluated. The age‑associated loss of grip strength was attenuated, and muscle mass and muscle creatine kinase (CK) activity were enhanced following the administration of LE. Histochemical analysis also revealed that LE abrogated the age‑associated decrease in cross‑sectional area (CSA) and decreased the amount of connective tissue in the muscle of aged rats. To investigate the mode of action of LE, C2C12 murine myoblasts were used to evaluate the myogenic potential of LE. The expression levels of myogenic proteins (MyoD and myogenin) and functional myosin heavy chain (MyHC) were measured by western blot analysis. LE enhanced MyoD, myogenin and MyHC expression. The changes in the expression of myogenic genes corresponded with an increase in the activity of CK, a myogenic differentiation marker. Finally, LE activated the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, which is involved in muscle protein synthesis during myogenesis. These findings suggest that LE attenuates sarcopenia by promoting myogenic differentiation and subsequently promoting muscle protein synthesis

  10. Loss of muscle performance in seniors: changes to the dynamic muscle structure and muscle gearing

    OpenAIRE

    Randhawa, Avleen

    2012-01-01

    Muscle structure changes with ageing in a manner that can alter its contractile mechanics, resulting in a reduction in strength and mobility. Fascicles within a muscle can shorten at slower velocities than the muscle belly, in a process known as belly gearing. Belly gearing allows the fascicles to produce a greater force when they contract. However, it may be compromised when we age. The gastrocnemii muscles in the calf were imaged in young adults and seniors using ultrasound. Their muscle st...

  11. Muscle as a secretory organ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent...... evidence has identified skeletal muscle as a secretory organ. We have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and exert either autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine effects should be classified as "myokines." The muscle secretome consists...... of several hundred secreted peptides. This finding provides a conceptual basis and a whole new paradigm for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, bones, and brain. In addition, several myokines exert their effects within the muscle itself. Many...

  12. A Beetle Flight Muscle Displays Leg Muscle Microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Toshiki; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Vo Doan, Tat Thang; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi; Sato, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Madoka

    2016-09-20

    In contrast to major flight muscles in the Mecynorrhina torquata beetle, the third axillary (3Ax) muscle is a minor flight muscle that uniquely displays a powerful mechanical function despite its considerably small volume, ∼1/50 that of a major flight muscle. The 3Ax muscle contracts relatively slowly, and in flight strongly pulls the beating wing to attenuate the stroke amplitude. This attenuation leads to left-right turning in flight or wing folding to cease flying. What enables this small muscle to be so powerful? To explore this question, we examined the microstructure of the 3Ax muscle using synchrotron x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and immunoblotting analysis. We found that the 3Ax muscle has long (∼5 μm) myofilaments and that the ratio of thick (myosin) filaments to thin (actin) filaments is 1:5 or 1:6. These characteristics are not observed in the major flight muscles, which have shorter myofilaments (∼3.5 μm) with a smaller ratio (1:3), and instead are more typical of a leg muscle. Furthermore, the flight-muscle-specific troponin isoform, TnH, is not expressed in the 3Ax muscle. Since such a microstructure is suitable for generating large tension, the 3Ax muscle is appropriately designed to pull the wing strongly despite its small volume.

  13. A Beetle Flight Muscle Displays Leg Muscle Microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Toshiki; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Vo Doan, Tat Thang; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi; Sato, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Madoka

    2016-09-20

    In contrast to major flight muscles in the Mecynorrhina torquata beetle, the third axillary (3Ax) muscle is a minor flight muscle that uniquely displays a powerful mechanical function despite its considerably small volume, ∼1/50 that of a major flight muscle. The 3Ax muscle contracts relatively slowly, and in flight strongly pulls the beating wing to attenuate the stroke amplitude. This attenuation leads to left-right turning in flight or wing folding to cease flying. What enables this small muscle to be so powerful? To explore this question, we examined the microstructure of the 3Ax muscle using synchrotron x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and immunoblotting analysis. We found that the 3Ax muscle has long (∼5 μm) myofilaments and that the ratio of thick (myosin) filaments to thin (actin) filaments is 1:5 or 1:6. These characteristics are not observed in the major flight muscles, which have shorter myofilaments (∼3.5 μm) with a smaller ratio (1:3), and instead are more typical of a leg muscle. Furthermore, the flight-muscle-specific troponin isoform, TnH, is not expressed in the 3Ax muscle. Since such a microstructure is suitable for generating large tension, the 3Ax muscle is appropriately designed to pull the wing strongly despite its small volume. PMID:27653488

  14. Administrative Data Repository (ADR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Administrative Data Repository (ADR) was established to provide support for the administrative data elements relative to multiple categories of a person entity...

  15. EPA Administrative Enforcement Dockets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Administrative Enforcement Dockets database contains the electronic dockets for administrative penalty cases filed by EPA Regions and Headquarters. Visitors...

  16. Artificial muscles on heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Thomas G.; Shin, Dong Ki; Percy, Steven; Knight, Chris; McGarry, Scott; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Many devices and processes produce low grade waste heat. Some of these include combustion engines, electrical circuits, biological processes and industrial processes. To harvest this heat energy thermoelectric devices, using the Seebeck effect, are commonly used. However, these devices have limitations in efficiency, and usable voltage. This paper investigates the viability of a Stirling engine coupled to an artificial muscle energy harvester to efficiently convert heat energy into electrical energy. The results present the testing of the prototype generator which produced 200 μW when operating at 75°C. Pathways for improved performance are discussed which include optimising the electronic control of the artificial muscle, adjusting the mechanical properties of the artificial muscle to work optimally with the remainder of the system, good sealing, and tuning the resonance of the displacer to minimise the power required to drive it.

  17. Foot muscles strengthener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris T. Glavač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  18. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

    to accumulation of intermolecular cross-links are thought to be the cause, though no cross-link could be identified, that could confirm this hypothesis. Yet, although it has never been possible to demonstrate a direct relation between the total amount of collagen and tenderness, it is still generally agreed...... composition, the organizational structure of connective tissue, the role of connective tissue in muscle contraction and the generation of force, metabolic regulation of arterial structure focusing on associated collagen changes, and a new highly-specific technique for following in three-dimensions changes...... systems of muscle have been visualized in their full complexity, including the ‘neglected' lymphatic capillaries at the level of the endomysium. These findings serve to remind us that muscle contraction is not only about force generation and transmission, but also about nutrient supply and waste removal...

  19. Signaling in muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ivana Y; Ehrlich, Barbara E

    2015-02-02

    Signaling pathways regulate contraction of striated (skeletal and cardiac) and smooth muscle. Although these are similar, there are striking differences in the pathways that can be attributed to the distinct functional roles of the different muscle types. Muscles contract in response to depolarization, activation of G-protein-coupled receptors and other stimuli. The actomyosin fibers responsible for contraction require an increase in the cytosolic levels of calcium, which signaling pathways induce by promoting influx from extracellular sources or release from intracellular stores. Rises in cytosolic calcium stimulate numerous downstream calcium-dependent signaling pathways, which can also regulate contraction. Alterations to the signaling pathways that initiate and sustain contraction and relaxation occur as a consequence of exercise and pathophysiological conditions.

  20. Muscles and their myokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2011-01-01

    In the past, the role of physical activity as a life-style modulating factor has been considered as that of a tool to balance energy intake. Although it is important to avoid obesity, physical inactivity should be discussed in a much broader context. There is accumulating epidemiological evidence...... that a physically active life plays an independent role in the protection against type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, dementia and even depression. For most of the last century, researchers sought a link between muscle contraction and humoral changes in the form of an 'exercise factor', which could...... be released from skeletal muscle during contraction and mediate some of the exercise-induced metabolic changes in other organs such as the liver and the adipose tissue. We have suggested that cytokines or other peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibres and exert autocrine, paracrine...

  1. Favorable alteration of tumor microenvironment by immunomodulatory cytokines for efficient T-cell therapy in solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tähtinen, Siri; Kaikkonen, Saija; Merisalo-Soikkeli, Maiju; Grönberg-Vähä-Koskela, Susanna; Kanerva, Anna; Parviainen, Suvi; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Hemminki, Akseli

    2015-01-01

    Unfavorable ratios between the number and activation status of effector and suppressor immune cells infiltrating the tumor contribute to resistance of solid tumors to T-cell based therapies. Here, we studied the capacity of FDA and EMA approved recombinant cytokines to manipulate this balance in favor of efficient anti-tumor responses in B16.OVA melanoma bearing C57BL/6 mice. Intratumoral administration of IFN-α2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 significantly enhanced the anti-tumor effect of ovalbumin-specific CD8+ T-cell (OT-I) therapy, whereas GM-CSF increased tumor growth in association with an increase in immunosuppressive cell populations. None of the cytokines augmented tumor trafficking of OT-I cells significantly, but injections of IFN-α2, IFN-γ and IL-2 increased intratumoral cytokine secretion and recruitment of endogenous immune cells capable of stimulating T-cells, such as natural killer and maturated CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells. Moreover, IFN-α2 and IL-2 increased the levels of activated tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T-cells concomitant with reduction in the CD8+ T-cell expression of anergy markers CTLA-4 and PD-1. In conclusion, intratumoral administration of IFN-α2, IFN-γ and IL-2 can lead to immune sensitization of the established tumor, whereas GM-CSF may contribute to tumor-associated immunosuppression. The results described here provide rationale for including local administration of immunostimulatory cytokines into T-cell therapy regimens. One appealing embodiment of this would be vectored delivery which could be advantageous over direct injection of recombinant molecules with regard to efficacy, cost, persistence and convenience.

  2. Favorable alteration of tumor microenvironment by immunomodulatory cytokines for efficient T-cell therapy in solid tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Tähtinen

    Full Text Available Unfavorable ratios between the number and activation status of effector and suppressor immune cells infiltrating the tumor contribute to resistance of solid tumors to T-cell based therapies. Here, we studied the capacity of FDA and EMA approved recombinant cytokines to manipulate this balance in favor of efficient anti-tumor responses in B16.OVA melanoma bearing C57BL/6 mice. Intratumoral administration of IFN-α2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 significantly enhanced the anti-tumor effect of ovalbumin-specific CD8+ T-cell (OT-I therapy, whereas GM-CSF increased tumor growth in association with an increase in immunosuppressive cell populations. None of the cytokines augmented tumor trafficking of OT-I cells significantly, but injections of IFN-α2, IFN-γ and IL-2 increased intratumoral cytokine secretion and recruitment of endogenous immune cells capable of stimulating T-cells, such as natural killer and maturated CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells. Moreover, IFN-α2 and IL-2 increased the levels of activated tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T-cells concomitant with reduction in the CD8+ T-cell expression of anergy markers CTLA-4 and PD-1. In conclusion, intratumoral administration of IFN-α2, IFN-γ and IL-2 can lead to immune sensitization of the established tumor, whereas GM-CSF may contribute to tumor-associated immunosuppression. The results described here provide rationale for including local administration of immunostimulatory cytokines into T-cell therapy regimens. One appealing embodiment of this would be vectored delivery which could be advantageous over direct injection of recombinant molecules with regard to efficacy, cost, persistence and convenience.

  3. Effect of salbutamol on innervated and denervated rat soleus muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?oic-Vranic T.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to perform a 14-day time-course study of treatment with salbutamol, a ß2 adrenoceptor agonist, on rat soleus muscle in order to assess fiber type selectivity in the hypertrophic response and fiber type composition. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (N = 10, treated with salbutamol (N = 30, denervated (N = 30, and treated with salbutamol after denervation (N = 30. Salbutamol was injected intraperitoneally in the rats of the 2nd and 4th groups at a concentration of 0.3 mg/kg twice a day for 2 weeks. The muscles were denervated using the crush method with pean. The animals were sacrificed 3, 6, 9, 12, and 14 days after treatment. Frozen cross-sections of soleus muscle were stained for myosin ATPase, pH 9.4. Cross-sectional area and percent of muscle fibers were analyzed morphometrically by computerized image analysis. Treatment with salbutamol induced hypertrophy of all fiber types and a higher percentage of type II fibers (21% in the healthy rat soleus muscle. Denervation caused marked atrophy of all fibers and conversion from type I to type II muscle fibers. Denervated muscles treated with salbutamol showed a significantly larger cross-sectional area of type I muscle fibers, 28.2% compared to the denervated untreated muscle. Moreover, the number of type I fibers was increased. These results indicate that administration of salbutamol is able to induce changes in cross-sectional area and fiber type distribution in the early phase of treatment. Since denervation-induced atrophy and conversion from type I to type II fibers were improved by salbutamol treatment we propose that salbutamol, like other ß2 adrenoceptor agonists, may have a therapeutic potential in improving the condition of skeletal muscle after denervation.

  4. Calcium and the role of motoneuronal doublets in skeletal muscle control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bjørn Gilbert

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a novel structural model of skeletal muscle activation, providing a physiologically based account of frequency-dependent muscle responses like the catch-like effect. Numerous Ca2+ reservoirs within muscle fibers are considered, and a simplified analysis of the allocation of Ca2......+ resources and the dynamics of calcium transport is proposed. The model correctly accounts for catch-like effects in slow and fast-twitch fibers during long-train stimulations and force-frequency relations in different muscle types. Results obtained from the model compare favorably to experiments showing...... in the central nervous system. This is a potentially very useful property directly mediated by the catch-like process modeled here. One further prediction of the model is that the slope of the frequency-tension profile of a given muscle is highly sensitive to changes in the efficiency and temporal...

  5. Composition of Muscle Fiber Types in Rat Rotator Cuff Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yongjun; Pan, Feng; Mi, Jingyi

    2016-10-01

    The rat is a suitable model to study human rotator cuff pathology owing to the similarities in morphological anatomy structure. However, few studies have reported the composition muscle fiber types of rotator cuff muscles in the rat. In this study, the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were stained by immunofluorescence to show the muscle fiber types composition and distribution in rotator cuff muscles of the rat. It was found that rotator cuff muscles in the rat were of mixed fiber type composition. The majority of rotator cuff fibers labeled positively for MyHCII. Moreover, the rat rotator cuff muscles contained hybrid fibers. So, compared with human rotator cuff muscles composed partly of slow-twitch fibers, the majority of fast-twitch fibers in rat rotator cuff muscles should be considered when the rat model study focus on the pathological process of rotator cuff muscles after injury. Gaining greater insight into muscle fiber types in rotator cuff muscles of the rat may contribute to elucidate the mechanism of pathological change in rotator cuff muscles-related diseases. Anat Rec, 299:1397-1401, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Impaired macrophage and satellite cell infiltration occurs in a muscle-specific fashion following injury in diabetic skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P Krause

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systemic elevations in PAI-1 suppress the fibrinolytic pathway leading to poor collagen remodelling and delayed regeneration of tibialis anterior (TA muscles in type-1 diabetic Akita mice. However, how impaired collagen remodelling was specifically attenuating regeneration in Akita mice remained unknown. Furthermore, given intrinsic differences between muscle groups, it was unclear if the reparative responses between muscle groups were different. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we reveal that diabetic Akita muscles display differential regenerative responses with the TA and gastrocnemius muscles exhibiting reduced regenerating myofiber area compared to wild-type mice, while soleus muscles displayed no difference between animal groups following injury. Collagen levels in TA and gastrocnemius, but not soleus, were significantly increased post-injury versus controls. At 5 days post-injury, when degenerating/necrotic regions were present in both animal groups, Akita TA and gastrocnemius muscles displayed reduced macrophage and satellite cell infiltration and poor myofiber formation. By 10 days post-injury, necrotic regions were absent in wild-type TA but persisted in Akita TA. In contrast, Akita soleus exhibited no impairment in any of these measures compared to wild-type soleus. In an effort to define how impaired collagen turnover was attenuating regeneration in Akita TA, a PAI-1 inhibitor (PAI-039 was orally administered to Akita mice following cardiotoxin injury. PAI-039 administration promoted macrophage and satellite cell infiltration into necrotic areas of the TA and gastrocnemius. Importantly, soleus muscles exhibit the highest inducible expression of MMP-9 following injury, providing a mechanism for normative collagen degradation and injury recovery in this muscle despite systemically elevated PAI-1. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the mechanism underlying how impaired collagen remodelling in type-1 diabetes results in delayed

  7. Postmating sexual selection favors males that sire offspring with low fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Foged, Anne; Schilling, Nadia;

    2009-01-01

    Despite the costs of mating, females of most taxa mate with multiple males. Polyandrous females are hypothesized to gain genetic benefits for their offspring, but this assumes paternity bias favoring male genotypes that enhance offspring viability. We determined net male genetic effects on female...... and offspring fitness in a seed beetle and then tested whether fertilization success was biased in favor of high-quality male genotypes in double mating experiments. Contrary to expectations, high-quality male genotypes consistently had a lower postmating fertilization success in two independent assays. Our...

  8. La Cautela Socini como salvaguarda del patrimonio familiar en favor del cónyuge viudo.

    OpenAIRE

    García Palicio, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo se encuentra dividido en cuatro bloques a través el lector podrá ver el funcionamiento de la Cautela Socini respecto al usufructo universal en favor del cónyuge viudo y los derechos de los herederos forzosos del causante. En un primer bloque, encontramos un estudio de los derechos legitimarios que le son reconocidos al cónyuge viudo en el Código Civil, continuando con un segundo bloque en el que se realiza un análisis de la figura del usufructo universal en favor del cónyu...

  9. Adaptation of muscle coordination to altered task mechanics during steady-state cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neptune, R R; Herzog, W

    2000-02-01

    The objective of this work was to increase our understanding of how motor patterns are produced during movement tasks by quantifying adaptations in muscle coordination in response to altered task mechanics. We used pedaling as our movement paradigm because it is a constrained cyclical movement that allows for a controlled investigation of test conditions such as movement speed and effort. Altered task mechanics were introduced using an elliptical chainring. The kinematics of the crank were changed from a relatively constant angular velocity using a circular chainring to a widely varying angular velocity using an elliptical chainring. Kinetic, kinematic and muscle activity data were collected from eight competitive cyclists using three different chainrings--one circular and two different orientations of an elliptical chainring. We tested the hypotheses that muscle coordination patterns (EMG timing and magnitude), specifically the regions of active muscle force production, would shift towards regions in the crank cycle in which the crank angular velocity, and hence muscle contraction speeds, were favorable to produce muscle power as defined by the skeletal muscle power-velocity relationship. The results showed that our hypothesis with regards to timing was not supported. Although there were statistically significant shifts in muscle timing, the shifts were minor in absolute terms and appeared to be the result of the muscles accounting for the activation dynamics associated with muscle force development (i.e. the delay in muscle force rise and decay). But, significant changes in the magnitude of muscle EMG during regions of slow crank angular velocity for the tibialis anterior and rectus femoris were observed. Thus, the nervous system used adaptations to the muscle EMG magnitude, rather than the timing, to adapt to the altered task mechanics. The results also suggested that cyclists might work on the descending limb of the power-velocity relationship when pedaling at

  10. Active vs. inactive muscle (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may lose 20 to 40 percent of their muscle -- and, along with it, their strength -- as they ... have found that a major reason people lose muscle is because they stop doing everyday activities that ...

  11. Organization/Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing 26 syllabi for courses on organization and administration in higher education are discussed, and six sample syllabi are presented. The syllabi focused more on organization than administration. Of the 26 syllabi, 19 dealt with organization and administration generally; 5 with administration in a specific…

  12. Inflammatory muscle diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastaglia F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The three major immune-mediated inflammatory myopathies, dermatomyositis (DM, polymyositis (PM and inclusion body myositis (IBM, each have their own distinctive clinical features, underlying pathogenetic mechanisms and patterns of muscle gene expression. In DM a complement-dependent humoral process thought to be initiated by antibodies to endothelial cells results in a microangiopathy with secondary ischemic changes in muscles. On the other hand, in PM and IBM there is a T-cell response with invasion of muscle fibers by CD8+ lymphocytes and perforin-mediated cytotoxic necrosis. In IBM degenerative changes are also a feature and comprise autophagia with rimmed vacuole formation and inclusions containing β-amyloid and other proteins whose accumulation may be linked to impaired proteasomal function. The relationship between the inflammatory and degenerative component remains unclear, as does the basis for the selective vulnerability of certain muscles and the resistance to conventional forms of immunotherapy in most cases of IBM. Patients with DM or PM usually respond to treatment with glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents but their use remains largely empirical. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy can be used to achieve disease control in patients with severe weakness or dysphagia, or in patients with immunodeficiency, but its use is limited by expense. Emerging therapies for resistant cases include TNFα inhibitors (etanercept, infliximab and monoclonal antibodies (rituximab, alemtuzumab. However, experience with these therapies is still limited and there is a need for randomized trials to test their efficacy and establish guidelines for their use in clinical practice.

  13. Physics in muscle research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwazumi, T

    2000-01-01

    Muscle is one of few organs whose performance can be measured by physical quantities. However, very few attempts have been made to apply theoretical physics to muscle. In this paper we will see how physical principles can be applied by taking advantage of unique properties of muscle structure. The first topic is to establish the stability conditions of sarcomere structure. The conclusions are then compared to some experimental facts. Next, we move on to the field theory fundamentals. The concept of energy density as a stress tensor is shown to be a powerful tool for the dielectric force theory to understand how proteins move under electric fields. By combining the structural stability theory and the dielectric force theory we arrive at a helical dipole array. We discuss the source of strong dipole fields and how the dipole strength could be controlled by Ca ions. The behavior of water and ions under electric fields is briefly discussed. The third topic is the mechanical stiffness of muscle in longitudinal and lateral directions. Some experimental data are shown and the physics of anisotropic stiffness is discussed. An appendix is provided to explain the pitfalls of experimenting with isolated components rather than organized structures (sarcomere).

  14. Expression profile of IGF paralog genes in liver and muscle of a GH-transgenic zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nornberg, Bruna Felix; Figueiredo, Marcio Azevedo; Marins, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between IGFs produced in the liver and skeletal muscle with muscle hypertrophy previously observed in a line of GH-transgenic zebrafish. In this sense, we evaluated the expression of genes related to the IGF system in liver and muscle of transgenics, as well as the main intracellular signaling pathways used by GH/IGF axis. Our results showed an increase in expression of igf1a, igf2a, and igf2b genes in the liver. Moreover, there was a decrease in the expression of igf1ra and an increase in muscle igf2r of transgenics, indicating a negative response of muscle tissue with respect to excess circulating IGFs. Muscle IGFs expression analyses revealed a significant increase only for igf2b, accompanied by a parallel induction of igfbp5a gene. The presence of IGFBP5a may potentiate the IGF2 action in muscle cells differentiation. Regarding JAK/STAT-related genes, we observed an alteration in the expression profile of both stat3 and stat5a in transgenic fish liver. No changes were observed in the muscle, suggesting that both tissues respond differently to GH-transgenesis. Western blotting analyses indicated an imbalance between the phosphorylation levels of the proliferative (MEK/ERK) and hypertrophic (PI3K/Akt) pathways, in favor of the latter. In summary, the results of this study suggest that the hypertrophy caused by GH-transgenesis in zebrafish may be due to circulating IGFs produced by the liver, with an important participation of muscle IGF2b. This group of IGFs appears to be favoring the hypertrophic intracellular pathway in muscle tissue of transgenic zebrafish. PMID:26718079

  15. Caring for muscle spasticity or spasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    High muscle tone - care; Increased muscle tension - care; Upper motor neuron syndrome - care; Muscle stiffness - care ... can do. These stretches will help keep your muscles from getting shorter or tighter. Being active also ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: rippling muscle disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sudden impact on the muscle causes it to bunch up (percussion-induced muscle mounding) or exhibit repetitive ... potentials in the tubular system of skeletal muscle fibers. Muscle Nerve. 2005 May;31(5):652-8. ...

  17. Cyclosporin-A does not affect skeletal muscle mass during disuse and recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Aoki

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporin-A (CsA is an immunosuppressive drug that acts as an inhibitor of calcineurin, a calcium phosphatase that has been suggested to play a role in skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of CsA administration (25 mg kg-1 day-1 on skeletal muscle mass and phenotype during disuse and recovery. Male Wistar rats received vehicle (N = 8 or CsA (N = 8 during hind limb immobilization (N = 8 and recovery (N = 8. Muscle weight (dry/wet and cross-sectional area were evaluated to verify the effect of CsA treatment on muscle mass. Muscle phenotype was assessed by histochemistry of myosin ATPase. CsA administration during immobilization and recovery did not change muscle/body weight ratio in the soleus (SOL or plantaris (PL. Regarding muscle phenotype, we observed a consistent slow-to-fast shift in all experimental groups (immobilized only, receiving CsA only, and immobilized receiving CsA as compared to control in both SOL and PL (P < 0.05. During recovery, no difference was observed in SOL or PL fiber type composition between the experimental recovered group and recovered group receiving CsA compared to their respective controls. Considering the muscle/body weight ratio, CsA administration does not maximize muscle mass loss induced by immobilization. Our results also indicate that CsA fails to block skeletal muscle regrowth after disuse. The present data suggest that calcineurin inhibition by CsA modulates muscle phenotype rather than muscle mass.

  18. ORGANIZATION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mrkša, Jožica

    2012-01-01

    In the thesis titled Organization of Public Administration I concentrated in the review of national and foreign literature. My decision for this topic is based on the personal interest and relevance of the topic in this particular period of time. The purpose of my work was to present the public administration in general, with focus in public administration of Slovenia. At first, the theoretical background of public administration is presented, with following topics addressed: public administr...

  19. Uranium favorability of the San Rafael Swell area, east-central Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickle, D G; Jones, C A; Gallagher, G L; Young, P; Dubyk, W S

    1977-10-01

    The San Rafael Swell project area in east-central Utah is approximately 3,000 sq mi and includes the San Rafael Swell anticline and the northern part of the Waterpocket Fold monocline at Capitol Reef. Rocks in the area are predominantly sedimentary rocks of Pennsylvanian through Cretaceous age. Important deposits of uranium in the project area are restricted to two formations, the Chinle (Triassic) and Morrison (Jurassic) Formations. A third formation, the White Rim Sandstone (Permian), was also studied because of reported exploration activity. The White Rim Sandstone is considered generally unfavorable on the basis of lithologic characteristics, distance from a possible source of uranium, lack of apparent mineralization, and the scarcity of anomalies on gamma-ray logs or in rock, water, and stream-sediment samples. The lower Chinle from the Moss Back Member down to the base of the formation is favorable because it is a known producer. New areas for exploration are all subsurface. Both Salt Wash and Brushy Basin Members of the Morrison Formation are favorable. The Salt Wash Member is favorable because it is a known producer. The Brushy Basin Member is favorable as a low-grade resource.

  20. Preferential Hiring and Reverse Discrimination in Favor of Blacks: A Moral Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, Douglas N.

    1978-01-01

    Sketches a broad and general defense of the constitutionality of some kinds of preferential admissions and hiring programs in favor of Blacks by constructing a moral justification of these practices. Available from American Journal of Jurisprudence, Notre Dame Law School, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556; reprint, $1.00. (Author/IRT)

  1. 49 CFR 805.735-5 - Receipt of gifts, entertainment, and favors by Members or employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Member or employee in a superior official position. (d) A Member or an employee in a superior official... Members or employees. 805.735-5 Section 805.735-5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Receipt of gifts, entertainment, and favors by Members or employees. (a) Except as provided in...

  2. Uranium favorability of the San Rafael Swell area, east-central Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The San Rafael Swell project area in east-central Utah is approximately 3,000 sq mi and includes the San Rafael Swell anticline and the northern part of the Waterpocket Fold monocline at Capitol Reef. Rocks in the area are predominantly sedimentary rocks of Pennsylvanian through Cretaceous age. Important deposits of uranium in the project area are restricted to two formations, the Chinle (Triassic) and Morrison (Jurassic) Formations. A third formation, the White Rim Sandstone (Permian), was also studied because of reported exploration activity. The White Rim Sandstone is considered generally unfavorable on the basis of lithologic characteristics, distance from a possible source of uranium, lack of apparent mineralization, and the scarcity of anomalies on gamma-ray logs or in rock, water, and stream-sediment samples. The lower Chinle from the Moss Back Member down to the base of the formation is favorable because it is a known producer. New areas for exploration are all subsurface. Both Salt Wash and Brushy Basin Members of the Morrison Formation are favorable. The Salt Wash Member is favorable because it is a known producer. The Brushy Basin Member is favorable as a low-grade resource

  3. Intercultural Attitudes Predict Favorable Study Abroad Expectations of U.S. College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Randi I.; Goldstein, Susan B.

    2005-01-01

    This study focused on identifying intercultural attitudes associated with favorable expectations about participation in study abroad programs. A total of 282 U.S. 1st-year college students completed a questionnaire that included measures of ethnocentrism, intercultural communication apprehension, language interest and competence, prejudice,…

  4. High procedural fairness heightens the effect of outcome favorability on self-evaluations : An attributional analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brockner, J.; Heuer, L.; Magner, N.; Folger, R.; Umphress, E.; Bos, K. van den; Vermunt, Riël; Magner, M.; Siegel, P.

    2003-01-01

    Previous research has shown that outcome favorability and procedural fairness often interact to influence employees work attitudes and behaviors. Moreover, the form of the interaction effect depends upon the dependent variable. Relative to when procedural fairness is low, high procedural fairness: (

  5. Non-take-up of Tax-favored Savings Plans: Are Household Portfolios Optimal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, R.J.M.; Hochguertel, Stefan; Soest, van Arthur

    2002-01-01

    Since the early nineties, the Dutch tax system allows for a tax-favored form of risk free savings through employer-sponsored savings plans (ESSPs). Under some conditions and up to a certain amount, the contributions to this plan are tax-deductible, and the returns as well as the withdrawals are tax-

  6. Frequency Affects Object Relative Clause Processing: Some Evidence in Favor of Usage-Based Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reali, Florencia

    2014-01-01

    The processing difficulty of nested grammatical structure has been explained by different psycholinguistic theories. Here I provide corpus and behavioral evidence in favor of usage-based models, focusing on the case of object relative clauses in Spanish as a first language. A corpus analysis of spoken Spanish reveals that, as in English, the…

  7. Non-take-up of Tax-favored Savings Plans : Are Household Portfolios Optimal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, R.J.M.; Hochgürtel, S.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2001-01-01

    Since the early nineties, the Dutch tax system allows for a tax-favored form of risk free savings through employer-sponsored savings plans (ESSPs).Under some conditions and up to a certain amount, the contributions to this plan are tax-deductible, and the returns as well as the withdrawals are tax-f

  8. Fate of 3H-thymidine labelled myogenic cells in regeneration of muscle isografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, E; Mares, V; Stichová, J

    1976-03-01

    Intact and denervated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of 20-day-old inbred Lewis-Wistar rats were labelled with 3H-thymidine. Ninety minutes after the injection of the isotope 4.0% of the nuclei were labelled in the intact (i.e. innervated) and 9.6% in the muscles, denervated 3 days before administration of the isotope. The labelled EDL muscles were grafted into the bed of the previously removed EDL muscles of inbred animals and these isografts were studied 30 days later. In the EDL muscles, regenerated from innervated isografts only occasionally labelled endothelial cells were found whereas in the muscles regenerated from denervated isografts also parenchymal muscle nuclei were regularly labelled. The incidence of labelled nuclei in the regenerated EDL muscles was, however, about 20 times lower than in the donor EDL muscles. The presen experiments provide a direct proof of utilization of donor satelite cell nuclei for regeneration in grafted muscle tissue. With respect to the low incidence of labelled nuclei in regenerated EDL muscles, other sources of cells apparently also contribute to the regeneration process.

  9. Muscle hypertrophy induced by myostatin inhibition accelerates degeneration in dysferlinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Sil; Lehar, Adam; Sebald, Suzanne; Liu, Min; Swaggart, Kayleigh A; Talbot, C Conover; Pytel, Peter; Barton, Elisabeth R; McNally, Elizabeth M; Lee, Se-Jin

    2015-10-15

    Myostatin is a secreted signaling molecule that normally acts to limit muscle growth. As a result, there is extensive effort directed at developing drugs capable of targeting myostatin to treat patients with muscle loss. One potential concern with this therapeutic approach in patients with muscle degenerative diseases like muscular dystrophy is that inducing hypertrophy may increase stress on dystrophic fibers, thereby accelerating disease progression. To investigate this possibility, we examined the effect of blocking the myostatin pathway in dysferlin-deficient (Dysf(-/-)) mice, in which membrane repair is compromised, either by transgenic expression of follistatin in skeletal muscle or by systemic administration of the soluble form of the activin type IIB receptor (ACVR2B/Fc). Here, we show that myostatin inhibition by follistatin transgene expression in Dysf(-/-) mice results in early improvement in histopathology but ultimately exacerbates muscle degeneration; this effect was not observed in dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mice, suggesting that accelerated degeneration induced by follistatin transgene expression is specific to mice lacking dysferlin. Dysf(-/-) mice injected with ACVR2B/Fc showed significant increases in muscle mass and amelioration of fibrotic changes normally seen in 8-month-old Dysf(-/-) mice. Despite these potentially beneficial effects, ACVR2B/Fc treatment caused increases in serum CK levels in some Dysf(-/-) mice, indicating possible muscle damage induced by hypertrophy. These findings suggest that depending on the disease context, inducing muscle hypertrophy by myostatin blockade may have detrimental effects, which need to be weighed against the potential gains in muscle growth and decreased fibrosis.

  10. Muscle glycogen stores and fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørtenblad, Niels; Westerblad, Håkan; Nielsen, Joachim

    2013-01-01

      Studies performed at the beginning of the last century revealed the importance of carbohydrate as a fuel during exercise, and the importance of muscle glycogen on performance has subsequently been confirmed in numerous studies. However, the link between glycogen depletion and impaired muscle...... function during fatigue is not well understood and a direct cause-and-effect relationship between glycogen and muscle function remains to be established. The use of electron microscopy has revealed that glycogen is not homogeneously distributed in skeletal muscle fibres, but rather localized in distinct...... pools being of key importance for SR Ca2+ release and thereby affecting muscle contractility and fatigability....

  11. Muscle diseases: the muscular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Elizabeth M; Pytel, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Dystrophic muscle disease can occur at any age. Early- or childhood-onset muscular dystrophies may be associated with profound loss of muscle function, affecting ambulation, posture, and cardiac and respiratory function. Late-onset muscular dystrophies or myopathies may be mild and associated with slight weakness and an inability to increase muscle mass. The phenotype of muscular dystrophy is an endpoint that arises from a diverse set of genetic pathways. Genes associated with muscular dystrophies encode proteins of the plasma membrane and extracellular matrix, and the sarcomere and Z band, as well as nuclear membrane components. Because muscle has such distinctive structural and regenerative properties, many of the genes implicated in these disorders target pathways unique to muscle or more highly expressed in muscle. This chapter reviews the basic structural properties of muscle and genetic mechanisms that lead to myopathy and muscular dystrophies that affect all age groups.

  12. Muscle strength in myasthenia gravis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cejvanovic, S; Vissing, J

    2014-01-01

    % of normal). Muscle strength and disease duration were not related. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that patients with generalized MG have (i) a significant generalized, fixed muscle weakness, (ii) that male patients with MG have a more severe muscle weakness than women, (iii) that proximal upper limb...... is related to disease duration or gender. The aim of this study was to quantify the strength of patients with MG and investigate whether it is related to disease duration. METHODS: Eight muscle groups were tested by manual muscle testing and with a hand-held dynamometer in 38 patients with generalized MG...... and 37 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. The disease duration was recorded and compared with strength measures. RESULTS: On average, muscle strength was decreased by 28% compared with controls (Pstrength measures in individual patients did not differ, suggesting that the muscle...

