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  1. Favorable effects of skeletal muscle on bone are distinguished according to gender and skeletal sites

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    Kyoung Min Kim

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Higher RASM was significantly associated with lower risk for osteoporosis and the areas at the femur neck and total hip appeared to more likely be affected positively by muscle. Moreover, because males showed faster muscle loss with aging than females, the bones of males may be more prone to favorable effects of muscle.

  2. Jaw-muscle fiber architecture in tufted capuchins favors generating relatively large muscle forces without compromising jaw gape

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    Taylor, Andrea B.; Vinyard, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Cebus apella is renowned for its dietary flexibility and capacity to exploit hard and tough objects. Cebus apella differs from other capuchins in displaying a suite of craniodental features that have been functionally and adaptively linked to their feeding behavior, particularly the generation and dissipation of relatively large jaw forces. We compared fiber architecture of the masseter and temporalis muscles between the tufted capuchin (C. apella; n = 12 ) and two “untufted” capuchins (C. capuchinus, n = 3; C. albifrons, n = 5). These three species share broadly similar diets, but tufted capuchins occasionally exploit mechanically challenging tissues. We tested the hypothesis that C. apella exhibits architectural properties of their jaw muscles that facilitate relatively large forces, including relatively greater physiologic cross-sectional areas (PCSA), more pinnate fibers, and lower ratios of mass to tetanic tension (Mass/P0). Results show some evidence supporting these predictions, as C. apella has relatively greater superficial masseter, whole masseter, and temporalis PCSAs, significantly so only for the temporalis following Bonferroni adjustment. Capuchins did not differ in pinnation angle or Mass/P0. As an architectural trade-off between maximizing muscle force and muscle excursion/contraction velocity, we also tested the hypothesis that C. apella exhibits relatively shorter muscle fibers. Contrary to our prediction, there are no significant differences in relative fiber lengths between tufted and untufted capuchins. Therefore, we attribute the relatively greater PCSAs in C. apella primarily to their larger muscle masses. These findings suggest that relatively large jaw-muscle PCSAs can be added to the suite of masticatory features that have been functionally linked to the exploitation of a more resistant diet by C. apella. By enlarging jaw-muscle mass to increase PCSA, rather than reducing fiber lengths and increasing pinnation, tufted capuchins appear

  3. Changes in skeletal muscle gene expression following clenbuterol administration

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    McIntyre Lauren M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta-adrenergic receptor agonists (BA induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy, yet specific mechanisms that lead to this effect are not well understood. The objective of this research was to identify novel genes and physiological pathways that potentially facilitate BA induced skeletal muscle growth. The Affymetrix platform was utilized to identify gene expression changes in mouse skeletal muscle 24 hours and 10 days after administration of the BA clenbuterol. Results Administration of clenbuterol stimulated anabolic activity, as indicated by decreased blood urea nitrogen (BUN; P P Conclusion Global evaluation of gene expression after administration of clenbuterol identified changes in gene expression and overrepresented functional categories of genes that may regulate BA-induced muscle hypertrophy. Changes in mRNA abundance of multiple genes associated with myogenic differentiation may indicate an important effect of BA on proliferation, differentiation, and/or recruitment of satellite cells into muscle fibers to promote muscle hypertrophy. Increased mRNA abundance of genes involved in the initiation of translation suggests that increased levels of protein synthesis often associated with BA administration may result from a general up-regulation of translational initiators. Additionally, numerous other genes and physiological pathways were identified that will be important targets for further investigations of the hypertrophic effect of BA on skeletal muscle.

  4. Transcriptome changes favoring intramuscular fat deposition in the longissimus muscle following castration of bulls.

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    Jeong, J; Bong, J; Kim, G D; Joo, S T; Lee, H-J; Baik, M

    2013-10-01

    Castration increases intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition, improving beef quality in cattle. The present study was performed to determine the global transcriptome changes following castration of bulls and to identify genes associated with IMF deposition in the longissimus dorsi (LM) of Korean cattle. A customized bovine CombiMatrix oligonucleotide microarray was constructed, and transcriptome changes following castration were determined by microarray hybridization. Transcriptome comparison between bulls and steers indicated that 428 of 8,407 genes were differentially expressed in the LM by greater than two fold (P castration. Castration upregulated transcription of adipogenic perilipin 2 (PLIN2) and visfatin, lipogenic fatty acid synthase, fatty acid esterification 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 5, and many fatty acid oxidation-related genes. Many TCA cycle and OP genes were also transcriptionally upregulated. Correlation analysis indicated that the IMF content in the LM was highly correlated with mRNA levels of PLIN2 (r = 0.70, P castration shifts transcription of lipid metabolism genes, favoring IMF deposition by increasing adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and triglyceride synthesis. This study also indicated that castration increases transcription of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and subsequent energy production (TCA and OP genes). Our microarray analysis provided novel information that castration alters the transcriptome associated with lipid/energy metabolism, favoring IMF deposition in the LM.

  5. Private AdministrationFavorable Environment for Implementing Programs and Campaigns of Public Relations?

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    Simona HAIDAU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper refer to decision of the private administration organizations from the region northeast of Romania to implement programs and public relations campaigns from the socio-economic context in the current period. This decision of organizations above mentioned is strongly influenced by nature non-profit purposes they have, more precisely, to be involved in carrying out the public interest or community.

  6. Effects of tetracycline administration on the proteomic profile of pig muscle samples (L. dorsi)

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    Gratacos-Cubarsi, M.; Castellari, M.; Hortos, M.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of tetracycline (TC) administration on the proteomic profile of pig muscle was evaluated by 2D electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The TC content at slaughter was determined in L. dorsi samples by HPLC-DAD. Mean residual concentration of TC in the muscle of treated animals, ca...

  7. Muscle glycogen storage postexercise: effect of mode of carbohydrate administration.

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    Reed, M J; Brozinick, J T; Lee, M C; Ivy, J L

    1989-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether gastric emptying limits the rate of muscle glycogen storage during the initial 4 h after exercise when a carbohydrate supplement is provided. A secondary purpose was to determine whether liquid (L) and solid (S) carbohydrate (CHO) feedings result in different rates of muscle glycogen storage after exercise. Eight subjects cycled for 2 h on three separate occasions to deplete their muscle glycogen stores. After each exercise bout they received 3 g CHO/kg body wt in L (50% glucose polymer) or S (rice/banana cake) form or by intravenous infusion (I; 20% sterile glucose). The L and S supplements were divided into two equal doses and administered immediately after and 120 min after exercise, whereas the I supplement was administered continuously during the first 235 min of the 240-min recovery period. Blood samples were drawn from an antecubital vein before exercise, during exercise, and throughout recovery. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis immediately after and 120 and 240 min after exercise. Blood glucose and insulin declined during exercise and increased significantly above preexercise levels during recovery in all treatments. The increase in blood glucose during the I treatment, however, was three times greater than during the L or S treatments. The average insulin response of the L treatment (61.7 +/- 4.9 microU/ml) was significantly greater than that of the S treatment (47.5 +/- 4.2 microU/ml) but not that of the I (55.3 +/- 4.5 microU/ml) treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Effects of Streptomycin Administration on Increases in Skeletal Muscle Fiber Permeability and Size Following Eccentric Muscle Contractions.

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    Hayao, Keishi; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Kouki; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Takahashi, Hideaki; Yotani, Kengo; Ogita, Futoshi; Yamamoto, Noriaki; Onishi, Hideaki

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the preventive effect of streptomycin (Str) administration on changes in membrane permeability and the histomorphological characteristics of damaged muscle fibers following eccentric contraction (ECC ). Eighteen 7-week-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly assigned to three groups: control (Cont), ECC, and ECC with Str (ECC + Str). The tibialis anterior (TA) muscles in both ECC groups were stimulated electrically and exhibited ECC. Evans blue dye (EBD), a marker of muscle fiber damage associated with increased membrane permeability, was injected 24 hr before TA muscle sampling. The number of EBD-positive fibers, muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), and roundness were determined via histomorphological analysis. The ECC intervention resulted in an increased fraction of EBD-positive fibers, a larger CSA, and decreased roundness. The fraction of EBD-positive fibers was 79% lower in the ECC + Str group than in the ECC group. However, there was no difference in the CSA and roundness of the EBD-positive fibers between the two ECC groups. These results suggest that Str administration can reduce the number of myofibers that increase membrane permeability following ECC, but does not ameliorate the extent of fiber swelling in extant EBD-positive fibers. Anat Rec, 301:1096-1102, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. (-)-Epicatechin administration and exercising skeletal muscle vascular control and microvascular oxygenation in healthy rats.

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    Copp, Steven W; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; White, Michael J; Hirai, Daniel M; Ferguson, Scott K; Holdsworth, Clark T; Sims, Gabrielle E; Poole, David C; Musch, Timothy I

    2013-01-15

    Consumption of the dietary flavanol (-)-epicatechin (EPI) is associated with enhanced endothelial function and augmented skeletal muscle capillarity and mitochondrial volume density. The potential for EPI to improve peripheral vascular function and muscle oxygenation during exercise is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that EPI administration in healthy rats would improve treadmill exercise performance secondary to elevated skeletal muscle blood flow and vascular conductance [VC, blood flow/mean arterial pressure (MAP)] and improved skeletal muscle microvascular oxygenation. Rats received water (control, n = 12) or 4 mg/kg EPI (n = 12) via oral gavage daily for 24 days. Exercise endurance capacity and peak O(2) uptake (Vo(2) peak) were measured via treadmill runs to exhaustion. MAP (arterial catheter) and blood flow (radiolabeled microspheres) were measured and VC was calculated during submaximal treadmill exercise (25 m/min, 5% grade). Spinotrapezius muscle microvascular O(2) pressure (Po(2mv)) was measured (phosphorescence quenching) during electrically induced twitch (1 Hz) contractions. In conscious rats, EPI administration resulted in lower (↓~5%) resting (P = 0.03) and exercising (P = 0.04) MAP. There were no differences in exercise endurance capacity, Vo(2) peak, total exercising hindlimb blood flow (control, 154 ± 13; and EPI, 159 ± 8 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1), P = 0.68), or VC (control, 1.13 ± 0.10; and EPI, 1.24 ± 0.08 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1)·mmHg(-1), P = 0.21) between groups. Following anesthesia, EPI resulted in lower MAP (↓~16%) but did not impact resting Po(2mv) or any kinetics parameters (P > 0.05 for all) during muscle contractions compared with control. EPI administration (4 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) improved modestly cardiovascular function (i.e., ↓MAP) with no impact on exercise performance, total exercising skeletal muscle blood flow and VC, or contracting muscle microvascular oxygenation in healthy rats.

  10. Ginseng administration protects skeletal muscle from oxidative stress induced by acute exercise in rats.

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    Voces, J; Cabral de Oliveira, A C; Prieto, J G; Vila, L; Perez, A C; Duarte, I D G; Alvarez, A I

    2004-12-01

    Enzymatic activity was analyzed in the soleus, gastrocnemius (red and white) and plantaris muscles of acutely exercised rats after long-term administration of Panax ginseng extract in order to evaluate the protective role of ginseng against skeletal muscle oxidation. Ginseng extract (3, 10, 100, or 500 mg/kg) was administered orally for three months to male Wistar rats weighing 200 +/- 50 g before exercise and to non-exercised rats (N = 8/group). The results showed a membrane stabilizing capacity of the extract since mitochondrial function measured on the basis of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities was reduced, on average, by 20% (P < 0.05) after exercise but the activities remained unchanged in animals treated with a ginseng dose of 100 mg/kg. Glutathione status did not show significant changes after exercise or treatment. Lipid peroxidation, measured on the basis of malondialdehyde levels, was significantly higher in all muscles after exercise, and again was reduced by about 74% (P < 0.05) by the use of ginseng extract. The administration of ginseng extract was able to protect muscle from exercise-induced oxidative stress irrespective of fiber type.

  11. Ginseng administration protects skeletal muscle from oxidative stress induced by acute exercise in rats

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    J. Voces

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic activity was analyzed in the soleus, gastrocnemius (red and white and plantaris muscles of acutely exercised rats after long-term administration of Panax ginseng extract in order to evaluate the protective role of ginseng against skeletal muscle oxidation. Ginseng extract (3, 10, 100, or 500 mg/kg was administered orally for three months to male Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 50 g before exercise and to non-exercised rats (N = 8/group. The results showed a membrane stabilizing capacity of the extract since mitochondrial function measured on the basis of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities was reduced, on average, by 20% (P < 0.05 after exercise but the activities remained unchanged in animals treated with a ginseng dose of 100 mg/kg. Glutathione status did not show significant changes after exercise or treatment. Lipid peroxidation, measured on the basis of malondialdehyde levels, was significantly higher in all muscles after exercise, and again was reduced by about 74% (P < 0.05 by the use of ginseng extract. The administration of ginseng extract was able to protect muscle from exercise-induced oxidative stress irrespective of fiber type.

  12. The Effect of Anabolic Steroid Administration on Passive Stretching-Induced Expression of Mechano-Growth Factor in Skeletal Muscle

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    Satoshi Ikeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Stretching of skeletal muscle induces expression of the genes which encode myogenic transcription factors or muscle contractile proteins and results in muscle growth. Anabolic steroids are reported to strengthen muscles. We have previously studied the effects of muscle stretching on gene expression. Here, we studied the effect of a combination of passive stretching and the administration of an anabolic steroid on mRNA expression of a muscle growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I autocrine variant, or mechano-growth factor (MGF. Methods. Twelve 8-week-old male Wistar rats were used. Metenolone was administered and passive repetitive dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of the ankle joint performed under deep anesthesia. After 24 h, the gastrocnemius muscles were removed and the mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor-I autocrine variant was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results. Repetitive stretching in combination with metenolone, but not stretching alone, significantly increased MGF mRNA expression. Conclusion. Anabolic steroids enhance the effect of passive stretching on MGF expression in skeletal muscle.

  13. Effects of chronic administration of clenbuterol on contractile properties and calcium homeostasis in rat extensor digitorum longus muscle.

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    Sirvent, Pascal; Douillard, Aymerick; Galbes, Olivier; Ramonatxo, Christelle; Py, Guillaume; Candau, Robin; Lacampagne, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Clenbuterol, a β2-agonist, induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and a shift from slow-oxidative to fast-glycolytic muscle fiber type profile. However, the cellular mechanisms of the effects of chronic clenbuterol administration on skeletal muscle are not completely understood. As the intracellular Ca2+ concentration must be finely regulated in many cellular processes, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic clenbuterol treatment on force, fatigue, intracellular calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis and Ca2+-dependent proteolysis in fast-twitch skeletal muscles (the extensor digitorum longus, EDL, muscle), as they are more sensitive to clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy. Male Wistar rats were chronically treated with 4 mg.kg-1 clenbuterol or saline vehicle (controls) for 21 days. Confocal microscopy was used to evaluate sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ load, Ca2+-transient amplitude and Ca2+ spark properties. EDL muscles from clenbuterol-treated animals displayed hypertrophy, a shift from slow to fast fiber type profile and increased absolute force, while the relative force remained unchanged and resistance to fatigue decreased compared to control muscles from rats treated with saline vehicle. Compared to control animals, clenbuterol treatment decreased Ca2+-transient amplitude, Ca2+ spark amplitude and frequency and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ load was markedly reduced. Conversely, calpain activity was increased by clenbuterol chronic treatment. These results indicate that chronic treatment with clenbuterol impairs Ca2+ homeostasis and this could contribute to the remodeling and functional impairment of fast-twitch skeletal muscle.

  14. Acute and long-term administration of palmitoylcarnitine induces muscle-specific insulin resistance in mice.

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    Liepinsh, Edgars; Makrecka-Kuka, Marina; Makarova, Elina; Volska, Kristine; Vilks, Karlis; Sevostjanovs, Eduards; Antone, Unigunde; Kuka, Janis; Vilskersts, Reinis; Lola, Daina; Loza, Einars; Grinberga, Solveiga; Dambrova, Maija

    2017-09-10

    Acylcarnitine accumulation has been linked to perturbations in energy metabolism pathways. In this study, we demonstrate that long-chain (LC) acylcarnitines are active metabolites involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism in vivo. Single-dose administration of palmitoylcarnitine (PC) in fed mice induced marked insulin insensitivity, decreased glucose uptake in muscles, and elevated blood glucose levels. Increase in the content of LC acylcarnitine induced insulin resistance by impairing Akt phosphorylation at Ser473. The long-term administration of PC using slow-release osmotic minipumps induced marked hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance, suggesting that the permanent accumulation of LC acylcarnitines can accelerate the progression of insulin resistance. The decrease of acylcarnitine content significantly improved glucose tolerance in a mouse model of diet-induced glucose intolerance. In conclusion, we show that the physiological increase in content of acylcarnitines ensures the transition from a fed to fasted state in order to limit glucose metabolism in the fasted state. In the fed state, the inability of insulin to inhibit LC acylcarnitine production induces disturbances in glucose uptake and metabolism. The reduction of acylcarnitine content could be an effective strategy to improve insulin sensitivity. © 2017 BioFactors, 43(5):718-730, 2017. © 2017 The Authors BioFactors published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  15. Simultaneous infusion of glutamine and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to septic rats does not have more favorable effect on protein synthesis in muscle, liver, and small intestine than separate infusions.

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    Holecek, Milan; Muthny, Tomas; Kovarik, Miroslav; Sispera, Ludek

    2006-01-01

    Glutamine and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) are used as nutrition supplements in the treatment of proteocatabolic illness. We hypothesized that simultaneous administration of BCAA and glutamine affects protein metabolism more significantly than separate administration. In the present study, we evaluated their effect on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle, liver, and jejunum of septic rats. Twenty-four hours after induction of sepsis by subcutaneous injection of turpentine, the rats were infused for 6 hours with 5 mL of 1.75% glutamine, 1.75% BCAA, 1.75% glutamine+BCAA, or saline solution. The control group consisted of intact rats infused with saline. Protein synthesis was measured at the end of infusion by a "flooding method" with [3,4,5-(3)H]phenylalanine. In turpentine-treated animals, we observed a decrease in glutamine concentration in blood plasma and skeletal muscle, a decrease in BCAA concentration in liver and jejunum, and a decrease in protein synthesis in all tissues. Glutamine or glutamine+BCAA infusion increased glutamine concentration in plasma and muscle and stimulated protein synthesis in the liver. The BCAA infusion enhanced concentrations of BCAA in plasma and tissues, but the effect of BCAA on protein synthesis was insignificant. Synergistic effect of simultaneous infusion of glutamine and BCAA on protein synthesis was not observed. We conclude that glutamine infusion to rats with septic injury may significantly improve impaired protein synthesis in the liver and that there is no synergistic effect of glutamine and BCAA infusion on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle, liver, and jejunum.

  16. Evaluation of skeletal and cardiac muscle function after chronic administration of thymosin beta-4 in the dystrophin deficient mouse.

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    Christopher F Spurney

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta-4 (Tbeta4 is a ubiquitous protein with many properties relating to cell proliferation and differentiation that promotes wound healing and modulates inflammatory mediators. We studied the effects of chronic administration of Tbeta4 on the skeletal and cardiac muscle of dystrophin deficient mdx mice, the mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Female wild type (C57BL10/ScSnJ and mdx mice, 8-10 weeks old, were treated with 150 microg of Tbeta4 twice a week for 6 months. To promote muscle pathology, mice were exercised for 30 minutes twice a week. Skeletal and cardiac muscle function were assessed via grip strength and high frequency echocardiography. Localization of Tbeta4 and amount of fibrosis were quantified using immunohistochemistry and Gomori's tri-chrome staining, respectively. Mdx mice treated with Tbeta4 showed a significant increase in skeletal muscle regenerating fibers compared to untreated mdx mice. Tbeta4 stained exclusively in the regenerating fibers of mdx mice. Although untreated mdx mice had significantly decreased skeletal muscle strength compared to untreated wild type, there were no significant improvements in mdx mice after treatment. Systolic cardiac function, measured as percent shortening fraction, was decreased in untreated mdx mice compared to untreated wild type and there was no significant difference after treatment in mdx mice. Skeletal and cardiac muscle fibrosis were also significantly increased in untreated mdx mice compared to wild type, but there was no significant improvement in treated mdx mice. In exercised dystrophin deficient mice, chronic administration of Tbeta4 increased the number of regenerating fibers in skeletal muscle and could have a potential role in treatment of skeletal muscle disease in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  17. Effects of Growth Hormone Administration on Muscle Strength in Men over 50 Years Old

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    A. B. W. Tavares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH use has been speculated to improve physical capacity in subjects without GH deficiency (GHD through stimulation of collagen synthesis in the tendon and skeletal muscle, which leads to better exercise training and increased muscle strength. In this context, the use of GH in healthy elderly should be an option for increasing muscle strength. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of GH therapy on muscle strength in healthy men over 50 years old. Fourteen healthy men aged 50–70 years were evaluated at baseline for body composition and muscle strength (evaluated by leg press and bench press exercises, which focus primarily on quadriceps—lower body part and pectoralis major—upper body part—muscles, resp.. Subjects were randomised into 2 groups: GH therapy (7 subjects and placebo (7 subjects and reevaluated after 6 months of therapy. Thirteen subjects completed the study (6 subjects in the placebo group and 7 subjects in the GH group. Subjects of both groups were not different at baseline. After 6 months of therapy, muscle strength in the bench press responsive muscles did not increase in both groups and showed a statistically significant increase in the leg press responsive muscles in the GH group. Our study demonstrated an increase in muscle strength in the lower body part after GH therapy in healthy men. This finding must be considered and tested in frail older populations, whose physical incapacity is primarily caused by proximal muscle weakness. The trial was registered with NCT01853566.

  18. FENOFIBRATE ADMINISTRATION DOES NOT AFFECT MUSCLE TRIGLYCERIDE CONCENTRATION OR INSULIN SENSITIVITY IN HUMANS

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    Perreault, Leigh; Bergman, Bryan C.; Hunerdosse, Devon M.; Howard, David J.; Eckel, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Animal data suggest that males, in particular, rely on PPAR-α activity to maintain normal muscle triglyceride metabolism. We sought to examine whether this was also true in men vs. women and its relationship to insulin sensitivity. Materials/Methods Normolipidemic obese men (n=9) and women (n=9) underwent an assessment of insulin sensitivity (IVGTT) and intramuscular triglyceride metabolism (GC/MS and GC/C/IRMS from plasma and muscle biopsies taken after infusion of [U-13C]palmitate) before and after 12 weeks of fenofibrate treatment. Results Women were more insulin sensitive (Si; 5.2(0.7 vs. 2.4(0.4 ×10−4/uU/ml, W vs. M, ptriglyceride (IMTG) concentration (41.9(15.5 vs. 30.8(5.1 ug/mg dry weight, W vs. M, p=0.43), and IMTG fractional synthesis rate (FSR; 0.27(0.07 vs. 0.35(0.06/hr, W vs. M, p=0.41) as men. Fenofibrate enhanced FSR in men (0.35(0.06 to 0.54(0.06, p=0.05), with no such change seen in women (0.27(0.07 to 0.32(0.13, p=0.73), and no change in IMTG concentration in either group (23.0(3.9 in M, p=0.26 vs. baseline; 36.3(12.0 in W, p=0.79 vs. baseline). Insulin sensitivity was unaffected by fenofibrate (p>0.68). Lower percent saturation of IMTG in women vs. men before (29.1(2.3 vs. 35.2(1.7%, p=0.06) and after (27.3(2.8 vs. 35.1(1.9%, p=0.04) fenofibrate most closely related to their greater insulin sensitivity (R2=0.34, p=0.10), and was largely unchanged by the drug. Conclusions PPAR-α agonist therapy had little effect on IMTG metabolism in men or women. IMTG saturation, rather than IMTG concentration or FSR, most closely (but not significantly) related to insulin sensitivity and was unchanged by fenofibrate administration. PMID:21306746

  19. GH receptor blocker administration and muscle-tendon collagen synthesis in humans

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    Nielsen, Rie Harboe; Doessing, Simon; Goto, Kazushige

    2011-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis stimulates collagen synthesis in tendon and skeletal muscle, but no studies have investigated the effect of reducing IGF-I on collagen synthesis in healthy humans.......The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis stimulates collagen synthesis in tendon and skeletal muscle, but no studies have investigated the effect of reducing IGF-I on collagen synthesis in healthy humans....

  20. Short-term pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate administration attenuates cachexia-induced alterations to muscle and liver in ApcMin/+ mice.

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    Narsale, Aditi A; Puppa, Melissa J; Hardee, Justin P; VanderVeen, Brandon N; Enos, Reilly T; Murphy, E Angela; Carson, James A

    2016-09-13

    Cancer cachexia is a complex wasting condition characterized by chronic inflammation, disrupted energy metabolism, and severe muscle wasting. While evidence in pre-clinical cancer cachexia models have determined that different systemic inflammatory inhibitors can attenuate several characteristics of cachexia, there is a limited understanding of their effects after cachexia has developed, and whether short-term administration is sufficient to reverse cachexia-induced signaling in distinctive target tissues. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is a thiol compound having anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties which can inhibit STAT3 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling in mice. This study examined the effect of short-term PDTC administration to ApcMin/+ mice on cachexia-induced disruption of skeletal muscle protein turnover and liver metabolic function. At 16 weeks of age ApcMin/+ mice initiating cachexia (7% BW loss) were administered PDTC (10mg/kg bw/d) for 2 weeks. Control ApcMin/+ mice continued to lose body weight during the treatment period, while mice receiving PDTC had no further body weight decrease. PDTC had no effect on either intestinal tumor burden or circulating IL-6. In muscle, PDTC rescued signaling disrupting protein turnover regulation. PDTC suppressed the cachexia induction of STAT3, increased mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis, and suppressed the induction of Atrogin-1 protein expression. Related to cachectic liver metabolic function, PDTC treatment attenuated glycogen and lipid content depletion independent to the activation of STAT3 and mTORC1 signaling. Overall, these results demonstrate short-term PDTC treatment to cachectic mice attenuated cancer-induced disruptions to muscle and liver signaling, and these changes were independent to altered tumor burden and circulating IL-6.

  1. Short-term pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate administration attenuates cachexia-induced alterations to muscle and liver in ApcMin/+ mice

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    VanderVeen, Brandon N.; Enos, Reilly T.; Murphy, E. Angela; Carson, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a complex wasting condition characterized by chronic inflammation, disrupted energy metabolism, and severe muscle wasting. While evidence in pre-clinical cancer cachexia models have determined that different systemic inflammatory inhibitors can attenuate several characteristics of cachexia, there is a limited understanding of their effects after cachexia has developed, and whether short-term administration is sufficient to reverse cachexia-induced signaling in distinctive target tissues. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is a thiol compound having anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties which can inhibit STAT3 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling in mice. This study examined the effect of short-term PDTC administration to ApcMin/+ mice on cachexia-induced disruption of skeletal muscle protein turnover and liver metabolic function. At 16 weeks of age ApcMin/+ mice initiating cachexia (7% BW loss) were administered PDTC (10mg/kg bw/d) for 2 weeks. Control ApcMin/+ mice continued to lose body weight during the treatment period, while mice receiving PDTC had no further body weight decrease. PDTC had no effect on either intestinal tumor burden or circulating IL-6. In muscle, PDTC rescued signaling disrupting protein turnover regulation. PDTC suppressed the cachexia induction of STAT3, increased mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis, and suppressed the induction of Atrogin-1 protein expression. Related to cachectic liver metabolic function, PDTC treatment attenuated glycogen and lipid content depletion independent to the activation of STAT3 and mTORC1 signaling. Overall, these results demonstrate short-term PDTC treatment to cachectic mice attenuated cancer-induced disruptions to muscle and liver signaling, and these changes were independent to altered tumor burden and circulating IL-6. PMID:27449092

  2. Lentivirus administration to rat muscle provides efficient sustained expression of erythropoietin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seppen, J.; Barry, S. C.; Harder, B.; Osborne, W. R.

    2001-01-01

    A lentivirus pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G) encoding rat erythropoietin (EPO) complementary DNA was administered to rat skeletal muscle and red blood cell production was serially monitored. After a single intramuscular injection hematocrit values increased and reached

  3. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone administration on recovery from mix-type exercise training-induced muscle damage.

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    Liao, Yi-Hung; Liao, Kun-Fu; Kao, Chung-Lan; Chen, Chung-Yu; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chang, Wei-Hsiang; Ivy, John L; Bernard, Jeffrey R; Lee, Shin-Da; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the role of DHEA-S in coping against the exercise training mixing aerobic and resistance components. During 5-day successive exercise training, 16 young male participants (19.2 ± 1.2 years) received either a placebo (flour capsule) or DHEA (100 mg/day) in a double-blinded and placebo-controlled design. Oral DHEA supplementation significantly increased circulating DHEA-S by 2.5-fold, but a protracted drop (~35 %) was observed from Day 3 during training. In the Placebo group, only a minimal DHEA-S reduction (~17 %) was observed. Changes in testosterone followed a similar pattern as DHEA-S. Muscle soreness was elevated significantly on Day 2 for both groups to a similar extent. Lower muscle soreness was observed in the DHEA-supplemented group on Day 3 and Day 6. In the Placebo group, training increased circulating creatine kinase (CK) levels by approximately ninefold, while only a threefold increase was observed in the DHEA-supplemented group. This mix-type exercise training improved glucose tolerance in both groups, while lowering the insulin response to the glucose challenge, but no difference between treatments was observed. Our results suggest that DHEA-S may play a role in protecting skeletal muscle from exercise training-induced muscle damage.

  4. Hepatic and muscle clearance of physostigmine in the rat after i.v. administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somani, S.M.; Unni, L.K.

    1986-01-01

    This study presents a method to calculate the extraction ratio (ER) from in vivo time course of liver metabolism using the physiological and pharmacokinetic parameters such as plasma flow rate, partition coefficient of drug between tissue and plasma and the elimination rate constant from tissues. Rats were administered 3 H-physostigmine (Phy), 100 μg/kg i.v.; and were sacrificed at various times. Tissues were removed and Phy and its metabolites were determined by HPLC. Half-life of Phy in liver and muscle was 24 and 20 min, respectively. ER of Phy in liver was .71 which showed a slight decrease at 10 min. Muscle ER was found to be .347 up to 5 min. Hepatic clearance was calculated to be 23.08 ml/min/kg (34.9% of systemic clearance) and the intrinsic clearance was 83.73 ml/min/kg which indicates that the changes in blood flow to the liver can cause a variation in the systematic clearance. Percentage dose of Phy retained in muscle was maximum and the clearance was 5.2 ml/min/kg suggesting that muscle might be acting as a storage depot for Phy prolonging the pharmacological effects. About 30-40% of radioactivity in the liver could not be washed off by 10% TCA or organic solvents indicating the irreversible binding of drug or metabolite to liver macromolecule

  5. Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen handler om den praksis, vi kalder administration. Vi er i den offentlige sektor i Danmark hos kontorfolkene med deres sagsmapper, computere, telefoner,, lovsamlinger,, retningslinier og regneark. I bogen udfoldes en mangfoldighed af konkrete historier om det administrative arbejde fra...... forskellige områder i den offentlige sektor. Hensigten er at forstå den praksis og faglighed der knytter sig til det administrative arbejde...

  6. Acute interleukin-6 administration does not impair muscle glucose uptake or whole-body glucose disposal in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensberg, Adam; Fischer, Christian P; Sacchetti, Massimo

    2003-01-01

    adrenaline (epinephrine). IL-6 infusion, irrespective of dose, did not result in any changes to endogenous glucose production, whole-body glucose disposal or leg- glucose uptake. These data demonstrate that acute IL-6 administration does not impair whole-body glucose disposal, net leg-glucose uptake......The cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 has recently been linked with type 2 diabetes mellitus and has been suggested to affect glucose metabolism. To determine whether acute IL-6 administration affects whole-body glucose kinetics or muscle glucose uptake, 18 healthy young men were assigned to one of three...... the cessation of infusion (recovery) to determine endogenous glucose production and whole-body glucose disposal. Infusion with HiIL-6 and LoIL-6 resulted in a marked (P

  7. Administration of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen increases macrophage concentrations but reduces necrosis during modified muscle use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, E. V.; Tidball, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that ibuprofen administration during modified muscle use reduces muscle necrosis and invasion by select myeloid cell populations. METHODS: Rats were subjected to hindlimb unloading for 10 days, after which they experienced muscle reloading by normal weight-bearing to induce muscle inflammation and necrosis. Some animals received ibuprofen by intraperitoneal injection 8 h prior to the onset of muscle reloading, and then again at 8 and 16 h following the onset of reloading. Other animals received buffer injection at 8 h prior to reloading and then ibuprofen at 8 and 16 h following the onset of reloading. Control animals received buffer only at each time point. Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis was used to assess the presence of necrotic muscle fibers, total inflammatory infiltrate, neutrophils, ED1+ macrophages and ED2+ macrophages at 24 h following the onset of reloading. RESULT: Administration of ibuprofen beginning 8 h prior to reloading caused significant reduction in the concentration of necrotic fibers, but increased the concentration of inflammatory cells in muscle. The increase in inflammatory cells was attributable to a 2.6-fold increase in the concentration of ED2+ macrophages. Animals treated with ibuprofen 8 h following the onset of reloading showed no decrease in muscle necrosis or increase in ED2+ macrophage concentrations. CONCLUSION: Administration of ibuprofen prior to increased muscle loading reduces muscle damage, but increases the concentration of macrophages that express the ED2 antigen. The increase in ED2+ macrophage concentration and decrease in necrosis may be mechanistically related because ED2+ macrophages have been associated with muscle regeneration and repair.

  8. AICAR administration affects glucose metabolism by upregulating the novel glucose transporter, GLUT8, in equine skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, M A; Robinson, M A; Gruntmeir, K J; Liu, Y; Soma, L R; Lacombe, V A

    2015-09-01

    Equine metabolic syndrome is characterized by obesity and insulin resistance (IR). Currently, there is no effective pharmacological treatment for this insidious disease. Glucose uptake is mediated by a family of glucose transporters (GLUT), and is regulated by insulin-dependent and -independent pathways, including 5-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Importantly, the activation of AMPK, by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) stimulates glucose uptake in both healthy and diabetic humans. However, whether AICAR promotes glucose uptake in horses has not been established. It is hypothesized that AICAR administration would enhance glucose transport in equine skeletal muscle through AMPK activation. In this study, the effect of an intravenous AICAR infusion on blood glucose and insulin concentrations, as well as on GLUT expression and AMPK activation in equine skeletal muscle (quantified by Western blotting) was examined. Upon administration, plasma AICAR rapidly reached peak concentration. Treatment with AICAR resulted in a decrease (P change in lactate concentration. The ratio of phosphorylated to total AMPK was increased (P managing IR requires investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High Fat Diet-Induced Skeletal Muscle Wasting Is Decreased by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Administration: Implications on Oxidative Stress, Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway Activation, and Myonuclear Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Abrigo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity can lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterized by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is a decrease of myofibrillar proteins as a result of ubiquitin proteasome pathway overactivation, as evidenced by increased expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Additionally, other mechanisms are related to muscle wasting, including oxidative stress, myonuclear apoptosis, and autophagy. Stem cells are an emerging therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases such as high fat diet-induced obesity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are a population of self-renewable and undifferentiated cells present in the bone marrow and other mesenchymal tissues of adult individuals. The present study is the first to analyze the effects of systemic MSC administration on high fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in the tibialis anterior of mice. Treatment with MSCs reduced losses of muscle strength and mass, decreases of fiber diameter and myosin heavy chain protein levels, and fiber type transitions. Underlying these antiatrophic effects, MSC administration also decreased ubiquitin proteasome pathway activation, oxidative stress, and myonuclear apoptosis. These results are the first to indicate that systemically administered MSCs could prevent muscle wasting associated with high fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes.

  10. The effect of site (deltoid or gluteus muscle of intramuscular administration of anaesthetic drugs on the course of immobilisation in macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Hess

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of site of intramuscular administration of anaesthetic drugs on the course of immobilisation in macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta. Twenty macaque monkeys were given medetomidine (25 µg·kg-1 and ketamine (3 mg·kg-1 intramuscularly to the deltoid (n = 10 animals or gluteus (n = 10 animals muscles. Behavioural changes, loss of aggressiveness, immobilisation time and cardiorespiratory changes were recorded. The effect of drugs was reversed after 20 min by i.m. administration of atipamezole at the dose of 250 µg·kg-1. Highly significant differences (P < 0.001 were found between groups with gluteal or deltoid administration of drugs on the onset of immobilisation effect (71.3 s and 108.3 s, respectively, and immobilisation time (152.7 s and 254.4 s, respectively. In the gluteus muscle group, the grasp reflex was still present at the beginning of immobilisation and slowly wore off in 15–45 s. The same was valid for muscle tone. There were no differences in cardiorespiratory parameters in any of the groups. Animals of both groups recovered in 3–6 min after atipamezole administration. Administration of drugs to the deltoid muscle resulted in a more rapid onset and increased effect of immobilisation than administration to the gluteus muscle. Both in veterinary and human medicine, injection to the deltoid muscle may be more convenient in all cases, when rapid and more prominent effect is desirable as in premedication before surgery or in emergency medicine. The study is the first to compare the effect of administering drugs to different muscles and the results may improve the practice of intramuscular injections in animals and in humans.

  11. Effects of prolonged recombinant human erythropoietin administration on muscle membrane transport systems and metabolic marker enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, C; Thomsen, J J; Rentsch, R L

    2007-01-01

    on the expression of muscle membrane transport proteins. Likewise, improvements in performance may involve upregulation of metabolic enzymes. Since Epo is known to augment performance we tested the effect of rHuEpo on some marker enzymes that are related to aerobic capacity. For these purposes eight subjects...... performance by approximately 54%. Membrane transport systems and carbonic anhydrases involved in pH regulation remained unchanged. Of the Na(+), K(+)-pump isoforms only the density of the alpha2 subunit was decreased (by 22%) after treatment. The marker enzymes cytochrom c and hexokinase remained unchanged......Adaptations to chronic hypoxia involve changes in membrane transport proteins. The underlying mechanism of this response may be related to concomitant occurring changes in erythropoietin (Epo) levels. We therefore tested the direct effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) treatment...

  12. Effects of acute and 2-week administration of oral salbutamol on exercise performance and muscle strength in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Auchenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate effects of acute and 2-week administration of oral salbutamol on repeated sprint ability, exercise performance, and muscle strength in elite endurance athletes. Twenty male elite athletes [VO2max : 69.4 ± 1.8 (Mean ± SE) mL/min/kg], aged 25.9 ± 1.4 years, were....... deltoideus were measured, followed by three repeated Wingate tests. Exercise performance at 110% of VO2max was determined on a bike ergometer. Acute administration of salbutamol increased peak power during first Wingate test by 4.1 ± 1.7% (P ....05) peak power during first and second Wingate test by 6.4 ± 2.0 and 4.2 ± 1.0%. Neither acute nor 2-week administration of salbutamol had any effect on MVC, exercise performance at 110% of VO2max or on isometric endurance. No differences were observed in the placebo group. In conclusion, salbutamol...

  13. Effect of Peroral Administration of Chromium on Insulin Signaling Pathway in Skeletal Muscle Tissue of Holstein Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Ljubomir; Pantelić, Marija; Prodanović, Radiša; Vujanac, Ivan; Đurić, Miloje; Tepavčević, Snežana; Vranješ-Đurić, Sanja; Korićanac, Goran; Kirovski, Danijela

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of peroral administration of chromium-enriched yeast on glucose tolerance in Holstein calves, assessed by insulin signaling pathway molecule determination and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Twenty-four Holstein calves, aged 1 month, were chosen for the study and divided into two groups: the PoCr group (n = 12) that perorally received 0.04 mg of Cr/kg of body mass daily, for 70 days, and the NCr group (n = 12) that received no chromium supplementation. Skeletal tissue samples from each calf were obtained on day 0 and day 70 of the experiment. Chromium supplementation increased protein content of the insulin β-subunit receptor, phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 at Tyrosine 632, phosphorylation of Akt at Serine 473, glucose transporter-4, and AMP-activated protein kinase in skeletal muscle tissue, while phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 at Serine 307 was not affected by chromium treatment. Results obtained during IVGTT, which was conducted on days 0, 30, 50, and 70, suggested an increased insulin sensitivity and, consequently, a better utilization of glucose in the PoCr group. Lower basal concentrations of glucose and insulin in the PoCr group on days 30 and 70 were also obtained. Our results indicate that chromium supplementation improves glucose utilization in calves by enhancing insulin intracellular signaling in the skeletal muscle tissue.

  14. Chronic administration of a leupeptin-derived calpain inhibitor fails to ameliorate severe muscle pathology in a canine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K Childers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Calpains likely play a role in the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. Accordingly, calpain inhibition may provide therapeutic benefit to DMD patients. In the present study, we sought to measure benefit from administration of a novel calpain inhibitor, C101, in a canine muscular dystrophy model. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that treatment with C101 mitigates progressive weakness and severe muscle pathology observed in young dogs with golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD. Young (6 week-old GRMD dogs were treated daily with either C101 (17mg/kg twice daily oral dose, n=9 or placebo (vehicle only, n=7 for 8 weeks. A battery of functional tests, including tibiotarsal joint angle, muscle/fat composition, and pelvic limb muscle strength were performed at baseline and every two weeks during the 8-week study. Results indicate that C101-treated GRMD dogs maintained strength in their cranial pelvic limb muscles (tibiotarsal flexors while placebo-treated dogs progressively lost strength. However, concomitant improvement was not observed in posterior pelvic limb muscles (tibiotarsal extensors. C101 treatment did not mitigate force drop following repeated eccentric contractions and no improvement was seen in the development of joint contractures, lean muscle mass or muscle histopathology. Taken together, these data do not support the hypothesis that treatment with C101 mitigates progressive weakness or ameliorates severe muscle pathology observed in young dogs with GRMD.

  15. GH administration changes myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle but does not augment muscle strength or hypertrophy, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training in healthy elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Beyer, Nina

    2002-01-01

    GH administration, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training (RT), has attracted interest as a means of increasing muscle mass and strength in the elderly. In the present study, 31 healthy, elderly men [age, 74 +/- 1 yr (mean +/- SEM)] were assigned to either RT [3 sessions/wk, 3...

  16. GH receptor blocker administration and muscle-tendon collagen synthesis in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rie Harboe; Doessing, Simon; Goto, Kazushige

    2011-01-01

    Collagen is the predominant structural protein in tendons and ligaments, and can be controlled by hormonal changes. In animals, injections of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has been shown to increase collagen synthesis in tendons and ligaments and to improve structural tissue healing......, but the effect of local IGF-I administration on tendon collagen synthesis in human has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to study whether local injections of IGF-I would have a stimulating effect on tendon collagen synthesis. Twelve healthy nonsmoking men [age 62 ± 1 years (mean ± SEM), BMI 27 ± 1......] participated. Two injections of either human recombinant IGF-I (0.1 mL Increlex©) or saline (control) into each patellar tendon were performed 24-h apart, respectively. Tendon collagen fractional synthesis rate (FSR) was measured by stable isotope technique in the hours after the second injection...

  17. Nano-Nutrition of Chicken Embryos. The Effect of in Ovo Administration of Diamond Nanoparticles and l-Glutamine on Molecular Responses in Chicken Embryo Pectoral Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Grodzik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that the content of certain amino acids in eggs is not sufficient to fully support embryonic development. One possibility to supply the embryo with extra nutrients and energy is in ovo administration of nutrients. Nanoparticles of diamond are highly biocompatible non-toxic carbonic structures, and we hypothesized that bio-complexes of diamond nanoparticles with l-glutamine may affect molecular responses in breast muscle. The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the effect of diamond nanoparticle (ND and l-glutamine (Gln on expression of growth and differentiation factors of chicken embryo pectoral muscles. ND, Gln, and Gln/ND solutions (50 mg/L were injected into fertilized broiler chicken eggs at the beginning of embryogenesis. Muscle tissue was dissected at day 20 of incubation and analysed for gene expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and MyoD1. ND and especially Gln/ND up-regulated expression of genes related to muscle cell proliferation (FGF2 and differentiation (MyoD1. Furthermore, the ratio between FGF2 and MyoD1 was highest in the Gln/ND group. At the end of embryogenesis, Gln/ND enhanced both proliferation and differentiation of pectoral muscle cells and differentiation dominated over proliferation. These preliminary results suggest that the bio-complex of glutamine and diamond nanoparticles may accelerate growth and maturation of muscle cells.

  18. Skeletal muscle relaxant effect of a standardized extract of Valeriana officinalis L. after acute administration in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Caudal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana officinalis L. root extracts are traditionally taken for their sedative and anxiolytic properties and are also used for muscle relaxation. Relaxant effects were clearly observed on smooth muscle whereas data on effects on skeletal muscle are scarce and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess whether a standardized extract (SE of V. officinalis had myorelaxant effects by decreasing skeletal muscle strength and/or neuromuscular tone in mice. Mice received an acute dose of V. officinalis SE (2 or 5 g/kg per os or tetrazepam (10 mg/kg ip, a standard myorelaxant drug. Thirty minutes later, the maximal muscle strength was measured using a grip test, while global skeletal muscle function (endurance and neuromuscular tone was assessed in a wire hanging test. Compared to tetrazepam, both doses of V. officinalis SE induced a pronounced decrease in skeletal muscle strength without any significant effects on endurance and neuromuscular tone. This study provides clear evidence that the extract of V. officinalis tested has a relaxant effect on skeletal muscle. By decreasing skeletal muscle strength without impacting endurance and neuromuscular tone, V. officinalis SE could induce less undesirable side effects than standard myorelaxant agents, and be particularly useful for avoiding falls in the elderly. Keywords: Valeriana officinalis, Skeletal muscle relaxant, Strength, Hydroethanolic root extract, Acute treatment, Mouse

  19. Muscular hypertrophy and atrophy in normal rats provoked by the administration of normal and denervated muscle extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera, Eduardo; Castilla, Salvador; Luque, Evelio; Jimena, Ignacio; Leiva-Cepas, Fernando; Ruz-Caracuel, Ignacio; Peña, José

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of extracts obtained from both normal and denervated muscles on different muscle types. Wistar rats were used and were divided into a control group and four experimental groups. Each experimental group was treated intraperitoneally during 10 consecutive days with a different extract. These extracts were obtained from normal soleus muscle, denervated soleus, normal extensor digitorum longus, and denervated extensor digitorum longus. Following treatment, the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles were obtained for study under optic and transmission electron microscope; morphometric parameters and myogenic responses were also analyzed. The results demonstrated that the treatment with normal soleus muscle and denervated soleus muscle extracts provoked hypertrophy and increased myogenic activity. In contrast, treatment with extracts from the normal and denervated EDL had a different effect depending on the muscle analyzed. In the soleus muscle it provoked hypertrophy of type I fibers and increased myogenic activity, while in the extensor digitorum longus atrophy of the type II fibers was observed without changes in myogenic activity. This suggests that the muscular responses of atrophy and hypertrophy may depend on different factors related to the muscle type which could be related to innervation.

  20. Responses of skeletal muscle lipid metabolism in rat gastrocnemius to hypothyroidism and iodothyronine administration: a putative role for FAT/CD36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Assunta; De Matteis, Rita; Moreno, Maria; Napolitano, Laura; Busiello, Rosa Anna; Senese, Rosalba; de Lange, Pieter; Lanni, Antonia; Goglia, Fernando

    2012-11-15

    Iodothyronines such as triiodothyronine (T(3)) and 3,5-diiodothyronine (T(2)) influence energy expenditure and lipid metabolism. Skeletal muscle contributes significantly to energy homeostasis, and the above iodothyronines are known to act on this tissue. However, little is known about the cellular/molecular events underlying the effects of T(3) and T(2) on skeletal muscle lipid handling. Since FAT/CD36 is involved in the utilization of free fatty acids by skeletal muscle, specifically in their import into that tissue and presumably their oxidation at the mitochondrial level, we hypothesized that related changes in lipid handling and in FAT/CD36 expression and subcellular redistribution would occur due to hypothyroidism and to T(3) or T(2) administration to hypothyroid rats. In gastrocnemius muscles isolated from hypothyroid rats, FAT/CD36 was upregulated (mRNA levels and total tissue, sarcolemmal, and mitochondrial protein levels). Administration of either T(3) or T(2) to hypothyroid rats resulted in 1) little or no change in FAT/CD36 mRNA level, 2) a decreased total FAT/CD36 protein level, and 3) further increases in FAT/CD36 protein level in sarcolemma and mitochondria. Thus, the main effect of each iodothyronine seemed to be exerted at the level of FAT/CD36 cellular distribution. The effect of further increases in FAT/CD36 protein level in sarcolemma and mitochondria was already evident at 1 h after iodothyronine administration. Each iodothyronine increased the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation rate. However, the mechanisms underlying their rapid effects seem to differ; T(2) and T(3) each induce FAT/CD36 translocation to mitochondria, but only T(2) induces increases in carnitine palmitoyl transferase system activity and in the mitochondrial substrate oxidation rate.

  1. Administration of soluble activin receptor 2B increases bone and muscle mass in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGirolamo, Douglas J.; Singhal, Vandana; Chang, Xiaoli; Lee, Se-Jin; Germain-Lee, Emily L.

    2015-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a group of heritable connective tissue disorders generally defined by recurrent fractures, low bone mass, short stature and skeletal fragility. Beyond the skeletal complications of OI, many patients also report intolerance to physical activity, fatigue and muscle weakness. Indeed, recent studies have demonstrated that skeletal muscle is also negatively affected by OI, both directly and indirectly. Given the well-established interdependence of bone and skeletal muscle in both physiology and pathophysiology and the observations of skeletal muscle pathology in patients with OI, we investigated the therapeutic potential of simultaneous anabolic targeting of both bone and skeletal muscle using a soluble activin receptor 2B (ACVR2B) in a mouse model of type III OI (oim). Treatment of 12-week-old oim mice with ACVR2B for 4 weeks resulted in significant increases in both bone and muscle that were similar to those observed in healthy, wild-type littermates. This proof of concept study provides encouraging evidence for a holistic approach to treating the deleterious consequences of OI in the musculoskeletal system. PMID:26161291

  2. Protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs is enhanced by administration of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Scott M.; El-Kadi, Samer W.; Suryawan, Agus; Boutry, Claire; Orellana, Renán A.; Nguyen, Hanh V.; Davis, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Many low-birth-weight infants experience failure to thrive. The amino acid leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of the neonate, but less is known about the effects of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB). To determine the effects of HMB on protein synthesis and the regulation of translation initiation and degradation pathways, overnight-fasted neonatal pigs were infused with HMB at 0, 20, 100, or 400 μmol·kg body wt−1·h−1 for 1 h (HMB 0, HMB 20, HMB 100, or HMB 400). Plasma HMB concentrations increased with infusion and were 10, 98, 316, and 1,400 nmol/ml in the HMB 0, HMB 20, HMB 100, and HMB 400 pigs. Protein synthesis rates in the longissimus dorsi (LD), gastrocnemius, soleus, and diaphragm muscles, lung, and spleen were greater in HMB 20 than in HMB 0, and in the LD were greater in HMB 100 than in HMB 0. HMB 400 had no effect on protein synthesis. Eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)4E·eIF4G complex formation and ribosomal protein S6 kinase-1 and 4E-binding protein-1 phosphorylation increased in LD, gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles with HMB 20 and HMB 100 and in diaphragm with HMB 20. Phosphorylation of eIF2α and elongation factor 2 and expression of system A transporter (SNAT2), system L transporter (LAT1), muscle RING finger 1 protein (MuRF1), muscle atrophy F-box (atrogin-1), and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3-II) were unchanged. Results suggest that supplemental HMB enhances protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonates by stimulating translation initiation. PMID:24192287

  3. Protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs is enhanced by administration of Beta-hydroxy-Beta-methylbutyrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many low-birth-weight infants experience failure to thrive. The amino acid leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of the neonate, but less is known about the effects of the leucine metabolite Beta-hydroxy-Beta-methylbutyrate (HMB). To determine the effects of HMB on protein synthesi...

  4. Intra-arterial AICA-riboside administration induces NO-dependent vasodilation in vivo in human skeletal muscle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosselaar, M.; Boon, H.; Loon, L.J. van; Broek, P.H.H. van den; Smits, P.; Tack, C.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    In animal models, administration of the adenosine analog AICA-riboside has shown beneficial effects on ischemia-reperfusion injury and glucose homeostasis. The vascular and/or metabolic effects of AICA-riboside administration in humans remain to be established. AICA-riboside was infused

  5. Effect of administration of oral contraceptives in vivo on collagen synthesis in tendon and muscle connective tissue in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M; Miller, B F; Holm, L

    2009-01-01

    concentrations of estradiol and progesterone (control, n = 12). Subjects performed 1 h of one-legged kicking exercise. The next day collagen fractional synthesis rates (FSR) in tendon and muscle connective tissue were measured after a flooding dose of [(13)C]proline followed by biopsies from the patellar tendon......, body composition, and exercise-training status were included. The two groups were either habitual users of oral contraceptives exposed to a high concentration of synthetic estradiol and progestogens (OC, n = 11), or non-OC-users tested in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle characterized by low...... bioavailability of IGF-I in OC. In conclusion, synthetic female sex hormones administered as OC had an inhibiting effect on collagen synthesis in tendon, bone, and muscle connective tissue, which may be related to a lower bioavailability of IGF-I....

  6. Systemic Administration of Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecule-3 Protects the Skeletal Muscle in Porcine Model of Compartment Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Aurelia; Cepinskas, Gediminas; Sanders, David; Lawendy, Abdel-Rahman

    2018-05-01

    Acute limb compartment syndrome, a complication of musculoskeletal trauma, results in muscle necrosis and cell death. Carbon monoxide, liberated from the carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3, has been shown protective in a rat model of compartment syndrome. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3 in a preclinical large animal model of compartment syndrome, with the ultimate goal of developing a pharmacologic adjunct treatment for compartment syndrome. Animal research study. Basic research laboratory in a hospital setting. Male Yorkshire-Landrace pigs (50-60 kg). Pigs underwent 6 hours of intracompartmental pressure elevation by infusing fluid into the anterior compartment of the right hind limb. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3 was administered systemically (2 mg/kg, IV) at fasciotomy, followed by 3-hour reperfusion. Muscle perfusion, inflammation, injury, and apoptosis were assessed in the skeletal muscle. Systemic leukocyte activation was assessed during compartment syndrome and reperfusion. Elevation of hind limb intracompartmental pressure resulted in significant microvascular perfusion deficits (44% ± 1% continuously perfused capillaries in compartment syndrome vs 76% ± 4% in sham; p molecule-3 at fasciotomy increased the number of continuously perfused capillaries (68% ± 3%; p molecule-3 at fasciotomy offered protection against compartment syndrome-induced microvascular perfusion deficit, tissue injury, and systemic leukocyte activation. The data suggest the potential therapeutic application of carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3 to patients at risk of developing compartment syndrome.

  7. Protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs is enhanced by administration of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate

    OpenAIRE

    Wheatley, Scott M.; El-Kadi, Samer W.; Suryawan, Agus; Boutry, Claire; Orellana, Renán A.; Nguyen, Hanh V.; Davis, Steven R.; Davis, Teresa A.

    2013-01-01

    Many low-birth-weight infants experience failure to thrive. The amino acid leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of the neonate, but less is known about the effects of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB). To determine the effects of HMB on protein synthesis and the regulation of translation initiation and degradation pathways, overnight-fasted neonatal pigs were infused with HMB at 0, 20, 100, or 400 μmol·kg body wt−1·h−1 for 1 h (HMB 0, HMB 20, HMB 100, ...

  8. Neuroblast survival depends on mature vascular network formation after mouse stroke: role of endothelial and smooth muscle progenitor cell co-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nih, Lina R; Deroide, Nicolas; Leré-Déan, Carole; Lerouet, Dominique; Soustrat, Mathieu; Levy, Bernard I; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Merkulova-Rainon, Tatiana; Pocard, Marc; Margaill, Isabelle; Kubis, Nathalie

    2012-04-01

    Pro-angiogenic cell-based therapies constitute an interesting and attractive approach to enhancing post-stroke neurogenesis and decreasing neurological deficit. However, most new stroke-induced neurons die during the first few weeks after ischemia, thus impairing total recovery. Although the neovascularization process involves different cell types and various growth factors, most cell therapy protocols are based on the biological effects of single-cell-type populations or on the administration of heterogeneous populations of progenitors, namely human cord blood-derived CD34(+) cells, with scarce vascular progenitor cells. Tight cooperation between endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells/pericytes is critical for the development of functional neovessels. We hypothesized that neuroblast survival in stroke brain depends on mature vascular network formation. In this study, we injected a combination of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs), isolated from human umbilical cord blood, into a murine model of permanent focal ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. The co-administration of SMPCs and EPCs induced enhanced angiogenesis and vascular remodeling in the peri-infarct and infarct areas, where vessels exhibited a more mature phenotype. This activation of vessel growth resulted in the maintenance of neurogenesis and neuroblast migration to the peri-ischemic cortex. Our data suggest that a mature vascular network is essential for neuroblast survival after cerebral ischemia, and that co-administration of EPCs and SMPCs may constitute a novel therapeutic strategy for improving the treatment of stroke. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Schisandrae Fructus Supplementation Ameliorates Sciatic Neurectomy-Induced Muscle Atrophy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Wan Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the possible beneficial skeletal muscle preserving effects of ethanol extract of Schisandrae Fructus (EESF on sciatic neurectomy- (NTX- induced hindlimb muscle atrophy in mice. Here, calf muscle atrophy was induced by unilateral right sciatic NTX. In order to investigate whether administration of EESF prevents or improves sciatic NTX-induced muscle atrophy, EESF was administered orally. Our results indicated that EESF dose-dependently diminished the decreases in markers of muscle mass and activity levels, and the increases in markers of muscle damage and fibrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, cytokines, and apoptotic events in the gastrocnemius muscle bundles are induced by NTX. Additionally, destruction of gastrocnemius antioxidant defense systems after NTX was dose-dependently protected by treatment with EESF. EESF also upregulated muscle-specific mRNAs involved in muscle protein synthesis but downregulated those involved in protein degradation. The overall effects of 500 mg/kg EESF were similar to those of 50 mg/kg oxymetholone, but it showed more favorable antioxidant effects. The present results suggested that EESF exerts a favorable ameliorating effect on muscle atrophy induced by NTX, through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects related to muscle fiber protective effects and via an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation.

