WorldWideScience

Sample records for administration complex organization

  1. The ecopoiesis as the basis for an environmental perspective to the administration, complex organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arango Fernandez, Wilfer Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    Reality is not as simple as we would like. It is complex so that can't always be understood through simple rules. That's why the explorations of the science have catalyzed a profound reconceptualization of the universe. A wholly new way of seeing, thinking, knowing in the world has been introduced. The new perspective seeks to understand systems that change in ways not amenable to the linear vision. The organizations, most particularly the enterprise, are subject to the very same principles of the new science, and one major impact in applying the concepts of complexity is the way in which they are seen. In the X Xl century, companies will no longer be effectively managed by rigid and lineal objectives or perspectives. The state of chaos leads to creativity, innovations and self organisation?disorder, dissipation and change are the rules, no more the exceptions. This article proposes the understanding of organizations in terms of a holistic perception confronts the traditional visions and explores the relevance of the new paradigm in the field of the relation between organizations and environment. An overview of the significance of the change of perception is provided, followed by the way in which the theory (complexity, ecopoiesis, and dissipative structures, living organization) can be applied to the field of management

  2. Organization Complexity and Primary Care Providers' Perceptions of Quality Improvement Culture Within the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korom-Djakovic, Danijela; Canamucio, Anne; Lempa, Michele; Yano, Elizabeth M; Long, Judith A

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how aspects of quality improvement (QI) culture changed during the introduction of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patient-centered medical home initiative and how they were influenced by existing organizational factors, including VHA facility complexity and practice location. A voluntary survey, measuring primary care providers' (PCPs') perspectives on QI culture at their primary care clinics, was administered in 2010 and 2012. Participants were 320 PCPs from hospital- and community-based primary care practices in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Ohio. PCPs in community-based outpatient clinics reported an improvement in established processes for QI, and communication and cooperation from 2010 to 2012. However, their peers in hospital-based clinics did not report any significant improvements in QI culture. In both years, compared with high-complexity facilities, medium- and low-complexity facilities had better scores on the scales assessing established processes for QI, and communication and cooperation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Complex administrative procedures between administrative efficiency and the obligation to protect individual rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, R.

    1982-01-01

    Due to their structural premise, administrative procedures possess an inordinate amount of influence, especially in complex situations of judicial decision making, to arrive at the ''right decision'' during the passing of binding regulatory ordinances. Since their system of organization is primarily subject to legislative influence, they are governed by the rules of administrative efficiency in the sense of extensive usage of performance - oriented governmental effectuation of constitutional rights. The demands for adequate judicial protection, of which wide administrative court procedure controls are part, will also serve the goal of reaching the ''right administrative decisions.'' (orig.) [de

  4. Organization | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corporate services Office of Acquisition and Grants Office of the Chief Administrative Officer Office of the McLean Sam Rauch Organization Staff directory Budget & finance information Funding & grant directory Budget & finance information Funding & grant opportunities Work with us Volunteer

  5. Advances in library administration and organization

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Delmus E; Sweeney, Jennifer K

    2015-01-01

    Volume 33 of Advances in Library Administration and Organization brings together a range of diverse and reflective essays to provide strategies that will be of value in addressing challenges faced by current and future library managers.

  6. Control in Complex Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennstam, Jens; Kärreman, Dan

    The extant research on organizational control builds on the assumption of vertical control – managers are thought to develop orders, rules and norms to control the operating core. Yet it is claimed that work becomes increasingly “knowledge intensive” and that organizations rely heavily for their ......The extant research on organizational control builds on the assumption of vertical control – managers are thought to develop orders, rules and norms to control the operating core. Yet it is claimed that work becomes increasingly “knowledge intensive” and that organizations rely heavily...... for their productivity on the knowledge and creativity of their work force. In this type of “knowledge work,” the strong focus on vertical control is insufficient as it fails to account for the important operative and horizontal interactions upon which many contemporary organizations depend. Drawing on practice theory...... and an ethnographic study of engineering work, this paper theorizes control as a form of work that does not only belong to formal management, but is dispersed among various work activities, including horizontal ones. The article introduces the idea of control work as a key practice in contemporary organizations...

  7. Organization of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsak, Maksim

    Many large complex systems can be successfully analyzed using the language of graphs and networks. Interactions between the objects in a network are treated as links connecting nodes. This approach to understanding the structure of networks is an important step toward understanding the way corresponding complex systems function. Using the tools of statistical physics, we analyze the structure of networks as they are found in complex systems such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, and numerous industrial and social networks. In the first chapter we apply the concept of self-similarity to the study of transport properties in complex networks. Self-similar or fractal networks, unlike non-fractal networks, exhibit similarity on a range of scales. We find that these fractal networks have transport properties that differ from those of non-fractal networks. In non-fractal networks, transport flows primarily through the hubs. In fractal networks, the self-similar structure requires any transport to also flow through nodes that have only a few connections. We also study, in models and in real networks, the crossover from fractal to non-fractal networks that occurs when a small number of random interactions are added by means of scaling techniques. In the second chapter we use k-core techniques to study dynamic processes in networks. The k-core of a network is the network's largest component that, within itself, exhibits all nodes with at least k connections. We use this k-core analysis to estimate the relative leadership positions of firms in the Life Science (LS) and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sectors of industry. We study the differences in the k-core structure between the LS and the ICT sectors. We find that the lead segment (highest k-core) of the LS sector, unlike that of the ICT sector, is remarkably stable over time: once a particular firm enters the lead segment, it is likely to remain there for many years. In the third chapter we study how

  8. Some aspects of the organizing of administrative management in organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Оlha Halushchak; Mykhailo Halushchak

    2015-01-01

    In the article the basic principles of process of organizing administrative management in enterprises and organizations are observed. A chain of factors that influence the span of management is suggested and the advantages and disadvantages of narrow and wide span of management are systematized. In the article the levels and types of authority, kinds of departmentalization and centralized administrative management are described. Based on the ...

  9. Hospital Organization, Administration and Wellness Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jeanne Hmura

    1984-01-01

    Hospital organization, administration and planning, and implementation program procedures are reviewed in this article. Hospitals and medical centers are changing their strategies in the area of wellness programming since they offer the appropriate facilities for these programs. Various types of wellness programs currently being promoted are…

  10. 49 CFR 601.2 - Organization of the administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organization of the administration. 601.2 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES General Provisions § 601.2 Organization of the administration. (a) The headquarters organization of FTA is comprised of eight principal...

  11. [The approach of sciences of complexity in health services administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo; Ortiz-Montalvo, Armando

    2013-01-01

    Historically, health services administration has been managed under a Taylorist, Fayolist, humanist and bureaucratic focus approach. However, today dynamic and competitive behaviors that require others approaches in management are developing. Because of the social, scientific and technological changes that are occurring, it is necessary to abandon hierarchical and authoritarian schemes, "up and down" lines, prescriptive rules and order line up must be left behind. Health services administration is an adapted complex system that is not proportional, neither predictable in direction or magnitude. A new proposal is to focus on the sciences of complexity, where the social factors, materials, economics, human and ethics coincide with order and disorder, reason and unreason, and in which we must accept that the phenomenon that emerges creates different organizing different structures from the addition or subtraction of components. There is distance in the process of cause and direct effect. The mirage from the sciences of complexity are trans-disciplinary and we have accepted this in others branches of knowledge, such as quantum physics, non-linear mathematics and cybernetics, so we have to accept the influence of entropy, non-entropy, attractors, the theory of chaos and fractals.

  12. The complexities of HIPAA and administration simplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozlin, R

    2000-11-01

    The Health Insurance Portability and Accessibility Act (HIPAA) was signed into law in 1996. Although focused on information technology issues, HIPAA will ultimately impact day-to-day operations at multiple levels within any clinical setting. Optometrists must begin to familiarize themselves with HIPAA in order to prepare themselves to practice in a technology-enriched environment. Title II of HIPAA, entitled "Administration Simplification," is intended to reduce the costs and administrative burden of healthcare by standardizing the electronic transmission of administrative and financial transactions. The Department of Health and Human Services is expected to publish the final rules and regulations that will govern HIPAA's implementation this year. The rules and regulations will cover three key aspects of healthcare delivery: electronic data interchange (EDI), security and privacy. EDI will standardize the format for healthcare transactions. Health plans must accept and respond to all transactions in the EDI format. Security refers to policies and procedures that protect the accuracy and integrity of information and limit access. Privacy focuses on how the information is used and disclosure of identifiable health information. Security and privacy regulations apply to all information that is maintained and transmitted in a digital format and require administrative, physical, and technical safeguards. HIPAA will force the healthcare industry to adopt an e-commerce paradigm and provide opportunities to improve patient care processes. Optometrists should take advantage of the opportunity to develop more efficient and profitable practices.

  13. 45 CFR 205.101 - Organization for administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organization for administration. 205.101 Section... ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.101 Organization for administration. (a) A State plan for... description of the organization and functions of the single State agency and an organizational chart of the...

  14. 42 CFR 431.11 - Organization for administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organization for administration. 431.11 Section 431... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STATE ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Single State Agency § 431.11 Organization for administration. (a) Basis and purpose. This section, based on section 1902(a...

  15. Complexant stability investigation. Task 2. Organic complexants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, E.C.

    1985-06-01

    The safety of high-level defense waste operations has always been given highest priority at the Hanford site. This document is part of the continued effort to appraise and reevaluate the safety of the waste stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Reservation. Hanford high-level defense waste consists mainly of moist, inorganic salts, NaNO 3 , NaAl(OH) 4 , Na 2 CO 3 , and other sodium salts. However, in addition to these salts, quantities of organic compounds constitute a significant portion of the waste. The potential reaction of the organic compounds with inorganic salts to form explosive substances is examined and found to be nonexistent or negligible. The concept that the waste mixture might react exothermically is found to be untenable under the present storage conditions. The phenomenon of slurry growth in double-shell waste storage tanks is expected to cause no increase in exothermic reaction potential within the waste. The results of this study indicate that the presence of organic material in the high-level defense waste does not constitute undue hazard under the present storage conditions

  16. Complexant stability investigation. Task 2. Organic complexants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, E.C.