  13. Study of the response of the penile corporal tissue and cavernosus muscles to micturition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Sibai Olfat

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reaction of the corpora cavernosa (CC, the corpus spongiosum (CS, the bulbocavernosus (BCM and ischiocavernosus (ICM muscles to passage of urine through the urethra during micturition is not known. We investigated the hypothesis that the passage of urine through the urethra stimulates the corporal tissue and cavernosus muscles. Methods In 30 healthy men (mean age 42.8 ± 11.7 years, the electromyographic activity (EMG of the CC, CS, BCM, and ICM were recorded before and during micturition, and on interruption of and straining during micturition. These tests were repeated after individual anesthetization of urethra, corporal tissue, and cavernosus muscles. Results During micturition, the slow wave variables (frequency, amplitude, conduction velocity of the CC and CS decreased while the motor unit action potentials of the BCM and ICM increased; these EMG changes were mild and returned to the basal values on interruption or termination of micturition. Micturition after individual anesthetization of urethra, corporal tissue and cavernosal muscles did not effect significant EMG changes in these structures, while saline administration produced changes similar to those occurring before saline administration. Conclusion The decrease of sinusoidal and increase of cavernosus muscles' EMG activity during micturition apparently denotes sinusoidal relaxation and cavernosus muscles contraction. Sinusoidal muscle relaxation and cavernosus muscles contraction upon micturition are suggested to be mediated through a 'urethro-corporocavernosal reflex'. These sinusoidal and cavernosus muscle changes appear to produce a mild degree of penile tumescence and stretch which might assist in urinary flow during micturition.

  14. Muscle Motion Solenoid Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Shuji

    It is one of our dreams to mechanically recover the lost body for damaged humans. Realistic humanoid robots composed of such machines require muscle motion actuators controlled by all pulling actions. Particularly, antagonistic pairs of bi-articular muscles are very important in animal's motions. A system of actuators is proposed using the electromagnetic force of the solenoids with the abilities of the stroke length over 10 cm and the strength about 20 N, which are needed to move the real human arm. The devised actuators are based on developments of recent modern electro-magnetic materials, where old time materials can not give such possibility. Composite actuators are controlled by a high ability computer and software making genuine motions.

  15. Skeletal muscle adaptations and muscle genomics of performance horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, José-Luis L; Hill, Emmeline W

    2016-03-01

    Skeletal muscles in horses are characterised by specific adaptations, which are the result of the natural evolution of the horse as a grazing animal, centuries of selective breeding and the adaptability of this tissue in response to training. These adaptations include an increased muscle mass relative to body weight, a great locomotor efficiency based upon an admirable muscle-tendon architectural design and an adaptable fibre-type composition with intrinsic shortening velocities greater than would be predicted from an animal of comparable body size. Furthermore, equine skeletal muscles have a high mitochondrial volume that permits a higher whole animal aerobic capacity, as well as large intramuscular stores of energy substrates (glycogen in particular). Finally, high buffer and lactate transport capacities preserve muscles against fatigue during anaerobic exercise. Many of these adaptations can improve with training. The publication of the equine genome sequence in 2009 has provided a major advance towards an improved understanding of equine muscle physiology. Equine muscle genomics studies have revealed a number of genes associated with elite physical performance and have also identified changes in structural and metabolic genes following exercise and training. Genes involved in muscle growth, muscle contraction and specific metabolic pathways have been found to be functionally relevant for the early performance evaluation of elite athletic horses. The candidate genes discussed in this review are important for a healthy individual to improve performance. However, muscle performance limiting conditions are widespread in horses and many of these conditions are also genetically influenced. PMID:26831154

  16. Dismorfia muscular Muscle dysmorphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Seleri Marques Assunção

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Preocupações mórbidas com a imagem corporal eram tidas até recentemente como problemas eminentemente femininos. Atualmente estas preocupações também têm sido encontradas no sexo masculino. A dismorfia muscular é um subtipo do transtorno dismórfico corporal que ocorre principalmente em homens que, apesar da grande hipertrofia muscular, consideram-se pequenos e fracos. Além de estar associada a prejuízos sociais, ocupacionais, recreativos e em outras áreas do funcionamento do indivíduo, a dismorfia muscular é também um fator de risco para o abuso de esteróides anabolizantes. Este artigo aborda aspectos epidemiológicos, etiológicos e padrões clínicos da dismorfia muscular, além de tecer comentários sobre estratégias de tratamento para este transtorno.Morbid concern over body image was considered, until recently, a female issue. Nowadays, it has been viewed as a common male disorder. Muscle dysmorphia, a subtype of a body dysmorphic disorder, affects men who, despite having clear muscular hypertroph,y see themselves as frail and small. Besides being associated to major social, leisure and occupational dysfunction, muscle dysmorphia is also a risk factor for the abuse of steroids. This article describes epidemiological, etiological and clinical characteristics of muscle dysmorphia and comments on its treatment strategy.

  17. Transportation Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration A - Z Index What Can I Bring? Search form Apples Main menu Administrator Travel Security Screening Special Procedures TSA Pre✓® Passenger Support Travel ...

  18. Perceived Distributive Fairness of EU Transfer Payments, Outcome Favorability, Identity, and EU-Tax Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartner, Martina; Rechberger, Silvia; Kirchler, Erich; Wenzel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In a representative UK study (N = 1000) the link between distributive fairness perceptions, outcome favorability, identity, and tax compliance was researched in the context of European transfer payments. Results showed that both forms of tax compliance (i.e., individual and collective EU-tax compliance) were influenced by perceived distributive fairness judgments of EU transfer payments. Fairness itself was related to perceived outcome favorability (i.e., whether their own nation benefits from the EU in financial as well as socio-political terms). Additionally, national identifiers (i.e., people identifying with their own nation, but not with Europe) perceived EU membership as unbeneficial in financial as well as in socio-political terms and thus considered the transfer payments as less fair. Dual identifiers (i.e., people identifying with their own nation and with Europe) perceived the socio-political outcomes from EU membership as more beneficial and thus evaluated the transfer payments as fairer.

  19. Non-favorable positioning of anterosuperior dental implants — case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Miranda DELIBERADOR

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The treatment with implants has demonstrated to be a good alternative to oral rehabilitation. However, it is important to follow some criteria in order to achieve success. Objective: This report showed an alternative approach to a clinical condition of non-favorable positioning of anterosuperior dental implants, added to an also non- favorable initial prosthetic planning. Case report: Female patient, 60 years old, with fixed prosthesis over labial inclined implants, in the central and lateral superior incisors region, and with peri-implant disease. A new approach with fixed prosthesis and single abutments, what allows cleaning, and also removable gingival mask was applied. Monitoring of 3, 6, 9 and 12 months were done. Conclusion: The use of a prosthetic alternative such as gingival mask demonstrated to be efficient regarding esthetic and masticatory functions, contributing to oral hygiene, an important factor to peri-implanttissues health.

  20. Influences of Mental Illness Stigma on Perceptions of and Responses to Requests for Favors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Tatsuya; Dailey, René

    2016-07-01

    This article examines mental illness stigma effects on a request for a favor from a mentally ill individual. Four hundred and fourteen participants interacted with a hypothetical target on Facebook who was believed to have schizophrenia, depression, or a tooth cavity (i.e., the control group). Participants were asked to rate the favor request in terms of face threat, in addition to writing a response, which was then coded using message design logics. Results indicated that a request by a schizophrenic target threatened participants' positive face more significantly than that of a target with depression or without any mental illness. Participants' responses to the schizophrenic target were more likely to be conventional messages, whereas responses to the depressed target were more likely to be rhetorical messages. Theoretical and practical contributions are considered. PMID:26642875

  1. Designing convex repulsive pair potentials that favor assembly of kagome and snub square lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeros, William D.; Baldea, Michael; Truskett, Thomas M.

    2016-08-01

    Building on a recently introduced inverse strategy, isotropic and convex repulsive pair potentials were designed that favor assembly of particles into kagome and equilateral snub square lattices. The former interactions were obtained by a numerical solution of a variational problem that maximizes the range of density for which the ground state of the potential is the kagome lattice. Similar optimizations targeting the snub square lattice were also carried out, employing a constraint that required a minimum chemical potential advantage of the target over select competing structures. This constraint helped to discover isotropic interactions that meaningfully favored the snub square lattice as the ground state structure despite the asymmetric spatial distribution of particles in its coordination shells and the presence of tightly competing structures. Consistent with earlier published results [W. Piñeros et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 084502 (2016)], enforcement of greater chemical potential advantages for the target lattice in the interaction optimization led to assemblies with enhanced thermal stability.

  2. Detecting Two-Spirit erotics: The fiction of Carole laFavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatonetti, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the life and novels of Carole laFavor, arguing for her importance to and influence in Two-Spirit studies. Along with being a writer, laFavor was a powerful voice for social justice and Indigenous health sovereignty in Minnesota and the nation. Her two novels, Along the Journey River and Evil Dead Center, which both focus on Anishinaabe lesbian detective protagonist Renee LaRoche, are the first lesbian detective fiction published by a Native author. Renee's embrace of a specifically Two-Spirit erotics anchors her to family and brings her tribal community a powerful healing when she employs her skills to protect her people from instances of racism, abuse, and injustice. This article, then, reads these novels as the first of an emerging genre of texts that claim an overtly Two-Spirit erotic as well as vital precursors to the present embrace of sovereign erotics in Indigenous studies. PMID:27254762

  3. Uranium favorability evaluation of the Mt. Withington cauldron, Socorro County, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mt. Withington cauldron is unfavorable for initial-magmatic pneumatogenic, hydroauthigenic, and hydroallogenic uranium deposits. Despite their favorable major-oxide chemistry, the rocks in the cauldron are relatively poor uranium source rocks; evidence for significant uranium mobilization and transport is lacking; the ash-flow tuffs and the domes and lava flows do not have porous structures adequate to accommodate uranium precipitated by pressure-temperature mechanisms in amounts large enough to constitute uranium deposits; and the lack of reductants signifies that uranium precipitation in adequate amounts by reduction is not probable. It is concluded that no further uranium favorability work in the Mt. Withington cauldron is warranted. 1 figure, 1 table

  4. Favorable Long-term Prognosis of Cataract Surgery in Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Kulbhushan Prakash; Mahajan, Deepti; Panwar, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Scleritis is a rare presentation of herpes zoster ophthalmicus, complicated most commonly by iridocyclitis and raised intraocular pressure. These complications can recur in subsequent years, therefore they should be managed well. Case Report: We describe a female patient who developed scleritis, complicated cataract and secondary glaucoma 2 years after being diagnosed by HZO. Secondary glaucoma was managed medically, and the patient underwent extracapsular cataract extraction for the complicated cataract. Final visual acuity was 6/6 and IOP was 22.4 mm Hg. This is a rare report describing favorable long-term (>20 years) prognosis for surgical management of cataract associated with HZO together with scleritis, secondary glaucoma and post-herpetic neuralgia. Conclusion: A favorable outcome may be attained with surgery for complicated cataract associated with HZO if the condition is managed optimally and intraocular inflammation is well controlled. PMID:27413505

  5. Cloudera administration handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow Apache Hadoop administrator's guide filled with practical screenshots and explanations for each step and configuration. This book is great for administrators interested in setting up and managing a large Hadoop cluster. If you are an administrator, or want to be an administrator, and you are ready to build and maintain a production-level cluster running CDH5, then this book is for you.

  6. Understanding land administration systems

    OpenAIRE

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy; Rajabifard, Abbas

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of ...

  7. Refinement for administrative policies

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, S.

    2007-01-01

    Flexibility of management is an important requisite for access control systems as it allows users to adapt the access control system in accordance with practical requirements. This paper builds on earlier work where we defined administrative policies for a general class of RBAC models. We present a formal definition of administrative refinnement and we show that there is an ordering for administrative privileges which yields administrative refinements of policies. We argue (by giving an examp...

  8. Theory Construction in Second Language Acquisition In Favor of the Rationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Shokouhi

    2012-01-01

    One of the most controversial issues in second language acquisition (SLA) seems to be the issue of theory construction. There are mainly two opposing views considering the SLA theory construction namely the Rationalist view and the Relativist view. The former tries to reasons that there should be a few theories of SLA at work while the latter favors as many theories as possible. However, the present paper tries to take a supportive stance with regard to the rationalism reasoning that the rati...

  9. Wide and Fast: Monitoring the Sky in Subsecond Domain with the FAVOR and TORTORA Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Karpov

    2010-01-01

    natural and artificial, it is necessary to perform the systematic monitoring of large regions of the sky with high temporal resolution. Here we discuss the criteria for a system that is able to perform such a task and describe two cameras we created for wide-field monitoring with high temporal resolution—FAVOR and TORTORA. Also, we describe basic principles of real-time data processing for the high frame rates needed to achieve subsecond temporal resolution on a typical hardware.

  10. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O'Malley. Overall, small

  11. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Pfattheicher; Simon Schindler

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR s...

  12. Favored subjects and psychosocial needs in music therapy in terminally ill cancer patients: a content analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Preissler, Pia; Kordovan, Sarah; Ullrich, Anneke; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Oechsle, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background Research has shown positive effects of music therapy on the physical and mental well-being of terminally ill patients. This study aimed to identify favored subjects and psychosocial needs of terminally ill cancer patients during music therapy and associated factors. Methods Forty-one Patients receiving specialized inpatient palliative care prospectively performed a music therapy intervention consisting of at least two sessions (total number of sessions: 166; per patient average: 4,...

  13. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O'Malley. Overall, small

  14. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pfattheicher

    Full Text Available The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump. Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O

  15. Microparticles carrying Sonic hedgehog favor neovascularization through the activation of nitric oxide pathway in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Benameur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microparticles (MPs are vesicles released from plasma membrane upon cell activation and during apoptosis. Human T lymphocytes undergoing activation and apoptosis generate MPs bearing morphogen Shh (MPs(Shh+ that are able to regulate in vitro angiogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we investigated the ability of MPs(Shh+ to modulate neovascularization in a model of mouse hind limb ischemia. Mice were treated in vivo for 21 days with vehicle, MPs(Shh+, MPs(Shh+ plus cyclopamine or cyclopamine alone, an inhibitor of Shh signalling. Laser doppler analysis revealed that the recovery of the blood flow was 1.4 fold higher in MPs(Shh+-treated mice than in controls, and this was associated with an activation of Shh pathway in muscles and an increase in NO production in both aorta and muscles. MPs(Shh+-mediated effects on flow recovery and NO production were completely prevented when Shh signalling was inhibited by cyclopamine. In aorta, MPs(Shh+ increased activation of eNOS/Akt pathway, and VEGF expression, being inhibited by cyclopamine. By contrast, in muscles, MPs(Shh+ enhanced eNOS expression and phosphorylation and decreased caveolin-1 expression, but cyclopamine prevented only the effects of MPs(Shh+ on eNOS pathway. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that MPs(Shh+ treatment increased FGF5, FGF2, VEGF A and C mRNA levels and decreased those of α5-integrin, FLT-4, HGF, IGF-1, KDR, MCP-1, MT1-MMP, MMP-2, TGFβ1, TGFβ2, TSP-1 and VCAM-1, in ischemic muscles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that MPs(Shh+ may contribute to reparative neovascularization after ischemic injury by regulating NO pathway and genes involved in angiogenesis.

  16. Development of a new β Ti alloy with low modulus and favorable plasticity for implant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, S X; Feng, X J; Yin, L X; Liu, X Y; Ma, M Z; Liu, R P

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important development directions of the Ti and its alloys is the applications in medical field. Development of new Ti alloys with low elastic modulus and/or favorable biocompatibility plays an important role for promoting its application in medical field. In this work, a new β Ti alloy (Ti-31Nb-6Zr-5Mo, wt.%) was designed for implant material using d-electron alloy design method. Microstructure and tensile properties of the designed alloy after hot rolling (HR) and solution followed by aging treatments (SA) were investigated. Results show that the designed alloy is composed of single β phase. However, microstructural analysis shows that the β phase in the designed alloy separates into Nb-rich and Nb-poor phase regions. The Nb-rich regions in HR specimen are typical elongated fiber texture, but are equiaxed particles with several micrometers in SA specimen. Tensile results show that the designed alloy has low Young's modulus of 44 GPa for HR specimen and 48 GPa for SA specimen which are very close to the extreme of Young's modulus of bulk titanium alloys. At the same time, the designed alloy has favorable plasticity in term of elongation of 26.7% for HR specimen and 20.6% for SA specimen, and appropriate tensile strength over 700 MPa. In short, the designed alloy has low elastic modulus close to that of bone and favorable plasticity and strength which can be a potential candidate for hard tissue replacements. PMID:26838858

  17. The Study of Relationship Between Work Teams and Favoring Knowledge Management (Case: Bank Keshavarzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamze Jamshidi Kohsari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management is a process that has been recently generated as an activity which isvery important in the dynamic environment, and in the competitive scene. We believe that KM is aprocess which its organizational knowledge is created from the individual knowledge of themembers of the organization. The relevant studies have indicated that organizing based on workteams could be considered a way to create the appropriate context for KM. However, thisorganizing based on work teams is not enough; it only has the necessary characteristics of the workteams that favor KM. Moreover, based on studies done, we distinguish which characteristics ofwork teams favor the KM process in its different phases (i.e. creation, transfer and integration. Inthis study, we conducted multiple regression and analysis of variance.Complementary skills (H2 and a climate of trust (H3 in work teams were more importantfactors that favor the management of organizational knowledge.This research is based on the Zarraga and Perez studies in 2006.

  18. Dexamethasone regulates glutamine synthetase expression in rat skeletal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Stephen R.; Konagaya, Masaaki; Konagaya, Yoko; Thomas, John W.; Banner, Carl; Vitkovic, Ljubisa

    1986-01-01

    The regulation of glutamine synthetase by glucocorticoids in rat skeletal muscles was studied. Administration of dexamethasone strikingly enhanced glutamine synthetase activity in plantaris and soleus muscles. The dexamethasone-mediated induction of glutamine synthetase activity was blocked to a significant extent by orally administered RU38486, a glucocorticoid antagonist, indicating the involvement of intracellular glucocorticoid receptors in the induction. Northern blot analysis revealed that dexamethasone-mediated enhancement of glutamine synthetase activity involves dramatically increased levels of glutamine synthetase mRNA. The induction of glutamine synthetase was selective in that glutaminase activity of soleus and plantaris muscles was not increased by dexamethasone. Furthermore, dexamethasone treatment resulted in only a small increase in glutamine synthetase activity in the heart. Accordingly, there was only a slight change in glutamine synthetase mRNA level in this tissue. Thus, glucocorticoids regulate glutamine synthetase gene expression in rat muscles at the transcriptional level via interaction with intracellular glutamine production by muscle and to mechanisms underlying glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy.

  19. Reduced Muscle Glycogen Differentially Affects Exercise Performance and Muscle Fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Lees; Williams, Jay H; Batts, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of reduced muscle glycogen on exercise performance and muscle fatigue. Male rats were assigned to a low glycogen group (LG) that participated in a protocol of exercise and fasting, a high glycogen group (HG) that exercised but were allowed free access to food, or control group (CON) that did not exercise but were allowed free access to food. Following the protocol, muscle glycogen content of the LG animals was reduced by 45%. The LG animals also perform...

  20. Sildenafil increases muscle protein synthesis and reduces muscle fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    SHEFFIELD-MOORE, M.; Wiktorowicz, J E; Soman, K V; Danesi, C.P.; Kinsky, M.P.; Dillon, E.L.; Randolph, K.M.; Casperson, S.L.; Gore, D.C.; Horstman, A.M.; Lynch, J. P.; Doucet, B.M.; Mettler, J.; Ryder, J W; Ploutz-Snyder, L.L.

    2013-01-01

    Reductions in skeletal muscle function occur during the course of healthy aging as well as with bedrest or diverse diseases such as cancer, muscular dystrophy, and heart failure. However, there are no accepted pharmacologic therapies to improve impaired skeletal muscle function. Nitric oxide may influence skeletal muscle function through effects on excitation-contraction coupling, myofibrillar function, perfusion, and metabolism. Here we show that augmentation of nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine...

  1. Painful Unilateral Temporalis Muscle Enlargement: Reactive Masticatory Muscle Hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Katsetos, Christos D.; Bianchi, Michael A.; Jaffery, Fizza; Koutzaki, Sirma; Zarella, Mark; Slater, Robert

    2013-01-01

    An instance of isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy (reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy with fiber type 1 predominance) confirmed by muscle biopsy with histochemical fiber typing and image analysis in a 62 year-old man is reported. The patient presented with bruxism and a painful swelling of the temple. Absence of asymmetry or other abnormalities of the craniofacial skeleton was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and cephalometric analyses. The patient achieved symptoma...

  2. SDMG - Sablefish Muscle Physiology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Meat producing animals in agriculture are the result of ongoing genetic selection for desirable characteristics related to growth rates, feed efficiencies, product...

  3. Muscle-specific microRNAs in skeletal muscle development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Martin; Novak, Jan; Bienertova-Vasku, Julie

    2016-02-01

    Proper muscle function constitutes a precondition for good heath and an active lifestyle during an individual's lifespan and any deviations from normal skeletal muscle development and its functions may lead to numerous health conditions including e.g. myopathies and increased mortality. It is thus not surprising that there is an increasing need for understanding skeletal muscle developmental processes and the associated molecular pathways, especially as such information could find further uses in therapy. The understanding of complex skeletal muscle developmental networks was broadened with the discovery of microRNA (miRNA) molecules. MicroRNAs are evolutionary conserved small non-coding RNAs capable of negatively regulating gene expression on a post-transcriptional level by means of miRNA-mRNA interaction. Several miRNAs expressed exclusively in muscle have been labeled myomiRs. MyomiRs represent an integral part of skeletal muscle development, i.e. playing a significant role during skeletal muscle proliferation, differentiation and regeneration. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of current knowledge regarding the involvement of myomiRs in the individual phases of myogenesis and other aspects of skeletal muscle biology, along with an up-to-date list of myomiR target genes and their functions in skeletal muscle and miRNA-related therapeutic approaches and future prospects. PMID:26708096

  4. ANG II is required for optimal overload-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, S. E.; Davis, B. S.; Carlson, C. J.; Booth, F. W.

    2001-01-01

    ANG II mediates the hypertrophic response of overloaded cardiac muscle, likely via the ANG II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor. To examine the potential role of ANG II in overload-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy, plantaris and/or soleus muscle overload was produced in female Sprague-Dawley rats (225-250 g) by the bilateral surgical ablation of either the synergistic gastrocnemius muscle (experiment 1) or both the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles (experiment 2). In experiment 1 (n = 10/group), inhibiting endogenous ANG II production by oral administration of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor during a 28-day overloading protocol attenuated plantaris and soleus muscle hypertrophy by 57 and 96%, respectively (as measured by total muscle protein content). ACE inhibition had no effect on nonoverloaded (sham-operated) muscles. With the use of new animals (experiment 2; n = 8/group), locally perfusing overloaded soleus muscles with exogenous ANG II (via osmotic pump) rescued the lost hypertrophic response in ACE-inhibited animals by 71%. Furthermore, orally administering an AT(1) receptor antagonist instead of an ACE inhibitor produced a 48% attenuation of overload-induced hypertrophy that could not be rescued by ANG II perfusion. Thus ANG II may be necessary for optimal overload-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy, acting at least in part via an AT(1) receptor-dependent pathway.

  5. Vibrio ecology - Identifying Environmental Determinants Favorable for the Presence and Transmission of Pathogenic Vibrios

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In a tri-coastal collaborative study, the population densities of vibrios are being determined in the Mississippi Sound, Puget Sound, Chesapeake Bay, and Timbalier...

  6. Corticospinal control of antagonistic muscles in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, Christian; Brizzi, Laurent; Giguère, Dominic; Capaday, Charles

    2007-09-01

    We recently suggested that movement-related inter-joint muscle synergies are recruited by selected excitation and selected release from inhibition of cortical points. Here we asked whether a similar cortical mechanism operates in the functional linking of antagonistic muscles. To this end experiments were done on ketamine-anesthetized cats. Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) and intramuscular electromyographic recordings were used to find and characterize wrist, elbow and shoulder antagonistic motor cortical points. Simultaneous ICMS applied at two cortical points, each evoking activity in one of a pair of antagonistic muscles, produced co-contraction of antagonistic muscle pairs. However, we found an obvious asymmetry in the strength of reciprocal inhibition; it was always significantly stronger on physiological extensors than flexors. Following intravenous injection of a single bolus of strychnine, a cortical point at which only a physiological flexor was previously activated also elicited simultaneous activation of its antagonist. This demonstrates that antagonistic corticospinal neurons are closely grouped, or intermingled. To test whether releasing a cortical point from inhibition allows it to be functionally linked with an antagonistic cortical point, one of three GABA(A) receptor antagonists, bicuculline, gabazine or picrotoxin, was injected iontophoretically at one cortical point while stimulation was applied to an antagonistic cortical point. This coupling always resulted in co-contraction of the represented antagonistic muscles. Thus, antagonistic motor cortical points are linked by excitatory intracortical connections held in check by local GABAergic inhibition, with reciprocal inhibition occurring at the spinal level. Importantly, the asymmetry of cortically mediated reciprocal inhibition would appear significantly to bias muscle maps obtained by ICMS in favor of physiological flexors. PMID:17880397

  7. : AMPK and skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Mounier, Rémi; Lantier, Louise; Leclerc, Jocelyne; Sotiropoulos, Athanassia; Pende, Mario; Daegelen, Dominique; Sakamoto, Kei; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit

    2009-01-01

    10 pages; 6 figures; 49 références bibliographiques International audience Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibits protein synthesis through the suppression of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a critical regulator of muscle growth. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the role of the AMPKalpha1 catalytic subunit on muscle cell size control and adaptation to muscle hypertrophy. We found that AMPKalpha1(-/-) primary cultured myotubes a...

  8. Muscle dysmorphia: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tod D

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available David Tod1 Christian Edwards2 Ieuan Cranswick1 1School of Sport and Exercise Science, Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, Merseyside, 2Institute of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Worcester, Worcester, Worcestershire, UK Abstract: Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people’s beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scientific communities. Much of this empirical interest has surveyed nonclinical samples, and there is limited understanding of people with the condition beyond knowledge about their characteristics. Much of the existing knowledge about people with the condition is unsurprising and inherent in the definition of the disorder, such as dissatisfaction with muscularity and adherence to muscle-building activities. Only recently have investigators started to explore questions beyond these limited tautological findings that may give rise to substantial knowledge advances, such as the examination of masculine and feminine norms. There is limited understanding of additional topics such as etiology, prevalence, nosology, prognosis, and treatment. Further, the evidence is largely based on a small number of unstandardized case reports and descriptive studies (involving small samples, which are largely confined to Western (North American, British, and Australian males. Although much research has been undertaken since the term “muscle dysmorphia” entered the psychiatric lexicon in 1997, there remains tremendous scope for knowledge advancement. A primary task in the short term is for investigators to examine the extent to which the condition exists among well-defined populations to help determine the justification for research funding relative to other public health issues. A greater variety of research questions and designs may contribute to a broader and more robust knowledge base

  9. Muscle dysmorphia: current insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tod, David; Edwards, Christian; Cranswick, Ieuan

    2016-01-01

    Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people's beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scientific communities. Much of this empirical interest has surveyed nonclinical samples, and there is limited understanding of people with the condition beyond knowledge about their characteristics. Much of the existing knowledge about people with the condition is unsurprising and inherent in the definition of the disorder, such as dissatisfaction with muscularity and adherence to muscle-building activities. Only recently have investigators started to explore questions beyond these limited tautological findings that may give rise to substantial knowledge advances, such as the examination of masculine and feminine norms. There is limited understanding of additional topics such as etiology, prevalence, nosology, prognosis, and treatment. Further, the evidence is largely based on a small number of unstandardized case reports and descriptive studies (involving small samples), which are largely confined to Western (North American, British, and Australian) males. Although much research has been undertaken since the term "muscle dysmorphia" entered the psychiatric lexicon in 1997, there remains tremendous scope for knowledge advancement. A primary task in the short term is for investigators to examine the extent to which the condition exists among well-defined populations to help determine the justification for research funding relative to other public health issues. A greater variety of research questions and designs may contribute to a broader and more robust knowledge base than currently exists. Future work will help clinicians assist a group of people whose quality of life and health are placed at risk by their muscular preoccupation.

  10. Lipoxygenase in chicken muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of lipoxygenase-type enzymes was demonstrated in chick muscles. Examination of the oxidation products of [14C]arachidonic acid revealed the presence of 15-lipoxygenase. The enzyme was partially purified by affinity chromatography on linoleoyl-aminoethyl-Sepharose. The enzyme was stable on frozen storage, and activity was almost completely preserved after 12-month storage at -20 degree C. During this period the content of cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene fatty acids decreased slightly. It is suggested that lipoxygenase may be responsible for some of the oxidative changes occurring in fatty acids on frozen storage of chicken meat

  11. Free Flap Functional Muscle Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ryan M; Ruch, David S

    2016-08-01

    Free functional muscle transfers remain a powerful reconstructive tool to restore upper extremity function when other options such as tendon or nerve transfers are not available. This reconstructive technique is commonly used for patients following trauma, ischemic contractures, and brachial plexopathies. Variable outcomes have been reported following free functional muscle transfers that are related to motor nerve availability and reinnervation. This article highlights considerations around donor motor nerve selection, dissection, and use of the gracilis muscle, and the surgical approach to performing a free functional muscle transfer to restore elbow flexion and/or digit flexion. PMID:27387083

  12. Smooth muscle strips for intestinal tissue engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Walthers

    Full Text Available Functionally contracting smooth muscle is an essential part of the engineered intestine that has not been replicated in vitro. The purpose of this study is to produce contracting smooth muscle in culture by maintaining the native smooth muscle organization. We employed intact smooth muscle strips and compared them to dissociated smooth muscle cells in culture for 14 days. Cells isolated by enzymatic digestion quickly lost maturity markers for smooth muscle cells and contained few enteric neural and glial cells. Cultured smooth muscle strips exhibited periodic contraction and maintained neural and glial markers. Smooth muscle strips cultured for 14 days also exhibited regular fluctuation of intracellular calcium, whereas cultured smooth muscle cells did not. After implantation in omentum for 14 days on polycaprolactone scaffolds, smooth muscle strip constructs expressed high levels of smooth muscle maturity markers as well as enteric neural and glial cells. Intact smooth muscle strips may be a useful component for engineered intestinal smooth muscle.

  13. Modelling functional effects of muscle geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der B.J.J.J.; Koopman, H.F.J.M.; Grootenboer, H.J.; Huijing, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    Muscle architecture is an important aspect of muscle functioning. Hence, geometry and material properties of muscle have great influence on the force–length characteristics of muscle. We compared experimental results for the gastrocnemius medialis muscle (GM) of the rat to model results of simple ge

  14. The HII Galaxy Hubble Diagram Strongly Favors Rh = ct over ΛCDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio

    2016-08-01

    We continue to build support for the proposal to use HII galaxies (HIIGx) and giant extragalactic HII regions (GEHR) as standard candles to construct the Hubble diagram at redshifts beyond the current reach of Type Ia supernovae. Using a sample of 25 high-redshift HIIGx, 107 local HIIGx, and 24 GEHR, we confirm that the correlation between the emission-line luminosity and ionized-gas velocity dispersion is a viable luminosity indicator, and use it to test and compare the standard model ΛCDM and the Rh = ct Universe by optimizing the parameters in each cosmology using a maximization of the likelihood function. For the flat ΛCDM model, the best fit is obtained with Ω _m= 0.40_{-0.09}^{+0.09}. However, statistical tools, such as the Akaike (AIC), Kullback (KIC) and Bayes (BIC) Information Criteria favor Rh = ct over the standard model with a likelihood of ≈94.8% - 98.8% versus only ≈1.2% - 5.2%. For wCDM (the version of ΛCDM with a dark-energy equation of state wde ≡ pde/ρde rather than wde = wΛ = -1), a statistically acceptable fit is realized with Ω _m=0.22_{-0.14}^{+0.16} and w_de= -0.51_{-0.25}^{+0.15} which, however, are not fully consistent with their concordance values. In this case, wCDM has two more free parameters than Rh = ct, and is penalized more heavily by these criteria. We find that Rh = ct is strongly favored over wCDM with a likelihood of ≈92.9% - 99.6% versus only 0.4% - 7.1%. The current HIIGx sample is already large enough for the BIC to rule out ΛCDM/wCDM in favor of Rh = ct at a confidence level approaching 3σ.

  15. Nicotinic acid supplementation in diet favored intramuscular fat deposition and lipid metabolism in finishing steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhu-Qing; Bao, Lin-Bin; Zhao, Xiang-Hui; Wang, Can-Yu; Zhou, Shan; Wen, Lu-Hua; Fu, Chuan-Bian; Gong, Jian-Ming; Qu, Ming-Ren

    2016-06-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA) acting as the precursor of NAD(+)/NADH and NADP(+)/NADPH, participates in many biochemical processes, e.g. lipid metabolism. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary NA on carcass traits, meat quality, blood metabolites, and fat deposition in Chinese crossbred finishing steers. Sixteen steers with the similar body weight and at the age of 24 months were randomly allocated into control group (feeding basal diet) and NA group (feeding basal diet + 1000 mg/kg NA). All experimental cattle were fed a 90% concentrate diet and 10% forage straw in a 120-day feeding experiment. The results showed that supplemental NA in diet increased longissimus area, intramuscular fat content (17.14% vs. 9.03%), marbling score (8.08 vs. 4.30), redness (a*), and chroma (C*) values of LD muscle, but reduced carcass fat content (not including imtramuscular fat), pH24 h and moisture content of LD muscle, along with no effect on backfat thickness. Besides, NA supplementation increased serum HDL-C concentration, but decreased the serum levels of LDL-C, triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acid, total cholesterol, and glycated serum protein. In addition, NA supplementation increased G6PDH and ICDH activities of LD muscle. These results suggested that NA supplementation in diet improves the carcass characteristics and beef quality, and regulates the compositions of serum metabolites. Based on the above results, NA should be used as the feed additive in cattle industry. PMID:27048556

  16. Influence of ginger and cinnamon intake on inflammation and muscle soreness endued by exercise in Iranian female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Shokri Mashhadi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Administration of ginger and cinnamon in athlete women for six weeks did not show any significant change in the IL-6 level, but showed a decrease in muscle soreness in the cinnamon and ginger groups.

  17. Favorable areas for prospecting adjacent to the Roberts Mountains thrust in southern Lander County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John Harris; McKee, Edwin H.

    1968-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping by the U.S. Geological Survey of more than 2,500 square miles of a relatively little-studied part of central Nevada has outlined four areas favorable for the discovery of metallic mineral deposits. In these areas, lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks crop out below the Roberts Mountains thrust, a widespread fault in central and north-central Nevada. These areas have a stratigraphic and structural setting similar to that of the areas where large, open-pit gold deposits have been discovered recently at Carlin and Cortez in north-central Nevada.

  18. Some concepts of favorability for world-class-type uranium deposits in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, H.H.

    1981-03-01

    An account is given of concepts of favorability of geologic environments in the eastern United States for uranium deposits of several major types existing elsewhere in the world. The purpose is to convey some initial ideas about the interrelationships of the geology of the eastern United States and the geologic settings of certain of these world-class deposits. The study and report include consideration of uranium deposits other than those generally manifesting the geologic, geochemical and genetic characteristics associated with the conventional sandstone-type ores of the western United States.

  19. Some concepts of favorability for world-class-type uranium deposits in the northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of concepts of favorability of geologic environments in the eastern United States for uranium deposits of several major types existing elsewhere in the world. The purpose is to convey some initial ideas about the interrelationships of the geology of the eastern United States and the geologic settings of certain of these world-class deposits. The study and report include consideration of uranium deposits other than those generally manifesting the geologic, geochemical and genetic characteristics associated with the conventional sandstone-type ores of the western United States

  20. 2005 winter meeting - pleading in favor of a sensible energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The year's Winter Meeting of Deutsches Atomforum, which was held under the general heading of 'Pleading in Favor of a Sensible Energy Mix', dealt with the large variety of aspects and perspectives of this important key topic, also with respect to the sustainability factors, environment, economy, and social aspects. Twelve contributions, or statements, by representatives from politics, industry, society, and research covered different aspects of a 'sensible energy mix'. A round of politicians debated the subject controversially. The meeting, which was attended by more than 250 participants, thus opened 2005 with an interesting presentation of present and future topics of the power supply debate. (orig.)

  1. 2005 DAtF winter meeting - pleading in favor of a sensible energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The year's Winter Meeting of Deutsches Atomforum, which was held under the general heading of 'Pleading in Favor of a Sensible Energy Mix', dealt with the large variety of aspects and perspectives of this important key topic, also with respect to the sustainability factors, environment, economy, and social aspects. Twelve contributions, or statements, by representatives from politics, industry, society, and research covered different aspects of a 'sensible energy mix'. A round of politicians debated the subject controversially. The meeting, which was attended by more than 250 participants, thus opened 2005 with an interesting presentation of present and future topics of the power supply debate. (orig.)