  10. Schisandrae Fructus Supplementation Ameliorates Sciatic Neurectomy-Induced Muscle Atrophy in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Wan; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Kim, Ki Young; Kim, Sung Goo; Han, Min Ho; Kim, Gi-Young; Hwang, Hye Jin; Kim, Byung Woo; Kim, Cheol Min

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the possible beneficial skeletal muscle preserving effects of ethanol extract of Schisandrae Fructus (EESF) on sciatic neurectomy- (NTX-) induced hindlimb muscle atrophy in mice. Here, calf muscle atrophy was induced by unilateral right sciatic NTX. In order to investigate whether administration of EESF prevents or improves sciatic NTX-induced muscle atrophy, EESF was administered orally. Our results indicated that EESF dose-dependently diminished the decreases in markers of muscle mass and activity levels, and the increases in markers of muscle damage and fibrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, cytokines, and apoptotic events in the gastrocnemius muscle bundles are induced by NTX. Additionally, destruction of gastrocnemius antioxidant defense systems after NTX was dose-dependently protected by treatment with EESF. EESF also upregulated muscle-specific mRNAs involved in muscle protein synthesis but downregulated those involved in protein degradation. The overall effects of 500 mg/kg EESF were similar to those of 50 mg/kg oxymetholone, but it showed more favorable antioxidant effects. The present results suggested that EESF exerts a favorable ameliorating effect on muscle atrophy induced by NTX, through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects related to muscle fiber protective effects and via an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation. PMID:26064425

  11. Administration of exercise-conditioned plasma alters muscle catalase kinetics in rat: An argument for in vivo-like Km instead of in vitro-like Vmax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristidis S. Veskoukis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Maximal velocity (Vmax is a well established biomarker for the assessment of tissue redox status. There is scarce evidence, though, that it does not probably reflect sufficiently in vivo tissue redox profile. Instead, the Michaelis constant (Km could more adequately image tissue oxidative stress and, thus, be a more physiologically relevant redox biomarker. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to side-by-side compare Vmax and Km of an antioxidant enzyme after implementing an in vivo set up that induces alterations in tissue redox status. Forty rats were divided into two groups including rats injected with blood plasma originating from rats that had previously swam until exhaustion and rats injected with blood plasma originating from sedentary rats. Tail-vein injections were performed daily for 21 days. Catalase Vmax and Km measured in gastrocnemius muscle were increased after administration of the exercise-conditioned plasma, denoting enhancement of the enzyme activity but impairment of its affinity for the substrate, respectively. These alterations are potential adaptations stimulated by the administered plasma pointing out that blood is an active fluid capable of regulating tissue homeostasis. Our findings suggest that Km adequately reflects in vivo modifications of skeletal muscle catalase and seems to surpass Vmax regarding its physiological relevance and biological interpretation. In conclusion, Km can be regarded as an in vivo-like biomarker that satisfactorily images the intracellular environment, as compared to Vmax that could be aptly parallelized with a biomarker that describes tissue oxidative stress in an in vitro manner.

  12. Recommended oral sodium bicarbonate administration for urine alkalinization did not affect the concentration of mitomycin-C in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ho Kyung; Kim, Sung Han; Ahn, Kyung-Ohk; Lee, Sang-Jin; Park, Weon Seo; Kim, Sohee; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Do Hoon; Joung, Jae Young; Chung, Jinsoo; Joo, Jungnam; Jeong, Kyung-Chae

    2017-11-10

    Sodium bicarbonate has been reported to maximize the efficacy of intravesical instillation of mitomycin-C (IVI-MMC) therapy by urine alkalinization in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). This study aimed to analyze the changes in MMC concentration according to urinary pH and evaluate the efficacy of sodium bicarbonate to maintain the concentration of active form of MMC during IVI-MMC. We prospectively enrolled 26 patients with NMIBC after transurethral resection of bladder tumor. Patients with very high-risk and low-risk NMIBC were excluded. Urinary creatinine, volume, pH, and concentrations of MMC and its degraded form were measured immediately before and after IVI-MMC. The patients were administered 1.5 g of oral sodium bicarbonate during the preceding evening, in the morning, and immediately before the fourth cycle of the six-cycle IVI-MMC. The correlation between MMC concentration and urinary pH changes was explored with or without oral bicarbonate therapy. Recurrence without progression to muscle-invasive disease was noted in 4 of 26 patients in a 23.7-month follow-up. The mean urinary pH before and after the therapy increased from 6.03 to 6.50, and 6.46 to 7.24, without or with oral SB therapy, respectively. Despite this increase, the concentration of active form of MMC did not change significantly. No correlation was found between urinary pH and MMC concentration. Urine alkalinization by SB administration did not maintain the high concentration of urinary MMC. Urine alkalinization by sodium bicarbonate administration for IVI-MMC did not maintain the high concentration of active urinary MMC in NMIBC.

  13. Administration of exercise-conditioned plasma alters muscle catalase kinetics in rat: An argument for in vivo-like Km instead of in vitro-like Vmax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Paschalis, Vassilis; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G

    2018-05-01

    Maximal velocity (V max ) is a well established biomarker for the assessment of tissue redox status. There is scarce evidence, though, that it does not probably reflect sufficiently in vivo tissue redox profile. Instead, the Michaelis constant (K m ) could more adequately image tissue oxidative stress and, thus, be a more physiologically relevant redox biomarker. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to side-by-side compare V max and K m of an antioxidant enzyme after implementing an in vivo set up that induces alterations in tissue redox status. Forty rats were divided into two groups including rats injected with blood plasma originating from rats that had previously swam until exhaustion and rats injected with blood plasma originating from sedentary rats. Tail-vein injections were performed daily for 21 days. Catalase V max and K m measured in gastrocnemius muscle were increased after administration of the exercise-conditioned plasma, denoting enhancement of the enzyme activity but impairment of its affinity for the substrate, respectively. These alterations are potential adaptations stimulated by the administered plasma pointing out that blood is an active fluid capable of regulating tissue homeostasis. Our findings suggest that K m adequately reflects in vivo modifications of skeletal muscle catalase and seems to surpass V max regarding its physiological relevance and biological interpretation. In conclusion, K m can be regarded as an in vivo-like biomarker that satisfactorily images the intracellular environment, as compared to V max that could be aptly parallelized with a biomarker that describes tissue oxidative stress in an in vitro manner. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Gold nanoparticles administration induces disarray of heart muscle, hemorrhagic, chronic inflammatory cells infiltrated by small lymphocytes, cytoplasmic vacuolization and congested and dilated blood vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhalim Mohamed Anwar K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite significant research efforts on cancer therapy, diagnostics and imaging, many challenges remain unsolved. There are many unknown details regarding the interaction of nanoparticles (NPs and biological systems. The structure and properties of gold nanoparticles (GNPs make them useful for a wide array of biological applications. However, for the application of GNPs in therapy and drug delivery, knowledge regarding their bioaccumulation and associated local or systemic toxicity is necessary. Information on the biological fate of NPs, including distribution, accumulation, metabolism, and organ specific toxicity is still minimal. Studies specifically dealing with the toxicity of NPs are rare. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of intraperitoneal administration of GNPs on histological alterations of the heart tissue of rats in an attempt to identify and understand the toxicity and the potential role of GNPs as a therapeutic and diagnostic tool. Methods A total of 40 healthy male Wistar-Kyoto rats received 50 μl infusions of 10, 20 and 50 nm GNPs for 3 or 7 days. Animals were randomly divided into groups: 6 GNP-treated rats groups and one control group (NG. Groups 1, 2 and 3 received infusions of 50 μl GNPs of size 10 nm (3 or 7 days, 20 nm (3 or 7 days and 50 nm (3 or 7 days, respectively. Results In comparison with the respective control rats, exposure to GNPs doses produced heart muscle disarray with a few scattered chronic inflammatory cells infiltrated by small lymphocytes, foci of hemorrhage with extravasation of red blood cells, some scattered cytoplasmic vacuolization and congested and dilated blood vessels. None of the above alterations were observed in the heart muscle of any member of the control group. Conclusions The alterations induced by intraperitoneal administration of GNPs were size-dependent, with smaller ones inducing greater affects, and were also related to the time exposure to

  15. Intravenous maternal -arginine administration to twin-bearing ewes, during late pregnancy, is associated with increased fetal muscle mTOR abundance and postnatal growth in twin female lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, F; Sciascia, Q; van der Linden, D S; Wards, N J; Oliver, M H; McCoard, S A

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether parenteral Arg administered to well-fed twin-bearing ewes from 100 to 140 d of pregnancy influences fetal skeletal muscle growth, the abundance and activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein, and postnatal muscle growth of the offspring. Ewes fed 100% of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements for twin-bearing ewes were administered an intravenous bolus of either 345 μmol Arg HCl/kg BW or saline solution (Control) 3 times per day. At 140 d of pregnancy (P140), a group of 11 Control and 9 Arg-treated ewes were euthanized and hind leg muscles and longissimus dorsi (LD) were excised and weighed. A sample of LD was snap frozen in liquid nitrogen for later analysis of free AA (FAA) concentration, mTOR abundance and phosphorylation, and biochemical indices (DNA, RNA, and protein content). For the remaining 25 ewes (Arg, = 13, and Control, = 12), Arg administration was continued until the initiation of parturition and ewes were allowed to lamb. Lambs were weaned at postnatal Day 82 and grazed on pasture until postnatal day 153 (PN153), when a subset of 20 lambs ( = 10 per group) was euthanized. At P140, only the psoas major was heavier in the Arg-administered group compared with the Control group. Female lambs from ewes supplemented with Arg (Arg-F) had increased abundance of total mTOR, RNA concentration, and RNA:DNA ratio in LD compared with female lambs from Control ewes (Con-F), whereas males did not differ. At PN153, Arg-F were heavier than Con-F and had heavier LD and plantaris and a trend for heavier psoas major muscles compared with Con-F. In contrast, BW and individual muscle weights did not differ in male lambs. Lambs from Arg-treated ewes had heavier semimembranosus and tended to have heavier biceps femoris compared with Control lambs. The RNA concentration in LD was greater in Arg-F compared with Con-F, and DNA concentration was greater in the Arg group compared with the Control group. In

  16. GH signaling in human adipose and muscle tissue during 'feast and famine': amplification of exercise stimulation following fasting compared to glucose administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendelbo, Mikkel H; Christensen, Britt; Grønbæk, Solbritt B; Høgild, Morten; Madsen, Michael; Pedersen, Steen B; Jørgensen, Jens O L; Jessen, Niels; Møller, Niels

    2015-09-01

    Fasting and exercise stimulates, whereas glucose suppresses GH secretion, but it is uncertain how these conditions impact GH signaling in peripheral tissues. To test the original 'feast and famine hypothesis' by Rabinowitz and Zierler, according to which the metabolic effects of GH are predominant during fasting, we specifically hypothesized that fasting and exercise act in synergy to increase STAT-5b target gene expression. Eight healthy men were studied on two occasions in relation to a 1 h exercise bout: i) with a concomitant i.v. glucose infusion ('feast') and ii) after a 36 h fast ('famine'). Muscle and fat biopsy specimens were obtained before, immediately after, and 30 min after exercise. GH increased during exercise on both examination days and this effect was amplified by fasting, and free fatty acid (FFA) levels increased after fasting. STAT-5b phosphorylation increased similarly following exercise on both occasions. In adipose tissue, suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and SOCS2 were increased after exercise on the fasting day and both fasting and exercise increased cytokine inducible SH2-containing protein (CISH). In muscle, SOCS2 and CISH mRNA were persistently increased after fasting. Muscle SOCS1, SOCS3, and CISH mRNA expression increased, whereas SOCS2 decreased after exercise on both examination days. This study demonstrates that fasting and exercise act in tandem to amplify STAT-5b target gene expression (SOCS and CISH) in adipose and muscle tissue in accordance with the 'feast and famine hypothesis'; the adipose tissue signaling responses, which hitherto have not been scrutinized, may play a particular role in promoting FFA mobilization. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  17. Skeletal muscle lymphoma: observations at MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eustace, S.; Winalski, C.S.; McGowen, A.; Lan, H.; Dorfman, D.

    1996-01-01

    We present the MR appearances of three patients with biopsy-proven primary lymphoma of skeletal muscle. In each case lymphoma resulted in bulky expansion of the involved muscle, homogeneously isointense to skeletal muscle on T1-weighted images, homogeneously hyperintense to skeletal muscle on T2-weighted images and diffusely enhancing following intravenous administration of gadopentate dimeglumine. (orig.)

  18. When and why are reliable organizations favored?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethiraj, Sendil; Yi, Sangyoon

    of the ensuing work examined only corollary implications of this observation. We treat the observation as a research question and ask: when and why are reliable organizations favored by evolutionary forces? Using a simple theoretical model, we direct attention at a minimal set of variables that are implicated...... shocks, reliable organizations can in fact outperform their less reliable counterparts if they can take advantage of the knowledge resident in their historical choices. While these results are counter-intuitive, the caveat is that our results are only an existence proof for our theory rather than...

  19. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  20. Muscle Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talk to your provider about the risks and benefits of medicines. How can I prevent muscle cramps? To prevent muscle cramps, you can Stretch your muscles, especially before exercising. If you often get leg cramps at night, ...

  1. The relationship between rate of administration of an intubating dose of rocuronium and time to 50% and 90% block at the adductor pollicis muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haes, A; Eleveld, DJ; Wierda, JMKH

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To determine the relationship between the rate of rocuronium injection and the onset time of neuromuscular block. Methods.After intravenous induction, 60 female patients (ASA I-II) were assigned randomly into 3 groups for rocuronium administration within 1-15, 15-30 or 30-60 seconds.

  2. Appeals court reverses verdict favoring drug companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-02

    An appeals court reversed a verdict favoring drug companies after the widow of a hemophiliac, whose death was linked to HIV-tainted blood products, sued four pharmaceutical companies to pay damages. The four companies, Alpha Therapeutic Corp., Miles Laboratories Inc., Armour Pharmaceutical Co., and Baxter Travenol Laboratories Inc., provided Factor VIII, a clotting concentrate, to [name removed] [name removed], the plaintiff's husband, from 1972 until his death in 1987. [Name removed]'s wife sued the companies, alleging that the defendants negligently solicited blood plasma from paid donors who had a high risk of having HIV, failed to determine whether any lots of Factor VIII contained plasma from an at-risk donor, failed to warn consumers of possible risks, and failed to heat-treat HIV and other viruses in Factor VIII, despite industry-wide knowledge of the risk of infection. The three-judge panel said the trial judge's decision to avoid ruling on the antigenic stimulation theory, based on insufficient evidence, was improper. In addition, the appeals court said a retrial is necessary because of improper remarks made by Alpha's attorney.

  3. EFFECT OF USE OF BONE-MARROW CENTRIFUGATE ON MUSCLE INJURY TREATMENT: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Daniel Ferreira Fernandes; Guarniero, Roberto; Vaz, Carlos Eduardo Sanches; de Santana, Paulo José

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bone-marrow centrifugate on the healing of muscle injuries in rabbits. Methods: This experimental study involved use of fifteen adult male New Zealand White rabbits. Each animal received a transverse lesion in the middle of the right tibialis anterior muscle, to which an absorbable collagen sponge, soaked in a centrifugate of bone marrow aspirate from the ipsilateral iliac bone, was added. The left hind limb was used as a control and underwent the same injury, but in this case only the absorbable collagen sponge. Thirty days later, the animals were sacrificed to study the muscle healing. These muscle areas were subjected to histological analysis with histomorphometry, with the aim of measuring the number of muscle cells per square micrometer undergoing regeneration and the proportion of resultant fibrosis. Results: The centrifugation method used in this study resulted in an average concentration of nucleated cells greater than the number of these cells in original aspirates, without causing significant cell destruction. Addition of the bone marrow centrifugate did not result in any significant increase in the number of muscle cells undergoing regeneration, in relation to the control group. There was also no significant difference in the proportion of resultant fibrosis, compared with the control group. Conclusion: Administration of the bone marrow centrifugate used in this study did not favor healing of muscle injuries in rabbits. PMID:27047832

  4. Potential therapeutic strategies for non - muscle invasive bladder cancer based on association of intravesical immunotherapy with p - mapa and systemic administration of cisplatin and doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Queila Cristina; Nunes, Iseu da Silva; Garcia, Patrick Vianna; Favaro, Wagner Jose

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the histopathological and molecular effects of P-MAPA (Protein aggregate magnesium-ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride) intravesical immunotherapy combined with systemic doxorubicin or cisplatin for treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) in an appropriate animal model. Our results showed an undifferentiated tumor, characterizing a tumor invading mucosa or submucosa of the bladder wall (pT1) and papillary carcinoma in situ (pTa) in the Cancer group. The histopathological changes were similar between the combined treatment with intravesical P-MAPA plus systemic Cisplatin and P-MAPA immunotherapy alone, showing decrease of urothelial neoplastic lesions progression and histopathological recovery in 80% of the animals. The animals treated systemically with cisplatin or doxorubicin singly, showed 100% of malignant lesions in the urinary bladder. Furthemore, the combined treatment with P-MAPA and Doxorubicin showed no decrease of urothelial neoplastic lesions progression and histopathological recovery. Furthermore, Akt, PI3K, NF-kB and VEGF protein levels were significantly lower in intravesical P-MAPA plus systemic cisplatin and in intravesical P-MAPA alone treatments than other groups. In contrast, PTEN protein levels were significantly higher in intravesical P-MAPA plus systemic cisplatin and in intravesical P-MAPA alone treatments. Thus, it could be concluded that combination of intravesical P-MAPA immunotherapy and systemic cisplatin in the NMIBC animal model was effective, well tolerated and showed no apparent signs of antagonism between the drugs. In addition, intravesical P-MAPA immunotherapy may be considered as a valuable option for treatment of BCG unresponsive patients that unmet the criteria for early cystectomy. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  5. Great Basin geologic framework and uranium favorability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, L.T.; Beal, L.H.

    1978-01-01

    Work on this report has been done by a team of seven investigators assisted over the project span by twenty-three undergraduate and graduate students from May 18, 1976 to August 19, 1977. The report is presented in one volume of text, one volume or Folio of Maps, and two volumes of bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 5300 references on geologic subjects pertinent to the search for uranium in the Great Basin. Volume I of the bibliography lists articles by author alphabetically and Volume II cross-indexes these articles by location and key word. Chapters I through IV of the Text volume and accompanying Folio Map Sets 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, discuss the relationship of uranium to rock and structural environments which dominate the Great Basin. Chapter 5 and Map Sets 6 and 7 provide a geochemical association/metallogenic grouping of mineral occurrences in the Great Basin along with information on rock types hosting uranium. Chapter VI summarizes the results of a court house claim record search for 'new' claiming areas for uranium, and Chapter VII along with Folio Map Set 8 gives all published geochronological data available through April 1, 1977 on rocks of the Great Basin. Chapter VIII provides an introduction to a computer analysis of characteristics of certain major uranium deposits in crystalline rocks (worldwide) and is offered as a suggestion of what might be done with uranium in all geologic environments. We believe such analysis will assist materially in constructing exploration models. Chapter IX summarizes criteria used and conclusions reached as to the favorability of uranium environments which we believe to exist in the Great Basin and concludes with recommendations for both exploration and future research. A general summary conclusion is that there are several geologic environments within the Great Basin which have considerable potential and that few, if any, have been sufficiently tested

  6. Expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor and Her-2 are predictors of favorable outcome and reduced complete response rates, respectively, in patients with muscle-invading bladder cancers treated by concurrent radiation and cisplatin-based chemotherapy: A report from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, Arnab; Winter, Kathryn M.S.; Wu, C.-L.; Kaufman, Donald; Hammond, Elizabeth; Parliament, Matthew; Tester, William; Hagan, Michael; Grignon, David; Heney, Niall; Pollack, Alan; Sandler, Howard; Shipley, William

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Erb-1 (epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR) and Erb-2 (Her-2) are two of the best characterized members in the EGFR pathway. In many tumor types, overexpression of these proteins is associated with enhanced malignant potential. Our objective in this study was to investigate the clinical relevance of EGFR and Her-2 expression in bladder cancer cases from four prospective Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) bladder preservation trials using cisplatin-containing chemoradiation (RTOG 8802, 8903, 9506, and 9706). Methods and materials: Tumors from 73 cases from patients with muscle-invading T2-T4a bladder cancers had slides interpretable for EGFR staining; 55 cases had slides interpretable for Her-2 staining. Additionally, the respective prognostic values of p53, pRB, and p16 immunostaining were concomitantly examined. Staining and interpretation of staining were done in a blinded manner, without knowledge of clinical outcome. Staining was judged as positive or negative. Subsequently, staining was correlated with clinical outcome. Results: On univariate analysis, EGFR positivity was significantly associated with improved overall survival (p = 0.044); disease-specific survival (DSS) (p = 0.042); and DSS with intact bladder (p = 0.021). There was also a trend for association between EGFR expression and reduced frequency of distant metastasis (p = 0.06). On multivariate analysis adding tumor stage, tumor grade, whether a visibly complete transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) was done or not, and patient age to the model, EGFR positivity was significantly associated with improved DSS. On univariate analysis, Her-2 positivity was significantly associated with reduced complete response (CR) rates (50% vs. 81%, p = 0.026) after chemoradiation which remained significant on multivariate analysis. The other markers examined in this study were not found to have any prognostic value in this setting. Conclusion: Epidermal growth factor receptor expression

  7. 12 CFR 560.110 - Most favored lender usury preemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Most favored lender usury preemption. 560.110... INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Provisions Applicable to all Savings Associations § 560.110 Most favored... permits its most favored lender to charge late fees, then a savings association located in that state may...

  8. 11 CFR 7.20 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gifts, entertainment, and favors. 7.20 Section... of Special Commission Employees § 7.20 Gifts, entertainment, and favors. Except as provided at 11 CFR... a gift, gratuity, loan, entertainment, or favor for himself or herself, or for another person...

  9. Muscle Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  10. Reaching the limits of reciprocity in favor exchange: The effects of generous, stingy, and matched favor giving on social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Kan; Xu, Erica; Huang, Xu; Liu, Wu; Tang, Yipeng

    2018-06-01

    Group members gain social status via giving favors to others, but why and when they do so remain unclear in the literature. Building on social exchange theory and social status literature, we identify three types of favor giving among group members (generous, stingy, and matched) and propose that an affective mechanism (i.e., gratitude) and a cognitive mechanism (i.e., perceived competence) underlie the relationship between favor giving and status attainment. Specifically, generous/stingy favor giving has a linear relationship with status attainment through both gratitude and perceived competence, whereas matched favor giving has a curvilinear relationship with status attainment only through perceived competence. An experimental study and a field study lend support to our propositions. Our study complements the literature by offering a complete picture of how three types of favor giving among group members shape their social status in different ways. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Your Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and you need to throw up. The muscles push the food back out of the stomach so it comes up ... body the power it needs to lift and push things. Muscles in your neck and the top part of your back aren't as large, but they are capable ...

  12. Autoras africanas: A favor de las mujeres=African authors: In favor of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Socorro Suárez Lafuente

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La cultura occidental produce binomios de poder fuertemente inscritos en el lenguaje y el imaginario colectivo. Las subversiones aparecen primero en la zona dominante, como el feminismo, que se extiende, posteriormente, a otros feminismos, igualmente lógicos y reivindicativos, pero con menos capacidad de visibilización en un mundo globalizado. Las mujeres de grupos minorizados que han conseguido acceder a la educación han levantado sus voces y utilizado su potencial creativo a favor de las silenciadas de su cultura, a las que no alcanzaban el feminismo blanco occidental. Amma Darko, Bessie Head y Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie son algunos de los nombres que encabezan un movimiento africano feminista, que prioriza la libertad individual de las mujeres y les hace sentirse orgullosas de ser africanas.   Abstract Western culture produces binaries of power that are deeply inscribed both in language and in the collective imaginarium. Subversions tend to appear in the more affluent class, as is the case with feminism, which later extend to other feminisms, equally important and vindicatory, but with fewer opportunities to become visible within a globalized world. Many women from minoritized groups have had access to education, have been able to use their creative force and have become the voice of many silent women who were not included in the successive waves of Western feminisms. Amma Darko, Bessie Head and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie are but a few names at the forefront of African feminism, a movement that fights for the individual rights of women and makes them feel proud of their Africanism.

  13. Coding in Muscle Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lyell K; Ney, John P

    2016-12-01

    Accurate coding is critically important for clinical practice and research. Ongoing changes to diagnostic and billing codes require the clinician to stay abreast of coding updates. Payment for health care services, data sets for health services research, and reporting for medical quality improvement all require accurate administrative coding. This article provides an overview of administrative coding for patients with muscle disease and includes a case-based review of diagnostic and Evaluation and Management (E/M) coding principles in patients with myopathy. Procedural coding for electrodiagnostic studies and neuromuscular ultrasound is also reviewed.

  14. Why Koreans are More Likely to Favor "Apology," While Americans are More Likely to Favor "Thank You"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Eun; Park, Hee Sun

    2011-01-01

    Two studies investigated whether apologies or thanks are preferred in asking favors in the United States and Korea, and how this relates to perceptions of reduction in positive and negative face threats. In the first study (n = 224), participants composed an e-mail message where a favor was asked. In the second (n = 807), participants completed…

  15. Muscle cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower leg/calf Back of the thigh (hamstrings) Front of the thigh (quadriceps) Cramps in the ... Names Cramps - muscle Images Chest stretch Groin stretch Hamstring stretch Hip stretch Thigh stretch Triceps stretch References ...

  16. Muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People who cannot actively move one or more joints can do exercises using braces or splints . When ... A.M. Editorial team. Muscle Disorders Read more Neuromuscular Disorders Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more ...

  17. Association mapping and favorable QTL alleles for fiber quality traits ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A total of 201 markers were polymorphic and generated 394 ... identified favorable QTL alleles and typical accessions for fiber quality are excellent genetic resources for future cotton .... Field management followed respective local practices.

  18. [Biological and social correlates of favorable and unfavorable neurosis course].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsembaev, K T

    2003-01-01

    Four hundred ninety seven patients with neurosis of Astana (Kazakhstan) community, 116 men and 381 women, have been studied. The patients were traced in 5-year follow up study. Favorable and unfavorable types of the disorder were established, the latter being characterized by transforming into neurotic personality development. The influence of endogenous and environmental factors on neurosis prognosis was examined. To elaborate adequate measures for preventing neurotic personality development, criteria for favorable and unfavorable prognosis of neurotic disorders were suggested.

  19. Promising reciprocity: When proposing a favor for a request increases compliance even if the favor is not accepted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas; Meineri, Sébastien; Ruiz, Clément; Pascual, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Research has reported that reciprocity is an important social norm in relationships. In previous studies on reciprocity, participants' behavior was examined after receiving a favor from someone. In a series of field studies, we examined the effect of a statement that proved that a solicitor was someone who respected this principle. Confederates solicited participants for money or a cigarette in exchange for stamps or money, respectively. It was found that the participants complied more readily with the request in the promised favor condition, but most of them refused to take the promised favor. We conclude that individuals were led to help those who respected the putative norm of reciprocity in their social interaction.

  20. Woman skeletal muscle transcriptome with bed rest and countermeasures.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microgravity has a dramatic impact on human physiology illustrated in particular with skeletal muscle impairment. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms leading...

  1. Favorability for uranium in tertiary sedimentary rocks, southwestern Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wopat, M.A.; Curry, W.E.; Robins, J.W.; Marjaniemi, D.K.

    1977-10-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the basins of southwestern Montana were studied to determine their favorability for potential uranium resources. Uranium in the Tertiary sedimentary rocks was probably derived from the Boulder batholith and from silicic volcanic material. The batholith contains numerous uranium occurrences and is the most favorable plutonic source for uranium in the study area. Subjective favorability categories of good, moderate, and poor, based on the number and type of favorable criteria present, were used to classify the rock sequences studied. Rocks judged to have good favorability for uranium deposits are (1) Eocene and Oligocene strata and undifferentiated Tertiary rocks in the western Three Forks basin and (2) Oligocene rocks in the Helena basin. Rocks having moderate favorability consist of (1) Eocene and Oligocene strata in the Jefferson River, Beaverhead River, and lower Ruby River basins, (2) Oligocene rocks in the Townsend and Clarkston basins, (3) Miocene and Pliocene rocks in the Upper Ruby River basin, and (4) all Tertiary sedimentary formations in the eastern Three Forks basin, and in the Grasshopper Creek, Horse Prairie, Medicine Lodge Creek, Big Sheep Creek, Deer Lodge, Big Hole River, and Bull Creek basins. The following have poor favorability: (1) the Beaverhead Conglomerate in the Red Rock and Centennial basins, (2) Eocene and Oligocene rocks in the Upper Ruby River basin, (3) Miocene and Pliocene rocks in the Townsend, Clarkston, Smith River, and Divide Creek basins, (4) Miocene through Pleistocene rocks in the Jefferson River, Beaverhead River, and Lower Ruby River basins, and (5) all Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the Boulder River, Sage Creek, Muddy Creek, Madison River, Flint Creek, Gold Creek, and Bitterroot basins

  2. Administrating Solr

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, Surendra

    2013-01-01

    A fast-paced, example-based guide to learning how to administrate, monitor, and optimize Apache Solr.""Administrating Solr"" is for developers and Solr administrators who have a basic knowledge of Solr and who are looking for ways to keep their Solr server healthy and well maintained. A basic working knowledge of Apache Lucene is recommended, but this is not mandatory.

  3. Administrative Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  4. Administrative Circulars

    CERN Document Server

    Département des Ressources humaines

    2004-01-01

    Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 2) - May 2004 Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff members This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 3) - May 2004 Staff members contracts This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 4) - May 2004 Procedure governing the career evolution of staff members This circular has also been revised. It Administrative Circulars Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 3) - December 2001 and brings up to date the French version (Rev. 4) published on the HR Department Web site in January 2004. Operational Circular N° 7 - May 2004 Work from home This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 8 - May 2004 Dealing with alcohol-related problems...

  5. Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes and their uranium favorability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coney, P.J.; Reynolds, S.J.

    1980-11-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a descriptive body of knowledge on Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes including their lithologic and structural characteristics, their distribution within the Cordillera, and their evolutionary history and tectonic setting. The occurrence of uranium in the context of possibility for uranium concentration is also examined. This volume contains appendices of the following: annotated bibliography of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes; annotated bibliography of the uranium favorability of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes; uranium occurrences in the Cordilleran metamorphic core complex belt; and geology, uranium favorability, uranium occurrences and tectonic maps of individual Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes; and locations, lithologic descriptions, petrographic information and analytical data for geochemical samples

  6. [Asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, L; Corre, P; Khonsari, R H; Mercier, J-M; Piot, B

    2012-06-01

    Hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles most commonly affects the masseter. Less common cases of isolated or associated temporalis hypertrophy are also reported. Parafunctional habits, and more precisely bruxism, can favor the onset of the hypertrophy. This condition is generally idiopathic and can require both medical and/or surgical management. A 29-year-old patient was referred to our department for an asymmetric swelling of the masticatory muscles. Physical examination revealed a bilateral hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles, predominantly affecting the right temporalis and the left masseter. Major bruxism was assessed by premature dental wearing. The additional examinations confirmed the isolated muscle hypertrophy. Benign asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles promoted by bruxism was diagnosed. Treatment with injections of type A botulinum toxin was conducted in association with a splint and relaxation. Its effectiveness has been observed at six months. Few cases of unilateral or bilateral temporalis hypertrophy have been reported, added to the more common isolated masseter muscles hypertrophy. The diagnosis requires to rule out secondary hypertrophies and tumors using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The condition is thought to be favoured by parafunctional habits such as bruxism. The conservative treatment consists in reducing the volume of the masticatory muscles using intramuscular injections of type A botulinum toxin. Other potential conservative treatments are wearing splints and muscle relaxant drugs. Surgical procedures aiming to reduce the muscle volume and/or the bone volume (mandibular gonioplasty) can be proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-term administration of the TNF blocking drug Remicade (cV1q) to mdx mice reduces skeletal and cardiac muscle fibrosis, but negatively impacts cardiac function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolova, N.E.; Martinez, L.; Vetrone, S.A.; Jordan, M. C.; Roos, K. .P.; Sweeney, H.L.; Spencer, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a degenerative skeletal muscle disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin (DYS). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of DMD since short-term treatment of mdx mice with TNF blocking drugs proved beneficial; however, it is not clear whether long-term treatment will also improve long-term outcomes of fibrosis and cardiac health. In this investigation, short and long-term dosing studies were carried out using the TNF blocking drug Remicade and a variety of outcome measures were assessed. Here we show no demonstrable benefit to muscle strength or morphology with 10mg/kg or 20 mg/kg Remicade; however, 3mg/kg produced positive strength benefits. Remicade treatment correlated with reductions in myostatin mRNA in the heart, and concomitant reductions in cardiac and skeletal fibrosis. Surprisingly, although Remicade treated mdx hearts were less fibrotic, reductions in LV mass and ejection fraction were also observed, and these changes coincided with reductions in AKT phosphorylation on threonine 308. Thus, TNF blockade benefits mdx skeletal muscle strength and fibrosis, but negatively impacts AKT activation, leading to deleterious changes to dystrophic heart function. These studies uncover a previously unknown relationship between TNF blockade and alteration of muscle growth signaling pathways. PMID:24844454

  8. Preschoolers Reduce Inequality While Favoring Individuals with More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Vivian; Spitzer, Brian; Olson, Kristina R.

    2014-01-01

    Inequalities are everywhere, yet little is known about how children respond to people affected by inequalities. This article explores two responses--minimizing inequalities and favoring those who are advantaged by them. In Studies 1a (N = 37) and 1b (N = 38), 4- and 5-year-olds allocated a resource to a disadvantaged recipient, but judged…

  9. 18 CFR 706.202 - Gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to: (1) Obvious family or personal relationships, such as those between the employee and his parents... EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees § 706.202 Gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, an employee shall...

  10. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting...

  11. Design integration of favorable geometry, structural support and containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, J.A.; McGehee, G.A.

    1991-07-01

    In designs for fissile processes at Savannah River site, different approaches have been used to provide engineered margins of safety for criticality with containment and seismic resistance as additional requirements. These requirements are frequently at odds in engineered systems. This paper proposes a plan to take advantage of vessels with favorable geometry to provide seismic resistance and to support a glovebox for containment. Thin slab tanks, small diameter pencil tanks, annular tanks, and other novel designs have been used for criticality safety. The requirement for DBE seismic resistance and rigid control of dimensions leads the designer to consider annular tanks for meeting these requirements. The high strength of annular tanks may logically be used to support secondary containment. Hands-on access to all instruments, piping etc. within containment can be provided through gloveports, thus a specialized glovebox. This paper examines the advantages of using an annular tank design to provide favorable geometry, structural support and containment

  12. Uranium favorability of southwestern Oklahoma and north-central Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton, G.D.; Brogdon, L.D.; Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-10-01

    Results are presented of a project to identify and delineate units and (or) facies that are favorable for uranium in the Upper Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian strata of north-central Texas and southwestern Oklahoma. To aid in this evaluation, an assessment of the probable uranium rocks (Wichita and Arbuckle Mountains) was necessary. Surface samples were collected from igneous and sedimentary rocks. Stream-sediment samples were also collected. However, the main emphasis of the investigation of the sedimentary units was on the identification of sedimentary facies trends in the subsurface and an evaluation of the uranium favorability within units studied. The area investigated centers along the Red River, the boundary between Texas and Oklahoma. The project area encompasses approximately 17,000 sq. mi. It includes all or parts of Cooke, Montague, Clay, Wichita, Wilbarger, Hardeman, Baylor, Knox, and Archer Counties in Texas and Love, Jefferson, Cotton, Tillman, Jackson, Stephens, Carter, Comanche, Harmon, and Greer Counties in Oklahoma

  13. A significant shift in favor of nuclear energy since 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    A new opinion poll shows a general trend in Europe in favor of nuclear energy: 44% of the people interrogated are for nuclear energy while only 37% were for in 2005. About 40% of the people against nuclear energy would change their mind if a safe and definitive solution for the management of radioactive waste was found. The survey also shows that more people are aware of the assets of nuclear energy in terms of energy independence and greenhouse gas emission. The countries where the support is the strongest are the Czech Republic (64%), Lithuania (64%), Sweden (62%) and Finland (61%). In France, the biggest nuclear energy producer in Europe, the rate of favorable opinion for nuclear energy remains constant at 52%. (A.C.)

  14. Catechins activate muscle stem cells by Myf5 induction and stimulate muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, A Rum; Kim, Kyung Min; Byun, Mi Ran; Hwang, Jun-Ha; Park, Jung Il; Oh, Ho Taek; Kim, Hyo Kyeong; Jeong, Mi Gyeong; Hwang, Eun Sook; Hong, Jeong-Ho

    2017-07-22

    Muscle weakness is one of the most common symptoms in aged individuals and increases risk of mortality. Thus, maintenance of muscle mass is important for inhibiting aging. In this study, we investigated the effect of catechins, polyphenol compounds in green tea, on muscle regeneration. We found that (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) activate satellite cells by induction of Myf5 transcription factors. For satellite cell activation, Akt kinase was significantly induced after ECG treatment and ECG-induced satellite cell activation was blocked in the presence of Akt inhibitor. ECG also promotes myogenic differentiation through the induction of myogenic markers, including Myogenin and Muscle creatine kinase (MCK), in satellite and C2C12 myoblast cells. Finally, EGCG administration to mice significantly increased muscle fiber size for regeneration. Taken together, the results suggest that catechins stimulate muscle stem cell activation and differentiation for muscle regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Menor valor: ¿oferta más favorable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Alirio Ramírez Rusinque

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available La más importante transformación establecida por la Ley 1150 de 2007 en la contratación estatal radicó en la determinación del menor valor como la oferta más favorable para las entidades estatales, cuando se trate de la adquisición o suministro de bienes y servicios de características técnicas uniformes y de común utilización. Por ello, reviste de gran importancia realizar un análisis desde el punto de vista jurídico y normativo, que permita establecer si la mutación sufrida al concepto de oferta más favorable trajo consigo los fines perseguidos por la reforma, o en su defecto fue perjudicial la solución, al afectar el deber de selección objetiva, los principios de la contratación estatal de igualdad, eficacia, transparencia, planeación y equilibrio financiero del contrato y el principio constitucional de la libre competencia. Para de esta forma establecer si el modelo del menor valor como criterio de la oferta más favorable resulta eficiente jurídicamente en el campo de la contratación estatal, y si las reglas establecidas en la actualidad permiten el desarrollo armónico del sistema establecido por la Ley 1150 de 2007.

  16. Evolution favors protein mutational robustness in sufficiently large populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venturelli Ophelia S

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important question is whether evolution favors properties such as mutational robustness or evolvability that do not directly benefit any individual, but can influence the course of future evolution. Functionally similar proteins can differ substantially in their robustness to mutations and capacity to evolve new functions, but it has remained unclear whether any of these differences might be due to evolutionary selection for these properties. Results Here we use laboratory experiments to demonstrate that evolution favors protein mutational robustness if the evolving population is sufficiently large. We neutrally evolve cytochrome P450 proteins under identical selection pressures and mutation rates in populations of different sizes, and show that proteins from the larger and thus more polymorphic population tend towards higher mutational robustness. Proteins from the larger population also evolve greater stability, a biophysical property that is known to enhance both mutational robustness and evolvability. The excess mutational robustness and stability is well described by mathematical theory, and can be quantitatively related to the way that the proteins occupy their neutral network. Conclusion Our work is the first experimental demonstration of the general tendency of evolution to favor mutational robustness and protein stability in highly polymorphic populations. We suggest that this phenomenon could contribute to the mutational robustness and evolvability of viruses and bacteria that exist in large populations.

  17. Offentlig administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elof Nellemann; Rehr, Preben René

    En undervisningsbog der henvender sig til administrationsbacheloruddannelsen. Kapitlerne er inddelt efter modulerne på uddannelsen og indeholder derfor elementer af administration, forvaltning, økonomistyring, innovation, samfundsvidenskabelige metoder og politisk styrede organisationer.......En undervisningsbog der henvender sig til administrationsbacheloruddannelsen. Kapitlerne er inddelt efter modulerne på uddannelsen og indeholder derfor elementer af administration, forvaltning, økonomistyring, innovation, samfundsvidenskabelige metoder og politisk styrede organisationer....

  18. SAT administrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havas, A.

    1998-01-01

    SAT Administrator is the Information System for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training Program Design. It supports the design of training programs in the following phases: job analysis; task analysis; competency analysis; task competency association; definition of learning objectives to competencies; training program design; definition of test items. The general structure of the database and management software supports application of the SAT Administrator in any nuclear power installation

  19. Catalytically favorable surface patterns in Pt-Au nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by recent experimental demonstrations of novel PtAu nanoparticles with highly enhanced catalytic properties, we present a systematic theoretical study that explores principal catalytic indicators as a function of the particle size and composition. We find that Pt electronic states in the vicinity of the Fermi level combined with a modified electron distribution in the nanoparticle due to Pt-to-Au charge transfer are the origin of the outstanding catalytic properties. From our model we deduce the catalytically favorable surface patterns that induce ensemble and ligand effects. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  20. More evidence in favor of light dark matter particles?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, Celine; Ascasibar, Yago

    2004-01-01

    In a previous work, it was found that the light dark matter scenario could be a possible explanation to the 511 keV emission line detected at the center of our galaxy. Here, we show that hints of this scenario may also have been discovered in particle physics experiments. This could explain the discrepancy between the measurement of the fine structure constant and the value referenced in the CODATA. Finally, our results indicate that some of the light dark matter features could be tested in accelerators. Their discovery might favor N=2 supersymmetry

  1. Action of Obestatin in Skeletal Muscle Repair: Stem Cell Expansion, Muscle Growth, and Microenvironment Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurriarán-Rodríguez, Uxía; Santos-Zas, Icía; González-Sánchez, Jessica; Beiroa, Daniel; Moresi, Viviana; Mosteiro, Carlos S; Lin, Wei; Viñuela, Juan E; Señarís, José; García-Caballero, Tomás; Casanueva, Felipe F; Nogueiras, Rubén; Gallego, Rosalía; Renaud, Jean-Marc; Adamo, Sergio; Pazos, Yolanda; Camiña, Jesús P

    2015-01-01

    The development of therapeutic strategies for skeletal muscle diseases, such as physical injuries and myopathies, depends on the knowledge of regulatory signals that control the myogenic process. The obestatin/GPR39 system operates as an autocrine signal in the regulation of skeletal myogenesis. Using a mouse model of skeletal muscle regeneration after injury and several cellular strategies, we explored the potential use of obestatin as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of trauma-induced muscle injuries. Our results evidenced that the overexpression of the preproghrelin, and thus obestatin, and GPR39 in skeletal muscle increased regeneration after muscle injury. More importantly, the intramuscular injection of obestatin significantly enhanced muscle regeneration by simulating satellite stem cell expansion as well as myofiber hypertrophy through a kinase hierarchy. Added to the myogenic action, the obestatin administration resulted in an increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and the consequent microvascularization, with no effect on collagen deposition in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, the potential inhibition of myostatin during obestatin treatment might contribute to its myogenic action improving muscle growth and regeneration. Overall, our data demonstrate successful improvement of muscle regeneration, indicating obestatin is a potential therapeutic agent for skeletal muscle injury and would benefit other myopathies related to muscle regeneration. PMID:25762009

  2. Expression of mRNAs for PPT, CGRP, NF-200, and MAP-2 in cocultures of dissociated DRG neurons and skeletal muscle cells in administration of NGF or NT-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Both neurotrophins (NTs and target skeletal muscle (SKM cells are essential for the maintenance of the function of neurons and nerve-muscle communication. However, much less is known about the association of target SKM cells with distinct NTs on the expression of mRNAs for preprotachykinin (PPT, calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP, neurofilament 200 (NF-200, and microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP-2 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG sensory neurons. In the present study, a neuromuscular coculture model of dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and SKM cells was established. The morphology of DRG neurons and SKM cells in coculture was observed with an inverted phase contrast microscope. The effects of nerve growth factor (NGF or neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 on the expression of mRNAs for PPT, CGRP, NF-200, and MAP-2 was analyzed by real time-PCR assay. The morphology of DRG neuronal cell bodies and SKM cells in neuromuscular coculture at different conditions was similar. The neurons presented evidence of dense neurite outgrowth in the presence of distinct NTs in neuromuscular cocultures. NGF and NT-3 increased mRNA levels of PPT, CGRP, and NF-200, but not MAP-2, in neuromuscular cocultures. These results offer new clues towards a better understanding of the association of target SKM cells with distinct NTs on the expression of mRNAs for PPT, CGRP, NF-200 and MAP-2, and implicate the association of target SKM cells and NTs with DRG sensory neuronal phenotypes.

  3. Is there a relationship between patient satisfaction and favorable outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gregory D; Tevis, Sarah E; Kent, K Craig

    2014-10-01

    Patient satisfaction with the health care experience has become a top priority for Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. With resources and efforts directed at patient satisfaction, we evaluated whether high patient satisfaction measured by HCAHPS (Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems) surveys correlates with favorable outcomes. Medical centers were identified from the University HealthSystem Consortium database from 2011 to 2012. Variables included hospital characteristics, process measure compliance, and surgical outcomes. Chi-squared analysis was used to evaluate for variables associated with high patient satisfaction (defined as hospitals that scored above the 50th percentile of top box scores). We identified 171 hospitals with complete data. The following variables were significantly associated with high overall patient satisfaction: large hospitals, high surgical volume, and low mortality (P patient satisfaction. Low mortality index was consistently found to be associated with high satisfaction across 9 of 10 HCAHPS domains. We found that hospital size, surgical volume, and low mortality were associated with high overall patient satisfaction. However, with the exception of low mortality, favorable surgical outcomes were not consistently associated with high HCAHPS scores. With existing satisfaction surveys, we conclude that factors outside of surgical outcomes appear to influence patients' perceptions of their care.

  4. Science Curriculum Components Favored by Taiwanese Biology Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen-Yung; Hu, Reping; Changlai, Miao-Li

    2005-09-01

    The new 1-9 curriculum framework in Taiwan provides a remarkable change from previous frameworks in terms of the coverage of content and the powers of teachers. This study employs a modified repertory grid technique to investigate biology teachers' preferences with regard to six curriculum components. One hundred and eighty-five in-service and pre-service biology teachers were asked to determine which science curriculum components they liked and disliked most of all to include in their biology classes. The data show that the rank order of these science curriculum components, from top to bottom, was as follows: application of science, manipulation skills, scientific concepts, social/ethical issues, problem-solving skills, and the history of science. They also showed that pre-service biology teachers, as compared with in-service biology teachers, favored problem-solving skills significantly more than manipulative skills, while in-service biology teachers, as compared with pre-service biology teachers, favored manipulative skills significantly more than problem-solving skills. Some recommendations for ensuring the successful implementation of the Taiwanese 1-9 curriculum framework are also proposed.

  5. Positive Surgical Margins in Favorable-Stage Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Catherine E; Drew, Peter A; Morris, Christopher G; Dziegielewski, Peter T; Mendenhall, William M; Amdur, Robert J

    2018-04-16

    The significance of positive margin in favorable-stage well-differentiated thyroid cancer is controversial. We report outcomes of positive-margin patients with a matched-pair comparison to a negative-margin group. A total of 25 patients with classic-histology papillary or follicular carcinoma, total thyroidectomy +/- node dissection, stage T1-3N0-1bM0, positive surgical margin at primary site, adjuvant radioactive iodine (I-131), and age older than 18 years were treated between 2003 and 2013. Endpoints were clinical and biochemical (thyroglobulin-only) recurrence-free survival. Matched-pair analysis involved a 1:1 match with negative-margin cases matched for overall stage and I-131 dose. Recurrence-free survival in positive-margin patients was 71% at 10 years. No patient was successfully salvaged with additional treatment. Only 1 patient died of thyroid cancer. Recurrence-free survival at 10 years was worse with a positive (71%) versus negative (90%) margin (P=0.140). Cure with a microscopically positive margin was suboptimal (71%) despite patients having classic-histology papillary and follicular carcinoma, favorable stage, and moderate-dose I-131 therapy.

  6. Extraocular muscle function testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003397.htm Extraocular muscle function testing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye muscles. ...

  7. A pneumatic muscle hand therapy device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeneman, E J; Schultz, R S; Wolf, S L; Herring, D E; Koeneman, J B

    2004-01-01

    Intensive repetitive therapy improves function and quality of life for stroke patients. Intense therapies to overcome upper extremity impairment are beneficial, however, they are expensive because, in part, they rely on individualized interaction between the patient and rehabilitation specialist. The development of a pneumatic muscle driven hand therapy device, the Mentortrade mark, reinforces the need for volitional activation of joint movement while concurrently offering knowledge of results about range of motion, muscle activity or resistance to movement. The device is well tolerated and has received favorable comments from stroke survivors, their caregivers, and therapists.

  8. Administrative circular

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    • N° 21 - August 2003 Special leave This circular has been amended. Copies of this circular are available in the Divisional Secretariats. In addition, administrative and operational circulars, as well as the lists of those in force, are available for consultation on the Web at: http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/admin_services/admincirc/listadmincirc.asp Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  9. Database Administrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  10. Administrative IT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  11. Preliminary study of the uranium favorability of Malheur County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, E.H.

    1977-11-01

    A reconnaissance study of middle and upper Tertiary volcaniclastic sedimentary and silicic volcanic rocks in Malheur County, Oregon, indicates that, based upon the data available: (1) it is unlikely that sandstone-type uranium deposits exist in sedimentary rocks of north-central Malheur County; and (2) favorable uranium environments are more likely to exist in and adjacent to uraniferous silicic eruptive centers and plugs. Some rhyolites in the northern part of the county contain marginally anomalous uranium abundances (6 to 8 +- 2 ppM U 3 O 8 ), compared with similar rocks in southeastern Oregon. Available uranium from these rocks, as determined by nitric-acid leaching, approaches 50 to 75 percent of the total chemical U 3 O 8 present. One Pliocene rhyolite vitrophyre sample from Duck Butte in western Malheur County contains 9 +- 2 ppM U 3 O 8 . The uranium contents of these rhyolites approach those found in silicic plugs spatially related to uranium deposits in the Lakeview district, Oregon (Erikson and Curry, 1977). It is possible that undiscovered epithermal and (or) supergene uranium deposits may exist in favorable wall rocks subjacent to uraniferous silicic eruptive centers (Duck Butte), calderas (McDermitt caldera to the south and others identified in western Owyhee County, Idaho), and silicic plugs (as in the Lakeview district). With the exception of one small uranium anomaly found in unconsolidated sands in the Grassy Mountain Formation, the sedimentary rocks observed in the study area did not possess abnormal radioactivity or exhibit evidence of uranium mobility and enrichment. Carbonaceous trash is uncommon in these rocks. Gently dipping sandstone members of the Deer Butte Formation (upper Miocene) and local channel sands in the Grassy Mountain Formation (Pliocene) may have once been the most permeable rocks in the Tertiary section; but, there is no evidence to suggest that they were conduits for uranium-bearing solutions

  12. Determination of sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, and N(4) -acetyl-sulfadiazine in fish muscle plus skin by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Withdrawal-time calculation after in-feed administration in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) fed two different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonaras, V; Tyrpenou, A; Alexis, M; Koupparis, M

    2016-10-01

    This study presents a depletion study for sulfadiazine and trimethoprim in muscle plus skin of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.). N(4) -acetyl-sulfadiazine, the main metabolite of sulfadiazine (SDZ), was also examined. The fish were held in seawater at a temperature of 24-26 °C. SDZ and trimethoprim (TMP) were administered orally with medicated feed for five consecutive days at daily doses of 25 mg SDZ and 5 mg TMP per kg of fish body weight per day. Two different diets, fish oil- and plant oil-based diets, were investigated. Ten fish were sampled at each of the days 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 12 after the start of veterinary medicine administration. However for the calculation of the withdrawal periods, sampling day 1 was set as 24 h after the last dose of the treatment. Fish samples were analyzed for SDZ, TMP, and acetyl-sulfadiazine (AcSDZ) residues by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. SDZ and TMP concentrations declined rapidly from muscle plus skin. Considering a maximum residue limit of 100 μg/kg for the total of sulfonamides and 50 μg/kg for TMP residues in fish muscle plus skin, the withdrawal periods of the premix trimethoprim-sulfadiazine 50% were calculated as 5 and 6 days, at 24-26 °C, in fish oil (FO) and plant oil (PO) groups, respectively. The investigation of this work is important to protect consumers by controlling the undesirable residues in fish. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. [Who is against prevention? A map of policy actors favoring smoking in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Lluís; Villalbí, Joan Ramón; Gallego, Raquel

    2004-01-01

    For a comprehensive approach to policies on smoking, the map of actors related to tobacco and their political ties needs to be identified. The present article constitutes the first attempt at this task in Spain. Analysis of the press, industry publications, and interviews with key people. Active actors favoring smoking in Spain were identified and classified according to their characteristics, the sphere in which they act, and their preferred territorial arena. We identified tobacco companies (Altadis and Philip Morris dominate the market), tobacco trade organizations (tobacconists), front-line organizations created by the tobacco industry (The Smokers for Tolerance Club), organizations of tobacco growers, and processing companies. Distribution to retailers is dominated by Logista, owned by Altadis. Other sectors to take into account are vending companies and those manufacturing related products (cigarette paper, matches or lighters). The contacts of these actors with the public administration are reviewed, notable among which are the role of the Commissioner for the Tobacco Market, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of the Economy. Ties were also found with employers' organizations, some political parties, and unions, as well as with other sectors with social influence such as the media and advertising sectors. The map of actors favoring smoking in Spain is complex and goes beyond the confines of the tobacco industry. Understanding this web is crucial to promoting comprehensive prevention policies.

  14. Kinesthetic illusions attenuate experimental muscle pain, as do muscle and cutaneous stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, André; Aimonetti, Jean-Marc; Roll, Jean-Pierre; Ribot-Ciscar, Edith

    2015-07-30

    In the present study, muscle pain was induced experimentally in healthy subjects by administrating hypertonic saline injections into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. We first aimed at comparing the analgesic effects of mechanical vibration applied to either cutaneous or muscle receptors of the TA or to both types simultaneously. Secondly, pain alleviation was compared in subjects in whom muscle tendon vibration evoked kinesthetic illusions of the ankle joint. Muscle tendon vibration, which primarily activated muscle receptors, reduced pain intensity by 30% (p<0.01). In addition, tangential skin vibration reduced pain intensity by 33% (p<0.01), primarily by activating cutaneous receptors. Concurrently stimulating both sensory channels induced stronger analgesic effects (-51%, p<0.01), as shown by the lower levels of electrodermal activity. The strongest analgesic effects of the vibration-induced muscle inputs occurred when illusory movements were perceived (-38%, p=0.01). The results suggest that both cutaneous and muscle sensory feedback reduce muscle pain, most likely via segmental and supraspinal processes. Further clinical trials are needed to investigate these new methods of muscle pain relief. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pig as a Favorable Animal for Taenia Saginata Asiatica Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chin Fan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of Taenia saginata in some parts of Asia is confusing, in that beef does not appear to be the source of infection. In some areas, beef is either not available or not eaten raw, whereas pork at times is eaten uncooked. In light of this situation, we have exposed pigs and other animals to infection with strains of T. saginata to establish their ability to serve as intermediate hosts. Eggs of Taiwan Taenia, Korea Taenia, Indonesia Taenia, Thailand Taenia, Philippines Taenia, Ethiopia Taenia, and Madagascar Taenia were fed to 83 pigs of three strains: 43 Small-Ear Miniature (SEM, 34 Landrace Small-Ear Miniature (L-SEM, and 6 Duroc-Yorkshire-Landrace (DYL. We also fed the eggs to 10 Holstein calves, 17 Sannean goats, and 4 monkeys (Macaca cyclopis. We succeeded in infecting SEM (infection rate 88%, cysticercus recovery rate 19.1%, L-SEM (83%, 1.1%, and DYL (100%, 0.3% pigs with Taiwan Taenia; SEM (100%, 1.7%, L-SEM (100%, 5.6%, and DYL (100%, 0.06% pigs with Korea Taenia; SEM (100%, 22% and L-SEM (100%, 1.6% pigs with Indonesia Taenia; SEM (75%, 0.06% pigs with Thailand Taenia SEM (100%, 11% pigs with Philippines Taenia; SEM (80%, 0.005% pigs with Ethiopia Taenia; SEM (100%, 0.2% pigs with Madagascar Taenia. Holstein calves became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (100%, 1.1%, Korea (100%, 0.03%, Thailand (100%, 0.2%, and the Philippines (100%, 6%; however, the cysticerci of Taenia from Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines were degenerated and/or calcified. Sannean goats became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (33%, 0.01% and Korea (50%, 0.02%, while monkeys became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (50%, 0.01%. However, the cysticerci were degenerated and/or calcified. Therefore, these strains of pig seem to be favorable animal models for experimental studies of T. saginata-like tapeworms, with the SEM pig the most favorable.