    1985-06-01

    The safety of high-level defense waste operations has always been given highest priority at the Hanford site. This document is part of the continued effort to appraise and reevaluate the safety of the waste stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Reservation. Hanford high-level defense waste consists mainly of moist, inorganic salts, NaNO/sub 3/, NaAl(OH)/sub 4/, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, and other sodium salts. However, in addition to these salts, quantities of organic compounds constitute a significant portion of the waste. The potential reaction of the organic compounds with inorganic salts to form explosive substances is examined and found to be nonexistent or negligible. The concept that the waste mixture might react exothermically is found to be untenable under the present storage conditions. The phenomenon of slurry growth in double-shell waste storage tanks is expected to cause no increase in exothermic reaction potential within the waste. The results of this study indicate that the presence of organic material in the high-level defense waste does not constitute undue hazard under the present storage conditions.

  17. Administration, Administration of the knowledge and methodological work in the Complex Educational Disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Tania Alina Mena-Silva; Ernesto López-Calichs

    2014-01-01

    Today the educational disciplines have evolved to a superior and more complex stadium that has been materialized in that converge in a discipline and relate diverse study modalities, professors' type and teaching matters, that makes more complex the work of the professor when having to prepare metodológicamente the subject in more than an occasion, it is materialized this way the Complex Educational Discipline. The administration and the administration of the knowledge are constituted in esse...

  18. Increase of Organization in Complex Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiev, Georgi Yordanov; Daly, Michael; Gombos, Erin; Vinod, Amrit; Hoonjan, Gajinder

    2013-01-01

    Measures of complexity and entropy have not converged to a single quantitative description of levels of organization of complex systems. The need for such a measure is increasingly necessary in all disciplines studying complex systems. To address this problem, starting from the most fundamental principle in Physics, here a new measure for quantity of organization and rate of self-organization in complex systems based on the principle of least (stationary) action is applied to a model system -...

  19. AM, administrative software ease complex Maryland job

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troch, S.J.; Agnes, D.C.; Catonzaro, J.S.; Oberlechner, L.E.

    1995-01-01

    A gas distribution looping project, in three segments that traversed a complete range of installation and alignment issues, recently was completed by Baltimore Gas and Electric Co. (BG and E) in northern Maryland. The major projects unit in the company's gas system engineering and design section was responsible for total oversight of the three projects. This included design, engineering, permitting, right-of-way acquisition, construction, testing and restoration, as well as liaison with other company divisions. A specially selected subcontractor team was organized to provide the latest technology. A project management system, comprised mainly of personal computer applications, was implemented to provide: engineering and design coordination; accurate interface among easement, real estate acquisition data, plats, surveys, permitting and design documents; accurate right-of-way identification; data storage and accessibility of all real estate information for use in design and budgeting; an interface of environmental conditions with topography and design; a computer database that is compatible with existing computer libraries and industry-available software, for producing drawings. Controls for projects costs, budget and schedule were provided by the project management system. This was accomplished by interaction of four data systems: real estate, accounting/budget, geographical information system (GIS), global positioning system (GPS). Construction progress was monitored with a scheduling application that ultimately provided justification for contractor progress payments. The amount of pipe laid in any given time span, as documented by field inspector reports, was entered into the scheduling application. The scheduling software calculated the percent completed and provided information for monitoring progress

  20. Administration, Administration of the knowledge and methodological work in the Complex Educational Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Alina Mena-Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the educational disciplines have evolved to a superior and more complex stadium that has been materialized in that converge in a discipline and relate diverse study modalities, professors' type and teaching matters, that makes more complex the work of the professor when having to prepare metodológicamente the subject in more than an occasion, it is materialized this way the Complex Educational Discipline. The administration and the administration of the knowledge are constituted in essential elements for the realization of the methodological work with the community of professors, starting from a process of methodological preparation centered in the professor.

  1. Leadership Learning for Complex Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, F. S. David

    2015-01-01

    Many school leadership programs are set and delivered in specific modules or workshops in order to achieve a pre-determined set of competencies, knowledge, and skills. In addition, these programs are driven by the faculty member and the prescribed content. As Singapore schools become more complex in the roles and responsibilities to educate the…

  2. Management organization and administration for ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    The fundamentals of organizational structure and administration as applied to the goal of keeping occupational radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable are discussed, including consideration of management commitment, organizational separation of health physics functions, reporting levels, designation of responsibility and authority and adequacy of personnel and funding. Examples of good and poor organizational structures are shown, and the role and implementation of ALARA committees, effective communications, and review and audit processes are discussed. (author)

  3. Spectroscopy of plutonium-organic complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmann, M.K.; Reed, D.T.

    1995-01-01

    Information on the spectroscopy of plutonium-organic complexes is needed to help establish the speciation of these complexes under environmentally relevant conditions. Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) and absorption spectrometry were used to characterize the Pu(IV)-citrate and Pu(IV)-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) complexes at concentrations of 10 -3 --10 -7 M in aqueous solution. Good agreement was observed between the band shape of the LPAS and absorption spectra for the Pu(IV)-NTA complex. Agreement for the Pu(IV)-citrate complex was not quite as good. In both cases, a linear dependence of the LPAS signal on laser power and total concentration of the complexes was noted. This work is part of an ongoing research effort to study key subsurface interactions of plutonium-organic complexes

  4. 13 CFR 305.5 - Project administration by District Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project administration by District Organization. 305.5 Section 305.5 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION... business exists that could administer the Project in a more efficient or cost-effective manner than the...

  5. Information Technology and the Organization Chart of Public Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zouridis, S.; Snellen, I.Th.M.; van de Donk, W.B.H.J.

    1998-01-01

    To a certain extent the organization chart of public administration is inspired by the doctrines which are offered by public administration science. Some of these doctrines relate to policy implementation and the design of implementing agencies. In this chapter three of these main doctrines are

  6. PLAN FOR PERFORMANCE ADMINISTRATION IN PYRAMIDAL STRUCTURE ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Alarcón Ortiz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Performance administration has become a current strategy in evaluating management within organizations, but its implementation often lacks an action plan, resulting from the valuation of climate and leadership styles embedded in the culture of the organization. This paper proposes a model action plan for performance management, which has been implemented, executed and evaluated in pyramidal organizational structure organizations where a diagnosis of the cultural climate and leadership styles recurring in the organization have been previously made.

  7. Our Galactic Neighbor Hosts Complex Organic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Kerry

    2018-03-01

    For the first time, data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) reveal the presence of methyl formate and dimethyl ether in a star-forming region outside our galaxy. This discovery has important implications for the formation and survival of complex organic compounds importantfor the formation of life in low-metallicity galaxies bothyoung and old.No Simple Picture of Complex Molecule FormationALMA, pictured here with the Magellanic Clouds above, has observed organic molecules in our Milky Way Galaxy and beyond. [ESO/C. Malin]Complex organic molecules (those with at least six atoms, one or more of which must be carbon) are the precursors to the building blocks of life. Knowing how and where complex organic molecules can form is a key part of understanding how life came to be on Earth and how it might arise elsewhere in the universe. From exoplanet atmospheres to interstellar space, complex organic molecules are ubiquitous in the Milky Way.In our galaxy, complex organic molecules are often found in the intense environments of hot cores clumps of dense molecular gas surrounding the sites of star formation. However, its not yet fully understood how the complex organic molecules found in hot cores come to be. One possibility is that the compounds condense onto cold dust grains long before the young stars begin heating their natal shrouds. Alternatively, they might assemble themselves from the hot, dense gas surrounding the blazing protostars.Composite infrared and optical image of the N 113 star-forming region in the LMC. The ALMA coverage is indicated by the gray line. Click to enlarge. [Sewio et al. 2018]Detecting Complexity, a Galaxy AwayUsing ALMA, a team of researchers led by Marta Sewio (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center) recently detected two complex organic molecules methyl formate and dimethyl ether for the first time in our neighboring galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Previous searches for organic molecules in the LMC detected

  8. Organic Donor-Acceptor Complexes as Novel Organic Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Xu, Wei; Sheng, Peng; Zhao, Guangyao; Zhu, Daoben

    2017-07-18

    Organic donor-acceptor (DA) complexes have attracted wide attention in recent decades, resulting in the rapid development of organic binary system electronics. The design and synthesis of organic DA complexes with a variety of component structures have mainly focused on metallicity (or even superconductivity), emission, or ferroelectricity studies. Further efforts have been made in high-performance electronic investigations. The chemical versatility of organic semiconductors provides DA complexes with a great number of possibilities for semiconducting applications. Organic DA complexes extend the semiconductor family and promote charge separation and transport in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and organic photovoltaics (OPVs). In OFETs, the organic complex serves as an active layer across extraordinary charge pathways, ensuring the efficient transport of induced charges. Although an increasing number of organic semiconductors have been reported to exhibit good p- or n-type properties (mobilities higher than 1 or even 10 cm 2 V -1 s -1 ), critical scientific challenges remain in utilizing the advantages of existing semiconductor materials for more and wider applications while maintaining less complicated synthetic or device fabrication processes. DA complex materials have revealed new insight: their unique molecular packing and structure-property relationships. The combination of donors and acceptors could offer practical advantages compared with their unimolecular materials. First, growing crystals of DA complexes with densely packed structures will reduce impurities and traps from the self-assembly process. Second, complexes based on the original structural components could form superior mixture stacking, which can facilitate charge transport depending on the driving force in the coassembly process. Third, the effective use of organic semiconductors can lead to tunable band structures, allowing the operation mode (p- or n-type) of the transistor to be

  9. Self-organization in metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radecka-Paryzek, W.

    1999-01-01

    Inorganic self-organization involves the spontaneous generation of well-defined supramolecular architectures from metal ions and organic ligands. The basic concept of supramolecular chemistry is a molecular recognition. When the substrate are metal ions, recognition is expressed in the stability and selectivity of metal ion complexation by organic ligands and depends on the geometry of the ligand and on their binding sites that it contains. The combination of the geometric features of the ligand units and the coordination geometries of the metal ions provides very efficient tool for the synthesis of novel, intriguing and highly sophisticated species such as catenanes, box structures, double and triple helicates with a variety of interesting properties. The article will focus on the examples of inorganic self-organization involving the templating as a first step for the assembly of supramolecular structures of high complexity. (author)

  10. Complex Systems and Self-organization Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Bertelle, Cyrille; Kadri-Dahmani, Hakima

    2009-01-01

    The concern of this book is the use of emergent computing and self-organization modelling within various applications of complex systems. The authors focus their attention both on the innovative concepts and implementations in order to model self-organizations, but also on the relevant applicative domains in which they can be used efficiently. This book is the outcome of a workshop meeting within ESM 2006 (Eurosis), held in Toulouse, France in October 2006.