  2. Tau neutrinos favored over sterile neutrinos in atmospheric muon neutrino oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, S; Fukuda, Y; Ishitsuka, M; Kajita, T; Kameda, J; Kaneyuki, K; Kobayashi, K; Koshio, Y; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Nakayama, S; Obayashi, Y; Okada, A; Okumura, K; Sakurai, N; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeuchi, H; Takeuchi, Y; Toshito, T; Totsuka, Y; Yamada, S; Earl, M; Habig, A; Kearns, E; Messier, M D; Scholberg, K; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Walter, C W; Goldhaber, M; Barszczak, T; Casper, D; Gajewski, W; Kropp, W R; Mine, S; Price, L R; Smy, M; Sobel, H W; Vagins, M R; Ganezer, K S; Keig, W E; Ellsworth, R W; Tasaka, S; Kibayashi, A; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Takemori, D

    2000-11-01

    The previously published atmospheric neutrino data did not distinguish whether muon neutrinos were oscillating into tau neutrinos or sterile neutrinos, as both hypotheses fit the data. Using data recorded in 1100 live days of the Super-Kamiokande detector, we use three complementary data samples to study the difference in zenith angle distribution due to neutral currents and matter effects. We find no evidence favoring sterile neutrinos, and reject the hypothesis at the 99% confidence level. On the other hand, we find that oscillation between muon and tau neutrinos suffices to explain all the results in hand.

  3. IMPACT OF ISLAMIC RELIGIOUS SYMBOL IN PRODUCING FAVORABLE ATTITUDE TOWARD ADVERTISEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas NASERI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature on religion and advertisement led to the identification of three lines of studies examining the influence of religion on advertising. These three lines of studies focused on attitude toward advertising of controversial products, presence of religious values in advertisements executions, and the consumers’ reactions to advertisement containing religious cues or symbols. The latter line has been followed modestly in Christian context but not in Islamic context of advertising. Hijab as a significant religious cue might peripherally generates a favorable attitude toward advertisement among Muslims. It is suggested that information processing theories like Elaboration Likelihood Model provides a pertinent theoretical framework to examine this effect empirically.

  4. The interscutularis muscle connectome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Lu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The complete connectional map (connectome of a neural circuit is essential for understanding its structure and function. Such maps have only been obtained in Caenorhabditis elegans. As an attempt at solving mammalian circuits, we reconstructed the connectomes of six interscutularis muscles from adult transgenic mice expressing fluorescent proteins in all motor axons. The reconstruction revealed several organizational principles of the neuromuscular circuit. First, the connectomes demonstrate the anatomical basis of the graded tensions in the size principle. Second, they reveal a robust quantitative relationship between axonal caliber, length, and synapse number. Third, they permit a direct comparison of the same neuron on the left and right sides of the same vertebrate animal, and reveal significant structural variations among such neurons, which contrast with the stereotypy of identified neurons in invertebrates. Finally, the wiring length of axons is often longer than necessary, contrary to the widely held view that neural wiring length should be minimized. These results show that mammalian muscle function is implemented with a variety of wiring diagrams that share certain global features but differ substantially in anatomical form. This variability may arise from the dominant role of synaptic competition in establishing the final circuit.

  5. Conditional over-expression of PITX1 causes skeletal muscle dystrophy in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachchida N. Pandey

    2012-05-01

    Paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 1 (PITX1 was specifically up-regulated in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD by comparing the genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of 12 neuromuscular disorders. In addition, it is the only known direct transcriptional target of the double homeobox protein 4 (DUX4 of which aberrant expression has been shown to be the cause of FSHD. To test the hypothesis that up-regulation of PITX1 contributes to the skeletal muscle atrophy seen in patients with FSHD, we generated a tet-repressible muscle-specific Pitx1 transgenic mouse model in which expression of PITX1 in skeletal muscle can be controlled by oral administration of doxycycline. After PITX1 was over-expressed in the skeletal muscle for 5 weeks, the mice exhibited significant loss of body weight and muscle mass, decreased muscle strength, and reduction of muscle fiber diameters. Among the muscles examined, the tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, quadricep, bicep, tricep and deltoid showed significant reduction of muscle mass, while the soleus, masseter and diaphragm muscles were not affected. The most prominent pathological change was the development of atrophic muscle fibers with mild necrosis and inflammatory infiltration. The affected myofibers stained heavily with NADH-TR with the strongest staining in angular-shaped atrophic fibers. Some of the atrophic fibers were also positive for embryonic myosin heavy chain using immunohistochemistry. Immunoblotting showed that the p53 was up-regulated in the muscles over-expressing PITX1. The results suggest that the up-regulation of PITX1 followed by activation of p53-dependent pathways may play a major role in the muscle atrophy developed in the mouse model.

  6. Personality Traits and Administrators

    OpenAIRE

    Anitha V

    2008-01-01

    Administration is the art of getting tasks done by utilizing the resources and coordinating the people. Administrators give trigger to the administration by coordinating, and directing all parts of an organization by managing the tangible and intangible resources of the organization. The qualities of leadership are therefore a critical determinant of organizational success. The theories of leadership (Trait to Transformational leadership theory) have strived to look into the aspects that make...

  7. Veterans Administration Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  8. Building Muscles, Keeping Muscles: Protein Turnover During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Arny; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As we age we lose muscle mass and strength. The problem is a matter of use it or lose it and more - a fact to which any active senior can attest. An imbalance in the natural cycle of protein turnover may be a contributing factor to decreased muscle mass. But the answer is not so simple, since aging is associated with changes in hormones, activity levels, nutrition, and often, disease. The human body constantly uses amino acids to build muscle protein, which then breaks down and must be replaced. When protein turnover gets out of balance, so that more protein breaks down than the body can replace, the result is muscle loss. This is not just the bane of aging, however. Severely burned people may have difficulty building new muscle long after the burned skin has been repaired. Answers to why we lose muscle mass and strength - and how doctors can fix it - may come from space. Astronauts usually eat a well-balanced diet and maintain an exercise routine to stay in top health. During long-duration flight, they exercise regularly to reduce the muscle loss that results from being in a near-weightless environment. Despite these precautions, astronauts lose muscle mass and strength during most missions. They quickly recover after returning to Earth - this is a temporary condition in an otherwise healthy population. Members of the STS-107 crew are participating in a study of the effects of space flight, hormone levels, and stress on protein turnover. When we are under stress, the body responds with a change in hormone levels. Researchers hypothesize that this stress-induced change in hormones along with the near-weightlessness might result in the body synthesizing less muscle protein, causing muscles to lose their strength and size. Astronauts, who must perform numerous duties in a confined and unusual environment, experience some stress during their flight, making them excellent candidates for testing the researchers' hypothesis.

  9. FAVOR: A new fracture mechanics code for reactor pressure vessels subjected to pressurized thermal shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis which is a major element of the comprehensive probabilistic methodology endorsed by the NRC for evaluation of the integrity of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) pressure vessels subjected to pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) transients. It is anticipated that there will be an increasing need for an improved and validated PTS PFM code which is accepted by the NRC and utilities, as more plants approach the PTS screening criteria and are required to perform plant-specific analyses. The NRC funded Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratories is currently developing the FAVOR (Fracture Analysis of Vessels: Oak Ridge) PTS PFM code, which is intended to meet this need. The FAVOR code incorporates the most important features of both OCA-P and VISA-II and contains some new capabilities such as PFM global modeling methodology, the capability to approximate the effects of thermal streaming on circumferential flaws located inside a plume region created by fluid and thermal stratification, a library of stress intensity factor influence coefficients, generated by the NQA-1 certified ABAQUS computer code, for an adequate range of two and three dimensional inside surface flaws, the flexibility to generate a variety of output reports, and user friendliness

  10. Nut consumption has favorable effects on lipid profiles of Korean women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Joo; Nam, Ga Eun; Seo, Ji A; Yoon, Taehyung; Seo, Ilwon; Lee, Jin Hee; Im, Donggil; Bahn, Kyeong-Nyeo; Jeong, Si An; Kang, Tae Seok; Ahn, Jae Hee; Kim, Do Hoon; Kim, Nan Hee

    2014-09-01

    Nut consumption has been studied for its cardioprotective effects. However, the findings of clinical intervention studies are inconsistent; and no intervention studies have been conducted in the Korean population. We hypothesized that nut supplementation may have favorable influence on metabolic markers. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of nut consumption on metabolic parameters and biomarkers related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial function in Korean adults with metabolic syndrome. To this end, we designed a randomized, parallel, controlled dietary intervention study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02023749). Subjects with metabolic syndrome and a body mass index of at least 23 kg/m(2) were randomized to the Control group and the Nut group, which received supplementation with 30 g/d of mixed nuts (walnuts, peanuts, and pine nuts) for 6 weeks. Sixty volunteers were included in the final analysis. Metabolic markers were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the study. Total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels significantly improved in the Nut group compared to those in the Control group (P = .023 and P = .016, respectively) in women. Biomarkers related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial function did not significantly change from baseline in either group. Thus, supplementing a usual diet with mixed nuts for 6 weeks had favorable effects on several lipid parameters in Korean women with metabolic syndrome. These findings present a possible mechanism for the cardioprotective effects of nut consumption.

  11. A More Favorable Lower-Lip Incision for the Removal of Deep Intraoral Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xian Wang; Feng, Da Jun; Chen, XiaoYang; Chen, Chuan Jun

    2016-05-01

    The straight midline lower lip-splitting incision has traditionally been performed with different types of deep intraoral malignancies for obtaining wide surgical access, and it can also be extended to the submandibular region or the neck to concurrently perform a neck dissection. But meanwhile, it is associated with unfavorable aesthetic and functional complications such as conspicuous facial scar, lip vermilion notching, stenosis of the labial sulcus, decreased lip sensation and movement, and oral incontinence. We designed a more favorable lower-lip incision, namely, para-lower lip incision, using the exposure and en blot resection of deep intraoral tumors. Compared with the traditional incision line, our designed line is shorter, and 20 outpatients (primary tumor site including buccal mucosa, tongue, mandibular gingiva, maxillary sinus, palate, and mouth floor) follow-ups indicated the postoperative scar is inconspicuous, no lip contour deformity and dysfunction or complications of facial paralysis such as distortion of commissure happened. This article reports one case of our patients who underwent para-lower-lip incision approach for the removal of squamous cell carcinoma (T3N2M0) in the left plate and the results of the patient were favorable. PMID:27159868

  12. Molecular subtype analysis determines the association of advanced breast cancer in Egypt with favorable biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DuQuette Rachelle A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prognostic markers and molecular breast cancer subtypes reflect underlying biological tumor behavior and are important for patient management. Compared to Western countries, women in North Africa are less likely to be prognosticated and treated based on well-characterized markers such as the estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR and Her2. We conducted this study to determine the prevalence of breast cancer molecular subtypes in the North African country of Egypt as a measure of underlying biological characteristics driving tumor manifestations. Methods To determine molecular subtypes we characterized over 200 tumor specimens obtained from Egypt by performing ER, PR, Her2, CK5/6, EGFR and Ki67 immunohistochemistry. Results Our study demonstrated that the Luminal A subtype, associated with favorable prognosis, was found in nearly 45% of cases examined. However, the basal-like subtype, associated with poor prognosis, was found in 11% of cases. These findings are in sharp contrast to other parts of Africa in which the basal-like subtype is over-represented. Conclusions Egyptians appear to have favorable underlying biology, albeit having advanced disease at diagnosis. These data suggest that Egyptians would largely profit from early detection of their disease. Intervention at the public health level, including education on the benefits of early detection is necessary and would likely have tremendous impact on breast cancer outcome in Egypt.

  13. Glutamine supplementation favors weight loss in nondieting obese female patients. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviano, A; Molfino, A; Lacaria, M T; Canelli, A; De Leo, S; Preziosa, I; Rossi Fanelli, F

    2014-11-01

    Glutamine supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in critically ill patients, and prevents obesity in animals fed a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that glutamine supplementation favors weight loss in humans. Obese and overweight female patients (n=6) were enrolled in a pilot, cross-over study. After recording anthropometric (that is, body weight, waist circumference) and metabolic (that is, glycemia, insulinemia, homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)) characteristics, patients were randomly assigned to 4-week supplementation with glutamine or isonitrogenous protein supplement (0.5 g/KgBW/day). During supplementation, patients did not change their dietary habits nor lifestyle. At the end, anthropometric and metabolic features were assessed, and after 2 weeks of washout, patients were switched to the other supplement for 4 weeks. Body weight and waist circumference significantly declined only after glutamine supplementation (85.0±10.4 Kg vs 82.2±10.1 Kg, and 102.7±2.0 cm vs 98.9±2.9 cm, respectively; P=0.01). Insulinemia and HOMA-IR declined by 20% after glutamine, but not significantly so. This pilot study shows that glutamine is safe and effective in favoring weight loss and possibly enhancing glucose metabolism.

  14. Description of electromagnetic and favored $\\alpha$-transitions in heavy odd-mass nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Dumitrescu, A

    2016-01-01

    We describe electromagnetic and favored \\alpha-transitions to rotational bands in odd-mass nuclei built upon a single particle state with angular momentum projection $\\Omega=\\frac{1}{2}$ in the region $88 \\le Z \\le 98$. We use the particle coupled to an even-even core approach described by the Coherent State Model (CSM) and the coupled channels method to estimate partial $\\alpha$-decay widths. We reproduce the energy levels of the rotational band where favored $\\alpha$-transitions occur for 26 nuclei and predict B (E2) values for electromagnetic transitions to the bandhead using a deformation parameter and a Hamiltonian strength parameter for each nucleus, together with an effective collective charge depending linearly on the deformation parameter. Where experimental data is available, the contribution of the single particle effective charge to the total B (E2) value is calculated. The Hamiltonian describing the $\\alpha$- nucleus interaction contains two terms, a spherically symmetric potential given by the d...

  15. High Concentrations of H2O2 Make Aerobic Glycolysis Energetically More Favorable for Cellular Respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molavian, Hamid R; Kohandel, Mohammad; Sivaloganathan, Sivabal

    2016-01-01

    Since the original observation of the Warburg Effect in cancer cells, over 8 decades ago, the major question of why aerobic glycolysis is favored over oxidative phosphorylation has remained unresolved. An understanding of this phenomenon may well be the key to the development of more effective cancer therapies. In this paper, we use a semi-empirical method to throw light on this puzzle. We show that aerobic glycolysis is in fact energetically more favorable than oxidative phosphorylation for concentrations of peroxide (H2O2) above some critical threshold value. The fundamental reason for this is the activation and high engagement of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in response to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) H2O2 by mitochondria and the high concentration of H2O2 (produced by mitochondria and other sources). This makes oxidative phosphorylation an inefficient source of energy since it leads (despite high levels of ATP production) to a concomitant high energy consumption in order to respond to the hazardous waste products resulting from cellular processes associated with this metabolic pathway. We also demonstrate that the high concentration of H2O2 results in an increased glucose consumption, and also increases the lactate production in the case of glycolysis. PMID:27601999

  16. Bond population analysis on combination of favorable growth unit of Al(OH)3 crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The quantum chemical calculation on four representative combination modes of the favorable growth unit Al6(OH)18(H2O)6of Al(OH)3 crystals and the single unit were calculated. On the base of the prior investigation, and from the point of view of bond population and net atomic charge, the relationships between the combination mode of the favorable growth unit and the relative intensity of chemical bond of the systems were discussed. The quantum chemistry calculations were performed at RB3LYP/6-31G and RHF/6-31G levels by ab initio and DFT methods respectively. From the point of view of bond population, it can be preliminarily presumed that the interatomic bond force of the system with side-face-combination-B mode is weaker to a certain extent. From the point of view of the net charge, when the combination mode is obverse-face-combination-D, the interatomic bond force will be enhanced.

  17. Bound on the Slope of Steady Water Waves with Favorable Vorticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Walter A.; Wheeler, Miles H.

    2016-07-01

    We consider the angle {θ} of inclination (with respect to the horizontal) of the profile of a steady two dimensional inviscid symmetric periodic or solitary water wave subject to gravity. Although {θ} may surpass 30° for some irrotational waves close to the extreme wave, Amick (Arch Ration Mech Anal 99(2):91-114, 1987) proved that for any irrotational wave the angle must be less than 31.15°. Is the situation similar for periodic or solitary waves that are not irrotational? The extreme Gerstner wave has infinite depth, adverse vorticity and vertical cusps (θ = 90°). Moreover, numerical calculations show that even waves of finite depth can overturn if the vorticity is adverse. In this paper, on the other hand, we prove an upper bound of 45° on {θ} for a large class of waves with favorable vorticity and finite depth. In particular, the vorticity can be any constant with the favorable sign. We also prove a series of general inequalities on the pressure within the fluid, including the fact that any overturning wave must have a pressure sink.

  18. POSTOPERATIVE RECOVERY OF MUSCLE FORCE THROUGH MUSCLE TONING IN ABDOMINAL PARIETAL DEFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Monica Moacă

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper’s aim is to elaborate a program of postoperative recovery for patients suffering from abdominal parietal defects, and to indicate the beneficial implications, both of the preoperative preparations and of the postoperative physiotherapist actions. The programs of functional postoperative recovery have been elaborated individually for the 254 patients under study – of which 139 belong to lot A (operated under a scheduled regime, after the preoperative preparation and 115 belong to lot B (operated in an emergency regime, in the General Surgery Clinic III of the University Emergency Hospital of Bucharest, between 1998 and 2009. The postoperative recovery program has been individualized for each patient, depending on his / her pathology and co-morbidities, and the physiotherapist has trained and took care that the patients should execute exercises of respiratory re-education, active mobilization of their limbs, coordinated with the breath, isometric exercises for the toning of their arms and legs and of the abdomen muscles. They started the muscle toning exercises slowly and increased them progressively in duration and intensity. The recovery started with isometric-type exercises and continued with the isotonic-type ones. Though mainly the abdominal muscles are aimed at, respectively the flexor muscles of the torso, the physiotherapy program shall comprise the toning of the other muscle groups of the torso, as well. It has been noticed - for the patients in lot A, compared to those of lot B - an obvious net favorable postoperative evolution, characterized through: a reduction of the respiratory, cardiac and thromboembolic complications, a quick postoperative recovery and the immediate social reintegration. An overview of the two lots proves the importance of the cardio-respiratory and locomotive preparation of the patients suffering from big abdominal parietal defects. The simple gestures of respiratory re-education, of

  19. Muscle regeneration in mitochondrial myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, T O; Hauerslev, S; Jeppesen, T D;

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial myopathies cover a diverse group of disorders in which ragged red and COX-negative fibers are common findings on muscle morphology. In contrast, muscle degeneration and regeneration, typically found in muscular dystrophies, are not considered characteristic features of mitochondrial...

  20. Muscle GLUT4 in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland-Fischer, Peter; Andersen, Per Heden; Lund, Sten;

    2007-01-01

    test and later a muscle biopsy. Levels of GLUT4 total protein and mRNA content were determined in muscle biopsies by polyclonal antibody labelling and RT-PCR, respectively. RESULTS: GLUT4 protein content in the cirrhosis group was not different from that of the controls, but at variance...

  1. Trichinella spiralis in human muscle (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the parasite Trichinella spiralis in human muscle tissue. The parasite is transmitted by eating undercooked ... produce large numbers of larvae that migrate into muscle tissue. The cysts may cause muscle pain and ...

  2. Muscle dysfunction in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Frank; Jones, L W; Andersen, J L;

    2014-01-01

    implications of muscle dysfunction in cancer patients. The efficacy of exercise training to prevent and/or mitigate cancer-related muscle dysfunction is also discussed. DESIGN: We identified 194 studies examining muscular outcomes in cancer patients by searching PubMed and EMBASE databases. RESULTS: Muscle...... dysfunction is evident across all stages of the cancer trajectory. The causes of cancer-related muscle dysfunction are complex, but may involve a wide range of tumor-, therapy- and/or lifestyle-related factors, depending on the clinical setting of the individual patient. The main importance of muscle...... dysfunction in cancer patients lies in the correlation to vital clinical end points such as cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, therapy complications and quality of life (QoL). Such associations strongly emphasize the need for effective therapeutic countermeasures to be developed and implemented...

  3. The Basis of Muscle Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Musarò

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle regeneration recapitulates many aspects of embryonic myogenesis and is an important homeostatic process of the adult skeletal muscle, which, after development, retains the capacity to regenerate in response to appropriate stimuli, activating the muscle compartment of stem cells, namely, satellite cells, as well as other precursor cells. Moreover, significant evidence suggests that while stem cells represent an important determinant for tissue regeneration, a “qualified” environment is necessary to guarantee and achieve functional results. It is therefore plausible that the loss of control over these cell fate decisions could lead to a pathological transdifferentiation, leading to pathologic defects in the regenerative process. This review provides an overview about the general aspects of muscle development and discusses the cellular and molecular aspects that characterize the five interrelated and time-dependent phases of muscle regeneration, namely, degeneration, inflammation, regeneration, remodeling, and maturation/functional repair.

  4. Impact of aging on mitochondrial function in cardiac and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepple, R T

    2016-09-01

    Both skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle are subject to marked structural and functional impairment with aging and these changes contribute to the reduced capacity for exercise as we age. Since mitochondria are involved in multiple aspects of cellular homeostasis including energetics, reactive oxygen species signaling, and regulation of intrinsic apoptotic pathways, defects in this organelle are frequently implicated in the deterioration of skeletal and cardiac muscle with aging. On this basis, the purpose of this review is to evaluate the evidence that aging causes dysfunction in mitochondria in striated muscle with a view towards drawing conclusions about the potential of these changes to contribute to the deterioration seen in striated muscle with aging. As will be shown, impairment in respiration and reactive oxygen species emission with aging are highly variable between studies and seem to be largely a consequence of physical inactivity. On the other hand, both skeletal and cardiac muscle mitochondria are more susceptible to permeability transition and this seems a likely cause of the increased recruitment of mitochondrial-mediated pathways of apoptosis seen in striated muscle. The review concludes by examining the role of degeneration of mitochondrial DNA versus impaired mitochondrial quality control mechanisms in the accumulation of mitochondria that are sensitized to permeability transition, whereby the latter mechanism is favored as the most likely cause. PMID:27033952

  5. 8 CFR 316.11 - Attachment to the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... disposition towards the good order and happiness. 316.11 Section 316.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF... the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness. (a) General. An... favorably disposed toward the good order and happiness of the United States. Attachment implies a depth...

  6. Bio-inspired Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Tae Hyeob Kim; Cheong Hoon Kwon; Changsun Lee; Jieun An; Tam Thi Thanh Phuong; Sun Hwa Park; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Tong Mook Kang; Seon Jeong Kim

    2016-01-01

    There has been continuous progress in the development for biomedical engineering systems of hybrid muscle generated by combining skeletal muscle and artificial structure. The main factor affecting the actuation performance of hybrid muscle relies on the compatibility between living cells and their muscle scaffolds during cell culture. Here, we developed a hybrid muscle powered by C2C12 skeletal muscle cells based on the functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) sheets coated with p...

  7. CDS - Database Administrator's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J. P.

    This guide aims to instruct the CDS database administrator in: o The CDS file system. o The CDS index files. o The procedure for assimilating a new CDS tape into the database. It is assumed that the administrator has read SUN/79.

  8. Webmin administrator's cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Karzynski, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Written in a cookbook format with practical recipes this book helps you to perform various administrative tasks using Webmin and enables you to perform common jobs more efficiently.This book is perfect for System administrators who want to learn more advanced concepts of Webmin and how it can help to set up a server for development, testing or deployment.

  9. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy;

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems. Readers may recall the first part of the paper in October issue of Coordinates. Here is the concluding part that focuses on the changing...... role of ownership and the role of land markets. Udgivelsesdato: November...

  10. Oral administration of taxanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malingré, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Oral treatment with cytotoxic agents is to be preferred as this administration route is convenient to patients, reduces administration costs and facilitates the use of more chronic treatment regimens. For the taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel, however, low oral bioavailability has limited development

  11. Administration for Student Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, J. J., Ed.

    This collection of papers focuses on school administration and its relation to students. It is contended that toay's student matures earlier; has higher expectations; is more affluent; is more isolated from adults; is more critical and outspoken; and, therefore, must be heard by teachers and administrators. A related document is EA 001578.…

  12. The School Personnel Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Rodney F.

    This paper provides an overview of the development of the school-personnel administrator role. It first describes the influence of the science-management and human-relations movements and the behavioral sciences on personnel administration and human resource management. It next discusses the role of the personnel-performance-appraisal system and…

  13. Postmodern Public Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogason, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Discussion of the trends towards more uses of postmodern analysis within the discipline of public administration, particularly in the USA......Discussion of the trends towards more uses of postmodern analysis within the discipline of public administration, particularly in the USA...

  14. Centos system administration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallett, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Linux administrator who is looking to gain knowledge that differentiates yourself from the crowd, then this is the book for you. Beginners who have a keen interest to learn more about Linux administration will also progress quickly with this resourceful learning guide.

  15. ORM Promotes Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Accumulation via CCR5-Activated AMPK Pathway in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhen; Wan, Jing-Jing; Sun, Yang; Wang, Peng-Yuan; Su, Ding-Feng; Lei, Hong; Liu, Xia

    2016-01-01

    We found previously that acute phase protein orosomucoid reacts to fatigue and activates C-C chemokine receptor type 5 to increase muscle glycogen storage and enhance muscle endurance (Lei et al., 2016). To explore the underlying molecular mechanisms, we investigated the role of AMP-activated protein kinase, a critical fuel sensor in skeletal muscle, in C-C chemokine receptor type 5-mediated orosomucoid action. It was found orosomucoid increased skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase activation in a time- and dose- dependent manner, which was largely prevented by pharmacological blocking or knockout of C-C chemokine receptor type 5. Administration of orosomucoid also significantly increased the de-phosphorylation and activity of muscle glycogen synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme for glycogen synthesis. The effect was largely absent in mice deficient in C-C chemokine receptor type 5−/− or AMP-activated protein kinase α2−/−, the predominant isoform in skeletal muscle. Moreover, deletion of AMP-activated protein kinase α2 abolished the effect of orosomucoid on fatigue and muscle glycogen. These findings indicate that orosomucoid may promote glycogen storage and enhance muscle function through C-C chemokine receptor type 5-mdiated activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, which in turn activates glycogen synthase and increases muscle glycogen. PMID:27679573

  16. A more alkaline diet may enhance the favorable impact of dietary protein on lean tissue mass in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maintaining muscle mass in aging is important to prevent falls and fractures. Dietary protein is required to preserve muscle mass, however the acid load from diets rich in acidogenic protein foods and cereal grains relative to alkalinogenic fruits and vegetables may contribute to loss of lean tissue...

  17. Intermuscular pressure between synergistic muscles correlates with muscle force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Lars; Siebert, Tobias; Leichsenring, Kay; Blickhan, Reinhard; Böl, Markus

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between muscle force generated during isometric contractions (i.e. at a constant muscle-tendon unit length) and the intermuscular (between adjacent muscles) pressure in synergistic muscles. Therefore, the pressure at the contact area of the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscle was measured synchronously to the force of the whole calf musculature in the rabbit species Oryctolagus cuniculus Similar results were obtained when using a conductive pressure sensor, or a fibre-optic pressure transducer connected to a water-filled balloon. Both methods revealed a strong linear relationship between force and pressure in the ascending limb of the force-length relationship. The shape of the measured force-time and pressure-time traces was almost identical for each contraction (r=0.97). Intermuscular pressure ranged between 100 and 700 mbar (70,000 Pa) for forces up to 287 N. These pressures are similar to previous (intramuscular) recordings within skeletal muscles of different vertebrate species. Furthermore, our results suggest that the rise in intermuscular pressure during contraction may reduce the force production in muscle packages (compartments). PMID:27489217

  18. Intermuscular pressure between synergistic muscles correlates with muscle force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Lars; Siebert, Tobias; Leichsenring, Kay; Blickhan, Reinhard; Böl, Markus

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between muscle force generated during isometric contractions (i.e. at a constant muscle-tendon unit length) and the intermuscular (between adjacent muscles) pressure in synergistic muscles. Therefore, the pressure at the contact area of the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscle was measured synchronously to the force of the whole calf musculature in the rabbit species Oryctolagus cuniculus Similar results were obtained when using a conductive pressure sensor, or a fibre-optic pressure transducer connected to a water-filled balloon. Both methods revealed a strong linear relationship between force and pressure in the ascending limb of the force-length relationship. The shape of the measured force-time and pressure-time traces was almost identical for each contraction (r=0.97). Intermuscular pressure ranged between 100 and 700 mbar (70,000 Pa) for forces up to 287 N. These pressures are similar to previous (intramuscular) recordings within skeletal muscles of different vertebrate species. Furthermore, our results suggest that the rise in intermuscular pressure during contraction may reduce the force production in muscle packages (compartments).

  19. Bridging long gap peripheral nerve injury using skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsuro Tamaki

    2014-01-01

    Long gap peripheral nerve injuries usually reulting in life-changing problems for patients. Skeletal muscle derived-multipotent stem cells (Sk-MSCs) can differentiate into Schwann and perineurial/endoneurial cells, vascular relating pericytes, and endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the damaged peripheral nerve niche. Application of the Sk-MSCs in the bridging conduit for repairing long nerve gap injury resulted favorable axonal regeneration, which showing supe-rior effects than gold standard therapy--healthy nerve autograft. This means that it does not need to sacriifce of healthy nerves or loss of related functions for repairing peripheral nerve injury.

  20. Gender differences in skeletal muscle substrate metabolism - molecular mechanisms and insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard, Anne-Marie; Kiens, Bente

    2014-01-01

    favorable effect on glucose homeostasis, and the available evidence from hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies is summarized to delineate whether there is a gender difference in whole-body insulin sensitivity and in particular insulin-stimulated glucose uptake of skeletal muscle. Whether an eventual...... fasted state, and during periods of physical activity and recovery. Together, handling of carbohydrate and lipids and regulation of their utilization in skeletal muscle have implications for whole-body glucose homeostasis in men and women. 17-β estradiol is the most important female sex hormone, and the...

  1. Masseter muscle rigidity: Atypical malignant hyperthermia presentation or isolated event?

    OpenAIRE

    Onyeka Tonia

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a case of masseter muscle rigidity encountered at the start of an elective gynaecological procedure. At preoperative assessment, the patient, a 41-year old woman with a previous non-eventful surgical and anesthetic history was given a Mallampati score of 3. Following suxamethonium administration, full mouth opening proved difficult. Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation were not possible leading to the eventual use of a laryngeal mask airway and resulting in a successful ...

  2. Why and How Limb Muscle Mass and Function Should Be Measured in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, André; Saey, Didier; Maltais, François

    2015-09-01

    Impaired limb muscle function is a common occurrence in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and it negatively influences exercise tolerance, quality of life, and even survival. Assessment of limb muscle mass and function in COPD is highly encouraged; it should include the quadriceps muscle, but other lower and upper limb muscles may also be evaluated to provide valuable information. Quantification of muscle mass as well as assessment of muscle strength and endurance are suggested. Bioelectrical impedance and dual-energy X-ray absorption can be realistically used in the clinical environment to monitor body composition. Although sophisticated computerized dynamometers provide the most accurate assessment, simple exercise and testing equipment are valid alternatives and they should help in implementing limb muscle function assessment in clinical settings. Isometric measurements, using strain-gauges or hand-held dynamometers, should be favored for their simplicity, availability, and quality of information provided. This perspective provides a rationale for the evaluation of limb muscle mass and function in COPD in routine clinical practice. In addition, measurement techniques used to assess limb muscle mass, strength, endurance, and fatigue in various clinical settings are discussed. PMID:26208090

  3. Some effects of favorable and adverse electric fields on pool boiling in dielectric fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the application of an electric field on pool boiling in dielectric fluids were studied in this work.Two different geometries were used: one which is favorable to the bubble detachment (favorable electric field) and other which attract the bubbles toward the heater (adverse electric field).In the favorable electric field experiments, the void fraction and impact rate were calculated from the measured indicator function.Those parameters were obtained varying the probe-heater distance and the power to the heater.The results show a reduction of the void fraction with increasing applied voltage, probably caused by the combination of the dielectrophoretic force and a smaller bubble size due to the electric field application. Also, the impact rate decreases when a voltage is applied and the heat fluxes are close to the critical heat flux (CHF).On the other hand, the impact rate increases with voltage for moderate heat fluxes.Another interesting result is the approximately exponential decay of the void fraction and impact rate with the distance to the heater. Both the void fraction and the impact rate grow with heat flux if the heat fluxes are moderate, with or without applied voltage.For highest heat fluxes the void fraction still grows with heat flux if there are no applied electric fields while decreases with heat flux when there is an applied voltage. Similar behavior is observed in the impact rate.The boiling regimes was measured with adverse electric fields using two techniques.The heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime was measured on an electrically powered heater.The results in these experiments show a reduction in the CHF of 10 % for saturation conditions and 10 kV of applied voltage, and a reduction of up to 40 % for 20 oC of liquid subcooling.The boiling curve corresponding to the transition and film boiling was performed with quenching experiments.An increase in the heat flux was achieved when an electric field was applied in spite of the

  4. Stretching skeletal muscle: chronic muscle lengthening through sarcomerogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Zöllner

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle responds to passive overstretch through sarcomerogenesis, the creation and serial deposition of new sarcomere units. Sarcomerogenesis is critical to muscle function: It gradually re-positions the muscle back into its optimal operating regime. Animal models of immobilization, limb lengthening, and tendon transfer have provided significant insight into muscle adaptation in vivo. Yet, to date, there is no mathematical model that allows us to predict how skeletal muscle adapts to mechanical stretch in silico. Here we propose a novel mechanistic model for chronic longitudinal muscle growth in response to passive mechanical stretch. We characterize growth through a single scalar-valued internal variable, the serial sarcomere number. Sarcomerogenesis, the evolution of this variable, is driven by the elastic mechanical stretch. To analyze realistic three-dimensional muscle geometries, we embed our model into a nonlinear finite element framework. In a chronic limb lengthening study with a muscle stretch of 1.14, the model predicts an acute sarcomere lengthening from 3.09[Formula: see text]m to 3.51[Formula: see text]m, and a chronic gradual return to the initial sarcomere length within two weeks. Compared to the experiment, the acute model error was 0.00% by design of the model; the chronic model error was 2.13%, which lies within the rage of the experimental standard deviation. Our model explains, from a mechanistic point of view, why gradual multi-step muscle lengthening is less invasive than single-step lengthening. It also explains regional variations in sarcomere length, shorter close to and longer away from the muscle-tendon interface. Once calibrated with a richer data set, our model may help surgeons to prevent muscle overstretch and make informed decisions about optimal stretch increments, stretch timing, and stretch amplitudes. We anticipate our study to open new avenues in orthopedic and reconstructive surgery and enhance

  5. Prejudice, Social Dominance, and Similarity among People who Favor Integration of Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carmen; Saiz, José; Angosto, Josefa

    2016-04-12

    This study examines differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance in members of the majority who favor integration as a means of minority acculturation. A total of 342 non-Gypsy Spanish participants filled out a questionnaire about their relationship to one of three outgroups: Maghrebians, Gypsies, and Latin Americans. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that a three-cluster solution was most fitting for every outgroup. ANOVAs applied to the three clusters indicated significant differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance. Referring to Gypsies the largest effect size was observed in manifest prejudice (η2 = .63), in Maghrebians, the largest effect size was observed in subtle prejudice (η2 =.77), while for Latin Americans, perceived similarity had the largest effect size η2 ( = .60). The results reveal a need to modify existing measures of integration; we recommend using questionnaires to measure behaviors that members of the majority would be willing to implement.

  6. How to Ask for a Favor: A Case Study on the Success of Altruistic Requests

    CERN Document Server

    Althoff, Tim; Jurafsky, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Requests are at the core of many social media systems such as question & answer sites and online philanthropy communities. While the success of such requests is critical to the success of the community, the factors that lead community members to satisfy a request are largely unknown. Success of a request depends on factors like who is asking, how they are asking, when are they asking, and most critically what is being requested, ranging from small favors to substantial monetary donations. We present a case study of altruistic requests in an online community where all requests ask for the very same contribution and do not offer anything tangible in return, allowing us to disentangle what is requested from textual and social factors. Drawing from social psychology literature, we extract high-level social features from text that operationalize social relations between recipient and donor and demonstrate that these extracted relations are predictive of success. More specifically, we find that clearly communic...