  16. Paleozoic unconformities favorable for uranium concentration in northern Appalachian basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Unconformities can redistribute uranium from protore rock as ground water moves through poorly consolidated strata beneath the erosion surface, or later moves along the unconformity. Groundwater could migrate farther than in present-day lithified Paleozoic strata in the Appalachian basin, now locally deformed by the Taconic and Allegheny orogenies. Several paleoaquifer systems could have developed uranium geochemical cells. Sandstone mineralogy, occurrences of fluvial strata, and reduzate facies are important factors. Other possibilities include silcrete developed during desert exposure, and uranium concentrated in paleokarst. Thirteen unconformities are evaluated to determine favorable areas for uranium concentration. Cambrian Potsdam sandstone (New York) contains arkoses and possible silcretes just above crystalline basement. Unconformities involving beveled sandstones and possible fluvial strata include Cambrian Hardyston sandstone (New Jersey), Cambrian Potsdam Sandstone (New York), Ordovician Oswego and Juniata formations (Pennsylvania and New York), Silurian Medina Group (New York), and Silurian Vernon, High Falls, and Longwood formations (New York and New Jersey). Devonian Catskill Formation is beveled by Pennsylvanian strata (New York and Pennsylvania). The pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity also bevels Lower Mississippian Pocono, Knapp, and Waverly strata (Pennsylvania, New York, and Ohio), truncates Upper Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation (Pennsylvania), and forms paleokarst on Mississippian Loyalhanna Limestone (Pennsylvania) and Maxville Limestone (Ohio). Strata associated with these unconformities contain several reports of uranium. Unconformities unfavorable for uranium concentration occur beneath the Middle Ordovician (New York), Middle Devonian (Ohio and New York), and Upper Devonian (Ohio and New York); these involve marine strata overlying marine strata and probably much submarine erosion

  17. Interaction Heterogeneity can Favorably Impact Colloidal Crystal Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Ian C.; Crocker, John C.; Sinno, Talid

    2017-10-01

    Colloidal particles with short-ranged attractions, e.g., micron-scale spheres functionalized with single-stranded DNA oligomers, are susceptible to becoming trapped in disordered configurations even when a crystalline arrangement is the ground state. Moreover, for reasons that are not well understood, seemingly minor variations in the particle formulation can lead to dramatic changes in the crystallization outcome. We demonstrate, using a combination of equilibrium and nonequilibrium computer simulations, that interaction heterogeneity—variations in the energetic interactions among different particle pairs in the population—may favorably impact crystal nucleation. Specifically, interaction heterogeneity is found to lower the free energy barrier to nucleation via the formation of clusters comprised preferentially of strong-binding particle pairs. Moreover, gelation is inhibited by "spreading out over time" the nucleation process, resulting in a reduced density of stable nuclei, allowing each to grow unhindered and larger. Our results suggest a simple and robust approach for enhancing colloidal crystallization near the "sticky sphere" limit, and support the notion that differing extents of interaction heterogeneity arising from various particle functionalization protocols may contribute to the otherwise unexplained variations in crystallization outcomes reported in the literature.

  18. Occurrence of clinical mastitis and environmental factors favoring its incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Junqueira Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of clinical mastitis (CM, in high production Holstein cows, as well as the environmental factors that favoring its incidence. The average milk production of 305 days, according to the class of mastitis was estimated by the method of least squares. The frequencies of clinical mastitis (CM events were analyzed according to the calving sequences (1-6, year of calving, season and stage of lactation, and infected quarter (right anterior, left anterior, right posterior, left posterior. The frequency of CM ranged from 11.39% in the first calving to 21.18% in the third. 58.56% of mastitis cases occurred in the wet season, and 41.44% occurred in the dry season. The final lactation stage (200 to 300 days was the period with the highest occurrence of CM (45.33%. The quarter posterior had a higher frequency CM (54.25%. Animals with higher levels of milk production of 305 days showed highest occurrence of CM. We must find a balance between milk production and mastitis in order to increase profitability. The study of the periods of greatest frequency clinical mastitis events is essential for dairy farming, to direct a program to control this disease.

  19. Competition favors elk over beaver in a riparian willow ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B.W.; Peinetti, H.R.; Coughenour, M.C.; Johnson, T.L.

    2012-01-01

    Beaver (Castor spp.) conservation requires an understanding of their complex interactions with competing herbivores. Simulation modeling offers a controlled environment to examine long-term dynamics in ecosystems driven by uncontrollable variables. We used a new version of the SAVANNA ecosystem model to investigate beaver (C. Canadensis) and elk (Cervus elapses) competition for willow (Salix spp.). We initialized the model with field data from Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, to simulate a 4-ha riparian ecosystem containing beaver, elk, and willow. We found beaver persisted indefinitely when elk density was or = 30 elk km_2. The loss of tall willow preceded rapid beaver declines, thus willow condition may predict beaver population trajectory in natural environments. Beaver were able to persist with slightly higher elk densities if beaver alternated their use of foraging sites in a rest-rotation pattern rather than maintained continuous use. Thus, we found asymmetrical competition for willow strongly favored elk over beaver in a simulated montane ecosystem. Finally, we discuss application of the SAVANNA model and mechanisms of competition relative to beaver persistence as metapopulations, ecological resistance and alternative state models, and ecosystem regulation.

  20. Heterolytic dissociative adsorption state of dihydrogen favored by interfacial defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhenjun; Hu, Hanshi; Xu, Hu; Li, Yong; Cheng, Peng; Zhao, Bin

    2018-03-01

    The atomic-scale insight into dihydrogen on MgO(001) surface deposited on molybdenum substrate with interfacial defects was investigated in detail by employing density functional methods Here we report novel dissociative adsorption behaviors of single hydrogen molecule on the usually inert oxide surfaces, with consideration of two types of dissociation schemes. The heterolytic dissociation state -Mg(H)-O(H)- of dihydrogen is impossible to obtain on neighboring O-Mg sites of perfect bulk MgO(001) terraces. Unusually, the hydrogen molecule can form heterolytic fragmentation states on metal supported MgO(001) films with very low activation barrier (0.398 eV), and the heterolytic dissociation state is much more favorable than homolytic dissociation state both energetically and kinetically in all cases. Electronic properties and bonding attribution of adsorbates and the oxide-metal hybrid structure are revealed by analyzing density of states, differential charge densities, orbital interaction and electron localization function. The characteristic changes to the property and activity of magnesia (001) can have potential application in catalytic reactions.

  1. Administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete understanding of the importance and essence of this institution as well as the need for its complete legal regulation.

  2. Administrative contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete u...

  3. Muscle Mass and Weight Gain Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bill

    There are numerous sports supplements available that claim to increase lean body mass. However, for these sports supplements to exert any favorable changes in lean body mass, they must influence those factors regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy (i.e., satellite cell activity, gene transcription, protein translation). If a given sports supplement does favorably influence one of these regulatory factors, the result is a positive net protein balance (in which protein synthesis exceeds protein breakdown). Sports supplement categories aimed at eliciting a positive net protein balance include anabolic hormone enhancers, nutrient timing pre- and postexercise workout supplements, anticatabolic supplements, and nitric oxide boosters. Of all the sports supplements available, only a few have been subject to multiple clinical trials with repeated favorable outcomes relative to increasing lean body mass. This chapter focuses on these supplements and others that have a sound theoretical rationale in relation to increasing lean body mass.

  4. Preliminary study of uranium favorability of the Boulder batholith, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castor, S.B.; Robins, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Boulder batholith of southwestern Montana is a composite Late Cretaceous intrusive mass, mostly composed of quartz monzonite and granodiorite. This study was not restricted to the plutonic rocks; it also includes younger rocks that overlie the batholith, and older rocks that it intrudes. The Boulder batholith area has good overall potential for economic uranium deposits, because its geology is similar to that of areas that contain economic deposits elsewhere in the world, and because at least 35 uranium occurrences of several different types are present. Potential is greatest for the occurrence of small uranium deposits in chalcedony veins and base-metal sulfide veins. Three areas may be favorable for large, low-grade deposits consisting of a number of closely spaced chalcedony veins and enriched wall rock; the Mooney claims, the Boulder area, and the Clancy area. In addition, there is a good possibility of by-product uranium production from phosphatic black shales in the project area. The potential for uranium deposits in breccia masses that cut prebatholith rocks, in manganese-quartz veins near Butte, and in a shear zone that cuts Tertiary rhyolite near Helena cannot be determined on the basis of available information. Low-grade, disseminated, primary uranium concentrations similar to porphyry deposits proposed by Armstrong (1974) may exist in the Boulder batholith, but the primary uranium content of most batholith rocks is low. The geologic environment adjacent to the Boulder batholith is similar in places to that at the Midnite mine in Washington. Some igneous rocks in the project area contain more than 10 ppM U 3 O 8 , and some metasedimentary rocks near the batholith contain reductants such as sulfides and carbonaceous material

  5. Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes and their uranium favorability. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coney, P.J.; Reynolds, S.J.

    1980-11-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a descriptive body of knowledge on Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes including their lithologic and structural characteristics, their distribution within the Cordillera, and their evolutionary history and tectonic setting. The occurrence of uranium in the context of possibility for uranium concentration is also examined. Chapter 1 is an overview of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes which describes their physical characteristics, tectonic setting and geologic history. This overview is accompanied by a tectonic map. Chapter 2 is a discussion of the mantled gneiss dome concept. The purpose of including this work is to provide a basic history of this concept and to describe the characteristics and distribution of gneiss domes throughout the world to enable one to compare and contrast them with the metamorphic core complexes as discussed in this report. Some gneiss domes are known producers of uranium (as are also some core complexes). Chapter 3 is an examination of the effects of the core complex process on adjacent sedimentary and volcanic cover terranes. Also included is a discussion of the kinematic significance of these cover terranes as they are related to process within the cores of the complexes. Some of the cover terranes have uranium prospects in them. Chapter 4 is a detailed discussion of uranium in Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes and includes the conceptual basis for the various types of occurrences and the processes that might favor concentration of uranium. The report is supported by a 5-part Appendix. The majority of the core complexes discussed in this report either do not appear or are not recognizable on existing published geologic maps

  6. Preliminary study of uranium favorability of the Boulder batholith, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castor, S.B.; Robins, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Boulder batholith of southwestern Montana is a composite Late Cretaceous intrusive mass, mostly composed of quartz monzonite and granodiorite. This study was not restricted to the plutonic rocks; it also includes younger rocks that overlie the batholith, and older rocks that it intrudes. The Boulder batholith area has good overall potential for economic uranium deposits, because its geology is similar to that of areas that contain economic deposits elsewhere in the world, and because at least 35 uranium occurrences of several different types are present. Potential is greatest for the occurrence of small uranium deposits in chalcedony veins and base-metal sulfide veins. Three areas may be favorable for large, low-grade deposits consisting of a number of closely spaced chalcedony veins and enriched wall rock; the Mooney claims, the Boulder area, and the Clancy area. In addition, there is a good possibility of by-product uranium production from phosphatic black shales in the project area. The potential for uranium deposits in breccia masses that cut prebatholith rocks, in manganese-quartz veins near Butte, and in a shear zone that cuts Tertiary rhyolite near Helena cannot be determined on the basis of available information. Low-grade, disseminated, primary uranium concentrations similar to porphyry deposits proposed by Armstrong (1974) may exist in the Boulder batholith, but the primary uranium content of most batholith rocks is low. The geologic environment adjacent to the Boulder batholith is similar in places to that at the Midnite mine in Washington. Some igneous rocks in the project area contain more than 10 ppM U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, and some metasedimentary rocks near the batholith contain reductants such as sulfides and carbonaceous material.

  7. ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULARS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff membersN° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000Staff members contractsN° 16 (Rev. 2) - January 2000TrainingN° 30 (Rev. 1) - January 2000Indemnities and reimbursements upon taking up appointment and termination of contractN° 32 - February 2000Principles and procedures governing complaints of harassmentThese circular have been amended (No 2, N° 9, N° 16 and N° 30) or drawn up (N° 32).Copies are available in the Divisional Secretariats.Note:\tAdministrative and operational circulars, as well as the lists of those in force, are available for consultation in the server SRV4_Home in the Appletalk zone NOVELL (as GUEST or using your Novell username and password), volume PE Division Data Disk.The Word files are available in the folder COM, folder Public, folder ADM.CIRC.docHuman Resources DivisionTel. 74128

  8. Healthy Muscles Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or lying down, and faster when you’re running or playing sports and your skeletal muscles need more blood to help them do their work. What can go wrong? Injuries Almost everyone has had sore muscles after exercising ...

  9. Sex Differences and Bone Metastases of Breast, Lung, and Prostate Cancers: Do Bone Homing Cancers Favor Feminized Bone Marrow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C. Farach-Carson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sex-associated differences in bone metastasis formation from breast, lung, and prostate cancer exist in clinical studies, but have not been systematically reviewed. Differences in the bone marrow niche can be attributed to sexual dimorphism, to genetic variations that affect sex hormone levels, or to the direct effects of sex hormones, natural or exogenously delivered. This review describes the present understanding of sex-associated and sex hormone level differences in the marrow niche and in formation of bone metastasis during the transition of these three cancers from treatable disease to an often untreatable, lethal metastatic one. Our purpose is to provide insight into some underlying molecular mechanisms for hormonal influence in bone metastasis formation, and to the potential influence of sexual dimorphism, genetic differences affecting sex assignment, and sex hormone level differences on the bone niche and its favorability for metastasis formation. We reviewed publications in PubMed and EMBASE, including full length manuscripts, case reports, and clinical studies of relevance to our topic. We focused on bone metastasis formation in breast, lung, and prostate cancer because all three commonly present with bone metastases. Several clear observations emerged. For breast cancer bone metastasis formation, estrogen receptor (ER signaling pathways indicate a role for ER beta (ERβ. Estrogen influences the bone microenvironment, creating and conditioning a favorable niche for colonization and breast cancer progression. For lung cancer, studies support the hypothesis that females have a more favorable bone microenvironment for metastasis formation. For prostate cancer, a decrease in the relative androgen to estrogen balance or a “feminization” of bone marrow favors bone metastasis formation, with a potentially important role for ERβ that may be similar to that in breast cancer. Long-term estrogen administration or androgen blockade in males

  10. Oxidative metabolism in muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, M; Binzoni, T; Quaresima, V

    1997-01-01

    Oxidative metabolism is the dominant source of energy for skeletal muscle. Near-infrared spectroscopy allows the non-invasive measurement of local oxygenation, blood flow and oxygen consumption. Although several muscle studies have been made using various near-infrared optical techniques, it is still difficult to interpret the local muscle metabolism properly. The main findings of near-infrared spectroscopy muscle studies in human physiology and clinical medicine are summarized. The advantage...

  11. Distribution of Penicillin G Residues in Culled Dairy Cow Muscles: Implications for Residue Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration sets tolerances for veterinary drug residues in muscle, but does not specify which type of muscle should be analyzed. In order to determine if antibiotic residue levels are dependent on muscle type, 7 culled dairy cows were dosed with Penicillin G (Pen G) from ...

  12. Administration of Anesthesia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral ... Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral ...

  13. Administration of Anesthesia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial ... and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial ...

  14. Administration of Anesthesia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial surgeon to ... in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial surgeon to ...

  15. Administration of Anesthesia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... education and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and ... education and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and ...

  16. 45 CFR 73.735-502 - Permissible acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors. (a) An employee may accept a gift, gratuity, favor, entertainment, loan or similar favor of monetary value which stems from a family relationship such as that between the employee and his or her parents, spouse or children, if it is clear that the relationship is...

  17. A Favorable Course of Palliative Sedation: Searching for Indicators Using Caregivers' Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkkemper, T.; Rietjens, J.A.C.; Deliens, L.; Ribbe, M.W.; Swart, S.J.; Loer, S.A.; Zuurmond, W.W.A.; Perez, R.S.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Comparing characteristics of a favorable sedation course during palliative sedation to a less favorable course based on the reports Dutch physicians and nurses.Results:Cases identified as having a favorable sedation course less often concerned a male patient (P = .019 nurses' cases),

  18. Mechanisms of cisplatin-induced muscle atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Hiroyasu; Sagara, Atsunobu; Arakawa, Kazuhiko; Sugiyama, Ryoto; Hirosaki, Akiko; Takase, Kazuhide; Jo, Ara; Sato, Ken; Chiba, Yoshihiko; Yamazaki, Mitsuaki; Matoba, Motohiro; Narita, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue is the most common side effect of chemotherapy. However, the mechanisms of “muscle fatigue” induced by anti-cancer drugs are not fully understood. We therefore investigated the muscle-atrophic effect of cisplatin, a platinum-based anti-cancer drug, in mice. C57BL/6J mice were treated with cisplatin (3 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 4 consecutive days. On Day 5, hindlimb and quadriceps muscles were isolated from mice. The loss of body weight and food intake under the administration of cisplatin was the same as those in a dietary restriction (DR) group. Under the present conditions, the administration of cisplatin significantly decreased not only the muscle mass of the hindlimb and quadriceps but also the myofiber diameter, compared to those in the DR group. The mRNA expression levels of muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx), muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF1) and forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) were significantly and further increased by cisplatin treated group, compared to DR. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of myostatin and p21 were significantly upregulated by the administration of cisplatin, compared to DR. On the other hand, the phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO3a, which leads to the blockade of the upregulation of MuRF1 and MAFbx, was significantly and dramatically decreased by cisplatin. These findings suggest that the administration of cisplatin increases atrophic gene expression, and may lead to an imbalance between protein synthesis and protein degradation pathways, which would lead to muscle atrophy. This phenomenon could, at least in part, explain the mechanism of cisplatin-induced muscle fatigue. - Highlights: • Cisplatin decreased mass and myofiber diameter in quadriceps muscle. • The mRNA of MAFbx, MuRF1 and FOXO3 were increased by the cisplatin. • The mRNA of myostatin and p21 were upregulated by cisplatin. • The phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO3a was decreased by cisplatin

  19. Mechanisms of cisplatin-induced muscle atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Hiroyasu, E-mail: sakai@hoshi.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Division of Pharmacy Professional Development and Research, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Sagara, Atsunobu; Arakawa, Kazuhiko; Sugiyama, Ryoto; Hirosaki, Akiko; Takase, Kazuhide; Jo, Ara [Department of Pharmacology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Sato, Ken [Department of Pharmacology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Division of Pharmacy Professional Development and Research, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Chiba, Yoshihiko [Department of Biology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Yamazaki, Mitsuaki [Department of Anesthesiology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama-shi, Toyama 9300194 (Japan); Matoba, Motohiro [Department of Palliative Medicine and Psychooncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 1040045 (Japan); Narita, Minoru, E-mail: narita@hoshi.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    Fatigue is the most common side effect of chemotherapy. However, the mechanisms of “muscle fatigue” induced by anti-cancer drugs are not fully understood. We therefore investigated the muscle-atrophic effect of cisplatin, a platinum-based anti-cancer drug, in mice. C57BL/6J mice were treated with cisplatin (3 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 4 consecutive days. On Day 5, hindlimb and quadriceps muscles were isolated from mice. The loss of body weight and food intake under the administration of cisplatin was the same as those in a dietary restriction (DR) group. Under the present conditions, the administration of cisplatin significantly decreased not only the muscle mass of the hindlimb and quadriceps but also the myofiber diameter, compared to those in the DR group. The mRNA expression levels of muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx), muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF1) and forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) were significantly and further increased by cisplatin treated group, compared to DR. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of myostatin and p21 were significantly upregulated by the administration of cisplatin, compared to DR. On the other hand, the phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO3a, which leads to the blockade of the upregulation of MuRF1 and MAFbx, was significantly and dramatically decreased by cisplatin. These findings suggest that the administration of cisplatin increases atrophic gene expression, and may lead to an imbalance between protein synthesis and protein degradation pathways, which would lead to muscle atrophy. This phenomenon could, at least in part, explain the mechanism of cisplatin-induced muscle fatigue. - Highlights: • Cisplatin decreased mass and myofiber diameter in quadriceps muscle. • The mRNA of MAFbx, MuRF1 and FOXO3 were increased by the cisplatin. • The mRNA of myostatin and p21 were upregulated by cisplatin. • The phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO3a was decreased by cisplatin.

  20. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Matthew E.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease. PMID:26500547

  1. Administrative Appeals and ADR in Danish Administrative Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Inger Marie; Gøtze, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Administrative Appeals, review, administrative tribunals, ombudsman, alternative dispute resolution......Administrative Appeals, review, administrative tribunals, ombudsman, alternative dispute resolution...

  2. Creatine Supplementation and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism for Building Muscle Mass- Review of the Potential Mechanisms of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshidfar, Farnaz; Pinder, Mark A; Myrie, Semone B

    2017-01-01

    Creatine, a very popular supplement among athletic populations, is of growing interest for clinical applications. Since over 90% of creatine is stored in skeletal muscle, the effect of creatine supplementation on muscle metabolism is a widely studied area. While numerous studies over the past few decades have shown that creatine supplementation has many favorable effects on skeletal muscle physiology and metabolism, including enhancing muscle mass (growth/hypertrophy); the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This report reviews studies addressing the mechanisms of action of creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle growth/hypertrophy. Early research proposed that the osmotic effect of creatine supplementation serves as a cellular stressor (osmosensing) that acts as an anabolic stimulus for protein synthesis signal pathways. Other reports indicated that creatine directly affects muscle protein synthesis via modulations of components in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Creatine may also directly affect the myogenic process (formation of muscle tissue), by altering secretions of myokines, such as myostatin and insulin-like growth factor-1, and expressions of myogenic regulatory factors, resulting in enhanced satellite cells mitotic activities and differentiation into myofiber. Overall, there is still no clear understanding of the mechanisms of action regarding how creatine affects muscle mass/growth, but current evidence suggests it may exert its effects through multiple approaches, with converging impacts on protein synthesis and myogenesis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul

    2016-01-01

    , of altered protein expressions profiles and/or their posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics offer enormous promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance and exercise-induced adaptation; however, skeletal muscle......Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability...... of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence...

  4. Muscles, exercise and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K; Febbraio, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ. Accordingly, we have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibres and exert either autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as myokines....... The finding that the muscle secretome consists of several hundred secreted peptides provides a conceptual basis and a whole new paradigm for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs, such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, bones and brain. However, some myokines exert their effects within...... the muscle itself. Thus, myostatin, LIF, IL-6 and IL-7 are involved in muscle hypertrophy and myogenesis, whereas BDNF and IL-6 are involved in AMPK-mediated fat oxidation. IL-6 also appears to have systemic effects on the liver, adipose tissue and the immune system, and mediates crosstalk between intestinal...

  5. Accessory piriformis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Develi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Piriformis muscle originates from facies pelvica of sacrum and inserts on the trochanter major. It is one of the lateral rotator muscles of the hip and a landmark point in the gluteal region since n. ischiadicus descends to the thigh by passing close to the muscle. This contiguity may be associated with the irritation of the nerve which is known as piriformis syndrome. A rare anatomic variation of the muscle which observed on 74 years old male cadaver is discussed in this case report. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 182-183

  6. A favorable course of palliative sedation: searching for indicators using caregivers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkkemper, Tijn; Rietjens, Judith A C; Deliens, Luc; Ribbe, Miel W; Swart, Siebe J; Loer, Stephan A; Zuurmond, Wouter W A; Perez, Roberto S G M

    2015-03-01

    Comparing characteristics of a favorable sedation course during palliative sedation to a less favorable course based on the reports Dutch physicians and nurses. Cases identified as having a favorable sedation course less often concerned a male patient (P = .019 nurses' cases), reached the intended sedation depth significantly quicker (P sedation (P = .015 physicians' cases), and had a shorter total duration of sedation compared (P sedation course. A favorable course during palliative sedation seems more probable when health care professionals report on a (relatively) shorter time to reach the required depth of sedation and when a deeper level of sedation can be obtained. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Administration of Anesthesia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft tissues of the face, mouth ... involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial ...

  8. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. We therefore investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity....... Skeletal muscle specific angiogenesis was induced by adding the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist Prazosin to the drinking water of Sprague Dawley rats (n=33) while 34 rats served as controls. Insulin sensitivity was measured ≥40 h after termination of the 3-week Prazosin treatment, which ensured...... that Prazosin was cleared from the blood stream. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was measured in conscious, unrestrained rats by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Tissue specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by administration of 2-deoxy-[(3)H]-Glucose during the plateau phase of the clamp. Whole...

  9. Passive Muscle-Tendon Unit Gearing is Joint Dependent in Human Medial Gastrocnemius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma F Hodson-Tole

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscles change length and develop force both passively and actively. Gearing allows muscle fibre length changes to be uncoupled from those of the whole muscle-tendon unit. During active contractions this process allows muscles to operate at mechanically favorable conditions for power or economical force production. Here we ask whether gearing is constant in passive muscle; determining the relationship between fascicle and muscle-tendon unit length change in the bi-articular medial gastrocnemius and investigating the influence of whether motion occurs at the knee or ankle joint. Specifically, the same muscle-tendon unit length changes were elicited by rotating either the ankle or knee joint whilst simultaneously measuring fascicle lengths in proximal and distal muscle regions using B-mode ultrasound. In both the proximal and distal muscle region, passive gearing values differed depending on whether ankle or knee motion occurred. Fascicle length changes were greater with ankle motion, likely reflecting anatomical differences in proximal and distal passive tendinous tissues, as well as shape changes of the adjacent mono-articular soleus. This suggests that there is joint-dependent dissociation between the mechanical behaviour of muscle fibres and the muscle-tendon unit during passive joint motions that may be important to consider when developing accurate models of bi-articular muscles.

  10. Chronic Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Induces Favorable Ceramide Profiles in Selectively Bred Alcohol-Preferring (P Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Godfrey

    Full Text Available Heavy alcohol consumption has detrimental neurologic effects, inducing widespread neuronal loss in both fetuses and adults. One proposed mechanism of ethanol-induced cell loss with sufficient exposure is an elevation in concentrations of bioactive lipids that mediate apoptosis, including the membrane sphingolipid metabolites ceramide and sphingosine. While these naturally-occurring lipids serve as important modulators of normal neuronal development, elevated levels resulting from various extracellular insults have been implicated in pathological apoptosis of neurons and oligodendrocytes in several neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Prior work has shown that acute administration of ethanol to developing mice increases levels of ceramide in multiple brain regions, hypothesized to be a mediator of fetal alcohol-induced neuronal loss. Elevated ceramide levels have also been implicated in ethanol-mediated neurodegeneration in adult animals and humans. Here, we determined the effect of chronic voluntary ethanol consumption on lipid profiles in brain and peripheral tissues from adult alcohol-preferring (P rats to further examine alterations in lipid composition as a potential contributor to ethanol-induced cellular damage. P rats were exposed for 13 weeks to a 20% ethanol intermittent-access drinking paradigm (45 ethanol sessions total or were given access only to water (control. Following the final session, tissues were collected for subsequent chromatographic analysis of lipid content and enzymatic gene expression. Contrary to expectations, ethanol-exposed rats displayed substantial reductions in concentrations of ceramides in forebrain and heart relative to non-exposed controls, and modest but significant decreases in liver cholesterol. qRT-PCR analysis showed a reduction in the expression of sphingolipid delta(4-desaturase (Degs2, an enzyme involved in de novo ceramide synthesis. These findings indicate that ethanol intake levels

  11. Favorable Vascular Actions of Angiotensin-(1-7) in Human Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinzari, Francesca; Tesauro, Manfredi; Veneziani, Augusto; Mores, Nadia; Di Daniele, Nicola; Cardillo, Carmine

    2018-01-01

    Obese patients have vascular dysfunction related to impaired insulin-stimulated vasodilation and increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstriction. In contrast to the harmful vascular actions of angiotensin (Ang) II, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 product Ang-(1-7) has shown to exert cardiovascular and metabolic benefits in experimental models through stimulation of the Mas receptor. We, therefore, examined the effects of exogenous Ang-(1-7) on vasodilator tone and endothelin-1-dependent vasoconstriction in obese patients. Intra-arterial infusion of Ang-(1-7) (10 nmol/min) resulted in significant increase in unstimulated forearm flow ( P =0.03), an effect that was not affected by the Mas receptor antagonist A779 (10 nmol/min; P >0.05). In the absence of hyperinsulinemia, however, forearm flow responses to graded doses of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were not different during Ang-(1-7) administration compared with saline (both P >0.05). During infusion of regular insulin (0.15 mU/kg per minute), by contrast, endothelium-dependent vasodilator response to acetylcholine was significantly enhanced by Ang-(1-7) ( P =0.04 versus saline), whereas endothelium-independent response to sodium nitroprusside was not modified ( P =0.91). Finally, Ang-(1-7) decreased the vasodilator response to endothelin A receptor blockade (BQ-123; 10 nmol/min) compared with saline (6±1% versus 93±17%; P obese patients Ang-(1-7) has favorable effects not only to improve insulin-stimulated endothelium-dependent vasodilation but also to blunt endothelin-1-dependent vasoconstrictor tone. These findings provide support for targeting Ang-(1-7) to counteract the hemodynamic abnormalities of human obesity. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A

    2012-01-01

    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  13. the sternalis muscle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-08-17

    Aug 17, 2009 ... CASE REPORT. CASE. 72. SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • August 2009. CASE R. Introduction ... tion is being given to imaging the medial breast, and the sternalis muscle will be revealed with increasing ... The origin of this muscle is uncertain, with pectoralis major, rectus abdominus and sternomastoid ...

  14. The hamstring muscle complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, A. D.; Wieldraaijer, T.; Kerkhoffs, G. M.; Kleipool, R. P.; Engebretsen, L.; van Dijk, C. N.; Golanó, P.

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical appearance of the hamstring muscle complex was studied to provide hypotheses for the hamstring injury pattern and to provide reference values of origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, musculotendinous junction (MTJ) length as well as width and length of a tendinous

  15. Muscle as a secretory organ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent e...... proteins produced by skeletal muscle are dependent upon contraction. Therefore, it is likely that myokines may contribute in the mediation of the health benefits of exercise.......Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent...... evidence has identified skeletal muscle as a secretory organ. We have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and exert either autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine effects should be classified as "myokines." The muscle secretome consists...

  16. Irradiation followed by muscle surgery for dysthyroid ophthalmopathy with diplopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Satoko; Asakura, Akiko [Iwate Prefectural Central Hospital, Morioka (Japan); Ogasawara, Kosuke; Mori, Toshiro; Shibuya, Masako; Kurihara, Hideo; Tazawa, Yutaka

    1995-10-01

    We obtained favorable therapeutic outcome in 12 cases of dysthyroid ophthalmopathy with diplopia. All the patients underwent Lineac irradiation to the retrobulbar tissue totalling 15 to 20 Gy over 10 days. Extraocular muscle surgery was performed 30 days after irradiation. Diplopia at the primary position almost disappeared one day after surgery. An additional surgery was necessary in one case. The interval between onset of diplopia and surgery averaged 6.1 months. Irradiation prior to muscle surgery appeared to be beneficial in allowing an early surgery and in avoiding surgical overcorrection. (author).

  17. A muscle model for hybrid muscle activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klauer Christian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To develop model-based control strategies for Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES in order to support weak voluntary muscle contractions, a hybrid model for describing joint motions induced by concurrent voluntary-and FES induced muscle activation is proposed. It is based on a Hammerstein model – as commonly used in feedback controlled FES – and exemplarily applied to describe the shoulder abduction joint angle. Main component of a Hammerstein muscle model is usually a static input nonlinearity depending on the stimulation intensity. To additionally incorporate voluntary contributions, we extended the static non-linearity by a second input describing the intensity of the voluntary contribution that is estimated by electromyography (EMG measurements – even during active FES. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN is used to describe the static input non-linearity. The output of the ANN drives a second-order linear dynamical system that describes the combined muscle activation and joint angle dynamics. The tunable parameters are adapted to the individual subject by a system identification approach using previously recorded I/O-data. The model has been validated in two healthy subjects yielding RMS values for the joint angle error of 3.56° and 3.44°, respectively.

  18. Extracellular polysaccharides purified from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001 (Polycan) inhibit dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyung-Rae; Park, Dong-Chan; Jung, Go-Woon

    2018-01-01

    The present study assessed the beneficial skeletal muscle-preserving effects of extracellular polysaccharides from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001 (Polycan) (EAP) on dexamethasone (DEXA)-induced catabolic muscle atrophy in mice. To investigate whether EAP prevented catabolic DEXA-induced muscle atrophy, and to examine its mechanisms of action, EAP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was administered orally, once a day for 24 days. EAP treatment was initiated 2 weeks prior to DEXA treatment (1 mg/kg, once a day for 10 days) in mice. Body weight alterations, serum biochemistry, calf thickness, calf muscle strength, gastrocnemius muscle thickness and weight, gastrocnemius muscle antioxidant defense parameters, gastrocnemius muscle mRNA expression, histology and histomorphometry were subsequently assessed. After 24 days, DEXA control mice exhibited muscle atrophy according to all criteria indices. However, these muscle atrophy symptoms were significantly inhibited by oral treatment with all three doses of EAP. Regarding possible mechanisms of action, EAP exhibited favorable ameliorating effects on DEXA-induced catabolic muscle atrophy via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects; these effects were mediated by modulation of the expression of genes involved in muscle protein synthesis (AKT serine/threonine kinase 1, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, adenosine A1 receptor and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4) and degradation (atrogin-1, muscle RING-finger protein-1, myostatin and sirtuin 1). Therefore, these results indicated that EAP may be helpful in improving muscle atrophies of various etiologies. EAP at 400 mg/kg exhibited favorable muscle protective effects against DEXA-induced catabolic muscle atrophy, comparable with the effects of oxymetholone (50 mg/kg), which has been used to treat various muscle disorders. PMID:29138805

  19. Administrative Data Repository (ADR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Administrative Data Repository (ADR) was established to provide support for the administrative data elements relative to multiple categories of a person entity...

  20. EPA Administrative Enforcement Dockets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Administrative Enforcement Dockets database contains the electronic dockets for administrative penalty cases filed by EPA Regions and Headquarters. Visitors...

  1. Philippines - Revenue Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Challenge Account-Philippines' (MCA-P) implementation of the Revenue Administration Reform Project (RARP) is expected to improve tax administration,...

  2. Muscle-directed gene therapy for phenylketonuria (PKU): Development of transgenic mice with muscle-specific phenylalanine hydroxylase expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, C.O.; Messing, A.; Wolff, J.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an attractive target for gene therapy because of shortcomings in current therapy including lifelong commitment to a difficult and expensive diet, persistent mild cognitive deficits in some children despite adequate dietary therapy, and maternal PKU syndrome. Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is normally expressed only in liver, but we propose to treat PKU by introducing the gene for PAH into muscle. In order to evaluate both the safety and efficacy of this approach, we have a developed a trangenic mouse which expresses PAH in both cardiac and skeletal muscle. The transgene includes promoter and enhancer sequences from the mouse muscle creatine kinase (MCK) gene fused to the mouse liver PAH cDNA. Mice which have inherited the transgene are healthy, active, and do not exhibit any signs of muscle weakness or wasting. Ectopic PAH expression in muscle is not detrimental to the health, neurologic function, or reproduction of the mice. Pah{sup enu2} hyperphenylalaninemic mice, a model of human PAH deficiency, bred to carry the transgene have substantial PAH expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle but none in liver. Muscle PAH expression alone does not complement the hyperphenylalaninemic phenotype of Pah{sup enu2} mice. However, administration of reduced tetrahydrobiopterin to transgenic Pah{sup enu2} mice is associated with a 25% mean decrease in serum phenylalanine levels. We predict that ectopic expression of PAH in muscle along with adequate muscle supplies of reduced biopterin cofactor will decrease hyperphenylalaninemia in PKU.

  3. Muscles and their myokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2011-01-15

    In the past, the role of physical activity as a life-style modulating factor has been considered as that of a tool to balance energy intake. Although it is important to avoid obesity, physical inactivity should be discussed in a much broader context. There is accumulating epidemiological evidence that a physically active life plays an independent role in the protection against type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, dementia and even depression. For most of the last century, researchers sought a link between muscle contraction and humoral changes in the form of an 'exercise factor', which could be released from skeletal muscle during contraction and mediate some of the exercise-induced metabolic changes in other organs such as the liver and the adipose tissue. We have suggested that cytokines or other peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibres and exert autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as 'myokines'. Given that skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the human body, our discovery that contracting skeletal muscle secretes proteins sets a novel paradigm: skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ producing and releasing myokines, which work in a hormone-like fashion, exerting specific endocrine effects on other organs. Other myokines work via paracrine mechanisms, exerting local effects on signalling pathways involved in muscle metabolism. It has been suggested that myokines may contribute to exercise-induced protection against several chronic diseases.

  4. Muscle Bioenergetic Considerations for Intrinsic Laryngeal Skeletal Muscle Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandage, Mary J.; Smith, Audrey G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Intrinsic laryngeal skeletal muscle bioenergetics, the means by which muscles produce fuel for muscle metabolism, is an understudied aspect of laryngeal physiology with direct implications for voice habilitation and rehabilitation. The purpose of this review is to describe bioenergetic pathways identified in limb skeletal muscle and…

  5. Muscle contraction and force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Risbo, Jens; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction studies often focus solely on myofibres and the proteins known to be involved in the processes of sarcomere shortening and cross-bridge cycling, but skeletal muscle also comprises a very elaborate ancillary network of capillaries, which not only play a vital role in terms...... of nutrient delivery and waste product removal, but are also tethered to surrounding fibres by collagen "wires". This paper therefore addresses aspects of the ancillary network of skeletal muscle at both a microscopic and functional level in order to better understand its role holistically as a considerable...

  6. A generalização a partir do tratamento com fricativas: ambientes favoráveis versus ambientes pouco favoráveis e neutros The generalization through the treatment with fricatives: favorable environments versus unfavorable and neutral environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Marafiga Wiethan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar e comparar a ocorrência e os tipos de generalização observados a partir do tratamento das fricativas /z/, /ζ/ e /k/ em dois grupos de crianças, um utilizando palavras com contextos fonológicos favoráveis e outro os contextos pouco favoráveis e neutros. Seis crianças com desvio fonológico e idades entre 4:7 e 7:8 participaram do estudo com a autorização dos responsáveis. Realizaram-se avaliações fonoaudiológicas e complementares para o diagnóstico do desvio fonológico. Os sujeitos foram pareados de acordo com a gravidade do desvio, sexo, faixa etária e aspectos do sistema fonológico em relação aos fonemas alterados. Metade das crianças foi tratada com palavras em que os fonemas /z/, /ζ/ e /k/ encontravam-se em ambientes fonológicos favoráveis e a outra metade com ambientes pouco favoráveis e neutros. Foram realizadas oito sessões e, após estas, nova avaliação de fala foi realizada para verificar os tipos de generalização obtidos. Os percentuais de generalizações foram comparados entre os grupos por meio do teste estatístico de Mann-Whitney (pThe aim of this study was to analyze and compare the occurrence and the types of generalization observed through the treatment of the fricatives /z/, /ζ/ and /k/ in two groups of children, one using words with favorable phonological contexts and another with unfavorable and neutral contexts. Six children with phonological disorder between 4:7 and 7:8 year-old participated in the study, with their parents' authorization. There were speech-language and complementary evaluations to diagnose the phonological disorder. The subjects were matched according to the severity of the phonological disorder, sex, age and aspects of the phonological system in relation to the altered phonemes. Half the children were treated with words in which the phonemes /z/, /ζ/ and /k/ were in favorable phonological environments and the other half with unfavorable

  7. PNW cetacean muscle biochemistry - Muscle Myoglobin Content and Acid Buffering Capacity of Cetaceans from the Pacific Northwest to Assess Dive Capacity and the Development of Diving Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project assesses the development of two important skeletal muscle adaptations for diving (enhanced myoglobin content and acid buffering capacities) in a range...

  8. Painful unilateral temporalis muscle enlargement: reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsetos, Christos D; Bianchi, Michael A; Jaffery, Fizza; Koutzaki, Sirma; Zarella, Mark; Slater, Robert

    2014-06-01

    An instance of isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy (reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy with fiber type 1 predominance) confirmed by muscle biopsy with histochemical fiber typing and image analysis in a 62 year-old man is reported. The patient presented with bruxism and a painful swelling of the temple. Absence of asymmetry or other abnormalities of the craniofacial skeleton was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and cephalometric analyses. The patient achieved symptomatic improvement only after undergoing botulinum toxin injections. Muscle biopsy is key in the diagnosis of reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy and its distinction from masticatory muscle myopathy (hypertrophic branchial myopathy) and other non-reactive causes of painful asymmetric temporalis muscle enlargement.

  9. The administrative contract asimilated to administrative acts in administrative litigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia GORIUC

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An administrative contract is the will between a public authority either a person empowe¬red by it, and one or more natural or legal persons, whether private or public, pursuing the realization of a public interest and to which a special scheme of administrative law applies. The typology of administrative contracts is very varied, depending on the evolution of the society’s needs. Thus, they are currently included in the category of administrative contracts: concession contracts and public procurement contracts, contracts for the use of public goods, public management contracts, public-private partnership contracts, public lending contracts and constitutive documents of the associative structures of public authorities.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of the uranium favorability in the area northeast of Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, G.L.; Edmond, C.L.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.

    1977-08-01

    Rock and steam-sediment samples were collected to define areas favorable for uranium deposits northeast of Gunnison, Colorado. Areas considered most favorable for further exploration are: (1) the Bronco Mountain area, approximately 10 mi south of Taylor Park Reservoir, (2) the area near the Big Red mine, and (3) the area 5 mi north-northeast of Taylor Park Reservoir. On the basis of known deposits in the Marshall Pass and Cochetopa districts, fault contacts between Precambrian granites and Paleozoic or Mesozoic sedimentary rocks are favorable structural sites

  11. Optimal workloop energetics of muscle-actuated systems: an impedance matching view.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed A Farahat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrative approaches to studying the coupled dynamics of skeletal muscles with their loads while under neural control have focused largely on questions pertaining to the postural and dynamical stability of animals and humans. Prior studies have focused on how the central nervous system actively modulates muscle mechanical impedance to generate and stabilize motion and posture. However, the question of whether muscle impedance properties can be neurally modulated to create favorable mechanical energetics, particularly in the context of periodic tasks, remains open. Through muscle stiffness tuning, we hypothesize that a pair of antagonist muscles acting against a common load may produce significantly more power synergistically than individually when impedance matching conditions are met between muscle and load. Since neurally modulated muscle stiffness contributes to the coupled muscle-load stiffness, we further anticipate that power-optimal oscillation frequencies will occur at frequencies greater than the natural frequency of the load. These hypotheses were evaluated computationally by applying optimal control methods to a bilinear muscle model, and also evaluated through in vitro measurements on frog Plantaris longus muscles acting individually and in pairs upon a mass-spring-damper load. We find a 7-fold increase in mechanical power when antagonist muscles act synergistically compared to individually at a frequency higher than the load natural frequency. These observed behaviors are interpreted in the context of resonance tuning and the engineering notion of impedance matching. These findings suggest that the central nervous system can adopt strategies to harness inherent muscle impedance in relation to external loads to attain favorable mechanical energetics.

  12. Muscles and their myokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2011-01-01

    In the past, the role of physical activity as a life-style modulating factor has been considered as that of a tool to balance energy intake. Although it is important to avoid obesity, physical inactivity should be discussed in a much broader context. There is accumulating epidemiological evidence...... or endocrine effects should be classified as 'myokines'. Given that skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the human body, our discovery that contracting skeletal muscle secretes proteins sets a novel paradigm: skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ producing and releasing myokines, which work in a hormone......-like fashion, exerting specific endocrine effects on other organs. Other myokines work via paracrine mechanisms, exerting local effects on signalling pathways involved in muscle metabolism. It has been suggested that myokines may contribute to exercise-induced protection against several chronic diseases....

  13. Pneumatic Muscle Actuator Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lilly, John

    2000-01-01

    This research is relevant to the Air Fore mission because pneumatic muscle actuation devices arc advantageous for certain types of robotics as well as for strength and/or mobility assistance for humans...

  14. Brain–muscle interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... Clipboard: Brain–muscle interface: The next-generation BMI. Radhika Rajan Neeraj Jain ... Keywords. Assistive devices; brain–machine interface; motor cortex; paralysis; spinal cord injury ... Journal of Biosciences | News ...

  15. Muscle glycogenolysis during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ruderman, N B; Gavras, H

    1982-01-01

    glycogenolysis during exercise: contractions principally stimulate glycogenolysis early in exercise, and a direct effect of epinephrine on muscle is needed for continued glycogenolysis. In addition, epinephrine increased oxygen consumption and glucose uptake in both resting and electrically stimulated...

  16. Water and Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Grazi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between water and the protein of the contractile machinery as well as the tendency of these proteins to form geometrically ordered structures provide a link between water and muscle contraction. Protein osmotic pressure is strictly related to the chemical potential of the contractile proteins, to the stiffness of muscle structures and to the viscosity of the sliding of the thin over the thick filaments. Muscle power output and the steady rate of contraction are linked by modulating a single parameter, a viscosity coefficient. Muscle operation is characterized by working strokes of much shorter length and much quicker than in the classical model. As a consequence the force delivered and the stiffness attained by attached cross-bridges is much larger than usually believed.

  17. Muscle function loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or head are damaged, you may have difficulty chewing and swallowing or closing your eyes. In these ... Medical Professional Muscle paralysis always requires immediate medical attention. If you notice gradual weakening or problems with ...

  18. FRACTAL PROPERTY OF ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatko Brnjas

    2014-01-01

    To understand the constant increase in administration, we need a new approach to the administration. For many years, the administration has intensified as a closed science, associated only with economics, law and political science. However, this approach did not bring anything good, because almost nothing in the administration has improved. Therefore, it is necessary to connect the administration with the natural sciences which give the best description of the world around us. Because of this...

  19. ACE2 is augmented in dystrophic skeletal muscle and plays a role in decreasing associated fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Riquelme

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most common inherited neuromuscular disease and is characterized by absence of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin, muscle wasting, and fibrosis. We previously demonstrated that systemic infusion or oral administration of angiotensin-(1-7 (Ang-(1-7, a peptide with opposing effects to angiotensin II, normalized skeletal muscle architecture, decreased local fibrosis, and improved muscle function in mdx mice, a dystrophic model for DMD. In this study, we investigated the presence, activity, and localization of ACE2, the enzyme responsible for Ang-(1-7 production, in wild type (wt and mdx skeletal muscle and in a model of induced chronic damage in wt mice. All dystrophic muscles studied showed higher ACE2 activity than wt muscle. Immunolocalization studies indicated that ACE2 was localized mainly at the sarcolemma and, to a lesser extent, associated with interstitial cells. Similar results were observed in the model of chronic damage in the tibialis anterior (TA muscle. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of ACE2 overexpression in mdx TA muscle using an adenovirus containing human ACE2 sequence and showed that expression of ACE2 reduced the fibrosis associated with TA dystrophic muscles. Moreover, we observed fewer inflammatory cells infiltrating the mdx muscle. Finally, mdx gastrocnemius muscles from mice infused with Ang-(1-7, which decreases fibrosis, contain less ACE2 associated with the muscle. This is the first evidence supporting ACE2 as an important therapeutic target to improve the dystrophic skeletal muscle phenotype.

  20. Case of administrative dispute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhemazie Ibraimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The activity of administrative bodies includes big numbers of various acts and actions, through which the will of public administration is formed. The will of public administration bodies, expressed in administrative individual and normative acts, in administrative contracts and real acts, finds its reflection in the Constitution, laws and other provisions of legal character. All this activity is not inerrant and therefore, it is not uncontrollable. The supervision of executive activity is subject to political control of administrative acts through authorities designated for this purpose, as well as internal control and the judicial control. The institution of judicial control of administrative acts and actions appears as very important and widely treated in the legal doctrine. The protection of constitutional and legal rights of private persons is accomplished by subjecting administrative activity both to internal administrative control, as well as to the judicial control in accordance with legal provisions. The judicial control of administrative acts represents a constitutional guarantee for citizens to protect their rights through public and fair trial by an independent and impartial court. In this way, the Constitution empowers the common administrative court that invalidates an action or administrative act, but not all administrative acts may be subject to administrative dispute, with the exception of cases against which the administrative conflict cannot be carried out (negative enumeration.

  1. Major Deficiencies Preventing Favorable Audit Opinions on the FY 1997 DoD Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1998-01-01

    The audit objective was to identify and summarize the major deficiencies that prevented favorable audit opinions on the FY 1997 DoD Financial Statements, and to identify the actions taken or under way...

  2. Distribution of PEG-coated hollow polyelectrolyte microcapsules after introduction into the circulatory system and muscles of zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Borvinskaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of polyelectrolyte multilayer microcapsules as carriers for fluorescent molecular probes is a prospective technique for monitoring the physiological characteristics of animal vasculature and interstitial environment in vivo. Polyelectrolyte microcapsules have many features that favor their use as implantable carriers of optical sensors, but little information is available on their interactions with complex living tissues, distribution or residence time following different routes of administration in the body of vertebrates. Using the common fish model, the zebrafish Danio rerio, we studied in vivo the distribution of non-biodegradable microcapsules covered with polyethylene glycol (PEG over time in the adults and evaluated potential side effects of their delivery into the fish bloodstream and muscles. Fluorescent microcapsules administered into the bloodstream and interstitially (in concentrations that were sufficient for visualization and spectral signal recording both showed negligible acute toxicity to the fishes during three weeks of observation. The distribution pattern of microcapsules delivered into the bloodstream was stable for at least one week, with microcapsules prevalent in capillaries-rich organs. However, after intramuscular injection, the phagocytosis of the microcapsules by immune cells was manifested, indicating considerable immunogenicity of the microcapsules despite PEG coverage. The long-term negative effects of chronic inflammation were also investigated in fish muscles by histological analysis.

  3. Administration of Anesthesia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... best performed by a trained surgeon with specialized education and training. Click here to find out more. ... more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, ...

  4. Uranium favorability of late Eocene through Pliocene rocks of the South Texas Coastal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Brogdon, L.D.; Jones, C.A.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-02-01

    The results of a subsurface uranium favorability study of Tertiary rocks (late Eocene through Pliocene) in the Coastal Plain of South Texas are given. In ascending order, these rock units include the Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand. The Vicksburg Group, Anahuac Formation, and Fleming Formation were not considered because they have unfavorable lithologies. The Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand contain sandstones that may be favorable uranium hosts under certain environmental and structural conditions. All except the Yegua are known to contain ore-grade uranium deposits. Yegua and Jackson sandstones are found in strand plain-barrier bar systems that are aligned parallel to depositional and structural strike. These sands grade into shelf muds on the east, and lagoonal sediments updip toward the west. The lagoonal sediments in the Jackson are interrupted by dip-aligned fluvial systems. In both units, favorable areas are found in the lagoonal sands and in sands on the updip side of the strand-plain system. Favorable areas are also found along the margins of fluvial systems in the Jackson. The Frio and Catahoula consist of extensive alluvial-plain deposits. Favorable areas for uranium deposits are found along the margins of the paleo-channels where favorable structural features and numerous optimum sands are present. The Oakville and Goliad Formations consist of extensive continental deposits of fluvial sandstones. In large areas, these fluvial sandstones are multistoried channel sandstones that form very thick sandstone sequences. Favorable areas are found along the margins of the channel sequences. In the Goliad, favorable areas are also found on the updip margin of strand-plain sandstones where there are several sandstones of optimum thickness.

  5. Uranium favorability of late Eocene through Pliocene rocks of the South Texas Coastal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Brogdon, L.D.; Jones, C.A.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-02-01

    The results of a subsurface uranium favorability study of Tertiary rocks (late Eocene through Pliocene) in the Coastal Plain of South Texas are given. In ascending order, these rock units include the Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand. The Vicksburg Group, Anahuac Formation, and Fleming Formation were not considered because they have unfavorable lithologies. The Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand contain sandstones that may be favorable uranium hosts under certain environmental and structural conditions. All except the Yegua are known to contain ore-grade uranium deposits. Yegua and Jackson sandstones are found in strand plain-barrier bar systems that are aligned parallel to depositional and structural strike. These sands grade into shelf muds on the east, and lagoonal sediments updip toward the west. The lagoonal sediments in the Jackson are interrupted by dip-aligned fluvial systems. In both units, favorable areas are found in the lagoonal sands and in sands on the updip side of the strand-plain system. Favorable areas are also found along the margins of fluvial systems in the Jackson. The Frio and Catahoula consist of extensive alluvial-plain deposits. Favorable areas for uranium deposits are found along the margins of the paleo-channels where favorable structural features and numerous optimum sands are present. The Oakville and Goliad Formations consist of extensive continental deposits of fluvial sandstones. In large areas, these fluvial sandstones are multistoried channel sandstones that form very thick sandstone sequences. Favorable areas are found along the margins of the channel sequences. In the Goliad, favorable areas are also found on the updip margin of strand-plain sandstones where there are several sandstones of optimum thickness

  6. Effective fiber hypertrophy in satellite cell-depleted skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John J.; Mula, Jyothi; Miyazaki, Mitsunori; Erfani, Rod; Garrison, Kelcye; Farooqui, Amreen B.; Srikuea, Ratchakrit; Lawson, Benjamin A.; Grimes, Barry; Keller, Charles; Van Zant, Gary; Campbell, Kenneth S.; Esser, Karyn A.; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.; Peterson, Charlotte A.

    2011-01-01

    An important unresolved question in skeletal muscle plasticity is whether satellite cells are necessary for muscle fiber hypertrophy. To address this issue, a novel mouse strain (Pax7-DTA) was created which enabled the conditional ablation of >90% of satellite cells in mature skeletal muscle following tamoxifen administration. To test the hypothesis that satellite cells are necessary for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the plantaris muscle of adult Pax7-DTA mice was subjected to mechanical overload by surgical removal of the synergist muscle. Following two weeks of overload, satellite cell-depleted muscle showed the same increases in muscle mass (approximately twofold) and fiber cross-sectional area with hypertrophy as observed in the vehicle-treated group. The typical increase in myonuclei with hypertrophy was absent in satellite cell-depleted fibers, resulting in expansion of the myonuclear domain. Consistent with lack of nuclear addition to enlarged fibers, long-term BrdU labeling showed a significant reduction in the number of BrdU-positive myonuclei in satellite cell-depleted muscle compared with vehicle-treated muscle. Single fiber functional analyses showed no difference in specific force, Ca2+ sensitivity, rate of cross-bridge cycling and cooperativity between hypertrophied fibers from vehicle and tamoxifen-treated groups. Although a small component of the hypertrophic response, both fiber hyperplasia and regeneration were significantly blunted following satellite cell depletion, indicating a distinct requirement for satellite cells during these processes. These results provide convincing evidence that skeletal muscle fibers are capable of mounting a robust hypertrophic response to mechanical overload that is not dependent on satellite cells. PMID:21828094

  7. Behavioral Public Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan; Jilke, Sebastian; Olsen, Asmus Leth

    2017-01-01

    on theories and methods from psychology and related fields and point to research in public administration that could benefit from further integration. An analysis of public administration topics through a psychological lens can be useful to confirm, add nuance to, or extend classical public administration...... theories. As such, behavioral public administration complements traditional public administration. Furthermore, it could be a two-way street for psychologists who want to test the external validity of their theories in a political-administrative setting. Finally, four principles are proposed to narrow......Behavioral public administration is the analysis of public administration from the micro-level perspective of individual behavior and attitudes by drawing on insights from psychology on the behavior of individuals and groups. The authors discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw...

  8. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTRACTS. DELIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Teodora PASCARIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Article examines whether all contracts of public persons are administrative contracts; in other words, if the administration may conclude contracts that, according to their legal nature, are not administrative. If we start from the definition of administrative contracts as it appears in Law no. 554/2004, these include contracts by public authorities which concern the enhancement of public property execution of works of public interest, public services, public procurement and other administrative contracts provided by special laws and subject to the jurisdiction of the administrative courts.