  11. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON SUCCESSION IN COMPLEX ORGANIZATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    THIEMANN, FRANCIS C.

    THIS DOCUMENT LISTS 56 JOURNAL ARTICLES, 18 BOOKS, 10 DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS, AND TWO UNPUBLISHED PAPERS ON SUCCESSION IN COMPLEX ORGANIZATIONS PUBLISHED BETWEEN 1948 AND 1966. SOCIOLOGY CONTRIBUTED 40 OF THE BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ENTRIES, HISTORY AND POLITICAL SCIENCE 19, EDUCATION 16, PSYCHOLOGY SEVEN, AND BUSINESS FOUR. (HM)

  12. ELECTROPHORETIC MOBILITY OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX ORGANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The electrophoretic mobilities (EPMs) of thirty Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) organisms were measured. The EPMs of fifteen clinical isolates ranged from -1.9 to -5.0 µm cm V-1s-1, and the EPMs of fifteen environmental isolates ranged from -1...

  13. Liposomes: structure, properties and methods of curative administration in organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kisyakova

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A review of data from scientific sources, devoted to problems of liposomes’ structure, properties and processes of formation was made. Advantages of liposomes used for medical purposes are shown. Methods of liposomes administration in an organism are characterised. Data on mechanisms of interaction between liposomes and cells, peculiarities of liposomes’ lipids composition and dependence of its tropism to definite organs and tissues are generalised.

  14. Discourse, complexity and sustainability ambiental in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Ricardo Montenegro de Lima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we seek to conduct an investigation into the dynamics of internalization of environmental sustainability in a productive organization of the sugarcane industry. The theoretical discussion is developed from the criticism of Jurgen Habermas to systemic functionalism of Niklas Luhmann. Also, we discuss the theme environmental public sphere and administration of environmental sustainability as a way of adapting organizations to new quality standards required and demanded by the State, Market and Society. The methodological procedures used were: interviews, document analysis and closed questionnaire application. The questionnaire used with 12 representatives of the plant has thirty (30 assertive, accompanied each of two extreme scenarios. The results show that the organization started to internalize environmental sustainability in their organizational system from a Conduct Adjustment Term, prepared by the Public Ministry State. As well as to internalize sustainable practices were adapted in different areas such as: organizational management, procurement, production management, people management and marketing management.

  15. Effects of Oral Administration of Nicotine on Organ Weight, Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of oral administration of nicotine on body and reproductive organ weight, serum testosterone level and testicular histology in adult male rats. Forty male rats divided into five groups and treated for a period of 30 days with 0.5mg/kg (low dose) and 1.0mg/kg (high dose) body weight of ...

  16. Higher Educational Consortia Organization: Functional Structures of Administration and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepchenske, George L.

    The administrative and functional organization of higher education consortia are discussed. The need for cooperation between individual institutions has been established; one lone institution cannot encompass all knowledge generated. The rapid growth of consortia has generated extensive services, funding sources, developmental activities,…

  17. Metal Complexes for Organic Optoelectronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang

    Organic optoelectronic devices have drawn extensive attention by over the past two decades. Two major applications for Organic optoelectronic devices are efficient organic photovoltaic devices(OPV) and organic light emitting diodes (OLED). Organic Solar cell has been proven to be compatible with the low cost, large area bulk processing technology and processed high absorption efficiencies compared to inorganic solar cells. Organic light emitting diodes are a promising approach for display and solid state lighting applications. To improve the efficiency, stability, and materials variety for organic optoelectronic devices, several emissive materials, absorber-type materials, and charge transporting materials were developed and employed in various device settings. Optical, electrical, and photophysical studies of the organic materials and their corresponding devices were thoroughly carried out. In this thesis, Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the background knowledge of OPV and OLED research fields presented. Chapter 2 discusses new porphyrin derivatives- azatetrabenzylporphyrins for OPV and near infrared OLED applications. A modified synthetic method is utilized to increase the reaction yield of the azatetrabenzylporphyrin materials and their photophysical properties, electrochemical properties are studied. OPV devices are also fabricated using Zinc azatetrabenzylporphyrin as donor materials. Pt(II) azatetrabenzylporphyrin were also synthesized and used in near infra-red OLED to achieve an emission over 800 nm with reasonable external quantum efficiencies. Chapter 3, discusses the synthesis, characterization, and device evaluation of a series of tetradentate platinum and palladium complexesfor single doped white OLED applications and RGB white OLED applications. Devices employing some of the developed emitters demonstrated impressively high external quantum efficiencies within the range of 22%-27% for various emitter concentrations. And the palladium complex, i

  18. The Organization of Organizations: Bureaucratic Administration and Domestic Comfort in the Victorian Sequence Novel

    OpenAIRE

    Dubord, Matthew Andre

    2015-01-01

    Victorian bureaucracy had its own brand of fiction. In this dissertation I argue that the long novel sequences of Anthony Trollope and Margaret Oliphant describe the development of modern systems of administrative and domestic organization. In mid-century England, writing about organization and administrative bureaucracy gained in importance in the wake of the Northcote-Trevelyan report as a cluster of sequence novels sprang up and explored the links between fiction and organization. By 1890,...

  19. Catalytic Organic Transformations Mediated by Actinide Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell S. R. Karmel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This review article presents the development of organoactinides and actinide coordination complexes as catalysts for homogeneous organic transformations. This chapter introduces the basic principles of actinide catalysis and deals with the historic development of actinide complexes in catalytic processes. The application of organoactinides in homogeneous catalysis is exemplified in the hydroelementation reactions, such as the hydroamination, hydrosilylation, hydroalkoxylation and hydrothiolation of alkynes. Additionally, the use of actinide coordination complexes for the catalytic polymerization of α-olefins and the ring opening polymerization of cyclic esters is presented. The last part of this review article highlights novel catalytic transformations mediated by actinide compounds and gives an outlook to the further potential of this field.

  20. Organic complexant topical report. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meacham, J.E.; and others

    1997-06-26

    This document reviews the current understanding of hazards associated with the storage of organic complexant salts in Hanford Site high-level waste tanks. Two distinct hazards were evaluated: spontaneous self- accelerating decomposition reactions in the bulk material (bulk runaway) and ignition followed by condensed phase propagation (point source ignition). Results from the bulk runaway assessment showed that bulk runaway is not credible for all tanks except C-106. However, speciation of the organic in C-106 shows that it is almost all in the form of low energy oxalate, and there is little potential for a bulk runaway. Additional testing and evaluation would be necessary to definitely conclude that there is no potential for bulk runaway; therefore, controls are currently required for his tank. Temperature monitoring and controls (water addition and active ventilation) are adequate to prevent bulk runaway in C-106.

  1. Organic complexant topical report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meacham, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    This document reviews the current understanding of hazards associated with the storage of organic complexant salts in Hanford Site high-level waste tanks. Two distinct hazards were evaluated: spontaneous self- accelerating decomposition reactions in the bulk material (bulk runaway) and ignition followed by condensed phase propagation (point source ignition). Results from the bulk runaway assessment showed that bulk runaway is not credible for all tanks except C-106. However, speciation of the organic in C-106 shows that it is almost all in the form of low energy oxalate, and there is little potential for a bulk runaway. Additional testing and evaluation would be necessary to definitely conclude that there is no potential for bulk runaway; therefore, controls are currently required for his tank. Temperature monitoring and controls (water addition and active ventilation) are adequate to prevent bulk runaway in C-106

  2. Complex conductivity of organic-rich shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, W. F.; Revil, A.; Torres-Verdin, C.

    2013-12-01

    We can accurately determine the intrinsic anisotropy and material properties in the laboratory, providing empirical evidence of transverse isotropy and the polarization of the organic and metallic fractions in saturated and unsaturated shales. We develop two distinct approaches to obtain the complex conductivity tensor from spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements. Experimental results indicate clear anisotropy, and characterize the effects of thermal maturation, TOC, and pyrite, aiding in the calibration and interpretation of geophysical data. SIP is a non-intrusive measurement, sensitive to the surface conductance of mineral grains, frequency-dependent polarization of the electrical double layer, and bulk conductivity of the pore water. The in-phase and quadrature components depend upon parameters of principal importance in unconventional shale formation evaluation (e.g., the distribution of pore throat sizes, formation factor, permeability, salinity and cation exchange capacity (CEC), fluid saturation and wettability). In addition to the contribution of the electrical double layer of non-conducting minerals to surface conductivity, we have observed a clear relaxation associated with kerogen pyrolysis, pyrite distribution, and evidence that the CEC of the kerogen fraction may also contribute, depending on thermal maturation history. We utilize a recent model for anisotropic complex conductivity, and rigorous experimental protocols to quantify the role of kerogen and pyrolysis on surface and quadrature conductivity in mudrocks. The complex conductivity tensor σ* describes the directional dependence of electrical conduction in a porous medium, and accounts for both conduction and polarization. The complex-valued tensor components are given as σ*ij , where σ'ij represents in-phase and σ"ij denotes quadrature conductivities. The directional dependence of the complex conductivity tensor is relegated to the textural properties of the material. The

  3. Organization structures for dealing with complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    "Complexity is in the eye of the beholder" is a well known quote in the research field of complexity. In the world of managers the word complex is often a synonym for difficult, complicated, involving many factors and highly uncertain. A complex business decision requires careful preparation and

  4. System dynamics in complex psychiatric treatment organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheck, R

    1988-05-01

    One of the major challenges facing contemporary psychiatry is the coordination of diverse services through organizational integration. With increasing frequency, psychiatric treatment takes place in complex treatment systems composed of multiple inpatient and outpatient programs. Particularly in public health care systems serving the chronically ill, contemporary practice demands a broad spectrum of programs, often geographically dispersed, that include crisis intervention teams, day treatment programs, substance abuse units, social rehabilitation programs and halfway houses (Bachrach 1983; Turner and TenHoor 1978). Individualized treatment planning often requires that a particular patient participate in two or more specialized programs either simultaneously or in a specified sequence. As a consequence of this specialization, treatment fragmentation has emerged as a significant clinical problem, and continuity of care has been highlighted as a valuable but elusive ingredient of optimal treatment. This paper will describe the dynamic interactions that result when several such programs are united under a common organizational roof. Using a large VA Psychiatry Service as an example, I will outline the hierarchical structure characteristic of such an organization, as well as the persistent pulls toward both integration and fragmentation that influence its operation.