  7. Balanced bilinguals favor lexical processing in their opaque language and conversion system in their shallow language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetler, Karin A; de León Rodríguez, Diego; Laganaro, Marina; Müri, René; Nyffeler, Thomas; Spierer, Lucas; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2015-11-01

    Referred to as orthographic depth, the degree of consistency of grapheme/phoneme correspondences varies across languages from high in shallow orthographies to low in deep orthographies. The present study investigates the impact of orthographic depth on reading route by analyzing evoked potentials to words in a deep (French) and shallow (German) language presented to highly proficient bilinguals. ERP analyses to German and French words revealed significant topographic modulations 240-280 ms post-stimulus onset, indicative of distinct brain networks engaged in reading over this time window. Source estimations revealed that these effects stemmed from modulations of left insular, inferior frontal and dorsolateral regions (German>French) previously associated to phonological processing. Our results show that reading in a shallow language was associated to a stronger engagement of phonological pathways than reading in a deep language. Thus, the lexical pathways favored in word reading are reinforced by phonological networks more strongly in the shallow than deep orthography.

  8. Teaching accreditation exams reveal grading biases favor women in male-dominated disciplines in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Thomas; Hillion, Mélina

    2016-07-29

    Discrimination against women is seen as one of the possible causes behind their underrepresentation in certain STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects. We show that this is not the case for the competitive exams used to recruit almost all French secondary and postsecondary teachers and professors. Comparisons of oral non-gender-blind tests with written gender-blind tests for about 100,000 individuals observed in 11 different fields over the period 2006-2013 reveal a bias in favor of women that is strongly increasing with the extent of a field's male-domination. This bias turns from 3 to 5 percentile ranks for men in literature and foreign languages to about 10 percentile ranks for women in math, physics, or philosophy. These findings have implications for the debate over what interventions are appropriate to increase the representation of women in fields in which they are currently underrepresented. PMID:27471301

  9. Teaching accreditation exams reveal grading biases favor women in male-dominated disciplines in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Thomas; Hillion, Mélina

    2016-07-29

    Discrimination against women is seen as one of the possible causes behind their underrepresentation in certain STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects. We show that this is not the case for the competitive exams used to recruit almost all French secondary and postsecondary teachers and professors. Comparisons of oral non-gender-blind tests with written gender-blind tests for about 100,000 individuals observed in 11 different fields over the period 2006-2013 reveal a bias in favor of women that is strongly increasing with the extent of a field's male-domination. This bias turns from 3 to 5 percentile ranks for men in literature and foreign languages to about 10 percentile ranks for women in math, physics, or philosophy. These findings have implications for the debate over what interventions are appropriate to increase the representation of women in fields in which they are currently underrepresented.

  10. Intramolecular Crystal Nucleation Favored by Polymer Crystallization: Monte Carlo Simulation Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Zha, Liyun; Hu, Wenbing

    2016-07-14

    We performed dynamic Monte Carlo simulations of half-half binary blends of symmetric (double and mutual) crystallizable polymers. We separately enhanced the driving forces for polymer-uniform and polymer-staggered crystals. Under parallel enhancements, polymer-uniform crystals exhibit faster nucleation and growth, with more chain folding and less lamellar thickening, than those in polymer-staggered crystals. We attributed the results to intramolecular crystal nucleation, ruined by enhanced polymer-staggered crystallization. Our observations provide direct molecular-level evidence to support the fact that intramolecular crystal nucleation is favored by polymer crystallization in quiescent solutions and melt, which yields chain folding for the characteristic β-sheet or lamellar morphology of macromolecular crystals. PMID:27300471

  11. Luminal cells are favored as the cell of origin for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhu A.; Toivanen, Roxanne; Bergren, Sarah K.; Chambon, Pierre; Shen, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of cell types of origin for cancer has important implications for tumor stratification and personalized treatment. For prostate cancer, the cell of origin has been intensively studied, but it has remained unclear whether basal or luminal epithelial cells, or both, represent cells of origin under physiological conditions in vivo. Here, we use a novel lineage-tracing strategy to assess the cell of origin in a diverse range of mouse models, including Nkx3.1+/–; Pten+/–, Pten+/–, Hi-Myc, and TRAMP mice, as well as a hormonal carcinogenesis model. Our results show that luminal cells are consistently the observed cell of origin for each model in situ; however, explanted basal cells from these mice can generate tumors in grafts. Consequently, we propose that luminal cells are favored as cells of origin in many contexts, whereas basal cells only give rise to tumors after differentiation into luminal cells. PMID:25176651

  12. Large-scale identification of membrane proteins with properties favorable for crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jared; Kagawa, Allison; Kurasaki, Kellie; Ataie, Niloufar; Cho, Il Kyu; Li, Qing X; Ng, Ho Leung

    2015-11-01

    Membrane protein crystallography is notoriously difficult due to challenges in protein expression and issues of degradation and structural stability. We have developed a novel method for large-scale screening of native sources for integral membrane proteins that have intrinsic biochemical properties favorable for crystallization. Highly expressed membrane proteins that are thermally stable and nonaggregating in detergent solutions were identified by mass spectrometry from Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Sus scrofa cerebrum. Many of the membrane proteins identified had been crystallized previously, supporting the promise of the approach. Most identified proteins have known functions and include high-value targets such as transporters and ATPases. To validate the method, we recombinantly expressed and purified the yeast protein, Yop1, which is responsible for endoplasmic reticulum curvature. We demonstrate that Yop1 can be purified with the detergent dodecylmaltoside without aggregating.

  13. Maternal Acceptance: Its Contribution to Children's Favorable Perceptions of Discipline and Moral Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Renee B; Gibbs, John C

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the contribution of maternal acceptance or warmth to children's and adolescents' perceptions of discipline and formation of moral identity. The sample consisted of 93 male and female students from Grades 5, 8, and 10 and their mothers. Students completed measures pertaining to perceived maternal discipline practices and acceptance-rejection, as well as moral identity. A subsample of mothers reported on their accepting or rejecting actions toward their children. Children were more likely to feel accepted, if their mothers used inductive discipline (vs. power assertion and love withdrawal). Perceived acceptance was also related to more favorable discipline evaluations in certain respects. Specifically, inductive discipline recipients who felt accepted also evaluated induction as appropriate and responded to it with positive and guilt-related emotions. Power assertion was evaluated as appropriate among those children who did feel accepted. Finally, among inductive discipline recipients, those who felt accepted also reported higher moral identity. PMID:27177121

  14. IMPROVEMENT OF TENDON REPAIR USING MUSCLE GRAFTS TRANSDUCED WITH TGF-β1 cDNA

    OpenAIRE

    Majewski, M.; RM Porter; OB Betz; VM Betz; Clahsen, H. (Harald); Flückiger, R.; CH Evans

    2012-01-01

    Tendon rupture is a common injury. Inadequate endogenous repair often leaves patients symptomatic, with tendons susceptible to re-rupture. Administration of certain growth factors improves tendon healing in animal models, but their delivery remains a challenge. Here we evaluated the delivery of TGF-β1 to tendon defects by the implantation of genetically modified muscle grafts. Rat muscle biopsies were transduced with recombinant adenovirus encoding TGF-β1 and grafted onto surgically transecte...

  15. Glucocorticoids enhance muscle endurance and ameliorate Duchenne muscular dystrophy through a defined metabolic program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison-Nozik, Alexander; Anand, Priti; Zhu, Han;

    2015-01-01

    in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a genetic muscle-wasting disease. A defined molecular basis underlying these performance-enhancing properties of GCs in skeletal muscle remains obscure. Here, we demonstrate that ergogenic effects of GCs are mediated by direct induction of the metabolic transcription...... factor KLF15, defining a downstream pathway distinct from that resulting in GC-related muscle atrophy. Furthermore, we establish that KLF15 deficiency exacerbates dystrophic severity and muscle GC-KLF15 signaling mediates salutary therapeutic effects in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Thus, although...... glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated transactivation is often associated with muscle atrophy and other adverse effects of pharmacologic GC administration, our data define a distinct GR-induced gene regulatory pathway that contributes to therapeutic effects of GCs in DMD through proergogenic metabolic...

  16. Loss of NAD Homeostasis Leads to Progressive and Reversible Degeneration of Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David W; Loro, Emanuele; Liu, Ling; Davila, Antonio; Chellappa, Karthikeyani; Silverman, Ian M; Quinn, William J; Gosai, Sager J; Tichy, Elisia D; Davis, James G; Mourkioti, Foteini; Gregory, Brian D; Dellinger, Ryan W; Redpath, Philip; Migaud, Marie E; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Rabinowitz, Joshua D; Khurana, Tejvir S; Baur, Joseph A

    2016-08-01

    NAD is an obligate co-factor for the catabolism of metabolic fuels in all cell types. However, the availability of NAD in several tissues can become limited during genotoxic stress and the course of natural aging. The point at which NAD restriction imposes functional limitations on tissue physiology remains unknown. We examined this question in murine skeletal muscle by specifically depleting Nampt, an essential enzyme in the NAD salvage pathway. Knockout mice exhibited a dramatic 85% decline in intramuscular NAD content, accompanied by fiber degeneration and progressive loss of both muscle strength and treadmill endurance. Administration of the NAD precursor nicotinamide riboside rapidly ameliorated functional deficits and restored muscle mass despite having only a modest effect on the intramuscular NAD pool. Additionally, lifelong overexpression of Nampt preserved muscle NAD levels and exercise capacity in aged mice, supporting a critical role for tissue-autonomous NAD homeostasis in maintaining muscle mass and function. PMID:27508874

  17. FAVOR: A new fracture mechanics code for reactor pressure vessels subjected to pressurized thermal shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis is a major element of the comprehensive probabilistic methodology endorsed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for evaluation of the integrity of pressurized water reactor pressure vessels subjected to pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) transients. OCA-P and VISA-II are PTS PFM computer codes that are currently referenced in Regulatory Guide 1.154 as acceptable codes for performing plant-specific analyses. These codes perform PFM analyses to estimate the increase in vessel failure probability as the vessel accumulates radiation damage over the operating life of the vessel. Experience with the application of these codes in the last few years has provided insights into areas where they could be improved. As more plants approach the PTS screening criteria and are required to perform plant-specific analyses, there will be an increasing need for an improved and validated PTS PFM code that is accepted by the NRC and utilities. The NRC funded Heavy Section Steel Technology Program (HSST) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is currently developing the FAVOR (Fracture Analysis of Vessels: Oak Ridge) code, which is expected to meet this need. The FAVOR code incorporates the most important features of both OCA-P and VISA-II and contains some new capabilities such as (1) a PFM global modeling methodology; (2) the calculation of the axial stress component associated with coolant streaming beneath an inlet nozzle; (3) a library of stress intensity factor influence coefficients, generated by the NQA-1 certified ABAQUS computer code, for an appropriate range of two and three dimensional inner-surface flaws; (4) the flexibility to generate a variety of output reports; and (5) enhanced user friendliness

  18. Pre and Post-copulatory Selection Favor Similar Genital Phenotypes in the Male Broad Horned Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Clarissa M; Sharma, M D; Okada, Kensuke; Hosken, David J

    2016-10-01

    Sexual selection can operate before and after copulation and the same or different trait(s) can be targeted during these episodes of selection. The direction and form of sexual selection imposed on characters prior to mating has been relatively well described, but the same is not true after copulation. In general, when male-male competition and female choice favor the same traits then there is the expectation of reinforcing selection on male sexual traits that improve competitiveness before and after copulation. However, when male-male competition overrides pre-copulatory choice then the opposite could be true. With respect to studies of selection on genitalia there is good evidence that male genital morphology influences mating and fertilization success. However, whether genital morphology affects reproductive success in more than one context (i.e., mating versus fertilization success) is largely unknown. Here we use multivariate analysis to estimate linear and nonlinear selection on male body size and genital morphology in the flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus, simulated in a non-competitive (i.e., monogamous) setting. This analysis estimates the form of selection on multiple traits and typically, linear (directional) selection is easiest to detect, while nonlinear selection is more complex and can be stabilizing, disruptive, or correlational. We find that mating generates stabilizing selection on male body size and genitalia, and fertilization causes a blend of directional and stabilizing selection. Differences in the form of selection across these bouts of selection result from a significant alteration of nonlinear selection on body size and a marginally significant difference in nonlinear selection on a component of genital shape. This suggests that both bouts of selection favor similar genital phenotypes, whereas the strong stabilizing selection imposed on male body size during mate acquisition is weak during fertilization. PMID:27371390

  19. [Muscles and connective tissue: histology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delage, J-P

    2012-10-01

    Here, we give some comments about the DVD movies "Muscle Attitudes" from Endovivo productions, the movies up lighting some loss in the attention given to studies on the connective tissue, and especially them into muscles. The main characteristics of the different components in the intra-muscular connective tissue (perimysium, endomysium, epimysium) are shown here with special references to their ordered architecture and special references to their spatial distributions. This connective tissue is abundant into the muscles and is in continuity with the muscles in vicinity, with their tendons and their sheath, sticking the whole on skin. This connective tissue has also very abundant connections on the muscles fibres. It is then assumed that the connective tissue sticks every organs or cells of the locomotion system. Considering the elastic properties of the collagen fibres which are the most abundant component of connective tissue, it is possible to up light a panel of connective tissue associated functions such as the transmission of muscle contractions or the regulation of protein and energetic muscles metabolism.

  20. Muscle channelopathies and electrophysiological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherian Ajith

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Myotonic syndromes and periodic paralyses are rare disorders of skeletal muscle characterized mainly by muscle stiffness or episodic attacks of weakness. Familial forms are caused by mutation in genes coding for skeletal muscle voltage ionic channels. Familial periodic paralysis and nondystrophic myotonias are disorders of skeletal muscle excitability caused by mutations in genes coding for voltage-gated ion channels. These diseases are characterized by episodic failure of motor activity due to muscle weakness (paralysis or stiffness (myotonia. Clinical studies have identified two forms of periodic paralyses: hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hypoKPP and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (hyperKPP, based on changes in serum potassium levels during the attacks, and three distinct forms of myotonias: paramyotonia congenita (PC, potassium-aggravated myotonia (PAM, and myotonia congenita (MC. PC and PAM have been linked to missense mutations in the SCN4A gene, which encodes α subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channel, whereas MC is caused by mutations in the chloride channel gene (CLCN1. Exercise is known to trigger, aggravate, or relieve symptoms. Therefore, exercise can be used as a functional test in electromyography to improve the diagnosis of these muscle disorders. Abnormal changes in the compound muscle action potential can be disclosed using different exercise tests. Five electromyographic (EMG patterns (I-V that may be used in clinical practice as guides for molecular diagnosis are discussed.

  1. Administration and Jurisdictional Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Hernando Nieto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available To what extent does studying jurisdictional politics need the knowledge of different administrative theories in general and the science of public administration in particular? This small text proposes such reflection and comes to the conclusion that it is impossible to propose a new approximation to this topic without considering the administrative theory, for that the specialists and thinkers will get more with the contact of this discipline from what it is called a multidisciplinary approach.

  2. Publication of administrative circular

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR NO. 23 (REV. 2) – SPECIAL WORKING HOURS Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 2) entitled "Special working hours", approved following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee on 9 December 2008, will be available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department as from 19 December 2008: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 1) entitled "Stand-by duty" of April 1988. A "Frequently Asked Questions" information document on special working hours will also be available on this site. Paper copies of this circular will shortly be available in Departmental Secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  3. PUBLICATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR NO. 23 (REV. 2) – SPECIAL WORKING HOURS Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 2) entitled "Special working hours", approved following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 9 December 2008, will be available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department as from 19 December 2008: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 1) entitled "Stand-by duty" of April 1988. A "Frequently Asked Questions" information document on special working hours will also be available on this site. Paper copies of this circular will shortly be available in departmental secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  4. Effect of heparan sulfate and gold nanoparticles on muscle development during embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinska, Marlena; Sawosz, Ewa; Grodzik, Marta;

    2011-01-01

    stimulated the development and maturation of breast muscle by increasing the number of nuclei, satellite cells, and muscle fibers and affected the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor-2 and paired-box transcription factor-7. Furthermore, the nano-Au+HS complex contributed to the increased number...... by a complex of HS conjugated with nano-Au. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of administration of nano-Au, HS, and a nano-Au+HS complex on the morphological and molecular characteristics of breast muscle during embryogenesis. Methods: Chicken embryos were used as in vivo model...

  5. Bigorexia: bodybuilding and muscle dysmorphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Philip E

    2009-05-01

    Muscle dysmorphia is an emerging condition that primarily affects male bodybuilders. Such individuals obsess about being inadequately muscular. Compulsions include spending hours in the gym, squandering excessive amounts of money on ineffectual sports supplements, abnormal eating patterns or even substance abuse. In this essay, I illustrate the features of muscle dysmorphia by employing the first-person account of a male bodybuilder afflicted by this condition. I briefly outline the history of bodybuilding and examine whether the growth of this sport is linked to a growing concern with body image amongst males. I suggest that muscle dysmorphia may be a new expression of a common pathology shared with the eating disorders.

  6. Bigorexia: bodybuilding and muscle dysmorphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Philip E

    2009-05-01

    Muscle dysmorphia is an emerging condition that primarily affects male bodybuilders. Such individuals obsess about being inadequately muscular. Compulsions include spending hours in the gym, squandering excessive amounts of money on ineffectual sports supplements, abnormal eating patterns or even substance abuse. In this essay, I illustrate the features of muscle dysmorphia by employing the first-person account of a male bodybuilder afflicted by this condition. I briefly outline the history of bodybuilding and examine whether the growth of this sport is linked to a growing concern with body image amongst males. I suggest that muscle dysmorphia may be a new expression of a common pathology shared with the eating disorders. PMID:18759381

  7. Veterans Health Administration (VHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The purpose of this agreement is for SSA to verify SSNs and other identifying information for the Department of Veterans Affairs, VHA. DVA will use the information...

  8. Humanism, Administration and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, this paper analyses the emergence of a new pedagogical desire related to administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Two arguments are made: first......, it is argued that the changes in administrative practices during the last decade constitute a transformation, but also a reproduction of relations between knowledge and governing that goes back to the big expansion of the welfare state. Second, it is argued that these relations between knowledge and governing...... are not restricted to the administrative practices, but are part of education and its humanistic legacy as well. As such, the administrative demand of documentation becomes possible and recognisable through its reproductive elements. Elements that are constituted in a transformative conjunction in which...

  9. Administrative & Operational Circulars - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    All Administrative and Operational Circulars are available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department at the following address: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp Department Head Office  

  10. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy;

    2008-01-01

    in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...... part focuses on the changing  role of ownership and the role of land markets, and a land management vision will be published in November issue of Coordinates. Udgivelsesdato: Oktober......This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...

  11. Social Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Languages Sign in / up The United States Social Security Administration Cost-Of-Living Adjustment (COLA) Information about ... replacement Medicare card Change of Address my Social Security Check out your Social Security Statement , change your ...

  12. Administrative Discretionary Grant Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — This dataset of administrative records contains discretionary grant recipients who were awarded funds by the Institute of Museum and Library Services from fiscal...

  13. Spatially enabled land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    enabling of land administration systems managing tenure, valuation, planning, and development will allow the information generated by these activities to be much more useful. Also, the services available to private and public sectors and to community organisations should commensurably improve. Knowledge....... In other words: Good governance and sustainable development is not attainable without sound land administration or - more broadly – sound land management. The paper presents a land management vision that incorporates the benefits of ICT enabled land administration functions. The idea is that spatial...... the communication between administrative systems and also establish more reliable data due to the use the original data instead of copies. In Denmark, such governmental guidelines for a service-oriented ITarchitecture in support of e-government are recently adopted. Finally, the paper presents the role of FIG...

  14. SELinux policy administration

    CERN Document Server

    Vermeulen, Sven

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step guide to learn how to set up security on Linux servers by taking SELinux policies into your own hands.Linux administrators will enjoy the various SELinux features that this book covers and the approach used to guide the admin into understanding how SELinux works. The book assumes that you have basic knowledge in Linux administration, especially Linux permission and user management.

  15. Learning Cassandra for administrators

    CERN Document Server

    Parthasarathy, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on guide, taking the reader from the basics of using Cassandra though to the installation and the running.Learning Cassandra for Administrators is for administrators who manage a large deployment of Cassandra clusters, and support engineers who would like to install the monitoring tools and who are also in charge of making sure the cluster stays the same, ensuring that the service is always up and running.

  16. Education of System Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Feyrer, Hubert

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses education of system administration. Theoretical foundations cover psychology, learning theory, instruction theory, and instructional design, leading to an ideal progression for education, and related tools. The main part describes an existing class on system administration as given at the University of Applied Sciences (Fachhochschule, FH) Regensburg, Germany. It is analyzed for its history and target audience, the current curriculum, course layout, and for the didac...

  17. Administration for Defence Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Gale

    1953-01-01

    Full Text Available All scientific work must be carried out against a background of adequate administrative support if it is to become effective and produce useful results. Administration is not a job for which we, as scientists, are particularly trained; and it is a thing of which we tend to fight shy, partly because, author suppose, most Of peoples are associate the administrator with highly unpleasant matters such as income tax, delays in getting our pay cheques, and so on - For that reason we do not feel, always pay  sufficient attention to administrative affairs ; rather like the ostrich, we try to escape from them by merely ignoring them. But that is a wrong and unfruitful attitude to adopt. All live so much under the activities of the trained administrator that should, if, it  give a great deal of thought to our own administrative problems deliberate and conscious thought to them-and make an honest and heart-searching self analysis regarding our own possible failings.

  18. Engineered Vascularized Muscle Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egozi, Dana; Shandalov, Yulia; Freiman, Alina; Rosenfeld, Dekel; Ben-Shimol, David; Levenberg, Shulamit

    2016-01-01

    One of the main factors limiting the thickness of a tissue construct and its consequential viability and applicability in vivo, is the control of oxygen supply to the cell microenvironment, as passive diffusion is limited to a very thin layer. Although various materials have been described to restore the integrity of full-thickness defects of the abdominal wall, no material has yet proved to be optimal, due to low graft vascularization, tissue rejection, infection, or inadequate mechanical properties. This protocol describes a means of engineering a fully vascularized flap, with a thickness relevant for muscle tissue reconstruction. Cell-embedded poly L-lactic acid/poly lactic-co-glycolic acid constructs are implanted around the mouse femoral artery and vein and maintained in vivo for a period of one or two weeks. The vascularized graft is then transferred as a flap towards a full thickness defect made in the abdomen. This technique replaces the need for autologous tissue sacrifications and may enable the use of in vitro engineered vascularized flaps in many surgical applications. PMID:26779840

  19. Gender Differences in Skeletal Muscle Substrate Metabolism – Molecular Mechanisms and Insulin Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Lundsgaard, Anne-Marie; Kiens, Bente

    2014-01-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that substrate metabolism is subject to gender-specific regulation, and the aim of this review is to outline the available evidence of molecular gender differences in glucose and lipid metabolism of skeletal muscle. Female sex has been suggested to have a favorable effect on glucose homeostasis, and the available evidence from hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamp studies is summarized to delineate whether there is a gender difference in whole-body insulin sens...

  20. Gender differences in skeletal muscle substrate metabolism - molecular mechanisms and insulin sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Anne-Marie eLundsgaard; Bente eKiens

    2014-01-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that substrate metabolism is subject to gender specific regulation, and the aim of this review is to outline the available evidence of molecular gender differences in glucose and lipid metabolism of skeletal muscle. Female sex has been suggested to have a favorable effect on glucose homeostasis, and the available evidence from hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies is summarized to delineate whether there is a gender difference in whole body insulin sens...

  1. PDH regulation in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) decarboxylates pyruvate into acetyl-CoA and links glycolysis with the Krebs cycle. Because PDH is the only step where carbohydrate-derived substrate can enter the mitochondria and become completely oxidized, PDH activity can potentially determine if glycogen / glucose...... is oxidized completely, or whether pyruvate is converted to lactate. Activity of PDH in the active form (PDHa) is overall determined by the degree of PDH-E1? phosphorylation, where PDH-E1? dephosphorylation activates PDH, while PDH-E1? phosphorylation inactivates PDH. The PDH-E1? phosphorylation state...... in mouse skeletal muscle at rest and in response to fasting and during recovery from exercise. The studies indicate that the content of PDH-E1? in human muscle follows the metabolic profile of the muscle, rather than the myosin heavy chain fiber distribution of the muscle. The larger lactate accumulation...

  2. Simvastatin effects on skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Stride, Nis; Hey-Mogensen, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) content, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity were measured in simvastatin-treated patients (n = 10) and in well-matched control subjects (n = 9)....

  3. Favorable prognostic value of SOCS2 and IGF-I in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins comprise a protein family, which has initially been described as STAT induced inhibitors of the Jak/Stat pathway. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that SOCS proteins are also implicated in cancer. The STAT5 induced IGF-I acts as an endocrine and para/autocrine growth and differentiation factor in mammary gland development. Whereas high levels of circulating IGF-I have been associated with increased cancer risk, the role of autocrine acting IGF-I is less clear. The present study is aimed to elucidate the clinicopathological features associated with SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, CIS and IGF-I expression in breast cancer. We determined the mRNA expression levels of SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, CIS and IGF-I in 89 primary breast cancers by reverse transcriptase PCR. SOCS2 protein expression was further evaluated by immuno-blot and immunohistochemistry. SOCS2 expression inversely correlated with histopathological grade and ER positive tumors exhibited higher SOCS2 levels. Patients with high SOCS2 expression lived significantly longer (108.7 vs. 77.7 months; P = 0.015) and high SOCS2 expression proved to be an independent predictor for good prognosis (HR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.23 – 0.91, P = 0.026). In analogy to SOCS2, high IGF-I expression was an independent predictor for good prognosis in the entire patient cohort. In the subgroup of patients with lymph-node negative disease, high IGF-I was a strong predictor for favorable outcome in terms of overall survival and relapse free survival (HR = 0.075, 95% CI 0.014 – 0.388, P = 0.002). This is the first report on the favorable prognostic value of high SOCS2 expression in primary mammary carcinomas. Furthermore a strong association of high IGF-I expression levels with good prognosis was observed especially in lymph-node negative patients. Our results suggest that high expression of the STAT5 target genes SOCS2 and IGF-I is a feature of differentiated and less malignant tumors

  4. Favorable prognostic value of SOCS2 and IGF-I in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxenbichler Günter

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS proteins comprise a protein family, which has initially been described as STAT induced inhibitors of the Jak/Stat pathway. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that SOCS proteins are also implicated in cancer. The STAT5 induced IGF-I acts as an endocrine and para/autocrine growth and differentiation factor in mammary gland development. Whereas high levels of circulating IGF-I have been associated with increased cancer risk, the role of autocrine acting IGF-I is less clear. The present study is aimed to elucidate the clinicopathological features associated with SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, CIS and IGF-I expression in breast cancer. Methods We determined the mRNA expression levels of SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, CIS and IGF-I in 89 primary breast cancers by reverse transcriptase PCR. SOCS2 protein expression was further evaluated by immuno-blot and immunohistochemistry. Results SOCS2 expression inversely correlated with histopathological grade and ER positive tumors exhibited higher SOCS2 levels. Patients with high SOCS2 expression lived significantly longer (108.7 vs. 77.7 months; P = 0.015 and high SOCS2 expression proved to be an independent predictor for good prognosis (HR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.23 – 0.91, P = 0.026. In analogy to SOCS2, high IGF-I expression was an independent predictor for good prognosis in the entire patient cohort. In the subgroup of patients with lymph-node negative disease, high IGF-I was a strong predictor for favorable outcome in terms of overall survival and relapse free survival (HR = 0.075, 95% CI 0.014 – 0.388, P = 0.002. Conclusion This is the first report on the favorable prognostic value of high SOCS2 expression in primary mammary carcinomas. Furthermore a strong association of high IGF-I expression levels with good prognosis was observed especially in lymph-node negative patients. Our results suggest that high expression of the STAT5 target genes SOCS2 and IGF

  5. Deficit of sand in a sediment transport model favors coral reef development in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio C.S.P. Bittencourt

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that the location of the shoreface bank reefs along the northeastern and eastern coasts of Brazil, in a first order approximation, seem to be controlled by the deficit of sediment in the coastal system. The sediment transport pattern defined by a numerical modeling of wave refraction diagrams, representing circa 2000 km of the northeastern and eastern coasts of Brazil, permitted the regional-scale reproduction of several drift cells of net longshore sediment transport. Those drift cells can reasonably explain the coastal sections that present sediment surplus or sediment deficit, which correspond, respectively, to regions where there is deposition and erosion or little/no deposition of sand. The sediment deficit allows the exposure and maintenance of rocky substrates to be free of sediment, a favorable condition for the fixation and development of coral larvae.Este trabalho mostra que a localização dos recifes de coral ao longo dos litorais leste e nordeste do Brasil, em uma aproximação de primeira ordem, parece ser controlada pelo déficit de sedimentos no sistema costeiro. O padrão de transporte de sedimentos definido por modelagem numérica a partir de diagramas de refração de ondas, representando cerca de 2000 km dos litorais leste e nordeste do Brasil, permitiu a reprodução, em escala regional, de várias células de deriva litorânea efetiva de sedimentos. Essas células de deriva podem razoavelmente explicar os segmentos costeiros que representam superávit, ou deficit de sedimentos que correspondem, respectivamente, a regiões onde existe deposição e erosão ou pouca/nenhuma deposição de areia. O deficit de sedimentos propicia a exposição e manutenção de substratos rochosos livres de sedimento, uma condição favorável para a fixação e desenvolvimento das larvas de coral.

  6. Compensatory Hypertrophy of Skeletal Muscle: Contractile Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianuzzo, C. D.; Chen, V.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using rats that demonstrates contractile characteristics of normal and hypertrophied muscle. Compensatory hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle is induced by surgical removal of the synergistic gastrocnemium muscle. Includes methods for determination of contractile properties of normal and hypertrophied muscle and…

  7. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    OpenAIRE

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss.

  8. Gender differences in skeletal muscle substrate metabolism - molecular mechanisms and insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie eLundsgaard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It has become increasingly apparent that substrate metabolism is subject to gender specific regulation, and the aim of this review is to outline the available evidence of molecular gender differences in glucose and lipid metabolism of skeletal muscle. Female sex has been suggested to have a favorable effect on glucose homeostasis, and the available evidence from hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies is summarized to delineate whether there is a gender difference in whole body insulin sensitivity and in particular insulin-stimulated glucose uptake of skeletal muscle. Whether an eventual higher insulin sensitivity of female skeletal muscle can be related to gender specific regulation of molecular metabolism will be topic for discussion. Gender differences in muscle fiber type distribution and substrate availability to and in skeletal muscle are highly relevant for substrate metabolism in men and women. In particular, the molecular machinery for glucose and fatty acid oxidative and storage capacities in skeletal muscle and its implications for substrate utilization during metabolic situations of daily living are discussed, emphasizing their relevance for substrate choice in the fed and fasted state, and during periods of physical activity and recovery. Together, handling of carbohydrate and lipids and regulation of their utilization in skeletal muscle have implications for whole body glucose homeostasis in men and women. 17-β estradiol is the most important female sex hormone, and the identification of estradiol receptors in skeletal muscle has opened for a role in regulation of substrate metabolism. Also, higher levels of circulating adipokines as adiponectin and leptin in women and their implications for muscle metabolism will be considered.

  9. Putting muscle in DNA methylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James P Reddington; Richard R Meehan

    2011-01-01

    Over 25 years ago seminal experiments from the labs of Peter Jones and Harold Weintraub demonstrated that alteration in the DNA modification state underlie the myogenic conversion of fibroblast cell lines [1,2].This paved the way for the identification of myogenic helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins in muscle differentiation,but the mechanism by which DNA methylation regulates muscle differentiation has remained elusive [3].

  10. Evaluation of muscle hyperactivity of the grimacing muscles by unilateral tight eyelid closure and stapedius muscle tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Masato; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Ban, Ryokuya; Nagai, Fumio

    2012-10-01

    Muscle hyperactivity of grimacing muscles, including the orbicularis oculi and corrugator supercilii muscles that cause crow's feet and a glabellar frown line with ageing, cannot be accurately evaluated by surface observation. In 71 subjects, this study investigated the extent to which grimacing muscles are innervated by the bilateral motor cortices, whether the corticofacial projection to the grimacing muscles affects the facially innervated stapedius muscle tone by measuring static compliance of the tympanic membrane, and whether unilateral tight eyelid closure with contraction of the grimacing muscles changes static compliance. Unilateral tight eyelid closure and its subsequent change in the contralateral vertical medial eyebrow position revealed that motor neurons of the orbicularis oculi and corrugator supercilii muscles were innervated by the bilateral motor cortices with weak-to-strong contralateral dominance. The orbicularis oculi, corrugator supercilii, and stapedius muscles innervated by the bilateral motor cortices had increased muscle hyperactivity, which lowered the vertical medial eyebrow position and decreased the static compliance of the tympanic membrane more than those innervated by the unilateral motor cortex. Unilateral enhanced tight eyelid closure with contraction of the grimacing muscles in certain subjects ipsilaterally decreased the static compliance with increased contraction of the stapedius muscle, which probably occurs to immobilise the tympanic membrane and protect the inner ear from loud sound. Evaluation of unilateral tight eyelid closure and the subsequent change in the contralateral vertical medial eyebrow position as well as a measurement of the static compliance for the stapedius muscle tone has revealed muscle hyperactivity of grimacing muscles.

  11. Adductor muscle strains in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Stephen J; Tyler, Timothy F

    2002-01-01

    An in-season adductor muscle strain may be debilitating for the athlete. Furthermore, an adductor strain that is treated improperly could become chronic and career threatening. Any one of the six muscles of the adductor group could be involved. The degree of injury can range from a minor strain (Grade I), where minimal playing time is lost, to a severe strain (Grade III) in which there is complete loss of muscle function. Ice hockey and soccer players seem particularly susceptible to adductor muscle strains. In professional ice hockey players throughout the world, approximately 10% of all injuries are groin strains. These injuries, which have been linked to hip muscle weakness, previous injuries to that area, preseason practice sessions and level of experience, may be preventable if such risk factors can be addressed before each season. Hip-strengthening exercises were shown to be an effective method of reducing the incidence of adductor strains in one closely followed National Hockey League ice hockey team. Despite the identification of risk factors and strengthening intervention for ice hockey players, adductor strains continue to occur throughout sport. Clinicians feel an active training programme, along with completely restoring the strength of the adductor muscle group, is the key to successful rehabilitation. Surgical intervention is available if nonoperative treatment fails for 6 months or longer. Adductor release and tenotomy was reported to have limited success in athletes. PMID:11929360

  12. Artificial muscle: facts and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Marcus C

    2011-12-19

    Mechanical devices are sought to support insufficient or paralysed striated muscles including the failing heart. Nickel-titanium alloys (nitinol) present the following two properties: (i) super-elasticity, and (ii) the potential to assume different crystal structures depending on temperature and/or stress. Starting from the martensite state nitinol is able to resume the austenite form (state of low potential energy and high entropy) even against an external resistance. This one-way shape change is deployed in self-expanding vascular stents. Heating induces the force generating transformation from martensite to the austenite state while cooling induces relaxation back to the martensite state. This two-way shape change oscillating between the two states may be used in cyclically contracting support devices of silicon-coated nitinol wires. Such a contractile device sutured to the right atrium has been tested in vitro in a bench model and in vivo in sheep. The contraction properties of natural muscles, specifically of the myocardium, and the tight correlation with ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria is briefly outlined. Force development by the nitinol device cannot be smoothly regulated as in natural muscle. Its mechanical impact is forced onto the natural muscle regardless of the actual condition with regard to metabolism and Ca2+-homeostasis. The development of artificial muscle on the basis of nitinol wires is still in its infancy. The nitinol artificial muscle will have to prove its viability in the various clinical settings.