  9. [Adverse muscle effects of a podofyllotoxin-containing cytotoxic drug product with simvastatin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaipiainen-Seppänen, Oili; Savolainen, Elina; Elfving, Pia; Kononoff, Aulikki

    2009-01-01

    With the ageing population, drug interactions pose an increasing challenge to health professionals. We describe four patients, for whom concurrent administration of a podofyllotoxin-containing cytotoxic drug product and simvastatin caused severe adverse effects on muscles, including muscle pain, soreness or fatigue or weakness, and in some patients also disintegration of muscle tissue, i.e. rhabdomyolysis. The metabolism of both drugs proceeds via the common CYP3A4 enzyme pathway.

  10. Administration of Anesthesia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OMSs) are trained in all aspects of anesthesia administration. Following dental school, they complete at least four ... complications and emergencies that may arise during the administration of anesthesia. Before your surgery, your OMS will ...

  11. Administration of Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OMSs) are trained in all aspects of anesthesia administration. Following dental school, they complete at least four ... complications and emergencies that may arise during the administration of anesthesia. Before your surgery, your OMS will ...

  12. Drug Enforcement Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de informacin confidencial --> DEA NEWS The Drug Enforcement Administration and Discovery Education name grand winner of Operation ... JUN 15 (Washington) The United States Drug Enforcement Administration, DEA Educational Foundation and Discovery Education awarded Porter ...

  13. Exogenous insulin does not increase muscle protein synthesis rate when administered systemically: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trommelen, J.; Groen, B.; Hamer, H.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Loon, van L.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Though it is well appreciated that insulin plays an important role in the regulation of muscle protein metabolism, there is much discrepancy in the literature on the capacity of exogenous insulin administration to increase muscle protein synthesis rates in vivo in humans. Objective To

  14. Cloudera administration handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow Apache Hadoop administrator's guide filled with practical screenshots and explanations for each step and configuration. This book is great for administrators interested in setting up and managing a large Hadoop cluster. If you are an administrator, or want to be an administrator, and you are ready to build and maintain a production-level cluster running CDH5, then this book is for you.

  15. NASA, NOAA administrators nominated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan recently said he intended to nominate James Montgomery Beggs as NASA Administrator and John V. Byrne as NOAA Administrator. These two positions are key scientific posts that have been vacant since the start of the Reagan administration on January 20. The President also said he intends to nominate Hans Mark as NASA Deputy Administrator. At press time, Reagan had not designated his nominee for the director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

  16. "Nutraceuticals" in relation to human skeletal muscle and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Colleen S; Wilkinson, Daniel J; Phillips, Bethan E; Smith, Kenneth; Etheridge, Timothy; Atherton, Philip J

    2017-04-01

    Skeletal muscles have a fundamental role in locomotion and whole body metabolism, with muscle mass and quality being linked to improved health and even lifespan. Optimizing nutrition in combination with exercise is considered an established, effective ergogenic practice for athletic performance. Importantly, exercise and nutritional approaches also remain arguably the most effective countermeasure for muscle dysfunction associated with aging and numerous clinical conditions, e.g., cancer cachexia, COPD, and organ failure, via engendering favorable adaptations such as increased muscle mass and oxidative capacity. Therefore, it is important to consider the effects of established and novel effectors of muscle mass, function, and metabolism in relation to nutrition and exercise. To address this gap, in this review, we detail existing evidence surrounding the efficacy of a nonexhaustive list of macronutrient, micronutrient, and "nutraceutical" compounds alone and in combination with exercise in relation to skeletal muscle mass, metabolism (protein and fuel), and exercise performance (i.e., strength and endurance capacity). It has long been established that macronutrients have specific roles and impact upon protein metabolism and exercise performance, (i.e., protein positively influences muscle mass and protein metabolism), whereas carbohydrate and fat intakes can influence fuel metabolism and exercise performance. Regarding novel nutraceuticals, we show that the following ones in particular may have effects in relation to 1 ) muscle mass/protein metabolism: leucine, hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate, creatine, vitamin-D, ursolic acid, and phosphatidic acid; and 2 ) exercise performance: (i.e., strength or endurance capacity): hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate, carnitine, creatine, nitrates, and β-alanine. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Predictors of favorable soft tissue profile outcomes following Class II Twin-block treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Mah, Su-Jung; Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Su-Jung; Park, Ki-Ho; Kang, Yoon-Goo

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine cephalometric factors that help predict favorable soft-tissue profile outcomes following treatment with the Class II Twin-block appliance. Pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalograms of 45 patients treated with the Class II Twin-block appliance were retrospectively analyzed. Profile silhouettes were drawn from the cephalograms and evaluated by three orthodontists in order to determine the extent of improvement. Samples were divided into a favorable group (upper 30% of visual analogue scale [VAS] scores, n = 14) and an unfavorable group (lower 30% of VAS scores, n = 14). Skeletal and soft-tissue measurements were performed on the cephalograms and an intergroup comparison was conducted. An independent t -test revealed that the following pre-treatment values were lower in the favorable group compared to the unfavorable group: lower incisor to mandibular plane angle, lower incisor to pogonion distance, point A-nasion-point B angle, sella-nasion line (SN) to maxillary plane angle, SN to mandibular plane angle, gonial angle, and symphysis inclination. The favorable group had a larger incisor inclination to occlusal plane. Moreover, the favorable group showed larger post-treatment changes in gonial angle, B point projection, and pogonion projection than did the unfavorable group. Class II malocclusion patients with a low divergent skeletal pattern and reduced lower incisor protrusions are likely to show more improvement in soft-tissue profile outcomes following Class II Twin-block treatment.

  18. Validation of favor code linear elastic fracture solutions for finite-length flaw geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, T.L.; Keeney, J.A.; Bryson, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    One of the current tasks within the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-funded Heavy Section Steel Technology Program (HSST) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is the continuing development of the FAVOR (Fracture, analysis of Vessels: Oak Ridge) computer code. FAVOR performs structural integrity analyses of embrittled nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) with stainless steel cladding, to evaluate compliance with the applicable regulatory criteria. Since the initial release of FAVOR, the HSST program has continued to enhance the capabilities of the FAVOR code. ABAQUS, a nuclear quality assurance certified (NQA-1) general multidimensional finite element code with fracture mechanics capabilities, was used to generate a database of stress-intensity-factor influence coefficients (SIFICs) for a range of axially and circumferentially oriented semielliptical inner-surface flaw geometries applicable to RPVs with an internal radius (Ri) to wall thickness (w) ratio of 10. This database of SIRCs has been incorporated into a development version of FAVOR, providing it with the capability to perform deterministic and probabilistic fracture analyses of RPVs subjected to transients, such as pressurized thermal shock (PTS), for various flaw geometries. This paper discusses the SIFIC database, comparisons with other investigators, and some of the benchmark verification problem specifications and solutions

  19. Jaw muscle fiber type distribution in Hawaiian gobioid stream fishes: histochemical correlations with feeding ecology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maie, Takashi; Meister, Andrew B; Leonard, Gerald L; Schrank, Gordon D; Blob, Richard W; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2011-12-01

    Differences in fiber type distribution in the axial muscles of Hawaiian gobioid stream fishes have previously been linked to differences in locomotor performance, behavior, and diet across species. Using ATPase assays, we examined fiber types of the jaw opening sternohyoideus muscle across five species, as well as fiber types of three jaw closing muscles (adductor mandibulae A1, A2, and A3). The jaw muscles of some species of Hawaiian stream gobies contained substantial red fiber components. Some jaw muscles always had greater proportions of white muscle fibers than other jaw muscles, independent of species. In addition, comparing across species, the dietary generalists (Awaous guamensis and Stenogobius hawaiiensis) had a lower proportion of white muscle fibers in all jaw muscles than the dietary specialists (Lentipes concolor, Sicyopterus stimpsoni, and Eleotris sandwicensis). Among Hawaiian stream gobies, generalist diets may favor a wider range of muscle performance, provided by a mix of white and red muscle fibers, than is typical of dietary specialists, which may have a higher proportion of fast-twitch white fibers in jaw muscles to help meet the demands of rapid predatory strikes or feeding in fast-flowing habitats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen E. Spangenburg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Triglyceride storage is altered across various chronic health conditions necessitating various techniques to visualize and quantify lipid droplets (LDs. Here, we describe the utilization of the BODIPY (493/503 dye in skeletal muscle as a means to analyze LDs. We found that the dye was a convenient and simple approach to visualize LDs in both sectioned skeletal muscle and cultured adult single fibers. Furthermore, the dye was effective in both fixed and nonfixed cells, and the staining seemed unaffected by permeabilization. We believe that the use of the BODIPY (493/503 dye is an acceptable alternative and, under certain conditions, a simpler method for visualizing LDs stored within skeletal muscle.

  1. Hydraulically actuated artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, M. A.; Tiwari, R.; Wajcs, K. B.; Moses, C.; Reveles, I.; Garcia, E.

    2012-04-01

    Hydraulic Artificial Muscles (HAMs) consisting of a polymer tube constrained by a nylon mesh are presented in this paper. Despite the actuation mechanism being similar to its popular counterpart, which are pneumatically actuated (PAM), HAMs have not been studied in depth. HAMs offer the advantage of compliance, large force to weight ratio, low maintenance, and low cost over traditional hydraulic cylinders. Muscle characterization for isometric and isobaric tests are discussed and compared to PAMs. A model incorporating the effect of mesh angle and friction have also been developed. In addition, differential swelling of the muscle on actuation has also been included in the model. An application of lab fabricated HAMs for a meso-scale robotic system is also presented.

  2. Foot muscles strengthener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris T. Glavač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  3. Effect of salbutamol on innervated and denervated rat soleus muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?oic-Vranic T.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to perform a 14-day time-course study of treatment with salbutamol, a ß2 adrenoceptor agonist, on rat soleus muscle in order to assess fiber type selectivity in the hypertrophic response and fiber type composition. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (N = 10, treated with salbutamol (N = 30, denervated (N = 30, and treated with salbutamol after denervation (N = 30. Salbutamol was injected intraperitoneally in the rats of the 2nd and 4th groups at a concentration of 0.3 mg/kg twice a day for 2 weeks. The muscles were denervated using the crush method with pean. The animals were sacrificed 3, 6, 9, 12, and 14 days after treatment. Frozen cross-sections of soleus muscle were stained for myosin ATPase, pH 9.4. Cross-sectional area and percent of muscle fibers were analyzed morphometrically by computerized image analysis. Treatment with salbutamol induced hypertrophy of all fiber types and a higher percentage of type II fibers (21% in the healthy rat soleus muscle. Denervation caused marked atrophy of all fibers and conversion from type I to type II muscle fibers. Denervated muscles treated with salbutamol showed a significantly larger cross-sectional area of type I muscle fibers, 28.2% compared to the denervated untreated muscle. Moreover, the number of type I fibers was increased. These results indicate that administration of salbutamol is able to induce changes in cross-sectional area and fiber type distribution in the early phase of treatment. Since denervation-induced atrophy and conversion from type I to type II fibers were improved by salbutamol treatment we propose that salbutamol, like other ß2 adrenoceptor agonists, may have a therapeutic potential in improving the condition of skeletal muscle after denervation.

  4. Rectus abdominis muscle endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goker, A.

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is characterized by an abnormal existence of functional endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, typically occuring within the pelvis of women in reproductive age. We report two cases with endometriosis of the abdominal wall; the first one in the rectus abdominis muscle and the second one in the surgical scar of previous caesarean incision along with the rectus abdominis muscle. Pre-operative evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging. The masses were dissected free from the surrounding tissue and excised with clear margins. Diagnosis of the excised lesions were verified by histopathology. (author)

  5. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

    in the structure of fibrous collagen and myofibers at high-resolution. The results demonstrate that the collagen composition in the extra cellular matrix of Gadus morhua fish muscle is much more complex than previously anticipated, as it contains type III, IV, V  and VI collagen in addition to type I. The vascular....... Consequently, functional structures, ensuring "tissue maintenance" must form a major role of connective tissue, in addition that is to the force transmitting structures one typically finds in muscle. Vascular structures have also been shown to change their mechanical properties with age and it has been shown...

  6. Preliminary evaluation of the uranium favorability in the Kaiparowits Plateau Region, Garfield and Kane Counties, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubyk, W.S.; Young, P.

    1978-05-01

    The basal sandstone of the Chinle Formation (Upper Triassic) and the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) in the Kaiparowits Plateau, southcentral Utah, were evaluated in terms of uranium potential. Both surface and subsurface data were utilized. Favorability of the basal Chinle sandstone was based on (1) presence of intermediate-size sandstone-filled channels cut into the Moenkopi; (2) presence of carbonaceous material; (3) an adequate source of uranium; and (4) gamma-ray anomalies from test-hole logs. Favorability of the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation was based on (1) sandstone-mudstone ratios that approach equality, and (2) presence of thick sandstone lenses, carbonaceous material, and halos of light-tan to brown limonite staining. Although the basal Chinle sandstone and the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison contain sizable uranium deposits throughout much of the Colorado Plateau, both units lack characteristics that are favorable for significant uranium deposits in the Kaiparowits Plateau

  7. School Psychologists' Management of Administrative Pressure to Practice Unethically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccio, Dana E.; Weisz, Gaston; Lefkowitz, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    In their role as child advocates, school psychologists strive to promote policies and practices that increase the availability of necessary academic and mental health services and enhance the well-being of children. However, administrative pressure to disregard ethical and legal mandates in favor of decisions that would prioritize the needs of the…

  8. Effects of 45Ca on murine skeletal muscle. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, R.K.; Asotra, K.; Katoch, S.S.; Krishan, K.

    1983-01-01

    Swiss albino mice were injected intraperitoneally with 3.7x10 4 Bq and 7.4x10 4 Bq 45 Ca/g body weight. Mice of both dose groups were autopsied on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 and activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase bioassayed in diaphragm and gastrocnemius in 45 Ca-treated and normal mice. Alanine aminotransferase activity in the two muscles increased in response to 45 Ca administration suggesting a stepped up utilization of alanine in glucose generation. Aspartate aminotransferase levels, on the other hand, diminished in both the 45 Ca-treated muscles and are maintained at low values throughout the 28 day period of study. The results suggest an innate ability of skeletal muscle to selectively utilize either of the two glucogenic amino acids during radiation stress. The data are discussed in light of previous findings on glycogen accumulation in irradiated skeletal muscle. (author)

  9. Muscle force depends on the amount of transversal muscle loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Tobias; Till, Olaf; Stutzig, Norman; Günther, Michael; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2014-06-03

    Skeletal muscles are embedded in an environment of other muscles, connective tissue, and bones, which may transfer transversal forces to the muscle tissue, thereby compressing it. In a recent study we demonstrated that transversal loading of a muscle with 1.3Ncm(-2) reduces maximum isometric force (Fim) and rate of force development by approximately 5% and 25%, respectively. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of increasing transversal muscle loading on contraction dynamics. Therefore, we performed isometric experiments on rat M. gastrocnemius medialis (n=9) without and with five different transversal loads corresponding to increasing pressures of 1.3Ncm(-2) to 5.3Ncm(-2) at the contact area between muscle and load. Muscle loading was induced by a custom-made plunger which was able to move in transversal direction. Increasing transversal muscle loading resulted in an almost linear decrease in muscle force from 4.8±1.8% to 12.8±2% Fim. Compared to an unloaded isometric contraction, rate of force development decreased from 20.2±4.0% at 1.3Ncm(-2) muscle loading to 34.6±5.7% at 5.3Ncm(-2). Experimental observation of the impact of transversal muscle loading on contraction dynamics may help to better understand muscle tissue properties. Moreover, applying transversal loads to muscles opens a window to analyze three-dimensional muscle force generation. Data presented in this study may be important to develop and validate muscle models which enable simulation of muscle contractions under compression and enlighten the mechanisms behind. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Uranium favorability of tertiary sedimentary rocks of the Pend Oreille River valley, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marjaniemi, D.K.; Robins, J.W.

    1975-08-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the Pend Oreille River valley were investigated in a regional study to determine the favorability for potential uranium resources of northeastern Washington. This project involved measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples, and examination of available water well logs. The Box Canyon Dam area north of Ione is judged to have very high favorability. Thick-bedded conglomerates interbedded with sandstones and silty sandstones compose the Tiger Formation in this area, and high radioactivity levels are found near the base of the formation. Uranophane is found along fracture surfaces or in veins. Carbonaceous material is present throughout the Tiger Formation in the area. Part of the broad Pend Oreille valley surrounding Cusick, Washington, is an area of high favorability. Potential host rocks in the Tiger Formation, consisting of arkosic sandstones interbedded with radioactive shales, probably extend throughout the subsurface part of this area. Carbonaceous material is present and some samples contain high concentrations of uranium. In addition, several other possible chemical indicators were found. The Tiger-Lost Creek area is rated as having medium favorability. The Tiger Formation contains very hard, poorly sorted granite conglomerate with some beds of arkosic sandstone and silty sandstone. The granite conglomerate was apparently derived from source rocks having relatively high uranium content. The lower part of the formation is more favorable than the upper part because of the presence of carbonaceous material, anomalously high concentrations of uranium, and other possible chemical indicators. The area west of Ione is judged to have low favorability, because of the very low permeability of the rocks and the very low uranium content

  11. Social-and-economic mechanism of formation of favorable investment attractiveness of the region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshkina, Tatiana; Mottaeva, Angela; Andreeva, Larisa; Larinina, Tatyana

    2017-10-01

    The article is devoted to the matters of investment attractiveness of regions. The factors making the regional investments possible. The authors argue, that social-and-economic development of regions is connected with the formation of the financial mechanism, representing the set of forms and methods of the organization, planning and stimulation of financial-and-economic activity in the certain social-and-economic space. The proper mechanism of formation of favorable investment attractiveness are offered. Besides, the ways of elimination of limiting factors in formation of favorable investment attractiveness are offered.

  12. Impaired macrophage and satellite cell infiltration occurs in a muscle-specific fashion following injury in diabetic skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P Krause

    Full Text Available Systemic elevations in PAI-1 suppress the fibrinolytic pathway leading to poor collagen remodelling and delayed regeneration of tibialis anterior (TA muscles in type-1 diabetic Akita mice. However, how impaired collagen remodelling was specifically attenuating regeneration in Akita mice remained unknown. Furthermore, given intrinsic differences between muscle groups, it was unclear if the reparative responses between muscle groups were different.Here we reveal that diabetic Akita muscles display differential regenerative responses with the TA and gastrocnemius muscles exhibiting reduced regenerating myofiber area compared to wild-type mice, while soleus muscles displayed no difference between animal groups following injury. Collagen levels in TA and gastrocnemius, but not soleus, were significantly increased post-injury versus controls. At 5 days post-injury, when degenerating/necrotic regions were present in both animal groups, Akita TA and gastrocnemius muscles displayed reduced macrophage and satellite cell infiltration and poor myofiber formation. By 10 days post-injury, necrotic regions were absent in wild-type TA but persisted in Akita TA. In contrast, Akita soleus exhibited no impairment in any of these measures compared to wild-type soleus. In an effort to define how impaired collagen turnover was attenuating regeneration in Akita TA, a PAI-1 inhibitor (PAI-039 was orally administered to Akita mice following cardiotoxin injury. PAI-039 administration promoted macrophage and satellite cell infiltration into necrotic areas of the TA and gastrocnemius. Importantly, soleus muscles exhibit the highest inducible expression of MMP-9 following injury, providing a mechanism for normative collagen degradation and injury recovery in this muscle despite systemically elevated PAI-1.Our findings suggest the mechanism underlying how impaired collagen remodelling in type-1 diabetes results in delayed regeneration is an impairment in macrophage

  13. Effects of oblique muscle surgery on the rectus muscle pulley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okanobu, Hirotaka; Kono, Reika; Ohtsuki, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the position of rectus muscle pulleys in Japanese eyes and to evaluate the effect of oblique muscle surgery on rectus muscle pulleys. Quasi-coronal plane MRI was used to determine area centroids of the 4 rectus muscles. The area centroids of the rectus muscles were transformed to 2-dimensional coordinates to represent pulley positions. The effects of oblique muscle surgery on the rectus muscle pulley positions in the coronal plane were evaluated in 10 subjects with cyclovertical strabismus and, as a control, pulley locations in 7 normal Japanese subjects were calculated. The mean positions of the rectus muscle pulleys in the coronal plane did not significantly differ from previous reports on normal populations, including Caucasians. There were significant positional shifts of the individual horizontal and vertical rectus muscle pulleys in 3 (100%) patients with inferior oblique advancement, but not in eyes with inferior oblique recession and superior oblique tendon advancement surgery. The surgical cyclorotatory effect was significantly correlated with the change in the angle of inclination formed by the line connecting the vertical rectus muscles (p=0.0234), but weakly correlated with that of the horizontal rectus muscles. The most important factor that affects the pulley position is the amount of ocular torsion, not the difference in surgical procedure induced by oblique muscle surgery. (author)

  14. Composition of Muscle Fiber Types in Rat Rotator Cuff Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yongjun; Pan, Feng; Mi, Jingyi

    2016-10-01

    The rat is a suitable model to study human rotator cuff pathology owing to the similarities in morphological anatomy structure. However, few studies have reported the composition muscle fiber types of rotator cuff muscles in the rat. In this study, the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were stained by immunofluorescence to show the muscle fiber types composition and distribution in rotator cuff muscles of the rat. It was found that rotator cuff muscles in the rat were of mixed fiber type composition. The majority of rotator cuff fibers labeled positively for MyHCII. Moreover, the rat rotator cuff muscles contained hybrid fibers. So, compared with human rotator cuff muscles composed partly of slow-twitch fibers, the majority of fast-twitch fibers in rat rotator cuff muscles should be considered when the rat model study focus on the pathological process of rotator cuff muscles after injury. Gaining greater insight into muscle fiber types in rotator cuff muscles of the rat may contribute to elucidate the mechanism of pathological change in rotator cuff muscles-related diseases. Anat Rec, 299:1397-1401, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle P Blum

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt predict the entire time course of transient IFRs in muscle spindle Ia afferents during stretch (i.e., lengthening of passive muscle, including the initial burst, the dynamic response to lengthening, and rate relaxation following lengthening. Similar to acceleration scaling found previously in postural responses to perturbations, initial burst amplitude scaled equally well to initial stretch acceleration or dF/dt, though later transients were only described by dF/dt. The transient increase in dF/dt at the onset of lengthening reflects muscle short-range stiffness due to cross-bridge dynamics. Our work demonstrates a critical role of muscle cross-bridge dynamics in history-dependent muscle spindle IFRs in passive muscle

  16. Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kyle P; Lamotte D'Incamps, Boris; Zytnicki, Daniel; Ting, Lena H

    2017-09-01

    Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs) of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt) predict the entire time course of transient IFRs in muscle spindle Ia afferents during stretch (i.e., lengthening) of passive muscle, including the initial burst, the dynamic response to lengthening, and rate relaxation following lengthening. Similar to acceleration scaling found previously in postural responses to perturbations, initial burst amplitude scaled equally well to initial stretch acceleration or dF/dt, though later transients were only described by dF/dt. The transient increase in dF/dt at the onset of lengthening reflects muscle short-range stiffness due to cross-bridge dynamics. Our work demonstrates a critical role of muscle cross-bridge dynamics in history-dependent muscle spindle IFRs in passive muscle lengthening conditions

  17. MRI appearance of muscle denervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, S. [University Hospital of Wales, Department of Radiology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Venkatanarasimha, N.; Walsh, M.A.; Hughes, P.M. [Derriford Hospital, Department of Radiology, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Muscle denervation results from a variety of causes including trauma, neoplasia, neuropathies, infections, autoimmune processes and vasculitis. Traditionally, the diagnosis of muscle denervation was based on clinical examination and electromyography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a distinct advantage over electromyography, not only in diagnosing muscle denervation, but also in determining its aetiology. MRI demonstrates characteristic signal intensity patterns depending on the stage of muscle denervation. The acute and subacutely denervated muscle shows a high signal intensity pattern on fluid sensitive sequences and normal signal intensity on T1-weighted MRI images. In chronic denervation, muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration demonstrate high signal changes on T1-weighted sequences in association with volume loss. The purpose of this review is to summarise the MRI appearance of denervated muscle, with special emphasis on the signal intensity patterns in acute and subacute muscle denervation. (orig.)

  18. Anti-smooth muscle antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003531.htm Anti-smooth muscle antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the presence ...

  19. Cycle training induces muscle hypertrophy and strength gain: strategies and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Hayao; Loenneke, J P; Thiebaud, R S; Abe, T

    2015-03-01

    Cycle training is widely performed as a major part of any exercise program seeking to improve aerobic capacity and cardiovascular health. However, the effect of cycle training on muscle size and strength gain still requires further insight, even though it is known that professional cyclists display larger muscle size compared to controls. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the effects of cycle training on muscle size and strength of the lower extremity and the possible mechanisms for increasing muscle size with cycle training. It is plausible that cycle training requires a longer period to significantly increase muscle size compared to typical resistance training due to a much slower hypertrophy rate. Cycle training induces muscle hypertrophy similarly between young and older age groups, while strength gain seems to favor older adults, which suggests that the probability for improving in muscle quality appears to be higher in older adults compared to young adults. For young adults, higher-intensity intermittent cycling may be required to achieve strength gains. It also appears that muscle hypertrophy induced by cycle training results from the positive changes in muscle protein net balance.

  20. Lipolysis in Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Annette Karen Lundbeck

    chemical structure of DAG. We took advantage of the fact that insulin sensitivity is increased after exercise, and that mice knocked out (KO) of HSL accumulate DAG after exercise, and measured insulin stimulated glucose uptake after treadmill running in skeletal muscle from HSL KO mice and wildtype control...

  1. Metabolic Diseases of Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here and still get the great care and treatment I received in Michigan.” MDA Is Here to Help You T he Muscular Dystrophy Association offers a vast array of services to help you and your family deal with metabolic diseases of muscle. The staff at your local MDA office is ...

  2. Uranium favorability of the San Rafael Swell area, east-central Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickle, D.G.; Jones, C.A.; Gallagher, G.L.; Young, P.; Dubyk, W.S.

    1977-10-01

    The San Rafael Swell project area in east-central Utah is approximately 3,000 sq mi and includes the San Rafael Swell anticline and the northern part of the Waterpocket Fold monocline at Capitol Reef. Rocks in the area are predominantly sedimentary rocks of Pennsylvanian through Cretaceous age. Important deposits of uranium in the project area are restricted to two formations, the Chinle (Triassic) and Morrison (Jurassic) Formations. A third formation, the White Rim Sandstone (Permian), was also studied because of reported exploration activity. The White Rim Sandstone is considered generally unfavorable on the basis of lithologic characteristics, distance from a possible source of uranium, lack of apparent mineralization, and the scarcity of anomalies on gamma-ray logs or in rock, water, and stream-sediment samples. The lower Chinle from the Moss Back Member down to the base of the formation is favorable because it is a known producer. New areas for exploration are all subsurface. Both Salt Wash and Brushy Basin Members of the Morrison Formation are favorable. The Salt Wash Member is favorable because it is a known producer. The Brushy Basin Member is favorable as a low-grade resource

  3. 41 CFR 101-39.404 - Claims in favor of the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.4-Accidents and Claims § 101-39.404 Claims in favor of... Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicle is at fault and that party can be reasonably identified... pertaining to the accident and its investigation to the servicing GSA IFMS fleet management center. The GSA...

  4. Challenging the Courtesy Bias Interpretation of Favorable Clients' Perceptions of Family Planning Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Len, Federico R.; Lundgren, Rebecka; Huapaya, Ana; Sinai, Irit; Jennings, Victoria

    2007-01-01

    Favorable client perceptions of provider's interpersonal behavior in contraceptive delivery, documented in clinic exit questionnaires, appear to contradict results from qualitative evaluations and are attributed to clients' courtesy bias. In this study, trained simulated clients requested services from Ministry of Health providers in three…

  5. Does campaign finance imply political favors? The case of the 1998 Brazilian elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence that campaign contributions are strongly associated with expectations of future firm-specific political favors. Using a novel dataset, we find that during the 1998 elections in Brazil higher campaign contributions to federal deputies were robustly associated

  6. Non-take-up of Tax-favored Savings Plans : Are Household Portfolios Optimal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, R.J.M.; Hochgürtel, S.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2001-01-01

    Since the early nineties, the Dutch tax system allows for a tax-favored form of risk free savings through employer-sponsored savings plans (ESSPs).Under some conditions and up to a certain amount, the contributions to this plan are tax-deductible, and the returns as well as the withdrawals are

  7. High procedural fairness heightens the effect of outcome favorability on self-evaluations : An attributional analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brockner, J.; Heuer, L.; Magner, N.; Folger, R.; Umphress, E.; Bos, K. van den; Vermunt, Riël; Magner, M.; Siegel, P.

    2003-01-01

    Previous research has shown that outcome favorability and procedural fairness often interact to influence employees work attitudes and behaviors. Moreover, the form of the interaction effect depends upon the dependent variable. Relative to when procedural fairness is low, high procedural fairness:

  8. Recurrent DGCR8, DROSHA, and SIX Homeodomain Mutations in Favorable Histology Wilms Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. Walz (Amy L.); A.H.A.G. Ooms (Ariadne ); S. Gadd (Samantha); D.S. Gerhard (Daniela S.); M.A. Smith (Malcolm A.); J.M. GuidryAuvil (Jamie M.); D. Meerzaman (Daoud); Q.-R. Chen (Qing-Rong); C. Hsu (ChihHao); C. Yan (Chunhua); C. Nguyen (Cu); Y. Hu (Ying); R. Bowlby (Reanne); D. Brooks (Denise); Y. Ma (Yussanne); A.A. Mungall (Andrew J.); R.A. Moore (Richard A.); J. Schein (Jacqueline); M.A. Marra (Marco A.); V. Huff (Vicki); J.S. Dome (Jeffrey); Y.-Y. Chi (Yueh-Yun); C.G. Mullighan (Charles); J. Ma (Jing); D.A. Wheeler (David A.); O.A. Hampton (Oliver A.); N. Jafari (Nadereh); N. Ross (Nicole); J.M. Gastier-Foster (Julie); E.J. Perlman (Elizabeth J.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe report the most common single-nucleotide substitution/deletion mutations in favorable histology Wilms tumors (FHWTs) to occur within SIX1/. 2 (7% of 534 tumors) and microRNA processing genes (miRNAPGs) DGCR8 and DROSHA (15% of 534 tumors). Comprehensive analysis of 77 FHWTs indicates

  9. Correlates of Perceived Favorability of Online Courses for Quantitative versus Qualitative Undergraduate Business Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Gary; Pred, Robert; Drennan, Rob B., Jr.; Kapanjie, Darin

    2016-01-01

    An online survey tested the association among background, technological, and course-related variables with perceived favorability of online courses for two independent samples of fall 2015 and spring 2016 business undergraduates taking at least one online or hybrid course. Results showed that perceived learning was a consistent positive correlate…

  10. 45 CFR 73.735-503 - Criminal provisions relating to gifts, entertainment, and favors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... insurance, profit-sharing, stock bonus or other employee welfare or benefit plan maintained by a former... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criminal provisions relating to gifts, entertainment, and favors. 73.735-503 Section 73.735-503 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  11. Ibuprofen ingestion does not affect markers of post-exercise muscle inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke eVella

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We investigated if oral ingestion of ibuprofen influenced leucocyte recruitment and infiltration following an acute bout of traditional resistance exercise. Methods: Sixteen male subjects were divided into two groups that received the maximum over-the-counter dose of ibuprofen (1200 mg d-1 or a similarly administered placebo following lower body resistance exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken from m.vastus lateralis and blood serum samples were obtained before and immediately after exercise, and at 3 h and 24 h after exercise. Muscle cross-sections were stained with antibodies against neutrophils (CD66b and MPO and macrophages (CD68. Muscle damage was assessed via creatine kinase and myoglobin in blood serum samples, and muscle soreness was rated on a ten-point pain scale. Results: The resistance exercise protocol stimulated a significant increase in the number of CD66b+ and MPO+ cells when measured 3 h post exercise. Serum creatine kinase, myoglobin and subjective muscle soreness all increased post-exercise. Muscle leucocyte infiltration, creatine kinase, myoglobin and subjective muscle soreness were unaffected by ibuprofen treatment when compared to placebo. There was also no association between increases in inflammatory leucocytes and any other marker of cellular muscle damage. Conclusion: Ibuprofen administration had no effect on the accumulation of neutrophils, markers of muscle damage or muscle soreness during the first 24 h of post-exercise muscle recovery.

  12. Lesotho - Land Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Michigan State University was assigned to design the impact evaluation (IE) of the Land Administration Reform Project (LARP) funded under the Millennium Challenge...

  13. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...... in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...

  14. Security Administration Reports Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Contains SSA Security Reports that allow Information Security Officers (ISOs) to access, review and take appropriate action based on the information contained in the...

  15. Veterans Administration Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  16. Administrative Data Repository (ADR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — ADR provides an authoritative data store for shared administrative, demographic, enrollment, and eligibility information which is managed as a corporate asset. This...

  17. Increased sphingosine-1-phosphate improves muscle regeneration in acutely injured mdx mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Presently, there is no effective treatment for the lethal muscle wasting disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Here we show that increased sphingosine-1-phoshate (S1P) through direct injection or via the administration of the small molecule 2-acetyl-4(5)-tetrahydroxybutyl imidazole (THI), an S1P lyase inhibitor, has beneficial effects in acutely injured dystrophic muscles of mdx mice. Methods We treated mdx mice with and without acute injury and characterized the histopathological and functional effects of increasing S1P levels. We also tested exogenous and direct administration of S1P on mdx muscles to examine the molecular pathways under which S1P promotes regeneration in dystrophic muscles. Results Short-term treatment with THI significantly increased muscle fiber size and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle specific force in acutely injured mdx limb muscles. In addition, the accumulation of fibrosis and fat deposition, hallmarks of DMD pathology and impaired muscle regeneration, were lower in the injured muscles of THI-treated mdx mice. Furthermore, increased muscle force was observed in uninjured EDL muscles with a longer-term treatment of THI. Such regenerative effects were linked to the response of myogenic cells, since intramuscular injection of S1P increased the number of Myf5nlacz/+ positive myogenic cells and newly regenerated myofibers in injured mdx muscles. Intramuscular injection of biotinylated-S1P localized to muscle fibers, including newly regenerated fibers, which also stained positive for S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1). Importantly, plasma membrane and perinuclear localization of phosphorylated S1PR1 was observed in regenerating muscle fibers of mdx muscles. Intramuscular increases of S1P levels, S1PR1 and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P-rpS6), and elevated EDL muscle specific force, suggest S1P promoted the upregulation of anabolic pathways that mediate skeletal muscle mass and function. Conclusions These data show that S1P is

  18. Potential therapeutic effects of branched-chain amino acids supplementation on resistance exercise-based muscle damage in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Luz Claudia R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA supplementation has been considered an interesting nutritional strategy to improve skeletal muscle protein turnover in several conditions. In this context, there is evidence that resistance exercise (RE-derived biochemical markers of muscle soreness (creatine kinase (CK, aldolase, myoglobin, soreness, and functional strength may be modulated by BCAA supplementation in order to favor of muscle adaptation. However, few studies have investigated such effects in well-controlled conditions in humans. Therefore, the aim of this short report is to describe the potential therapeutic effects of BCAA supplementation on RE-based muscle damage in humans. The main point is that BCAA supplementation may decrease some biochemical markers related with muscle soreness but this does not necessarily reflect on muscle functionality.

  19. Muscle hypertrophy induced by myostatin inhibition accelerates degeneration in dysferlinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Sil; Lehar, Adam; Sebald, Suzanne; Liu, Min; Swaggart, Kayleigh A; Talbot, C Conover; Pytel, Peter; Barton, Elisabeth R; McNally, Elizabeth M; Lee, Se-Jin

    2015-10-15

    Myostatin is a secreted signaling molecule that normally acts to limit muscle growth. As a result, there is extensive effort directed at developing drugs capable of targeting myostatin to treat patients with muscle loss. One potential concern with this therapeutic approach in patients with muscle degenerative diseases like muscular dystrophy is that inducing hypertrophy may increase stress on dystrophic fibers, thereby accelerating disease progression. To investigate this possibility, we examined the effect of blocking the myostatin pathway in dysferlin-deficient (Dysf(-/-)) mice, in which membrane repair is compromised, either by transgenic expression of follistatin in skeletal muscle or by systemic administration of the soluble form of the activin type IIB receptor (ACVR2B/Fc). Here, we show that myostatin inhibition by follistatin transgene expression in Dysf(-/-) mice results in early improvement in histopathology but ultimately exacerbates muscle degeneration; this effect was not observed in dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mice, suggesting that accelerated degeneration induced by follistatin transgene expression is specific to mice lacking dysferlin. Dysf(-/-) mice injected with ACVR2B/Fc showed significant increases in muscle mass and amelioration of fibrotic changes normally seen in 8-month-old Dysf(-/-) mice. Despite these potentially beneficial effects, ACVR2B/Fc treatment caused increases in serum CK levels in some Dysf(-/-) mice, indicating possible muscle damage induced by hypertrophy. These findings suggest that depending on the disease context, inducing muscle hypertrophy by myostatin blockade may have detrimental effects, which need to be weighed against the potential gains in muscle growth and decreased fibrosis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. The effect of caffeine on skeletal muscle anabolic signaling and hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Timothy M; Mortensen, Xavier M; Ashby, Conrad K; Harris, Alexander M; Kump, Karson J; Laird, David W; Adams, Aaron J; Bray, Jeremy K; Chen, Ting; Thomson, David M

    2017-06-01

    Caffeine is a widely consumed stimulant with the potential to enhance physical performance through multiple mechanisms. However, recent in vitro findings have suggested that caffeine may block skeletal muscle anabolic signaling through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mediated inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. This could negatively affect protein synthesis and the capacity for muscle growth. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effect of caffeine on in vivo AMPK and mTOR pathway signaling, protein synthesis, and muscle growth. In cultured C2C12 muscle cells, physiological levels of caffeine failed to impact mTOR activation or myoblast proliferation or differentiation. We found that caffeine administration to mice did not significantly enhance the phosphorylation of AMPK or inhibit signaling proteins downstream of mTOR (p70S6k, S6, or 4EBP1) or protein synthesis after a bout of electrically stimulated contractions. Skeletal muscle-specific knockout of LKB1, the primary AMPK activator in skeletal muscle, on the other hand, eliminated AMPK activation by contractions and enhanced S6k, S6, and 4EBP1 activation before and after contractions. In rats, the addition of caffeine did not affect plantaris hypertrophy induced by the tenotomy of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. In conclusion, caffeine administration does not impair skeletal muscle load-induced mTOR signaling, protein synthesis, or muscle hypertrophy.

  1. Study of the response of the penile corporal tissue and cavernosus muscles to micturition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Sibai Olfat

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reaction of the corpora cavernosa (CC, the corpus spongiosum (CS, the bulbocavernosus (BCM and ischiocavernosus (ICM muscles to passage of urine through the urethra during micturition is not known. We investigated the hypothesis that the passage of urine through the urethra stimulates the corporal tissue and cavernosus muscles. Methods In 30 healthy men (mean age 42.8 ± 11.7 years, the electromyographic activity (EMG of the CC, CS, BCM, and ICM were recorded before and during micturition, and on interruption of and straining during micturition. These tests were repeated after individual anesthetization of urethra, corporal tissue, and cavernosus muscles. Results During micturition, the slow wave variables (frequency, amplitude, conduction velocity of the CC and CS decreased while the motor unit action potentials of the BCM and ICM increased; these EMG changes were mild and returned to the basal values on interruption or termination of micturition. Micturition after individual anesthetization of urethra, corporal tissue and cavernosal muscles did not effect significant EMG changes in these structures, while saline administration produced changes similar to those occurring before saline administration. Conclusion The decrease of sinusoidal and increase of cavernosus muscles' EMG activity during micturition apparently denotes sinusoidal relaxation and cavernosus muscles contraction. Sinusoidal muscle relaxation and cavernosus muscles contraction upon micturition are suggested to be mediated through a 'urethro-corporocavernosal reflex'. These sinusoidal and cavernosus muscle changes appear to produce a mild degree of penile tumescence and stretch which might assist in urinary flow during micturition.

  2. Most children with eosinophilic esophagitis have a favorable outcome as young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, M; Jacobs, J W; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Wo, J M

    2017-01-01

    The disease progression of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) from childhood into adulthood is unclear. To determine the clinical outcome of patients who were diagnosed with EoE as children, and who now are young adults. Children (adults (≥18 years old) were identified, and a structured telephone interview was conducted to obtain follow-up data on symptom prevalence (dysphagia to solids and liquids, nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain, and heartburn/regurgitation), food impaction, medication usage, health-care utilization, and resolution of atopy/food allergies. A favorable outcome was defined if EoE symptoms were resolved or improved by subjects' assessment. Unfavorable outcomes was defined as symptoms same or worse. Clinical variables that predicted a favorable outcome as an adult were examined. Mayo Dysphagia Scale (MDQ-30: scored 0-100) was administered to validate the outcome assessment. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio and unpaired t-test were used. Fifty-eight subjects (64% male) who met study criteria were enrolled. Mean age at diagnosis was 12 years (range 4-17) and mean duration of follow-up was 8.3 years (2-16). As children, the most common presenting symptoms were abdominal pain (54%), dysphagia (33%), and vomiting (24%). As young adults, 47 subjects (81%) had a favorable outcome. Total MDQ-30 scores were 4.6 (0-30) and 14.1 (0-50) in subjects with favorable outcome and unfavorable outcome, respectively (P = 0.015). Two-thirds of subjects did not use steroids or proton pump inhibitors in the preceeding 12 months. Male children with EoE were four times more likely to have a favorable outcome as young adults compared with female children. Females were more likely to report nausea/vomiting as young adults (odds ratio 3.23, CI 0.97-10.60). Of all presenting symptoms in EoE children, dysphagia was the most likely to persist into adulthood (odds ratio 6.29, CI 1.85-21.38). Eighty one percent of EoE children had a favorable outcome as young adults. Most patients

  3. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems. Readers may recall the first part of the paper in October issue of Coordinates. Here is the concluding part that focuses on the changing...

  4. ADMINISTRATIVE RULEMAKING IN ETHIOPIA:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MLR

    and the theoretical issues in relation to administrative legislation are discussed followed ..... that “laws properly so called” must be distinguished from morals and other ..... 44 William Wade, (1988), Administrative Law (Oxford University Press), p. .... 66 Rule 320, Rules of procedure and conduct of business in the Lok Sabha.

  5. Centos system administration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallett, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Linux administrator who is looking to gain knowledge that differentiates yourself from the crowd, then this is the book for you. Beginners who have a keen interest to learn more about Linux administration will also progress quickly with this resourceful learning guide.

  6. The Art of Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Frank L.

    1984-01-01

    Presents ten guidelines for human relations skills that can help elevate the practice of student personnel administration to an art form. Administrators need to develop and perfect leadership skills including respect for individual differences, consistency, listening skills, instinct, being a role model, and establishment of realistic performance…

  7. Postmodern Public Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogason, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Discussion of the trends towards more uses of postmodern analysis within the discipline of public administration, particularly in the USA......Discussion of the trends towards more uses of postmodern analysis within the discipline of public administration, particularly in the USA...

  8. Alaska Administrative Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search the Division of Finance site DOF State of Alaska Finance Home Content Area Accounting Charge Cards Division of Finance is to provide accounting, payroll, and travel services for State government Top Department of Administration logo Alaska Department of Administration Division of Finance Search

  9. Webmin administrator's cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Karzynski, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Written in a cookbook format with practical recipes this book helps you to perform various administrative tasks using Webmin and enables you to perform common jobs more efficiently.This book is perfect for System administrators who want to learn more advanced concepts of Webmin and how it can help to set up a server for development, testing or deployment.

  10. Differences in regional muscle distribution in football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether there are differences in regional distribution of muscle mass between a dominant and a non-dominant side and between an injured and an uninjured side. The study involved 31 participant with the following characteristics: aged 22±5 years, body height (TV 184±13 cm, body weight (TM 80±13 kg, average body fat weight (BF 14,35 kg, body mass index (BMI 24,8±4, and average percentage of body fat 15,5% (PBF. Of the total number of participants, 16 players (TIM 1 are playing football in the Croatian Second Division and 15 players (TIM 2 are playing in the Second County League. Measurements of muscle mass were conducted in two ways - measurements with bioelectrical impedance (BIA and anthropometric measurements. The girth was measured at eight different places - left and right forearm and upper arm, left and right leg and thigh. Additionally, the skin folds were measured on each side of the body: the skin fold on posterior side of the upper arm (triceps, on lateral side of the forearm, on anterior side of the thigh and on medial side of the lower leg. Data on muscle mass of individual segments of the left and right sides of the body were obtained with GAIA 359 device. The results of the statistical test showed a statistically significant difference among all groups except the differences between the dominant and non-dominant hand in TIM-1. In TIM-2, the average value of difference in muscle mass for arms is 0,012 kg and for legs 0,268 kg, both values in favor of the dominant hand. In TIM-1, the average value of difference in muscle mass is 0,087 kg in favor of non-dominant leg; the reason could be in a greater number of injuries on the dominant side. When it comes to injuries, both teams have seven players who suffered different injuries, of that number all the injuries were on the dominant leg in the TIM-1, whereas only two injuries were on the dominant side in TIM-2. The difference between the

  11. Muscle cooling delays activation of the muscle metaboreflex in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, C A; Hume, K M; Gracey, K H; Mahoney, E T

    1997-11-01

    Elevation of muscle temperature has been shown to increase muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during isometric exercise in humans. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of muscle cooling on MSNA responses during exercise. Eight subjects performed ischemic isometric handgrip at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction to fatigue followed by 2 min of postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI), with and without local cooling of the forearm. Local cooling of the forearm decreased forearm muscle temperature from 31.8 +/- 0.4 to 23.1 +/- 0.8 degrees C (P = 0.001). Time to fatigue was not different during the control and cold trials (156 +/- 11 and 154 +/- 5 s, respectively). Arterial pressures and heart rate were not significantly affected by muscle cooling during exercise, although heart rate tended to be higher during the second minute of exercise (P = 0.053) during muscle cooling. Exercise-induced increases in MSNA were delayed during handgrip with local cooling compared with control. However, MSNA responses at fatigue and PEMI were not different between the two conditions. These findings suggest that muscle cooling delayed the activation of the muscle metaboreflex during ischemic isometric exercise but did not prevent its full expression during fatiguing contraction. These results support the concept that muscle temperature can play a role in the regulation of MSNA during exercise.

  12. Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Land administration systems are the operational tool for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) in land. Each of the rights, restrictions and responsibilities encompasses a human rights dimension that relates to the overall national land policies and should be unfolded...... as more than just rhetoric. This paper attempts to analyse the aspects of human rights in relation to land administration systems with a special focus on developing countries struggling to build adequate systems for governing the rights, restrictions and responsibilities in land. Human rights....... This relates to national political arrangements and standards for good governance and land administration systems are highly instrumental in this regard. This paper introduces the relation between land administration and human rights. It is argued that human rights and land administration are closely linked...

  13. Muscle dysmorphia: current insights

    OpenAIRE

    Tod, David; Edwards, Christian; Cranswick, Ieuan

    2016-01-01

    David Tod1 Christian Edwards2 Ieuan Cranswick1 1School of Sport and Exercise Science, Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, Merseyside, 2Institute of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Worcester, Worcester, Worcestershire, UK Abstract: Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people’s beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scient...

  14. MUSCLE TENSION DYSPHONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Hočevar Boltežar

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Muscle tension dysphonia (MTD is the cause of hoarseness in almost one half of the patients with voice disorders. The otorhinolaryngologic examination discovers no evident organic lesions in the larynx at least in the beginning of the voice problems. The reason for the hoarse voice is a disordered and maladjusted activity of the muscles taking part in phonation and/or articulation. In some patients, the irregular function of the larynx results in mucosal lesions on vocal folds. The factors participating in the development of MTD, directly or indirectly influence the quality of laryngeal mucosa, the activity of the phonatory muscles and/or increase of the vocal load. In the diagnostics and treatment of the MTD a phoniatrician, a speech and language therapist and a psychologist closely cooperate with the patient who must take an active role. The treatment is a long-lasting one but resulted in a high percentage of clinical success.Conclusions. Most likely, MTD is not a special disease but only a reflection of any disorder in the complicated system of regulation and realization of phonation. The prognosis of treatment is good when all unfavourable factors participating in development of MTD are eliminated and a proper professional voice- and psychotherapy started.

  15. Dismorfia muscular Muscle dysmorphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Seleri Marques Assunção

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Preocupações mórbidas com a imagem corporal eram tidas até recentemente como problemas eminentemente femininos. Atualmente estas preocupações também têm sido encontradas no sexo masculino. A dismorfia muscular é um subtipo do transtorno dismórfico corporal que ocorre principalmente em homens que, apesar da grande hipertrofia muscular, consideram-se pequenos e fracos. Além de estar associada a prejuízos sociais, ocupacionais, recreativos e em outras áreas do funcionamento do indivíduo, a dismorfia muscular é também um fator de risco para o abuso de esteróides anabolizantes. Este artigo aborda aspectos epidemiológicos, etiológicos e padrões clínicos da dismorfia muscular, além de tecer comentários sobre estratégias de tratamento para este transtorno.Morbid concern over body image was considered, until recently, a female issue. Nowadays, it has been viewed as a common male disorder. Muscle dysmorphia, a subtype of a body dysmorphic disorder, affects men who, despite having clear muscular hypertroph,y see themselves as frail and small. Besides being associated to major social, leisure and occupational dysfunction, muscle dysmorphia is also a risk factor for the abuse of steroids. This article describes epidemiological, etiological and clinical characteristics of muscle dysmorphia and comments on its treatment strategy.

  16. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte very favorable and favorable, lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Richard B; Schlembach, Pamela J; Jones, Dan; Chronowski, Gregory M; Ha, Chul S; Younes, Anas; Hagemeister, Fredrick B; Barista, Ibrahim; Cabanillas, Fernando; Cox, James D

    2002-03-15

    Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin disease (LPHD) is rare and has a natural history different from that of classic Hodgkin disease. There is little information in the literature regarding the role of chemotherapy in patients with early-stage LPHD. The objective of this study was to examine recurrence free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), and patterns of first recurrence in patients with LPHD who were treated with radiotherapy alone or with chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. From 1963 to 1996, 48 consecutive patients ages 16-49 years (median, 28 years) with Ann Arbor Stage I (n = 30 patients) or Stage II (n = 18 patients), very favorable (VF; n = 5 patients) or favorable (F; n = 43 patients) LPHD, according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte (EORTC-GELA) criteria, received radiotherapy alone (n = 37 patients) or received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (n = 11 patients). The percentages of patients with VF disease (11% vs. 9% in the radiotherapy group vs. the chemotherapy plus radiotherapy group, respectively) or F disease (89% vs. 91%, respectively) within the two treatment groups were similar (P = 1.00). A median of three cycles of chemotherapy with mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (MOPP) or with mitoxantrone, vincristine, vinblastine, and prednisone (NOVP) was given initially to six patients and five patients, respectively. A median total radiotherapy dose of 40 grays (Gy) given in daily fractions of 2.0 Gy was delivered to both treatment groups. The median follow-up was 9.3 years, and 98% of patients were observed for > or = 3.0 years. RFS was similar for patients who were treated with radiotherapy alone and patients who were treated with chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (10-year survival rates: 77% and 68%, respectively; P = 0.89). The OS rate also was similar for the two groups (10-year survival rates: 90% and 100%, respectively; P = 0

  17. Evaluation of functional erythropoietin receptor status in skeletal muscle in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Britt; Lundby, Carsten; Jessen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Background: Erythropoietin receptors have been identified in human skeletal muscle tissue, but downstream signal transduction has not been investigated. We therefore studied in vivo effects of systemic erythropoietin exposure in human skeletal muscle. Methodology/Principal Findings: The protocols...... involved 1) acute effects of a single bolus injection of erythropoietin followed by consecutive muscle biopsies for 1-10 hours, and 2) a separate study with prolonged administration for 16 days with biopsies obtained before and after. The presence of erythropoietin receptors in muscle tissue as well...... as activation of Epo signalling pathways (STAT5, MAPK, Akt, IKK) were analysed by western blotting. Changes in muscle protein profiles after prolonged erythropoietin treatment were evaluated by 2D gel-electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The presence of the erythropoietin receptor in skeletal muscle...

  18. Evaluation of functional erythropoietin receptor status in skeletal muscle in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Britt; Lundby, Carsten; Jessen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    as activation of Epo signalling pathways (STAT5, MAPK, Akt, IKK) were analysed by western blotting. Changes in muscle protein profiles after prolonged erythropoietin treatment were evaluated by 2D gel-electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The presence of the erythropoietin receptor in skeletal muscle......Background: Erythropoietin receptors have been identified in human skeletal muscle tissue, but downstream signal transduction has not been investigated. We therefore studied in vivo effects of systemic erythropoietin exposure in human skeletal muscle. Methodology/Principal Findings: The protocols...... involved 1) acute effects of a single bolus injection of erythropoietin followed by consecutive muscle biopsies for 1-10 hours, and 2) a separate study with prolonged administration for 16 days with biopsies obtained before and after. The presence of erythropoietin receptors in muscle tissue as well...

  19. Cytoskeleton-centric protein transportation by exosomes transforms tumor-favorable macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yizhi; Zhou, Yanlong; Yin, Xingfeng; Guo, Jiahui; Zhang, Gong; Wang, Tong; He, Qing-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The exosome is a key initiator of pre-metastatic niche in numerous cancers, where macrophages serve as primary inducers of tumor microenvironment. However, the proteome that can be exosomally transported from cancer cells to macrophages has not been sufficiently characterized so far. Here, we used colorectal cancer (CRC) exosomes to educate tumor-favorable macrophages. With a SILAC-based mass spectrometry strategy, we successfully traced the proteome transported from CRC exosomes to macrophages. Such a proteome primarily focused on promoting cytoskeleton rearrangement, which was biologically validated with multiple cell lines. We reproduced the exosomal transportation of functional vimentin as a proof-of-concept example. In addition, we found that some CRC exosomes could be recognized by macrophages via Fc receptors. Therefore, we revealed the active and necessary role of exosomes secreted from CRC cells to transform cancer-favorable macrophages, with the cytoskeleton-centric proteins serving as the top functional unit. PMID:27602764

  20. Detecting Two-Spirit erotics: The fiction of Carole laFavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatonetti, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the life and novels of Carole laFavor, arguing for her importance to and influence in Two-Spirit studies. Along with being a writer, laFavor was a powerful voice for social justice and Indigenous health sovereignty in Minnesota and the nation. Her two novels, Along the Journey River and Evil Dead Center, which both focus on Anishinaabe lesbian detective protagonist Renee LaRoche, are the first lesbian detective fiction published by a Native author. Renee's embrace of a specifically Two-Spirit erotics anchors her to family and brings her tribal community a powerful healing when she employs her skills to protect her people from instances of racism, abuse, and injustice. This article, then, reads these novels as the first of an emerging genre of texts that claim an overtly Two-Spirit erotic as well as vital precursors to the present embrace of sovereign erotics in Indigenous studies.

  1. Cytoskeleton-centric protein transportation by exosomes transforms tumor-favorable macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhipeng; Yang, Lijuan; Cui, Yizhi; Zhou, Yanlong; Yin, Xingfeng; Guo, Jiahui; Zhang, Gong; Wang, Tong; He, Qing-Yu

    2016-10-11

    The exosome is a key initiator of pre-metastatic niche in numerous cancers, where macrophages serve as primary inducers of tumor microenvironment. However, the proteome that can be exosomally transported from cancer cells to macrophages has not been sufficiently characterized so far. Here, we used colorectal cancer (CRC) exosomes to educate tumor-favorable macrophages. With a SILAC-based mass spectrometry strategy, we successfully traced the proteome transported from CRC exosomes to macrophages. Such a proteome primarily focused on promoting cytoskeleton rearrangement, which was biologically validated with multiple cell lines. We reproduced the exosomal transportation of functional vimentin as a proof-of-concept example. In addition, we found that some CRC exosomes could be recognized by macrophages via Fc receptors. Therefore, we revealed the active and necessary role of exosomes secreted from CRC cells to transform cancer-favorable macrophages, with the cytoskeleton-centric proteins serving as the top functional unit.

  2. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pfattheicher

    Full Text Available The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump. Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O

  3. Lithofacies paleogeography and favorable gas exploration zones of Qixia and Maokou Fms in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingao Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Sichuan Basin, the Middle Permian marine carbonate rocks are important natural gas pay zones with immense exploration potential, but the facies belts and distribution situations of layered dolomite reservoirs are not clear, which hinders the progress in natural gas exploration. In view of the sedimentary background of the Sichuan Basin, field outcrop section, drilling data and seismic data were comprehensively analyzed with the favorable reservoir intervals in the framework of sequence stratigraphy as the key research units. Research results about its lithofacies paleogeography were obtained as follows. First, a gentle slope SW high and NE low was presented during the sedimentation of the Qixia Fm in the Middle Permian. In the Maokou Fm of the Middle Permian, however, a series of the N–W trending intra-platform rifts were developed in this setting, and eventually a paleogeographic pattern of NE-dipping alternative uplift and depression was evolved. Second, in the Qixia Fm, the transgressive tract was in an open platform environment and the highstand system tract evolved into a rimmed platform. And the platform margin beach in the area of Jiange–Ya'an is the favorable reservoir facies belt. And third, in the Maokou Fm, the transgressive tract was in the carbonate shelf environment and the highstand system tract evolved into a rimmed platform. And the platform margin reef flat in the area of Jiange–Ya'an and the syneclise margin beach in the area of Yanting–Guang'an are favorable reservoir facies belts. It is concluded that the two grain beach facies belts in the areas of Jiange–Ya'an and Yanting–Guang'an were the favorable zones for the large-scale development of Middle Permian layered dolomite reservoirs and they are the main target of subsequent natural gas exploration.