  5. Complexity-management in SME : organization of complex relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gregus, M.; Mandorf, S.

    2009-01-01

    The complexity of companies' environment IS growmg. Complexity management and restructuring of small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) become big challenges of business studies in the next future. A chance could be seen in the use of e-business strategies and the implementation of information

  6. Quantum interference experiments with complex organic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibenberger, S. I.

    2015-01-01

    Matter-wave interference with complex particles is a thriving field in experimental quantum physics. The quest for testing the quantum superposition principle with highly complex molecules has motivated the development of the Kapitza-Dirac-Talbot-Lau interferometer (KDTLI). This interferometer has enabled quantum interference with large organic molecules in an unprecedented mass regime. In this doctoral thesis I describe quantum superposition experiments which we were able to successfully realize with molecules of masses beyond 10 000 amu and consisting of more than 800 atoms. The typical de Broglie wavelengths of all particles in this thesis are in the order of 0.3-5 pm. This is significantly smaller than any molecular extension (nanometers) or the delocalization length in our interferometer (hundreds of nanometers). Many vibrational and rotational states are populated since the molecules are thermally highly excited (300-1000 K). And yet, high-contrast quantum interference patterns could be observed. The visibility and position of these matter-wave interference patterns is highly sensitive to external perturbations. This sensitivity has opened the path to extensive studies of the influence of internal molecular properties on the coherence of their associated matter waves. In addition, it enables a new approach to quantum-assisted metrology. Quantum interference imprints a high-contrast nano-structured density pattern onto the molecular beam which allows us to resolve tiny shifts and dephasing of the molecular beam. I describe how KDTL interferometry can be used to investigate a number of different molecular properties. We have studied vibrationally-induced conformational changes of floppy molecules and permanent electric dipole moments using matter-wave deflectometry in an external electric field. We have developed a new method for optical absorption spectroscopy which uses the recoil of the molecules upon absorption of individual photons. This allows us to

  7. Genetic factors for individual administration of immunosuppressants in organ transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song-Feng Yu; Li-Hua Wu; Shu-Sen Zheng

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The immunosuppressive drugs used worldwide have a narrow therapeutic index, which results in a need to individualize the dose regimen for different recipients. The oxidative enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A and the drug eflfux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are two potential factors in the processes of metabolism. Pharmacogenetic study of immunosuppressive drugs has focused on these two enzymes. This review was undertaken to assess the role of single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs) of these two enzymes in the individual administration of immunosuppressive drugs. DATA SOURCES: An English-language literature search was made using MEDLINE for articles on CYP3A and P-gp in organ transplantation. RESULTS: The SNPs of CYP3A and P-gp are closely correlated to the large variations of cyclosporine and tacrolimus dosage between different patients, although conlficting results were obtained by some authors. CONCLUSIONS: More studies should be conducted to elucidate further the pharmacogenetics of immuno-suppressive drugs in organ transplantation, a deep understanding of which would provide an important step toward drug regimen individualization in the posttransplant therapy.

  8. Application of models for exchange of electronic documents in complex administrative services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavev, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The report presents application of models for exchange of electronic documents between different administrations in government and business sectors. It shows the benefits of implementing electronic exchange of documents between different local offices of one administration in government sector such as a municipality and the way it is useful for implementing complex administrative services

  9. Application of models for exchange of electronic documents in complex administrative services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glavev, Victor

    2015-11-30

    The report presents application of models for exchange of electronic documents between different administrations in government and business sectors. It shows the benefits of implementing electronic exchange of documents between different local offices of one administration in government sector such as a municipality and the way it is useful for implementing complex administrative services.

  10. Maintaining Situational Awareness in Large, Complex Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carreno, Jose; Galdorisi, George; Goshorn, Rebekah

    2006-01-01

    .... Another solution, gaining popularity in the business sector, is environmental scanning. Environmental scanning identifies, collects, translates and applies information about external events that influence an organization's strategic landscape...

  11. Chromosome organizaton in simple and complex unicellular organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Justin M

    2011-01-01

    The genomes of unicellular organisms form complex 3-dimensional structures. This spatial organization is hypothesized to have a significant role in genomic function. Spatial organization is not limited solely to the three-dimensional folding of the chromosome(s) in genomes but also includes genome positioning, and the folding and compartmentalization of any additional genetic material (e.g. episomes) present within complex genomes. In this comment, I will highlight similarities in the spatial organization of eukaryotic and prokaryotic unicellular genomes.

  12. 76 FR 55928 - Food and Drug Administration Health Professional Organizations Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ...] Food and Drug Administration Health Professional Organizations Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug... conference for representatives of Health Professional Organizations. Dr. Margaret Hamburg, Commissioner of... person attending, the name of the organization, address, and telephone number. There is no registration...

  13. Risk management integration into complex project organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, K.; Greanias, G.; Rose, J.; Dumas, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used in designing and adapting the SIRTF prototype, discusses some of the lessons learned in developing the SIRTF prototype, and explains the adaptability of the risk management database to varying levels project complexity.

  14. Design problems of social-administrative complexes on the example of the Morcinek mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielski, M.; Trojanowski, S.

    1987-01-01

    Buildings at the Morcinek mine head are designed as four complexes: the lamp room of 28,850 m/sup 3/ for 6,440 lamps; the washing room block of 92,491 m/sup 3/ for 7,623 miners (including mine operation offices, control room, mine rescue station, laundry and canteen); administration and social services block of 47,645 m/sup 3/ (mine management, telephone exchange, dispatcher room, health services, rooms for training and social organizations, snack bar); shaft landing and waiting room block of 12,080 m/sup 3/ (transportation, bus depot, parking). The buildings are built as frame type structures. Reinforced concrete is used for frames up to 6 m and steel for the larger ones. Prefabricated reinforced concrete floors and skirt type walls of glass panels, bricks or prefabricated materials are incorporated. The multi-storey buildings are built on 'Franki' type piles.

  15. Nitrosonium complexes of organic compounds. Structure and reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borodkin, Gennady I; Shubin, Vyacheslav G

    2001-01-01

    Data on the structures and reactivities of nitrosonium complexes of organic compounds are systematised and generalised. The characteristic features of the electronic structure of the NO + cation are responsible for a wide structural variety of nitrosonium complexes. Reactions of nitrosonium complexes are described. The bibliography includes 172 references.

  16. Functional self-organization in complex systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontana, W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Santa Fe Inst., NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    A novel approach to functional self-organization is presented. It consists of a universe generated by a formal language that defines objects (=programs), their meaning (=functions), and their interactions (=composition). Results obtained so far are briefly discussed. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Resolution of Hanford tanks organic complexant safety issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirch, N.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Hanford Site tanks have been assessed for organic complexant reaction hazards. The results have shown that most tanks contain insufficient concentrations of TOC to support a propagating reaction. It has also been shown that those tanks where the TOC concentration approaches levels of concern, degradation of the organic complexants to less energetic compounds has occurred. The results of the investigations have been documented. The residual organic complexants in the Hanford Site waste tanks do not present a safety concern for long-term storage

  18. Mitofilin complexes : conserved organizers of mitochondrial membrane architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerbes, Ralf M.; van der Klei, Ida J.; Veenhuis, Marten; Pfanner, Nikolaus; van der Laan, Martin; Bohnert, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Mitofilin proteins are crucial organizers of mitochondrial architecture. They are located in the inner mitochondrial membrane and interact with several protein complexes of the outer membrane, thereby generating contact sites between the two membrane systems of mitochondria. Within the inner

  19. Modelling the self-organization and collapse of complex networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modelling the self-organization and collapse of complex networks. Sanjay Jain Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  20. Diffusion, sorption and stability of radionuclide-organic complexes in clays and clay-organic complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staunton, S.; Rees, L.V.C.

    1991-01-01

    The dependence on various parameters of the diffusion coefficient of neptunium (V) in clay systems has been studied. The effect of the clay mineralogy, the charge compensating cation in the clay, the ionic strength of a background perchlorate solution and the presence of three organic ligands have been investigated. The diffusion coefficients were compared to those predicted if diffusion occurred only in the liquid phase and adsorption was reversible; agreement was fairly good. An approximation to the diffusion coefficient can thus be obtained from readily measured experimental parameters. There is no evidence of surface phase diffusion. The most significant factor in determining the diffusion coefficient is the magnitude of the distribution ratio, itself highly dependent on the nature of the clay. Neither EDTA nor citrate modified the diffusion coefficient. Although the presence of 1 or 100 mg dm -3 of Aldrich humic acid had little effect on the distribution ratio of neptunium, it caused a lowering of the measured diffusion coefficient. This is interpreted in terms of the limiting liquid phase diffusion coefficient and the true liquid phase impedance factor of neptunium-humic acid complexes. 21 figs; 3 tabs; 20 refs

  1. Application of Microwave Irradiation to Rapid Organic Inclusion Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Microwave irradiation has been used in chemical laboratories for moisture analysis and wet asking procedures of biological and geological materials for a number of years [1]. More recently the microwave irradiation also widely used for rapid organic synthesis [2]. However, there have not yet been any reports concerning the ultilisatioin of microwave ovens in the routine organic inclusion complex regularly in chemical research.