  13. An electron-accepting molecular unit exhibiting an orientational preference favorable for organic photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control of molecular orientation of organic semiconductor is essential for efficient light absorption and charge-carrier transport in organic optoelectronic devices. We synthesized compound 1 as a fundamental electron-accepting building block for the design of n-type semiconductors and conducting polymers. We found that this molecule, upon evaporation onto a substrate such as SiO2 and electron-donor films, spontaneously assembles with a face-on orientation relative to the substrate surface. This orientation is favorable for thin-film organic photovoltaics. Despite relatively small π-conjugation, 1 showed strong absorption in visible-light region and an appropriate lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy for electron transfer with electron donors including copper phthalocyanine and poly(3-hexylthiophene). Accordingly, thin-film devices, fabricated using 1 and electron donors, exhibited a clear photovoltaic response. This suggests that compound 1 provides a promising building block for the development of active materials in organic photovoltaics. - Highlights: • An electron acceptor (1) featuring an indacenetetraone core was designed. • Acceptor 1 exhibits strong electronic absorption in visible-light region. • Acceptor 1 spontaneously adopts face-on orientation on SiO2 and organic substrates. • Thin film of 1 shows an n-type semiconducting property. • Electron donor/1 bilayer films display a clear photovoltaic response

  14. Superstition predicts favorable weight change in an open-placebo trial: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhviashvili, Nino; Gupta, Sumati

    2015-09-01

    Given the difficulty of losing weight via adhering to healthy lifestyle choices, this study sought to understand how a placebo may elicit favorable weight change. Specifically, we examined if superstition may be related to increased responsiveness to an open-placebo. In this pilot study of 25 undergraduate participants, it was hypothesized that individuals with higher levels of superstition may be more responsive to a 3-week open-placebo weight change trial. Participants were given once-daily saltine crackers to use as open-placebos for weight change in their preferred direction (gain or loss). The weight of each participant was measured before and after the 3-week open-placebo period. A Pearson's r correlation showed a significant positive relationship between superstition and placebo responsiveness, determined by weight gain or loss in the preferred direction, r (25) = 0.493, p < 0.05. We hope these preliminary results engender future research on open-placebo uses for weight management. PMID:25416546

  15. Favorable Impact of Growth Hormone Treatment on Cholesterol Levels in Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Hitoshi; Igarashi, Yutaka; Ozono, Keiichi; Ohyama, Kenji; Ogawa, Masamichi; Osada, Hisao; Onigata, Kazumichi; Kanzaki, Susumu; Seino, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Tajima, Toshihiro; Tachibana, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Yoshikazu; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Fujieda, Kenji; Fujita, Keinosuke; Horikawa, Reiko; Yokoya, Susumu; Yorifuji, Toru; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Background: Patients with Turner syndrome (TS) are prone to having metabolic abnormalities, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperinsulinemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus, resulting in increased risks of developing atherosclerotic diseases. Objective: To determine the effect of growth hormone (GH) therapy on serum cholesterol levels in prepubertal girls with TS enrolled in the Turner syndrome Research Collaboration (TRC) in Japan. Patients and methods: Eighty-one girls with TS were enrolled in the TRC, and their total cholesterol (TC) levels before GH therapy were compared with reported levels of healthy school-aged Japanese girls. TC levels after 1, 2 and 3 yr of GH treatment were available for 28 of the 81 patients with TS. GH was administered by daily subcutaneous injections, 6 or 7 times/wk, with a weekly dose of 0.35 mg/kg body weight. Results: Baseline TC levels revealed an age-related increase in TS that was in contrast to healthy girls showing unchanged levels. During GH therapy, TC decreased significantly after 1 yr of GH treatment and remained low thereafter. Conclusions: Girls with untreated TS showed an age-related increase in TC that was a striking contrast to healthy girls, who showed unchanged levels. GH therapy in girls with TS brought about a favorable change in TC that indicates the beneficial impact of GH on atherogenic risk. PMID:23926408

  16. Soluble OX40L favors tumor rejection in CT26 colon carcinoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrovskaya, Ekaterina O; Yuzhakova, Diana V; Ryumina, Alina P; Druzhkova, Irina N; Sharonov, George V; Kotlobay, Alexey A; Zagaynova, Elena V; Lukyanov, Sergey A; Shirmanova, Marina V

    2016-08-01

    OX40 receptor-expressing regulatory T cells (Tregs) populate tumors and suppress a variety of immune cells, posing a major obstacle for cancer immunotherapy. Different ways to functionally inactivate Tregs by triggering OX40 receptor have been suggested, including anti-OX40 antibodies and Fc:OX40L fusion proteins. To investigate whether the soluble extracellular domain of OX40L (OX40Lexo) is sufficient to enhance antitumor immune response, we generated an OX40Lexo-expressing CT26 colon carcinoma cell line and studied its tumorigenicity in immunocompetent BALB/c and T cell deficient nu/nu mice. We found that soluble OX40L expressed in CT26 colon carcinoma favors the induction of an antitumor response which is not limited just to cells co-expressing EGFP as an antigenic determinant, but also eliminates CT26 cells expressing another fluorescent protein, KillerRed. Tumor rejection required the presence of T lymphocytes, as indicated by the unhampered tumor growth in nu/nu mice. Subsequent re-challenge of tumor-free BALB/c mice with CT26 EGFP cells resulted in no tumor growth, which is indicative of the formation of immunological memory. Adoptive transfer of splenocytes from mice that successfully rejected CT26 OX40Lexo EGFP tumors to naïve mice conferred 100% resistance to subsequent challenge with the CT26 EGFP tumor. PMID:27203665

  17. Vaccination Against Human Papilloma Viruses Leads to a Favorable Cytokine Profile of Specific T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckau, Stefanie; Wehrs, Tim P; Brandau, Sven; Horn, Peter A; Lindemann, Monika

    2016-10-01

    Several human papilloma viruses (HPV) are known to cause malignant transformation. The high-risk type HPV 16 is associated with cervical carcinoma and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. HPV 16-positive tumor cells exclusively carry the HPV 16 oncogenes E6 and E7. These oncogenes appear as excellent targets for an adoptive immunotherapy. We here addressed the question whether specific T cells from HPV-vaccinated healthy volunteers could be especially suitable for an HPV-specific cellular immunotherapy. Of note, vaccines contain HPV 16. To quantify HPV 16 E6-specific and E7-specific cells, enzyme-linked immunospot assays to measure interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (Th1-Th2 balance) and the secretion of the cytotoxic molecules granzyme B and perforin have been optimized. The frequency of peripheral blood mononuclear cells secreting IFN-γ and perforin was significantly (PHPV-vaccinated versus nonvaccinated volunteers. Overall, however, the median frequency of HPV 16-specific cells with a favorable secretion profile (Th1 balanced and cytotoxic) was low even in vaccinated volunteers (IFN-γ: 0.0018% and 0.0023%, perforin: 0.01% and 0.0087% for E6-specific and E7-specific cells, respectively). But some vaccinated volunteers showed up to 0.1% HPV-specific, IFN-γ or perforin-secreting cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that vaccinated volunteers are superior to nonvaccinated donors for HPV-specific cellular cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27548034

  18. Membrane anchoring stabilizes and favors secretion of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Lisandro J; Bahr, Guillermo; Nakashige, Toshiki G; Nolan, Elizabeth M; Bonomo, Robert A; Vila, Alejandro J

    2016-07-01

    Carbapenems, 'last-resort' β-lactam antibiotics, are inactivated by zinc-dependent metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). The host innate immune response withholds nutrient metal ions from microbial pathogens by releasing metal-chelating proteins such as calprotectin. We show that metal sequestration is detrimental for the accumulation of MBLs in the bacterial periplasm, because those enzymes are readily degraded in their nonmetallated form. However, the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) can persist under conditions of metal depletion. NDM-1 is a lipidated protein that anchors to the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Membrane anchoring contributes to the unusual stability of NDM-1 and favors secretion of this enzyme in outer-membrane vesicles (OMVs). OMVs containing NDM-1 can protect nearby populations of bacteria from otherwise lethal antibiotic levels, and OMVs from clinical pathogens expressing NDM-1 can carry this MBL and the blaNDM gene. We show that protein export into OMVs can be targeted, providing possibilities of new antibacterial therapeutic strategies.

  19. Fluorescent Pseudomonas strains with only few plant-beneficial properties are favored in the maize rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan VACHERON

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR enhance plant health and growth using a variety of traits. Effective PGPR strains typically exhibit multiple plant-beneficial properties, but whether they are better adapted to the rhizosphere than PGPR strains with fewer plant-beneficial properties is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that strains with higher numbers of plant-beneficial properties would be preferentially selected by plant roots. To this end, the co-occurrence of 18 properties involved in enhanced plant nutrition, plant hormone modulation, or pathogen inhibition was analyzed by molecular and biochemical methods in a collection of maize rhizosphere and bulk soil isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonas. Twelve plant-beneficial properties were found among the 698 isolates. Contrarily to expectation, maize preferentially selected pseudomonads with low numbers of plant-beneficial properties (up to five. This selection was not due to the predominance of strains with specific assortments of these properties, or with specific taxonomic status. Therefore, the occurrence of only few plant-beneficial properties appeared favorable for root colonization by pseudomonads.

  20. Type II ligands as chemical auxiliaries to favor enzymatic transformations by P450 2E1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Amélie; Fabra, Camilo; Huang, Yue; Auclair, Karine

    2012-11-26

    The remarkable ability of P450 enzymes to oxidize inactivated C-H bonds and the high substrate promiscuity of many P450 isoforms have inspired us and others to investigate their use as biocatalysts. Our lab has pioneered a chemical-auxiliary approach to control the promiscuity of P450 3A4 and provide product predictability. The recent realization that type II ligands are sometimes also P450 substrates has prompted the design of a new generation of chemical auxiliaries with type II binding properties. This approach takes advantage of the high affinity of type II ligands for the active site of these enzymes. Although type II ligands typically block P450 activity, we report here that type II ligation can be harnessed to achieve just the opposite, that is, to favor biocatalysis and afford predictable oxidation of small hydrocarbon substrates with P450 2E1. Moreover, the observed predictability was rationalized by molecular docking. We hope that this approach might find future use with other P450 isoforms and yield complimentary products. PMID:23129539

  1. Natural History of Untreated Prostate Specific Antigen Radiorecurrent Prostate Cancer in Men with Favorable Prognostic Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil E. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Life expectancy data could identify men with favorable post-radiation prostate-specific antigen (PSA failure kinetics unlikely to require androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. Materials and Methods. Of 206 men with unfavorable-risk prostate cancer in a randomized trial of radiation versus radiation and ADT, 53 experienced a PSA failure and were followed without salvage ADT. Comorbidity, age and established prognostic factors were assessed for relationship to death using Cox regression analyses. Results. The median age at failure, interval to PSA failure, and PSA doubling time were 76.6 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 71.8–79.3, 49.1 months (IQR: 37.7–87.4, and 25 months (IQR: 13.1–42.8, respectively. After a median follow up of 4.0 years following PSA failure, 45% of men had died, none from prostate cancer and no one had developed metastases. Both increasing age at PSA failure (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.03–1.25; P=0.008 and the presence of moderate to severe comorbidity (HR: 12.5; 95% CI: 3.81–41.0; P2 years following post-radiation PSA failure appear to be good candidates for observation without ADT intervention.

  2. Do Code of Points in men artistic gymnastics and women artistic gymnastics favor asymmetric elements?

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    Ivan ČUK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of research was to determine whether Code of Point (COP in Men Artistic Gymnastics (MAG and Women Artistic Gymnastics (WAG favor asymmetric elements in order to build gymnast’s competition exercise. All elements which are described in MAG (N = 993 and WAG (N = 713 COP were included and defined if they are symmetric at start position, during movement and at final position. Element is symmetric by arms and trunk with legs activity when all left and right body side performs simultaneously same activity. Results show in MAG COP as a whole is significantly more asymmetric elements with asymmetric trunk and legs activity. In WAG COP as a whole is significantly more asymmetric elements with asymmetric activity of arms, trunk and legs. Hypothetical most difficulty exercises on each apparatus revealed that in general for all around gymnast proportion between asymmetric and symmetric elements is close to 70% to 30%, what suggests that difficulty relates to increased asymmetry. COP in MAG and WAG enforces asymmetric movements for achieving high results, however, coaches’ task is to be aware of COP influence on gymnasts’ health and minimize asymmetries in load and to work on symmetric conditioning.

  3. The novel AKT inhibitor afuresertib shows favorable safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical activity in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Andrew; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Harrison, Simon J; Morris, Shannon R; Smith, Deborah A; Brigandi, Richard A; Gauvin, Jennifer; Kumar, Rakesh; Opalinska, Joanna B; Chen, Christine

    2014-10-01

    The PI3K/AKT pathway is constitutively active in hematologic malignancies, providing proliferative and antiapoptotic signals and possibly contributing to drug resistance. We conducted an open-label phase 1 study to evaluate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical activity of afuresertib-an oral AKT inhibitor-in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies. Seventy-three patients were treated at doses ranging from 25 to 150 mg per day. The MTD was established at 125 mg per day because of 2 dose-limiting toxicities in the 150-mg cohort (liver function test abnormalities). The most frequent adverse events were nausea (35.6%), diarrhea (32.9%), and dyspepsia (24.7%). Maximum plasma concentrations and area under the plasma concentration-time curves from time 0 to 24 hours were generally dose proportional at > 75-mg doses; the median time to peak plasma concentrations was 1.5 to 2.5 hours post dose, with a half-life of approximately 1.7 days. Three multiple myeloma patients attained partial responses; an additional 3 attained minimal responses. Clinical activity was also observed in non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Langerhan's cell histiocytosis, and Hodgkin disease. Single-agent afuresertib showed a favorable safety profile and demonstrated clinical activity against hematologic malignancies, including multiple myeloma.

  4. Evaluation of Anteroposterior Lip Positions in the Most-Favored Iranian Facial Profiles Using Silhouette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darab Gholami Borujeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the most important goals of orthodontic treatment is to create an esthetic, well balanced facial profile. However, the components of a well-balanced Iranian facial profile have not yet been established. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anteroposterior lip position of the Iranian population and to compare the perception of orthodontists, dental students and orthodontic patients using a series of silhouettes with varying anteroposterior lip positions.Materials and Methods: Average female and male silhouette profiles were constructed from the profiles of 30 Iranian men and women with a normal skeletal relationship. The lips in each average profile were protruded or retruded in 2-mm increments and the 7 images were arranged randomly. Thirty orthodontists, 30 dental students and 30 orthodontic patients were asked to score each silhouette from 1 (very bad to 5 (very good.Results: Both the orthodontists and the students preferred the average profile for men and slightly more retruded lip position for women. Orthodontic patients had a wide range of preference for men and selected more retruded lip positions for women. The least-favored profile was the most protrusive in the 3 groups.Conclusion: These findings suggest that Iranian orthodontists, dental students and orthodontic patients prefer an average profile for men and slightly retruded profiles for women.

  5. The ecological conditions that favor tool use and innovation in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Eric M; Mann, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Dolphins are well known for their exquisite echolocation abilities, which enable them to detect and discriminate prey species and even locate buried prey. While these skills are widely used during foraging, some dolphins use tools to locate and extract prey. In the only known case of tool use in free-ranging cetaceans, a subset of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in Shark Bay, Western Australia habitually employs marine basket sponge tools to locate and ferret prey from the seafloor. While it is clear that sponges protect dolphins' rostra while searching for prey, it is still not known why dolphins probe the substrate at all instead of merely echolocating for buried prey as documented at other sites. By 'sponge foraging' ourselves, we show that these dolphins target prey that both lack swimbladders and burrow in a rubble-littered substrate. Delphinid echolocation and vision are critical for hunting but less effective on such prey. Consequently, if dolphins are to access this burrowing, swimbladderless prey, they must probe the seafloor and in turn benefit from using protective sponges. We suggest that these tools have allowed sponge foraging dolphins to exploit an empty niche inaccessible to their non-tool-using counterparts. Our study identifies the underlying ecological basis of dolphin tool use and strengthens our understanding of the conditions that favor tool use and innovation in the wild. PMID:21799801

  6. The ecological conditions that favor tool use and innovation in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Patterson

    Full Text Available Dolphins are well known for their exquisite echolocation abilities, which enable them to detect and discriminate prey species and even locate buried prey. While these skills are widely used during foraging, some dolphins use tools to locate and extract prey. In the only known case of tool use in free-ranging cetaceans, a subset of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp. in Shark Bay, Western Australia habitually employs marine basket sponge tools to locate and ferret prey from the seafloor. While it is clear that sponges protect dolphins' rostra while searching for prey, it is still not known why dolphins probe the substrate at all instead of merely echolocating for buried prey as documented at other sites. By 'sponge foraging' ourselves, we show that these dolphins target prey that both lack swimbladders and burrow in a rubble-littered substrate. Delphinid echolocation and vision are critical for hunting but less effective on such prey. Consequently, if dolphins are to access this burrowing, swimbladderless prey, they must probe the seafloor and in turn benefit from using protective sponges. We suggest that these tools have allowed sponge foraging dolphins to exploit an empty niche inaccessible to their non-tool-using counterparts. Our study identifies the underlying ecological basis of dolphin tool use and strengthens our understanding of the conditions that favor tool use and innovation in the wild.

  7. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for small lung tumors with a moderate dose. Favorable results and low toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncker-Rohr, V.; Nestle, U. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg (Germany); Momm, F. [Ortenau Klinikum Offenburg (Germany)] [and others

    2013-01-15

    Background: Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SBRT, SABR) is being increasingly applied because of its high local efficacy, e.g., for small lung tumors. However, the optimum dosage is still under discussion. Here, we report data on 45 lung lesions [non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or metastases] in 39 patients treated between 2009 and 2010 by SABR. Patients and methods: SABR was performed with total doses of 35 Gy (5 fractions) or 37.5 Gy (3 fractions) prescribed to the 60% isodose line encompassing the planning target volume. Three-monthly follow-up CT scans were supplemented by FDG-PET/CT if clinically indicated. Results: The median follow-up was 17 months. Local progression-free survival rates were 90.5% (all patients), 95.0% (NSCLC), and 81.8% (metastases) at 1 year. At 2 years, the respective local progression-free survival rates were 80.5%, 95.0%, and 59.7%. Overall survival rates were 71.1% (all patients), 65.4% (NSCLC), and 83.3% (metastases) at 1 year. Overall survival rates at 2 years were 52.7%, 45.9%, and 66.7%, respectively. Acute side effects were mild. Conclusion: With the moderate dose schedule used, well-tolerated SABR led to favorable local tumor control as in other published series. Standardization in reporting the dose prescription for SABR is needed to allow comparison of different series in order to determine optimum dosage. (orig.)

  8. Interleukin-33 Expression Indicates a Favorable Prognosis in Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössle, Matthias; Cathomas, Gieri; Bonapace, Laura; Sachs, Melanie; Dehler, Silvia; Storz, Martina; Huber, Gerhard; Moch, Holger; Junt, Tobias; Mertz, Kirsten D

    2016-08-01

    The cytokine interleukin-33 (IL-33) is abundantly expressed in epithelial barrier tissues such as salivary glands. Here, we characterized nuclear IL-33 protein expression by immunohistochemistry in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and associated it with disease outcome. Most benign salivary gland tumors expressed IL-33, and all Warthin's tumors showed strong and consistent IL-33 expression in the basally oriented cells of their bilayered epithelium. In the malignant group of neoplasms, nuclear IL-33 expression was limited to specific tumor entities-for example, to epithelial-myopepithelial carcinomas (n = 9/11), acinic cell carcinomas (n = 13/27), and oncocytic carcinomas (n = 2/2). IL-33 expression in the combined group of malignant salivary gland neoplasms was significantly associated with favorable histological parameters, lack of metastasis, and longer overall survival, compared with IL-33-negative tumors. We conclude that IL-33 expression is a novel prognostic marker for malignant salivary gland tumors with potential use in clinical diagnostics.

  9. Luminal Cells Are Favored as the Cell of Origin for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu A. Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The identification of cell types of origin for cancer has important implications for tumor stratification and personalized treatment. For prostate cancer, the cell of origin has been intensively studied, but it has remained unclear whether basal or luminal epithelial cells, or both, represent cells of origin under physiological conditions in vivo. Here, we use a novel lineage-tracing strategy to assess the cell of origin in a diverse range of mouse models, including Nkx3.1+/−; Pten+/−, Pten+/−, Hi-Myc, and TRAMP mice, as well as a hormonal carcinogenesis model. Our results show that luminal cells are consistently the observed cell of origin for each model in situ; however, explanted basal cells from these mice can generate tumors in grafts. Consequently, we propose that luminal cells are favored as cells of origin in many contexts, whereas basal cells only give rise to tumors after differentiation into luminal cells.

  10. Social heuristics and social roles: Intuition favors altruism for women but not for men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G; Brescoll, Victoria L; Everett, Jim A C; Capraro, Valerio; Barcelo, Hélène

    2016-04-01

    Are humans intuitively altruistic, or does altruism require self-control? A theory of social heuristics, whereby intuitive responses favor typically successful behaviors, suggests that the answer may depend on who you are. In particular, evidence suggests that women are expected to behave altruistically, and are punished for failing to be altruistic, to a much greater extent than men. Thus, women (but not men) may internalize altruism as their intuitive response. Indeed, a meta-analysis of 13 new experiments and 9 experiments from other groups found that promoting intuition relative to deliberation increased giving in a Dictator Game among women, but not among men (Study 1, N = 4,366). Furthermore, this effect was shown to be moderated by explicit sex role identification (Study 2, N = 1,831): the more women described themselves using traditionally masculine attributes (e.g., dominance, independence) relative to traditionally feminine attributes (e.g., warmth, tenderness), the more deliberation reduced their altruism. Our findings shed light on the connection between gender and altruism, and highlight the importance of social heuristics in human prosociality. PMID:26913619

  11. Aerosol deposition favors red tide phytoplankton in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, K. R.; Chien, C.; Chen, Y.; Glover, D. M.; Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Chinese marginal seas support vast fisheries and vital economies, but their productivity is threatened by eutrophication from runoff and atmospheric deposition. The East China Sea is inundated with nitrogen from the Yangtze River and anthropogenic emissions, leading to elevated N:P ratios. We show that aerosol additions approximating one week of moderate deposition to offshore waters favor the growth of red tide phytoplankton, such as Skeletonema costatum, by providing nutrients and trace metals (iron and zinc) needed for growth. In contrast toxin-producing Pseudonitzchia does not benefit from aerosols in this region, possibly due to its preference for lower N:P ratios. A dose-dependent toxic response was observed in Synechococcus at high aerosol loads approximating a week of heavy deposition in the region. In contrast, phytoplankton growth at an onshore station was light limited, and aerosol additions did not have an appreciable effect on phytoplankton growth. Aerosol and chlorophyll observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite have the potential to explore the effect of aerosols on phytoplankton blooms over longer time scales and seasons. This study shows the potential for aerosols to control N:P ratios in offshore waters and to shape the phytoplankton community through fertilization and toxicity, contributing to the occurrence of red tides.

  12. TRAF4 is a novel phosphoinositide-binding protein modulating tight junctions and favoring cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Rousseau

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor (TNF receptor-associated factor 4 (TRAF4 is frequently overexpressed in carcinomas, suggesting a specific role in cancer. Although TRAF4 protein is predominantly found at tight junctions (TJs in normal mammary epithelial cells (MECs, it accumulates in the cytoplasm of malignant MECs. How TRAF4 is recruited and functions at TJs is unclear. Here we show that TRAF4 possesses a novel phosphoinositide (PIP-binding domain crucial for its recruitment to TJs. Of interest, this property is shared by the other members of the TRAF protein family. Indeed, the TRAF domain of all TRAF proteins (TRAF1 to TRAF6 is a bona fide PIP-binding domain. Molecular and structural analyses revealed that the TRAF domain of TRAF4 exists as a trimer that binds up to three lipids using basic residues exposed at its surface. Cellular studies indicated that TRAF4 acts as a negative regulator of TJ and increases cell migration. These functions are dependent from its ability to interact with PIPs. Our results suggest that TRAF4 overexpression might contribute to breast cancer progression by destabilizing TJs and favoring cell migration.

  13. Anticipated detection of favorable periods for wind energy production by means of information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Eugenio; Saravia, Gonzalo; Kobe, Sigismund; Schumann, Rolf; Schuster, Rolf

    Managing the electric power produced by different sources requires mixing the different response times they present. Thus, for instance, coal burning presents large time lags until operational conditions are reached while hydroelectric generation can react in a matter of some seconds or few minutes to reach the desired productivity. Wind energy production (WEP) can be instantaneously fed to the network to save fuels with low thermal inertia (gas burning for instance), but this source presents sudden variations within few hours. We report here for the first time a method based on information theory to handle WEP. This method has been successful in detecting dynamical changes in magnetic transitions and variations of stock markets. An algorithm called wlzip based on information recognition is used to recognize the information content of a time series. We make use of publically available energy data in Germany to simulate real applications. After a calibration process the system can recognize directly on the WEP data the onset of favorable periods of a desired strength. Optimization can lead to a few hours of anticipation which is enough to control the mixture of WEP with other energy sources, thus saving fuels.

  14. Anthropogenic N deposition slows decay by favoring bacterial metabolism: Insights from metagenomic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary B. Freedman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Litter decomposition is an enzymatically-complex process that is mediated by a diverse assemblage of saprophytic microorganisms. It is a globally important biogeochemical process that can be suppressed by anthropogenic N deposition. In a northern hardwood forest ecosystem located in Michigan, USA, 20 years of experimentally increased atmospheric N deposition has reduced forest floor decay and increased soil C storage. Here, we paired extracellular enzyme assays with shotgun metagenomics to assess if anthropogenic N deposition has altered the functional potential of microbial communities inhabiting decaying forest floor. Experimental N deposition significantly reduced the activity of extracellular enzymes mediating plant cell wall decay, which occurred concurrently with changes in the relative abundance of metagenomic functional gene pathways mediating the metabolism of carbohydrates, aromatic compounds, as well as microbial respiration. Moreover, experimental N deposition increased the relative abundance of 50 of the 60 gene pathways, the majority of which were associated with saprotrophic bacteria. Conversely, the relative abundance and composition of fungal genes mediating the metabolism of plant litter was not affected by experimental N deposition. Future rates of atmospheric N deposition have favored saprotrophic soil bacteria, whereas the metabolic potential of saprotrophic fungi appears resilient to this agent of environmental change. Results presented here provide evidence that changes in the functional capacity of saprotrophic soil microorganisms mediate how anthropogenic N deposition increases C storage in soil.

  15. Alginate-polyester comacromer based hydrogels as physiochemically and biologically favorable entities for cardiac tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thankam, Finosh G; Muthu, Jayabalan

    2015-11-01

    The physiochemical and biological responses of tissue engineering hydrogels are crucial in determining their desired performance. A hybrid comacromer was synthesized by copolymerizing alginate and poly(mannitol fumarate-co-sebacate) (pFMSA). Three bimodal hydrogels pFMSA-AA, pFMSA-MA and pFMSA-NMBA were synthesized by crosslinking with Ca(2+) and vinyl monomers acrylic acid (AA), methacrylic acid (MA) and N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide (NMBA), respectively. Though all the hydrogels were cytocompatible and exhibited a normal cell cycle profile, pFMSA-AA exhibited superior physiochemical properties viz non-freezable water content (58.34%) and water absorption per unit mass (0.97 g water/g gel) and pore length (19.92±3.91 μm) in comparing with other two hydrogels. The increased non-freezable water content and water absorption of pFMSA-AA hydrogels greatly influenced its biological performance, which was evident from long-term viability assay and cell cycle proliferation. The physiochemical and biological favorability of pFMSA-AA hydrogels signifies its suitability for cardiac tissue engineering.

  16. Effect of growth hormone and resistance exercise on muscle growth in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarasheski, K E; Campbell, J A; Smith, K; Rennie, M J; Holloszy, J O; Bier, D M

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether growth hormone (GH) administration enhances the muscle anabolism associated with heavy-resistance exercise. Sixteen men (21-34 yr) were assigned randomly to a resistance training plus GH group (n = 7) or to a resistance training plus placebo group (n = 9). For 12 wk, both groups trained all major muscle groups in an identical fashion while receiving 40 micrograms recombinant human GH.kg-1.day-1 or placebo. Fat-free mass (FFM) and total body water increased (P less than 0.05) in both groups but more (P less than 0.01) in the GH recipients. Whole body protein synthesis rate increased more (P less than 0.03), and whole body protein balance was greater (P = 0.01) in the GH-treated group, but quadriceps muscle protein synthesis rate, torso and limb circumferences, and muscle strength did not increase more in the GH-treated group. In the young men studied, resistance exercise with or without GH resulted in similar increments in muscle size, strength, and muscle protein synthesis, indicating that 1) the larger increase in FFM with GH treatment was probably due to an increase in lean tissue other than skeletal muscle and 2) resistance training supplemented with GH did not further enhance muscle anabolism and function. PMID:1550219

  17. Effects of eldecalcitol on bone and skeletal muscles in glucocorticoid-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hayato; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Kasukawa, Yuji; Sakai, Sadaoki; Shiraishi, Ayako; Segawa, Toyohito; Ohuchi, Kentaro; Fujii, Masashi; Sato, Chie; Shimada, Yoichi

    2016-03-01

    Glucocorticoids cause secondary osteoporosis and myopathy, characterized by type II muscle fiber atrophy. We examined whether a new vitamin D3 analogue, eldecalcitol, could inhibit glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia or myopathy in rats, and also determined the effects of prednisolone (PSL) and/or eldecalcitol on muscle-related gene expression. Six-month-old female Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: PSL group (10 mg/kg PSL); E group (0.05 µg/kg eldecalcitol); PSL + E group; and control group. PSL, eldecalcitol, and vehicles were administered daily for 2 or 4 weeks. Right calf muscle strength, muscle fatigue, cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of left tibialis anterior muscle fibers, and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured following administration. Pax7, MyoD, and myogenin mRNA levels in gastrocnemius muscles were also determined. Muscle strength was significantly higher in the PSL + E group than in the PSL group (p muscle fatigue was seen between groups at 2 or 4 weeks. CSAs of type II muscle fibers were significantly larger in the E group and the PSL + E group than in the PSL group at 4 weeks (p = 0.0093, p = 0.0443, respectively). Eldecalcitol treatment for 4 weeks maintained the same BMD as the PSL + E group. After 2 weeks, but not 4 weeks, eldecalcitol treatment significantly increased Pax7 and myogenin mRNA expression in gastrocnemius muscle, and PSL also stimulated myogenin expression. Eldecalcitol appears to increase muscle volume and to protect against femur BMD loss in PSL-administered rats, and it may also stimulate myoblast differentiation into early myotubes. PMID:25944421

  18. Ribosome biogenesis during skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    von Walden, Ferdinand

    2014-01-01

    Muscle adaptation to chronic resistance exercise (RE) is the result of a cumulative effect on gene expression and protein content. Following a bout of RE, muscle protein synthesis increases and, if followed by consecutive bouts (training), protein accretion and muscle hypertrophy develops. The protein synthetic capacity of the muscle is dictated by ribosome content. Therefore, the general aim of this thesis is to investigate the regulation of ribosome biogenesis during skeletal muscle hypertr...

  19. Pericapillary basement membrane thickening in human skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Oliver; Bigler, Marius

    2016-09-01

    The basement membrane (BM) surrounding capillaries in skeletal muscles varies physiologically in thickness according to age, physical fitness, and anatomical site in humans. Furthermore, the pericapillary BM thickness (CBMT) increases pathophysiologically during several common disease states, including peripheral arterial disease and diabetes mellitus. This review on CBM thickening in human skeletal muscles is two pronged. First, it addresses the advantages/disadvantages of grid- and tablet-based measuring and morphometric techniques that are implemented to assess the CBMT on transmission electron micrographs. Second, it deals with the biology of CBM thickening in skeletal muscles, particularly its possible causes, molecular mechanisms, and functional impact. CBM thickening is triggered by several physical factors, including diabetes-associated glycation, hydrostatic pressure, and inflammation. Increased biosynthesis of type IV collagen expression or repetitive cycles in pericyte or endothelial cell degeneration/proliferation appear to be most critical for CBM accumulation. A thickened CBM obviously poses a greater barrier for diffusion, lowers the microvascular elasticity, and impedes transcytosis of inflammatory cells. Our own morphometric data reveal the CBM enlargement to be not accompanied by the pericyte coverage. Owing to an overlap or redundancy in the capillary supply, CBM thickening in skeletal muscles might not be such a devastating occurrence as in organs with endarterial circulation (e.g., kidney and retina). CBM growth in skeletal muscles can be reversed by training or administration of antidiabetic drugs. In conclusion, CBM thickening in skeletal muscles is a microvascular remodeling process by which metabolic, hemodynamic, and inflammatory forces are integrated together and which could play a hitherto underestimated role in etiology/progression of human diseases.

  20. Behavioral Public Administration: Combining Insights from Public Administration and Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan; Jilke, Sebastian; Olsen, Asmus Leth; Tummers, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We propose behavioral public administration as a designated subfield in public administration which explicitly deals with the integration of theories and methods from psychology into the study of public administration. We discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw on both methodological and theoretical innovations in psychology and point to research questions in public administration which could benefit from further integration. Behavioral public administration cannot, and s...

  1. Effect of acupuncture depth on muscle pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitakoji Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While evidence supports efficacy of acupuncture and/or dry needling in treating musculoskeletal pain, it is unclear which needling method is most effective. This study aims to determine the effects of depth of needle penetration on muscle pain. Methods A total of 22 healthy volunteers performed repeated eccentric contractions to induce muscle soreness in their extensor digital muscle. Subjects were assigned randomly to four groups, namely control group, skin group (depth of 3 mm: the extensor digital muscle, muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle and non-segmental group (depth of 10 mm: the anterior tibial muscle. Pressure pain threshold and electrical pain threshold of the skin, fascia and muscle were measured at a point 20 mm distal to the maximum tender point on the second day after the exercise. Results Pressure pain thresholds of skin group (depth of 3 mm: the extensor digital muscle and muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle were significantly higher than the control group, whereas the electrical pain threshold at fascia of muscle group (depth of 10 mm: the extensor digital muscle was a significantly higher than control group; however, there was no significant difference between the control and other groups. Conclusion The present study shows that acupuncture stimulation of muscle increases the PPT and EPT of fascia. The depth of needle penetration is important for the relief of muscle pain.

  2. Caffeine Alters Skeletal Muscle Contraction by Opening of Calcium Ion Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolawole Victor Olorunshola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of caffeine on the amplitude and rate of skeletal muscle contraction using frog sciatic nerve-gastrocnemius muscle model. Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid whose use is widely unregulated. It is taken as a central nervous system stimulant in various foods and drinks. The effect of caffeine on skeletal muscle contraction and a possible elucidation of its mechanism of action were investigated. The sciatic nerve-gastrocnemius muscle preparation of the frog mounted on a kymograph was utilized. Varying doses of caffeine was added to the organ bath at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mg/mL and its effect on skeletal muscle contraction was studied. The effects of caffeine preceded by administration of acetylcholine, atropine, nifedipine, magnesium chloride and calcium gluconate at 25 mg/mL were also studied. A dose dependent increase in skeletal muscle contraction (25.25±0.48, 49.00±1.23, 52.38±2.58, 59.25±1.11 and 68.50±0.87 mV; p<0.05 was observed on administration of increasing doses (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mg/mL, respectively of caffeine respectively. While a significant reduction (0.90±0.04 mV and increase (77.50±1.56 mV in strength of contraction was observed on administration of nifedipine and calcium gluconate respectively. Administration of magnesium chloride caused a significant decrease in the strength of contraction (28.25±5.01 as compared to control. However, there was no significant difference in the contraction period and relaxation period between the treatment groups. The findings imply that caffeine increases skeletal muscle contraction and suggests it exerts the effect through increasing calcium ion release.