  4. Do professional norms in the banking industry favor risk-taking?

    OpenAIRE

    Cohn, Alain; Fehr, Ernst; Maréchal, Michel André

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the banking industry has witnessed several cases of excessive risk-taking that frequently have been attributed to problematic professional norms. We conduct experiments with employees from several banks in which we manipulate the saliency of their professional identity and subsequently measure their risk aversion in a real stakes investment task. If bank employees are exposed to professional norms that favor risk-taking, they should become more willing to take risks when thei...

  5. Quantum-chemical studies on the favored and rare tautomers of neutral and redox adenine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczyńska, Ewa D; Makowski, Mariusz; Zientara-Rytter, Katarzyna; Kolczyńska, Katarzyna; Stępniewski, Tomasz M; Hallmann, Małgorzata

    2013-02-21

    All possible twenty-three prototropic tautomers of neutral and redox adenine (nine amine and fourteen imine forms, including geometric isomerism of the exo ═NH group) were examined in vacuo {DFT(B3LYP)/6-311+G(d,p)}. The NH → NH conversions as well as those usually omitted, NH → CH and CH → CH, were considered. An interesting change of the tautomeric preference occurs when proceeding from neutral to reduced adenine. One-electron reduction favors the nonaromatic amine C8H-N10H tautomer. This tautomeric preference is similar to that (C2H) for reduced imidazole. Water molecules (PCM model) seem to not change this trend. They influence solely the relative energies. The DFT vertical detachment energy in the gas phase is positive for each tautomer, e.g., 0.03 eV for N9H-N10H and 1.84 eV for C8H-N10H. The DFT adiabatic electron affinity for the favored process, neutral N9H-N10H → reduced C8H-N10H (ground states), is equal to 0.18 eV at 0 K (ZPE included). One-electron oxidation does not change the tautomeric preference in the gas phase. The aromatic amine N9H-N10H tautomer is favored for the oxidized molecule similarly as for the neutral one. The DFT adiabatic ionization potential for the favored process, neutral N9H-N10H → oxidized N9H-N10H (ground states), is equal to 8.12 eV at 0 K (ZPE included). Water molecules (PCM model) seem to influence solely the composition of the tautomeric mixture and the relative energies. They change the energies of the oxidation and reduction processes by ca. 2 eV.

  6. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O'Malley. Overall, small

  7. Home - Defense Technology Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    by @dtsamil Defense Technology Security Administration Mission, Culture, and History Executive Official seal of Defense Technology Security Administration Official seal of Defense Technology Security Administration OFFICE of the SECRETARY of DEFENSE Defense Technology Security Administration

  8. [Comparison of the quick Gram stain method to the B&M modified and favor methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Kayo; Kataoka, Nobumasa; Maruo, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    The Gram stain is an established method for bacterial identification, but the time needed to carry out this stain is 2-3 min. We attempted to shorten this time and stained a total of 70 clinical specimens isolated from using the Bartholomew & Mittwer (B&M) modified or Favor methods with a 3 s duration for washing and staining steps. Results were plotted and analyzed using a Hue Saturation Intensity (HSI) model. The range based on a plot of the two methods with the HSI model was presented as a reference interval. Our results indicated that 100% (35/35) of strains were Gram positive and 97.1% (34/35) were Gram negative for the quick B&M modified method. In the quick Favor method, 80.0% (28/35) were Gram positive and 68.6% (24/35) of strains were Gram negative. We propose that the quick B&M modified method is equivalent to the standard Gram staining method and is superior to the quick Favor method.

  9. Comparison of job stress and obesity in nurses with favorable and unfavorable work schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kihye; Trinkoff, Alison M; Storr, Carla L; Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Johnson, Karen L; Park, Sungae

    2012-08-01

    To compare obesity-related factors between female nurses with favorable work schedules (WSs) and unfavorable WSs. In a cross-sectional study, 1724 female nurses were stratified by WS (favorable vs unfavorable). For each schedule type, the odds of obesity were related to health behaviors, home demands, and job stress using logistic regression models. Among nurses with unfavorable WSs, healthy behaviors (exercise, sleep) were inversely associated with obesity, whereas for those with favorable WSs, obese nurses reported significantly more unhealthy behaviors (smoking, alcohol use; odds ratio [OR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.38), more physical lifting of children/dependents (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.06-1.93), having more nurse input into their jobs (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.02-1.44), yet less boss support at work (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.68-0.99). Considering impacts of WSs on obesity and potential obesity-related health outcomes, healthful scheduling should be provided to nurses.

  10. The Study of Relationship Between Work Teams and Favoring Knowledge Management (Case: Bank Keshavarzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamze Jamshidi Kohsari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management is a process that has been recently generated as an activity which isvery important in the dynamic environment, and in the competitive scene. We believe that KM is aprocess which its organizational knowledge is created from the individual knowledge of themembers of the organization. The relevant studies have indicated that organizing based on workteams could be considered a way to create the appropriate context for KM. However, thisorganizing based on work teams is not enough; it only has the necessary characteristics of the workteams that favor KM. Moreover, based on studies done, we distinguish which characteristics ofwork teams favor the KM process in its different phases (i.e. creation, transfer and integration. Inthis study, we conducted multiple regression and analysis of variance.Complementary skills (H2 and a climate of trust (H3 in work teams were more importantfactors that favor the management of organizational knowledge.This research is based on the Zarraga and Perez studies in 2006.

  11. BRAZILIAN ADMINISTRATION, ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM AND THE NEW STATE: THE ROLE OF ADMINISTRATIVE APPARATUS IN VARGAS ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Moura

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The role played by the administrative apparatus through the Department of Administrative Services in the Government policy Vargas is the object put in debate. Analyzes the theme from the the investigation of patrimonial, authoritarian and inefficient context which marks the formation and development of administrative bureaucracy, the tenders of professionalization and efficiency brought by the administrative reforms of the 1930s and 1940s with the contrast of the limitations of the import of the Weberian model in the Brazilian context and analysis of the establishment of the New State DASP and their assignments. Search the work demonstrate the control position he held directly and through the State Departments in the Brazilian Public Administration ensuring centralized and developmental policy of the government. For this is adopted as the research method of approach structuralism in order to identify the deconstruction of the phenomenon - of administrative reforms - in the superficial perception - the proposed impersonality and efficiency as the best way of achieving the public interest - its invariant structure - the search for the adequacy of the administrative apparatus and bureaucracy for pursuit of political ends pursued by the Government.

  12. Synergism between abdominal and pelvic floor muscles in healthy women: a systematic review of observational studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Ferla

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The training of the pelvic floor muscles is widely used for treating pelvic floor dysfunctions, like urinary incontinence. During the training, abdominal contractions are avoided; however several studies support the use of the synergy between these muscle groups. Objective: Carrying out a systematic review of studies that seek to identify the presence of synergy between the muscles of the abdomen and the pelvic floor and its functionality in women without pelvic floor dysfunction. Methodology: To conduct the review, we have followed the recommendations proposed by the Cochrane Collaboration for systematic reviews. The literature search included the databases SCIELO, PEDro, MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL and EMBASE, and manual research, the starting date of the databases until August 2013. We included cross observational studies with healthy women who were assessed to find the presence of synergy between the abdominal muscles and the pelvic floor. Results: We included 10 articles and they all showed the existence of synergy between the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles in healthy women in the supine, sitting and standing positions. Conclusion: Thus, we can conclude that there is synergy between the muscles of the abdomen and the pelvic floor in healthy women. Better understanding the behavior of these muscles and synergy may favor the development of strategies for the prevention and treatment of disorders of the female pelvic floor muscles.

  13. Promoção de atitudes ambientais favoráveis através de debates de dilemas ecológicos Promoting favorable attitudes toward the environment through debates of dilemmas with ecological content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Maria Brasil Biaggio

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo se propôs a promover atitudes ambientais favoráveis em adolescentes através de debates de dilemas com conteúdo ecológico. Os dilemas foram elaborados com base na teoria de julgamento moral de Kohlberg e na técnica de discussão de dilemas morais em grupo, criada por Blatt e Kohlberg. Dezesseis estudantes do primeiro ano do segundo grau de uma escola pública de Porto Alegre participaram do estudo, tendo sido aplicado nesses estudantes, como pré-teste e pós-teste, um questionário de dez itens sobre atitudes em relação à ecologia. As respostas dos participantes foram avaliadas numa escala de zero a dois pontos, indicando o grau de maturidade de atitudes em relação ao ambiente. O grau de participação nas discussões de dilemas também foi analisado. A análise dos dados indica que a técnica foi eficaz somente para os alunos considerados participativos nas discussões.This research study had the purpose of promoting favorable attitudes toward the environment in adolescents through debates of dilemmas with ecological content. The dilemmas were elaborated with basis on Kohlberg's theory of moral judgment and on Blatt and Kohlberg's group discussion technique. Sixteen students from the first year of high-school from a public school in Porto Alegre (Brazil, participated in the research study. These students were administred a ten-item questionnaire about attitudes regarding ecology, as pre-test and post-test. The participants responses were rated in a zero to two points scale, indicating the degree of maturity of attitudes regarding the environment. The degree of participation in the discussions was also analyzed. The analysis of data reveals that the technique worked only for those students considered high in participation in the discussions.

  14. Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Tina; Windisch, Wolfram

    2018-07-01

    In sarcoidosis, muscle involvement is common, but mostly asymptomatic. Currently, little is known about respiratory muscle and diaphragm involvement and function in patients with sarcoidosis. Reduced inspiratory muscle strength and/or a reduced diaphragm function may contribute to exertional dyspnea, fatigue and reduced health-related quality of life. Previous studies using volitional and non-volitional tests demonstrated a reduced inspiratory muscle strength in sarcoidosis compared to control subjects, and also showed that respiratory muscle function may even be significantly impaired in a subset of patients. Areas covered: This review examines the evidence on respiratory muscle involvement and its implications in sarcoidosis with emphasis on pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of respiratory muscle dysfunction. The presented evidence was identified by a literature search performed in PubMed and Medline for articles about respiratory and skeletal muscle function in sarcoidosis through to January 2018. Expert commentary: Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is an underdiagnosed condition, which may have an important impact on dyspnea and health-related quality of life. Further studies are needed to understand the etiology, pathogenesis and extent of respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

  15. Vitamin D and muscle trophicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues-Faria, Carla; Boirie, Yves; Walrand, Stéphane

    2017-05-01

    We review recent findings on the involvement of vitamin D in skeletal muscle trophicity. Vitamin D deficiencies are associated with reduced muscle mass and strength, and its supplementation seems effective to improve these parameters in vitamin D-deficient study participants. Latest investigations have also evidenced that vitamin D is essential in muscle development and repair. In particular, it modulates skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. However, discrepancies still exist about an enhancement or a decrease of muscle proliferation and differentiation by the vitamin D. Recently, it has been demonstrated that vitamin D influences skeletal muscle cell metabolism as it seems to regulate protein synthesis and mitochondrial function. Finally, apart from its genomic and nongenomic effects, recent investigations have demonstrated a genetic contribution of vitamin D to muscle functioning. Recent studies support the importance of vitamin D in muscle health, and the impact of its deficiency in regard to muscle mass and function. These 'trophic' properties are of particular importance for some specific populations such as elderly persons and athletes, and in situations of loss of muscle mass or function, particularly in the context of chronic diseases.

  16. Glutathione depletion in tissues after administration of buthionine sulphoximine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minchinton, A.I.; Rojas, A.; Smith, A.; Soranson, J.A.; Shrieve, D.C.; Jones, N.R.; Bremner, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Buthionine sulphoximine (BSO) an inhibitor of glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis, was administered to mice in single and repeated doses. The resultant pattern of GSH depletion was studied in liver, kidney, skeletal muscle and three types of murine tumor. Liver and kidney exhibited a rapid depletion of GSH. Muscle was depleted to a similar level, but at a slower rate after a single dose. All three tumors required repeated administration of BSO over several days to obtain a similar degree of depletion to that shown in the other tissues

  17. Pro Linux System Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Turnbull, James

    2009-01-01

    We can all be Linux experts, provided we invest the time in learning the craft of Linux administration. Pro Linux System Administration makes it easy for small to medium--sized businesses to enter the world of zero--cost software running on Linux and covers all the distros you might want to use, including Red Hat, Ubuntu, Debian, and CentOS. Authors, and systems infrastructure experts James Turnbull, Peter Lieverdink, and Dennis Matotek take a layered, component--based approach to open source business systems, while training system administrators as the builders of business infrastructure. If

  18. Administration and Jurisdictional Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Hernando Nieto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available To what extent does studying jurisdictional politics need the knowledge of different administrative theories in general and the science of public administration in particular? This small text proposes such reflection and comes to the conclusion that it is impossible to propose a new approximation to this topic without considering the administrative theory, for that the specialists and thinkers will get more with the contact of this discipline from what it is called a multidisciplinary approach.

  19. Administration of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    Current developments in atomic energy, and the administrative problems to which they give rise, were surveyed in a seminar on 'Atomic Energy for Atomic Energy Administrators' held at IAEA headquarters from 30 September to 4 October 1963. The ground covered included protection against radiation, isotopes and radiation sources, research reactors, nuclear power, legal matters, technical and scientific administration, the role of the universities, and the Agency's part in assistance to developing countries. The possibilities and limitations of radioisotope production from research reactors were discussed by Dr. G. B. Cook, of the Division of Research and Laboratories, IAEA in this paper.

  20. Administration of radioisotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-01-15

    Current developments in atomic energy, and the administrative problems to which they give rise, were surveyed in a seminar on 'Atomic Energy for Atomic Energy Administrators' held at IAEA headquarters from 30 September to 4 October 1963. The ground covered included protection against radiation, isotopes and radiation sources, research reactors, nuclear power, legal matters, technical and scientific administration, the role of the universities, and the Agency's part in assistance to developing countries. The possibilities and limitations of radioisotope production from research reactors were discussed by Dr. G. B. Cook, of the Division of Research and Laboratories, IAEA in this paper.

  1. Administrative Circulars Rev.

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Administrative Circular N° 19 (Rev. 3) - April 2003 Subsistence indemnity - Other expenses necessarily incurred in the course of duty travelAdministrative Circular N° 25 (Rev. 2) - April 2003 Shift work - Special provisions for the Fire and Rescue Service - These circulars have been revised. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128Copies of these circulars are available in the Divisional Secretariats. In addition, administrative and operational circulars, as well as the lists of those in force, are available for consultation on the Web at: http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/internal/admin_services/admincirc/listadmincirc.asp

  2. Publication of administrative circular

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR NO. 23 (REV. 2) – SPECIAL WORKING HOURS Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 2) entitled "Special working hours", approved following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee on 9 December 2008, will be available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department as from 19 December 2008: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 1) entitled "Stand-by duty" of April 1988. A "Frequently Asked Questions" information document on special working hours will also be available on this site. Paper copies of this circular will shortly be available in Departmental Secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  3. PUBLICATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR NO. 23 (REV. 2) – SPECIAL WORKING HOURS Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 2) entitled "Special working hours", approved following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 9 December 2008, will be available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department as from 19 December 2008: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 1) entitled "Stand-by duty" of April 1988. A "Frequently Asked Questions" information document on special working hours will also be available on this site. Paper copies of this circular will shortly be available in departmental secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  4. SDMG - Sablefish Muscle Physiology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Meat producing animals in agriculture are the result of ongoing genetic selection for desirable characteristics related to growth rates, feed efficiencies, product...

  5. Global health actors no longer in favor of user fees: a documentary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Emilie; Ridde, Valéry

    2013-07-26

    Since the advent of health user fees in low- and middle-income countries in the 1980s, the discourse of global health actors (GHAs) has changed to the disadvantage of this type of healthcare financing mechanism. The aim of the study was to identify and analyze the stance of GHAs in the debate on user fees. We conducted documentary research using public documents published by and officially attributed to GHAs from 2005 to 2011. We categorized GHAs into four groups: intergovernmental organizations, international non-governmental organizations, government agencies, and working groups and networks. We then classified the GHAs according to their stance relative to the abolition of user fees, and conducted a thematic analysis of their discourse to understand the arguments used by each GHA to justify its stance. We identified 56 GHAs, for which we analyzed 140 documents. Among them, 55% were in favor of the abolition of user fees or in favor of free care at the point of delivery. None of the GHAs stated that they were in favor of user fees; however, 30% did not take a stand. Only the World Bank declares that it is both in favor of user fees and in favor of free care at point of service. GHAs generally circumscribe their stance to specific populations (pregnant women, children under 5 years, etc.) or to specific health services (primary, basic, essential). Three types of arguments are used by GHAs to justify their stance: economic, moral and ethical, and pragmatic. The principle of "user pays" seems to have fizzled. Production and dissemination of evidence, as well as certain advocacy networks, may have contributed to this change in discourse. However, GHAs should go a step further and translate their words into action, so that free healthcare at the point of delivery becomes a reality in low- and middle-income countries. They should provide technical and financial support to those countries that have chosen to implement user fee exemption policies, sometimes influenced

  6. Nuclear Positioning in Muscle Development and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Eric eFolker; Mary eBaylies

    2013-01-01

    Muscle disease as a group is characterized by muscle weakness, muscle loss, and impaired muscle function. Although the phenotype is the same, the underlying cellular pathologies, and the molecular causes of these pathologies, are diverse. One common feature of many muscle disorders is the mispositioning of myonuclei. In unaffected individuals myonuclei are spaced throughout the periphery of the muscle fiber such that the distance between nuclei is maximized. However, in diseased muscles, th...

  7. Prehospital sodium bicarbonate use could worsen long term survival with favorable neurological recovery among patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Takahisa; Grunau, Brian; Scheuermeyer, Frank X; Gibo, Koichiro; Dick, William; Fordyce, Christopher B; Dorian, Paul; Stenstrom, Robert; Straight, Ronald; Christenson, Jim

    2017-10-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (SB) is widely used for resuscitation in out-of- hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA); however, its effect on long term outcomes is unclear. From 2005-2016, we prospectively conducted a province-wide population-based observational study including adult non-traumatic OHCA patients managed by paramedics. SB was administered by paramedics based on their clinical assessments. To examine the association of SB administration and survival and favorable neurological outcome to hospital discharge, defined as modified Rankin scale of 3 or less, we performed a multivariable logistic regression analysis: (1) within propensity score matched comparison groups, and; (2) within the full cohort with missing variables addressed by multiple imputation techniques. Of 15 601 OHCA patients, 13,865 were included in this study with 5165 (37.3%) managed with SB. In the SB treated group, 118 (2.3%) patients survived and 62 (1.2%) had favorable neurological outcomes to hospital discharge, compared to 1699 (19.8%) and 831 (10.6%) in the non-SB treated group, respectively. In the 1:1 propensity matched cohort including 5638 OHCA patients, SB was associated with decreased probability of outcomes (adjusted OR for survival: 0.64, 95% CI 0.45-0.91, and adjusted OR for favorable neurological outcome: 0.59, 95% CI 0.39-0.88, respectively). The association remained consistent in the multiply imputed cohort (adjusted OR 0.48, 95 CI 0.36-0.64, and adjusted OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.38-0.76, respectively). In OHCA patients, prehospital SB administration was associated with worse survival rate and neurological outcomes to hospital discharge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pneumatic Artificial Muscles Based on Biomechanical Characteristics of Human Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the pneumatic artificial muscles based on biomechanical characteristics of human muscles. A wearable device and a rehabilitation robot that assist a human muscle should have characteristics similar to those of human muscle. In addition, since the wearable device and the rehabilitation robot should be light, an actuator with a high power to weight ratio is needed. At present, the McKibben type is widely used as an artificial muscle, but in fact its physical model is highly nonlinear. Therefore, an artificial muscle actuator has been developed in which high-strength carbon fibres have been built into the silicone tube. However, its contraction rate is smaller than the actual biological muscles. On the other hand, if an artificial muscle that contracts axially is installed in a robot as compactly as the robot hand, big installing space is required. Therefore, an artificial muscle with a high contraction rate and a tendon-driven system as a compact actuator were developed, respectively. In this study, we report on the basic structure and basic characteristics of two types of actuators.

  9. Administration of Anesthesia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anesthesia Evaluation Part V Broad Access to Care, Patient Safety and Comfort Oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMSs) are trained in all aspects of anesthesia administration. Following dental ... evaluate patients for anesthesia, deliver the anesthetic and monitor post- ...

  10. Transportation Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration A - Z Index Blog What Can I ... Search form Search the Site Main menu Travel Security Screening Special Procedures TSA Pre✓® Passenger Support Travel ...

  11. Administration of Anesthesia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OMSs) are trained in all aspects of anesthesia administration. Following dental school, they complete at least four years of training in a hospital-based surgical residency program alongside medical residents in ...

  12. Spatially enabled land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    enabling of land administration systems managing tenure, valuation, planning, and development will allow the information generated by these activities to be much more useful. Also, the services available to private and public sectors and to community organisations should commensurably improve. Knowledge....... In other words: Good governance and sustainable development is not attainable without sound land administration or - more broadly – sound land management. The paper presents a land management vision that incorporates the benefits of ICT enabled land administration functions. The idea is that spatial...... the communication between administrative systems and also establish more reliable data due to the use the original data instead of copies. In Denmark, such governmental guidelines for a service-oriented ITarchitecture in support of e-government are recently adopted. Finally, the paper presents the role of FIG...

  13. Humanism, Administration and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    2012-01-01

    are not restricted to the administrative practices, but are part of education and its humanistic legacy as well. As such, the administrative demand of documentation becomes possible and recognisable through its reproductive elements. Elements that are constituted in a transformative conjunction in which......Abstract Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, this paper analyses the emergence of a new pedagogical desire related to administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Two arguments are made: first......, it is argued that the changes in administrative practices during the last decade constitute a transformation, but also a reproduction of relations between knowledge and governing that goes back to the big expansion of the welfare state. Second, it is argued that these relations between knowledge and governing...

  14. Scientists vs. the administration

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Article denouncing the supposed impartiality of signatories of a report released by the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), which accused the Bush administration of systemically suborning objective science to a political agenda (1 page).

  15. Veterans Health Administration (VHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The purpose of this agreement is for SSA to verify SSNs and other identifying information for the Department of Veterans Affairs, VHA. DVA will use the information...

  16. Ultrasound of skeletal muscle injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eamon Su Chun; McNally, Eugene G

    2007-06-01

    The professional and recreational demands of modern society make the treatment of muscle injury an increasingly important clinical problem, particularly in the athletic population. In the elite athlete, significant financial and professional pressures may also exist that emphasize the need for accurate diagnosis and treatment. With new advances in ultrasound technology, images of exquisite detail allow diagnosis of muscle injury that matches the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Furthermore, the benefits of real-time and Doppler imaging, ability to perform interventional procedures, and relative cost benefits compared with MRI place ultrasound at the forefront for investigation for these injuries in many circumstances. Muscle injury may be divided into acute and chronic pathology, with muscle strain injury the most common clinical problem presenting to sports physicians. This article reviews the spectrum of acute and chronic muscle injuries, with particular attention to clinical features and some common or important muscle strain injuries.

  17. Fast Torsional Artificial Muscles from NiTi Twisted Yarns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvakili, Seyed M; Hunter, Ian W

    2017-05-17

    Torsional artificial muscles made of multiwalled carbon nanotube/niobium nanowire yarns have shown remarkable torsional speed and gravimetric torque. The muscle structure consists of a twisted yarn with half of its length infiltrated with a stimuli-responsive guest material such as paraffin wax. The volumetric expansion of the guest material creates the torsional actuation in the yarn. In the present work, we show that this type of actuation is not unique to wax-infiltrated carbon multiwalled nanotube (MWCNT) or niobium nanowire yarns and that twisted yarn of NiTi alloy fibers also produces fast torsional actuation. By gold-plating half the length of a NiTi twisted yarn and Joule heating it, we achieved a fully reversible torsional actuation of up to 16°/mm with peak torsional speed of 10 500 rpm and gravimetric torque of 8 N·m/kg. These results favorably compare to those of MWCNTs and niobium nanowire yarns.

  18. SELinux policy administration

    CERN Document Server

    Vermeulen, Sven

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step guide to learn how to set up security on Linux servers by taking SELinux policies into your own hands.Linux administrators will enjoy the various SELinux features that this book covers and the approach used to guide the admin into understanding how SELinux works. The book assumes that you have basic knowledge in Linux administration, especially Linux permission and user management.

  19. Learning Cassandra for administrators

    CERN Document Server

    Parthasarathy, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on guide, taking the reader from the basics of using Cassandra though to the installation and the running.Learning Cassandra for Administrators is for administrators who manage a large deployment of Cassandra clusters, and support engineers who would like to install the monitoring tools and who are also in charge of making sure the cluster stays the same, ensuring that the service is always up and running.

  20. Vibrio ecology - Identifying Environmental Determinants Favorable for the Presence and Transmission of Pathogenic Vibrios

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In a tri-coastal collaborative study, the population densities of vibrios are being determined in the Mississippi Sound, Puget Sound, Chesapeake Bay, and Timbalier...

  1. Human factoring administrative procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grider, D.A.; Sturdivant, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    In nonnuclear business, administrative procedures bring to mind such mundane topics as filing correspondence and scheduling vacation time. In the nuclear industry, on the other hand, administrative procedures play a vital role in assuring the safe operation of a facility. For some time now, industry focus has been on improving technical procedures. Significant efforts are under way to produce technical procedure requires that a validated technical, regulatory, and administrative basis be developed and that the technical process be established for each procedure. Producing usable technical procedures requires that procedure presentation be engineered to the same human factors principles used in control room design. The vital safety role of administrative procedures requires that they be just as sound, just a rigorously formulated, and documented as technical procedures. Procedure programs at the Tennessee Valley Authority and at Boston Edison's Pilgrim Station demonstrate that human factors engineering techniques can be applied effectively to technical procedures. With a few modifications, those same techniques can be used to produce more effective administrative procedures. Efforts are under way at the US Department of Energy Nuclear Weapons Complex and at some utilities (Boston Edison, for instance) to apply human factors engineering to administrative procedures: The techniques being adapted include the following

  2. Muscle necrosis - computer tomography aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franze, I.; Goebel, N.; Stuckmann, G.

    1985-01-01

    In four patients muscle necroses were observed. In two patients these were caused by intraoperative positioning, in one by having worked with a pneumatic hammer and in one possibly by alcohol. CT showed hypodense areas in the affected muscles which were - in the state of subacute necroses - surrounded by hyperaemic borders. The diagnosis was confirmed by puncture or biopsy. After six months hypodense areas were still perceptible in the atrophic muscles of two patients. (orig.) [de

  3. Muscle dysmorphia: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tod D

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available David Tod1 Christian Edwards2 Ieuan Cranswick1 1School of Sport and Exercise Science, Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, Merseyside, 2Institute of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Worcester, Worcester, Worcestershire, UK Abstract: Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people’s beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scientific communities. Much of this empirical interest has surveyed nonclinical samples, and there is limited understanding of people with the condition beyond knowledge about their characteristics. Much of the existing knowledge about people with the condition is unsurprising and inherent in the definition of the disorder, such as dissatisfaction with muscularity and adherence to muscle-building activities. Only recently have investigators started to explore questions beyond these limited tautological findings that may give rise to substantial knowledge advances, such as the examination of masculine and feminine norms. There is limited understanding of additional topics such as etiology, prevalence, nosology, prognosis, and treatment. Further, the evidence is largely based on a small number of unstandardized case reports and descriptive studies (involving small samples, which are largely confined to Western (North American, British, and Australian males. Although much research has been undertaken since the term “muscle dysmorphia” entered the psychiatric lexicon in 1997, there remains tremendous scope for knowledge advancement. A primary task in the short term is for investigators to examine the extent to which the condition exists among well-defined populations to help determine the justification for research funding relative to other public health issues. A greater variety of research questions and designs may contribute to a broader and more robust knowledge base

  4. Muscle dysmorphia: current insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tod, David; Edwards, Christian; Cranswick, Ieuan

    2016-01-01

    Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people's beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scientific communities. Much of this empirical interest has surveyed nonclinical samples, and there is limited understanding of people with the condition beyond knowledge about their characteristics. Much of the existing knowledge about people with the condition is unsurprising and inherent in the definition of the disorder, such as dissatisfaction with muscularity and adherence to muscle-building activities. Only recently have investigators started to explore questions beyond these limited tautological findings that may give rise to substantial knowledge advances, such as the examination of masculine and feminine norms. There is limited understanding of additional topics such as etiology, prevalence, nosology, prognosis, and treatment. Further, the evidence is largely based on a small number of unstandardized case reports and descriptive studies (involving small samples), which are largely confined to Western (North American, British, and Australian) males. Although much research has been undertaken since the term "muscle dysmorphia" entered the psychiatric lexicon in 1997, there remains tremendous scope for knowledge advancement. A primary task in the short term is for investigators to examine the extent to which the condition exists among well-defined populations to help determine the justification for research funding relative to other public health issues. A greater variety of research questions and designs may contribute to a broader and more robust knowledge base than currently exists. Future work will help clinicians assist a group of people whose quality of life and health are placed at risk by their muscular preoccupation.

  5. Activation of respiratory muscles during weaning from mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterspacher, Stephan; Gückler, Julia; Pietsch, Fabian; Walker, David Johannes; Kabitz, Hans-Joachim; Dreher, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Respiratory muscle dysfunction is a key component of weaning failure. Balancing respiratory muscle loading and unloading by applying different ventilation modes along with spontaneous breathing episodes are established weaning strategies. However, the effects of body positioning on the respiratory muscles during weaning remains unclear. This study aimed at assessing respiratory drive by surface electromyography (EMG) of the diaphragm (EMG dia ) and parasternal muscles (EMG para ) in tracheotomized patients during prolonged weaning in 3 randomized body positions-supine, 30° semirecumbent, and 80° sitting-during mechanical ventilation and spontaneous breathing. Nine patients were included for analysis. Cardiorespiratory parameters (heart rate, blood pressure, arterial oxygen saturation, dyspnea) did not change under each condition (all P>.05). EMG para and EMG dia did not change under mechanical ventilation (both P>.05). EMG dia changed under spontaneous breathing from supine to sitting (0.45±0.26 vs 0.32±0.19; P=.012) and between semirecumbent to sitting (0.41±0.23 vs 0.32±0.19; P=.039), whereas EMG para did not change. This is the first study to show that body positioning influences respiratory drive to the diaphragm in tracheotomized patients with prolonged weaning from mechanical ventilation during unassisted breathing. Sitting position reduces respiratory drive compared with semirecumbent and supine positioning and might therefore be favored during spontaneous breathing trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lipoxygenase in chicken muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, S.; Bergman, M.; Sklan, D.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of lipoxygenase-type enzymes was demonstrated in chick muscles. Examination of the oxidation products of [ 14 C]arachidonic acid revealed the presence of 15-lipoxygenase. The enzyme was partially purified by affinity chromatography on linoleoyl-aminoethyl-Sepharose. The enzyme was stable on frozen storage, and activity was almost completely preserved after 12-month storage at -20 degree C. During this period the content of cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene fatty acids decreased slightly. It is suggested that lipoxygenase may be responsible for some of the oxidative changes occurring in fatty acids on frozen storage of chicken meat

  7. Idiopathic masseter muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Biruktawit; Megersa, Shimalis

    2011-11-01

    Benign Masseteric Hypertrophy is a relatively uncommon condition that can occur unilaterally or bilaterally. Pain may be a symptom, but most frequently a clinician is consulted for cosmetic reasons. In some cases prominent Exostoses at the angle of the mandible are noted. Although it is tempting to point to Malocclusion, Bruxism, clenching, or Temporomandibular joint disorders, the etiology in the majority of cases is unclear. Diagnosis is based on awareness of the condition, clinical and radiographic findings, and exclusion of more serious Pathology such as Benign and Malignant Parotid Disease, Rhabdomyoma, and Lymphangioma. Treatment usually involves resection of a portion of the Masseter muscle with or without the underlying bone.

  8. Contractures and muscle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, R Jon

    2016-08-01

    Contractures are one of a handful of signs in muscle disease, besides weakness and its distribution, whose presence can help guide us diagnostically, a welcome star on the horizon. Contractures are associated with several myopathies, some with important cardiac manifestations, and consequently are important to recognise; their presence may also provide us with a potential satisfying 'penny dropping' diagnostic moment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. New twist on artificial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Carter S; Li, Na; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Aliev, Ali E; Di, Jiangtao; Baughman, Ray H

    2016-10-18

    Lightweight artificial muscle fibers that can match the large tensile stroke of natural muscles have been elusive. In particular, low stroke, limited cycle life, and inefficient energy conversion have combined with high cost and hysteretic performance to restrict practical use. In recent years, a new class of artificial muscles, based on highly twisted fibers, has emerged that can deliver more than 2,000 J/kg of specific work during muscle contraction, compared with just 40 J/kg for natural muscle. Thermally actuated muscles made from ordinary polymer fibers can deliver long-life, hysteresis-free tensile strokes of more than 30% and torsional actuation capable of spinning a paddle at speeds of more than 100,000 rpm. In this perspective, we explore the mechanisms and potential applications of present twisted fiber muscles and the future opportunities and challenges for developing twisted muscles having improved cycle rates, efficiencies, and functionality. We also demonstrate artificial muscle sewing threads and textiles and coiled structures that exhibit nearly unlimited actuation strokes. In addition to robotics and prosthetics, future applications include smart textiles that change breathability in response to temperature and moisture and window shutters that automatically open and close to conserve energy.

  10. Muscle regeneration in mitochondrial myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, T O; Hauerslev, S; Jeppesen, T D

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial myopathies cover a diverse group of disorders in which ragged red and COX-negative fibers are common findings on muscle morphology. In contrast, muscle degeneration and regeneration, typically found in muscular dystrophies, are not considered characteristic features of mitochondrial...... myopathies. We investigated regeneration in muscle biopsies from 61 genetically well-defined patients affected by mitochondrial myopathy. Our results show that the perturbed energy metabolism in mitochondrial myopathies causes ongoing muscle regeneration in a majority of patients, and some were even affected...

  11. Effects of Long Term Supplementation of Anabolic Androgen Steroids on Human Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji-Guo; Bonnerud, Patrik; Eriksson, Anders; Stål, Per S.; Tegner, Yelverton; Malm, Christer

    2014-01-01

    The effects of long-term (over several years) anabolic androgen steroids (AAS) administration on human skeletal muscle are still unclear. In this study, seventeen strength training athletes were recruited and individually interviewed regarding self-administration of banned substances. Ten subjects admitted having taken AAS or AAS derivatives for the past 5 to 15 years (Doped) and the dosage and type of banned substances were recorded. The remaining seven subjects testified to having never used any banned substances (Clean). For all subjects, maximal muscle strength and body composition were tested, and biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained. Using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry (IHC), muscle biopsies were evaluated for morphology including fiber type composition, fiber size, capillary variables and myonuclei. Compared with the Clean athletes, the Doped athletes had significantly higher lean leg mass, capillary per fibre and myonuclei per fiber. In contrast, the Doped athletes had significantly lower absolute value in maximal squat force and relative values in maximal squat force (relative to lean body mass, to lean leg mass and to muscle fiber area). Using multivariate statistics, an orthogonal projection of latent structure discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model was established, in which the maximal squat force relative to muscle mass and the maximal squat force relative to fiber area, together with capillary density and nuclei density were the most important variables for separating Doped from the Clean athletes (regression  =  0.93 and prediction  =  0.92, p<0.0001). In Doped athletes, AAS dose-dependent increases were observed in lean body mass, muscle fiber area, capillary density and myonuclei density. In conclusion, long term AAS supplementation led to increases in lean leg mass, muscle fiber size and a parallel improvement in muscle strength, and all were dose-dependent. Administration of AAS may induce sustained

  12. Human skeletal muscle fibroblasts stimulate in vitro myogenesis and in vivo muscle regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail L.; Magnan, Mélanie; Chazaud, Bénédicte

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of skeletal muscle extracellular matrix is an unfavourable characteristic of many muscle diseases, muscle injury and sarcopenia. In addition to the indispensable role satellite cells play in muscle regeneration, there is emerging evidence in rodents for a regulatory influence...

  13. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Exogenous insulin does not increase muscle protein synthesis rate when administered systemically: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommelen, Jorn; Groen, Bart B L; Hamer, Henrike M; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-07-01

    Though it is well appreciated that insulin plays an important role in the regulation of muscle protein metabolism, there is much discrepancy in the literature on the capacity of exogenous insulin administration to increase muscle protein synthesis rates in vivo in humans. To assess whether exogenous insulin administration increases muscle protein synthesis rates in young and older adults. A systematic review of clinical trials was performed and the presence or absence of an increase in muscle protein synthesis rate was reported for each individual study arm. In a stepwise manner, multiple models were constructed that excluded study arms based on the following conditions: model 1, concurrent hyperaminoacidemia; model 2, insulin-induced hypoaminoacidemia; model 3, supraphysiological insulin concentrations; and model 4, older, more insulin resistant, subjects. From the presented data in the current systematic review, we conclude that: i) exogenous insulin and amino acid administration effectively increase muscle protein synthesis, but this effect is attributed to the hyperaminoacidemia; ii) exogenous insulin administered systemically induces hypoaminoacidemia which obviates any insulin-stimulatory effect on muscle protein synthesis; iii) exogenous insulin resulting in supraphysiological insulin levels exceeding 50, 000  pmol/l may effectively augment muscle protein synthesis; iv) exogenous insulin may have a diminished effect on muscle protein synthesis in older adults due to age-related anabolic resistance; and v) exogenous insulin administered systemically does not increase muscle protein synthesis in healthy, young adults. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  14. Influence of ginger and cinnamon intake on inflammation and muscle soreness endued by exercise in Iranian female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Shokri Mashhadi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Administration of ginger and cinnamon in athlete women for six weeks did not show any significant change in the IL-6 level, but showed a decrease in muscle soreness in the cinnamon and ginger groups.

  15. Nutritional interventions to preserve skeletal muscle mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backx, Evelien M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Muscle mass is the main predictor for muscle strength and physical function. The amount of muscle mass can decline rapidly during periods of reduced physical activity or during periods of energy intake restriction. For athletes, it is important to maintain muscle mass, since the loss of muscle is

  16. Muscle-bone Interactions During Fracture Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    muscle resection, isotopic or heterotopic minced muscle implants were placed immediately adjacent to the periosteum. Their control groups consisted of...interacting with surrounding muscle. Addition- ally, Utvag et al. showed that significant muscle injury and ab- sence of muscle by resection, or by traumatic

  17. Educational Administration and the Social, Policy, and Administrative Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Samuel A.

    1983-01-01

    The politics of education has been ignored in educational administration programs; it has been not enough taught in American programs for educational administrators and not enough emphasized in discussions of administrative roles. Administration increasingly includes political as well as rational decisions. Thus, administrators need a unified…

  18. Exercise training favors increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle in contrast to adipose tissue: a randomized study using FDG PET imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichkendler, M. H.; Auerbach, P.; Rosenkilde, M.

    2013-01-01

    abdominal SAT compared with CON but not in either intra- or retroperitoneal VAT. Total adipose tissue mass decreased in both exercise groups, and the decrease was distributed equally among subcutaneous and intra-abdominal depots. In conclusion, aerobic exercise training increases insulin-stimulated glucose...

  19. Some concepts of favorability for world-class-type uranium deposits in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, H.H.

    1981-03-01

    An account is given of concepts of favorability of geologic environments in the eastern United States for uranium deposits of several major types existing elsewhere in the world. The purpose is to convey some initial ideas about the interrelationships of the geology of the eastern United States and the geologic settings of certain of these world-class deposits. The study and report include consideration of uranium deposits other than those generally manifesting the geologic, geochemical and genetic characteristics associated with the conventional sandstone-type ores of the western United States.

  20. Some concepts of favorability for world-class-type uranium deposits in the northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, H.H.

    1981-03-01

    An account is given of concepts of favorability of geologic environments in the eastern United States for uranium deposits of several major types existing elsewhere in the world. The purpose is to convey some initial ideas about the interrelationships of the geology of the eastern United States and the geologic settings of certain of these world-class deposits. The study and report include consideration of uranium deposits other than those generally manifesting the geologic, geochemical and genetic characteristics associated with the conventional sandstone-type ores of the western United States

  1. 2005 DAtF winter meeting - pleading in favor of a sensible energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The year's Winter Meeting of Deutsches Atomforum, which was held under the general heading of 'Pleading in Favor of a Sensible Energy Mix', dealt with the large variety of aspects and perspectives of this important key topic, also with respect to the sustainability factors, environment, economy, and social aspects. Twelve contributions, or statements, by representatives from politics, industry, society, and research covered different aspects of a 'sensible energy mix'. A round of politicians debated the subject controversially. The meeting, which was attended by more than 250 participants, thus opened 2005 with an interesting presentation of present and future topics of the power supply debate. (orig.)

  2. A case of invasive papillary breast carcinoma: Fierce façade with favorable prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Vani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive papillary carcinoma of the breast is a rare, distinct variant comprising approximately less than 1-2% of all newly diagnosed cases of breast carcinoma and is usually found in postmenopausal women with a more favorable prognosis. We report an unusual case in a 45-year-old perimenopausal female who came with a complaint of lump in right breast for duration of 1 year. A simple mastectomy was undertaken for histopathological study and immunohistochemistry (IHC which showed characteristic features of an invasive papillary breast carcinoma. We present this case in view of its rarity and to highlight this clinicopathological subtype for its good prognosis and to avoid overtreatment.

  3. Varieties of granitic uranium deposits and favorable exploration areas in the eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.J.W.; Ragland, P.C.; Nishimori, R.K.; Greenberg, J.K.; Hauck, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    This paper is divided into three parts. First is an overview of the basic igneous processes that cause concentration of uranium and the types of rocks in which these deposits are most likely to occur. Second is a discussion of the source of uranium and the tectonic environments in which uranium-rich igneouos rocks are likely to form. Third is an application of these principles to the delineation of favorable belts for uranium exploration in crystalline rocks in the eastern United States. The paper is restricted to a discussion of those deposits in which high-uranium concentrations are caused by magmatic processes. 114 refs

  4. IMPACT OF ISLAMIC RELIGIOUS SYMBOL IN PRODUCING FAVORABLE ATTITUDE TOWARD ADVERTISEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas NASERI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature on religion and advertisement led to the identification of three lines of studies examining the influence of religion on advertising. These three lines of studies focused on attitude toward advertising of controversial products, presence of religious values in advertisements executions, and the consumers’ reactions to advertisement containing religious cues or symbols. The latter line has been followed modestly in Christian context but not in Islamic context of advertising. Hijab as a significant religious cue might peripherally generates a favorable attitude toward advertisement among Muslims. It is suggested that information processing theories like Elaboration Likelihood Model provides a pertinent theoretical framework to examine this effect empirically.

  5. Delayed onset muscle soreness : treatment strategies and performance factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Karoline; Hume, Patria; Maxwell, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a familiar experience for the elite or novice athlete. Symptoms can range from muscle tenderness to severe debilitating pain. The mechanisms, treatment strategies, and impact on athletic performance remain uncertain, despite the high incidence of DOMS. DOMS is most prevalent at the beginning of the sporting season when athletes are returning to training following a period of reduced activity. DOMS is also common when athletes are first introduced to certain types of activities regardless of the time of year. Eccentric activities induce micro-injury at a greater frequency and severity than other types of muscle actions. The intensity and duration of exercise are also important factors in DOMS onset. Up to six hypothesised theories have been proposed for the mechanism of DOMS, namely: lactic acid, muscle spasm, connective tissue damage, muscle damage, inflammation and the enzyme efflux theories. However, an integration of two or more theories is likely to explain muscle soreness. DOMS can affect athletic performance by causing a reduction in joint range of motion, shock attenuation and peak torque. Alterations in muscle sequencing and recruitment patterns may also occur, causing unaccustomed stress to be placed on muscle ligaments and tendons. These compensatory mechanisms may increase the risk of further injury if a premature return to sport is attempted.A number of treatment strategies have been introduced to help alleviate the severity of DOMS and to restore the maximal function of the muscles as rapidly as possible. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have demonstrated dosage-dependent effects that may also be influenced by the time of administration. Similarly, massage has shown varying results that may be attributed to the time of massage application and the type of massage technique used. Cryotherapy, stretching, homeopathy, ultrasound and electrical current modalities have demonstrated no effect on the alleviation of

  6. Muscle and Limb Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsianos, George A; Loeb, Gerald E

    2017-03-16

    Understanding of the musculoskeletal system has evolved from the collection of individual phenomena in highly selected experimental preparations under highly controlled and often unphysiological conditions. At the systems level, it is now possible to construct complete and reasonably accurate models of the kinetics and energetics of realistic muscles and to combine them to understand the dynamics of complete musculoskeletal systems performing natural behaviors. At the reductionist level, it is possible to relate most of the individual phenomena to the anatomical structures and biochemical processes that account for them. Two large challenges remain. At a systems level, neuroscience must now account for how the nervous system learns to exploit the many complex features that evolution has incorporated into muscle and limb mechanics. At a reductionist level, medicine must now account for the many forms of pathology and disability that arise from the many diseases and injuries to which this highly evolved system is inevitably prone. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:429-462, 2017. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. [Statins and muscle pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosef, Yoni; Schurr, Daniel; Constantini, Naama

    2014-07-01

    Statins are used for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. The treatment is quite safe but not free of side effects, particularly muscle pain. Fear of pain may prevent patients from carrying out exercise or diminish their motivation to return and engage in it, even though both the statins and the exercise have a proven benefit in both treatment and prevention, and a synergistic effect enhances this benefit. Prevalence of muscular pain ranges from 1-30%. Pain usually appears at the beginning of treatment, but can occur even after months and under any of the existing agents. The creatine phosphokinase (CPK) enzyme level may rise, but not necessarily. Increases to exceptional values (10 times the upper normal level) are relatively rare and rhabdomyolysis is extremely rare. The risk increases with age, co-morbidities and especially when taken concurrently with drugs that are metabolized in a similar pathway. Pain usually passes within a month after discontinuing treatment, but may persist for six months or more. Studies have examined the effect of statin therapy on the ability to perform physical activity, but results are inconsistent. The increased rise of CPK was observed under statin therapy, a tendency that increased with age. However, it was not accompanied by an increased incidence of muscle pain or rhabdomyolysis. Considering the above we recommend encouraging patients to exercise. However, patients should be instructed to report new or worsening muscular pains. Discontinuation, lowering dose or replacement should be considered when pain is suspected to be related with treatment.

  8. Artroplastía de superficie en cadera. Resultados iniciales favorables en pacientes selectos. [Hip resurfacing arthroplasty: favorable initial results in selected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Martín Comba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In­tro­duc­ción El objetivo del presente trabajo es reportar los resultados clínicos y radiológicos iniciales de una serie consecutiva de pacientes selectos tratados en nuestra institución con un único diseño de artroplastia de superficie, comparando además la tasa de revisión temprana con un grupo control de pacientes tratados en el mismo lapso con una artroplastia total de cadera no cementada. Material y ­Métodos Cuarenta y siete pacientes de sexo masculino (49 caderas con diagnóstico de artrosis de cadera que fueron tratados quirúrgicamente con una artroplastia híbrida de superficie, entre noviembre de 2006 y julio de 2009. La edad promedio fue de 44,5 años (rango de 21 a 57. En todos los casos, la indicación de la artroplastia de superficie se realizó en pacientes jóvenes con alta expectativa funcional y siguiendo estrictos criterios de selección radiológicos. Se efectuó un seguimiento clínico y un meticuloso análisis radiológico. Resultados La escala funcional posoperatoria de Merle D’Aubigné-Postel fue, en promedio, de 17,3 puntos a los 43 meses de seguimiento promedio (rango 24-62 meses. El 85% de los pacientes refirió que practicaba alguna actividad deportiva con una escala UCLA promedio de 9,5 (rango 8-10. Un paciente requirió una cirugía de revisión (2,04% por fractura de cuello femoral. No existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en cuanto a la tasa de revisión temprana comparando con el grupo control (p = 0,55. Conclusiones En nuestra experiencia inicial con artroplastia de superficie, obtuvimos resultados a corto plazo favorables, en una serie de hombres con artrosis y alta demanda funcional, estrictamente seleccionados.

  9. Resource allocation in offspring provisioning: An evaluation of the conditions favoring the evolution of matrotrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Joel C.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    We used analytic and simulation models to determine the ecological conditions favoring evolution of a matrotrophic fish from a lecithotrophic ancestor given a complex set of trade‐offs. Matrotrophy is the nourishment of viviparous embryos by resources provided between fertilization and parturition, while lecithotrophy describes embryo nourishment provided before fertilization. In fishes and reptiles, embryo nourishment encompasses a continuum from solely lecithotrophic to primarily matrotrophic. Matrotrophy has evolved independently from lecithotrophic ancestors many times in many groups. We assumed matrotrophy increased the number of offspring a viviparous female could gestate and evaluated conditions of food availability favoring lecithotrophy or matrotrophy. The matrotrophic strategy was superior when food resources exceeded demand during gestation but at a risk of overproduction and reproductive failure if food intake was limited. Matrotrophic females were leaner during gestation than lecithotrophic females, yielding shorter life spans. Our models suggest that matrotrophic embryo nourishment evolved in environments with high food availability, consistently exceeding energy requirements for maintaining relatively large broods. Embryo abortion with some resorption of invested energy is a necessary preadaptation to the evolution of matrotrophy. Future work should explore trade‐offs of age‐specific mortality and reproductive output for females maintaining different levels of fat storage during gestation.

  10. Role of Green Spaces in Favorable Microclimate Creating in Urban Environment (Exemplified by Italian Cities)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finaeva, O.

    2017-11-01

    The article represents a brief analysis of factors that influence the development of an urban green space system: territorial and climatic conditions, cultural and historical background as well as the modern strategy of historic cities development. The introduction defines the concept of urban greening, green spaces and green space distribution. The environmental parameters influenced by green spaces are determined. By the example of Italian cities the principles of the urban greening system development are considered: the historical aspects of formation of the urban greening system in Italian cities are analyzed, the role of green spaces in the formation of the urban environment structure and the creation of a favorable microclimate is determined, and a set of measures aimed at its improvement is highlighted. The modern principles of urban greening systems development and their characteristic features are considered. Special attention is paid to the interrelation of architectural and green structures in the formation of a favorable microclimate and psychological comfort in the urban environment; various methods of greening are considered by the example of existing architectural complexes depending on the climate of the area and the landscape features. The examples for the choice of plants and the application of compositional techniques are given. The results represent the basic principles of developing an urban green spaces system. The conclusion summarizes the techniques aimed at the microclimate improvement in the urban environment.

  11. CD73 Predicts Favorable Prognosis in Patients with Nonmuscle-Invasive Urothelial Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian S. Wettstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. CD73 is a membrane associated 5′-ectonucleotidase that has been proposed as prognostic biomarker in various solid tumors. The aim of this study is to evaluate CD73 expression in a cohort of patients with primary bladder cancer in regard to its association with clinicopathological features and disease course. Methods. Tissue samples from 174 patients with a primary urothelial carcinoma were immunohistochemically assessed on a tissue microarray. Associations between CD73 expression and retrospectively obtained clinicopathological data were evaluated by contingency analysis. Survival analysis was performed to investigate the predictive value of CD73 within the subgroup of pTa and pT1 tumors in regard to progression-free survival (PFS. Results. High CD73 expression was found in 46 (26.4% patients and was significantly associated with lower stage, lower grade, less adjacent carcinoma in situ and with lower Ki-67 proliferation index. High CD73 immunoreactivity in the subgroup of pTa and pT1 tumors (n=158 was significantly associated with longer PFS (HR: 0.228; p=0.047 in univariable Cox regression analysis. Conclusion. High CD73 immunoreactivity was associated with favorable clinicopathological features. Furthermore, it predicts better outcome in the subgroup of pTa and pT1 tumors and may thus serve as additional tool for the selection of patients with favorable prognosis.

  12. Does Spontaneous Favorability to Power (vs. Universalism) Values Predict Spontaneous Prejudice and Discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchon, Nicolas; Maio, Gregory R; Hanel, Paul H P; Bardin, Brigitte

    2017-10-01

    We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice. Study 4 (N = 95) tested whether decision bias toward female handball players could be predicted by spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values. Study 5 (N = 123) examined correlations between spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values, spontaneous importance toward power (vs. universalism) values, and spontaneous prejudice toward Black African people. Spontaneous positivity toward power (vs. universalism) values was associated with spontaneous negativity toward minorities and predicted gender bias in a decision task, whereas the explicit measures did not. These results indicate that the implicit assessment of evaluative responses attached to human values helps to model value-attitude-behavior relations. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Personality Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Favorable effect of moderate dose caffeine on the skeletal system in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folwarczna, Joanna; Pytlik, Maria; Zych, Maria; Cegieła, Urszula; Kaczmarczyk-Sedlak, Ilona; Nowińska, Barbara; Sliwiński, Leszek

    2013-10-01

    Caffeine, a methylxanthine present in coffee, has been postulated to be responsible for an increased risk of osteoporosis in coffee drinkers; however, the data are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a moderate dose of caffeine on the skeletal system of rats with normal and decreased estrogen level (developing osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency). The experiments were carried out on mature nonovariectomized and ovariectomized Wistar rats, divided into control rats and rats receiving caffeine once daily, 20 mg/kg p.o., for 4 wk. Serum bone turnover markers, bone mass, mass of bone mineral, calcium and phosphorus content, histomorphometric parameters, and bone mechanical properties were examined. Caffeine favorably affected the skeletal system of ovariectomized rats, slightly inhibiting the development of bone changes induced by estrogen deficiency (increasing bone mineralization, and improving the strength and structure of cancellous bone). Moreover, it favorably affected mechanical properties of compact bone. There were no significant effects of caffeine in rats with normal estrogen levels. In conclusion, results of the present study indicate that low-to-moderate caffeine intake may exert some beneficial effects on the skeletal system of mature organisms. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. FAVOR: A new fracture mechanics code for reactor pressure vessels subjected to pressurized thermal shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis which is a major element of the comprehensive probabilistic methodology endorsed by the NRC for evaluation of the integrity of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) pressure vessels subjected to pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) transients. It is anticipated that there will be an increasing need for an improved and validated PTS PFM code which is accepted by the NRC and utilities, as more plants approach the PTS screening criteria and are required to perform plant-specific analyses. The NRC funded Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratories is currently developing the FAVOR (Fracture Analysis of Vessels: Oak Ridge) PTS PFM code, which is intended to meet this need. The FAVOR code incorporates the most important features of both OCA-P and VISA-II and contains some new capabilities such as PFM global modeling methodology, the capability to approximate the effects of thermal streaming on circumferential flaws located inside a plume region created by fluid and thermal stratification, a library of stress intensity factor influence coefficients, generated by the NQA-1 certified ABAQUS computer code, for an adequate range of two and three dimensional inside surface flaws, the flexibility to generate a variety of output reports, and user friendliness

  15. Linux System Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Adelstein, Tom

    2007-01-01

    If you're an experienced system administrator looking to acquire Linux skills, or a seasoned Linux user facing a new challenge, Linux System Administration offers practical knowledge for managing a complete range of Linux systems and servers. The book summarizes the steps you need to build everything from standalone SOHO hubs, web servers, and LAN servers to load-balanced clusters and servers consolidated through virtualization. Along the way, you'll learn about all of the tools you need to set up and maintain these working environments. Linux is now a standard corporate platform with user

  16. Pro Python System Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Sileika, R

    2010-01-01

    As time goes on, system administrators are presented with increasingly complicated challenges. In the early days, a team of engineers might have had to look after one or two systems. These days, one engineer can administer hundreds or thousands of systems. System administrators are gradually replacing their tools with more advanced and flexible ones. One of the choices is Python. Structurally, Python is a modern, high-level language with a very clean syntax. Python comes with many built-in libraries that can make automation tasks easier. It also has extensive set of third-party libraries and a

  17. Computer hardware fault administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  18. Practical JIRA Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Doar, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    If you're familiar with JIRA for issue tracking, bug tracking, and other uses, you know it can sometimes be tricky to set up and manage. In this concise book, software toolsmith Matt Doar clarifies some of the more confusing aspects by answering difficult and frequently asked questions about JIRA administration. Practical JIRA Administration shows you how JIRA is intended to be used, making it an ideal supplement to the extensive documentation already available. The book's chapters are loosely connected, so you can go straight to the information that best serves your needs. Understand the di

  19. River basin administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  20. Calcium regulation and muscle disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommans, I.M.P.; Vlak, M.; Haan, A. de; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2002-01-01

    Changes in intracellular Ca2+-concentration play an important role in the excitation-contraction-relaxation cycle of skeletal muscle. In this review we describe various inheritable muscle diseases to highlight the role of Ca2+-regulatory mechanisms. Upon excitation the ryanodine receptor releases

  1. Skeletal muscle regeneration is modulated by inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle regeneration is a complex process orchestrated by multiple steps. Recent findings indicate that inflammatory responses could play central roles in bridging initial muscle injury responses and timely muscle injury reparation. The various types of immune cells and cytokines have crucial roles in muscle regeneration process. In this review, we briefly summarise the functions of acute inflammation in muscle regeneration. The translational potential of this article: Immune system is closely relevant to the muscle regeneration. Understanding the mechanisms of inflammation in muscle regeneration is therefore critical for the development of effective regenerative, and therapeutic strategies in muscular disorders. This review provides information for muscle regeneration research regarding the effects of inflammation on muscle regeneration. Keywords: Chronic muscle disorders, Cytokines, Immune cells, Inflammation, Muscle regeneration, Muscle stem cells

  2. 8 CFR 316.11 - Attachment to the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... disposition towards the good order and happiness. 316.11 Section 316.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF... the Constitution; favorable disposition towards the good order and happiness. (a) General. An... favorably disposed toward the good order and happiness of the United States. Attachment implies a depth of...