  2. Linking Business Ownership and Perceived Administrative Complexity: An Empirical Analysis of 18 OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    André van Stel; Viktor Stunnenberg

    2004-01-01

    Administrative burdens are known to be a major business constraint for incumbent SMEs in modern economies. Far less is known about the influence of these burdens on the startup of new firms. The current paper examines to what extent perceived administrative complexity related to starting a new business influences the number of business owners across 18 OECD countries. We test this relationship combining data on business ownership from EIM's COMPENDIA data base and data on perceived administra...

  3. [Managment in nursing and the administration of third sector organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthes, Rosa Maria; Cunha, Isabel Cristina Kowal Olm

    2006-01-01

    In this article of bibliographical revision it was aimed at verifying the evolution of the third sector and the relations between nursing management in that organizations. It is observed a growing of this sector in health area, bringing a market anplification in the work of the nurse. Thus, it is considered the need for warning the nurses to be prepared for the management in these organizations, seeking for development in hospital management. Third sector is being valued as a form of social promotion in the health, education, social assistance and others segments, congregating individuals and institutions in a participative form.

  4. Distribution of radioactivity in the mouse organism after administration of 35S-chondroitin sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konador, A.; Kawiak, J.

    1976-01-01

    The follow-up of chondroitin sulphate (ChS) distribution in the organism after its administration by various routes is interesting in view of the possibility of clinical applications. Mice received intraperitoneally and intragastrically 35 S-ChS and the distribution of radioactivity was followed in 10 chosen organs. The dynamics of changes in radioactivity were found to differ in dependence on the type of organ and route of administration. (author)

  5. Complexation of lead by organic matter in Luanda Bay, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Anabela; Santos, Ana Maria; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2015-10-01

    Speciation is defined as the distribution of an element among different chemical species. Although the relation between speciation and bioavailability is complex, the metal present as free hydrated ion, or as weak complexes able to dissociate, is usually more bioavailable than the metal incorporated in strong complexes or adsorbed on colloidal or particulate matter. Among the analytical techniques currently available, anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) has been one of the most used in the identification and quantification of several heavy metal species in aquatic systems. This work concerns the speciation study of lead, in original (natural, non-filtered) and filtered water samples and in suspensions of particulate matter and sediments from Luanda Bay (Angola). Complexes of lead with organics were identified and quantified by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry technique. Each sample was progressively titrated with a Pb(II) standard solution until complete saturation of the organic ligands. After each addition of Pb(II), the intensity, potential and peak width of the voltammetric signal were measured. The results obtained in this work show that more than 95 % of the lead in the aquatic environment is bound in inert organic complexes, considering all samples from different sampling sites. In sediment samples, the lead is totally (100 %) complexed with ligands adsorbed on the particles surface. Two kinds of dominant lead complexes, very strong (logK >11) and strong to moderately strong (8< logK <11), were found, revealing the lead affinity for the stronger ligands.

  6. Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen handler om den praksis, vi kalder administration. Vi er i den offentlige sektor i Danmark hos kontorfolkene med deres sagsmapper, computere, telefoner,, lovsamlinger,, retningslinier og regneark. I bogen udfoldes en mangfoldighed af konkrete historier om det administrative arbejde fra...... forskellige områder i den offentlige sektor. Hensigten er at forstå den praksis og faglighed der knytter sig til det administrative arbejde...

  7. Genome complexity, robustness and genetic interactions in digital organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Richard E.; Ofria, Charles; Collier, Travis C.; Adami, Christoph

    1999-08-01

    Digital organisms are computer programs that self-replicate, mutate and adapt by natural selection. They offer an opportunity to test generalizations about living systems that may extend beyond the organic life that biologists usually study. Here we have generated two classes of digital organism: simple programs selected solely for rapid replication, and complex programs selected to perform mathematical operations that accelerate replication through a set of defined `metabolic' rewards. To examine the differences in their genetic architecture, we introduced millions of single and multiple mutations into each organism and measured the effects on the organism's fitness. The complex organisms are more robust than the simple ones with respect to the average effects of single mutations. Interactions among mutations are common and usually yield higher fitness than predicted from the component mutations assuming multiplicative effects; such interactions are especially important in the complex organisms. Frequent interactions among mutations have also been seen in bacteria, fungi and fruitflies. Our findings support the view that interactions are a general feature of genetic systems.

  8. Can complex health interventions be evaluated using routine clinical and administrative data? - a realist evaluation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riippa, Iiris; Kahilakoski, Olli-Pekka; Linna, Miika; Hietala, Minni

    2014-12-01

    Interventions aimed at improving chronic care typically consist of multiple interconnected parts, all of which are essential to the effect of the intervention. Limited attention has been paid to the use of routine clinical and administrative data in the evolution of these complex interventions. The purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility of routinely collected data when evaluating complex interventions and to demonstrate how a theory-based, realist approach to evaluation may increase the feasibility of routine data. We present a case study of evaluating a complex intervention, namely, the chronic care model (CCM), in Finnish primary health care. Issues typically faced when evaluating the effects of a complex intervention on health outcomes and resource use are identified by using routine data in a natural setting, and we apply context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) approach from the realist evaluation paradigm to improve the feasibility of using routine data in evaluating complex interventions. From an experimentalist approach that dominates the medical literature, routine data collected from a single centre offered a poor starting point for evaluating complex interventions. However, the CMO approach offered tools for identifying indicators needed to evaluate complex interventions. Applying the CMO approach can aid in a typical evaluation setting encountered by primary care managers: one in which the intervention is complex, the primary data source is routinely collected clinical and administrative data from a single centre, and in which randomization of patients into two research arms is too resource consuming to arrange. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Self-Organization during Friction in Complex Surface Engineered Tribosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben D. Beake

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-organization during friction in complex surface engineered tribosystems is investigated. The probability of self-organization in these complex tribosystems is studied on the basis of the theoretical concepts of irreversible thermodynamics. It is shown that a higher number of interrelated processes within the system result in an increased probability of self-organization. The results of this thermodynamic model are confirmed by the investigation of the wear performance of a novel Ti0.2Al0.55Cr0.2Si0.03Y0.02N/Ti0.25Al0.65Cr0.1N (PVD coating with complex nano-multilayered structure under extreme tribological conditions of dry high-speed end milling of hardened H13 tool steel.

  10. Antitussive pharmaceutical drugs administration in complex therapy of acute respiratory infections in children

    OpenAIRE

    Lokshina, E.; Zajtseva, O.

    2009-01-01

    There is considered the problem of treatment of cough in children with acute respiratory infections in article. In particular, the data on an effective administration of the domestic combined medication framed on basis of medicinal grasses with codeine in complex therapy of acute respiratory infections is presented.

  11. Organic complexing agents in low and medium level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, B.; Persson, G.

    1985-11-01

    Low and medium level radioactive wastes will contain various organic agents, such as ion exchange resins (mainly in the operational wastes), plastics and cellulose (mainly in the reprocessing wastes and in the decommissioning wastes) and bitumen (mainly in the reprocessing wastes). The degradation of these organics will lead to the formation of complexing agents that possibly could affect the release of radionuclides from an underground repository and the subsequent transport of these nuclides. The solution chemistry of the actinides may be totally dominated by the presence of such organic degradation products within the repository. However, hydrolysis and formation of carbonates (and possibly humates) will most likely dominate solubility and speciation outside the immediate vicinity of the repository. The minor quantities of strong complexing agents (in the reprocessing waste), notably aminopolycarboxylic acids (EDTA, DTPA) and possibly organic phosphates (DBP) could significantly affect speciation and sorption behaviour of primarily the trivalent actinides even outside the repository. (author)

  12. Guidelines and workbook for assessment of organization and administration of utilities seeking operating license for a nuclear power plant. Guidelines for utility organization and administration plan. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurber, J.A.; Olson, J.; Osborn, R.N.; Sommers, P.; Widrig, R.D.

    1985-08-01

    The Guidelines are intended to provide guidance to the user in preparing a written plan for a proposed nuclear organization and administration. The Guidelines allow for individual approaches to organizational structures to account for differences in plant size, number of operating units, number of plant sites, and the individual utility approach to providing technical support. These unique approaches, however, should meet the criteria of a reasoned, fully developed, and logically consistent focus on the user's organization in terms of organization of work, policies and procedures, staffing, and external relationships

  13. Metal–organic complexation in the marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witter Amy

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the voltammetric methods that are used to assess metal–organic complexation in seawater. These consist of titration methods using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV and cathodic stripping voltammetry competitive ligand experiments (CSV-CLE. These approaches and a kinetic approach using CSV-CLE give similar information on the amount of excess ligand to metal in a sample and the conditional metal ligand stability constant for the excess ligand bound to the metal. CSV-CLE data using different ligands to measure Fe(III organic complexes are similar. All these methods give conditional stability constants for which the side reaction coefficient for the metal can be corrected but not that for the ligand. Another approach, pseudovoltammetry, provides information on the actual metal–ligand complex(es in a sample by doing ASV experiments where the deposition potential is varied more negatively in order to destroy the metal–ligand complex. This latter approach gives concentration information on each actual ligand bound to the metal as well as the thermodynamic stability constant of each complex in solution when compared to known metal–ligand complexes. In this case the side reaction coefficients for the metal and ligand are corrected. Thus, this method may not give identical information to the titration methods because the excess ligand in the sample may not be identical to some of the actual ligands binding the metal in the sample.