  3. [Regeneration capacity of skeletal muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernig, A

    2003-07-01

    The organotypic stem cell of skeletal muscle has previously been known as satellite cell. They allow muscle fiber growth during ontogenesis, enable fiber hypertrophy and are responsible for the very efficient repair of muscle fibers. This efficient apparatus is to some degree counterbalanced by an enormous use of the satellite cell pool: fiber atrophy probably is accompanied by loss of myonuclei such that every reversal of atrophy is bound to use new myonuclei i.e. satellite cells. How often in life does this occur? Hard to say. Moreover, the potent repair capacity is challenged by an unexpected vulnerability of skeletal muscle fibers: Passive stretching of contracted muscles may cause multiple "microdamage," disruption of contractile elements or tiny areas of true necrosis (focal necrosis). How often does this happen? Well, for many of us at least once per year when we go up and down mountains during vacation time, followed by sour muscles. Others may decide to change his/her (locomotor) behaviour by severe onset of jogging; it may happen that they suffer kidney failure on Monday due to muscle microdamage and the transfer of myoproteins into the serum over weekend. Also 20 minutes of stepping up and down something like a chair will do: There is a remarkable increase in kreatin kinase and other muscle derived proteins which lasts for days and is bound to reflect some muscle damage. How about sportsmen and worker who repeatedly use their muscles in such a way? We don't have answers yet to most of these questions, but considerable amount of information has been collected over the last years both in animal and--less--in human. What is common in all cases of growth and repair is the proliferation of the satellite cells and their consequent incorporation and fusion with the parent fiber. This way focal damage is repaired often without visible reminders. We would run out of satellite cells were they not stem cells: After division one daughter remains a satellite cell

  4. Skeletal muscle fiber type: using insights from muscle developmental biology to dissect targets for susceptibility and resistance to muscle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Jared; Maves, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Skeletal muscle fibers are classified into fiber types, in particular, slow twitch versus fast twitch. Muscle fiber types are generally defined by the particular myosin heavy chain isoforms that they express, but many other components contribute to a fiber's physiological characteristics. Skeletal muscle fiber type can have a profound impact on muscle diseases, including certain muscular dystrophies and sarcopenia, the aging-induced loss of muscle mass and strength. These findings suggest that some muscle diseases may be treated by shifting fiber type characteristics either from slow to fast, or fast to slow phenotypes, depending on the disease. Recent studies have begun to address which components of muscle fiber types mediate their susceptibility or resistance to muscle disease. However, for many diseases it remains largely unclear why certain fiber types are affected. A substantial body of work has revealed molecular pathways that regulate muscle fiber type plasticity and early developmental muscle fiber identity. For instance, recent studies have revealed many factors that regulate muscle fiber type through modulating the activity of the muscle regulatory transcription factor MYOD1. Future studies of muscle fiber type development in animal models will continue to enhance our understanding of factors and pathways that may provide therapeutic targets to treat muscle diseases. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:518-534. doi: 10.1002/wdev.230 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27199166

  5. Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis Leading to Spontaneous Muscle Hematoma: An Event Fraught with Danger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Mangla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is associated with both potentiating and antagonizing hemostatic states. Liver cirrhosis is an independent causal factor for many bleeding complications. The long-term effects of alcohol abuse coupled with advanced liver cirrhosis are additive in favor of bleeding. We report the case of a patient with a history of alcohol abuse who presented with liver cirrhosis and nontraumatic muscle hematoma diagnosed as a spontaneous hematoma of the gastrocnemius muscle. He was managed conservatively with infusions of fresh frozen plasma and platelets, which resulted in resolution of the hematoma. The pathogenesis of ‘spontaneous' muscle hematoma remains anecdotal, but since it is reported in patients on anticoagulant therapy or with hemostatic disorders, it is hypothetically related to severely deranged coagulation. Here we review the relevant literature pertaining to the pathogenesis, presentation and treatment options available for treating this often fatal complication of bleeding diatheses.

  6. Pro Python System Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Sileika, R

    2010-01-01

    As time goes on, system administrators are presented with increasingly complicated challenges. In the early days, a team of engineers might have had to look after one or two systems. These days, one engineer can administer hundreds or thousands of systems. System administrators are gradually replacing their tools with more advanced and flexible ones. One of the choices is Python. Structurally, Python is a modern, high-level language with a very clean syntax. Python comes with many built-in libraries that can make automation tasks easier. It also has extensive set of third-party libraries and a

  7. Practical JIRA Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Doar, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    If you're familiar with JIRA for issue tracking, bug tracking, and other uses, you know it can sometimes be tricky to set up and manage. In this concise book, software toolsmith Matt Doar clarifies some of the more confusing aspects by answering difficult and frequently asked questions about JIRA administration. Practical JIRA Administration shows you how JIRA is intended to be used, making it an ideal supplement to the extensive documentation already available. The book's chapters are loosely connected, so you can go straight to the information that best serves your needs. Understand the di

  8. Computer hardware fault administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  9. Linux System Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Adelstein, Tom

    2007-01-01

    If you're an experienced system administrator looking to acquire Linux skills, or a seasoned Linux user facing a new challenge, Linux System Administration offers practical knowledge for managing a complete range of Linux systems and servers. The book summarizes the steps you need to build everything from standalone SOHO hubs, web servers, and LAN servers to load-balanced clusters and servers consolidated through virtualization. Along the way, you'll learn about all of the tools you need to set up and maintain these working environments. Linux is now a standard corporate platform with user

  10. Design of a novel chimeric tissue plasminogen activator with favorable Vampire bat plasminogen activator properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemali, MohammadReza; Majidzadeh-A, Keivan; Sardari, Soroush; Saadatirad, Amir Hossein; Khalaj, Vahid; Zarei, Najmeh; Barkhordari, Farzaneh; Adeli, Ahmad; Mahboudi, Fereidoun

    2014-12-01

    Fibrinolytic agents are widely used in treatment of the thromboembolic disorders. The new generations like recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA, alteplase) are not showing promising results in clinical practice in spite of displaying specific binding to fibrin in vitro. Vampire bat plasminogen activator (b-PA) is a plasminogen activator with higher fibrin affinity and specificity in comparison to t-PA resulting in reduced probability of hemorrhage. b-PA is also resistant to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) showing higher half-life compared to other variants of t-PA. However, its non-human origin was a driving force to design a human t-PA with favorable properties of b-PA. In the present study, we designed a chimeric t-PA with desirable b-PA properties and this new molecule was called as CT-b. The construct was prepared through kringle 2 domain removal and replacement of t-PA finger domain with b-PA one. In addition, the KHRR sequence at the initial part of protease domain was replaced by four alanine residues. The novel construct was integrated in Pichia pastoris genome by electroporation. Catalytic activity was investigated in the presence and absence of fibrin. The purified protein was analyzed by western blot. Fibrin binding and PAI resistance assays were also conducted. The activity of the recombinant protein in the presence of fibrin was 1560 times more than its activity in the absence of fibrin, showing its higher specificity to fibrin. The fibrin binding of CT-b was 1.2 fold more than t-PA. In addition, it was inhibited by PAI enzyme 44% less than t-PA. Although the presented data demonstrate a promising in vitro activity, more in vivo studies are needed to confirm the therapeutic advantage of this novel plasminogen activator. PMID:25442953

  11. TIMP-3 expression associates with malignant behaviors and predicts favorable survival in HCC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Gu

    Full Text Available The tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs are proteins that specifically inhibit the proteolytic activity of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. TIMP-3, the only member of the TIMPs that can tightly bind to the extracellular matrix, has been identified as a unique tumor suppressor that demonstrates the ability to inhibit tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. This study aimed to detect the expression of TIMP-3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and investigate the association between TIMP-3 expression and its clinicopathological significance in HCC patients. In the current study, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and Western blotting of HCC cell lines and one-step quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qPCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC analyses in HCC tissues were performed, to characterize the TIMP-3 expression. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses were utilized to evaluate the prognosis of 101 HCC patients. The results showed that the expression of TIMP-3 in HCC was significantly decreased relative to that of non-cancerous cells and tissues. Furthermore, the TIMP-3 expression was statistically associated with malignant behaviors of HCC, including portal vein invasion (p = 0.036 and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.030. Cox regression analysis revealed that TIMP-3 expression was an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (p = 0.039 and overall survival (p = 0.049. These data indicate that TIMP-3 expression is a valuable prognostic biomarker for HCC and that TIMP-3 expression suggests a favorable prognosis for HCC patients.

  12. Fate of pharmaceuticals in rivers: Deriving a benchmark dataset at favorable attenuation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Uwe; Radke, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Pharmaceutical residues are commonly detected organic micropollutants in the aquatic environment. Their actual fate in rivers is still incompletely understood as their elimination is highly substance specific and studies often report contradictory results. To elucidate the ceiling of attenuation rates of pharmaceuticals in rivers we carried out a study at a river with favorable conditions for the elimination of organic micropollutants. Experiments were carried out at a small stream in Germany. Composite samples were taken at both ends of a 12.5 km long river stretch located downstream of a sewage treatment plant and analyzed for 10 pharmaceuticals. Moreover, pore water samples were taken and in situ photolysis experiments at several sites within the river stretch were performed to assess the importance of these individual elimination mechanisms. Pharmaceutical concentration in the surface water at the first sampling site ranged from 3.5 ng L(-1) for propranolol to 1400 ng L(-1) for diclofenac. In comparison to carbamazepine which was used as persistent tracer, all other pharmaceuticals were attenuated along the river stretch. Their elimination was higher in a sunny, dry weather period (period I) compared to a period with elevated discharge after a heavy rainfall (period II). Overall, the measured elimination rates ranged from 25% for sulfamethoxazole (period II) to 70% for propranolol (period I). Photolysis was only a relevant elimination process for diclofenac and potentially also for sotalol; for these compounds phototransformation half-life times of some hours were determined in the unshaded parts of the river. Biotransformation in the sediments was also an important attenuation process since the concentrations of the other pharmaceuticals in the sediments decreased relative to carbamazepine with depth. For the chiral betablocker metoprolol this biotransformation was also confirmed by a decrease in the enantiomer fractionation from 0.49 at site A to 0.43 at

  13. Resection of ictal high-frequency oscillations leads to favorable surgical outcome in pediatric epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hisako; Greiner, Hansel M.; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Holland-Bouley, Katherine D.; Seo, Joo Hee; Arthur, Todd; Mangano, Francesco T.; Leach, James L.; Rose, Douglas F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Purpose Intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) is performed as part of an epilepsy surgery evaluation when noninvasive tests are incongruent or the putative seizure-onset zone is near eloquent cortex. Determining the seizure-onset zone using intracranial EEG has been conventionally based on identification of specific ictal patterns with visual inspection. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs, >80 Hz) have been recognized recently as highly correlated with the epileptogenic zone. However, HFOs can be difficult to detect because of their low amplitude. Therefore, the prevalence of ictal HFOs and their role in localization of epileptogenic zone on intracranial EEG are unknown. Methods We identified 48 patients who underwent surgical treatment after the surgical evaluation with intracranial EEG, and 44 patients met criteria for this retrospective study. Results were not used in surgical decision making. Intracranial EEG recordings were collected with a sampling rate of 2,000 Hz. Recordings were first inspected visually to determine ictal onset and then analyzed further with time-frequency analysis. Forty-one (93%) of 44 patients had ictal HFOs determined with time-frequency analysis of intracranial EEG. Key Findings Twenty-two (54%) of the 41 patients with ictal HFOs had complete resection of HFO regions, regardless of frequency bands. Complete resection of HFOs (n = 22) resulted in a seizure-free outcome in 18 (82%) of 22 patients, significantly higher than the seizure-free outcome with incomplete HFO resection (4/19, 21%). Significance Our study shows that ictal HFOs are commonly found with intracranial EEG in our population largely of children with cortical dysplasia, and have localizing value. The use of ictal HFOs may add more promising information compared to interictal HFOs because of the evidence of ictal propagation and followed by clinical aspect of seizures. Complete resection of HFOs is a favorable prognostic indicator for surgical outcome. PMID

  14. Consenting options for posthumous organ donation: presumed consent and incentives are not favored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammami Muhammad M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Posthumous organ procurement is hindered by the consenting process. Several consenting systems have been proposed. There is limited information on public relative attitudes towards various consenting systems, especially in Middle Eastern/Islamic countries. Methods We surveyed 698 Saudi Adults attending outpatient clinics at a tertiary care hospital. Preference and perception of norm regarding consenting options for posthumous organ donation were explored. Participants ranked (1, most agreeable the following, randomly-presented, options from 1 to 11: no-organ-donation, presumed consent, informed consent by donor-only, informed consent by donor-or-surrogate, and mandatory choice; the last three options ± medical or financial incentive. Results Mean(SD age was 32(9 year, 27% were males, 50% were patients’ companions, 60% had ≥ college education, and 20% and 32%, respectively, knew an organ donor or recipient. Mandated choice was among the top three choices for preference of 54% of respondents, with an overall median[25%,75%] ranking score of 3[2,6], and was preferred over donor-or-surrogate informed consent (4[2,7], p vs. 11[6,11], respectively, p = 0.002. Compared to females, males more perceived donor-or-surrogate informed consent as the norm (3[1,6] vs. 5[3,7], p vs. 8[4,9], p vs. 5[2,7], p  Conclusions We conclude that: 1 most respondents were in favor of posthumous organ donation, 2 mandated choice system was the most preferred and presumed consent system was the least preferred, 3 there was no difference between preference and perception of norm in consenting systems ranking, and 4 financial (especially in females and medical (especially in males incentives reduced preference.

  15. Aquatic pollution may favor the success of the invasive species A. franciscana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varó, I., E-mail: inma@iats.csic.es [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain); Redón, S. [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain); Garcia-Roger, E.M. [Cavanilles Institute of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, University of Valencia, Burjassot (Spain); Amat, F.; Guinot, D. [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain); Serrano, R. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA), Avda. Sos Baynat, s/n. University Jaume I, Castellón 12071 (Spain); Navarro, J.C. [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Artemia species display an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos. • A. franciscana survived better and its fecundity was less affected by chlorpyrifos. • The higher fecundity of A. franciscana is a selective advantage in colonization processes. • Higher survival and biological fitness in A. franciscana indicate out-competitive advantages. - Abstract: The genus Artemia consists of several bisexual and parthenogenetic sibling species. One of them, A. franciscana, originally restricted to the New World, becomes invasive when introduced into ecosystems out of its natural range of distribution. Invasiveness is anthropically favored by the use of cryptobiotic eggs in the aquaculture and pet trade. The mechanisms of out-competition of the autochthonous Artemia by the invader are still poorly understood. Ecological fitness may play a pivotal role, but other underlying biotic and abiotic factors may contribute. Since the presence of toxicants in hypersaline aquatic ecosystems has been documented, our aim here is to study the potential role of an organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in a congeneric mechanism of competition between the bisexual A. franciscana (AF), and one of the Old World parthenogenetic siblings, A. parthenogenetica (PD). For this purpose we carried out life table experiments with both species, under different concentrations of the toxicant (0.1, 1 and 5 μg/l), and analyzed the cholinesterase inhibition at different developmental stages. The results evidence that both, AF and PD, showed an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos, but AF survived better and its fecundity was less affected by the exposure to the pesticide than that of PD. The higher fecundity of AF is a selective advantage in colonization processes leading to its establishment as NIS. Besides, under the potential selective pressure of abiotic factors, such as the presence of toxicants, its higher resistance in terms of survival and biological

  16. Local Ambient Seismic Noise Survey in Dixie Valley, NV for Engineered Geothermal System Favorability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibuleac, I. M.; Iovenitti, J. L.; von Seggern, D. H.; Sainsbury, J.

    2013-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to develop and test the seismic component of a calibrated exploration method that integrated geological, geophysical, and geochemical data to identify potential drilling targets for Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS). In exploring for EGS sites, the selection criteria identified by the AltaRock Energy, Inc. (AltaRock) and University of Nevada, Reno teams are, in order of importance, (1) temperature greater than 200C at 1.5 km depth, (2) rock type at the depth of interest (porous rocks at 1-3 km); and (3) favorable stress regime (tensional environment). To improve spatial resolution, a dense seismic array (21 three-component, broadband sensors, with an overall array aperture of 45km) was installed in two deployments in Dixie Valley, NV, each deployment having a three-month duration Ambient seismic noise and signal were used to retrieve inter-station and same-station Green's Functions (GFs), to be used for subsurface imaging. We used ambient seismic noise interferometry to extract GFs from crosscorrelation of continuous records. An innovative aspect of the seismic work was estimating the receiver functions beneath the stations using noise auto-correlation which was used to image the substructure. We report results of applying the technique to estimate a P/S velocity model from the GF surface wave components and from the GF body-wave reflection component, retrieved from ambient noise and signal cross-correlation and auto-correlation beams. We interpret our results in terms of temperature, pressure and rock composition. The estimated seismic velocity model capability to infer temperature is statistically assessed, in combination with other geophysical technique results.

  17. Translocation t(11;14) in newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma: Is it always favorable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiba, Merav; Duek, Adrian; Amariglio, Ninette; Avigdor, Abraham; Benyamini, Noam; Hardan, Izhar; Zilbershats, Itay; Ganzel, Chezi; Shevetz, Olga; Novikov, Ilya; Cohen, Yossi; Ishoev, Galina; Rozic, Gabriela; Nagler, Arnon; Trakhtenbrot, Luba

    2016-09-01

    The most common translocation in multiple myeloma (MM) is t(11;14)(q13;q32). According to several studies, this translocation represents a unique subset of patients with relatively favorable outcomes. Using combined analyses of morphology and fluorescence in situ hybridization (I-FISH), we examined the co-occurrence rates of t(11;14) with seven chromosomal aberrations (CAs), del(13q), del(17p), del(1p), gain(1q), multiple gains(1q), del(16q), and del(IGH), and assessed the effect of the different combinations on patient outcomes, with overall survival (OS) as the main outcome measure. Bone marrow samples and clinical data from 212 patients with MM with t(11;14) were analyzed. At least two additional CAs were found in 35% (75/205) of patients and a strong correlation between specific CAs. The occurrence of three CAs [multiple gains of (1q) (HR = 6.94, P = 0.001), del(1p) (HR = 4.47, P = 0.008), and del(IGH) (HR = 2.38, P = 0.002)] exerted a profoundly deleterious effect on median OS when compared with patients with t(11;14) only. Del(17p) and del(13q) have also exerted a deleterious effect albeit to a lesser extent (HR = 2.05, P = 0.07 and HR = 1.81, P = 0.03, respectively). When compared with t(11;14) alone, the addition of certain CAs lead to worse outcomes. These findings may have important clinical and biological implications. Patients with coexisting adverse lesions and t(11;14) may be considered at high risk and managed accordingly. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27152944

  18. Menopausal symptoms among breast cancer patients: a potential indicator of favorable prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    Full Text Available Menopausal symptoms have been suggested to be an indicator of better prognosis among patients treated for breast cancer, because women who experience these symptoms usually have a lower level of estrogen. We tested this hypothesis in a population-based, prospective cohort study involving 4,842 women with stage 0 to III primary breast cancer who were enrolled in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study between March 2002 and April 2006, were aged 20 to 75 years, and were recruited 6 months post-diagnosis. They were followed-up by in-person surveys and record linkages with the vital statistics registry. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of menopausal symptoms at baseline with breast cancer recurrence. Approximately 56% of patients experienced at least one menopausal symptom, including hot flashes, night sweats, and/or vaginal dryness at baseline. During a median follow-up period of 5.3 years, 720 women had a recurrence. Experiencing hot flashes or having ≥2 menopausal symptoms was associated with lower risk of recurrence among premenopausal women (hazard ratio [HR]=0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-0.96 for hot flashes; 0.73, 0.56-0.96 for ≥2 menopausal symptoms. Lower recurrence risk in relation to hot flashes was also observed among women who were not overweight/obese (HR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.64-0.99, those with relatively low waist-to-hip ratio (WHR (HR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.61-0.97, and those who used tamoxifen (HR=0.75, 95% CI: 0.58-0.98. Consistently experiencing multiple menopausal symptoms was associated with lower recurrence risk among women with low WHR or who used tamoxifen. This large, population-based cohort study of women with breast cancer confirms that experiencing menopausal symptoms is an indicator of favorable breast cancer prognosis.

  19. Somatic mutations favorable to patient survival are predominant in ovarian carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensheng Zhang

    Full Text Available Somatic mutation accumulation is a major cause of abnormal cell growth. However, some mutations in cancer cells may be deleterious to the survival and proliferation of the cancer cells, thus offering a protective effect to the patients. We investigated this hypothesis via a unique analysis of the clinical and somatic mutation datasets of ovarian carcinomas published by the Cancer Genome Atlas. We defined and screened 562 macro mutation signatures (MMSs for their associations with the overall survival of 320 ovarian cancer patients. Each MMS measures the number of mutations present on the member genes (except for TP53 covered by a specific Gene Ontology (GO term in each tumor. We found that somatic mutations favorable to the patient survival are predominant in ovarian carcinomas compared to those indicating poor clinical outcomes. Specially, we identified 19 (3 predictive MMSs that are, usually by a nonlinear dose-dependent effect, associated with good (poor patient survival. The false discovery rate for the 19 "positive" predictors is at the level of 0.15. The GO terms corresponding to these MMSs include "lysosomal membrane" and "response to hypoxia", each of which is relevant to the progression and therapy of cancer. Using these MMSs as features, we established a classification tree model which can effectively partition the training samples into three prognosis groups regarding the survival time. We validated this model on an independent dataset of the same disease (Log-rank p-value < 2.3 × 10(-4 and a dataset of breast cancer (Log-rank p-value < 9.3 × 10(-3. We compared the GO terms corresponding to these MMSs and those enriched with expression-based predictive genes. The analysis showed that the GO term pairs with large similarity are mainly pertinent to the proteins located on the cell organelles responsible for material transport and waste disposal, suggesting the crucial role of these proteins in cancer mortality.

  20. UVB radiation as a potential selective factor favoring microcystin producing bloom forming Cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ding

    Full Text Available Due to the stratospheric ozone depletion, several organisms will become exposed to increased biologically active UVB (280-320 nm radiation, not only at polar but also at temperate and tropical latitudes. Bloom forming cyanobacteria are exposed to UVB radiation on a mass scale, particularly during the surface bloom and scum formation that can persist for long periods of time. All buoyant species of cyanobacteria are at least periodically exposed to higher irradiation during their vertical migration to the surface that usually occurs several times a day. The aim of this study is to assess the influence on cyanobacteria of UVB radiation at realistic environmental intensities. The effects of two UVB intensities of 0.5 and 0.99 W/m(2 in up to 0.5 cm water depth were studied in vitro on Microcystis aeruginosa strains, two microcystin producing and one non-producing. After UVB exposure their ability to proliferate was estimated by cell counting, while cell fitness and integrity were evaluated using light microscopy, autofluorescence and immunofluorescence. Gene damage was assessed by TUNEL assay and SYBR Green staining of the nucleoide area. We conclude that UVB exposure causes damage to the genetic material, cytoskeletal elements, higher sedimentation rates and consequent cell death. In contrast to microcystin producers (PCC7806 and FACHB905, the microcystin non-producing strain PCC7005 is more susceptible to the deleterious effects of radiation, with weak recovery ability. The ecological relevance of the results is discussed using data from eleven years' continuous UVB radiation measurements within the area of Ljubljana city (Slovenia, Central Europe. Our results suggest that increased solar radiation in temperate latitudes can have its strongest effect during cyanobacterial bloom formation in spring and early summer. UVB radiation in this period may significantly influence strain composition of cyanobacterial blooms in favor of microcystin producers.

  1. Administration for Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Releases RSS Feeds Speeches Videos What is the Administration for Children & Families? The Administration for Children and Families (ACF) is a division ... more about the 100-day challenge Visit the Administration on Children, Youth and Families Website The Family ...

  2. THE ROLE OF NUCLEUS RAPHE MAGNUS IN THE ANTINOCICEPTIVE EFFECT OF MUSCLE SPINDLE AFFERENTS IN THE RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of NRM in the antinociceptive effect of muscle spindle afferents, the influence of NRM lesion on the inhibitory effect of muscle spindle afferents on the nociceptive responses of wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons and the effects of the muscle spindle afferents on the NRM neuronal activities were observed. Methods The single units of WDR neurons in the spinal dorsal horn were recorded extracellularly, and the inhibitory effects of activating muscle spindle afferents by intravenous administration of succinyicholine (SCH) on the C-fibers evoked responses (C-responses) of WDR neurons were tested before and after lesion of NRM. The ef- fects of the muscle spindle afferents activated by administrating SCH on the single NRM neurons were also examined. Results ①lt was found that the C-responses of WDR neurons were significantly inhibited by intravenously adminis- tration of SCH, and the inhibitory effect was reduced after lesion of NRM ;②The activities of most of the NRM neu- rons could be changed significantly by administrating SCH. According to their responses, NRM neurons could be classified into three types:excitatory, inhibitory and non-responsive neurons, and the responses were dose-depen- dent. Conclusion These results suggest that the muscle spindle afferents evoked by SCH may activate the NRM neu- rons, which plays an important role in the antinociception of muscle spindle afferents.

  3. Long-term outcome of strabismus and ptosis surgery in a mother and daughter with congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles (CFEOM is a very rare congenital condition, characterized by variable amounts of restriction of the extraocular muscles, with or without ptosis. The aim of this report was to deseribe a severe, atypical, exposure-induced corneal stromal lysis in two patients. Case report. A mother and a daughter with a severe CFEOM were presented. The surgery of both extraocular muscles and ptosis led to a fair outcome in mother even 30 years after, and a very good outcome in daughter 4 years after the treatment. Conclusion. Though frequently challenging and disappointing the outcome of surgery of both extraocular muscles and ptosis in CFEOM can be favorable even in rather severe cases. To the best of our knowledge, the atypical keratolysis we described has not been highlighted in the literature on CFEOM so far.

  4. Refinement for administrative policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, S.

    2007-01-01

    Flexibility of management is an important requisite for access control systems as it allows users to adapt the access control system in accordance with practical requirements. This paper builds on earlier work where we defined administrative policies for a general class of RBAC models. We present a

  5. Refinement for Administrative Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, S.

    2007-01-01

    Flexibility of management is an important requisite for access control systems as it allows users to adapt the access control system in accordance with practical requirements. This paper builds on earlier work where we defined administrative policies for a general class of RBAC models. We present a

  6. United States Fire Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reduction: Getting the Most From the U.S. Fire Administration’s Daily National Operations Brief PDF 127 KB There ... staff. Follow us: Twitter Facebook YouTube U.S. Fire Administration 16825 S. Seton Ave. , Emmitsburg , MD 21727 USA 800‑ ...

  7. Educational Administration's Weber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronn, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Max Weber's importance in Greenfield's work, particularly in Greenfield and Ribbins'"Greenfield on Educational Administration" (1993). In concentrating on human actors' subjective understanding, Greenfield was a faithful Weberian. However, he deviated from Weber by disavowing structural explanations of social and organizational…

  8. Urban School Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Troy V., Ed.; Swanson, Austin D., Ed.

    This document contains 12 papers presented at an institute for urban school administrators designed to deal with the contemporary urban educational problems incident to school desegregation, social integration, and the equality of educational opportunity. The authors of the papers relate recent research findings to practical field experience, and…

  9. IVA: Improving Vocational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPD Consortium D, Richardson, TX.

    These six instructional units are intended to provide instructors of vocational education administration with a systematic package of materials for their programs of preservice and/or inservice instruction and to provide materials which could be reproduced for learner use. These units cover the following subject matter: (1) federal legislation…

  10. Administrators Confront Student "Sexting"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    Cellphone-savvy students have created instructional and disciplinary challenges for educators for years. But the recent emergence of "sexting" by adolescents over their mobile phones caught many school administrators off guard, and the practice is prompting efforts around the country to craft policy responses. Students' sharing of nude or…

  11. A Treatise on Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    Expands Henri Fayol's definition of the administrative process to include a humanistic approach involving planning, organizing, implementing, controlling, evaluating, and satisfying functions. This empirical definition differs from some theoretical approaches by looking beyond resource consumption to consider ecological effects on the environment…

  12. Enterprise Mac administrators guide

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, William

    2015-01-01

    IT departments everywhere will be integrating Macs and Mac OS X into their IT infrastructure and this book will tell them how to do it. It will serve as an authoritative, useful and frequently referenced book on Mac OS X administration.

  13. Choosing a skeletal muscle relaxant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Sharon; Ginzburg, Regina

    2008-08-01

    Skeletal muscle relaxants are widely used in treating musculoskeletal conditions. However, evidence of their effectiveness consists mainly of studies with poor methodologic design. In addition, these drugs have not been proven to be superior to acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses support using skeletal muscle relaxants for short-term relief of acute low back pain when nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen are not effective or tolerated. Comparison studies have not shown one skeletal muscle relaxant to be superior to another. Cyclobenzaprine is the most heavily studied and has been shown to be effective for various musculoskeletal conditions. The sedative properties of tizanidine and cyclobenzaprine may benefit patients with insomnia caused by severe muscle spasms. Methocarbamol and metaxalone are less sedating, although effectiveness evidence is limited. Adverse effects, particularly dizziness and drowsiness, are consistently reported with all skeletal muscle relaxants. The potential adverse effects should be communicated clearly to the patient. Because of limited comparable effectiveness data, choice of agent should be based on side-effect profile, patient preference, abuse potential, and possible drug interactions. PMID:18711953

  14. Laser therapy of muscle injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Munqith S; Al-Salihi, Anam Rasheed; Qasim, Amenah Wala'a

    2013-05-01

    Low-level lasers are used in general therapy and healing process due to their good photo-bio-stimulation effects. In this paper, the effects of diode laser and Nd:YAG laser on the healing process of practically managed skeletal muscle trauma has been successfully studied. Standard impact trauma was induced by using a specially designed mechanical device. The impacted muscle was left for 3 days for complete development of blunt trauma. After that it was irradiated by five laser sessions for 5 days. Two types of lasers were used; 785-nm diode laser and 1.064-nm Nd:YAG laser, both in continuous and pulsed modes. A special electronic circuit was designed and implemented to modulate the diode laser for this purpose. Tissue samples of crushed skeletal muscle have been dissected from the injured irradiated muscle then bio-chemically analyzed for the regeneration of contractile and collagenous proteins using Lowry assay for protein determination and Reddy and Enwemeka assay for hydroxyproline determination. The results showed that both lasers stimulate the regeneration capability of traumatized skeletal muscle. The diode laser in CW and pulsed modes showed better results than the Nd:YAG in accelerating the preservation of the normal tissue content of collagenous and contractile proteins beside controlling the regeneration of non-functional fibrous tissue. This study proved that the healing achieved by the laser treatment was faster than the control group by 15-20 days.

  15. Structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle provides inspiration for design of new artificial muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yingxin; Zhang, Chi

    2015-03-01

    A variety of actuator technologies have been developed to mimic biological skeletal muscle that generates force in a controlled manner. Force generation process of skeletal muscle involves complicated biophysical and biochemical mechanisms; therefore, it is impossible to replace biological muscle. In biological skeletal muscle tissue, the force generation of a muscle depends not only on the force generation capacity of the muscle fiber, but also on many other important factors, including muscle fiber type, motor unit recruitment, architecture, structure and morphology of skeletal muscle, all of which have significant impact on the force generation of the whole muscle or force transmission from muscle fibers to the tendon. Such factors have often been overlooked, but can be incorporated in artificial muscle design, especially with the discovery of new smart materials and the development of innovative fabrication and manufacturing technologies. A better understanding of the physiology and structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle will therefore benefit the artificial muscle design. In this paper, factors that affect muscle force generation are reviewed. Mathematical models used to model the structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle are reviewed and discussed. We hope the review will provide inspiration for the design of a new generation of artificial muscle by incorporating the structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle into the design of artificial muscle.

  16. The influence of wheelchair propulsion hand pattern on upper extremity muscle power and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowik, Jonathan S; Requejo, Philip S; Mulroy, Sara J; Neptune, Richard R

    2016-06-14

    The hand pattern (i.e., full-cycle hand path) used during manual wheelchair propulsion is frequently classified as one of four distinct hand pattern types: arc, single loop, double loop or semicircular. Current clinical guidelines recommend the use of the semicircular pattern, which is based on advantageous levels of broad biomechanical metrics implicitly related to the demand placed on the upper extremity (e.g., lower cadence). However, an understanding of the influence of hand pattern on specific measures of upper extremity muscle demand (e.g., muscle power and stress) is needed to help make such recommendations, but these quantities are difficult and impractical to measure experimentally. The purpose of this study was to use musculoskeletal modeling and forward dynamics simulations to investigate the influence of the hand pattern used on specific measures of upper extremity muscle demand. The simulation results suggest that the double loop and semicircular patterns produce the most favorable levels of overall muscle stress and total muscle power. The double loop pattern had the lowest full-cycle and recovery-phase upper extremity demand but required high levels of muscle power during the relatively short contact phase. The semicircular pattern had the second-lowest full-cycle levels of overall muscle stress and total muscle power, and demand was more evenly distributed between the contact and recovery phases. These results suggest that in order to decrease upper extremity demand, manual wheelchair users should consider using either the double loop or semicircular pattern when propelling their wheelchairs at a self-selected speed on level ground.

  17. Favorable anatomic and visual outcomes with 25-gauge vitrectomy for myopic foveoschisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mii M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mei Mii, Masato Matsuoka, Kayako Matsuyama, Yayoi Otsu, Tetsuya Nishimura Department of Ophthalmology, Kansai Medical University, Takii Hospital, Osaka, Japan Purpose: To report the surgical outcomes of 25-gauge vitrectomy in eyes with myopic foveoschisis (MF. Methods: The medical records of 40 eyes of 36 patients that had undergone 25-gauge vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling for MF were studied. The main outcome measures were the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and the optical coherence tomography (OCT findings. The eyes were divided into two groups: 1 those with a foveal detachment (FD; FD group; and 2 those without a FD (no-FD group. Results: The postoperative OCT images showed a resolution of the MF with a significant reduction in the central foveal thickness from the preoperative values in both the FD group (479±150 µm to 196±56 µm; P=0.002, mean ± standard deviation and in the no-FD group (369±116 µm to 245±50 µm; P=0.001. The final mean BCVA significantly improved from the preoperative values in the FD group (0.96±0.53 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] units to 0.70±0.56 logMAR units; P=0.009 and in the no-FD group (0.46±0.38 logMAR units to 0.34±0.36 logMAR units; P=0.007. The final BCVA in the FD group improved in 63%, remained unchanged in 31%, and worsened in 6%. In the no-FD group, the final BCVA improved in 21%, remained unchanged in 71%, and worsened in 8% of the eyes. A better final BCVA was significantly correlated with a better preoperative BCVA in both groups (P<0.001. Conclusion: Twenty five-gauge vitrectomy results in favorable visual and anatomic outcomes for MF. We recommend that 25-gauge vitrectomy be used to treat eyes with MF. Keywords: myopic foveoschisis, 25-gauge vitrectomy, high myopia, internal limiting membrane, gas tamponade

  18. Are human embryos Kantian persons?: Kantian considerations in favor of embryonic stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, Bertha Alvarez

    2008-01-01

    paper by drawing from Allen Wood's work in Kantian philosophy in order to generate an argument in favor of hESCR. PMID:18237425

  19. Are human embryos Kantian persons?: Kantian considerations in favor of embryonic stem cell research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Bertha

    2008-01-01

    operation. Finally, I will end the paper by drawing from Allen Wood's work in Kantian philosophy in order to generate an argument in favor of hESCR.