  3. Activation of selected shoulder muscles during unilateral wall and bench press tasks under submaximal isometric effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Helga T; Ciol, Marcia A; de Araújo, Rodrigo C; de Andrade, Rodrigo; Martins, Jaqueline; McQuade, Kevin J; Oliveira, Anamaria S

    2011-07-01

    Controlled laboratory study. To assess the activation of 7 shoulder muscles under 2 closed kinetic chain (CKC) tasks for the upper extremity using submaximal isometric effort, thus providing relative quantification of muscular isometric effort for these muscles across the CKC exercises, which may be applied to rehabilitation protocols for individuals with shoulder weakness. CKC exercises favor joint congruence, reduce shear load, and promote joint dynamic stability. Additionally, knowledge about glenohumeral and periscapular muscle activity elicited during CKC exercises may help clinicians to design protocols for shoulder rehabilitation. Using surface electromyography, activation level was measured across 7 shoulder muscles in 20 healthy males, during the performance of a submaximal isometric wall press and bench press. Signals were normalized to the maximal voluntary isometric contraction, and, using paired t tests, data were analyzed between the exercises for each muscle. Compared to the wall press, the bench press elicited higher activity for most muscles, except for the upper trapezius. Levels of activity were usually low but were above 20% maximal voluntary isometric contraction for the serratus anterior on both tasks, and for the long head triceps brachii on the bench press. Both the bench press and wall press, as performed in this study, led to relatively low EMG activation levels for the muscles measured and may be considered for use in the early phases of rehabilitation.

  4. Facial reanimation by muscle-nerve neurotization after facial nerve sacrifice. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taupin, A; Labbé, D; Babin, E; Fromager, G

    2016-12-01

    Recovering a certain degree of mimicry after sacrifice of the facial nerve is a clinically recognized finding. The authors report a case of hemifacial reanimation suggesting a phenomenon of neurotization from muscle-to-nerve. A woman benefited from a parotidectomy with sacrifice of the left facial nerve indicated for recurrent tumor in the gland. The distal branches of the facial nerve, isolated at the time of resection, were buried in the masseter muscle underneath. The patient recovered a voluntary hémifacial motricity. The electromyographic analysis of the motor activity of the zygomaticus major before and after block of the masseter nerve showed a dependence between mimic muscles and the masseter muscle. Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the spontaneous reanimation of facial paralysis. The clinical case makes it possible to argue in favor of muscle-to-nerve neurotization from masseter muscle to distal branches of the facial nerve. It illustrates the quality of motricity that can be obtained thanks to this procedure. The authors describe a simple implantation technique of distal branches of the facial nerve in the masseter muscle during a radical parotidectomy with facial nerve sacrifice and recovery of resting tone but also a quality voluntary mimicry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. MR imaging of muscle diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, W.A.; Zeitler, E.; Schalke, B.C.G.

    1986-01-01

    Because of high soft-tissue contrast, MR imaging is especially suitable for the investigation of muscle diseases. Between March 1984 and March 1986, 76 patients with different types of muscle diseases were examined using a 1-T superconductive magnet (Siemens Magnetom). Studied were 14 patients with progressive muscular dystrophy (including carriers), 32 patients with myositis, four patients with myotonic dystrophy, six patients with spinal muscular atrophy, and 20 patients with other muscle diseases, including metabolic disorders. MR imaging showed typical signal patterns in affected muscle groups. These patterns can be used in the differential diagnosis, in biopsy planning, or in evaluation of response to therapy. The T1/T2 ratio especially seems to indicate very early stages of muscle disease

  6. Leiomyoma of the sternothyroid muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Meghan E; Khorsandi, Azita S; Guerrero, Dominick R; Brett, Elise M; Sarlin, Jonathan; Urken, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyomas are benign cutaneous tumors of smooth muscle origin. Only a small percentage of leiomyomas arise in the head and neck region. We present the first case of leiomyoma arising in the sternothyroid muscle of the neck. We analyze the clinical presentation, pathology, and histology for a single case study. The histologic findings of the tumor located in the sternothyroid muscle support the diagnosis of leiomyoma. This is the first case of leiomyoma arising in the sternothyroid muscle, and only the second reported case of leiomyoma in the strap muscles of the neck. Leiomyoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue tumors in the head and neck region. A histological analysis is essential in determining both tumor type and subtype, which will inform the proper course of treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercising with blocked muscle glycogenolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tue L; Pinós, Tomàs; Brull, Astrid

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: McArdle disease (glycogen storage disease type V) is an inborn error of skeletal muscle metabolism, which affects glycogen phosphorylase (myophosphorylase) activity leading to an inability to break down glycogen. Patients with McArdle disease are exercise intolerant, as muscle glycogen......-derived glucose is unavailable during exercise. Metabolic adaptation to blocked muscle glycogenolysis occurs at rest in the McArdle mouse model, but only in highly glycolytic muscle. However, it is unknown what compensatory metabolic adaptations occur during exercise in McArdle disease. METHODS: In this study, 8......-week old McArdle and wild-type mice were exercised on a treadmill until exhausted. Dissected muscles were compared with non-exercised, age-matched McArdle and wild-type mice for histology and activation and expression of proteins involved in glucose uptake and glycogenolysis. RESULTS: Investigation...

  8. Muscle dysfunction in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Frank; Jones, L W; Andersen, J L

    2014-01-01

    dysfunction in cancer patients lies in the correlation to vital clinical end points such as cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, therapy complications and quality of life (QoL). Such associations strongly emphasize the need for effective therapeutic countermeasures to be developed and implemented...... implications of muscle dysfunction in cancer patients. The efficacy of exercise training to prevent and/or mitigate cancer-related muscle dysfunction is also discussed. DESIGN: We identified 194 studies examining muscular outcomes in cancer patients by searching PubMed and EMBASE databases. RESULTS: Muscle...... dysfunction is evident across all stages of the cancer trajectory. The causes of cancer-related muscle dysfunction are complex, but may involve a wide range of tumor-, therapy- and/or lifestyle-related factors, depending on the clinical setting of the individual patient. The main importance of muscle...

  9. Biomaterials based strategies for skeletal muscle tissue engineering: existing technologies and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Taimoor H; Mooney, David J; Pumberger, Matthias; Geissler, Sven; Duda, Georg N

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscles have a robust capacity to regenerate, but under compromised conditions, such as severe trauma, the loss of muscle functionality is inevitable. Research carried out in the field of skeletal muscle tissue engineering has elucidated multiple intrinsic mechanisms of skeletal muscle repair, and has thus sought to identify various types of cells and bioactive factors which play an important role during regeneration. In order to maximize the potential therapeutic effects of cells and growth factors, several biomaterial based strategies have been developed and successfully implemented in animal muscle injury models. A suitable biomaterial can be utilized as a template to guide tissue reorganization, as a matrix that provides optimum micro-environmental conditions to cells, as a delivery vehicle to carry bioactive factors which can be released in a controlled manner, and as local niches to orchestrate in situ tissue regeneration. A myriad of biomaterials, varying in geometrical structure, physical form, chemical properties, and biofunctionality have been investigated for skeletal muscle tissue engineering applications. In the current review, we present a detailed summary of studies where the use of biomaterials favorably influenced muscle repair. Biomaterials in the form of porous three-dimensional scaffolds, hydrogels, fibrous meshes, and patterned substrates with defined topographies, have each displayed unique benefits, and are discussed herein. Additionally, several biomaterial based approaches aimed specifically at stimulating vascularization, innervation, and inducing contractility in regenerating muscle tissues are also discussed. Finally, we outline promising future trends in the field of muscle regeneration involving a deeper understanding of the endogenous healing cascades and utilization of this knowledge for the development of multifunctional, hybrid, biomaterials which support and enable muscle regeneration under compromised conditions

  10. Calcium and the role of motoneuronal doublets in skeletal muscle control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bjørn Gilbert

    2009-01-01

    + resources and the dynamics of calcium transport is proposed. The model correctly accounts for catch-like effects in slow and fast-twitch fibers during long-train stimulations and force-frequency relations in different muscle types. Results obtained from the model compare favorably to experiments showing...... in the central nervous system. This is a potentially very useful property directly mediated by the catch-like process modeled here. One further prediction of the model is that the slope of the frequency-tension profile of a given muscle is highly sensitive to changes in the efficiency and temporal...

  11. Dynamic cardiomyoplasty using artificial muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Minakawa, Masahito; Fukui, Kozo; Fukuda, Ikuo

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic cardiomyoplasty using latissimus dorsi muscle was previously used to compensate for congestive heart failure. Now, however, this method is not acceptable because the long-term result was not as expected owing to fatigue of the skeletal muscle. BioMetal fiber developed by Toki Corporation is one of the artificial muscles activated by electric current. The behavior of this fiber is similar to that of organic muscle. We made an artificial muscle like the latissimus dorsi using BioMetal fiber and tested whether we could use this new muscle as a cardiac supporting device. Testing one Biometal fiber showed the following performance: practical use maximal generative force was 30 g, exercise variation was 50%, and the standard driving current was 220 mA. We created a 4 x 12-cm tabular artificial muscle using 8 BioMetal fibers as a cardiac support device. We also made a simulation circuit composed of a 6 x 8-cm soft bag with unidirectional valves, reservoir, and connecting tube. The simulation circuit was filled with water and the soft bag was wrapped with the artificial muscle device. After powering the device electrically at 9 V with a current of 220 mA for each fiber, we measured the inside pressure and observed the movement of the artificial device. The artificial muscle contracted in 0.5 s for peak time and squeezed the soft bag. The peak pressure inside the soft bag was measured as 10 mmHg. Although further work will be needed to enhance the speed of deformability and movement simulating contraction, we conclude that artificial muscle may be potentially useful as a cardiac assistance device that can be developed for dynamic cardiomyoplasty.

  12. Muscling out malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2006-01-01

    ) [2] highlighted the back-to-back articles in Science 3 and 4 that demonstrated the potential biocontrol of malaria by targeting mosquitoes with entomopathogenic fungi (Metarhizium and Beauveria spp.). The wide impact of the original articles and the need to find alternatives to pesticidal control...... where malaria is endemic, humanity cannot afford shortcuts, because any failures owing to poor management or premature implementation will reduce local governmental support rather than enhance it (Andrew Read, pers. commun.). Therefore, if we are to ‘muscle out malaria', well...... of key importance, and the new focus on fungal biocontrol of malaria should therefore act as a catalyst for further research on the basic biology of fungal pathogens. Understanding morphological, biochemical or immune system-based resistance to insect pathogenic fungi will be easier if we know...

  13. Bulk muscles, loose cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata

    2014-10-17

    The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  14. Muscle spindle autogenetic inhibition in the extraocular muscles of lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Filippi, G M

    1981-09-01

    The role of extraocular muscle (EOM) proprioceptors on eye motility has been investigated in lambs on "encéphale isolé", by evaluating the tension of EOMs at various lengths and velocities of stretch before and after proprioceptive blocks. The EOM tension, in the absence of proprioceptive input, was higher than in normal conditions. Such an effect occurred at lengthening values greater than 3 mm of stretch from resting muscle length, corresponding to 18 degrees of eye deviation and was dependent on the velocity of the stretch, being more effective at high velocity. The muscle receptors responsible for this effect was determined by comparing the sensitivity to vibratory stimulation of spindles and tendon organs to the amount of inhibition provoked by the same stimulation on an EOM electromyographic activity. The tension inhibition appeared to be correlated to muscle spindle activation. Thus, the presence of muscle spindles can determine a reduction of the tension within the stretched muscles. This result suggests that the EOM length and velocity signals operate moment to moment reduction on the stiffness of the muscle which antagonizes eye displacement, thus facilitating the ocular movements.

  15. Aerobic metabolism on muscle contraction in porcine gastric smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Hidenori; Kaneda, Takeharu; Nagai, Yuta; Urakawa, Norimoto; Shimizu, Kazumasa

    2018-05-18

    Exposure to chronic hypoxic conditions causes various gastric diseases, including gastric ulcers. It has been suggested that gastric smooth muscle contraction is associated with aerobic metabolism. However, there are no reports on the association between gastric smooth muscle contraction and aerobic metabolism, and we have investigated this association in the present study. High K + - and carbachol (CCh)-induced muscle contractions involved increasing O 2 consumption. Aeration with N 2 (hypoxia) and NaCN significantly decreased high K + - and CCh-induced muscle contraction and O 2 consumption. In addition, hypoxia and NaCN significantly decreased creatine phosphate (PCr) contents in the presence of high K + . Moreover, decrease in CCh-induced contraction and O 2 consumption was greater than that of high K + . Our results suggest that hypoxia and NaCN inhibit high K + - and CCh-induced contractions in gastric fundus smooth muscles by decreasing O 2 consumption and intracellular PCr content. However, the inhibition of CCh-induced muscle contraction was greater than that of high K + -induced muscle contraction.

  16. Clinton administration budget includes mixed bag for science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    The $1,766 trillion federal budget proposal that the Clinton Administration rolled out on February 1—which promises to protect Social Security and Medicare and work within mandated budget caps—generally provides favorable news for federally funded science research and development.Within the 17% ($592 billion) of the federal budget earmarked for discretionary spending, the Administration's budget proposal increases funding for nondefense research and development for the seventh year in a row. This includes increased funding for a number of science accounts and money for a series of new science initiatives.

  17. Educational Administration's Weber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronn, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Max Weber's importance in Greenfield's work, particularly in Greenfield and Ribbins'"Greenfield on Educational Administration" (1993). In concentrating on human actors' subjective understanding, Greenfield was a faithful Weberian. However, he deviated from Weber by disavowing structural explanations of social and organizational…

  18. Tax administration good governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Végh, Gyöngyi; Gribnau, Hans

    2018-01-01

    There is no doubt that tax administration is a complex matter. It is institutionalised by a governance framework which is strongly influenced by legal traditions, state governance approaches, historical developments, and norms and values of society. While there are many common aspects of national

  19. Ethics in Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Arjeta Hallunovi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to deal with some ethical causes in the public administration, that aim the avoidance of negative phenomenon’s as theft, corruption, etc. In this direction, the debates about ethics are becoming more and more a global tendency, as an implement through which would be found the way to get out of the crisis. The success in the reforms of the public administrations in major part depends, on the public functionaries and their willingness to make fundamental changes in the way they work. In this direction, the State should strengthen and modernize the public service, should realize an employment system, which should reflect more the merits on its service. For this reason, the government’s attempts should be concentrated on the construction of a positive image for the state and its administration as professional objective, which is oriented to the services. Being aware for the practical restrictions of this study, we firstly chose to concentrate on the local public administrations ethics. The study will be focused on the practical comparative analysis of the city of Shkodra and Durres by the realization of a questionnaire by each of these municipalities and the Agency of Legalization and Urbanization of Informal Zones (ALUIZNI in Shkodra.

  20. Hospital Library Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Anne

    The objectives of a hospital are to improve patient care, while the objectives of a hospital library are to improve services to the staff which will support their efforts. This handbook dealing with hospital administration is designed to aid the librarian in either implementing a hospital library, or improving services in an existing medical…

  1. Enterprise Mac administrators guide

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, William

    2015-01-01

    IT departments everywhere will be integrating Macs and Mac OS X into their IT infrastructure and this book will tell them how to do it. It will serve as an authoritative, useful and frequently referenced book on Mac OS X administration.

  2. Administrative circular No. 12

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    On the recommendation of the Standing Concertation Committee, the Director-General has approved the amounts used for the reimbursements mentioned in Administrative Circular No. 12 as follows: The figures, effective from 1 September 2006, are: Paragraph 8a: 17 Swiss francs Paragraph 9a: 682 Swiss francs Paragraph 9b: 34 Swiss francs Human Resources Department Tel. 79257/72862

  3. A Treatise on Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    Expands Henri Fayol's definition of the administrative process to include a humanistic approach involving planning, organizing, implementing, controlling, evaluating, and satisfying functions. This empirical definition differs from some theoretical approaches by looking beyond resource consumption to consider ecological effects on the environment…

  4. Administrators Confront Student "Sexting"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    Cellphone-savvy students have created instructional and disciplinary challenges for educators for years. But the recent emergence of "sexting" by adolescents over their mobile phones caught many school administrators off guard, and the practice is prompting efforts around the country to craft policy responses. Students' sharing of nude or…

  5. Refinement for administrative policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, S.; Jonker, W.; Petkovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    Flexibility of management is an important requisite for access control systems as it allows users to adapt the access control system in accordance with practical requirements. This paper builds on earlier work where we defined administrative policies for a general class of RBAC models. We present a

  6. Some effects of favorable and adverse electric fields on pool boiling in dielectric fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, Viviana

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the application of an electric field on pool boiling in dielectric fluids were studied in this work.Two different geometries were used: one which is favorable to the bubble detachment (favorable electric field) and other which attract the bubbles toward the heater (adverse electric field).In the favorable electric field experiments, the void fraction and impact rate were calculated from the measured indicator function.Those parameters were obtained varying the probe-heater distance and the power to the heater.The results show a reduction of the void fraction with increasing applied voltage, probably caused by the combination of the dielectrophoretic force and a smaller bubble size due to the electric field application. Also, the impact rate decreases when a voltage is applied and the heat fluxes are close to the critical heat flux (CHF).On the other hand, the impact rate increases with voltage for moderate heat fluxes.Another interesting result is the approximately exponential decay of the void fraction and impact rate with the distance to the heater. Both the void fraction and the impact rate grow with heat flux if the heat fluxes are moderate, with or without applied voltage.For highest heat fluxes the void fraction still grows with heat flux if there are no applied electric fields while decreases with heat flux when there is an applied voltage. Similar behavior is observed in the impact rate.The boiling regimes was measured with adverse electric fields using two techniques.The heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime was measured on an electrically powered heater.The results in these experiments show a reduction in the CHF of 10 % for saturation conditions and 10 kV of applied voltage, and a reduction of up to 40 % for 20 oC of liquid subcooling.The boiling curve corresponding to the transition and film boiling was performed with quenching experiments.An increase in the heat flux was achieved when an electric field was applied in spite of the

  7. Physics of muscle contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruel, M.; Truskinovsky, L.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we report, clarify and broaden various recent efforts to complement the chemistry-centered models of force generation in (skeletal) muscles by mechanics-centered models. The physical mechanisms of interest can be grouped into two classes: passive and active. The main passive effect is the fast force recovery which does not require the detachment of myosin cross-bridges from actin filaments and can operate without a specialized supply of metabolic fuel (ATP). In mechanical terms, it can be viewed as a collective folding-unfolding phenomenon in the system of interacting bi-stable units and modeled by near equilibrium Langevin dynamics. The active force generation mechanism operates at slow time scales, requires detachment and is crucially dependent on ATP hydrolysis. The underlying mechanical processes take place far from equilibrium and are represented by stochastic models with broken time reversal symmetry implying non-potentiality, correlated noise or multiple reservoirs. The modeling approaches reviewed in this paper deal with both active and passive processes and support from the mechanical perspective the biological point of view that phenomena involved in slow (active) and fast (passive) force generation are tightly intertwined. They reveal, however, that biochemical studies in solution, macroscopic physiological measurements and structural analysis do not provide by themselves all the necessary insights into the functioning of the organized contractile system. In particular, the reviewed body of work emphasizes the important role of long-range interactions and criticality in securing the targeted mechanical response in the physiological regime of isometric contractions. The importance of the purely mechanical micro-scale modeling is accentuated at the end of the paper where we address the puzzling issue of the stability of muscle response on the so called ‘descending limb’ of the isometric tetanus.

  8. Physics of muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruel, M; Truskinovsky, L

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we report, clarify and broaden various recent efforts to complement the chemistry-centered models of force generation in (skeletal) muscles by mechanics-centered models. The physical mechanisms of interest can be grouped into two classes: passive and active. The main passive effect is the fast force recovery which does not require the detachment of myosin cross-bridges from actin filaments and can operate without a specialized supply of metabolic fuel (ATP). In mechanical terms, it can be viewed as a collective folding-unfolding phenomenon in the system of interacting bi-stable units and modeled by near equilibrium Langevin dynamics. The active force generation mechanism operates at slow time scales, requires detachment and is crucially dependent on ATP hydrolysis. The underlying mechanical processes take place far from equilibrium and are represented by stochastic models with broken time reversal symmetry implying non-potentiality, correlated noise or multiple reservoirs. The modeling approaches reviewed in this paper deal with both active and passive processes and support from the mechanical perspective the biological point of view that phenomena involved in slow (active) and fast (passive) force generation are tightly intertwined. They reveal, however, that biochemical studies in solution, macroscopic physiological measurements and structural analysis do not provide by themselves all the necessary insights into the functioning of the organized contractile system. In particular, the reviewed body of work emphasizes the important role of long-range interactions and criticality in securing the targeted mechanical response in the physiological regime of isometric contractions. The importance of the purely mechanical micro-scale modeling is accentuated at the end of the paper where we address the puzzling issue of the stability of muscle response on the so called 'descending limb' of the isometric tetanus.

  9. Stretching skeletal muscle: chronic muscle lengthening through sarcomerogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Zöllner

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle responds to passive overstretch through sarcomerogenesis, the creation and serial deposition of new sarcomere units. Sarcomerogenesis is critical to muscle function: It gradually re-positions the muscle back into its optimal operating regime. Animal models of immobilization, limb lengthening, and tendon transfer have provided significant insight into muscle adaptation in vivo. Yet, to date, there is no mathematical model that allows us to predict how skeletal muscle adapts to mechanical stretch in silico. Here we propose a novel mechanistic model for chronic longitudinal muscle growth in response to passive mechanical stretch. We characterize growth through a single scalar-valued internal variable, the serial sarcomere number. Sarcomerogenesis, the evolution of this variable, is driven by the elastic mechanical stretch. To analyze realistic three-dimensional muscle geometries, we embed our model into a nonlinear finite element framework. In a chronic limb lengthening study with a muscle stretch of 1.14, the model predicts an acute sarcomere lengthening from 3.09[Formula: see text]m to 3.51[Formula: see text]m, and a chronic gradual return to the initial sarcomere length within two weeks. Compared to the experiment, the acute model error was 0.00% by design of the model; the chronic model error was 2.13%, which lies within the rage of the experimental standard deviation. Our model explains, from a mechanistic point of view, why gradual multi-step muscle lengthening is less invasive than single-step lengthening. It also explains regional variations in sarcomere length, shorter close to and longer away from the muscle-tendon interface. Once calibrated with a richer data set, our model may help surgeons to prevent muscle overstretch and make informed decisions about optimal stretch increments, stretch timing, and stretch amplitudes. We anticipate our study to open new avenues in orthopedic and reconstructive surgery and enhance

  10. Multivariate statistical analysis to investigate the subduction zone parameters favoring the occurrence of giant megathrust earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizzi, S.; Sandri, L.; Funiciello, F.; Corbi, F.; Piromallo, C.; Heuret, A.

    2018-03-01

    The observed maximum magnitude of subduction megathrust earthquakes is highly variable worldwide. One key question is which conditions, if any, favor the occurrence of giant earthquakes (Mw ≥ 8.5). Here we carry out a multivariate statistical study in order to investigate the factors affecting the maximum magnitude of subduction megathrust earthquakes. We find that the trench-parallel extent of subduction zones and the thickness of trench sediments provide the largest discriminating capability between subduction zones that have experienced giant earthquakes and those having significantly lower maximum magnitude. Monte Carlo simulations show that the observed spatial distribution of giant earthquakes cannot be explained by pure chance to a statistically significant level. We suggest that the combination of a long subduction zone with thick trench sediments likely promotes a great lateral rupture propagation, characteristic of almost all giant earthquakes.

  11. Teaching accreditation exams reveal grading biases favor women in male-dominated disciplines in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Thomas; Hillion, Mélina

    2016-07-29

    Discrimination against women is seen as one of the possible causes behind their underrepresentation in certain STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects. We show that this is not the case for the competitive exams used to recruit almost all French secondary and postsecondary teachers and professors. Comparisons of oral non-gender-blind tests with written gender-blind tests for about 100,000 individuals observed in 11 different fields over the period 2006-2013 reveal a bias in favor of women that is strongly increasing with the extent of a field's male-domination. This bias turns from 3 to 5 percentile ranks for men in literature and foreign languages to about 10 percentile ranks for women in math, physics, or philosophy. These findings have implications for the debate over what interventions are appropriate to increase the representation of women in fields in which they are currently underrepresented. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. The experience of freedom in decisions - Questioning philosophical beliefs in favor of psychological determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Stephan; Hiemisch, Anette; Baumeister, Roy F

    2015-05-01

    Six experiments tested two competing models of subjective freedom during decision-making. The process model is mainly based on philosophical conceptions of free will and assumes that features of the process of choosing affect subjective feelings of freedom. In contrast, the outcome model predicts that subjective freedom is due to positive outcomes that can be expected or are achieved by a decision. Results heavily favored the outcome model over the process model. For example, participants felt freer when choosing between two equally good than two equally bad options. Process features including number of options, complexity of decision, uncertainty, having the option to defer the decision, conflict among reasons, and investing high effort in choosing generally had no or even negative effects on subjective freedom. In contrast, participants reported high freedom with good outcomes and low freedom with bad outcomes, and ease of deciding increased subjective freedom, consistent with the outcome model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Is there a Relationship between Patient Satisfaction and Favorable Surgical Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevis, Sarah E.; Kennedy, Gregory D.; Kent, K. Craig

    2015-01-01

    Summary Satisfaction of patients with their health care is gaining importance as a measure of hospital quality due to public reporting of these values and an increasing connection between hospital reimbursement and scores on the current tool to measure satisfaction, the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey. We found that high hospital and surgical volume and low rates of risk-adjusted mortality are associated with high patient satisfaction. However, other favorable patient outcomes are not consistently associated with positive satisfaction scores on HCAHPS. Contributors to patients' perceptions of their care are likely multifactorial and not related just to outcomes traditionally assessed by surgeons or hospitals. Moving in a direction of patient centered care, with a focus on increased understanding and involvement of patients in the care process, will likely strengthen the relationship between surgical outcomes and patient satisfaction. PMID:26299501

  14. Consistent Dalitz plot analysis of Cabibbo-favored D+ → K bar ππ+ decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niecknig, Franz; Kubis, Bastian

    2018-05-01

    We resume the study of the Cabibbo-favored charmed-meson decays D+ → K bar ππ+ in a dispersive framework that satisfies unitarity, analyticity, and crossing symmetry by construction. The formalism explicitly describes the strong final-state interactions between all three decay products and relies on pion-pion and pion-kaon phase shift input. For the first time, we show that the D+ →KSπ0π+ Dalitz plot obtained by the BESIII collaboration as well as the D+ →K-π+π+ Dalitz plot data by CLEO and FOCUS can be described consistently, exploiting the isospin relation between the two coupled decay channels that provides better constraints on the subtraction constants.

  15. Tunable Degradation Rate and Favorable Bioactivity of Porous Calcium Sulfate Scaffolds by Introducing Nano-Hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The bone scaffolds should possess suitable physicochemical properties and osteogenic activities. In this study, porous calcium sulfate (CaSO4 scaffolds were fabricated successfully via selected laser sintering (SLS. Nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp, a bioactive material with a low degradation rate, was introduced into CaSO4 scaffolds to overcome the overquick absorption. The results demonstrated that nHAp could not only control the degradation rate of scaffolds by adjusting their content, but also improve the pH environment by alleviating the acidification progress during the degradation of CaSO4 scaffolds. Moreover, the improved scaffolds were covered completely with the apatite spherulites in simulated body fluid (SBF, showing their favorable bioactivity. In addition, the compression strength and fracture toughness were distinctly enhanced, which could be ascribed to large specific area of nHAp and the corresponding stress transfer.

  16. Selection of high risk groups among prognostically favorable patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, J A; Fischermann, K; Hou-Jensen, K; Henriksen, E; Andersen, K W; Johansen, H; Brincker, H; Mouridsen, H T; Castberg, T; Rossing, N; Rørth, M

    1981-01-01

    In a prospective, nationwide, decentralized breast cancer project conducted by The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) the recurrence rate within the first year after surgery was analysed in relation to tumor anaplasia. One thousand forty-eight patients met the requirements of eligibility, i.e. tumor size less than or equal to 5 cm with negative axillary nodes, and no skin or deep invasion. The recurrence rates in tumors with anaplasia Grades I, II, and III were 4, 9, and 14%, respectively (p = 0.001). Therefore, it seems possible, prospectively, among otherwise prognostically favorable patients, to select a group with high risk of recurrence which might benefit from adjuvant systemic therapy. PMID:7247527

  17. Cosmology favoring extra radiation and sub-eV mass sterile neutrinos as an option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G; Tamborra, Irene; Wong, Yvonne Y Y

    2010-10-29

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favor extra radiation in the Universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We use the WMAP 7-year data, small-scale cosmic microwave background observations from ACBAR, BICEP, and QuAD, the SDSS 7th data release, and measurement of the Hubble parameter from HST observations to derive credible regions for the assumed common mass scale m{s} and effective number N{s} of thermally excited sterile neutrino states. Our results are compatible with the existence of one or perhaps two sterile neutrinos, as suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE, if m{s} is in the sub-eV range.

  18. Evaluating Environmental Favorability for Tropical Cyclone Development with the Method of Point-Downscaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Nolan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A new method is presented to determine the favorability for tropical cyclone development of an atmospheric environment, as represented by a mean sounding of temperature, humidity, and wind as a function of height. A mesoscale model with nested, moving grids is used to simulate the evolution of a weak, precursor vortex in a large domain with doubly periodic boundary conditions. The equations of motion are modified to maintain arbitrary profiles of both zonal and meridional wind as a function of height, without the necessary large-scale temperature gradients that cannot be consistent with doubly periodic boundary conditions. Comparisons between simulations using the point-downscaling method and simulations using wind shear balanced by temperature gradients illustrate both the advantages and the limitations of the technique. Further examples of what can be learned with this method are presented using both idealized and observed soundings and wind profiles.

  19. Does the insurance effect of public and private transfers favor financial deepening? Evidence from rural Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Hernandez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature suggests CCTs and remittances may protect poor households from income risk. We present a theoretical framework that explores how this ‘insurance’ effect can change households’ decision to apply for a loan via changes in credit demand and supply. Empirical evidence from poor rural households in Nicaragua shows CCTs did not affect loan requests while remittances increased them. The risk protection provided by remittances seems stronger, relative to CCTs, such that improvements on borrowers’ expected marginal returns to a loan or on creditworthiness more than offset decreasing returns to additional income. This suggests those transfers that best protect households from income risk favor financial deepening in the context of segmented markets.

  20. Favorable Risk Selection in Medicare Advantage: Trends in Mortality and Plan Exits Among Nursing Home Beneficiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Elizabeth M.; Trivedi, Amal N.; Mor, Vincent; Jung, Hye-Young; Rahman, Momotazur

    2016-01-01

    The 2003 Medicare Modernization Act (MMA) increased payments to Medicare Advantage plans and instituted a new risk-adjustment payment model to reduce plans' incentives to enroll healthier Medicare beneficiaries and avoid those with higher costs. Whether the MMA reduced risk selection remains debatable. This study uses mortality differences, nursing home utilization, and switch rates to assess whether the MMA successfully decreased risk selection from 2000 to 2012. We found no decrease in the mortality difference or adjusted difference in nursing home use between plan beneficiaries pre- and post the MMA. Among beneficiaries with nursing home use, disenrollment from Medicare Advantage plans declined from 20% to 12%, but it remained 6 times higher than the switch rate from traditional Medicare to Medicare Advantage. These findings suggest that the MMA was not associated with reductions in favorable risk selection, as measured by mortality, nursing home use, and switch rates. PMID:27516452

  1. Prejudice, Social Dominance, and Similarity among People who Favor Integration of Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carmen; Saiz, José; Angosto, Josefa

    2016-04-12

    This study examines differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance in members of the majority who favor integration as a means of minority acculturation. A total of 342 non-Gypsy Spanish participants filled out a questionnaire about their relationship to one of three outgroups: Maghrebians, Gypsies, and Latin Americans. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that a three-cluster solution was most fitting for every outgroup. ANOVAs applied to the three clusters indicated significant differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance. Referring to Gypsies the largest effect size was observed in manifest prejudice (η2 = .63), in Maghrebians, the largest effect size was observed in subtle prejudice (η2 =.77), while for Latin Americans, perceived similarity had the largest effect size η2 ( = .60). The results reveal a need to modify existing measures of integration; we recommend using questionnaires to measure behaviors that members of the majority would be willing to implement.

  2. Subcellular location of astrocytic calcium stores favors extrasynaptic neuron-astrocyte communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrushev, Ilya; Gavrilov, Nikolay; Turlapov, Vadim; Semyanov, Alexey

    2013-11-01

    Neuron-astrocyte interactions are important for brain computations and synaptic plasticity. Perisynaptic astrocytic processes (PAPs) contain a high density of transporters that are responsible for neurotransmitter clearance. Metabotropic glutamate receptors are thought to trigger Ca(2+) release from Ca(2+) stores in PAPs in response to synaptic activity. Our ultrastructural study revealed that PAPs are actually devoid of Ca(2+) stores and have a high surface-to-volume ratio favorable for uptake. Astrocytic processes containing Ca(2+) stores were located further away from the synapses and could therefore respond to changes in ambient glutamate. Thus, the anatomic data do not support communication involving Ca(2+) stores in tripartite synapses, but rather point to extrasynaptic communication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Improved DNA electrophoresis in conditions favoring polyborates and lewis acid complexation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Singhal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial compression among the longer DNA fragments occurs during DNA electrophoresis in agarose and non-agarose gels when using certain ions in the conductive buffer, impairing the range of fragment sizes resolved well in a single gel. Substitutions using various polyhydroxyl anions supported the underlying phenomenon as the complexation of Lewis acids to DNA. We saw significant improvements using conditions (lithium borate 10 mM cations, pH 6.5 favoring the formation of borate polyanions and having lower conductance and Joule heating, delayed electrolyte exhaustion, faster electrophoretic run-speed, and sharper separation of DNA bands from 100 bp to 12 kb in a single run.

  4. Maternal Acceptance: Its Contribution to Children's Favorable Perceptions of Discipline and Moral Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Renee B; Gibbs, John C

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the contribution of maternal acceptance or warmth to children's and adolescents' perceptions of discipline and formation of moral identity. The sample consisted of 93 male and female students from Grades 5, 8, and 10 and their mothers. Students completed measures pertaining to perceived maternal discipline practices and acceptance-rejection, as well as moral identity. A subsample of mothers reported on their accepting or rejecting actions toward their children. Children were more likely to feel accepted, if their mothers used inductive discipline (vs. power assertion and love withdrawal). Perceived acceptance was also related to more favorable discipline evaluations in certain respects. Specifically, inductive discipline recipients who felt accepted also evaluated induction as appropriate and responded to it with positive and guilt-related emotions. Power assertion was evaluated as appropriate among those children who did feel accepted. Finally, among inductive discipline recipients, those who felt accepted also reported higher moral identity.

  5. To favor survival under food shortage, the brain disables costly memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaçais, Pierre-Yves; Preat, Thomas

    2013-01-25

    The brain regulates energy homeostasis in the organism. Under resource shortage, the brain takes priority over peripheral organs for energy supply. But can the brain also down-regulate its own consumption to favor survival? We show that the brain of Drosophila specifically disables the costly formation of aversive long-term memory (LTM) upon starvation, a physiological state required for appetitive LTM formation. At the neural circuit level, the slow oscillations normally triggered in two pairs of dopaminergic neurons to enable aversive LTM formation were abolished in starved flies. Transient artificial activation of these neurons during training restored LTM formation in starved flies but at the price of a reduced survival. LTM formation is thus subject to adaptive plasticity that helps survival under food shortage.

  6. Acute inhibition of myostatin-family proteins preserves skeletal muscle in mouse models of cancer cachexia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benny Klimek, Margaret E.; Aydogdu, Tufan [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Link, Majik J.; Pons, Marianne [Molecular Oncology Program, Division of Surgical Oncology, DeWitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Koniaris, Leonidas G. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Molecular Oncology Program, Division of Surgical Oncology, DeWitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Molecular Oncology and Experimental Therapeutics Program, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Zimmers, Teresa A., E-mail: tzimmers@med.miami.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Molecular Oncology Program, Division of Surgical Oncology, DeWitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Molecular Oncology and Experimental Therapeutics Program, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Cachexia, progressive loss of fat and muscle mass despite adequate nutrition, is a devastating complication of cancer associated with poor quality of life and increased mortality. Myostatin is a potent tonic muscle growth inhibitor. We tested how myostatin inhibition might influence cancer cachexia using genetic and pharmacological approaches. First, hypermuscular myostatin null mice were injected with Lewis lung carcinoma or B16F10 melanoma cells. Myostatin null mice were more sensitive to tumor-induced cachexia, losing more absolute mass and proportionately more muscle mass than wild-type mice. Because myostatin null mice lack expression from development, however, we also sought to manipulate myostatin acutely. The histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A has been shown to increase muscle mass in normal and dystrophic mice by inducing the myostatin inhibitor, follistatin. Although Trichostatin A administration induced muscle growth in normal mice, it failed to preserve muscle in colon-26 cancer cachexia. Finally we sought to inhibit myostatin and related ligands by administration of the Activin receptor extracellular domain/Fc fusion protein, ACVR2B-Fc. Systemic administration of ACVR2B-Fc potently inhibited muscle wasting and protected adipose stores in both colon-26 and Lewis lung carcinoma cachexia, without affecting tumor growth. Enhanced cachexia in myostatin knockouts indicates that host-derived myostatin is not the sole mediator of muscle wasting in cancer. More importantly, skeletal muscle preservation with ACVR2B-Fc establishes that targeting myostatin-family ligands using ACVR2B-Fc or related molecules is an important and potent therapeutic avenue in cancer cachexia.

  7. Acute inhibition of myostatin-family proteins preserves skeletal muscle in mouse models of cancer cachexia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benny Klimek, Margaret E.; Aydogdu, Tufan; Link, Majik J.; Pons, Marianne; Koniaris, Leonidas G.; Zimmers, Teresa A.

    2010-01-01

    Cachexia, progressive loss of fat and muscle mass despite adequate nutrition, is a devastating complication of cancer associated with poor quality of life and increased mortality. Myostatin is a potent tonic muscle growth inhibitor. We tested how myostatin inhibition might influence cancer cachexia using genetic and pharmacological approaches. First, hypermuscular myostatin null mice were injected with Lewis lung carcinoma or B16F10 melanoma cells. Myostatin null mice were more sensitive to tumor-induced cachexia, losing more absolute mass and proportionately more muscle mass than wild-type mice. Because myostatin null mice lack expression from development, however, we also sought to manipulate myostatin acutely. The histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A has been shown to increase muscle mass in normal and dystrophic mice by inducing the myostatin inhibitor, follistatin. Although Trichostatin A administration induced muscle growth in normal mice, it failed to preserve muscle in colon-26 cancer cachexia. Finally we sought to inhibit myostatin and related ligands by administration of the Activin receptor extracellular domain/Fc fusion protein, ACVR2B-Fc. Systemic administration of ACVR2B-Fc potently inhibited muscle wasting and protected adipose stores in both colon-26 and Lewis lung carcinoma cachexia, without affecting tumor growth. Enhanced cachexia in myostatin knockouts indicates that host-derived myostatin is not the sole mediator of muscle wasting in cancer. More importantly, skeletal muscle preservation with ACVR2B-Fc establishes that targeting myostatin-family ligands using ACVR2B-Fc or related molecules is an important and potent therapeutic avenue in cancer cachexia.

  8. Loss of NAD Homeostasis Leads to Progressive and Reversible Degeneration of Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David W; Loro, Emanuele; Liu, Ling; Davila, Antonio; Chellappa, Karthikeyani; Silverman, Ian M; Quinn, William J; Gosai, Sager J; Tichy, Elisia D; Davis, James G; Mourkioti, Foteini; Gregory, Brian D; Dellinger, Ryan W; Redpath, Philip; Migaud, Marie E; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Rabinowitz, Joshua D; Khurana, Tejvir S; Baur, Joseph A

    2016-08-09

    NAD is an obligate co-factor for the catabolism of metabolic fuels in all cell types. However, the availability of NAD in several tissues can become limited during genotoxic stress and the course of natural aging. The point at which NAD restriction imposes functional limitations on tissue physiology remains unknown. We examined this question in murine skeletal muscle by specifically depleting Nampt, an essential enzyme in the NAD salvage pathway. Knockout mice exhibited a dramatic 85% decline in intramuscular NAD content, accompanied by fiber degeneration and progressive loss of both muscle strength and treadmill endurance. Administration of the NAD precursor nicotinamide riboside rapidly ameliorated functional deficits and restored muscle mass despite having only a modest effect on the intramuscular NAD pool. Additionally, lifelong overexpression of Nampt preserved muscle NAD levels and exercise capacity in aged mice, supporting a critical role for tissue-autonomous NAD homeostasis in maintaining muscle mass and function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Altered serotonin physiology in human breast cancers favors paradoxical growth and cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Vaibhav P; Marshall, Aaron M; Hernandez, Laura L; Buckley, Arthur R; Horseman, Nelson D

    2009-01-01

    The breast microenvironment can either retard or accelerate the events associated with progression of latent cancers. However, the actions of local physiological mediators in the context of breast cancers are poorly understood. Serotonin (5-HT) is a critical local regulator of epithelial homeostasis in the breast and other organs. Herein, we report complex alterations in the intrinsic mammary gland serotonin system of human breast cancers. Serotonin biosynthetic capacity was analyzed in human breast tumor tissue microarrays using immunohistochemistry for tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1). Serotonin receptors (5-HT1-7) were analyzed in human breast tumors using the Oncomine database. Serotonin receptor expression, signal transduction, and 5-HT effects on breast cancer cell phenotype were compared in non-transformed and transformed human breast cells. In the context of the normal mammary gland, 5-HT acts as a physiological regulator of lactation and involution, in part by favoring growth arrest and cell death. This tightly regulated 5-HT system is subverted in multiple ways in human breast cancers. Specifically, TPH1 expression undergoes a non-linear change during progression, with increased expression during malignant progression. Correspondingly, the tightly regulated pattern of 5-HT receptors becomes dysregulated in human breast cancer cells, resulting in both ectopic expression of some isoforms and suppression of others. The receptor expression change is accompanied by altered downstream signaling of 5-HT receptors in human breast cancer cells, resulting in resistance to 5-HT-induced apoptosis, and stimulated proliferation. Our data constitutes the first report of direct involvement of 5-HT in human breast cancer. Increased 5-HT biosynthetic capacity accompanied by multiple changes in 5-HT receptor expression and signaling favor malignant progression of human breast cancer cells (for example, stimulated proliferation, inappropriate cell survival). This occurs

  10. Does community-based conservation shape favorable attitudes among locals? an empirical study from nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, J N; Heinen, J T

    2001-08-01

    Like many developing countries, Nepal has adopted a community-based conservation (CBC) approach in recent years to manage its protected areas mainly in response to poor park-people relations. Among other things, under this approach the government has created new "people-oriented" conservation areas, formed and devolved legal authority to grassroots-level institutions to manage local resources, fostered infrastructure development, promoted tourism, and provided income-generating trainings to local people. Of interest to policy-makers and resource managers in Nepal and worldwide is whether this approach to conservation leads to improved attitudes on the part of local people. It is also important to know if personal costs and benefits associated with various intervention programs, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics influence these attitudes. We explore these questions by looking at the experiences in Annapurna and Makalu-Barun Conservation Areas, Nepal, which have largely adopted a CBC approach in policy formulation, planning, and management. The research was conducted during 1996 and 1997; the data collection methods included random household questionnaire surveys, informal interviews, and review of official records and published literature. The results indicated that the majority of local people held favorable attitudes toward these conservation areas. Logistic regression results revealed that participation in training, benefit from tourism, wildlife depredation issue, ethnicity, gender, and education level were the significant predictors of local attitudes in one or the other conservation area. We conclude that the CBC approach has potential to shape favorable local attitudes and that these attitudes will be mediated by some personal attributes.

  11. On- and off-grid operation of hybrid renewable power plants: When are the economics favorable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Santana, D.

    2016-12-01

    Hybrid renewable energy conversion systems offer a good alternative to conventional systems in locations where the extension of the electrical grid is difficult or not economical or where the cost of electricity is high. However, stand-alone operation implies net energy output restrictions (limited to exclusively serve the energy demand of a region), capacity oversizing and large storage facilities. In interconnected areas, on the other hand, the operational restrictions of the power stations change significantly and the efficiencies and costs of renewable technologies become more favorable. In this paper, the operation of three main renewable technologies (CSP, PV and wind) is studied assuming both hybrid and individual operation for both autonomous and inter-connected operation. The case study used is a Mediterranean island of ca. 3,000 inhabitants. Each system is optimized to fully cover the energy demand of the community. In addition, in the on-grid operation cases, it is required that the annual energy generated from the renewable sources is net positive (i.e., the island generates at least as much energy as it uses). It is found that when connected to the grid, hybridization of more than one technology is not required to satisfy the energy demand, as expected. Each of the renewable technologies investigated can satisfy the annual energy demand individually, without significant complications. In addition, the cost of electricity generated with the three studied technologies drops significantly for on-grid applications, when compared to off-grid operation. However, when compared to business-as-usual scenarios in both the on- and off-grid cases, both investigated hybrid and single-technology renewable scenarios are found to be economically viable. A sensitivity analysis reveals the limits of the acceptable costs that make the technologies favorable when compared to conventional alternatives.

  12. Prostate Cancer Diagnosed After Repeat Biopsies Have a Favorable Pathological Outcome but Similar Recurrence Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Corona, Ernesto; Ohori, Makoto; Wheeler, Thomas M.; Reuter, Victor E.; Scardino, Peter T.; Kattan, Michael W.; Eastham, James A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose We investigated whether repeat prostate biopsies are associated with more favorable prognoses, less extensive disease or higher rates of IC in patients who are ultimately diagnosed with prostate cancer and treated with RRP. Materials and Methods We examined standard clinical and pathological data on 1,357 patients treated with RRP from 1983 to 2001. In addition, we noted the rate of IC in a subgroup of 847 patients in whom tumor volume was measured. Results Cancer was found in 1,042 patients (77%) at the first biopsy, in 227 (17%) at the second biopsy, in 59 (4%) at the third biopsy and in 29 (2%) at the fourth or later biopsy. Patients with 2 or greater biopsies had a higher rate of clinical T1c stage cancer and larger prostates than patients with only 1 biopsy (each p <0.0001). After RRP patients with 1 biopsy had a lower rate of organ confined tumors (61% vs 75%, p <0.0001), and a higher rate of extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, lymph node metastases and Gleason sum 7 or greater than other patients. IC was found in 10% of patients with 1 biopsy and 18% of those with 2 or greater biopsies (p = 0.018). Despite these more favorable pathological outcomes there was no difference in biochemical recurrence rate. Conclusions Although we found that a greater number of biopsies was related to a better pathological outcome after RRP, the number of biopsies did not predict disease recurrence. The increasing number of biopsies currently being performed, especially in patients with larger prostates, likely results in higher rates of IC. PMID:16469581

  13. FAVOR: A new fracture mechanics code for reactor pressure vessels subjected to pressurized thermal shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    Probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis is a major element of the comprehensive probabilistic methodology endorsed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for evaluation of the integrity of pressurized water reactor pressure vessels subjected to pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) transients. OCA-P and VISA-II are PTS PFM computer codes that are currently referenced in Regulatory Guide 1.154 as acceptable codes for performing plant-specific analyses. These codes perform PFM analyses to estimate the increase in vessel failure probability as the vessel accumulates radiation damage over the operating life of the vessel. Experience with the application of these codes in the last few years has provided insights into areas where they could be improved. As more plants approach the PTS screening criteria and are required to perform plant-specific analyses, there will be an increasing need for an improved and validated PTS PFM code that is accepted by the NRC and utilities. The NRC funded Heavy Section Steel Technology Program (HSST) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is currently developing the FAVOR (Fracture Analysis of Vessels: Oak Ridge) code, which is expected to meet this need. The FAVOR code incorporates the most important features of both OCA-P and VISA-II and contains some new capabilities such as (1) a PFM global modeling methodology; (2) the calculation of the axial stress component associated with coolant streaming beneath an inlet nozzle; (3) a library of stress intensity factor influence coefficients, generated by the NQA-1 certified ABAQUS computer code, for an appropriate range of two and three dimensional inner-surface flaws; (4) the flexibility to generate a variety of output reports; and (5) enhanced user friendliness

  14. Favorable effect of aerobic exercise on arterial pressure and aortic pulse wave velocity during stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milatz, Florian; Ketelhut, Sascha; Ketelhut, Sascha; Ketelhut, Reinhard G

    2015-07-01

    Increased central pulse wave velocity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The favorable influence of exercise on arterial stiffness (AS) and blood pressure (BP) has been reported exclusively at rest. The present study investigated the influence of a single bout of acute cycling on AS and BP during recovery and, moreover, during cold pressor stress testing. 32 healthy men (33.7 ± 8 years, BMI 24 ± 2.5 kg/m²) performed a 60 minute endurance exercise on a bicycle ergometer (45 % VO2max). Before and after exercise aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) as well as central and peripheral BP were measured non-invasively at rest and at the end of a 2 minute cold pressor test (CPT). Even after 60 minutes of recovery aPWV (- 0.22 ± 0.3 m / sec) was significantly reduced (p Exercise decreased peripheral (- 8 ± 7 mmHg) and central (- 7 ± 8 mmHg) systolic BP as well as peripheral (- 3 ± 5 mmHg) and central (- 4 ± 7 mmHg) diastolic BP (p exercise, there was a significant reduction in aPWV (- 0.19 ± 0.3 m / sec), peripheral (- 6 ± 10 mmHg) and central (- 5 ± 8 mmHg) systolic BP as well as peripheral (- 3 ± 6 mmHg) and central (- 3 ± 6 mmHg) diastolic BP during CPT after exercise (p exercise leads not only to decreased BP but even more reduces aPWV as a measure of AS even after 60 minutes of recovery. In particular, the investigation provides evidence that acute moderate-intensity exercise has a favorable effect on BP and aPWV during stress testing.

  15. Association and Validation of Yield-Favored Alleles in Chinese Cultivars of Common Wheat (Triticumaestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Guo

    Full Text Available Common wheat is one of the most important crops in China, which is the largest producer in the world. A set of 230 cultivars was used to identify yield-related loci by association mapping. This set was tested for seven yield-related traits, viz. plant height (PH, spike length (SL, spikelet number per spike (SNPS, kernel number per spike (KNPS, thousand-kernel weight (TKW, kernel weight per spike (KWPS, and sterile spikelet number (SSN per plant in four environments. A total of 106 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers distributed on all 21 chromosomes were used to screen the set. Twenty-one and 19 of them were associated with KNPS and TKW, respectively. Association mapping detected 73 significant associations across 50 SSRs, and the phenotypic variation explained (R2 by the associations ranged from 1.54 to 23.93%. The associated loci were distributed on all chromosomes except 4A, 7A, and 7D. Significant and potentially new alleles were present on 8 chromosomes, namely 1A, 1D, 2A, 2D, 3D, 4B, 5B, and 6B. Further analysis showed that genetic effects of associated loci were greatly influenced by association panels, and the R2 of crucial loci were lower in modern cultivars than in the mini core collection, probably caused by strong selection in wheat breeding. In order to confirm the results of association analysis, yield-related favorable alleles Xgwm135-1A138, Xgwm337-1D186, Xgwm102-2D144, and Xgwm132-6B128 were evaluated in a double haploid (DH population derived from Hanxuan10 xLumai14.These favorable alleles that were validated in various populations might be valuable in breeding for high-yield.

  16. Changes in contractile properties of muscles receiving repeat injections of botulinum toxin (Botox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Rafael; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Youssef, Aliaa Rehan; Longino, David; Herzog, Walter

    2011-01-04

    Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is a frequently used therapeutic tool to denervate muscles in the treatment of neuromuscular disorders. Although considered safe by the US Food and Drug Administration, BTX-A can produce adverse effects in target and non-target muscles. With an increased use of BTX-A for neuromuscular disorders, the effects of repeat injections of BTX-A on strength, muscle mass and structure need to be known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in strength, muscle mass and contractile material in New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. Twenty NZW rabbits were divided into 4 groups: control and 1, 3 and 6 months of unilateral, repeat injections of BTX-A into the quadriceps femoris. Outcome measures included knee extensor torque, muscle mass and the percentage of contractile material in the quadriceps muscles of the target and non-injected contralateral hindlimbs. Strength in the injected muscles was reduced by 88%, 89% and 95% in the 1, 3 and 6 months BTX-A injected hindlimbs compared to controls. Muscle mass was reduced by 50%, 42% and 31% for the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF) and vastus medialis (VM), respectively, at 1 month, by 68%, 51% and 50% at 3 months and by 76%, 44% and 13% at 6 months. The percentage of contractile material was reduced for the 3 and 6 months animals to 80-64%, respectively, and was replaced primarily by fat. Similar, but less pronounced results were also observed for the quadriceps muscles of the contralateral hindlimbs, suggesting that repeat BTX-A injections cause muscle atrophy and loss of contractile tissue in target muscles and also in non-target muscles that are far removed from the injection site. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hsp72 preserves muscle function and slows progression of severe muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrig, Stefan M; van der Poel, Chris; Sayer, Timothy A; Schertzer, Jonathan D; Henstridge, Darren C; Church, Jarrod E; Lamon, Severine; Russell, Aaron P; Davies, Kay E; Febbraio, Mark A; Lynch, Gordon S

    2012-04-04

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe and progressive muscle wasting disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene that result in the absence of the membrane-stabilizing protein dystrophin. Dystrophin-deficient muscle fibres are fragile and susceptible to an influx of Ca(2+), which activates inflammatory and muscle degenerative pathways. At present there is no cure for DMD, and existing therapies are ineffective. Here we show that increasing the expression of intramuscular heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) preserves muscle strength and ameliorates the dystrophic pathology in two mouse models of muscular dystrophy. Treatment with BGP-15 (a pharmacological inducer of Hsp72 currently in clinical trials for diabetes) improved muscle architecture, strength and contractile function in severely affected diaphragm muscles in mdx dystrophic mice. In dko mice, a phenocopy of DMD that results in severe spinal curvature (kyphosis), muscle weakness and premature death, BGP-15 decreased kyphosis, improved the dystrophic pathophysiology in limb and diaphragm muscles and extended lifespan. We found that the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA, the main protein responsible for the removal of intracellular Ca(2+)) is dysfunctional in severely affected muscles of mdx and dko mice, and that Hsp72 interacts with SERCA to preserve its function under conditions of stress, ultimately contributing to the decreased muscle degeneration seen with Hsp72 upregulation. Treatment with BGP-15 similarly increased SERCA activity in dystrophic skeletal muscles. Our results provide evidence that increasing the expression of Hsp72 in muscle (through the administration of BGP-15) has significant therapeutic potential for DMD and related conditions, either as a self-contained therapy or as an adjuvant with other potential treatments, including gene, cell and pharmacological therapies.

  18. Effects of delayed NSAID administration after experimental eccentric contraction injury - A cellular and proteomics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E Bryant

    Full Text Available Acute muscle injuries are exceedingly common and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are widely consumed to reduce the associated inflammation, swelling and pain that peak 1-2 days post-injury. While prophylactic use or early administration of NSAIDs has been shown to delay muscle regeneration and contribute to loss of muscle strength after healing, little is known about the effects of delayed NSAID use. Further, NSAID use following non-penetrating injury has been associated with increased risk and severity of infection, including that due to group A streptococcus, though the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The present study investigated the effects of delayed NSAID administration on muscle repair and sought mechanisms supporting an injury/NSAID/infection axis.A murine model of eccentric contraction (EC-induced injury of the tibialis anterior muscle was used to profile the cellular and molecular changes induced by ketorolac tromethamine administered 47 hr post injury.NSAID administration inhibited several important muscle regeneration processes and down-regulated multiple cytoprotective proteins known to inhibit the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death. These activities were associated with increased caspase activity in injured muscles but were independent of any NSAID effect on macrophage influx or phenotype switching.These findings provide new molecular evidence supporting the notion that NSAIDs have a direct negative influence on muscle repair after acute strain injury in mice and thus add to renewed concern about the safety and benefits of NSAIDS in both children and adults, in those with progressive loss of muscle mass such as the elderly or patients with cancer or AIDS, and those at risk of secondary infection after trauma or surgery.