  14. Administrative organization in diagnostic radiology residency program leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Grant R; Mullins, Mark E; Chen, Zhengjia; Meltzer, Carolyn C

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to document the current state of administrative structure in US diagnostic radiology (DR) residency program leadership. A secondary objective was to assess for correlation(s), if any, with DR residency programs that equipped positions such as assistant, associate, and emeritus program director (PD) with respect to residency size and region of the country. The Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database, as well as direct communication and programmatic Web site searches, were used to gather data regarding current US DR residency leadership. Data collected included the presence of additional leadership titles, including assistant PD, associate PD, and PD emeritus, and how many faculty members currently held each position. Programs were excluded if results could not be identified. Analysis of variance and t tests were used to estimate the correlations of the size of a residency with having additional or shared PD positions and the types of positions, respectively. Chi-square tests were used to assess for any regional differences. As of the time of this project, the Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database defined 186 US DR residency programs. A total of 173 programs (93%) were included in the analysis; the remainder were excluded because of unavailability of relevant data. Seventy-two percent (124 of 173) of programs had additional DR leadership positions. Of these, 30 programs (17%) had more than one such position. There were no significant differences in the sizes of the programs that used these additional positions (mean, 25 ± 12; range, 6-72) compared with those that did not (mean, 24 ± 12; range, 7-51). There were no significant differences between programs that had additional positions with respect to region of the country. The majority of US DR residency programs used some form of additional DR leadership position. In the majority of cases, this was in the form of an assistant or associate PD. Nearly one

  15. Toxicity of strontium-90 depending on the way of its administration to animal organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvedov, V.L.

    1978-01-01

    Toxicity of strontium-90 administered orally is almost thrice lower than that after parenteral administration. The values of the doses absorbed in the critical organ of rats, corresponding to LDsub(50/30), were 2400 to 2600 rad irrespective of the route of the radionuclide administration

  16. Prospects for the Development of Administration and Challenges for the Management of Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Angello Castro Ríos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Administration, as incipient science, presents a series of challenges to the organization’sdirector and for academy itself. The adaptation, the strategy, the communication skills andeven the ability to radiate in the organization in the organization a sense of accomplishment,are approaches that will shape the development of the organization and management as aset of knowledge that should facilitate the sustainability of the organization as a complexsystem.

  17. Potential Trace Metal–Organic Complexation in the Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Okochi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It is possible that metal–organic complexation enhances the uptake of gaseous organic compounds and the solubility of metals in aerosols and atmospheric water. We investigated potential atmospheric organic ligands and the enhanced uptake of hydroxy-, oxo-, and dicarboxylic acids as well as dicarbonyls into atmospheric aqueous aerosol. We examined complexation with transition metals (iron, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc and lead on the basis of available references and our experimental data. Humic-like substances are most likely ligands in the atmosphere, although this is a poorly characterized material. A number of polycarboxylic acids and hydroxy forms (e.g., citric and tartronic acids effectively complex metals such as copper in atmospheric aerosols. The simple equilibrium model calculations show that the effect of the complexation on the gas–aqueous phase partition of gaseous atmospheric ligands is quite small for the ligands with the high physical Henry’s law constants, e.g., dicarboxylic acids represented by oxalic acid, even if they have high affinity with metal ions. The lower Henry’s law constants of the α-dicarbonyls, such as glyoxal and methylglyoxal, mean that the complexation could lead to profound increases in their partition into the aqueous phase. Despite quantum mechanical arguments for copper–glyoxal complexes, experiments showed no evidence of complexation between either hydrated or unhydrated α-dicarbonyls and the cupric ion. By contrast the β-dicarbonyl, malondialdehyde, has properties that would allow it to partition into atmospheric water via the complexation with metal ions under some conditions.

  18. Communication Network Integration and Group Uniformity in a Complex Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danowski, James A.; Farace, Richard V.

    This paper contains a discussion of the limitations of research on group processes in complex organizations and the manner in which a procedure for network analysis in on-going systems can reduce problems. The research literature on group uniformity processes and on theoretical models of these processes from an information processing perspective…

  19. Complexity: the organizing principle at the interface of biological (dis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAMRAY BHAT

    2017-07-05

    Jul 5, 2017 ... opment of complexity theory in the context of biological systems. ... (DST), a mathematical enterprise that deals with the behaviour of ... and application of programming to trace the dynamical .... with the resultant organization being regulated by the ... more regular the pattern, the smaller the program needed.

  20. Structural complexities in the active layers of organic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephanie S; Loo, Yueh-Lin

    2010-01-01

    The field of organic electronics has progressed rapidly in recent years. However, understanding the direct structure-function relationships between the morphology in electrically active layers and the performance of devices composed of these materials has proven difficult. The morphology of active layers in organic electronics is inherently complex, with heterogeneities existing across multiple length scales, from subnanometer to micron and millimeter range. A major challenge still facing the organic electronics community is understanding how the morphology across all of the length scales in active layers collectively determines the device performance of organic electronics. In this review we highlight experiments that have contributed to the elucidation of structure-function relationships in organic electronics and also point to areas in which knowledge of such relationships is still lacking. Such knowledge will lead to the ability to select active materials on the basis of their inherent properties for the fabrication of devices with prespecified characteristics.

  1. Complex organic molecules in organic-poor massive young stellar objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayolle, Edith C.; Öberg, Karin I.; Garrod, Robin T.

    2015-01-01

    to search for complex organic molecules over 8-16 GHz in the 1 mm atmospheric window toward three MYSOs with known ice abundances, but without luminous molecular hot cores. Results. Complex molecules are detected toward all three sources at comparable abundances with respect to CH3OH to classical hot core......Context. Massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) with hot cores are classic sources of complex organic molecules. The origins of these molecules in such sources, as well as the small-and large-scale differentiation between nitrogen-and oxygen-bearing complex species, are poorly understood. Aims. We...... aim to use complex molecule abundances toward a chemically less explored class of MYSOs with weak hot organic emission lines to constrain the impact of hot molecular cores and initial ice conditions on the chemical composition toward MYSOs. Methods. We use the IRAM 30 m and the Submillimeter Array...

  2. Mitofilin complexes: conserved organizers of mitochondrial membrane architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbes, Ralf M; van der Klei, Ida J; Veenhuis, Marten; Pfanner, Nikolaus; van der Laan, Martin; Bohnert, Maria

    2012-11-01

    Mitofilin proteins are crucial organizers of mitochondrial architecture. They are located in the inner mitochondrial membrane and interact with several protein complexes of the outer membrane, thereby generating contact sites between the two membrane systems of mitochondria. Within the inner membrane, mitofilins are part of hetero-oligomeric protein complexes that have been termed the mitochondrial inner membrane organizing system (MINOS). MINOS integrity is required for the maintenance of the characteristic morphology of the inner mitochondrial membrane, with an inner boundary region closely apposed to the outer membrane and cristae membranes, which form large tubular invaginations that protrude into the mitochondrial matrix and harbor the enzyme complexes of the oxidative phosphorylation machinery. MINOS deficiency comes along with a loss of crista junction structures and the detachment of cristae from the inner boundary membrane. MINOS has been conserved in evolution from unicellular eukaryotes to humans, where alterations of MINOS subunits are associated with multiple pathological conditions.

  3. An Ontology for Modeling Complex Inter-relational Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wautelet, Yves; Neysen, Nicolas; Kolp, Manuel

    This paper presents an ontology for organizational modeling through multiple complementary aspects. The primary goal of the ontology is to dispose of an adequate set of related concepts for studying complex organizations involved in a lot of relationships at the same time. In this paper, we define complex organizations as networked organizations involved in a market eco-system that are playing several roles simultaneously. In such a context, traditional approaches focus on the macro analytic level of transactions; this is supplemented here with a micro analytic study of the actors' rationale. At first, the paper overviews enterprise ontologies literature to position our proposal and exposes its contributions and limitations. The ontology is then brought to an advanced level of formalization: a meta-model in the form of a UML class diagram allows to overview the ontology concepts and their relationships which are formally defined. Finally, the paper presents the case study on which the ontology has been validated.

  4. Measuring the Complexity of Self-Organizing Traffic Lights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Zubillaga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We apply measures of complexity, emergence, and self-organization to an urban traffic model for comparing a traditional traffic-light coordination method with a self-organizing method in two scenarios: cyclic boundaries and non-orientable boundaries. We show that the measures are useful to identify and characterize different dynamical phases. It becomes clear that different operation regimes are required for different traffic demands. Thus, not only is traffic a non-stationary problem, requiring controllers to adapt constantly; controllers must also change drastically the complexity of their behavior depending on the demand. Based on our measures and extending Ashby’s law of requisite variety, we can say that the self-organizing method achieves an adaptability level comparable to that of a living system.

  5. PARTICULARITIES OF THE ORGANIZATION OF LOCAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN ROMANIAN AND GREEK SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCUTARIU PETRONELA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The way the public administration is organized affects the progress of the national community, in general, and of the local communities, in particular. A good management of public affairs from territorial units is not possible without the organizational design of the local administrative mechanism. From such a way, the pages of this paper are devoted to the study in mirror of the organization way of the Romanian and Greek local administrative systems, both territorially and functionally. By examining the territorial and functional administrative organisation we highlighted the peculiarities encountered and we extracted the similarities and the differences in the two local public administrations taken into consideration. As a result of the investigations conducted we found that at the basis of both local administrations are found clear regulations that expressly provide the territorial and functional organisational bases; with reference to the territorial organisation, for both administrative systems we have identified a structure with three levels of government, the difference being given by the existence of other specific territorial divisions; regarding the organs through which is realised the management of public affairs, in both administrations we find own authorities for each of the levels of government; the duration of the mandate of the Romanian local administration authorities differs from the one of the Greek administration authorities; most of administrative authorities of the two systems are elected by direct vote and only for some of them the setting occurs through indirect voting or appointment. Overall, we found that, at least regarding the criteria analyzed, between the two local public administrations there are no consistent differences, the territorial and functional organisational specificities being similar in equal measure.