  20. «En favor de las víctimas de la guerra»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robles Muñoz, Cristóbal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Informal representation given to Cardinal Gomá in December 1936, sending Ildebrando Antoniutti as apostolic delegate in humanitarian mission in July, remained at its lowest level relations between the Holy See with the government of Franco. The situation changed in 1937. The nuncio Gaetano Cicognani did not arrive until June 1938. Discrete steps of a secret diplomacy advised in September 1937 to formalize the relationship, at its lowest. Antoniutti and Pablo de Churruca were named Responsible of Affairs, in Burgos, and to the Holy See, in a respective way. The collective letter of the bishops helped to improve the image of «national» Spain before the Catholics in other countries. The doctrinal position in which these facts were inserted was fixed at three encyclicals published in March 1937. They condemned the religious persecution of communism, nazism and the fear of a desire to runaway of the persecution forgiving people and fighting for justice for the working classesLa representación oficiosa dada al cardenal Gomá en diciembre de 1936, el envío Ildebrando Antoniutti como delegado apostólico en julio en misión humanitaria, mantuvieron bajo mínimos las relaciones de la Santa Sede con el Gobierno de Franco. La situación no cambió en 1937. El nuncio Gaetano Cicognani no llegó hasta junio de 1938. Los pasos discretos de una diplomacia secreta aconsejaron en septiembre de 1937 formalizar las relaciones, en su nivel más bajo. Antoniutti y Pablo de Churruca fueron nombrados encargados de negocios, en Burgos y ante la Santa Sede. La carta colectiva de los obispos ayudó a mejorar la imagen los nacionales ante los católicos de otros países. La posición doctrinal en que se insertan estos hechos quedó fijada en las tres encíclicas publicadas en marzo de 1937. En ella se denuncia la persecución religiosa del comunismo, el temor al nazismo y el deseo de salir de la persecución personando y luchando por la justicia a favor de las clases

  1. Cricopharyngeal muscle hypertrophy: radiologic-anatomic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, W E; Clements, J L; Austin, G E; Knight, K

    1984-05-01

    There is a divergence of opinion concerning the cricopharyngeal muscle defect commonly seen in the pharyngoesophageal area on barium esophagram. Some observers believe this defect is the result of neuromuscular dysfunction with the demonstration of the unrelaxed muscle bundle; however, others believe it is the result of actual hypertrophy of the cricopharyngeal muscle. Radiologic and pathologic study of 24 unselected autopsy cases revealed cricopharyngeal hypertrophy in 13 cases by radiologic criteria. Histologic examination revealed that the cricopharyngeal muscle thickness was uniformly greater in these cases than in the radiographically normal cases. The cricopharyngeal muscle defect is associated with actual hypertrophy of the cricopharyngeal muscle in many cases. PMID:6609574

  2. [Myalgia of the masticatory muscles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, H J; Türp, J C

    2009-06-01

    Masticatory muscle pain can be regarded as a regional manifestation of musculoskeletal disorders similar to those observed in other body regions. Along with temporomandibular joint pain and some painless disturbances related to mandibular mobility they are subsumed under the term temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Masticatory muscle pain is assumed to be associated with a variety of biophysiological risk factors. Valid diagnostic instruments make it possible to differentiate between the various TMD subgroups. In most cases, masticatory muscle pain can be treated/managed successfully. In a considerable number of patients, however, the pain persists over a long period of time despite therapeutic interventions. Understanding of the underlying neurobiological background of acute and chronic pain may help in therapeutic decision-making and evaluation of the therapeutic effects. PMID:19551421

  3. Muscle after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Bo; Kristensen, Ida Bruun; Kjaer, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    The morphological and contractile changes of muscles below the level of the lesion after spinal cord injury (SCI) are dramatic. In humans with SCI, a fiber-type transformation away from type I begins 4-7 months post-SCI and reaches a new steady state with predominantly fast glycolytic IIX fibers...... years after the injury. There is a progressive drop in the proportion of slow myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform fibers and a rise in the proportion of fibers that coexpress both the fast and slow MHC isoforms. The oxidative enzymatic activity starts to decline after the first few months post-SCI. Muscles...... from individuals with chronic SCI show less resistance to fatigue, and the speed-related contractile properties change, becoming faster. These findings are also present in animals. Future studies should longitudinally examine changes in muscles from early SCI until steady state is reached in order...

  4. Behavioral Public Administration: Combining Insights from Public Administration and Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan; Jilke, Sebastian; Olsen, Asmus Leth;

    2015-01-01

    We propose behavioral public administration as a designated subfield in public administration which explicitly deals with the integration of theories and methods from psychology into the study of public administration. We discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw on both...... methodological and theoretical innovations in psychology and point to research questions in public administration which could benefit from further integration. Behavioral public administration cannot, and should not, replace ‘conventional’ public administration, but it is complementary to it. Importantly......, behavioral public administration represents a two-way street in which public administration scholars use theories and methods from psychology, and psychologists, in turn, learn from our setting of political-administrative contexts to refine their theories and methods. Finally, we propose four principals...

  5. Effects of Zingiber cassumunar(Plai cream) in the treatment of delayed onset muscle soreness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nuttaset Manimmanakorn; Apiwan Manimmanakorn; Disaphon Boobphachart; Worrawut Thuwakum; Wiroon Laupattarakasem; Michael J Hamlin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effects ofZingiber cassumunar (Plai cream) in either 7% or 14%concentration on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). METHODS: Seventy-ifve untrained healthy volunteers (28 males and 47 females), performed 4 sets of 25 eccentric repetitions of the dominant quadriceps muscle on an isokinetic dynamometry machine. Participants were then randomized into 3 groups: 14% Plai cream, 7% Plai cream and placebo cream. Two grams of the cream (strips of 5-cm long) were gently rubbed into the quadriceps muscles for 5 min immediately folowing the exercise and every 8 h thereafter for 7 d in al groups. Muscle soreness, muscle strength, jump height, thigh circumference and creatine kinase were measured before and after eccentric exercise. RESULTS:Compared to the placebo cream the 14% Plai cream substantialy reduced muscle soreness over the 7 d by –82% (95% CI = –155% to –6%,P = 0.03), but had similar muscle soreness effects to 7% Plai cream (–34%, –96% to 27%,P = 0.2). Compared to the placebo cream the 7% Plai cream resulted in a smal non-signiifcant reduction in muscle soreness levels over the folowing 7 d (–40%,–116% to 36%,P = 0.3). Compared to placebo cream there was little effect of Plai cream (7% or 14%) on muscle strength, jump height, thigh circumference or creatine kinase concentration. CONCLUSION:Using 14% Plai cream over a 7-day period substantialy reduced muscle soreness symptoms compared to 7% Plai cream or a placebo cream. The authors suggest that the administration of 14% Plai cream is a useful alternative in the management of DOMS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Thai Clinical Trial Registry TCTR20140215001.

  6. Muscle phosphoglycerate mutase deficiency revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naini, Ali; Toscano, Antonio; Musumeci, Olimpia;

    2009-01-01

    storage disease type X and novel mutations in the gene encoding the muscle subunit of PGAM (PGAM2). DESIGN: Clinical, pathological, biochemical, and molecular analyses. SETTING: Tertiary care university hospitals and academic institutions. Patients A 37-year-old Danish man of Pakistani origin who had...... PGAM deficiency, and molecular studies revealed 2 novel homozygous mutations, a nonsense mutation and a single nucleotide deletion. Pathological studies of muscle showed mild glycogen accumulation but prominent tubular aggregates in both patients. CONCLUSIONS: We found that glycogen storage disease...

  7. Spontaneous waves in muscle fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Gunther, Stefan; 10.1088/1367-2630/9/11/417

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical oscillations are important for many cellular processes, e.g. the beating of cilia and flagella or the sensation of sound by hair cells. These dynamic states originate from spontaneous oscillations of molecular motors. A particularly clear example of such oscillations has been observed in muscle fibers under non-physiological conditions. In that case, motor oscillations lead to contraction waves along the fiber. By a macroscopic analysis of muscle fiber dynamics we find that the spontaneous waves involve non-hydrodynamic modes. A simple microscopic model of sarcomere dynamics highlights mechanical aspects of the motor dynamics and fits with the experimental observations.

  8. Relationship of Skeletal Muscle Development and Growth to Breast Muscle Myopathies: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velleman, Sandra G

    2015-12-01

    Selection in meat-type birds has focused on growth rate, muscling, and feed conversion. These strategies have made substantial improvements but have affected muscle structure, repair mechanisms, and meat quality, especially in the breast muscle. The increase in muscle fiber diameters has reduced available connective tissue spacing, reduced blood supply, and altered muscle metabolism in the breast muscle. These changes have increased muscle fiber degeneration and necrosis but have limited muscle repair mechanisms mediated by the adult myoblast (satellite cell) population of cells, likely resulting in the onset of myopathies. This review focuses on muscle growth mechanisms and how changes in the cellular development of the breast muscle may be associated with breast muscle myopathies occurring in meat-type birds.

  9. Repositioning forelimb superficialis muscles: tendon attachment and muscle activity enable active relocation of functional myofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Alice H; Riordan, Timothy J; Wang, Lingyan; Eyal, Shai; Zelzer, Elazar; Brigande, John V; Schweitzer, Ronen

    2013-09-16

    The muscles that govern hand motion are composed of extrinsic muscles that reside within the forearm and intrinsic muscles that reside within the hand. We find that the extrinsic muscles of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) first differentiate as intrinsic muscles within the hand and then relocate as myofibers to their final position in the arm. This remarkable translocation of differentiated myofibers across a joint is dependent on muscle contraction and muscle-tendon attachment. Interestingly, the intrinsic flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscles of the foot are identical to the FDS in tendon pattern and delayed developmental timing but undergo limited muscle translocation, providing strong support for evolutionary homology between the FDS and FDB muscles. We propose that the intrinsic FDB pattern represents the original tetrapod limb and that translocation of the muscles to form the FDS is a mammalian evolutionary addition.

  10. Aceleración de la enseñanza para alumnos superdotados: argumentos favorables y contrarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rodrigues Maia-Pinto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning acceleration for gifted students: Favorable and unfavorable argumentsThis paper analyzes acceleration in education as a practice for meeting the educational needs of gifted students, and points out favorable and unfavorable arguments on the use of this practice. Acceleration is an educational practice consisting of several teaching strategies designed to encourage academically gifted students and reduce their time spent in school. It promotes faster learning by matching the curriculum to the student’s level of knowledge, interest and motivation. There are several arguments in favor of acceleration, such as the improvement of academic performance, self-esteem and student’s social adjustment. However, educators are reluctant to implement this practice, arguing that students may be immature or lose part of the content of the regular curriculum.

  11. PLASTICITY OF SKELETAL MUSCLE STUDIED BY STEREOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Eržen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution provides an overview of stereological methods applied in the skeletal muscle research at the Institute of Anatomy of the Medical Faculty in Ljubljana. Interested in skeletal muscle plasticity we studied three different topics: (i expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms in slow and fast muscles under experimental conditions, (ii frequency of satellite cells in young and old human and rat muscles and (iii capillary supply of rat fast and slow muscles. We analysed the expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms within slow rat soleus and fast extensor digitorum longus muscles after (i homotopic and heterotopic transplantation of both muscles, (ii low frequency electrical stimulation of the fast muscle and (iii transposition of the fast nerve to the slow muscle. The models applied were able to turn the fast muscle into a completely slow muscle, but not vice versa. One of the indicators for the regenerative potential of skeletal muscles is its satellite cell pool. The estimated parameters, number of satellite cells per unit fibre length, corrected to the reference sarcomere length (Nsc/Lfib and number of satellite cells per number of nuclei (myonuclei and satellite cell nuclei (Nsc/Nnucl indicated that the frequency of M-cadherin stained satellite cells declines in healthy old human and rat muscles compared to young muscles. To access differences in capillary densities among slow and fast muscles and slow and fast muscle fibres, we have introduced Slicer and Fakir methods, and tested them on predominantly slow and fast rat muscles. Discussing three different topics that require different approach, the present paper reflects the three decades of the development of stereological methods: 2D analysis by simple point counting in the 70's, the disector in the 80's and virtual spatial probes in the 90's. In all methods the interactive computer assisted approach was utilised.

  12. Changes in muscle spindle firing in response to length changes of neighboring muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilde, Hiltsje A; Vincent, Jake A; Baan, Guus C; Nardelli, Paul; Lodder, Johannes C; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Cope, Tim C; Maas, Huub

    2016-06-01

    Skeletal muscle force can be transmitted to the skeleton, not only via its tendons of origin and insertion but also through connective tissues linking the muscle belly to surrounding structures. Through such epimuscular myofascial connections, length changes of a muscle may cause length changes within an adjacent muscle and hence, affect muscle spindles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of epimuscular myofascial forces on feedback from muscle spindles in triceps surae muscles of the rat. We hypothesized that within an intact muscle compartment, muscle spindles not only signal length changes of the muscle in which they are located but can also sense length changes that occur as a result of changing the length of synergistic muscles. Action potentials from single afferents were measured intra-axonally in response to ramp-hold release (RHR) stretches of an agonistic muscle at different lengths of its synergist, as well as in response to synergist RHRs. A decrease in force threshold was found for both soleus (SO) and lateral gastrocnemius afferents, along with an increase in length threshold for SO afferents. In addition, muscle spindle firing could be evoked by RHRs of the synergistic muscle. We conclude that muscle spindles not only signal length changes of the muscle in which they are located but also local length changes that occur as a result of changing the length and relative position of synergistic muscles.

  13. Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Land administration systems are the operational tool for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) in land. Each of the rights, restrictions and responsibilities encompasses a human rights dimension that relates to the overall national land policies and should be unfolded as...... more than just rhetoric. This paper attempts to analyse the aspects of human rights in relation to land administration systems with a special focus on developing countries struggling to build adequate systems for governing the rights, restrictions and responsibilities in land. Human rights are the...... of being alive. Of special interest in relation to land and property is the right to own things and the right of food and adequate housing for all. More generally, human rights should be seen as an ethical responsibility of government to ensure that people enjoy some basic rights as human beings...

  14. Law Tackling Administrative Monopolies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN LIXIN

    2006-01-01

    @@ The long-anticipated anti-monopoly law needs to better address the crucial distinction between administrative and economic monopolies The first five months of 2oo6 saw a surge in the profits achieved by key State enterprises, especially in the eight sectors including petroleum, telecommunication and electricity, which achieved 285 billion yuan (US$36 billion) in profits, accounting for about 86 percent of the total, according to a July report. From the Stateowned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State (SASAC). This news was both heartening and disquieting, for the most profitable sectors happen to be monopolistic enterprises, mostly upstream the production chain, who achieve their profitability at the expense of those companies further downstream. For years these sectors have been at the centre of the "bust-the-trust" storm.

  15. ATLAS TDAQ System Administration:

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Christopher Jon; The ATLAS collaboration; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Ballestrero, Sergio; Contescu, Alexandru Cristian; Dubrov, Sergei; Fazio, Daniel; Korol, Aleksandr; Scannicchio, Diana; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Voronkov, Artem

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system is responsible for the online processing of live data, streaming from the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The online farm is composed of ̃3000 servers, processing the data readout from ̃100 million detector channels through multiple trigger levels. During the two years of the first Long Shutdown (LS1) there has been a tremendous amount of work done by the ATLAS TDAQ System Administrators, implementing numerous new software applications, upgrading the OS and the hardware, changing some design philosophies and exploiting the High Level Trigger farm with different purposes. During the data taking only critical security updates are applied and broken hardware is replaced to ensure a stable operational environment. The LS1 provided an excellent opportunity to look into new technologies and applications that would help to improve and streamline the daily tasks of not only the System Administrators, but also of the scientists who wil...

  16. Evaluation of functional erythropoietin receptor status in skeletal muscle in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Britt; Lundby, Carsten; Jessen, Niels;

    2012-01-01

    myosin light chain 3 and one of desmin/actin were decreased, while three isoforms of creatine kinase and two of glyceraldehyd-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were increased. Conclusions/Significance: Acute exposure to recombinant human erythropoietin is not associated by detectable activation of the Epo-R or......Background: Erythropoietin receptors have been identified in human skeletal muscle tissue, but downstream signal transduction has not been investigated. We therefore studied in vivo effects of systemic erythropoietin exposure in human skeletal muscle. Methodology/Principal Findings: The protocols...... involved 1) acute effects of a single bolus injection of erythropoietin followed by consecutive muscle biopsies for 1-10 hours, and 2) a separate study with prolonged administration for 16 days with biopsies obtained before and after. The presence of erythropoietin receptors in muscle tissue as well as...

  17. Lack of CFTR in Skeletal Muscle Predisposes to Muscle Wasting and Diaphragm Muscle Pump Failure in Cystic Fibrosis Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Maziar Divangahi; Haouaria Balghi; Gawiyou Danialou; Comtois, Alain S.; Alexandre Demoule; Sheila Ernest; Christina Haston; Renaud Robert; Hanrahan, John W.; Danuta Radzioch; Petrof, Basil J

    2009-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients often have reduced mass and strength of skeletal muscles, including the diaphragm, the primary muscle of respiration. Here we show that lack of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) plays an intrinsic role in skeletal muscle atrophy and dysfunction. In normal murine and human skeletal muscle, CFTR is expressed and co-localized with sarcoplasmic reticulum-associated proteins. CFTR-deficient myotubes exhibit augmented levels of intracellular calcium aft...

  18. A Case Report of the Angiosarcoma Involving Epicranial Muscle and Fascia : Is the Occipitofrontalis Muscle Composed of Two Different Muscles?

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ho Kyun; Lee, Hui Joong

    2016-01-01

    The occipitofrontalis muscle is generally regarded as one muscle composed of two muscle bellies joined through the galea aponeurotica. However, two muscle bellies have different embryological origin, anatomical function and innervations. We report a case of angiosarcoma of the scalp in a 63-year-old man whose MR showed that the superficial fascia overlying the occipital belly becomes the temporoparietal fascia and ends at the superior end of the frontal belly. Beneath the superficial fascia, ...

  19. Moodle administration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Henrick, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    If you are an experienced system administrator and know how to manage servers and set up web environments but now want to explore Moodle, this book is perfect for you. You'll get to grips with the basics and learn to manage Moodle quickly, focusing on essential tasks. Having prior knowledge of virtual learning environments would be beneficial, but is not mandatory to make the most of this book.

  20. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  1. IPv6 Network Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Niall Richard

    2009-01-01

    This essential guide explains what works, what doesn't, and most of all, what's practical about IPv6--the next-generation Internet standard. A must-have for network administrators everywhere looking to fix their network's scalability and management problems. Also covers other IPv6 benefits, such as routing, integrated auto-configuration, quality-of-services (QoS), enhanced mobility, and end-to-end security.

  2. Does Vitamin C and E Supplementation Impair the Favorable Adaptations of Regular Exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis G. Nikolaidis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental outcomes associated with unregulated and excessive production of free radicals remains a physiological concern that has implications to health, medicine and performance. Available evidence suggests that physiological adaptations to exercise training can enhance the body’s ability to quench free radicals and circumstantial evidence exists to suggest that key vitamins and nutrients may provide additional support to mitigate the untoward effects associated with increased free radical production. However, controversy has risen regarding the potential outcomes associated with vitamins C and E, two popular antioxidant nutrients. Recent evidence has been put forth suggesting that exogenous administration of these antioxidants may be harmful to performance making interpretations regarding the efficacy of antioxidants challenging. The available studies that employed both animal and human models provided conflicting outcomes regarding the efficacy of vitamin C and E supplementation, at least partly due to methodological differences in assessing oxidative stress and training adaptations. Based on the contradictory evidence regarding the effects of higher intakes of vitamin C and/or E on exercise performance and redox homeostasis, a permanent intake of non-physiological dosages of vitamin C and/or E cannot be recommended to healthy, exercising individuals.

  3. Ketamine effects on memory reconsolidation favor a learning model of delusions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip R Corlett

    Full Text Available Delusions are the persistent and often bizarre beliefs that characterise psychosis. Previous studies have suggested that their emergence may be explained by disturbances in prediction error-dependent learning. Here we set up complementary studies in order to examine whether such a disturbance also modulates memory reconsolidation and hence explains their remarkable persistence. First, we quantified individual brain responses to prediction error in a causal learning task in 18 human subjects (8 female. Next, a placebo-controlled within-subjects study of the impact of ketamine was set up on the same individuals. We determined the influence of this NMDA receptor antagonist (previously shown to induce aberrant prediction error signal and lead to transient alterations in perception and belief on the evolution of a fear memory over a 72 hour period: they initially underwent Pavlovian fear conditioning; 24 hours later, during ketamine or placebo administration, the conditioned stimulus (CS was presented once, without reinforcement; memory strength was then tested again 24 hours later. Re-presentation of the CS under ketamine led to a stronger subsequent memory than under placebo. Moreover, the degree of strengthening correlated with individual vulnerability to ketamine's psychotogenic effects and with prediction error brain signal. This finding was partially replicated in an independent sample with an appetitive learning procedure (in 8 human subjects, 4 female. These results suggest a link between altered prediction error, memory strength and psychosis. They point to a core disruption that may explain not only the emergence of delusional beliefs but also their persistence.

  4. Sustained favorable long-term outcome in the treatment of schizophrenia: a 3-year prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascher-Svanum Haya

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study of chronically ill patients with schizophrenia aimed to identify patients who achieve sustained favorable long-term outcome - when the outcome incorporates severity of symptoms, level of functioning, and use of acute care services - and to identify the best baseline predictors of achieving this sustained favorable long-term outcome. Methods Using data from the United States Schizophrenia Care and Assessment Program (US-SCAP (N = 2327, a large 3-year prospective, multisite, observational study of individuals treated for schizophrenia in the US, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to group patients based upon baseline symptom severity. Symptom severity was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS scores, level of functioning, and use of acute care services. Level of functioning reflected patient-reported productivity and clinician-rated occupational role functioning. Use of acute care services reflected self-reported psychiatric hospitalization and emergency service use. Change of health state was determined over the 3-year period. A patient was classified as having a sustained favorable long-term outcome if their health state values had the closest distance to the defined "best baseline cluster" at each point over the length of the study. Stepwise logistic regression was used to determine baseline predictors of sustained favorable long-term outcome. Results At baseline, 5 distinct health state clusters were identified, ranging from "best" to "worst." Of 1635 patients with sufficient data, only 157 (10% experienced sustained favorable long-term outcome during the 2-years postbaseline. The baseline predictors associated with sustained favorable long-term outcome included better quality of life, more daily activities, patient-reported clearer thinking from medication, better global functioning, being employed, not being a victim of a crime, not having received individual therapy, and not

  5. Criteria for uranium occurrences in Saskatchewan and Australia as guides to favorability for similar deposits in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to explain the occurrence of the large uranium deposits that have been found in northern Saskatchewan and the Northern Territory of Australia, to provide criteria to evaluate the favorability of Proterozoic rocks in the United States for similar deposits. All of these deposits belong to the class known as the Proterozoic unconformity-type pitchblende deposits. Chapters are devoted to: uranium deposits in Saskatchewan; uranium deposits of the Darwin and Arnhem Land area, Northern Territory of Australia; model for the Proterozoic unconformity-type pitchblende deposits; and evaluation of the geology of selected states for its favorability for Proterozoic unconformity-type pitchblende deposits

  6. Genesis of tax administration

    OpenAIRE

    Myskin, Y. I.

    2014-01-01

    The history of formation and development of tax administration is studied. The stages of genesis of tax administration are identified and described. The historically caused major trends in tax administration which are based on knowledge of the nature of causality are formulated. Досліджено історію становлення та розвитку управління оподаткуванням. Визначено та охарактеризовано етапи генезису управління оподаткуванням. На основі пізнання природи причинно-наслідкових зв’язків сфо...

  7. Preferential uptake of ribose by primitive cells might explain why RNA was favored over its analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wei, Chenyu

    perme-ation, even though it is non-negligibly populated in aqueous solution. The differences in free energy barrier between ribose and arabinose or xylose are due to stronger, highly cooperative, intramolecular interactions between consecutive exocyclic hydroxyl groups, which are stable in non-polar media, but rare in water. Most recently, we extended calculations of permeations to ribonucleosides and their anomers. We determined that, in contrast to sugars, permeation of membranes to these species is nearly identical. This is because sugars of nucleotides exist in the furanose rather than pyranose form. In this form intermolecular interactions between hydroxyl groups are not nearly as efficient for sterical reasons. Our results contribute to the discussion about autotrophic vs. heterotrophic origins of life. Chemical reactions inside protobiological vesicle required supply of organic material from the environment. What was the inventory of organics that must have been delivered to primitive cells is still being debated. According to the autotrophic hypothesis, ancestors of cells pro-duced complex organic molecules from simple substrates. In contrast, the heterotrophic model implies that protocells were able to utilize complex organics delivered from external sources. A possibility of sufficiently efficient uptake of molecules needed to build biopolymers provides an important argument supporting the heterotrophic hypothesis [3]. Viewed in the context of the "RNA world" hypothesis [4], which states that RNA molecules were the first biological poly-mers and acted as both catalysts of biochemical reactions and information storage systems, our results demonstrate that, in the absence of sophisticated mechanisms available to contemporary organisms for achieving selectivity during synthesis and transmembrane transport, preferential uptake of ribose by primitive cells might have provided a kinetic mechanism that favored its selective incorporation into nucleic acids and

  8. Systemic delivery of genes to striated muscles using adeno-associated viral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorevic, Paul; Blankinship, Michael J; Allen, James M; Crawford, Robert W; Meuse, Leonard; Miller, Daniel G; Russell, David W; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S

    2004-08-01

    A major obstacle limiting gene therapy for diseases of the heart and skeletal muscles is an inability to deliver genes systemically to muscles of an adult organism. Systemic gene transfer to striated muscles is hampered by the vascular endothelium, which represents a barrier to distribution of vectors via the circulation. Here we show the first evidence of widespread transduction of both cardiac and skeletal muscles in an adult mammal, after a single intravenous administration of recombinant adeno-associated virus pseudotype 6 vectors. The inclusion of vascular endothelium growth factor/vascular permeability factor, to achieve acute permeabilization of the peripheral microvasculature, enhanced tissue transduction at lower vector doses. This technique enabled widespread muscle-specific expression of a functional micro-dystrophin in the skeletal muscles of dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, which model Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We propose that these methods may be applicable for systemic delivery of a wide variety of genes to the striated muscles of adult mammals. PMID:15273747

  9. Perivascular Stem Cells Diminish Muscle Atrophy and Retain Viability in a Rotator Cuff Tear Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasberg, Claire; Jensen, Andrew; Dar, Ayelet; Kowalski, Tomasz J.; Murray, Iain; Khan, Adam Z.; Natsuhara, Kyle; Garagozlo, Cameron; McAllister, David R.; Petrigliano, Frank A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Rotator cuff tears (RCTs) are a common cause of shoulder pain and often necessitate surgical repair. Muscle changes including atrophy, fibrosis, and fatty degeneration can develop after RCTs, which may compromise surgical repair and clinical outcomes. Lipoaspirate-derived human perivascular stem cells (PSCs) have demonstrated myogenic and angiogenic potential in other small animal models of muscle injury. We hypothesized that the administration of PSCs following massive RCTs may help to diminish these muscle changes in a small animal model. Methods: A total of 90 immunodeficient mice were used (15 groups, N=6). Each was assigned to one of three surgical groups: i) sham, ii) supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendon transection (TT), or iii) TT and suprascapular nerve denervation (TT+DN). PSCs were harvested from human lipoaspirate and sorted using fluorescence-activated cell sorting into small blood vessel residing pericytes (CD146+ CD34- CD45- CD31-) and large blood perivascular adventitial cells (CD146- CD34+ CD45- CD31-). Mice received either a) no injection, b) saline injection, c) pericyte injection, or d) adventitial cell injection at the time of the index procedure or at two weeks following index surgery. The supraspinatus muscles were harvested six weeks after the index procedure. Muscle atrophy was assessed by measuring percent wet muscle weight change for each sample. Muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), fibrosis, and fatty degeneration were analyzed using Image J™. Additionally, pericytes and adventitial cells were transduced with a luciferase-containing construct. Animals were given injections of luciferin and imaged using IVIS to track in vivo bioluminescence following injections to assess cell viability. Results: Treatment with PSC injection after TT resulted in less wet weight loss and greater muscle fiber CSA than control groups (PBioluminescence imaging demonstrated viability of the injected cells at three weeks following injections

  10. Methotrexate increases skeletal muscle GLUT4 expression and improves metabolic control in experimental diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term administration of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) mimics the effects of endurance exercise by activating AMP kinase and by increasing skeletal muscle expression of GLUT4 glucose transporter. AICAR is an intermediate in the purine de novo synthesis, and its tissue conc...

  11. Enteral B-hydroxy-B-methylbutyrate supplementation increases protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many low-birth weight infants are at risk for poor growth due to an inability to achieve adequate protein intake. Administration of the amino acid leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonates. To determine the effects of enteral supplementation of the leucine metabolite B-hydr...

  12. The length-tension diagrams of human oblique muscles in trochlear palsy and strabismus sursoadductorius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); G.H. Kolling (Gerold); B. van Dijk (Bob)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractWe determined the relation between length and tension in detached oblique muscles of 16 strabismus patients that underwent surgery, before and during contraction evoked by intravenous administration of succinylcholine. We frequently found a nonlinear relation between length and tension,

  13. Myofascial force transmission between antagonistic rat lower limb muscles: Effects of single muscle or muscle group lengthening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Hanneke J.M; Rijkelijkhuizen, Josina M.; Huijing, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of lengthening of the whole group of anterior crural muscles (tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus muscles (TA + EHL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL)) on myofascial interaction between synergistic EDL and TA + EHL muscles, and on myofascial force transmission between anterior c

  14. Bacterial-excreted small volatile molecule 2-aminoacetophenone induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in murine skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhaya, Arunava; Constantinou, Caterina; Psychogios, Nikolaos; Ueki, Ryusuke; Yasuhara, Shingo; Martyn, J A Jeevendra; Wilhelmy, Julie; Mindrinos, Michael; Rahme, Laurence G; Tzika, A Aria

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress induces mitochondrial dysfunction and facilitates apoptosis, tissue damage or metabolic alterations following infection. We have previously discovered that the Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) quorum sensing (QS)-excreted small volatile molecule, 2-aminoacetophenone (2-AA), which is produced in infected human tissue, promotes bacterial phenotypes that favor chronic infection, while also dampening the pathogen‑induced innate immune response, thus compromising muscle function and promoting host tolerance to infection. In this study, murine whole-genome expression data have demonstrated that 2-AA affects the expression of genes involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis, thus producing an oxidative stress signature in skeletal muscle. The results of the present study demonstrated that the expression levels of genes involved in apoptosis signaling pathways were upregulated in the skeletal muscle of 2-AA-treated mice. To confirm the results of our transcriptome analysis, we used a novel high-resolution magic-angle-spinning (HRMAS), proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method and observed increased levels of bisallylic methylene fatty acyl protons and vinyl protons, suggesting that 2-AA induces skeletal muscle cell apoptosis. This effect was corroborated by our results demonstrating the downregulation of mitochondrial membrane potential in vivo in response to 2-AA. The findings of the present study indicate that the bacterial infochemical, 2-AA, disrupts mitochondrial functions by inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis signaling and likely promotes skeletal muscle dysfunction, which may favor chronic/persistent infection.

  15. The Administration of Tax Systems

    OpenAIRE

    John Hasseldine

    2010-01-01

    This chapter analyses recent developments in tax administration and best practice. The chapter begins by contextualizing tax administration through a discussion on the necessary separation between the operational tasks performed in tax administration and the more generic, but nevertheless crucial, issues of organization, strategy and internal management required in tax administration. The chapter then describes the recent genesis and the current context of tax administration - especially in E...

  16. Pharmacology of airway smooth muscle proliferation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, Reinoud; Roscioni, Sara S.; Dekkers, Bart G. J.; Pera, Tonio; Schmidt, Martina; Schaafsma, Dedmer; Zaagsma, Johan; Meurs, Herman

    2008-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle thickening is a pathological feature that contributes significantly to airflow limitation and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma. Ongoing research efforts aimed at identifying the mechanisms responsible for the increased airway smooth muscle mass have indicated that hyperplasi

  17. Bones, Muscles, and Joints: The Musculoskeletal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Bones, Muscles, and Joints KidsHealth > For Parents > Bones, Muscles, ... able to stand, walk, run, or even sit. Bones and What They Do From our head to ...

  18. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M;

    2016-01-01

    Primary aging is the progressive and inevitable process of bodily deterioration during adulthood. In skeletal muscle, primary aging causes defective mitochondrial energetics and reduced muscle mass. Secondary aging refers to additional deleterious structural and functional age-related changes cau...

  19. Effects of Dexamethasone on Satellite Cells and Tissue Engineered Skeletal Muscle Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syverud, Brian C; VanDusen, Keith W; Larkin, Lisa M

    2016-03-01

    Tissue engineered skeletal muscle has potential for application as a graft source for repairing soft tissue injuries, a model for testing pharmaceuticals, and a biomechanical actuator system for soft robots. However, engineered muscle to date has not produced forces comparable to native muscle, limiting its potential for repair and for use as an in vitro model for pharmaceutical testing. In this study, we examined the trophic effects of dexamethasone (DEX), a glucocorticoid that stimulates myoblast differentiation and fusion into myotubes, on our tissue engineered three-dimensional skeletal muscle units (SMUs). Using our established SMU fabrication protocol, muscle isolates were cultured with three experimental DEX concentrations (5, 10, and 25 nM) and compared to untreated controls. Following seeding onto a laminin-coated Sylgard substrate, the administration of DEX was initiated on day 0 or day 6 in growth medium or on day 9 after the switch to differentiation medium and was sustained until the completion of SMU fabrication. During this process, total cell proliferation was measured with a BrdU assay, and myogenesis and structural advancement of muscle cells were observed through immunostaining for MyoD, myogenin, desmin, and α-actinin. After SMU formation, isometric tetanic force production was measured to quantify function. The histological and functional assessment of the SMU showed that the administration of 10 nM DEX beginning on either day 0 or day 6 yielded optimal SMUs. These optimized SMUs exhibited formation of advanced sarcomeric structure and significant increases in myotube diameter and myotube fusion index, compared with untreated controls. Additionally, the optimized SMUs matured functionally, as indicated by a fivefold rise in force production. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the addition of DEX to our process of engineering skeletal muscle tissue improves myogenesis, advances muscle structure, and increases force production in the

  20. Striated Muscle as Implantation Site for Transplanted Pancreatic Islets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espes, Daniel; Eriksson, Olof; Lau, Joey; Carlsson, Per-Ola

    2011-01-01

    Islet transplantation is an attractive treatment for selected patients with brittle type 1 diabetes. In the clinical setting, intraportal transplantation predominates. However, due to extensive early islet cell death, the quantity of islets needed to restore glucose homeostasis requires in general a minimum of two donors. Moreover, the deterioration of islet function over time results in few insulin-independent patients after five-year followup. Specific obstacles to the success of islet transplantation include site-specific concerns for the liver such as the instant blood mediated inflammatory reaction, islet lipotoxicity, low oxygen tension, and poor revascularization, impediments that have led to the developing interest for alternative implantation sites over recent years. Within preclinical settings, several alternative sites have now been investigated and proven favorable in various aspects. Muscle is considered a very promising site and has physiologically properties and technical advantages that could make it optimal for islet transplantation. PMID:22174984

  1. Novel Analog For Muscle Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Ryder, Jeff; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd. Elizabeth; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa; Hackney, Kyle; Fiedler, James; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Existing models (such as bed rest) of muscle deconditioning are cumbersome and expensive. We propose a new model utilizing a weighted suit to manipulate strength, power, or endurance (function) relative to body weight (BW). Methods: 20 subjects performed 7 occupational astronaut tasks while wearing a suit weighted with 0-120% of BW. Models of the full relationship between muscle function/BW and task completion time were developed using fractional polynomial regression and verified by the addition of pre-and postflightastronaut performance data for the same tasks. Splineregression was used to identify muscle function thresholds below which task performance was impaired. Results: Thresholds of performance decline were identified for each task. Seated egress & walk (most difficult task) showed thresholds of leg press (LP) isometric peak force/BW of 18 N/kg, LP power/BW of 18 W/kg, LP work/BW of 79 J/kg, isokineticknee extension (KE)/BW of 6 Nm/kg, and KE torque/BW of 1.9 Nm/kg.Conclusions: Laboratory manipulation of relative strength has promise as an appropriate analog for spaceflight-induced loss of muscle function, for predicting occupational task performance and establishing operationally relevant strength thresholds.