  19. Red wine polyphenol compounds favor neovascularisation through estrogen receptor α-independent mechanism in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Chalopin

    Full Text Available Red wine polyphenol compounds (RWPC exert paradoxical effects depending on the dose on post-ischemic neovascularisation. Low dose RWPC (0.2 mg/kg/day is pro-angiogenic, whereas high dose (20 mg/kg/day is anti-angiogenic. We recently reported that the endothelial effect of RWPC is mediated through the activation of a redox-sensitive pathway, mitochondrial biogenesis and the activation of α isoform of the estrogen receptor (ERα. Here, we investigated the implication of ERα on angiogenic properties of RWPC. Using ovariectomized mice lacking ERα treated with high dose of RWPC after hindlimb ischemia, we examined blood flow reperfusion, vascular density, nitric oxide (NO production, expression and activation of proteins involved in angiogenic process and muscle energy sensing network. As expected, high dose of RWPC treatment reduced both blood flow and vascular density in muscles of mice expressing ERα. These effects were associated with reduced NO production resulting from diminished activity of eNOS. In the absence of RWPC, ERα deficient mice showed a reduced neo-vascularisation associated with a decreased NO production. Surprisingly in mice lacking ERα, high dose of RWPC increased blood flow and capillary density in conjunction with increased NO pathway and production as well as VEGF expression. Of particular interest is the activation of Sirt-1, AMPKα and PGC-1α/β axis in ischemic hindlimb from both strains. Altogether, the results highlight a pro-angiogenic property of RWPC via an ERα-independent mechanism that is associated with an up-regulation of energy sensing network. This study brings a corner stone of a novel pathway for RWPC to correct cardiovascular diseases associated with failed neovascularisation.

  20. Horizontal gene transfer from macrophages to ischemic muscles upon delivery of naked DNA with Pluronic block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Vivek; Gaymalov, Zagit; Alakhova, Daria; Gupta, Richa; Zucker, Irving H; Kabanov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    Intramuscular administration of plasmid DNA (pDNA) with non-ionic Pluronic block copolymers increases gene expression in injected muscles and lymphoid organs. We studied the role of immune cells in muscle transfection upon inflammation. Local inflammation in murine hind limb ischemia model (MHLIM) drastically increased DNA, RNA and expressed protein levels in ischemic muscles injected with pDNA/Pluronic. The systemic inflammation (MHLIM or peritonitis) also increased expression of pDNA/Pluronic in the muscles. When pDNA/Pluronic was injected in ischemic muscles the reporter gene, Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) co-localized with desmin(+) muscle fibers and CD11b(+) macrophages (MØs), suggesting transfection of MØs along with the muscle cells. P85 enhanced (∼ 4 orders) transfection of MØs with pDNA in vitro. Moreover, adoptively transferred MØs were shown to pass the transgene to inflamed muscle cells in MHLIM. Using a co-culture of myotubes (MTs) and transfected MØs expressing a reporter gene under constitutive (cmv-luciferase) or muscle specific (desmin-luciferase) promoter we demonstrated that P85 enhances horizontal gene transfer from MØ to MTs. Therefore, MØs can play an important role in muscle transfection with pDNA/Pluronic during inflammation, with both inflammation and Pluronic contributing to the increased gene expression. pDNA/Pluronic has potential for therapeutic gene delivery in muscle pathologies that involve inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Muscle performance after the menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirola, Joonas; Rikkonen, Toni

    2005-06-01

    The timing of the menopause transition has remained fairly constant throughout history. It represents a milestone in female health and, after passing through it, women experience increased musculoskeletal and cardiovascular morbidity. Muscle performance is an important determinant of functional capacity and quality of life among the elderly and is also involved in the maintenance of balance. Therefore, good muscle strength can prevent fragility fractures and lessen the burden of osteoporosis. Muscle strength begins to decline during the perimenopausal years and this phenomenon seems to be partly estrogen dependent. Randomized controlled trials have indicated that hormone replacement therapy may prevent a decline in muscle performance, although the exact mechanism of estrogen-dependent sarcopenia remains to be clarified. Exercises have been shown to improve postmenopausal muscle performance and hormone replacement therapy may also potentiate these beneficial effects. Improvement or maintenance of muscle strength alone, however, may not be considered as a primary indication for long-term hormone replacement therapy in view of current knowledge of its risks and benefits. Work history and educational background may be associated with postmenopausal muscle performance, which itself has unique associations with skeletal and cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Overview of the Muscle Cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Christine A.; Gomez, Christopher G.; Novak, Stefanie M.; Mi-Mi, Lei; Gregorio, Carol C.

    2018-01-01

    Cardiac and skeletal striated muscles are intricately designed machines responsible for muscle contraction. Coordination of the basic contractile unit, the sarcomere, and the complex cytoskeletal networks are critical for contractile activity. The sarcomere is comprised of precisely organized individual filament systems that include thin (actin), thick (myosin), titin, and nebulin. Connecting the sarcomere to other organelles (e.g., mitochondria and nucleus) and serving as the scaffold to maintain cellular integrity are the intermediate filaments. The costamere, on the other hand, tethers the sarcomere to the cell membrane. Unique structures like the intercalated disc in cardiac muscle and the myotendinous junction in skeletal muscle help synchronize and transmit force. Intense investigation has been done on many of the proteins that make up these cytoskeletal assemblies. Yet the details of their function and how they interconnect have just started to be elucidated. A vast number of human myopathies are contributed to mutations in muscle proteins; thus understanding their basic function provides a mechanistic understanding of muscle disorders. In this review, we highlight the components of striated muscle with respect to their interactions, signaling pathways, functions, and connections to disease. PMID:28640448

  3. Muscle channelopathies and electrophysiological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherian Ajith

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Myotonic syndromes and periodic paralyses are rare disorders of skeletal muscle characterized mainly by muscle stiffness or episodic attacks of weakness. Familial forms are caused by mutation in genes coding for skeletal muscle voltage ionic channels. Familial periodic paralysis and nondystrophic myotonias are disorders of skeletal muscle excitability caused by mutations in genes coding for voltage-gated ion channels. These diseases are characterized by episodic failure of motor activity due to muscle weakness (paralysis or stiffness (myotonia. Clinical studies have identified two forms of periodic paralyses: hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hypoKPP and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (hyperKPP, based on changes in serum potassium levels during the attacks, and three distinct forms of myotonias: paramyotonia congenita (PC, potassium-aggravated myotonia (PAM, and myotonia congenita (MC. PC and PAM have been linked to missense mutations in the SCN4A gene, which encodes α subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channel, whereas MC is caused by mutations in the chloride channel gene (CLCN1. Exercise is known to trigger, aggravate, or relieve symptoms. Therefore, exercise can be used as a functional test in electromyography to improve the diagnosis of these muscle disorders. Abnormal changes in the compound muscle action potential can be disclosed using different exercise tests. Five electromyographic (EMG patterns (I-V that may be used in clinical practice as guides for molecular diagnosis are discussed.

  4. Immunology Guides Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Andrea Sass

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue trauma of skeletal muscle is one of the most common side effects in surgery. Muscle injuries are not only caused by accident-related injuries but can also be of an iatrogenic nature as they occur during surgical interventions when the anatomical region of interest is exposed. If the extent of trauma surpasses the intrinsic regenerative capacities, signs of fatty degeneration and formation of fibrotic scar tissue can occur, and, consequentially, muscle function deteriorates or is diminished. Despite research efforts to investigate the physiological healing cascade following trauma, our understanding of the early onset of healing and how it potentially determines success or failure is still only fragmentary. This review focuses on the initial physiological pathways following skeletal muscle trauma in comparison to bone and tendon trauma and what conclusions can be drawn from new scientific insights for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Strategies to support regeneration of muscle tissue after injury are scarce, even though muscle trauma has a high incidence. Based on tissue specific differences, possible clinical treatment options such as local immune-modulatory and cell therapeutic approaches are suggested that aim to support the endogenous regenerative potential of injured muscle tissues.

  5. Skeletal muscle performance and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieland, Michael; Trouwborst, Inez; Clark, Brian C

    2018-02-01

    The world population is ageing rapidly. As society ages, the incidence of physical limitations is dramatically increasing, which reduces the quality of life and increases healthcare expenditures. In western society, ~30% of the population over 55 years is confronted with moderate or severe physical limitations. These physical limitations increase the risk of falls, institutionalization, co-morbidity, and premature death. An important cause of physical limitations is the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, also referred to as sarcopenia. Emerging evidence, however, clearly shows that the decline in skeletal muscle mass is not the sole contributor to the decline in physical performance. For instance, the loss of muscle strength is also a strong contributor to reduced physical performance in the elderly. In addition, there is ample data to suggest that motor coordination, excitation-contraction coupling, skeletal integrity, and other factors related to the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems are critically important for physical performance in the elderly. To better understand the loss of skeletal muscle performance with ageing, we aim to provide a broad overview on the underlying mechanisms associated with elderly skeletal muscle performance. We start with a system level discussion and continue with a discussion on the influence of lifestyle, biological, and psychosocial factors on elderly skeletal muscle performance. Developing a broad understanding of the many factors affecting elderly skeletal muscle performance has major implications for scientists, clinicians, and health professionals who are developing therapeutic interventions aiming to enhance muscle function and/or prevent mobility and physical limitations and, as such, support healthy ageing. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  6. Effects of anabolic hormones on structural, metabolic and functional aspects of skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Oliveira Pires

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n3p350   This study reviewed information regarding the effects of anabolic hormones on strength gain and muscle hypertrophy, emphasizing the physiological mechanisms that may increase muscle strength. Structural, metabolic and functional aspects were analyzed and special attention was paid to the dose-response relationship. The Pubmed database was searched and studies were selected according to relevance and date of publication (last 15 years. The administration of high testosterone doses (~600 mg/week potentiates the effects of strength training, increasing lean body mass, muscle fiber type IIA and IIB cross-sectional area, and the number of myonuclei. There is no evidence of conversion between MHC isoforms. The interaction between testosterone administration and strength training seems to modify some metabolic pathways, increasing protein synthesis, glycogen and ATP-CP muscle stores and improving fat mobilization. Changes in 17-estradiol concentration or in the ACTH-cortisol and insulin-glucagon ratios seem to be associated with these metabolic alterations. Regarding performance, testosterone administration may improve muscle strength by 5-20% depending on the dose used. On the other hand, the effects of growth hormone on the structural and functional aspects of skeletal muscle are not evident, with this hormone more affecting metabolic aspects. However, strictly controlled human studies are necessary to establish the extent of the effects of anabolic hormones on structural, metabolic and functional aspects.

  7. Effects of anabolic hormones on structural, metabolic and functional aspects of skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Oliveira Pires

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reviewed information regarding the effects of anabolic hormones on strength gain and muscle hypertrophy, emphasizing the physiological mechanisms that may increase muscle strength. Structural, metabolic and functional aspects were analyzed and special attention was paid to the dose-response relationship. The Pubmed database was searched and studies were selected according to relevance and date of publication (last 15 years. The administration of high testosterone doses (~600 mg/week potentiates the effects of strength training, increasing lean body mass, muscle fiber type IIA and IIB cross-sectional area, and the number of myonuclei. There is no evidence of conversion between MHC isoforms. The interaction between testosterone administration and strength training seems to modify some metabolic pathways, increasing protein synthesis, glycogen and ATP-CP muscle stores and improving fat mobilization. Changes in 17-estradiol concentration or in the ACTH-cortisol and insulin-glucagon ratios seem to be associated with these metabolic alterations. Regarding performance, testosterone administration may improve muscle strength by 5-20% depending on the dose used. On the other hand, the effects of growth hormone on the structural and functional aspects of skeletal muscle are not evident, with this hormone more affecting metabolic aspects. However, strictly controlled human studies are necessary to establish the extent of the effects of anabolic hormones on structural, metabolic and functional aspects.

  8. Verapamil reverses PTH- or CRF-induced abnormal fatty acid oxidation in muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perna, A.F.; Smogorzewski, M.; Massry, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with impaired long chain fatty acids (LCFA) oxidation by skeletal muscle mitochondria. This is due to reduced activity of carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT). These derangements were attributed to the secondary hyperparathyroidism of CRF, since prior parathyroidectomy in CRF rats reversed these abnormalities and PTH administration to normal rats reproduced them. It was proposed that these effects of PTH are mediated by its ionophoric property leading to increased entry of calcium into skeletal muscle. A calcium channel blocker may, therefore, correct these derangements. The present study examined the effects of verapamil on LCFA oxidation, CPT activity by skeletal muscle mitochondria, and 45 Ca uptake by skeletal muscle obtained from CRF rats and normal animals treated with PTH with and without verapamil. Both four days of PTH administration and 21 days of CRF produced significant (P less than 0.01) reduction in LCFA oxidation and CPT activity of skeletal muscle mitochondria, and significant (P less than 0.01) increment in 45 Ca uptake by skeletal muscle. Simultaneous treatment with verapamil corrected all these derangements. Administration of verapamil alone to normal rats did not cause a significant change in any of these parameters. The data are consistent with the proposition that the alterations in LCFA in CRF or after PTH treatment are related to the ionophoric action of the hormone and could be reversed by a calcium channel blocker

  9. ICMS tributary administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Santana de Souza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyze the essential tools for the management of the ICMS (Value-Added Tax on Sales and Services. It was developed a calculation proce­dure of this tax which permits to demonstrate the importance of correctly perform fiscal and accounting entries. In order to demonstrate this calculation procedure, it was used Financial Mathematics concepts of simple interest and simple trade discount together with article 33, 1989 of ICMS Law of the State of São Paulo. It was concluded that it is essential to have a precise ICMS tributary administration, in order to firstly avoid contentious administrative tributary which would imply ad­ditional and unnecessary costs to the organization and secondly to use tax evasion correctly in order to avoid excessive taxes payment. Thus, the appropriate use of both instruments will reflect into a positive cash flow for the organization.

  10. ATLAS TDAQ System Administration:

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Christopher Jon; The ATLAS collaboration; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Ballestrero, Sergio; Contescu, Alexandru Cristian; Dubrov, Sergei; Fazio, Daniel; Korol, Aleksandr; Scannicchio, Diana; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Voronkov, Artem

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system is responsible for the online processing of live data, streaming from the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The online farm is composed of ̃3000 servers, processing the data readout from ̃100 million detector channels through multiple trigger levels. During the two years of the first Long Shutdown (LS1) there has been a tremendous amount of work done by the ATLAS TDAQ System Administrators, implementing numerous new software applications, upgrading the OS and the hardware, changing some design philosophies and exploiting the High Level Trigger farm with different purposes. During the data taking only critical security updates are applied and broken hardware is replaced to ensure a stable operational environment. The LS1 provided an excellent opportunity to look into new technologies and applications that would help to improve and streamline the daily tasks of not only the System Administrators, but also of the scientists who wil...

  11. [Expectations of hospital administrators about administrative functions of nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, M R; Fávero, N; Trevizan, M A; Hayashida, M

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate hospital administrator's expectations about the administrative role played by nurses, utilizing functions proposed by the Neoclassical Theory of Administration: planning, organization, direction, and control as theoretical references. An instrument established in TREVIZAN (1989) was applied to 11 hospital administrators. The results showed they expect the four functions to be done by nurses. Therefore, the interaction between nurses and hospital administrators is critical to improve the patient's assistance.

  12. Bigorexia: bodybuilding and muscle dysmorphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Philip E

    2009-05-01

    Muscle dysmorphia is an emerging condition that primarily affects male bodybuilders. Such individuals obsess about being inadequately muscular. Compulsions include spending hours in the gym, squandering excessive amounts of money on ineffectual sports supplements, abnormal eating patterns or even substance abuse. In this essay, I illustrate the features of muscle dysmorphia by employing the first-person account of a male bodybuilder afflicted by this condition. I briefly outline the history of bodybuilding and examine whether the growth of this sport is linked to a growing concern with body image amongst males. I suggest that muscle dysmorphia may be a new expression of a common pathology shared with the eating disorders.

  13. Diabetic muscle infarction: radiologic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chason, D.P.; Fleckenstein, J.L.; Burns, D.K.; Rojas, G.

    1996-01-01

    Four patients with severe diabetes mellitus presenting with acute thigh pain, tenderness, and swelling were evaluated by imaging techniques and biopsy. Edema in the affected muscles was seen in two patients with MRI studies. Femoral artery calcification and mild muscle swelling was present in one patient who underwent CT. Decreased echogenicity was seen in the involved muscle in a patient studied with ultrasound. Serum enzymes were normal or mildly elevated in three patients (not reported in one). Biopsy demonstrated necrosis and regenerative change in all cases. MRI, although nonspecific, is the best imaging technique to suggest the diagnosis of DMI in the appropriate clinical setting, thereby obviating biopsy. (orig./MG)

  14. Skeletal Muscle Na+ Channel Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina eSimkin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Five inherited human disorders affecting skeletal muscle contraction have been traced to mutations in the gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.4. The main symptoms of these disorders are myotonia or periodic paralysis caused by changes in skeletal muscle fiber excitability. Symptoms of these disorders vary from mild or latent disease to incapacitating or even death in severe cases. As new human sodium channel mutations corresponding to disease states become discovered, the importance of understanding the role of the sodium channel in skeletal muscle function and disease state grows.

  15. Moodle administration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Henrick, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    If you are an experienced system administrator and know how to manage servers and set up web environments but now want to explore Moodle, this book is perfect for you. You'll get to grips with the basics and learn to manage Moodle quickly, focusing on essential tasks. Having prior knowledge of virtual learning environments would be beneficial, but is not mandatory to make the most of this book.

  16. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  17. IPv6 Network Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Niall Richard

    2009-01-01

    This essential guide explains what works, what doesn't, and most of all, what's practical about IPv6--the next-generation Internet standard. A must-have for network administrators everywhere looking to fix their network's scalability and management problems. Also covers other IPv6 benefits, such as routing, integrated auto-configuration, quality-of-services (QoS), enhanced mobility, and end-to-end security.

  18. Administrative Circular N° 12

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Following a recommendation by the Standing Concertation Committee, the Director-General has approved the amounts used for the reimbursements mentioned in Administrative Circular N° 12 as follows : The figures, effective from 1 September 2003, are : § 8a : 16.50 Swiss francs (previously 16.- Swiss francs) § 9a : 663 Swiss francs (previously 640.- Swiss francs) § 9b : 33 Swiss francs (previously 32.- Swiss francs) Human Resources Division Tel. 72862/74474

  19. Analysis of computed tomography density of liver before and after amiodarone administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Masazumi; Otaka, Aoi; Tozawa, Tomoki; Asano, Tomoyuki; Ishiyama, Koichi; Hashimoto, Manabu

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate CT density of liver changes between before and after amiodarone administration. Twenty-five patients underwent non-enhanced CT including the liver before and after amiodarone administration. We set regions of interest (ROIs) at liver S8, spleen, paraspinal muscle, and calculated average CT density in these ROIs, then compared CT density between liver and other organs. Statistical differences between CT density of liver and various ratios before and after administration were determined, along with correlations between cumulative dose of amiodarone and liver density after administration, density change of liver, and various ratios after administration. Liver density, liver-to-spleen ratio, and liver-to-paraspinal muscle ratio differed significantly between before and after amiodarone administration. No significant correlations were found between cumulative doses of amiodarone and any of liver density after administration, density change of liver, or various ratios after administration. CT density of liver after amiodarone administration was significantly higher than that before administration. No correlations were identified between cumulative dose of amiodarone and either liver density after administration or density change of liver. Amiodarone usage should be checked when radiologists identify high density of the liver on CT.

  20. Contracts in Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka GRZESIOK-HOROSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present makes a contribution to the discussion on contracts in administration under Polish law. It concentrates on theoretical issues, but ones of considerable practical significance. Prior Work though relatively poorly explored, field. This paper is a result of academic considerations on the classical institution of civil law, namely a bilateral juridical act significance of this area may be demonstrated by the fact that one scientific conference and a collection of papers have been devoted to contracts in administration. as research method, the analysis of jurisprudence and doctrinal writings referring to law currently in force. The paper discusses as well the draft of the administrative law, and includes comparative remarks. put forward certain comments pertainin legislation. The authors formulate as well outline theses interesting but complicated matters. As a voice in the doctrinal dispute it can als useful for law students. Value composition. Starting from gener the binding law and proposed amendments. The functioning in foreign countries and proposals of regulatory solutions.

  1. 7. Administrative structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The basic systems of any society rarely can operate independently. Instead, they are dependent and often interdependent upon other entities. Such entities control the resources within their respective systems. Thus, coordination and control agencies require contracts or memoranda of understanding with these entities in order to assure access to the resources required during a crisis. These administrative structures include: (1) governmental institutions and agencies, including the military; (2) intergovernmental organisations; (3) nongovernmental organisations; (4) commercial private sector organisations; and (5) academic institutions. These dependencies create potential barriers to the provision of coordination and control including: (1) the complexity of the administrative structures with which coordination and control must interact; (2) the location of resources; (3) finding responsible person(s); (4) the competence and compatibility; (5) methods of access; (6) payment; (7) contracts and memoranda of understanding; (8) inventories of accessible resources; (9) competition for the mandate, power, and resources; and (10) jealousy. The need for potential interactions between administrative structures requires that agreements for the sharing of resources during crises be reached as part of planning and preparedness. Gaining an understanding of these relationships is an important area for research.

  2. Favorable Attitudes Towards Serosorting are Associated With Overall Less Frequent Condom Use Among Young Black Men Having Sex Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A.; Mena, Leandro; Geter, Angelica

    2018-01-01

    This study determined whether YBMSM endorsing serosorting are less likely to use condoms. A questionnaire assessed men’s attitudes towards serosorting with a three-item scale; various sexual risk behaviors were measured using a 90-day recall period. Favorable attitudes toward serosorting were associated with a greater likelihood of condomless sex as a top (P<.001) and as a bottom (P<.001), as well as a lower likelihood of using condoms with main partners (P=.003). Findings suggest that YBMSM having favorable attitudes toward serosorting may be more likely to report condomless sex than their counterparts without favorable attitudes. PMID:26433647

  3. Activation of respiratory muscles during respiratory muscle training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterspacher, Stephan; Pietsch, Fabian; Walker, David Johannes; Röcker, Kai; Kabitz, Hans-Joachim

    2018-01-01

    It is unknown which respiratory muscles are mainly activated by respiratory muscle training. This study evaluated Inspiratory Pressure Threshold Loading (IPTL), Inspiratory Flow Resistive Loading (IFRL) and Voluntary Isocapnic Hyperpnea (VIH) with regard to electromyographic (EMG) activation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM), parasternal muscles (PARA) and the diaphragm (DIA) in randomized order. Surface EMG were analyzed at the end of each training session and normalized using the peak EMG recorded during maximum inspiratory maneuvers (Sniff nasal pressure: SnPna, maximal inspiratory mouth occlusion pressure: PImax). 41 healthy participants were included. Maximal activation was achieved for SCM by SnPna; the PImax activated predominantly PARA and DIA. Activations of SCM and PARA were higher in IPTL and VIH than for IFRL (p<0.05). DIA was higher applying IPTL compared to IFRL or VIH (p<0.05). IPTL, IFRL and VIH differ in activation of inspiratory respiratory muscles. Whereas all methods mainly stimulate accessory respiratory muscles, diaphragm activation was predominant in IPTL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Eccentric muscle challenge shows osteopontin polymorphism modulation of muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, Whitney L; Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Wu, Chung-Sheih; Lin, Stephen; Chen, Yue; Wang, Paul C; Kanaan, Yasmine; Bond, Vernon; Hoffman, Eric P

    2014-08-01

    A promoter polymorphism of the osteopontin (OPN) gene (rs28357094) has been associated with multiple inflammatory states, severity of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and muscle size in healthy young adults. We sought to define the mechanism of action of the polymorphism, using allele-specific in vitro reporter assays in muscle cells, and a genotype-stratified intervention in healthy controls. In vitro reporter constructs showed the G allele to respond to estrogen treatment, whereas the T allele showed no transcriptional response. Young adult volunteers (n = 187) were enrolled into a baseline study, and subjects with specific rs28357094 genotypes enrolled into an eccentric muscle challenge intervention [n = 3 TT; n = 3 GG/GT (dominant inheritance model)]. Female volunteers carrying the G allele showed significantly greater inflammation and increased muscle volume change as determined by magnetic resonance imaging T1- and T2-weighted images after eccentric challenge, as well as greater decrement in biceps muscle force. Our data suggest a model where the G allele enables enhanced activities of upstream enhancer elements due to loss of Sp1 binding at the polymorphic site. This results in significantly greater expression of the pro-inflammatory OPN cytokine during tissue remodeling in response to challenge in G allele carriers, promoting muscle hypertrophy in normal females, but increased damage in DMD patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Antioxidant Supplement Inhibits Skeletal Muscle Constitutive Autophagy rather than Fasting-Induced Autophagy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengtang Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested the hypothesis that NAC administration leads to reduced oxidative stress and thus to decreased expression of autophagy markers in young mice. Our results reveal that NAC administration results in reduced muscle mRNA levels of several autophagy markers, including Beclin-1, Atg7, LC3, Atg9, and LAMP2. However, NAC supplement fails to block the activation of skeletal muscle autophagy in response to fasting, because fasting significantly increases the mRNA level of several autophagy markers and LC3 lipidation. We further examined the effects of NAC administration on mitochondrial antioxidant capacity in fed and 24-hour fasted mice. Our results clearly show that NAC administration depresses the expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR, both of which play a predominant antioxidant role in mitochondria by reducing ROS level. In addition, we found no beneficial effect of NAC supplement on muscle mass but it can protect from muscle loss in response to fasting. Collectively, our findings indicate that ROS is required for skeletal muscle constitutive autophagy, rather than starvation-induced autophagy, and that antioxidant NAC inhibits constitutive autophagy by the regulation of mitochondrial ROS production and antioxidant capacity.

  6. Aging of the skeletal muscle extracellular matrix drives a stem cell fibrogenic conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns-Reider, Kristen M; D'Amore, Antonio; Beezhold, Kevin; Rothrauff, Benjamin; Cavalli, Loredana; Wagner, William R; Vorp, David A; Tsamis, Alkiviadis; Shinde, Sunita; Zhang, Changqing; Barchowsky, Aaron; Rando, Thomas A; Tuan, Rocky S; Ambrosio, Fabrisia

    2017-06-01

    Age-related declines in skeletal muscle regeneration have been attributed to muscle stem cell (MuSC) dysfunction. Aged MuSCs display a fibrogenic conversion, leading to fibrosis and impaired recovery after injury. Although studies have demonstrated the influence of in vitro substrate characteristics on stem cell fate, whether and how aging of the extracellular matrix (ECM) affects stem cell behavior has not been investigated. Here, we investigated the direct effect of the aged muscle ECM on MuSC lineage specification. Quantification of ECM topology and muscle mechanical properties reveals decreased collagen tortuosity and muscle stiffening with increasing age. Age-related ECM alterations directly disrupt MuSC responses, and MuSCs seeded ex vivo onto decellularized ECM constructs derived from aged muscle display increased expression of fibrogenic markers and decreased myogenicity, compared to MuSCs seeded onto young ECM. This fibrogenic conversion is recapitulated in vitro when MuSCs are seeded directly onto matrices elaborated by aged fibroblasts. When compared to young fibroblasts, fibroblasts isolated from aged muscle display increased nuclear levels of the mechanosensors, Yes-associated protein (YAP)/transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), consistent with exposure to a stiff microenvironment in vivo. Accordingly, preconditioning of young fibroblasts by seeding them onto a substrate engineered to mimic the stiffness of aged muscle increases YAP/TAZ nuclear translocation and promotes secretion of a matrix that favors MuSC fibrogenesis. The findings here suggest that an age-related increase in muscle stiffness drives YAP/TAZ-mediated pathogenic expression of matricellular proteins by fibroblasts, ultimately disrupting MuSC fate. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Favorable prognostic value of SOCS2 and IGF-I in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffner, Michael C; Petridou, Barbara; Peyrat, Jean Phillipe; Révillion, Françoise; Müller-Holzner, Elisabeth; Daxenbichler, Günter; Marth, Christian; Doppler, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins comprise a protein family, which has initially been described as STAT induced inhibitors of the Jak/Stat pathway. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that SOCS proteins are also implicated in cancer. The STAT5 induced IGF-I acts as an endocrine and para/autocrine growth and differentiation factor in mammary gland development. Whereas high levels of circulating IGF-I have been associated with increased cancer risk, the role of autocrine acting IGF-I is less clear. The present study is aimed to elucidate the clinicopathological features associated with SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, CIS and IGF-I expression in breast cancer. We determined the mRNA expression levels of SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, CIS and IGF-I in 89 primary breast cancers by reverse transcriptase PCR. SOCS2 protein expression was further evaluated by immuno-blot and immunohistochemistry. SOCS2 expression inversely correlated with histopathological grade and ER positive tumors exhibited higher SOCS2 levels. Patients with high SOCS2 expression lived significantly longer (108.7 vs. 77.7 months; P = 0.015) and high SOCS2 expression proved to be an independent predictor for good prognosis (HR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.23 – 0.91, P = 0.026). In analogy to SOCS2, high IGF-I expression was an independent predictor for good prognosis in the entire patient cohort. In the subgroup of patients with lymph-node negative disease, high IGF-I was a strong predictor for favorable outcome in terms of overall survival and relapse free survival (HR = 0.075, 95% CI 0.014 – 0.388, P = 0.002). This is the first report on the favorable prognostic value of high SOCS2 expression in primary mammary carcinomas. Furthermore a strong association of high IGF-I expression levels with good prognosis was observed especially in lymph-node negative patients. Our results suggest that high expression of the STAT5 target genes SOCS2 and IGF-I is a feature of differentiated and less malignant tumors

  8. Favorable prognostic value of SOCS2 and IGF-I in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxenbichler Günter

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS proteins comprise a protein family, which has initially been described as STAT induced inhibitors of the Jak/Stat pathway. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that SOCS proteins are also implicated in cancer. The STAT5 induced IGF-I acts as an endocrine and para/autocrine growth and differentiation factor in mammary gland development. Whereas high levels of circulating IGF-I have been associated with increased cancer risk, the role of autocrine acting IGF-I is less clear. The present study is aimed to elucidate the clinicopathological features associated with SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, CIS and IGF-I expression in breast cancer. Methods We determined the mRNA expression levels of SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, CIS and IGF-I in 89 primary breast cancers by reverse transcriptase PCR. SOCS2 protein expression was further evaluated by immuno-blot and immunohistochemistry. Results SOCS2 expression inversely correlated with histopathological grade and ER positive tumors exhibited higher SOCS2 levels. Patients with high SOCS2 expression lived significantly longer (108.7 vs. 77.7 months; P = 0.015 and high SOCS2 expression proved to be an independent predictor for good prognosis (HR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.23 – 0.91, P = 0.026. In analogy to SOCS2, high IGF-I expression was an independent predictor for good prognosis in the entire patient cohort. In the subgroup of patients with lymph-node negative disease, high IGF-I was a strong predictor for favorable outcome in terms of overall survival and relapse free survival (HR = 0.075, 95% CI 0.014 – 0.388, P = 0.002. Conclusion This is the first report on the favorable prognostic value of high SOCS2 expression in primary mammary carcinomas. Furthermore a strong association of high IGF-I expression levels with good prognosis was observed especially in lymph-node negative patients. Our results suggest that high expression of the STAT5 target genes SOCS2 and IGF

  9. Cross-sectional survey: risk-averse French general practitioners are more favorable toward influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massin, Sophie; Ventelou, Bruno; Nebout, Antoine; Verger, Pierre; Pulcini, Céline

    2015-01-29

    We tested the following hypotheses: (i) risk-averse general practitioners (GPs) are more likely to be vaccinated against influenza; (ii) and risk-averse GPs recommend influenza vaccination more often to their patients. In risk-averse GPs, the perceived benefits of the vaccine and/or the perceived risks of the infectious disease might indeed outweigh the perceived risks of the vaccine. In 2010-2012, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of a nationwide French representative sample of 1136 GPs. Multivariate analyses adjusted for four stratification variables (age, gender, urban/suburban/rural practice location and annual patient consultations) and for GPs' characteristics (group/solo practice, and occasional practice of alternative medicine, e.g., homeopathy) looked for associations between their risk attitudes and self-reported vaccination behavior. Individual risk attitudes were expressed as a continuous variable, from 0 (risk-tolerant) to 10 (risk-averse). Overall, 69% of GPs reported that they were very favorable toward vaccination in general. Self-reported vaccination coverage was 78% for 2009/2010 seasonal influenza and 62% for A/H1N1 pandemic influenza. Most GPs (72%) reported recommending the pandemic influenza vaccination to at-risk young adults in 2009, but few than half (42%) to young adults not at risk. In multivariate analyses, risk-averse GPs were more often vaccinated against seasonal (marginal effect=1.3%, P=0.02) and pandemic influenza (marginal effect=1.5%, P=0.02). Risk-averse GPs recommended the pandemic influenza vaccination more often than their more risk-tolerant colleagues to patients without risk factors (marginal effect=1.7%, P=0.01), but not to their at-risk patients and were more favorable toward vaccination in general (marginal effect=1.5%, P=0.04). Individual risk attitudes may influence GPs' practices regarding influenza vaccination, both for themselves and their patients. Our results suggest that risk-averse GPs may perceive the risks

  10. Ethanol Exposure Causes Muscle Degeneration in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C. Coffey

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic myopathies are characterized by neuromusculoskeletal symptoms such as compromised movement and weakness. Although these symptoms have been attributed to neurological damage, EtOH may also target skeletal muscle. EtOH exposure during zebrafish primary muscle development or adulthood results in smaller muscle fibers. However, the effects of EtOH exposure on skeletal muscle during the growth period that follows primary muscle development are not well understood. We determined the effects of EtOH exposure on muscle during this phase of development. Strikingly, muscle fibers at this stage are acutely sensitive to EtOH treatment: EtOH induces muscle degeneration. The severity of EtOH-induced muscle damage varies but muscle becomes more refractory to EtOH as muscle develops. NF-kB induction in muscle indicates that EtOH triggers a pro-inflammatory response. EtOH-induced muscle damage is p53-independent. Uptake of Evans blue dye shows that EtOH treatment causes sarcolemmal instability before muscle fiber detachment. Dystrophin-null sapje mutant zebrafish also exhibit sarcolemmal instability. We tested whether Trichostatin A (TSA, which reduces muscle degeneration in sapje mutants, would affect EtOH-treated zebrafish. We found that TSA and EtOH are a lethal combination. EtOH does, however, exacerbate muscle degeneration in sapje mutants. EtOH also disrupts adhesion of muscle fibers to their extracellular matrix at the myotendinous junction: some detached muscle fibers retain beta-Dystroglycan indicating failure of muscle end attachments. Overexpression of Paxillin, which reduces muscle degeneration in zebrafish deficient for beta-Dystroglycan, is not sufficient to rescue degeneration. Taken together, our results suggest that EtOH exposure has pleiotropic deleterious effects on skeletal muscle.

  11. Knitting and weaving artificial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziz, Ali; Concas, Alessandro; Khaldi, Alexandre; Stålhand, Jonas; Persson, Nils-Krister; Jager, Edwin W H

    2017-01-01

    A need exists for artificial muscles that are silent, soft, and compliant, with performance characteristics similar to those of skeletal muscle, enabling natural interaction of assistive devices with humans. By combining one of humankind's oldest technologies, textile processing, with electroactive polymers, we demonstrate here the feasibility of wearable, soft artificial muscles made by weaving and knitting, with tunable force and strain. These textile actuators were produced from cellulose yarns assembled into fabrics and coated with conducting polymers using a metal-free deposition. To increase the output force, we assembled yarns in parallel by weaving. The force scaled linearly with the number of yarns in the woven fabric. To amplify the strain, we knitted a stretchable fabric, exhibiting a 53-fold increase in strain. In addition, the textile construction added mechanical stability to the actuators. Textile processing permits scalable and rational production of wearable artificial muscles, and enables novel ways to design assistive devices.

  12. Simvastatin effects on skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Stride, Nis; Hey-Mogensen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) content, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity were measured in simvastatin-treated patients (n = 10) and in well-matched control subjects (n = 9)....

  13. Muscle glycogen stores and fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørtenblad, Niels; Westerblad, Håkan; Nielsen, Joachim

    2013-01-01

      Studies performed at the beginning of the last century revealed the importance of carbohydrate as a fuel during exercise, and the importance of muscle glycogen on performance has subsequently been confirmed in numerous studies. However, the link between glycogen depletion and impaired muscle...... function during fatigue is not well understood and a direct cause-and-effect relationship between glycogen and muscle function remains to be established. The use of electron microscopy has revealed that glycogen is not homogeneously distributed in skeletal muscle fibres, but rather localized in distinct...... pools. Furthermore, each glycogen granule has its own metabolic machinery with glycolytic enzymes and regulating proteins. One pool of such glycogenolytic complexes is localized within the myofibrils in close contact with key proteins involved in the excitation-contraction coupling and Ca2+ release from...

  14. Exercise-induced muscle modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerviler, E. de; Willig, A.L.; Jehenson, P.; Duboc, D.; Syrota, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper compares changes in muscle proton T2 after exercise in normal subjects and in patients with muscular glycogenoses. Four patients suffering from muscular glycogenosis and eight normal volunteers were studied. Muscle T2s were measured in forearm muscles at rest and after exercise, with a 0.5-T imager. The exercise was performed with handgrips and was evaluated by P-31 spectroscopy (end-exercise decrease in pH and phosphocreatine) performed with a 2-T magnet. In normal subjects, a relative T2 increase, ranging from 14% to 44%, was observed in the exercised muscles. In the patients, who cannot produce lactate during exercise, weak pH variation occurred, and only a slight T2 increase (7% - 9%) was observed

  15. Differential response of early and late phases of skeletal muscle regeneration to exogenous supply of testosterone and insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazi, I.; Riaz, S.

    2005-01-01

    Effect of insulin and testosterone, separately and in combination on the regeneration of skeletal fibres within intact extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle grafts was studied in mice. It was found that intraperitoneal supply of 2 mg/100 g body weight/day of testosterone accelerated skeletal muscle regeneration within ten days of grafting. The regenerated muscle fibres in such grafts attained significantly higher % recovery of average cross-sectional area (ACSA) than in the controls grafts. Later on, provision of the hormone did not further promote growth of the regenerated muscle fibres. In the insulin-supplemented animals (2 units/100 g body weight/day) the grafts showed hyperplasia and atrophy of the regenerating muscle fibres during the first and the last study periods, respectively. Histological and morphometric analysis of 20-day old EDL muscle regenerates that were supplied with either insulin or testosterone during the first 10-days of transplantation followed by hormone administration in reverse sequence revealed valuable differences. Supply of testosterone and then insulin escalated the process of regeneration and growth so that the ACSA of the regenerated muscle fibres in such grafts turned out to be significantly higher that in the corresponding stages of control, or when only insulin and only testosterone were administered. Reverse sequence of the administration of the hormones exerted negative effects and the regenerated muscle fibres showed various levels of atrophy. These results indicate the importance of identification of particular phases of the process of skeletal muscle regeneration that may be more responsive to anabolic agents. Proper sequence of administration of the hormones to promote the regeneration of skeletal muscle fibres in whole EDL muscle autotransplants is also explained. (author)

  16. Compensatory Hypertrophy of Skeletal Muscle: Contractile Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianuzzo, C. D.; Chen, V.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using rats that demonstrates contractile characteristics of normal and hypertrophied muscle. Compensatory hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle is induced by surgical removal of the synergistic gastrocnemium muscle. Includes methods for determination of contractile properties of normal and hypertrophied muscle and…

  17. Quantitative muscle ultrasonography in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, I.M.P.; Rooij, F.G. van; Overeem, S.; Pillen, S.; Janssen, H.M.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether quantitative muscle ultrasonography can detect structural muscle changes in early-stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Bilateral transverse scans were made of five muscles or muscle groups (sternocleidomastoid, biceps brachii/brachialis, forearm flexor group,

  18. Diabetic muscle infarction: atypical MR appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, P.; Mangwana, S.; Kapoor, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a case of diabetic muscle infarction which had atypical features of hyperintensity of the affected muscle on T1-weighted images. Biopsy was performed which revealed diffuse extensive hemorrhage within the infarcted muscle. We believe increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images should suggest hemorrhage within the infarcted muscle. (orig.)

  19. Electrically controllable artificial PAN muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehpoor, Karim; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Mojarrad, Mehran

    1996-02-01

    Artificial muscles made with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers are traditionally activated in electrolytic solution by changing the pH of the solution by the addition of acids and/or bases. This usually consumes a considerable amount of weak acids or bases. Furthermore, the synthetic muscle (PAN) itself has to be impregnated with an acid or a base and must have an appropriate enclosure or provision for waste collection after actuation. This work introduces a method by which the PAN muscle may be elongated or contracted in an electric field. We believe this is the first time that this has been achieved with PAN fibers as artificial muscles. In this new development the PAN muscle is first put in close contact with one of the two platinum wires (electrodes) immersed in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride. Applying an electric voltage between the two wires changes the local acidity of the solution in the regions close to the platinum wires. This is because of the ionization of sodium chloride molecules and the accumulation of Na+ and Cl- ions at the negative and positive electrode sites, respectively. This ion accumulation, in turn, is accompanied by a sharp increase and decrease of the local acidity in regions close to either of the platinum wires, respectively. An artificial muscle, in close contact with the platinum wire, because of the change in the local acidity will contract or expand depending on the polarity of the electric field. This scheme allows the experimenter to use a fixed flexible container of an electrolytic solution whose local pH can be modulated by an imposed electric field while the produced ions are basically trapped to stay in the neighborhood of a given electrode. This method of artificial muscle activation has several advantages. First, the need to use a large quantity of acidic or alkaline solutions is eliminated. Second, the use of a compact PAN muscular system is facilitated for applications in active musculoskeletal structures. Third, the

  20. Low intensity exercise training improves skeletal muscle regeneration potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana ePietrangelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether 12 days of low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude (598 m a.s.l. improves skeletal muscle regeneration in sedentary adult women.Methods: Satellite cells were obtained from the vastus lateralis skeletal muscle of seven women before and after this exercise training at low altitude. They were investigated for differentiation aspects, superoxide anion production, antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial potential variation after a depolarizing insult, intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, and micro (miRNA expression (miR-1, miR-133, miR-206.Results: In these myogenic populations of adult stem cells, those obtained after exercise training, showed increased Fusion Index and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. This exercise training also generally reduced superoxide anion production in cells (by 12% to 67%, although not in two women, where there was an increase of ~15% along with a reduced superoxide dismutase activity. miRNA expression showed an exercise-induced epigenetic transcription profile that was specific according to the reduced or increased superoxide anion production of the cells. Conclusions: The present study shows that low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude improves the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle in adult women. The differentiation of cells was favored by increased intracellular calcium concentration and increased the fusion index. This low-to-moderate training at low altitude also depicted the epigenetic signature of cells.

  1. Subsurface stratigraphy and uranium--vanadium favorability of the Morrison Formation, Sage Plain Area, southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girdley, W.A.; Flook, J.E.; Harris, R.E.

    1975-08-01

    The four members of the Morrison Formation that are recognizable in the area studied are, in ascending order, the Salt Wash, Recapture, Westwater Canyon, and Brushy Basin. The Salt Wash member has the highest uranium favorability of all the Morrison strata in the area studied. An especially favorable area, in which the Salt Wash interval is thick and contains several thick sandstones, is situated on either side of the Utah-Colorado state line between Monticello, Utah, and Dove Creek, Colorado. The upper Morrison strata (Westwater Canyon and Brushy Basin members) have low uranium favorability. The Westwater Canyon member contains adequate sandstones but lacks known uranium deposits in the project area. The Brushy Basin member, although rated as having low potential, nevertheless does possess some attributes that make it worthy of further attention. The Recapture member does not contain sufficient well-developed sandstones or uranium deposits to merit its being classed as favorable for potential uranium-vanadium resources. (LK)

  2. Are gestational age, birth weight, and birth length indicators of favorable fetal growth conditions? A structural equation analysis of Filipino infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Kenneth A; Noble, Mark D; Adair, Linda S

    2013-07-30

    The fetal origins hypothesis emphasizes the life-long health impacts of prenatal conditions. Birth weight, birth length, and gestational age are indicators of the fetal environment. However, these variables often have missing data and are subject to random and systematic errors caused by delays in measurement, differences in measurement instruments, and human error. With data from the Cebu (Philippines) Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, we use structural equation models, to explore random and systematic errors in these birth outcome measures, to analyze how maternal characteristics relate to birth outcomes, and to take account of missing data. We assess whether birth weight, birth length, and gestational age are influenced by a single latent variable that we call favorable fetal growth conditions (FFGC) and if so, which variable is most closely related to FFGC. We find that a model with FFGC as a latent variable fits as well as a less parsimonious model that has birth weight, birth length, and gestational age as distinct individual variables. We also demonstrate that birth weight is more reliably measured than is gestational age. FFGCs were significantly influenced by taller maternal stature, better nutritional stores indexed by maternal arm fat and muscle area during pregnancy, higher birth order, avoidance of smoking, and maternal age 20-35 years. Effects of maternal characteristics on newborn weight, length, and gestational age were largely indirect, operating through FFGC. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Evaluation of muscle hyperactivity of the grimacing muscles by unilateral tight eyelid closure and stapedius muscle tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Masato; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Ban, Ryokuya; Nagai, Fumio

    2012-10-01

    Muscle hyperactivity of grimacing muscles, including the orbicularis oculi and corrugator supercilii muscles that cause crow's feet and a glabellar frown line with ageing, cannot be accurately evaluated by surface observation. In 71 subjects, this study investigated the extent to which grimacing muscles are innervated by the bilateral motor cortices, whether the corticofacial projection to the grimacing muscles affects the facially innervated stapedius muscle tone by measuring static compliance of the tympanic membrane, and whether unilateral tight eyelid closure with contraction of the grimacing muscles changes static compliance. Unilateral tight eyelid closure and its subsequent change in the contralateral vertical medial eyebrow position revealed that motor neurons of the orbicularis oculi and corrugator supercilii muscles were innervated by the bilateral motor cortices with weak-to-strong contralateral dominance. The orbicularis oculi, corrugator supercilii, and stapedius muscles innervated by the bilateral motor cortices had increased muscle hyperactivity, which lowered the vertical medial eyebrow position and decreased the static compliance of the tympanic membrane more than those innervated by the unilateral motor cortex. Unilateral enhanced tight eyelid closure with contraction of the grimacing muscles in certain subjects ipsilaterally decreased the static compliance with increased contraction of the stapedius muscle, which probably occurs to immobilise the tympanic membrane and protect the inner ear from loud sound. Evaluation of unilateral tight eyelid closure and the subsequent change in the contralateral vertical medial eyebrow position as well as a measurement of the static compliance for the stapedius muscle tone has revealed muscle hyperactivity of grimacing muscles.

  4. Artificial muscle: facts and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Marcus C

    2011-12-19

    Mechanical devices are sought to support insufficient or paralysed striated muscles including the failing heart. Nickel-titanium alloys (nitinol) present the following two properties: (i) super-elasticity, and (ii) the potential to assume different crystal structures depending on temperature and/or stress. Starting from the martensite state nitinol is able to resume the austenite form (state of low potential energy and high entropy) even against an external resistance. This one-way shape change is deployed in self-expanding vascular stents. Heating induces the force generating transformation from martensite to the austenite state while cooling induces relaxation back to the martensite state. This two-way shape change oscillating between the two states may be used in cyclically contracting support devices of silicon-coated nitinol wires. Such a contractile device sutured to the right atrium has been tested in vitro in a bench model and in vivo in sheep. The contraction properties of natural muscles, specifically of the myocardium, and the tight correlation with ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria is briefly outlined. Force development by the nitinol device cannot be smoothly regulated as in natural muscle. Its mechanical impact is forced onto the natural muscle regardless of the actual condition with regard to metabolism and Ca2+-homeostasis. The development of artificial muscle on the basis of nitinol wires is still in its infancy. The nitinol artificial muscle will have to prove its viability in the various clinical settings.

  5. Muscle histochemistry in chronic alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Ferraz

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two chronic acoholic patients were assessed by neurologic examination and muscle biopsy. The patients manifested proximal muscular weakness to a variable extent. One case presented as an acute bout of myopathy, according to the Manual Muscle Test, MMT. The most prominent histologic feature observed was muscle atrophy (95.3% better evidenced through the ATPase stain with the predominance of type II A fibers (71.4%. Lack of the mosaic pattern (type grouping seen in 76% of the cases and an important mitochondrial proliferation with intrasarcoplasmatic lipid accumulation in 63% of the patients. In case of acute presentation of muscle weakness the. pathological substrate is quite different, i.e. presence of myositis mainly interstitial characterized by lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate and several spots of necrosis like Zencker degeneration. Based on histologic criteria, our data suggest that: the main determinant of muscle weakness seen in chronic alcoholic patients is neurogenic in origin (alcoholic polineuropathy; the direct toxic action of ethanol under the skeletal muscle is closely related to the mitochondrial metabolism; the so-called acute alcoholic myopathy has probably viral etiology.

  6. Variability of femoral muscle attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, G N; Brand, D; Freitag, S; Lierse, W; Schneider, E

    1996-09-01

    Analytical and experimental models of the musculoskeletal system often assume single values rather than ranges for anatomical input parameters. The hypothesis of the present study was that anatomical variability significantly influences the results of biomechanical analyses, specifically regarding the moment arms of the various thigh muscles. Insertions and origins of muscles crossing or attaching to the femur were digitized in six specimens. Muscle volumes were measured; muscle attachment area and centroid location were computed. To demonstrate the influence of inter-individual anatomic variability on a mechanical modeling parameter, the corresponding range of muscle moment arms were calculated. Standard deviations, as a percentage of the mean, were about 70% for attachment area and 80% for muscle volume and attachment centroid location. The resulting moment arms of the m. gluteus maximus and m. rectus femoris were especially sensitive to anatomical variations (SD 65%). The results indicate that sensitivity to anatomical variations should be analyzed in any investigation simulating musculoskeletal interactions. To avoid misinterpretations, investigators should consider using several anatomical configurations rather than relying on a mean data set.

  7. Influence of muscle geometry on shortening speed of fibre, aponeurosis and muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, C. J.; Huijing, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of muscle geometry on muscle shortening of the gastrocnemius medialis muscle (GM) of the rat was studied. Using cinematography, GM geometry was studied during isokinetic concentric activity at muscle lengths ranging from 85 to 105% of the optimum muscle length. The shortening speed of

  8. Assessment of muscle fatigue using electromygraphm sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmi, Muhammad Hazimin Bin; Ping, Chew Sue; Ishak, Nur Elliza Binti; Saad, Mohd Alimi Bin Mohd; Mokhtar, Anis Shahida Niza Binti

    2017-08-01

    Muscle fatigue is condition of muscle decline in ability after undergoing any physical activity. Observation of the muscle condition of an athlete during training is crucial to prevent or minimize injury and able to achieve optimum performance in actual competition. The aim of this project is to develop a muscle monitoring system to detect muscle fatigue in swimming athlete. This device is capable to measure muscle stress level of the swimmer and at the same time provide indication of muscle fatigue level to trainer. Electromyography signal was recorded from the muscle movement while practicing the front crawl stroke repetitively. The time domain data was processed to frequency spectra in order to study the effect of muscle fatigue. The results show that the recorded EMG signal is able to sense muscle fatigue.

  9. Favoring the unfavored: Selective electrochemical nitrogen fixation using a reticular chemistry approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hiang Kwee; Koh, Charlynn Sher Lin; Lee, Yih Hong; Liu, Chong; Phang, In Yee; Han, Xuemei; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Ling, Xing Yi

    2018-03-01

    Electrochemical nitrogen-to-ammonia fixation is emerging as a sustainable strategy to tackle the hydrogen- and energy-intensive operations by Haber-Bosch process for ammonia production. However, current electrochemical nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) progress is impeded by overwhelming competition from the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) across all traditional NRR catalysts and the requirement for elevated temperature/pressure. We achieve both excellent NRR selectivity (~90%) and a significant boost to Faradic efficiency by 10 percentage points even at ambient operations by coating a superhydrophobic metal-organic framework (MOF) layer over the NRR electrocatalyst. Our reticular chemistry approach exploits MOF's water-repelling and molecular-concentrating effects to overcome HER-imposed bottlenecks, uncovering the unprecedented electrochemical features of NRR critical for future theoretical studies. By favoring the originally unfavored NRR, we envisage our electrocatalytic design as a starting point for high-performance nitrogen-to-ammonia electroconversion directly from water vapor-abundant air to address increasing global demand of ammonia in (bio)chemical and energy industries.

  10. Blood group antigen A type 3 expression is a favorable prognostic factor in advanced NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, L H; Kuemmel, A; Schliemann, C; Schulze, A; Humberg, J; Mohr, M; Görlich, D; Hartmann, W; Bröckling, S; Marra, A; Hillejan, L; Goletz, S; Karsten, U; Berdel, W E; Spieker, T; Wiewrodt, R

    2016-02-01

    Several blood group-related carbohydrate antigens are prognosis-relevant markers of tumor tissues. A type 3 (repetitive A) is a blood group antigen specific for A1 erythrocytes. Its potential expression in tumor tissues has so far not been examined. We have evaluated its expression in normal lung and in lung cancer using a novel antibody (A69-A/E8). For comparison an anti-A antibody specific to A types 1 and 2 was used, because its expression on lung cancer tissue has been previously reported to be of prognostic relevance. Resected tissue samples of 398 NSCLC patients were analyzed in immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays. Expression of A type 3 was not observed in non-malignant lung tissues. A type 3 was expressed on tumor cells of around half of NSCLC patients of blood group A1 (ptype 1/2 antigen was observed (p=0.562), the expression of A type 3 by tumor cells indicated a highly significant favorable prognosis among advanced NSCLC patients (p=0.011) and in NSCLC patients with lymphatic spread (p=0.014). Univariate prognostic results were confirmed in a Cox proportional hazards model. In this study we present for the first time prognostic data for A type 3 antigen expression in lung cancer patients. Prospective studies should be performed to confirm the prognostic value of A type 3 expression for an improved risk stratification in NSCLC patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Potential climate change favored expansion of a range limited species, Haematostaphis barteri Hook f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Koundouonon Moutouama

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding impact of climate change on range breadth of rare species can improve the ability to anticipate their decline or expension and take appropriate conservation measures. Haematatostaphis barteri is an agroforestry species of the Sudanian centre of endemism in Africa. We investigeted impact of climate change on range of suitable habitats for this species in Benin,using the Maximum Entropy algorithm under R software. Five environmental variables were used with the regional climate model under the new Representation Concentration Pathways (RCP. Moisture Index of the Moist Quarter and Slope variability had the greatest predictive importance for the range of suitable habitats for H. barteri. Its Potential breadth was found to be currently limited to the Atacora Mountain Chain (AMC and covers 0.51% of national territory. Climate change was projected to favor expansion of suitable habitats for H. barteri by 0.12% and 0.05%, respectively for the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. These habitats were however mostly out of the local protected areas network. Climate change would extend range of habitats for H. barteri. Observed protection gaps suggest need for integrating this species into formal in situ, on-farm or ex situ conservation schemes.

  12. Li7(BH)5(+): a new thermodynamically favored star-shaped molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Vega, Juan J; Vásquez-Espinal, Alejandro; Beltran, Maria J; Ruiz, Lina; Islas, Rafael; Tiznado, William

    2015-07-15

    The potential energy surfaces (PESs) of Lin(BH)5(n-6) systems (where n = 5, 6, and 7) were explored using the gradient embedded genetic algorithm (GEGA) program, in order to find their global minima conformations. This search predicts that the lowest-energy isomers of Li6(BH)5 and Li7(BH)5(+) contain a (BH)5(6-) pentagonal fragment, which is isoelectronic and structurally analogous to the prototypical aromatic hydrocarbon anion C5H5(-). Li7(BH)5(+), along with Li7C5(+), Li7Si5(+) and Li7Ge5(+), joins a select group of clusters that adopt a seven-peak star-shape geometry, which is favored by aromaticity in the central five-membered ring, and by the preference of Li atoms for bridging positions. The theoretical analysis of chemical bonding, based on magnetic criteria, supports the notion that electronic delocalization is an important stabilization factor in all these star-shaped clusters.