  6. Structuring the Administrative Organization of Local School Systems. Educational Research Service Circular No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC.

    This paper is intended to assist school administrators in improving existing school organizations. It discusses the nature of organizations, provides indicators of reorganization timing, and discusses the task of reorganization. A matrix chart, used to analyze and compare different organizational structures, is provided with explanations.…

  7. Evidence for organic complexed copper in sea water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slowey, J F; Jeffrey, L M; Hood, D W

    1967-04-22

    A few attempts have been made to characterize the chemical components contributing to the copper content of seawater. About 0.3 mu/liter of particulate copper in 2 stations in the English Channel and 15 mu/liter of ultrafilterable (10 mu) but non-dialyzable copper in a sample from Texas Bay has been reported. Also the evidence has been shown for copper in the organic form in waters of the Florida Current. The occasional presence of non- dialyzable copper for many samples from the Gulf of Mexico suggests that strongly complexed copper-organic compounds are present in seawater. This communication presents evidence for such complexes that are extractable into a nonpolar solvent in the absence of any added chelating agent. Preliminary results have shown that the copper- organic complex isolated by chloroform extraction occurs in the eighth fraction of the Hirsch and Ahrens lipid separation method using silica gel chromatography. This would indicate that copper complex is associated with the phospholipid, amino lipid, or porphyrin fraction of the lipids.

  8. Nuclear organization of the rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) amygdaloid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limacher-Burrell, Aude-Marie; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Gravett, Nadine; Maseko, Busisiwe C; Manger, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    The current study details the nuclear organization of the rock hyrax amygdaloid complex using both Nissl and myelin stains, along with a range of immunohistochemical stains. The rock hyrax appears to be the least derived of the Afrotherians, a group with a huge range of body phenotypes, life histories and specialized behaviours, brain sizes, and ecological niches. In this sense, the rock hyrax represents a species where the organization of the amygdaloid complex may be reflective of that in stem Eutherian mammals. Our analysis indicates that the nuclear organization of the rock hyrax amygdaloid complex is indeed very similar to that in other mammals studied, with four major nuclear groupings (the deep or basolateral group; the superficial or cortical-like or corticomedial group; the centromedial group; and the other amygdaloid nuclei) being observed, which is typical of Eutherian mammals. Moreover, each of these groupings is composed of several nuclei, the vast majority of which were readily identified in the rock hyrax. Small nuclei identified in rodents and primates were absent in the superficial and centromedial groups, seemingly involved with olfaction. A novel shell-like nucleus of the accessory basal nuclear cluster was observed in the rock hyrax, again, likely to be involved in olfaction. The current study underlines the conserved nature of nuclear parcellation in the Eutherian mammal amygdaloid complex and indicates that across most species, the flow of information processing related to species-specific affective-laden stimuli and the resultant physiological and behavioural outcomes are likely to be similar across species.

  9. Technetium Chemistry in HLW: Role of Organic Complexants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Nancy J.; Blanchard, David L. Jr.; Campbell, James A.; Cho, Herman M.; Rai, Dhanpat Rai; Xia, Yuanxian; Conradson, Steven D.

    2002-01-01

    Technetium complexation with organic compounds in tank waste plays a significant role in the redox chemistry of Tc and the partitioning of Tc between the supernatant and sludge components in waste tanks. These processes need to be understood so that strategies to effectively remove Tc from high-level nuclear waste prior to waste immobilization can be developed and so that longterm consequences of Tc remaining in residual waste after sludge removal can be evaluated. Only limited data on the stability of Tc-organic complexes exists, and even less thermodynamic data on which to develop predictive models of Tc chemical behavior is available. To meet these challenges, we present a research program to study Tc-speciation in actual tank waste using state-of-the-art analytical organic chemistry, separations, and speciation techniques. On the basis of such studies, we will acquire thermodynamic data for the identified Tc-organic complexes over a wide range of chemical conditions in order to develop credible models to predict Tc speciation in tank waste and Tc behavior during waste pretreatment processing and in waste tank residuals

  10. Tc Chemistry in HLW: Role of Organic Complexants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Nancy S.; Conradsen, Steven D.

    2003-01-01

    Tc complexation with organic compounds in tank waste plays a significant role in the redox chemistry of Tc and the partitioning of Tc between the supernatant and sludge components in waste tanks. These processes need to be understood so that strategies to effectively remove Tc from high-level nuclear waste prior to waste immobilization can be developed and so that long-term consequences of Tc remaining in residual waste after sludge removal can be evaluated. Only limited data on the stability of Tc-organic complexes exists and even less thermodynamic data on which to develop predictive models of Tc chemical behavior is available. To meet these challenges we are conducting a research program to study to develop thermodynamic data on Tc-organic complexation over a wide range of chemical conditions. We will attempt to characterize Tc-speciation in actual tank waste using state-of-the-art analytical organic chemistry, separations, and speciation techniques to validate our model. On the basis of such studies we will develop credible model of Tc chemistry in HLW that will allow prediction of Tc speciation in tank waste and Tc behavior during waste pretreatment processing and in waste tank residuals

  11. Complexity in plasma: From self-organization to geodynamo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.

    1996-01-01

    A central theme of open-quote open-quote Complexity close-quote close-quote is the question of the creation of ordered structure in nature (self-organization). The assertion is made that self-organization is governed by three key processes, i.e., energy pumping, entropy expulsion and nonlinearity. Extensive efforts have been done to confirm this assertion through computer simulations of plasmas. A system exhibits markedly different features in self-organization, depending on whether the energy pumping is instantaneous or continuous, or whether the produced entropy is expulsed or reserved. The nonlinearity acts to bring a nonequilibrium state into a bifurcation, thus resulting in a new structure along with an anomalous entropy production. As a practical application of our grand view of self-organization a preferential generation of a dipole magnetic field is successfully demonstrated. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  12. The complex use of religion in decisions on organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2009-03-01

    Because of its existential character, organ transplantation is strongly connected to a person's view of life. This article describes how participants in a focus group use religious elements in decision-making on transplantation medicine in four European countries. Further these findings are related to two influential theologians: James Gustafson and Paul Ramsey, and their thinking on the role of religion in medical ethics. Both participants' and theologians' use of religious elements is complex, and show significant variety in regard to both content and form. Decisions in transplantation medicine would benefit from considering the complexity of religious views when striving for informed consent as participative involvement.

  13. Emergence of complex chemistry on an organic monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Leonard J

    2015-07-21

    In many origin-of-life scenarios, inorganic materials, such as FeS or mineral clays, play an important role owing to their ability to concentrate and select small organic molecules on their surface and facilitate their chemical transformations into new molecules. However, considering that life is made up of organic matter, at a certain stage during the evolution the role of the inorganic material must have been taken over by organic molecules. How this exactly happened is unclear, and, indeed, a big gap separates the rudimentary level of organization involving inorganic materials and the complex organization of cells, which are the building blocks of life. Over the past years, we have extensively studied the interaction of small molecules with monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) for the purpose of developing innovative sensing and catalytic systems. During the course of these studies, we realized that the functional role of this system is very similar to that typically attributed to inorganic surfaces in the early stages of life, with the important being difference that the functional properties (molecular recognition, catalysis, signaling, adaptation) originate entirely from the organic monolayer rather than the inorganic support. This led us to the proposition that this system may serve as a model that illustrates how the important role of inorganic surfaces in dictating chemical processes in the early stages of life may have been taken over by organic matter. Here, we reframe our previously obtained results in the context of the origin-of-life question. The following functional roles of Au NPs will be discussed: the ability to concentrate small molecules and create different local populations, the ability to catalyze the chemical transformation of bound molecules, and, finally, the ability to install rudimentary signaling pathways and display primitive adaptive behavior. In particular, we will show that many of the functional properties of the system

  14. Complexity in plasma. A grand view of self-organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tetsuya.

    1994-11-01

    The central theme of the Complexity is the inquest of the creation of ordered structure in nature. Extensive computer simulations on plasmas have revealed that self-organization is governed by the three key processes, i.e. energy pumping, entropy expulsion and nonlinearity. A system exhibits characteristically different self-organization, depending on whether the energy pumping is instantaneous or continuous, or whether the produced entropy is expulsed or reserved. The nonlinearity acts to bring a nonequilibrium state into a bifurcation, thus resulting in a new structure along with an anomalous entropy production. (author)

  15. FORECAST, ORGANIZATION-COORDINATION AND MOTIVATION IN LOCAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela\tSCUTARIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The proper functioning of local administrative system is not possible without the exercise of the functions of local public administration management. From such a direction, in this article we intend to analyze the contents of the functions of forecast, of organization-coordination and of motivation, in order to show how each of these contributes to good management of local public affairs. Defining the mission, the objectives of local government and the actions to be taken to achieve them, the design and harmonization of optimal local organizational structure components to achieve preset objectives, but also the human resources training from local public administration to use their skills and capacities towards achieving the objectives of the local public organization contribute to improving the local administrative process with effect on satisfying the interests of the local community

  16. FORECAST, ORGANIZATION-COORDINATION AND MOTIVATION IN LOCAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Petronela SCUTARIU

    2015-01-01

    The proper functioning of local administrative system is not possible without the exercise of the functions of local public administration management. From such a direction, in this article we intend to analyze the contents of the functions of forecast, of organization-coordination and of motivation, in order to show how each of these contributes to good management of local public affairs. Defining the mission, the objectives of local government and the actions to be taken to achieve them, th...