  2. Skeletal muscle involvement in cardiomyopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongelli, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Raffaella; Maddaloni, Valeria; Rea, Alessandra; Sarkozy, Anna; McKenna, William J

    2013-12-01

    The link between heart and skeletal muscle disorders is based on similar molecular, anatomical and clinical features, which are shared by the 'primary' cardiomyopathies and 'primary' neuromuscular disorders. There are, however, some peculiarities that are typical of cardiac and skeletal muscle disorders. Skeletal muscle weakness presenting at any age may indicate a primary neuromuscular disorder (associated with creatine kinase elevation as in dystrophinopathies), a mitochondrial disease (particularly if encephalopathy, ocular myopathy, retinitis, neurosensorineural deafness, lactic acidosis are present), a storage disorder (progressive exercise intolerance, cognitive impairment and retinitis pigmentosa, as in Danon disease), or metabolic disorders (hypoglycaemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperammonaemia or other specific biochemical abnormalities). In such patients, skeletal muscle weakness usually precedes the cardiomyopathy and dominates the clinical picture. Nevertheless, skeletal involvement may be subtle, and the first clinical manifestation of a neuromuscular disorder may be the occurrence of heart failure, conduction disorders or ventricular arrhythmias due to cardiomyopathy. ECG and echocardiogram, and eventually, a more detailed cardiovascular evaluation may be required to identify early cardiac involvement. Paediatric and adult cardiologists should be proactive in screening for neuromuscular and related disorders to enable diagnosis in probands and evaluation of families with a focus on the identification of those at risk of cardiac arrhythmia and emboli who may require specific prophylactic treatments, for example, pacemaker, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and anticoagulation. PMID:24149064

  3. Muscle mechanics and neuromuscular control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, AL

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the properties of the mechanical system, especially muscle elasticity and limb mass, to a large degree determine force output and movement. This makes the control demands of the central nervous system simpler and more robust. In human triceps surae, a

  4. Metabolic Adaptation to Muscle Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Marco E.; Coon, Jennifer E.; Kalhan, Satish C.; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Saidel, Gerald M.; Stanley, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Although all tissues in the body can adapt to varying physiological/pathological conditions, muscle is the most adaptable. To understand the significance of cellular events and their role in controlling metabolic adaptations in complex physiological systems, it is necessary to link cellular and system levels by means of mechanistic computational models. The main objective of this work is to improve understanding of the regulation of energy metabolism during skeletal/cardiac muscle ischemia by combining in vivo experiments and quantitative models of metabolism. Our main focus is to investigate factors affecting lactate metabolism (e.g., NADH/NAD) and the inter-regulation between carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during a reduction in regional blood flow. A mechanistic mathematical model of energy metabolism has been developed to link cellular metabolic processes and their control mechanisms to tissue (skeletal muscle) and organ (heart) physiological responses. We applied this model to simulate the relationship between tissue oxygenation, redox state, and lactate metabolism in skeletal muscle. The model was validated using human data from published occlusion studies. Currently, we are investigating the difference in the responses to sudden vs. gradual onset ischemia in swine by combining in vivo experimental studies with computational models of myocardial energy metabolism during normal and ischemic conditions.

  5. MAR binding protein SMAR1 favors IL-10 mediated regulatory T cell function in acute colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirlekar, Bhalchandra; Patil, Sachin [Chromatin and Disease Biology Laboratory, National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Bopanna, Ramanamurthy [Experimental Animal Facility, National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Chattopadhyay, Samit, E-mail: samit@nccs.res.in [Chromatin and Disease Biology Laboratory, National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)

    2015-08-21

    T{sub reg} cells are not only crucial for controlling immune responses to autoantigens but also prevent those directed towards commensal pathogens. Control of effector immune responses by T{sub reg} cells depend on their capacity to accumulate at inflammatory site and accordingly accommodate to inflammatory environment. Till date, the factors associated with maintaining these aspects of T{sub reg} phenotype is not understood properly. Here we have shown that a known nuclear matrix binding protein SMAR1 is selectively expressed more in colonic T{sub reg} cells and is required for their ability to accumulate at inflammatory site and to sustain high levels of Foxp3 and IL-10 expression during acute colitis. Elimination of anti-inflammatory subsets revealed a protective role for IL-10 producing T{sub reg} cells in SMAR1{sup −/−} mice. Moreover, a combined action of Foxp3 and SMAR1 restricts effector cytokine production and enhance the production of IL-10 by colonic T{sub reg} cells that controls acute colitis. This data highlights a critical role of SMAR1 in maintaining T{sub reg} physiology during inflammatory disorders. - Highlights: • SMAR1 is essential to sustain high level of Foxp3 and IL-10 in T{sub reg} cells. • SMAR1{sup −/−} T{sub reg} cells produce pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17 leads to inflammation. • IL-10 administration can control the inflammation in SMAR1{sup −/−} mice. • Both Foxp3 and SMAR1 maintain T{sub reg} phenotype that controls colitis.

  6. Mechanisms of exertional fatigue in muscle glycogenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, John; Haller, Ronald G

    2012-01-01

    concentrations of extracellular potassium in exercising muscle and (3) exaggerated accumulation of ADP during exercise that may inhibit sodium-potassium and calcium-ATPases. Disorders of muscle glycogenolysis and glycolysis reveal the crucial role of these metabolic processes for supplying both anaerobic...... and aerobic energy for muscle contraction; and the pathological fatigue that occurs when glycogenolysis and/or glycolysis is blocked imply an important role for theses metabolic pathways in normal muscle fatigue....

  7. Regulation of skeletal muscle glycogenolysis during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreaves, M; Richter, Erik

    1988-01-01

    Muscle-glycogen breakdown during exercise is influenced by both local and systemic factors. Contractions per se increase glycogenolysis via a calcium-induced, transient increase in the activity of phosphorylase a, and probably also via increased concentrations of Pi. In fast-twitch muscle...... in contracting muscle by increasing the phosphorylase a activity via increased cyclic AMP production. The availability of blood-borne substrates may also influence muscle glycogenolysis and, therefore, exercise performance....

  8. STRUCTURAL ALTERATIONS OF SKELETAL MUSCLE IN COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita eMathur

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a respiratory disease associated with a systemic inflammatory response. Peripheral muscle dysfunction has been well characterized in individuals with COPD and results from a complex interaction between systemic and local factors. Objective: In this narrative review, we will describe muscle wasting in people with COPD, the associated structural changes, muscle regenerative capacity and possible mechanisms for muscle wasting. We will also discuss how structural changes relate to impaired muscle function and mobility in people with COPD. Key Observations: Approximately 30-40% of individuals with COPD experience muscle mass depletion. Furthermore, muscle atrophy is a predictor of physical function and mortality in this population. Associated structural changes include a decreased proportion and size of type-I fibers, reduced oxidative capacity and mitochondrial density mainly in the quadriceps. Observations related to impaired muscle regenerative capacity in individuals with COPD include a lower proportion of central nuclei in the presence or absence of muscle atrophy and decreased maximal telomere length, which has been correlated with reduced muscle cross-sectional area. Potential mechanisms for muscle wasting in COPD may include excessive production of reactive oxygen species, altered amino acid metabolism and lower expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-gamma-coactivator 1-alpha mRNA. Despite a moderate relationship between muscle atrophy and function, impairments in oxidative metabolism only seems weakly related to muscle function. Conclusion: This review article demonstrates the cellular modifications in the peripheral muscle of people with COPD and describes the evidence of its relationship to muscle function. Future research will focus on rehabilitation strategies to improve muscle wasting and maximize function.

  9. Collagen quantification across human skeletal muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Evie Ya Hui

    2011-01-01

    Intramuscular connective tissue provides structural stability and facilitates force transmission in skeletal muscle. Additionally, it contains extracellular matrix that is crucial for muscle development and regeneration¹. Alterations of collagen content within intramuscular connective tissue have been associated with aging or diseased muscle ²,³. Data of baseline collagen content among different muscles, to provide deeper understanding of normal muscular functions, does not exist. Hence the a...

  10. Impaired muscle glycogen resynthesis after a marathon is not caused by decreased muscle GLUT-4 content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asp, S; Rohde, T; Richter, Erik

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to investigate whether the slow rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis after a competitive marathon is associated with a decrease in the total muscle content of the muscle glucose transporter (GLUT-4). Seven well-trained marathon runners participated in the study, and muscle biopsies...

  11. Muscle fatigue in fibromyalgia is in the brain, not in the muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Elisabeth; Amris, Kirstine; Bliddal, Henning;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate relationships between perceived and objectively measured muscle fatigue during exhausting muscle contractions in women with fibromyalgia (FM) compared with healthy controls (HC).......To investigate relationships between perceived and objectively measured muscle fatigue during exhausting muscle contractions in women with fibromyalgia (FM) compared with healthy controls (HC)....

  12. Quantitative muscle ultrasound and muscle force in healthy children: A 4-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.; Jansen, M; Janssen, H.; Raijmann, W.; Alfen, N. van; Pillen, S.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: No longitudinal data on the normal development of muscle thickness (MT), quantitative muscle ultrasound echo intensity (EI), and muscle force (MF) in healthy children are yet available. METHODS: Reference values of MT, EI, and MF of 4 muscles from infancy to age 16 years were establish

  13. Exercise hyperthermia as a factor limiting physical performance - Temperature effect on muscle metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, S.; Brzezinska, Z.; Kruk, B.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of trunk cooling on the muscle contents of ATP, ADP, AMP, creatine phosphate (CrP), and creatine, as well as of glycogen, some glycolytic intermediates, pyruvate, and lactate were assessed in 11 fasted dogs exercised at 20 C on treadmill to exhaustion. Without cooling, dogs were able to run 57 min, and their rectal (Tre) and muscle (Tm) temperatures increased to 41.8 and 43.0 C, respectively. Cooling with ice packs prolonged the ability to run by 45 percent, and resulted in lower Tre (by 1.1 C) and Tm (by 1.2 C). Depletion of muscle content of total high-energy phosphates (ATP + CrP) and glycogen, and increases in contents of AMP, pyruvate, and lactate were lower in cooled dogs than in non-cooled dogs. The muscle content of lactiate correlated positively with TM. These results indicate that hypothermia accelerates glycolysis, and shifts the equilibrium between high- and low-energy phosphates in favor of the latter. The adverse effect of hypothermia on muscle metabolism may be relevant to the limitation of endurance.

  14. Biomechanical implications of skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy: a musculoskeletal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigotsky, Andrew D; Contreras, Bret; Beardsley, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Muscle hypertrophy and atrophy occur frequently as a result of mechanical loading or unloading, with implications for clinical, general, and athletic populations. The effects of muscle hypertrophy and atrophy on force production and joint moments have been previously described. However, there is a paucity of research showing how hypertrophy and atrophy may affect moment arm (MA) lengths. The purpose of this model was to describe the mathematical relationship between the anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) of a muscle and its MA length. In the model, the ACSAs of the biceps brachii and brachialis were altered to hypertrophy up to twice their original size and to atrophy to one-half of their original size. The change in MA length was found to be proportional to the arcsine of the square root of the change in ACSA. This change in MA length may be a small but important contributor to strength, especially in sports that require large joint moments at slow joint angular velocities, such as powerlifting. The paradoxical implications of the increase in MA are discussed, as physiological factors influencing muscle contraction velocity appear to favor a smaller MA length for high velocity movements but a larger muscle MA length for low velocity, high force movements.

  15. Muscle MRI findings in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerevini, Simonetta; Caliendo, Giandomenico; Falini, Andrea [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Neuroradiology Unit, Head and Neck Department, Milan (Italy); Scarlato, Marina; Previtali, Stefano Carlo [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Neurology, INSPE and Division of Neuroscience, Milan (Italy); Maggi, Lorenzo; Pasanisi, Barbara; Morandi, Lucia [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico ' ' Carlo Besta' ' , Neuromuscular Diseases and Neuroimmunology Unit, Milan (Italy); Cava, Mariangela [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Radiology and Center for Experimental Imaging, Milan (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is characterized by extremely variable degrees of facial, scapular and lower limb muscle involvement. Clinical and genetic determination can be difficult, as molecular analysis is not always definitive, and other similar muscle disorders may have overlapping clinical manifestations. Whole-body muscle MRI examination for fat infiltration, atrophy and oedema was performed to identify specific patterns of muscle involvement in FSHD patients (30 subjects), and compared to a group of control patients (23) affected by other myopathies (NFSHD). In FSHD patients, we detected a specific pattern of muscle fatty replacement and atrophy, particularly in upper girdle muscles. The most frequently affected muscles, including paucisymptomatic and severely affected FSHD patients, were trapezius, teres major and serratus anterior. Moreover, asymmetric muscle involvement was significantly higher in FSHD as compared to NFSHD patients. In conclusion, muscle MRI is very sensitive for identifying a specific pattern of involvement in FSHD patients and in detecting selective muscle involvement of non-clinically testable muscles. Muscle MRI constitutes a reliable tool for differentiating FSHD from other muscular dystrophies to direct diagnostic molecular analysis, as well as to investigate FSHD natural history and follow-up of the disease. (orig.)

  16. Muscle strength in patients with chronic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C.P.; Akkerman, L.; Wieringa, J.; Dijkstra, P.U.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the influence of chronic pain on muscle strength. Design: Muscle strength of patients with unilateral nonspecific chronic pain, in an upper or lower limb, were measured according to a standardized protocol using a hand-held dynamometer. Before and after muscle strength measurem

  17. Breast muscle tissue characteristics in growing broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle cell development in broilers influences growth rate, breast meat yield, and meat quality. The objective of this study was to characterize muscle tissue changes in breast muscles from two commercial lines of broilers from 21 to 56 days of age. The experiment was designed as a 2×2×6 factorial...

  18. Muscle MRI findings in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is characterized by extremely variable degrees of facial, scapular and lower limb muscle involvement. Clinical and genetic determination can be difficult, as molecular analysis is not always definitive, and other similar muscle disorders may have overlapping clinical manifestations. Whole-body muscle MRI examination for fat infiltration, atrophy and oedema was performed to identify specific patterns of muscle involvement in FSHD patients (30 subjects), and compared to a group of control patients (23) affected by other myopathies (NFSHD). In FSHD patients, we detected a specific pattern of muscle fatty replacement and atrophy, particularly in upper girdle muscles. The most frequently affected muscles, including paucisymptomatic and severely affected FSHD patients, were trapezius, teres major and serratus anterior. Moreover, asymmetric muscle involvement was significantly higher in FSHD as compared to NFSHD patients. In conclusion, muscle MRI is very sensitive for identifying a specific pattern of involvement in FSHD patients and in detecting selective muscle involvement of non-clinically testable muscles. Muscle MRI constitutes a reliable tool for differentiating FSHD from other muscular dystrophies to direct diagnostic molecular analysis, as well as to investigate FSHD natural history and follow-up of the disease. (orig.)

  19. Mechanical modeling of skeletal muscle functioning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der Bart Jochem Julius Joost

    1998-01-01

    For movement of body or body segments is combined effort needed of the central nervous system and the muscular-skeletal system. This thesis deals with the mechanical functioning of skeletal muscle. That muscles come in a large variety of geometries, suggest the existence of a relation between muscle

  20. Immunity to Trichinella spiralis muscle infection

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre, M.V.; Beiting, D.P.; Bliss, S.K.; Appleton, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Trichinella spiralis larvae establish chronic infections in skeletal muscles of immunocompetent hosts. Muscle infection is crucial to transmission and survival of the parasite in nature. Chronic infections by this highly immunogenic parasite are associated with modulation or escape from potentially destructive immune responses. This review summarizes our current knowledge of immunity to muscle infection with T. spiralis.

  1. Development of intelligent model to determine favorable wheelchair tilt and recline angles for people with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jicheng; Jan, Yih-Kuen; Jones, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Machine-learning techniques have found widespread applications in bioinformatics. Such techniques provide invaluable insight on understanding the complex biomedical mechanisms and predicting the optimal individualized intervention for patients. In our case, we are particularly interested in developing an individualized clinical guideline on wheelchair tilt and recline usage for people with spinal cord injury (SCI). The current clinical practice suggests uniform settings to all patients. However, our previous study revealed that the response of skin blood flow to wheelchair tilt and recline settings varied largely among patients. Our finding suggests that an individualized setting is needed for people with SCI to maximally utilize the residual neurological function to reduce pressure ulcer risk. In order to achieve this goal, we intend to develop an intelligent model to determine the favorable wheelchair usage to reduce pressure ulcers risk for wheelchair users with SCI. In this study, we use artificial neural networks (ANNs) to construct an intelligent model that can predict whether a given tilt and recline setting will be favorable to people with SCI based on neurological functions and SCI injury history. Our results indicate that the intelligent model significantly outperforms the traditional statistical approach in accurately classifying favorable wheelchair tilt and recline settings. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using intelligent models to predict the favorable wheelchair tilt and recline angles. Our methods demonstrate the feasibility of using ANN to develop individualized wheelchair tilt and recline guidance for people with SCI. PMID:22254738

  2. The Bias in Favor of Venture Capital Finance in U.S. Entrepreneurial Education: At the Expense of Trade Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Thomas; LeMire, Steven; Silvernagel, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The authors examine whether U.S. college-level entrepreneurship education demonstrates a bias favoring venture capital (VC) financing while marginalizing trade credit financing, and the resulting impact on entrepreneurship students. A sample of U.S. business textbooks and survey data from entrepreneurship students reveals a significant bias toward…

  3. Insulin alleviates degradation of skeletal muscle protein by inhibiting the ubiquitin-proteasome system in septic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gao Tao; Yu Wenkui; Tang Shaoqiu; Li Weiqin; Zhu Weiming; Li Ning; Chen Qiyi; Zhang Juanjuan; Li Jieshou

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Hypercatabolism is common under septic conditions. Skeletal muscle is the main target organ for hypercatabolism, and this phenomenon is a vital factor in the deterioration of recovery in septic patients. In skeletal muscle, activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system plays an important role in hypercatabolism under septic status. Insulin is a vital anticatabolic hormone and previous evidence suggests that insulin administration inhibits various steps in the ubiquitin-proteasome sys...

  4. Growth hormone stimulates the collagen synthesis in human tendon and skeletal muscle without affecting myofibrillar protein synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doessing, Simon; Heinemeier, Katja; Holm, Lars;

    2010-01-01

    matrix collagen synthesis in skeletal muscle and tendon, but without any effect upon myofibrillar protein synthesis. The results suggest that GH is more important in strengthening the matrix tissue than for muscle cell hypertrophy in adult human musculotendinous tissue.......In skeletal muscle and tendon the extracellular matrix confers important tensile properties and is crucially important for tissue regeneration after injury. Musculoskeletal tissue adaptation is influenced by mechanical loading, which modulates the availability of growth factors, including growth...... young individuals. rhGH administration caused an increase in serum GH, serum IGF-I, and IGF-I mRNA expression in tendon and muscle. Tendon collagen I mRNA expression and tendon collagen protein synthesis increased by 3.9-fold and 1.3-fold, respectively (P muscle collagen I m...

  5. Masseter muscle rigidity: Atypical malignant hyperthermia presentation or isolated event?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyeka Tonia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a case of masseter muscle rigidity encountered at the start of an elective gynaecological procedure. At preoperative assessment, the patient, a 41-year old woman with a previous non-eventful surgical and anesthetic history was given a Mallampati score of 3. Following suxamethonium administration, full mouth opening proved difficult. Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation were not possible leading to the eventual use of a laryngeal mask airway and resulting in a successful anaesthetic outcome. A number of possibilities that may account for this situation as well as viable options for airway access in such cases are discussed below.

  6. Masseter muscle rigidity: Atypical malignant hyperthermia presentation or isolated event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeka, Tonia C U

    2010-09-01

    This report describes a case of masseter muscle rigidity encountered at the start of an elective gynaecological procedure. At preoperative assessment, the patient, a 41-year old woman with a previous non-eventful surgical and anesthetic history was given a Mallampati score of 3. Following suxamethonium administration, full mouth opening proved difficult. Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation were not possible leading to the eventual use of a laryngeal mask airway and resulting in a successful anaesthetic outcome. A number of possibilities that may account for this situation as well as viable options for airway access in such cases are discussed below. PMID:21189861

  7. Spontaneous Iliopsoas Muscle Hemorrhage Secondary to Ibrutinib (Imbruvica; Pharmacyclics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarcon, Anna; Botta, Gregory P.; Patel, Nikunj; Saven, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Ibrutinib (Imbruvica; Pharmacyclics) is the first Food and Drug Administration–approved inhibitor of Burton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK). Attenuation of BTK signaling ultimately leads to inhibition of B-cell proliferation and apoptosis. After a series of clinical trials, the Food and Drug Administration approved ibrutinib in patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 2014 and Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia in 2015. Those trials included rare grade 3+ hemorrhagic events associated with ibrutinib. Herein, we report a unique presentation of back pain due to iliopsoas muscle hemorrhage in a patient with Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia after initiation of ibrutinib. PMID:27231694

  8. UML IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Ionita

    2010-01-01

    The article elaborates weather UML, primarily used in software engineering, can be a useful tool in business modeling and administration. By analyzing the advantages the modeling language has to offer we find that UML is visual and object oriented and that it is useful in expressing structure, interaction and behavior as well. With its help managers and business people can build models and diagrams to help put things into perspective. “Case Study 1” shows UML can be used as an analysis tool i...

  9. Transforming growth factor type beta (TGF-β) requires reactive oxygen species to induce skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrigo, Johanna; Rivera, Juan Carlos; Simon, Felipe; Cabrera, Daniel; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio

    2016-05-01

    Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) is a classical modulator of skeletal muscle and regulates several processes, such as myogenesis, regeneration, and muscle function in skeletal muscle diseases. Skeletal muscle atrophy, characterised by the loss of muscle strength and mass, is one of the pathological conditions regulated by TGF-β. Atrophy also results in increased myosin heavy chain (MHC) degradation and the expression of two muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases, atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are modulators of muscle wasting, and NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) is one of the main sources of ROS. While it was recently found that TGF-β1 induces atrophy in skeletal muscle, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, the role of NOX-derived ROS in skeletal muscle atrophy induced by TGF-β was assessed. TGF-β1 induced an atrophic effect in C2C12 myotubes, as evidenced by decreased myotube diameter and MHC levels, together with increased MuRF-1 levels. Concomitantly, TGF-β increased NOX-induced ROS contents. Interestingly, NOX inhibition through apocynin and the antioxidant treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) decreased increased ROS levels in myotubes. Additionally, both apocynin and NAC completely prevented the decreased MHC, decreased myotube diameter, and increased MuRF-1 induced by TGF-β. Injection of TGF-β1 into the tibialis anterior muscle induced atrophy, as observed by decreased fibre diameter and MHC levels, together with increased MuRF-1 levels. Likewise, TGF-β increased the ROS contents in the smaller fibres of skeletal muscle. Additionally, the administration of NAC to mice prevented all atrophic effects and the increase in ROS induced by TGF-β in the tibialis anterior. This is the first study to report that TGF-β has an atrophic effect dependent on NOX-induced ROS in skeletal muscle.

  10. In cirrhotic patients reduced muscle strength is unrelated to muscle capacity for ATP turnover suggesting a central limitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gam, Christiane Marie Bourgin; Nielsen, H B; Secher, Niels H.;

    2011-01-01

      We investigated whether in patients with liver cirrhosis reduced muscle strength is related to dysfunction of muscle mitochondria.......  We investigated whether in patients with liver cirrhosis reduced muscle strength is related to dysfunction of muscle mitochondria....

  11. The relationship between exercise-induced muscle fatigue, arterial blood flow and muscle perfusion after 56 days local muscle unloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Tobias; Ducos, Michel; Mulder, Edwin; Beijer, Åsa; Herrera, Frankyn; Zange, Jochen; Degens, Hans; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Jörn

    2014-05-01

    In the light of the dynamic nature of habitual plantar flexor activity, we utilized an incremental isokinetic exercise test (IIET) to assess the work-related power deficit (WoRPD) as a measure for exercise-induced muscle fatigue before and after prolonged calf muscle unloading and in relation to arterial blood flow and muscle perfusion. Eleven male subjects (31 ± 6 years) wore the HEPHAISTOS unloading orthosis unilaterally for 56 days. It allows habitual ambulation while greatly reducing plantar flexor activity and torque production. Endpoint measurements encompassed arterial blood flow, measured in the femoral artery using Doppler ultrasound, oxygenation of the soleus muscle assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy, lactate concentrations determined in capillary blood and muscle activity using soleus muscle surface electromyography. Furthermore, soleus muscle biopsies were taken to investigate morphological muscle changes. After the intervention, maximal isokinetic torque was reduced by 23·4 ± 8·2% (PBlood flow, tissue oxygenation, lactate concentrations and EMG median frequency kinematics during the exercise test were comparable before and after the intervention, whereas the increase of RMS in response to IIET was less following the intervention (P = 0·03). In conclusion, following submaximal isokinetic muscle work exercise-induced muscle fatigue is unaffected after prolonged local muscle unloading. The observation that arterial blood flow was maintained may underlie the unchanged fatigability.

  12. Significance of new breakthrough in and favorable targets of gas exploration in the Middle Permian system, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Shen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Permian system in the Sichuan Basin represents favorable conditions for the formation of natural gas reservoirs. However, only fracture-vuggy limestone gas reservoirs were discovered in early exploration, whose scales and results were limited. In 2014, a high-yield industrial gas flow was produced there in Well Shuangtan 1, the major risk-exploration well, which means a great breakthrough in natural gas exploration in the Middle Permian system, Sichuan Basin. This plays a strategically important and guiding role in oil and gas exploration in ultra-deep marine formations. This paper illustrates the deployment background of Well Shuangtan 1, major exploration achievements and its significance in the gas exploration in the Middle Permian system, Sichuan Basin. Moreover, exploration potential and subsequent exploration targets of Middle Permian are analyzed in terms of its hydrocarbon source conditions, sedimentary characteristics, reservoir characteristics and areal extension, resources and favorable exploration zones. It is concluded that the Middle Permian system in the Sichuan Basin is a continent-connected carbonate platform with carbonate deposits being dominant. There are three types of reservoirs, including pore dolomite, karst fracture-vuggy, and fracture, which present considerable natural gas resources and huge exploration potential. Favorable exploration zones classification of Middle Permian in the Sichuan Basin indicates that the most favorable exploration zones are mainly distributed in the central-western Sichuan Basin. In particular, the northwestern Sichuan Basin is the most favorable exploration area which is characterized by the most excellent hydrocarbon source conditions, developed dolomite reservoirs and zonal distribution of structures.

  13. Effect of edaravone on favorable outcome in patients with acute cerebral large vessel occlusion: subanalysis of RESCUE-Japan Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Yuki; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Egashira, Yusuke; Shirakawa, Manabu; Uchida, Kazutaka; Kageyama, Hirohito; Tomogane, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    The data of the nationwide prospective registry of acute cerebral large vessel occlusion (LVO; RESCUE-Japan Registry) were analyzed to know the effect of edaravone, a free radical scavenger, on clinical outcome at 90 days after onset. In this registry, patients with acute cerebral LVO admitted within 24 h after onset were prospectively registered. The effect of various factors including endovascular treatment (EVT), intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rt-PA), and other medication including edaravone on favorable outcome (modified Rankin scale 0-1) was analyzed. Of the 1,454 registered patients, 1,442 patients (99.2%) had the information of edaravone were analyzed. In total, edaravone group had more patients with favorable outcome compared to non-edaravone group (22.9% vs. 13.8%, p = 0.0006). Edaravone increased favorable outcome in patients treated with IV rt-PA (29.4% vs. 11.1%, p = 0.0107), but not with EVT (21.2% vs. 13.9%, p = 0.309). Logistic regression analysis revealed that higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score on admission [odds ratio (OR) 0.875, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.858-0.894] and advanced age (OR 0.963, 95%CI 0.952-0.975) were significantly related to unfavorable outcome. In contrast, IV rt-PA (OR 2.489, 95%CI 1.867-3.319), EVT (OR 1.375, 95%CI 1.013-1.865), and edaravone (OR 1.483, 95%CI 1.027-2.143) were significantly associated with favorable outcome. This analysis indicated that IV rt-PA, EVT, and edaravone were effective to obtain favorable outcome in patients with acute LVO. Combination IV rt-PA with edaravone was more effective. PMID:25739433

  14. Atorvastatin and metformin administration modulates experimental Trichinella spiralis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ahmad A; Abou Rayia, Dina M; Ashour, Dalia S; Saied, Eman M; Zineldeen, Doaa H; El-Ebiary, Ahmad A

    2016-04-01

    The host-parasite interaction can be altered by the changes in the host environment that may be or may not be in favor of successful invasion by the nematode parasite Trichinella spiralis. Metformin and atorvastatin are applied on a wide scale, to the degree that they could be considered as part of the host biochemical environment that can affect the parasite. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the impact of alteration of the host's biochemical environment by these commonly used drugs upon the course of T. spiralis infection. Mice were divided into three groups: (1) received atorvastatin, (2) received metformin, and (3) untreated, then after one week, animals were infected with T. spiralis. The treatment continued until the end of the experiment. From each group, small intestines and muscles were removed for histopathological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical analyses as well as total muscle larval counts. We found that the oxidative stress and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the muscles were significantly reduced in both drug-receiving groups, while the total larval counts in muscles were only significantly reduced in atorvastatin-receiving group as compared to the infected control group. Moreover, marked reduction in the inflammatory cellular infiltration, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, and oxidative stress was noted in the small intestines of the treated groups as compared to the infected control group. In conclusion, this study provides many insights into the different biochemical changes in the host that the parasite has to face. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects should be taken into consideration when treating infections in patients on therapy with atorvastatin or metformin. PMID:26546571

  15. Therapeutic isolation and expansion of human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells for the use of muscle-nerve-blood vessel reconstitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro eTamaki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle makes up 40-50% of body mass, and is thus considered to be a good adult stem cell source for autologous therapy. Although, several stem/progenitor cells have been fractionated from mouse skeletal muscle showing a high potential for therapeutic use, it is unclear whether this is the case in human. Differentiation and therapeutic potential of human skeletal muscle-derived cells (Sk-Cs was examined. Samples (5-10 g were obtained from the abdominal and leg muscles of 36 patients (age, 17-79 years undergoing prostate cancer treatment or leg amputation surgery. All patients gave informed consent. Sk-Cs were isolated using conditioned collagenase solution, and were then sorted as CD34-/CD45-/CD29+ (Sk-DN/29+ and CD34+/CD45- (Sk-34 cells, in a similar manner as for the previous mouse Sk-Cs. Both cell fractions were appropriately expanded using conditioned culture medium for about 2 weeks. Differentiation potentials were then examined during cell culture and in vivo transplantation into the severely damaged muscles of athymic nude mice and rats. Interestingly, these two cell fractions could be divided into highly myogenic (Sk-DN/29+ and multipotent stem cell (Sk-34 fractions, in contrast to mouse Sk-Cs, which showed comparable capacities in both cells. At 6 weeks after the separate transplantation of both cell fractions, the former showed an active contribution to muscle fiber regeneration, but the latter showed vigorous engraftment to the interstitium associated with differentiation into Schwann cells, perineurial/endoneurial cells, and vascular endothelial cells and pericytes, which corresponded to previous observations with mouse SK-Cs. Importantly, mixed cultures of both cells resulted the reduction of tissue reconstitution capacities in vivo, whereas co-transplantation after separate expansion showed favorable results. Therefore, human Sk-Cs are potentially applicable to therapeutic autografts and show multiple differentiation

  16. Associations of Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity With Metabolic Syndrome Considering Both Muscle Mass and Muscle Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jihye; Hong, Yeon-Pyo; Shin, Hyun Ju; Lee, Weonyoung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the associations of sarcopenia-defined both in terms of muscle mass and muscle strength-and sarcopenic obesity with metabolic syndrome. Methods: Secondary data pertaining to 309 subjects (85 men and 224 women) were collected from participants in exercise programs at a health center in a suburban area. Muscle mass was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis, and muscle strength was measured via handgrip strength. Sarcopenia based on muscle mass alone was def...

  17. Muscle hypertrophy induced by myostatin inhibition : a new therapeutic approach of muscle atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Gilson, Hélène

    2009-01-01

    Increasing size and strength of skeletal muscle represents a promising therapeutic strategy for muscular disorders. One possible new tool is Myostatin (Mstn) because it plays a crucial role in regulating skeletal muscle mass. The first goal of our work was to determine whether Mstn inhibition could prevent muscle atrophy in catabolic states. As glucocorticoids play a major role in most muscle atrophy models, we assessed whether muscle atrophy caused by glucocorticoids in excess could be preve...

  18. Balance and muscle power of children with Charcot-Marie-Tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tais R. Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In certain diseases, functional constraints establish a greater relationship with muscle power than muscle strength. However, in hereditary peripheral polyneuropathies, no such relationship was found in the literature. OBJECTIVE: In children with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT, to identify the impact of muscle strength and range of movement on the static/dynamic balance and standing long jump based on quantitative and functional variables. METHOD: The study analyzed 19 participants aged between 6 and 16 years, of both genders and with clinical diagnoses of CMT of different subtypes. Anthropometric data, muscle strength of the lower limbs (hand-held dynamometer, ankle and knee range of movement, balance (Pediatric Balance Scale and standing long jump distance were obtained by standardized procedures. For the statistical analysis, Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were used. RESULTS: There was a strong positive correlation between balance and the muscle strength of the right plantar flexors (r=0.61 and dorsiflexors (r=0.59 and a moderate correlation between balance and the muscle strength of inversion (r=0.41 and eversion of the right foot (r=0.44. For the long jump and range of movement, there was a weak positive correlation with right and left plantar flexion (r=0.20 and r=0.12, respectively and left popliteal angle (r=0.25, and a poor negative correlation with left dorsiflexion (r=-0.15. CONCLUSIONS: The data on the patients analyzed suggests that the maintenance of distal muscle strength favors performance during balance tasks, while limitations in the range of movement of the legs seem not to be enough to influence the performance of the horizontal long jump.

  19. Myostatin inhibition in muscle, but not adipose tissue, decreases fat mass and improves insulin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingqing Guo

    Full Text Available Myostatin (Mstn is a secreted growth factor expressed in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. Mstn(-/- mice have a dramatic increase in muscle mass, reduction in fat mass, and resistance to diet-induced and genetic obesity. To determine how Mstn deletion causes reduced adiposity and resistance to obesity, we analyzed substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity in Mstn(-/- mice fed a standard chow. Despite reduced lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, Mstn(-/- mice had no change in the rate of whole body lipid oxidation. In contrast, Mstn(-/- mice had increased glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity as measured by indirect calorimetry, glucose and insulin tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. To determine whether these metabolic effects were due primarily to the loss of myostatin signaling in muscle or adipose tissue, we compared two transgenic mouse lines carrying a dominant negative activin IIB receptor expressed specifically in adipocytes or skeletal muscle. We found that inhibition of myostatin signaling in adipose tissue had no effect on body composition, weight gain, or glucose and insulin tolerance in mice fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet. In contrast, inhibition of myostatin signaling in skeletal muscle, like Mstn deletion, resulted in increased lean mass, decreased fat mass, improved glucose metabolism on standard and high-fat diets, and resistance to diet-induced obesity. Our results demonstrate that Mstn(-/- mice have an increase in insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake, and that the reduction in adipose tissue mass in Mstn(-/- mice is an indirect result of metabolic changes in skeletal muscle. These data suggest that increasing muscle mass by administration of myostatin antagonists may be a promising therapeutic target for treating patients with obesity or diabetes.

  20. Idiopathic and diabetic skeletal muscle necrosis: evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattapuram, Taj M.; Suri, Rajeev; Kattapuram, Susan V. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Bone and Joint Radiology, Boston (United States); Rosol, Michael S. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Bone and Joint Radiology, Boston (United States); Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles (United States); Rosenberg, Andrew E. [Massachusetts General Hospital, James Homer Wright Laboratories, Department of Pathology, Boston (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Idiopathic and diabetic-associated muscle necrosis are similar, uncommon clinical entities requiring conservative management and minimal intervention to avoid complications and prolonged hospitalization. An early noninvasive diagnosis is therefore essential. We evaluated the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of muscle necrosis in 14 patients, in eight of whom the diagnoses were confirmed histologically. Two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists performed retrospective evaluations of the MRI studies of 14 patients with the diagnoses of skeletal muscle infarction. In 10 cases gadolinium-enhanced (T1-weighted fat-suppressed) sequences were available along with T1-weighted, T2-weighted images and STIR sequences, while in four cases contrast-enhanced images were not available. Eight patients had underlying diabetes and in six patients the cause of the myonecrosis was considered idiopathic. T1-weighted images demonstrated isointense swelling of the involved muscle, with mildly displaced fascial planes. There was effacement of the fat signal intensity within the muscle. Fat-suppressed T2-weighted images showed diffuse heterogeneous high signal intensity in the muscles suggestive of edema. Perifascial fluid collection was seen in eight cases. Subcutaneous edema was present in seven patients. Following intravenous gadolinium administration, MRI demonstrated a focal area of heterogeneously enhancing mass with peripheral enhancement. Within this focal lesion, linear dark areas were seen with serpentine enhancing streaks separating them in eight cases. In two cases, a central relatively nonenhancing mass with irregular margins and peripheral enhancement was noted. The peripheral enhancement involved a significant part of the muscle. No focal fluid collection was noted. We believe that the constellation of imaging findings on T1- and T2-weighted images and post-gadolinium sequences is highly suggestive of muscle necrosis. We consider certain specific findings