  13. Social heuristics and social roles: Intuition favors altruism for women but not for men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G; Brescoll, Victoria L; Everett, Jim A C; Capraro, Valerio; Barcelo, Hélène

    2016-04-01

    Are humans intuitively altruistic, or does altruism require self-control? A theory of social heuristics, whereby intuitive responses favor typically successful behaviors, suggests that the answer may depend on who you are. In particular, evidence suggests that women are expected to behave altruistically, and are punished for failing to be altruistic, to a much greater extent than men. Thus, women (but not men) may internalize altruism as their intuitive response. Indeed, a meta-analysis of 13 new experiments and 9 experiments from other groups found that promoting intuition relative to deliberation increased giving in a Dictator Game among women, but not among men (Study 1, N = 4,366). Furthermore, this effect was shown to be moderated by explicit sex role identification (Study 2, N = 1,831): the more women described themselves using traditionally masculine attributes (e.g., dominance, independence) relative to traditionally feminine attributes (e.g., warmth, tenderness), the more deliberation reduced their altruism. Our findings shed light on the connection between gender and altruism, and highlight the importance of social heuristics in human prosociality. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Hydrogen Storage Capacity of Tetrahydrofuran and Tetra-N-Butylammonium Bromide Hydrates Under Favorable Thermodynamic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T. Weissman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of employing binary hydrates as a medium for H2 storage. Two reagents, tetrahydrofuran (THF and tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB, which had been reported previously to have potential to form binary hydrates with H2 under favorable conditions (i.e., low pressures and high temperatures, were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy. A scale-up facility was employed to quantify the hydrogen storage capacity of THF binary hydrate. Gas chromatography (GC and pressure drop analyses indicated that the weight percentages of H2 in hydrate were less than 0.1%. The major conclusions of this investigation were: (1 H2 can be stored in binary hydrates at relatively modest pressures and temperatures which are probably feasible for transportation applications; and (2 the storage capacity of H2 in binary hydrate formed from aqueous solutions of THF over a concentration range extending from 2.78 to 8.34 mol % and at temperatures above 263 K and pressures below 11 MPa was <0.1 wt %.

  15. Seasonal resource conditions favor a summertime increase in North Pacific diatom-diazotroph associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Christopher L; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Karl, David M; Inomura, Keisuke; Follows, Michael J

    2018-02-15

    In the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG), an annual pulse of sinking organic carbon is observed at 4000 m between July and August, driven by large diatoms found in association with nitrogen fixing, heterocystous, cyanobacteria: Diatom-Diazotroph Associations (DDAs). Here we ask what drives the bloom of DDAs and present a simplified trait-based model of subtropical phototroph populations driven by observed, monthly averaged, environmental characteristics. The ratio of resource supply rates favors nitrogen fixation year round. The relative fitness of DDA traits is most competitive in early summer when the mixed layer is shallow, solar irradiance is high, and phosphorus and iron are relatively abundant. Later in the season, as light intensity drops and phosphorus is depleted, the traits of small unicellular diazotrophs become more competitive. The competitive transition happens in August, at the time when the DDA export event occurs. This seasonal dynamic is maintained when embedded in a more complex, global-scale, ecological model, and provides predictions for the extent of the North Pacific DDA bloom. The model provides a parsimonious and testable hypothesis for the stimulation of DDA blooms.

  16. Preliminary study of favorability for uranium resources in Juab County, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leedom, S.H.; Mitchell, T.P.

    1978-02-01

    The best potential for large, low-grade uranium deposits in Juab County is in the hydrothermally altered vitric tuffs of Pliocene age. The lateral extent of the altered tuffs may be determined by subsurface studies around the perimeter of the volcanic centers in the Thomas Range and the Honeycomb Hills. Because the ring-fracture zone associated with collapse of the Thomas caldera was a major control for hydrothermal uranium deposits, delineation of the northern and eastern positions of the ring-fracture zone is critical in defining favorable areas for uranium deposits. A small, medium-grade ore deposit in tuffaceous sand of Pliocene age at the Yellow Chief mine in Dugway Dell is unique in origin, and the probability of discovering another deposit of this type is low. A deposit of this type may be present under alluvial cover in the northwestern Drum Mountains along the southern extension of the ring-fracture zone of the Thomas caldera. Festoonlike iron oxide structures and uranium deposition within permeable sandstone horizons indicate that the Yellow Chief deposit was formed by recent ground-water circulation. Granitic intrusive rocks in the Deep Creek Range and in Desert Mountain contain isolated epigenetic vein-type deposits. These rocks could be a source of arkosic sediments buried in adjacent valleys. The Pleistocene lacustrine sediments and playa lake brines may contain concentrations of uranium leached from uranium-rich rocks

  17. Balanced bilinguals favor lexical processing in their opaque language and conversion system in their shallow language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetler, Karin A; de León Rodríguez, Diego; Laganaro, Marina; Müri, René; Nyffeler, Thomas; Spierer, Lucas; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2015-11-01

    Referred to as orthographic depth, the degree of consistency of grapheme/phoneme correspondences varies across languages from high in shallow orthographies to low in deep orthographies. The present study investigates the impact of orthographic depth on reading route by analyzing evoked potentials to words in a deep (French) and shallow (German) language presented to highly proficient bilinguals. ERP analyses to German and French words revealed significant topographic modulations 240-280 ms post-stimulus onset, indicative of distinct brain networks engaged in reading over this time window. Source estimations revealed that these effects stemmed from modulations of left insular, inferior frontal and dorsolateral regions (German>French) previously associated to phonological processing. Our results show that reading in a shallow language was associated to a stronger engagement of phonological pathways than reading in a deep language. Thus, the lexical pathways favored in word reading are reinforced by phonological networks more strongly in the shallow than deep orthography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evolution of learning in fluctuating environments: when selection favors both social and exploratory individual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Elhanan; Feldman, Marcus W; Aoki, Kenichi

    2008-03-01

    Cumulative cultural change requires organisms that are capable of both exploratory individual learning and faithful social learning. In our model, an organism's phenotype is initially determined innately (by its genotypic value) or by social learning (copying a phenotype from the parental generation), and then may or may not be modified by individual learning (exploration around the initial phenotype). The environment alternates periodically between two states, each defined as a certain range of phenotypes that can survive. These states may overlap, in which case the same phenotype can survive in both states, or they may not. We find that a joint social and exploratory individual learning strategy-the strategy that supports cumulative culture-is likely to spread when the environmental states do not overlap. In particular, when the environmental states are contiguous and mutation is allowed among the genotypic values, this strategy will spread in either moderately or highly stable environments, depending on the exact nature of the individual learning applied. On the other hand, natural selection often favors a social learning strategy without exploration when the environmental states overlap. We find only partial support for the "consensus" view, which holds that individual learning, social learning, and innate determination of behavior will evolve at short, intermediate, and long environmental periodicities, respectively.

  19. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for small lung tumors with a moderate dose. Favorable results and low toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncker-Rohr, V.; Nestle, U. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg (Germany); Momm, F. [Ortenau Klinikum Offenburg (Germany)] [and others

    2013-01-15

    Background: Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SBRT, SABR) is being increasingly applied because of its high local efficacy, e.g., for small lung tumors. However, the optimum dosage is still under discussion. Here, we report data on 45 lung lesions [non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or metastases] in 39 patients treated between 2009 and 2010 by SABR. Patients and methods: SABR was performed with total doses of 35 Gy (5 fractions) or 37.5 Gy (3 fractions) prescribed to the 60% isodose line encompassing the planning target volume. Three-monthly follow-up CT scans were supplemented by FDG-PET/CT if clinically indicated. Results: The median follow-up was 17 months. Local progression-free survival rates were 90.5% (all patients), 95.0% (NSCLC), and 81.8% (metastases) at 1 year. At 2 years, the respective local progression-free survival rates were 80.5%, 95.0%, and 59.7%. Overall survival rates were 71.1% (all patients), 65.4% (NSCLC), and 83.3% (metastases) at 1 year. Overall survival rates at 2 years were 52.7%, 45.9%, and 66.7%, respectively. Acute side effects were mild. Conclusion: With the moderate dose schedule used, well-tolerated SABR led to favorable local tumor control as in other published series. Standardization in reporting the dose prescription for SABR is needed to allow comparison of different series in order to determine optimum dosage. (orig.)

  20. The Norwood procedure: in favor of the RV-PA conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, David J

    2013-01-01

    Evolution of the Norwood procedure has culminated in there currently being three treatment strategies available for initial management: the 'classical' Norwood (utilizing a Blalock-Taussig shunt), the Norwood with right-ventricle to pulmonary artery (RV-PA) conduit, and the 'hybrid' Norwood procedure utilizing bilateral pulmonary artery banding and ductal stenting. Each variant has its potential advantages and disadvantages, and this paper looks to examine the evidence in favor of each strategy, with emphasis on the supportive data for the RV-PA conduit. The 'classical' procedure has the benefit of the greatest accumulated surgical experience and avoids any incision into the ventricle. However, the diastolic run-off of the Blalock-Taussig shunt can cause hemodynamic instability and unpredictable coronary steal phenomenon. The RV-PA conduit has the advantage of maintaining diastolic pressure with a more stable postoperative course, but at the cost of a ventriculotomy that may have detrimental long-term sequelae. The 'hybrid' procedure has the advantage of avoiding cardiopulmonary bypass, but does not always secure coronary blood flow and has a high inter-stage morbidity and reintervention rate. The evidence shows that each technique may have its place in future management, and that treatment algorithms could emerge that direct the choice of procedure for specific patient groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. FLARE STARS—A FAVORABLE OBJECT FOR STUDYING MECHANISMS OF NONTHERMAL ASTROPHYSICAL PHENOMENA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oks, E. [Physics Department, 206 Allison Lab., Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Gershberg, R. E. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Nauchny, Bakhchisaray region, Crimea, 298409 (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-01

    We present a spectroscopic method for diagnosing a low-frequency electrostatic plasma turbulence (LEPT) in plasmas of flare stars. This method had been previously developed by one of us and successfully applied to diagnosing the LEPT in solar flares. In distinction to our previous applications of the method, here we use the latest advances in the theory of the Stark broadening of hydrogen spectral lines. By analyzing observed emission Balmer lines, we show that it is very likely that the LEPT was developed in several flares of AD Leo, as well as in one flare of EV Lac. We found the LEPT (though of different field strengths) both in the explosive/impulsive phase and at the phase of the maximum, as well as at the gradual phase of the stellar flares. While for solar flares our method allows diagnosing the LEPT only in the most powerful flares, for the flare stars it seems that the method allows revealing the LEPT practically in every flare. It should be important to obtain new and better spectrograms of stellar flares, allowing their analysis by the method outlined in the present paper. This can be the most favorable way to the detailed understanding of the nature of nonthermal astrophysical phenomena.

  2. Chlorophyll a is a favorable substrate for Chlamydomonas Mg-dechelatase encoded by STAY-GREEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Kaori; Shimoda, Yousuke; Tanaka, Ayumi; Ito, Hisashi

    2016-12-01

    Mg removal from chlorophyll by Mg-dechelatase is the first step of chlorophyll degradation. Recent studies showed that in Arabidopsis, Stay Green (SGR) encodes Mg-dechelatase. Though the Escherichia coli expression system is advantageous for investigating the properties of Mg-dechelatase, Arabidopsis Mg-dechelatase is not successfully expressed in E. coli. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii SGR (CrSGR) has a long, hydrophilic tail, suggesting that active CrSGR can be expressed in E. coli. After the incubation of chlorophyll a with CrSGR expressed in E. coli, pheophytin a accumulated, indicating that active CrSGR was expressed in E. coli. Substrate specificity of CrSGR against chlorophyll b and an intermediate molecule of the chlorophyll b degradation pathway was examined. CrSGR exhibited no activity against chlorophyll b and low activity against 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a, consistent with the fact that chlorophyll b is degraded only after conversion to chlorophyll a. CrSGR exhibited low activity against divinyl chlorophyll a and chlorophyll a', and no activity against chlorophyllide a, protochlorophyll a, chlorophyll c 2 , and Zn-chlorophyll a. These observations indicate that chlorophyll a is the most favorable substrate for CrSGR. When CrSGR was expressed in Arabidopsis cells, the chlorophyll content decreased, further confirming that SGR has Mg-dechelating activity in chloroplasts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Renal capsule for augmentation cystoplasty in canine model: a favorable biomaterial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Salehipour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate effectiveness of canine renal capsule for augmentation cystoplasty. Materials and Methods: Ten adult dogs participated in this study. After induction of anesthesia each animal underwent bed side urodynamic study, bladder capacity and bladder pressure was recorded. Then via mid line incision abdominal cavity was entered, right kidney was identified and its capsule was dissected. Bladder augmentation was done by anastomosing the renal capsule to the bladder. After 6 months bed side urodynamic study was performed again and changes in bladder volume and pressure were recorded. Then the animals were sacrificed and the augmented bladders were sent for histopathology evaluation. Results: Mean maximum anatomic bladder capacity before cystoplasty was 334.00±11.40cc which increased to 488.00±14.83cc post-operatively (p=0.039. Mean anatomic bladder pressure before cystoplasty was 19.00±1.58cmH2O which decreased to 12.60±1.14cmH2O post-operatively (p=0.039. Histopathology evaluation revealed epithelialization of the renal capsule with urothelium without evidence of fibrosis, collagen deposits or contracture. Conclusions: Our data shows that renal capsule is a favorable biomaterial for bladder augmentation in a canine model.

  4. Luminal Cells Are Favored as the Cell of Origin for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu A. Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The identification of cell types of origin for cancer has important implications for tumor stratification and personalized treatment. For prostate cancer, the cell of origin has been intensively studied, but it has remained unclear whether basal or luminal epithelial cells, or both, represent cells of origin under physiological conditions in vivo. Here, we use a novel lineage-tracing strategy to assess the cell of origin in a diverse range of mouse models, including Nkx3.1+/−; Pten+/−, Pten+/−, Hi-Myc, and TRAMP mice, as well as a hormonal carcinogenesis model. Our results show that luminal cells are consistently the observed cell of origin for each model in situ; however, explanted basal cells from these mice can generate tumors in grafts. Consequently, we propose that luminal cells are favored as cells of origin in many contexts, whereas basal cells only give rise to tumors after differentiation into luminal cells.

  5. Arguments in Favor of Moving to a Sustainable Business Model in the Apiary Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panța Nancy Diana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s society faces major challenges in meeting future global food demands and solving biodiversity loss, and it quickly needs to find ways in addressing these issues. The places to look for solutions come from the economic sectors that employ the most powerful pressure on these issues such as agriculture. Apiculture, as a branch of agriculture is being more and more recognized as sustaining human life and contributing to sustainability. However, the sector records a progressive decline of honey bees. Therefore, a rapid restructuring needs to take place in agricultural markets, in general, as well as in apiary agribusinesses. Although important, technological progress is insufficient in providing the necessary changes to achieve long-term economic, social and environmental sustainability, which should be considered both within and between generations. Consequently, sustainable business models encourage sustainable development through a triple bottom line approach and provide an analytical tool for firms into assessing the different aspects that are combined in order to create value. Since literature has paid little attention to the sustainable development in the apiary agribusiness, the present paper aims to link the two using a business model perspective and bring arguments in favor of moving to a sustainable business model.

  6. Natural History of Untreated Prostate Specific Antigen Radiorecurrent Prostate Cancer in Men with Favorable Prognostic Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil E. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Life expectancy data could identify men with favorable post-radiation prostate-specific antigen (PSA failure kinetics unlikely to require androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. Materials and Methods. Of 206 men with unfavorable-risk prostate cancer in a randomized trial of radiation versus radiation and ADT, 53 experienced a PSA failure and were followed without salvage ADT. Comorbidity, age and established prognostic factors were assessed for relationship to death using Cox regression analyses. Results. The median age at failure, interval to PSA failure, and PSA doubling time were 76.6 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 71.8–79.3, 49.1 months (IQR: 37.7–87.4, and 25 months (IQR: 13.1–42.8, respectively. After a median follow up of 4.0 years following PSA failure, 45% of men had died, none from prostate cancer and no one had developed metastases. Both increasing age at PSA failure (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.03–1.25; P=0.008 and the presence of moderate to severe comorbidity (HR: 12.5; 95% CI: 3.81–41.0; P2 years following post-radiation PSA failure appear to be good candidates for observation without ADT intervention.

  7. Anticipated detection of favorable periods for wind energy production by means of information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Eugenio; Saravia, Gonzalo; Kobe, Sigismund; Schumann, Rolf; Schuster, Rolf

    Managing the electric power produced by different sources requires mixing the different response times they present. Thus, for instance, coal burning presents large time lags until operational conditions are reached while hydroelectric generation can react in a matter of some seconds or few minutes to reach the desired productivity. Wind energy production (WEP) can be instantaneously fed to the network to save fuels with low thermal inertia (gas burning for instance), but this source presents sudden variations within few hours. We report here for the first time a method based on information theory to handle WEP. This method has been successful in detecting dynamical changes in magnetic transitions and variations of stock markets. An algorithm called wlzip based on information recognition is used to recognize the information content of a time series. We make use of publically available energy data in Germany to simulate real applications. After a calibration process the system can recognize directly on the WEP data the onset of favorable periods of a desired strength. Optimization can lead to a few hours of anticipation which is enough to control the mixture of WEP with other energy sources, thus saving fuels.

  8. Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa-favored B decays to a scalar meson and a D meson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Zhi-Tian; Li, Ying [Yantai University, Department of Physics, Yantai (China); Liu, Xin [Jiangsu Normal University, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Xuzhou (China)

    2017-12-15

    In this work, we attempt to study the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa-favored B → anti DS (''S'' denoting the scalar meson) decays within the perturbative QCD approach at the leading order and the leading power. Although the light scalar mesons are widely perceived as primarily the four-quark bound states, in practice it is hard for us to make quantitative predictions based on the four-quark picture for light scalars. Hence, we calculate the decays with light scalars in the two-quark model. For the decays with scalar mesons above 1 GeV, we have explored two possible scenarios, depending on whether the light scalars are treated as the lowest lying q anti q states or four-quark particles. In total, we calculated the branching fractions of 72 decay modes, and most of them are in the range 10{sup -4}-10{sup -7}, which are measurable in the on-going LHCb experiment and the forthcoming Belle-II experiment. Moreover, since in the standard model these decays occur only through tree operators and have no CP asymmetries, any deviation will be a signal of new physics beyond the standard model. Despite large uncertainties induced by nonperturbative parameters and corrections of high order and high power, our results and discussions will be useful for the on-going LHCb and the forthcoming Belle-II experiments. (orig.)

  9. Erythropoietin receptor in human skeletal muscle and the effects of acute and long-term injections with recombinant human erythropoietin on the skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Hellsten, Ylva; Jensen, Mie B. F.

    2008-01-01

    The presence and potential physiological role of the erythropoietin receptor (Epo-R) were examined in human skeletal muscle. In this study we demonstrate that Epo-R is present in the endothelium, smooth muscle cells, and in fractions of the sarcolemma of skeletal muscle fibers. To study...... the potential effects of Epo in human skeletal muscle, two separate studies were conducted: one to study the acute effects of a single Epo injection on skeletal muscle gene expression and plasma hormones and another to study the effects of long-term (14 wk) Epo treatment on skeletal muscle structure. Subjects...... was studied in subjects (n = 8) who received long-term Epo administration, and muscle biopsies were obtained before and after. Epo treatment did not alter mean fiber area (0.84 +/- 0.2 vs. 0.72 +/- 0.3 mm(2)), capillaries per fiber (4.3 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.4 +/- 1.3), or number of proliferating endothelial cells...

  10. INVITED REVIEW: Inhibitors of myostatin as methods of enhancing muscle growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P R; Lee, K

    2016-08-01

    With the increasing demand for affordable, high-quality meat, livestock and poultry producers must continually find ways to maximize muscle growth in their animals without compromising palatability of the meat products. Muscle mass relies on myoblast proliferation during prenatal or prehatch stages and fiber hypertrophy through protein synthesis and nuclei donation by satellite cells after birth or hatch. Therefore, understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of myogenesis and muscle development is of great interest. Myostatin is a well-known negative regulator of muscle growth and development that inhibits proliferation and differentiation in myogenic cells as well as protein synthesis in existing muscle fibers. In this review, various inhibitors of myostatin activity or signaling are examined that may be used in animal agriculture for enhancing muscle growth. Myostatin inhibitors are relevant as potential therapies for muscle-wasting diseases and muscle weakness in humans and animals. Currently, there are no commercial myostatin inhibitors for agriculture or biomedical purposes because the safest and most effective option has yet to be identified. Further investigation of myostatin inhibitors and administration strategies may revolutionize animal production and the medical field.

  11. Enterprise Mac Administrator's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Edge, Charles; Hunter, Beau

    2009-01-01

    Charles Edge, Zack Smith, and Beau Hunter provide detailed explanations of the technology required for large-scale Mac OS X deployments and show you how to integrate it with other operating systems and applications. Enterprise Mac Administrator's Guide addresses the growing size and spread of Mac OS X deployments in corporations and institutions worldwide. In some cases, this is due to the growth of traditional Mac environments, but for the most part it has to do with "switcher" campaigns, where Windows and/or Linux environments are migrating to Mac OS X. However, there is a steep cu

  12. The adequate rocuronium dose required for complete block of the adductor muscles of the thigh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, M; Kawano, K; Yamamoto, T

    2018-03-01

    Rocuronium can prevent the obturator jerk during transurethral resection of bladder tumors. We investigated the adequate rocuronium dose required for complete block of the thigh adductor muscles, and its correlation with individual responses of the adductor pollicis muscle to rocuronium. Eleven patients scheduled for transurethral resection of bladder tumors under general anesthesia were investigated. After general anesthesia induction, neuromuscular monitoring of the adductor pollicis muscle and ultrasonography-guided stimulation of the obturator nerve was commenced. Rocuronium, 0.15 mg/kg, was repeatedly administered intravenously. The adequate rocuronium dose required for complete block of the thigh muscles, defined as the cumulative dose of rocuronium administered until that time, and its correlation with the first twitch response of the adductor pollicis muscle on train-of-four stimulation after initial rocuronium administration was analyzed. The rocuronium dose found adequate for complete block of the thigh muscles was 0.30 mg/kg in seven patients and 0.45 mg/kg in the remaining four patients, which did not correlate with the first twitch response. At the time of complete block of the thigh muscles, the neuromuscular blockade level of the adductor pollicis muscle varied greatly, although the level was never more profound than a post-tetanic count of 1. Although the response of the adductor pollicis muscle to rocuronium cannot be used to determine the adequate rocuronium dose required for complete block of the thigh muscles, intense blockade, with maintenance of post-tetanic count at ≤ 1 in the adductor pollicis muscle is essential to prevent the obturator jerk. © 2017 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Diseases and disorders of muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, A M; Young, R B

    1993-01-01

    Muscle may suffer from a number of diseases or disorders, some being fatal to humans and animals. Their management or treatment depends on correct diagnosis. Although no single method may be used to identify all diseases, recognition depends on the following diagnostic procedures: (1) history and clinical examination, (2) blood biochemistry, (3) electromyography, (4) muscle biopsy, (5) nuclear magnetic resonance, (6) measurement of muscle cross-sectional area, (7) tests of muscle function, (8) provocation tests, and (9) studies on protein turnover. One or all of these procedures may prove helpful in diagnosis, but even then identification of the disorder may not be possible. Nevertheless, each of these procedures can provide useful information. Among the most common diseases in muscle are the muscular dystrophies, in which the newly identified muscle protein dystrophin is either absent or present at less than normal amounts in both Duchenne and Becker's muscular dystrophy. Although the identification of dystrophin represents a major breakthrough, treatment has not progressed to the experimental stage. Other major diseases of muscle include the inflammatory myopathies and neuropathies. Atrophy and hypertrophy of muscle and the relationship of aging, exercise, and fatigue all add to our understanding of the behavior of normal and abnormal muscle. Some other interesting related diseases and disorders of muscle include myasthenia gravis, muscular dysgenesis, and myclonus. Disorders of energy metabolism include those caused by abnormal glycolysis (Von Gierke's, Pompe's, Cori-Forbes, Andersen's, McArdle's, Hers', and Tauri's diseases) and by the acquired diseases of glycolysis (disorders of mitochondrial oxidation). Still other diseases associated with abnormal energy metabolism include lipid-related disorders (carnitine and carnitine palmitoyl-transferase deficiencies) and myotonic syndromes (myotonia congenita, paramyotonia congenita, hypokalemic and hyperkalemic

  14. Heterogeneity among muscle precursor cells in adult skeletal muscles with differing regenerative capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlath, G K; Thaloor, D; Rando, T A; Cheong, M; English, A W; Zheng, B

    1998-08-01

    Skeletal muscle has a remarkable capacity to regenerate after injury, although studies of muscle regeneration have heretofore been limited almost exclusively to limb musculature. Muscle precursor cells in skeletal muscle are responsible for the repair of damaged muscle. Heterogeneity exists in the growth and differentiation properties of muscle precursor cell (myoblast) populations throughout limb development but whether the muscle precursor cells differ among adult skeletal muscles is unknown. Such heterogeneity among myoblasts in the adult may give rise to skeletal muscles with different regenerative capacities. Here we compare the regenerative response of a masticatory muscle, the masseter, to that of limb muscles. After exogenous trauma (freeze or crush injuries), masseter muscle regenerated much less effectively than limb muscle. In limb muscle, normal architecture was restored 12 days after injury, whereas in masseter muscle, minimal regeneration occurred during the same time period. Indeed, at late time points, masseter muscles exhibited increased fibrous connective tissue in the region of damage, evidence of ineffective muscle regeneration. Similarly, in response to endogenous muscle injury due to a muscular dystrophy, widespread evidence of impaired regeneration was present in masseter muscle but not in limb muscle. To explore the cellular basis of these different regenerative capacities, we analyzed the myoblast populations of limb and masseter muscles both in vivo and in vitro. From in vivo analyses, the number of myoblasts in regenerating muscle was less in masseter compared with limb muscle. Assessment of population growth in vitro indicated that masseter myoblasts grow more slowly than limb myoblasts under identical conditions. We conclude that the impaired regeneration in masseter muscles is due to differences in the intrinsic myoblast populations compared to limb muscles.

  15. Pioglitazone enhances mitochondrial biogenesis and ribosomal protein biosynthesis in skeletal muscle in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibe; Glintborg, Dorte; Knudsen, Steen

    2008-01-01

    indicate that pioglitazone therapy restores insulin sensitivity, in part, by a coordinated upregulation of genes involved in mitochondrial OXPHOS and ribosomal protein biosynthesis in muscle in PCOS. These transcriptional effects of pioglitazone may contribute to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes...... by changes in the transcriptional profile of muscle favoring insulin sensitivity. Using Affymetrix microarrays, we examined the effect of pioglitazone (30 mg/day for 16 weeks) on gene expression in skeletal muscle of 10 obese women with PCOS metabolically characterized by a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp...... Annotator and Pathway Profiler (GenMAPP 2.1) and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA 2.0.1) revealed a significant upregulation of genes representing mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), ribosomal proteins, mRNA processing reactome, translation factors, and proteasome degradation in PCOS after...

  16. Nuclear morphometry and prognosis in favorable histology Wilms' tumor: A prospective reevaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslow, N E; Partin, A W; Lee, B R; Guthrie, K A; Beckwith, J B; Green, D M

    1999-07-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the ability of a previously published nuclear morphometry discriminant function to predict disease-free survival in patients with Wilms' tumor. We identified 218 patients with stage I-IV Wilms' tumor of favorable histology who were entered onto the National Wilms' Tumor Study (NWTS) between January 1, 1990 and April 15, 1994. The nuclear morphometry score was calculated for each patient as follows: MV(f) = (0.02 x AGE) + (1.17 x SNRF) + (90.6 x LEFD) - 94, with AGE denoting age at diagnosis in months, SNRF the skewness of the nuclear roundness factor, and LEFD the lowest value of nuclear ellipticity as measured by the feret diameter method. Relative risks of relapse were estimated for the total score and for each of its components. Sensitivity and specificity were determined for the criterion of "MV(f) is greater than -0.35" as a predictor of relapse. By contrast with previously published results, neither the SNRF nor the LEFD made any contribution to the prediction of disease-free survival. Sensitivity and specificity of the criterion of "MV(f) is greater than -0.35" were 71% and 56%, respectively. Re-evaluation of a published nuclear morphometry score showed that it did not predict disease-free survival in patients with Wilms' tumor. The earlier study very likely overestimated the predictive power of nuclear morphometry by using the same data set both to develop the score and to evaluate its properties. Because of the huge number of combinations of nuclear morphometry measurements that may enter into the multivariate discriminant function, use of appropriate statistical methods is essential to estimate accurately the sensitivity and specificity.

  17. Resection of ictal high-frequency oscillations leads to favorable surgical outcome in pediatric epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hisako; Greiner, Hansel M.; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Holland-Bouley, Katherine D.; Seo, Joo Hee; Arthur, Todd; Mangano, Francesco T.; Leach, James L.; Rose, Douglas F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Purpose Intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) is performed as part of an epilepsy surgery evaluation when noninvasive tests are incongruent or the putative seizure-onset zone is near eloquent cortex. Determining the seizure-onset zone using intracranial EEG has been conventionally based on identification of specific ictal patterns with visual inspection. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs, >80 Hz) have been recognized recently as highly correlated with the epileptogenic zone. However, HFOs can be difficult to detect because of their low amplitude. Therefore, the prevalence of ictal HFOs and their role in localization of epileptogenic zone on intracranial EEG are unknown. Methods We identified 48 patients who underwent surgical treatment after the surgical evaluation with intracranial EEG, and 44 patients met criteria for this retrospective study. Results were not used in surgical decision making. Intracranial EEG recordings were collected with a sampling rate of 2,000 Hz. Recordings were first inspected visually to determine ictal onset and then analyzed further with time-frequency analysis. Forty-one (93%) of 44 patients had ictal HFOs determined with time-frequency analysis of intracranial EEG. Key Findings Twenty-two (54%) of the 41 patients with ictal HFOs had complete resection of HFO regions, regardless of frequency bands. Complete resection of HFOs (n = 22) resulted in a seizure-free outcome in 18 (82%) of 22 patients, significantly higher than the seizure-free outcome with incomplete HFO resection (4/19, 21%). Significance Our study shows that ictal HFOs are commonly found with intracranial EEG in our population largely of children with cortical dysplasia, and have localizing value. The use of ictal HFOs may add more promising information compared to interictal HFOs because of the evidence of ictal propagation and followed by clinical aspect of seizures. Complete resection of HFOs is a favorable prognostic indicator for surgical outcome. PMID

  18. Starch and starch hydrolysates are favorable carbon sources for bifidobacteria in the human gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Songling; Ren, Fazheng; Zhao, Liang; Jiang, Lu; Hao, Yanling; Jin, Junhua; Zhang, Ming; Guo, Huiyuan; Lei, Xingen; Sun, Erna; Liu, Hongna

    2015-03-01

    Bifidobacteria are key commensals in human gut, and their abundance is associated with the health of their hosts. Although they are dominant in infant gut, their number becomes lower in adult gut. The changes of the diet are considered to be main reason for this difference. Large amounts of whole-genomic sequence data of bifidobacteria make it possible to elucidate the genetic interpretation of their adaptation to the nutrient environment. Among the nutrients in human gut, starch is a highly fermentable substrate and can exert beneficial effects by increasing bifidobacteria and/or being fermented to short chain fatty acids. In order to determine the potential substrate preference of bifidobacteria, we compared the glycoside hydrolase (GH) profiles of a pooled-bifidobacterial genome (PBG) with a representative microbiome (RM) of the human gut. In bifidobacterial genomes, only 15% of GHs contained signal peptides, suggesting their weakness in utilization of complex carbohydrate, such as plant cell wall polysaccharides. However, compared with other intestinal bacteria, bifidobacteiral genomes encoded more GH genes for degrading starch and starch hydrolysates, indicating that they have genetic advantages in utilizing these substrates. Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum BBMN68 isolated from centenarian's faeces was used as a model strain to further investigate the carbohydrate utilization. The pathway for degrading starch and starch hydrolysates was the only complete pathway for complex carbohydrates in human gut. It is noteworthy that all of the GH genes for degrading starch and starch hydrolysates in the BBMN68 genome were conserved in all studied bifidobacterial strains. The in silico analyses of BBMN68 were further confirmed by growth experiments, proteomic and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) analyses. Our results demonstrated that starch and starch hydrolysates were the most universal and favorable carbon sources for bifidobacteria. The low amount of these

  19. α-Amylase in Vaginal Fluid: Association With Conditions Favorable to Dominance of Lactobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasioudis, Dimitrios; Beghini, Joziani; Bongiovanni, Ann Marie; Giraldo, Paulo C; Linhares, Iara M; Witkin, Steven S

    2015-11-01

    Vaginal glycogen is degraded by host α-amylase and then converted to lactic acid by Lactobacilli. This maintains the vaginal pH at ≤4.5 and prevents growth of other bacteria. Therefore, host α-amylase activity may promote dominance of Lactobacilli. We evaluated whether the α-amylase level in vaginal fluid is altered in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and whether its concentration was associated with levels of lactic acid isomers and host mediators. Vaginal fluid was obtained from 43 women with BV, 50 women with VVC, and 62 women with no vulvovaginal disorders. Vaginal fluid concentrations of α-amylase, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), hyaluronan, hyaluronidase-1, β-defensin, and elafin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Vaginal concentrations of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 8, and d- and l-lactic acid levels in these patients were previously reported. The median vaginal fluid α-amylase level was 1.83 mU/mL in control women, 1.45 mU/mL in women with VVC, and 1.07 mU/mL in women with BV. Vaginal levels of α-amylase were correlated with d-lactic acid (P = .003) but not with l-lactic acid (P > .05) and with SLPI (P vaginal lumen by hyaluronidase-1 and MMP-8 may increase glycogen availability and promote α-amylase activity. The subsequent enhanced availability of glycogen breakdown products would favor proliferation of Lactobacilli, the primary producers of d-lactic acid in the vagina. Concomitant production of NGAL and SLPI would retard growth of BV-related bacteria. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Favorable effects of berry consumption on platelet function, blood pressure, and HDL cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlund, Iris; Koli, Raika; Alfthan, Georg; Marniemi, Jukka; Puukka, Pauli; Mustonen, Pirjo; Mattila, Pirjo; Jula, Antti

    2008-02-01

    Berries are a particularly rich source of polyphenols. They also contain other bioactive substances, such as vitamin C. Previous studies indicated that the consumption of polyphenol-rich foods (eg, cocoa, tea, and red wine) may induce beneficial changes in pathways related to cardiovascular health. Whether the consumption of berries has similar effects is unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of berry consumption on hemostatic function, serum lipids, and blood pressure (BP). Middle-aged unmedicated subjects (n = 72) with cardiovascular risk factors consumed moderate amounts of berry or control products for 8 wk in a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention trial. Berry consumption inhibited platelet function as measured with a platelet function analyzer (using collagen and ADP as platelet activator) [changes: 11% and -1.4% in the berry and control groups, respectively; P = 0.018, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)]. Plasma biomarkers of platelet activation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis did not change during the intervention. Serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations increased significantly more (P = 0.006, ANCOVA) in the berry than in the control group (5.2% and 0.6%, respectively), but total cholesterol and triacylglycerol remained unchanged. Systolic BP decreased significantly (P = 0.050, ANCOVA); the decrease mostly occurred in subjects with high baseline BP (7.3 mm Hg in highest tertile; P = 0.024, ANCOVA). Polyphenol and vitamin C concentrations in plasma increased, whereas other nutritional biomarkers (ie, folate, tocopherols, sodium, and potassium) were unaffected. The consumption of moderate amounts of berries resulted in favorable changes in platelet function, HDL cholesterol, and BP. The results indicate that regular consumption of berries may play a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  1. Factors favorable to frequent extreme precipitation in the upper Yangtze River Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Baoqiang; Fan, Ke

    2013-08-01

    Extreme precipitation events in the upper Yangtze River Valley (YRV) have recently become an increasingly important focus in China because they often cause droughts and floods. Unfortunately, little is known about the climate processes responsible for these events. This paper investigates factors favorable to frequent extreme precipitation events in the upper YRV. Our results reveal that a weakened South China Sea summer monsoon trough, intensified Eurasian-Pacific blocking highs, an intensified South Asian High, a southward subtropical westerly jet and an intensified Western North Pacific Subtropical High (WNPSH) increase atmospheric instability and enhance the convergence of moisture over the upper YRV, which result in more extreme precipitation events. The snow depth over the eastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) in winter and sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) over three key regions in summer are important external forcing factors in the atmospheric circulation anomalies. Deep snow on the Tibetan Plateau in winter can weaken the subsequent East Asian summer monsoon circulation above by increasing the soil moisture content in summer and weakening the land-sea thermal contrast over East Asia. The positive SSTA in the western North Pacific may affect southwestward extension of the WNPSH and the blocking high over northeastern Asia by arousing the East Asian-Pacific pattern. The positive SSTA in the North Atlantic can affect extreme precipitation event frequency in the upper YRV via a wave train pattern along the westerly jet between the North Atlantic and East Asia. A tripolar pattern from west to east over the Indian Ocean can strengthen moisture transport by enhancing Somali cross-equatorial flow.

  2. Aquatic pollution may favor the success of the invasive species A. franciscana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varó, I.; Redón, S.; Garcia-Roger, E.M.; Amat, F.; Guinot, D.; Serrano, R.; Navarro, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Artemia species display an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos. • A. franciscana survived better and its fecundity was less affected by chlorpyrifos. • The higher fecundity of A. franciscana is a selective advantage in colonization processes. • Higher survival and biological fitness in A. franciscana indicate out-competitive advantages. - Abstract: The genus Artemia consists of several bisexual and parthenogenetic sibling species. One of them, A. franciscana, originally restricted to the New World, becomes invasive when introduced into ecosystems out of its natural range of distribution. Invasiveness is anthropically favored by the use of cryptobiotic eggs in the aquaculture and pet trade. The mechanisms of out-competition of the autochthonous Artemia by the invader are still poorly understood. Ecological fitness may play a pivotal role, but other underlying biotic and abiotic factors may contribute. Since the presence of toxicants in hypersaline aquatic ecosystems has been documented, our aim here is to study the potential role of an organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in a congeneric mechanism of competition between the bisexual A. franciscana (AF), and one of the Old World parthenogenetic siblings, A. parthenogenetica (PD). For this purpose we carried out life table experiments with both species, under different concentrations of the toxicant (0.1, 1 and 5 μg/l), and analyzed the cholinesterase inhibition at different developmental stages. The results evidence that both, AF and PD, showed an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos, but AF survived better and its fecundity was less affected by the exposure to the pesticide than that of PD. The higher fecundity of AF is a selective advantage in colonization processes leading to its establishment as NIS. Besides, under the potential selective pressure of abiotic factors, such as the presence of toxicants, its higher resistance in terms of survival and biological

  3. Aquatic pollution may favor the success of the invasive species A. franciscana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varó, I., E-mail: inma@iats.csic.es [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain); Redón, S. [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain); Garcia-Roger, E.M. [Cavanilles Institute of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, University of Valencia, Burjassot (Spain); Amat, F.; Guinot, D. [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain); Serrano, R. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA), Avda. Sos Baynat, s/n. University Jaume I, Castellón 12071 (Spain); Navarro, J.C. [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Artemia species display an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos. • A. franciscana survived better and its fecundity was less affected by chlorpyrifos. • The higher fecundity of A. franciscana is a selective advantage in colonization processes. • Higher survival and biological fitness in A. franciscana indicate out-competitive advantages. - Abstract: The genus Artemia consists of several bisexual and parthenogenetic sibling species. One of them, A. franciscana, originally restricted to the New World, becomes invasive when introduced into ecosystems out of its natural range of distribution. Invasiveness is anthropically favored by the use of cryptobiotic eggs in the aquaculture and pet trade. The mechanisms of out-competition of the autochthonous Artemia by the invader are still poorly understood. Ecological fitness may play a pivotal role, but other underlying biotic and abiotic factors may contribute. Since the presence of toxicants in hypersaline aquatic ecosystems has been documented, our aim here is to study the potential role of an organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in a congeneric mechanism of competition between the bisexual A. franciscana (AF), and one of the Old World parthenogenetic siblings, A. parthenogenetica (PD). For this purpose we carried out life table experiments with both species, under different concentrations of the toxicant (0.1, 1 and 5 μg/l), and analyzed the cholinesterase inhibition at different developmental stages. The results evidence that both, AF and PD, showed an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos, but AF survived better and its fecundity was less affected by the exposure to the pesticide than that of PD. The higher fecundity of AF is a selective advantage in colonization processes leading to its establishment as NIS. Besides, under the potential selective pressure of abiotic factors, such as the presence of toxicants, its higher resistance in terms of survival and biological

  4. Professional development programs in health promotion: tools and processes to favor new practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Sara; Richard, Lucie; Guichard, Anne; Chiocchio, François; Litvak, Eric; Beaudet, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    Developing innovative interventions that are in sync with a health promotion paradigm often represents a challenge for professionals working in local public health organizations. Thus, it is critical to have both professional development programs that favor new practices and tools to examine these practices. In this case study, we analyze the health promotion approach used in a pilot intervention addressing children's vulnerability that was developed and carried out by participants enrolled in a public health professional development program. More specifically, we use a modified version of Guichard and Ridde's (Une grille d'analyse des actions pour lutter contre les inégalités sociales de santé. In Potvin, L., Moquet, M.-J. and Jones, C. M. (eds), Réduire les Inégalités Sociales en Santé. INPES, Saint-Denis Cedex, pp. 297-312, 2010) analytical grid to assess deductively the program participants' use of health promotion practices in the analysis and planning, implementation, evaluation, sustainability and empowerment phases of the pilot intervention. We also seek evidence of practices involving (empowerment, participation, equity, holism, an ecological approach, intersectorality and sustainability) in the intervention. The results are mixed: our findings reveal evidence of the application of several dimensions of health promotion (equity, holism, an ecological approach, intersectorality and sustainability), but also a lack of integration of two key dimensions; that is, empowerment and participation, during various phases of the pilot intervention. These results show that the professional development program is associated with the adoption of a pilot intervention integrating multiple but not all dimensions of health promotion. We make recommendations to facilitate a more complete integration. This research also shows that the Guichard and Ridde grid proves to be a thorough instrument to document the practices of participants. © The Author 2015. Published by

  5. Contextualized Contribution of Kindness to Favorable Goal- and Circumstantial-Driven Neuropsychological Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Mota

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Kindness involves care and non-judgmental understanding toward someone. As a prosocial inclination, kindness would increase the possibility of favorable interaction with the environment, with a successful adjustment of one's response in novel or challenging circumstances, taking into account rules or goals. This adjustment ability is commonly referred to as executive functions, dependent on the prefrontal and parietal functioning, still under development during late adolescence. This study aimed to investigate if kindness would relate with the executive functions. If so, it would correlate more with measures of self-regulation, mainly dependent on the medial prefrontal corticosubcortical circuits. Also, among self-regulating processes, kindness would be more associated with autonomic responses—choices guided by one's understanding/intention - than with adaptive responses—changes on one's choices triggered by unfavorable circumstances. A sample of 46 (31 female; 18 to 21 years-old healthy college students from the University of the State of Rio de Janeiro attended a clinical interview and a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Kindness was measured by the Compassion Scale subscore. Generalized non-linear models for each neuropsychological variable were executed on R, followed by an estimation of weighted parameters for each factor. Significant models which included kindness (weighted parameter Pc > 74 and all of their psychosocial or sociodemographic factors on their maximum expression (Pc > 74 were identified. In a contextualized joint influence with other psychosocial and sociodemographic factors, kindness fits equally goal- and circumstantial- self-regulation, as well as integrative organization of information. Kindness is a principle that optimizes a refreshing and prosocial interaction with the environment. As it anticipates sharing and cooperation behaviors, it might have a primordial function on individual and social

  6. Consenting options for posthumous organ donation: presumed consent and incentives are not favored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammami Muhammad M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Posthumous organ procurement is hindered by the consenting process. Several consenting systems have been proposed. There is limited information on public relative attitudes towards various consenting systems, especially in Middle Eastern/Islamic countries. Methods We surveyed 698 Saudi Adults attending outpatient clinics at a tertiary care hospital. Preference and perception of norm regarding consenting options for posthumous organ donation were explored. Participants ranked (1, most agreeable the following, randomly-presented, options from 1 to 11: no-organ-donation, presumed consent, informed consent by donor-only, informed consent by donor-or-surrogate, and mandatory choice; the last three options ± medical or financial incentive. Results Mean(SD age was 32(9 year, 27% were males, 50% were patients’ companions, 60% had ≥ college education, and 20% and 32%, respectively, knew an organ donor or recipient. Mandated choice was among the top three choices for preference of 54% of respondents, with an overall median[25%,75%] ranking score of 3[2,6], and was preferred over donor-or-surrogate informed consent (4[2,7], p vs. 11[6,11], respectively, p = 0.002. Compared to females, males more perceived donor-or-surrogate informed consent as the norm (3[1,6] vs. 5[3,7], p vs. 8[4,9], p vs. 5[2,7], p  Conclusions We conclude that: 1 most respondents were in favor of posthumous organ donation, 2 mandated choice system was the most preferred and presumed consent system was the least preferred, 3 there was no difference between preference and perception of norm in consenting systems ranking, and 4 financial (especially in females and medical (especially in males incentives reduced preference.

  7. Favorable circulatory system outcomes as adjuvant traditional Chinese medicine (TCM treatment for cerebrovascular diseases in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsienhsueh Elley Chiu

    Full Text Available This study searches the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD used in a previous project, aiming for reconstructing possible cerebrovascular disease-related groups (DRG,and estimating the costs between cerebrovascular disease and related diseases.We conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study in stroke inpatients, we examined the overall costs in 3 municipalities in Taiwan, by evaluating the possible costs of the expecting diagnosis related group (DRG by using the international classification of diseases version-9 (ICD-9 system, and the overall analysis of the re-admission population that received traditional Chinese medicine (TCM treatment and those who did not.The trend demonstrated that the non-participant costs were consistent with the ICD-9 categories (430 to 437 because similarities existed between years 2006 to 2007. Among the TCM patients, a wide variation and additional costs were found compared to non-TCM patients during these 2 years. The average re-admission duration was significantly shorter for TCM patients, especially those initially diagnosed with ICD 434 during the first admission. In addition, TCM patients demonstrated more severe general symptoms, which incurred high conventional treatment costs, and could result in re-admission for numerous reasons. However, in Disease 7 of ICD-9 category, representing the circulatory system was most prevalent in non-TCM inpatients, which was the leading cause of re-admission.We concluded that favorable circulatory system outcomes were in adjuvant TCM treatment inpatients, there were less re-admission for circulatory system events and a two-third reduction of re-admission within ICD-9 code 430 to 437, compared to non-TCM ones. However, there were shorter re-admission duration other than circulatory system events by means of unfavorable baseline condition.

  8. Geology and uranium favorability of the Sonora Pass region, Alpine and Tuolumne Counties, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, J.S.; Short, W.O.

    1981-06-01

    Uranium mineralization at the Juniper Mine is restricted to host rocks of the Relief Peak Formation and is most common in coarse-grained lithic sandstone, conglomerate, and lithic wacke. The richest beds contain as much as 0.5% U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Uranium is present as coffinite, uraninite, and unidentified minerals. Thorium/uranium ratios are generally low and erratic. Equivalent uranium determinations are low in comparison with chemical uranium values, indicating that uranium mineralization of the Juniper Mine is geologically young. Core drilling at 16 localities shows that widely separated exposures of the Relief Peak Formation have very similar lithology, geochemistry, and stratigraphy. Some sections are similar to the Juniper Mine section. Core from the bottom of drill hole SP-1 contains 83 ppM uranium, the greatest known concentration outside the mine area. Significant uranium deposits may be concealed beneath the thick Tertiary volcanic cover of the region. The quartz latitic Eureka Valley Tuff is fairly widespread in east-central California and western Nevada. It contains 12 to 14 ppM uranium and stratigraphically overlies the Relief Peak Formation. It is permeable and contains abundant alkali metals and volcanic glass. Because of its petrology, geochemistry, and position, this formation is the most likely source for uranium mineralization of the Sonora Pass region. It should be examined as a potential source rock in other areas with special regard to its relationship to carbonaceous sedimentary formations. The uraniferous granite pegmatitite dike that crops out in the Niagara Creek area appears too small to be a significant source rock. The most favorable rocks in the Sonora Pass region occur near the Juniper Mine and west of it, in the Dardanelles, the Whittakers Dardanelles, and the area of the Big Meadow Quadrangle. Potential uranium host rocks crop out in areas along the crest of the Sierra Nevada from Lake Tahoe to Yosemite.

  9. Geology and uranium favorability of the Sonora Pass region, Alpine and Tuolumne Counties, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, J.S.; Short, W.O.

    1981-06-01

    Uranium mineralization at the Juniper Mine is restricted to host rocks of the Relief Peak Formation and is most common in coarse-grained lithic sandstone, conglomerate, and lithic wacke. The richest beds contain as much as 0.5% U 3 O 8 . Uranium is present as coffinite, uraninite, and unidentified minerals. Thorium/uranium ratios are generally low and erratic. Equivalent uranium determinations are low in comparison with chemical uranium values, indicating that uranium mineralization of the Juniper Mine is geologically young. Core drilling at 16 localities shows that widely separated exposures of the Relief Peak Formation have very similar lithology, geochemistry, and stratigraphy. Some sections are similar to the Juniper Mine section. Core from the bottom of drill hole SP-1 contains 83 ppM uranium, the greatest known concentration outside the mine area. Significant uranium deposits may be concealed beneath the thick Tertiary volcanic cover of the region. The quartz latitic Eureka Valley Tuff is fairly widespread in east-central California and western Nevada. It contains 12 to 14 ppM uranium and stratigraphically overlies the Relief Peak Formation. It is permeable and contains abundant alkali metals and volcanic glass. Because of its petrology, geochemistry, and position, this formation is the most likely source for uranium mineralization of the Sonora Pass region. It should be examined as a potential source rock in other areas with special regard to its relationship to carbonaceous sedimentary formations. The uraniferous granite pegmatitite dike that crops out in the Niagara Creek area appears too small to be a significant source rock. The most favorable rocks in the Sonora Pass region occur near the Juniper Mine and west of it, in the Dardanelles, the Whittakers Dardanelles, and the area of the Big Meadow Quadrangle. Potential uranium host rocks crop out in areas along the crest of the Sierra Nevada from Lake Tahoe to Yosemite

  10. Behavioral Public Administration : Combining Insights from Public Administration and Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313875405; Jilke, Sebastian; Leth Olsen, Asmus; Tummers, L.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341028274

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral public administration is the analysis of public administration from the micro-perspective of individual behavior and attitudes by drawing upon insights from psychology on behavior of individuals and groups. We discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw on theories and

  11. Muscle strength rather than muscle mass is associated with osteoporosis in older Chinese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixuan Ma

    2018-02-01

    Conclusion: Based on our study, muscle strength rather than muscle mass is negatively associated with OS in older people; thus, we should pay more attention to muscle strength training in the early stage of the OS.

  12. Effect of transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation on muscle volume in patients with septic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jesper Brøndum; Møller, Kirsten; Jensen, Claus V

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Intensive care unit admission is associated with muscle wasting and impaired physical function. We investigated the effect of early transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation on quadriceps muscle volume in patients with septic shock. Design: Randomized interventional study using...

  13. Increased Muscular 5α-Dihydrotestosterone in Response to Resistance Training Relates to Skeletal Muscle Mass and Glucose Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Horii, Naoki; Sato, Koji; Mesaki, Noboru; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Regular resistance exercise induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and improvement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients. Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a sex steroid hormone precursor, increases 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) synthesis and is associated with improvements in fasting blood glucose level and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether increase in muscle DHT levels, induced by chronic resistance exercise, can co...

  14. Periodontal and restorative considerations with clear aligner treatment to establish a more favorable restorative environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Robert L

    2009-06-01

    Although standard fixed appliances are better suited to control difficult tooth movement in three planes of space, clear aligner orthodontic treatment may be requested by patients because of the superior esthetics compared with conventional fixed appliances when clear aligners can be considered. Several clinical trials have shown improved periodontal status during orthodontic treatment with clear aligners while fixed appliances have almost always been associated with increased inflammation and mild periodontal breakdown despite preventive measures performed during treatment. There have been no reports of decalcification and only one reported case of root resorption with clear aligners, whereas with fixed appliances, numerous incidents of both decalcification and root resorption have been reported. In addition, studies have also shown significantly less pain from soft-tissue injuries and muscle soreness from parafunctional habits with computer-aided clear aligners. Restorative advantages include improved esthetics and comfort during treatment for better case acceptance and the ability to bleach teeth throughout treatment. Improving tooth alignment with orthodontic treatment with fixed or clear appliances increases the clinician's potential capability to perform more conservative restorative procedures, requiring less tooth structure removal and less endodontic involvement because of better tooth positions. In those cases in which clear aligner appliances may be appropriate, less damage may occur to existing porcelain restorations than might transpire from bonding of fixed appliances and their removal, as well as potentially reduced tooth wear during treatment. This article presents three case reports that demonstrate the periodontal and restorative aspects of treatment using the computer-aided clear appliances, which have either eliminated the need for certain restorative procedures or created a better periodontal and tooth position environment for performing these

  15. An electromyographic study of muscle relaxants in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Kanayama, T; Nakagawa, H; Yazaki, S; Shiratsuchi, T

    1975-05-01

    Supramaximal paired stimuli were applied to the ulnar nerve, and the amplitude of the muscle action potential evoked in the abductor digiti minimi by the second member of the stimulus pair (test response) was compared with that evoked by the first component (conditioning response). The interval between the two components of the stimulus pair (the pair interval) was increased stepwise from 7 to 100 msec and a curve (recovery curve) was obtained by relating the changes in pair interval to the difference in amplitude of the test and conditioning responses. Alterations of the recovery curve (RC) during partial paralysis by muscle relaxants were investigated in healthy adult patients under the lightest plane of general anaesthesia. The control curve obtained in 32 subjects before the administration of a muscle relaxant drug was characterized by slight depressions at very short intervals of paired stimuli, followed by a slight potentiation at 20-100 msec. With non-depolarizing relaxants, RC altered to the characteristic pattern of potentiation at very short intervals of stimuli, followed by a notable depression at longer intervals. In depolarizing blocks with small doses of suxamethonium, the depression of RC at short intervals in the control was enhanced and the pattern of RC was different from that of non-depolarizing agents. When desensitization blocks were instigated by the i.v. administration of suxamethonium, the RC patterns were similar to those of competitive agents.

  16. Disputable issues in the application of the Administrative Procedure Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Predrag

    2014-01-01

    administrative agreements under the GAPA rules. This can be achieved either by amending the APA or by enacting a subject-specific act. The former option includes a number of possible solutions that we may consider (the Croatian APA, the ghastly Serbian draft GAPA, or the relevant application of the Public Procurement Act, etc.. Another previous and/or related question is what kind of concept of administrative procedure we shall opt for: the narrow (Austrian or the broader (German concept, where any action of the public administration is regarded as an administrative proceeding. There is a number of other disputable issues open for further discussion: shall the public authority be delegated only by means of a legislative act or agreement, and who is to scrutinize these processes; what is the inter-relation between the administrative procedure and the inspection procedure (in terms of general and subject-specific administrative procedures, or special administrative proceedings; can the administrative procedure institutes be accordingly applied in the inspection procedure (e.g., 'silence' of the inspection; what is the statutory time limit for the validity of interim administrative decisions; are the extraordinary legal remedies justifiable; is it practicable to shorten the time limit for issuing a decision; is the favorable concept of administrative silence sustainable; what are the legal effects of the E-governance procedure, etc.

  17. General administrative activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    General Administrative Activities summarizes events that are related to safety but are not covered elsewhere in Nuclear Safety. Included in this issue are events reported during May and June 1984. Among the topics discussed are reports from the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) on several safety issues, the DOE plans to aid in the completion of nuclear power plants and its long-term mission plan for the disposal of high-level waste, action by New York City to delay shipment of Brookhaven waste through its streets, a federal Court ruling on emergency evacuation exercises, and changes in NRC rules on spent-fuel shipments. Also included is the report on an address by DOE Secretary Hodel, a summary of two speeches by NRC Commissioner Gilinsky, and a number of other noteworthy items with significance for nuclear safety

  18. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Instagram RSS Subscribe Occupational Safety and Health Administration English | Spanish MENU OSHA English | Spanish Search A ... STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210 800- ...

  19. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  20. Striated Muscle Function, Regeneration, and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadrin, I.Y.; Khodabukus, A.; Bursac, N.

    2016-01-01

    As the only striated muscle tissues in the body, skeletal and cardiac muscle share numerous structural and functional characteristics, while exhibiting vastly different size and regenerative potential. Healthy skeletal muscle harbors a robust regenerative response that becomes inadequate after large muscle loss or in degenerative pathologies and aging. In contrast, the mammalian heart loses its regenerative capacity shortly after birth, leaving it susceptible to permanent damage by acute injury or chronic disease. In this review, we compare and contrast the physiology and regenerative potential of native skeletal and cardiac muscles, mechanisms underlying striated muscle dysfunction, and bioengineering strategies to treat muscle disorders. We focus on different sources for cellular therapy, biomaterials to augment the endogenous regenerative response, and progress in engineering and application of mature striated muscle tissues in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we discuss the challenges and perspectives in translating muscle bioengineering strategies to clinical practice. PMID:27271751