  17. Self-organized topology of recurrence-based complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hui; Liu, Gang

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid technological advancement, network is almost everywhere in our daily life. Network theory leads to a new way to investigate the dynamics of complex systems. As a result, many methods are proposed to construct a network from nonlinear time series, including the partition of state space, visibility graph, nearest neighbors, and recurrence approaches. However, most previous works focus on deriving the adjacency matrix to represent the complex network and extract new network-theoretic measures. Although the adjacency matrix provides connectivity information of nodes and edges, the network geometry can take variable forms. The research objective of this article is to develop a self-organizing approach to derive the steady geometric structure of a network from the adjacency matrix. We simulate the recurrence network as a physical system by treating the edges as springs and the nodes as electrically charged particles. Then, force-directed algorithms are developed to automatically organize the network geometry by minimizing the system energy. Further, a set of experiments were designed to investigate important factors (i.e., dynamical systems, network construction methods, force-model parameter, nonhomogeneous distribution) affecting this self-organizing process. Interestingly, experimental results show that the self-organized geometry recovers the attractor of a dynamical system that produced the adjacency matrix. This research addresses a question, i.e., “what is the self-organizing geometry of a recurrence network?” and provides a new way to reproduce the attractor or time series from the recurrence plot. As a result, novel network-theoretic measures (e.g., average path length and proximity ratio) can be achieved based on actual node-to-node distances in the self-organized network topology. The paper brings the physical models into the recurrence analysis and discloses the spatial geometry of recurrence networks

  18. A Proposal for Romania’s Administrative Organization Based on Functional Relations in the Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SĂGEATĂ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Having in view the low absorption of European funds, it is extremely necessary to have a regional administrative system put in place. The present paper, based on a many-sided critical study of functional relations among human settlements, offers a viable alternative to current controversies concerning Romania’s administrative- territorial organization. Proceeding from regional, county and local polarization cores, a four-level type of regional administration has been devised, namely, the region, the county, the small rural district (Rom. plasă and the town/commune, among which clear-cut hierarchical relations of decentralization and concentration of services are to be established. What has emerged is a number of eleven administrative- territorial structures worth being vested with regional administrative status. These structures are based on the historical regions developed over time as homogeneous mental and functional spaces.

  19. RATING MODELS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES APPLICATION FOR MANAGEMENT OF ADMINISTRATIVE-TERRITORIAL COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pshinko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper aims to develop rating models and related information technologies designed to resolve the tasks of strategic planning of the administrative and territorial units’ development, as well as the tasks of multi-criteria control of inhomogeneous multiparameter objects operation. Methodology. When solving problems of strategic planning of administrative and territorial development and heterogeneous classes management of objects under control, a set of agreed methods is used. Namely the multi-criteria properties analysis for objects of planning and management, diagnostics of the state parameters, forecasting and management of complex systems of different classes. Their states are estimated by sets of different quality indicators, as well as represented by the individual models of operation process. A new information technology is proposed and created to implement the strategic planning and management tasks. This technology uses the procedures for solving typical tasks, that are implemented in MS SQL Server. Findings. A new approach to develop models of analyze and management of complex systems classes based on the ratings has been proposed. Rating models development for analysis of multicriteria and multiparameter systems has been obtained. The management of these systems is performed on the base of parameters of the current and predicted state by non-uniform distribution of resources. The procedure of sensitivity analysis of the changes in the rating model of inhomogeneous distribution of resources parameters has been developed. The information technology of strategic planning and management of heterogeneous classes of objects based on the rating model has been created. Originality. This article proposes a new approach of the rating indicators’ using as a general model for strategic planning of the development and management of heterogeneous objects that can be characterized by the sets of parameters measured on different scales

  20. An efficient link prediction index for complex military organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Changjun; Liu, Zhong; Lu, Xin; Xiu, Baoxin; Chen, Qing

    2017-03-01

    Quality of information is crucial for decision-makers to judge the battlefield situations and design the best operation plans, however, real intelligence data are often incomplete and noisy, where missing links prediction methods and spurious links identification algorithms can be applied, if modeling the complex military organization as the complex network where nodes represent functional units and edges denote communication links. Traditional link prediction methods usually work well on homogeneous networks, but few for the heterogeneous ones. And the military network is a typical heterogeneous network, where there are different types of nodes and edges. In this paper, we proposed a combined link prediction index considering both the nodes' types effects and nodes' structural similarities, and demonstrated that it is remarkably superior to all the 25 existing similarity-based methods both in predicting missing links and identifying spurious links in a real military network data; we also investigated the algorithms' robustness under noisy environment, and found the mistaken information is more misleading than incomplete information in military areas, which is different from that in recommendation systems, and our method maintained the best performance under the condition of small noise. Since the real military network intelligence must be carefully checked at first due to its significance, and link prediction methods are just adopted to purify the network with the left latent noise, the method proposed here is applicable in real situations. In the end, as the FINC-E model, here used to describe the complex military organizations, is also suitable to many other social organizations, such as criminal networks, business organizations, etc., thus our method has its prospects in these areas for many tasks, like detecting the underground relationships between terrorists, predicting the potential business markets for decision-makers, and so on.

  1. Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Diodes Implementing Platinum Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecton, Jeremy Exton

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are a promising approach for display and solid state lighting applications. However, further work is needed in establishing the availability of efficient and stable materials for OLEDs with high external quantum efficiency's (EQE) and high operational lifetimes. Recently, significant improvements in the internal quantum efficiency or ratio of generated photons to injected electrons have been achieved with the advent of phosphorescent complexes with the ability to harvest both singlet and triplet excitons. Since then, a variety of phosphorescent complexes containing heavy metal centers including Os, Ni, Ir, Pd, and Pt have been developed. Thus far, the majority of the work in the field has focused on iridium based complexes. Platinum based complexes, however, have received considerably less attention despite demonstrating efficiency's equal to or better than their iridium analogs. In this study, a series of OLEDs implementing newly developed platinum based complexes were demonstrated with efficiency's or operational lifetimes equal to or better than their iridium analogs for select cases. In addition to demonstrating excellent device performance in OLEDs, platinum based complexes exhibit unique photophysical properties including the ability to form excimer emission capable of generating broad white light emission from a single emitter and the ability to form narrow band emission from a rigid, tetradentate molecular structure for select cases. These unique photophysical properties were exploited and their optical and electrical properties in a device setting were elucidated. Utilizing the unique properties of a tridentate Pt complex, Pt-16, a highly efficient white device employing a single emissive layer exhibited a peak EQE of over 20% and high color quality with a CRI of 80 and color coordinates CIE(x=0.33, y=0.33). Furthermore, by employing a rigid, tetradentate platinum complex, PtN1N, with a narrow band emission into a

  2. Organic analyses of an actual and simulated mixed waste. Hanford's organic complexant waste revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toste, A.P.; Osborn, B.C.; Polach, K.J.; Lechner-Fish, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Reanalysis of the organics in a mixed waste, an organic complexant waste, from the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, has yielded an 80.4% accounting of the waste's total organic content. In addition to several complexing and chelating agents (citrate, EDTA, HEDTA and NTA), 38 chelator/complexor fragments have been identified, compared to only 11 in the original analysis, all presumably formed via organic degradation. Moreover, a mis identification, methanetricarboxylic acid, has been re-identified as the chelator fragment N-(methylamine)imino-diacetic acid (MAIDA). A nonradioactive simulant of the actual waste, containing the parent organics (citrate, EDTA, HEDTA and NTA), was formulated and stored in the dark at ambient temperature for 90 days. Twenty chelator and complexor fragments were identified in the simulant, along with several carboxylic acids, confirming that myriad chelator and complexor fragments are formed via degradation of the parent organics. Moreover, their abundance in the simulant (60.9% of the organics identified) argues that the harsh chemistries of mixed wastes like Hanford's organic degradation, even in the absence of radiation. (author). 26 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Geomorphology and landscape organization of a northern peatland complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    The geomorphic evolution of northern peatlands is governed by complex ecohydrological feedback mechanisms and associated hydro-climatic drivers. For example, prevailing models of bog development (i.e. Ingram's groundwater mounding hypothesis and variants) attempt to explicitly link bog dome characteristics to the regional climate based on analytical and numerical models of lateral groundwater flow and the first-order control of water table position on rates of peat accumulation. In this talk I will present new results from quantitative geomorphic analyses of a northern peatland complex at the De Beers Victor diamond mine site in the Hudson Bay Lowlands of northern Ontario. This work capitalizes on spatially-extensive, high-resolution topographic (LiDAR) data to rigorously test analytical and numerical models of bog dome development in this landscape. The analysis and discussion are then expanded beyond individual bog formations to more broadly consider ecohydrological drivers of landscape organization, with implications for understanding and modeling catchment-scale runoff response. Results show that in this landscape, drainage patterns exhibit relatively well-organized characteristics consistent with observed runoff responses in six gauged research catchments. Interpreted together, the results of these geomorphic and hydrologic analyses help refine our understanding of water balance partitioning among different landcover types within northern peatland complexes. These findings can be used to help guide the development of appropriate numerical model structures for hydrologic prediction in ungauged peatland basins of northern Canada.

  4. Mercury reduction and complexation by natural organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Baohua; Bian, Yongrong; Miller, Carrie L.; Dong, Wenming; Jiang, Xin; Liang, Liyuan

    2011-01-01

    Mercuric Hg(II) species form complexes with natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) such as humic acid (HA), and this binding is known to affect the chemical and biological transformation and cycling of mercury in aquatic environments. Dissolved elemental mercury, Hg(0), is also widely observed in sediments and water. However, reactions between Hg(0) and DOM have rarely been studied in anoxic environments. Here, under anoxic dark conditions we show strong interactions between reduced HA and Hg(0) through thiol-ligand induced oxidative complexation with an estimated binding capacity of about 3.5 umol Hg(0)/g HA and a partitioning coefficient greater than 10 6 mL/g. We further demonstrate that Hg(II) can be effectively reduced to Hg(0) in the presence of as little as 0.2 mg/L reduced HA, whereas production of purgeable Hg(0) is inhibited by complexation as HA concentration increases. This dual role played by DOM in the reduction and complexation of mercury is likely widespread in anoxic sediments and water and can be expected to significantly influence the mercury species transformations and biological uptake that leads to the formation of toxic methylmercury.

  5. Predicting Complex Organic Molecule Emission from TW Hya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissapragada, Shreyas; Walsh, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has significantly increased our ability to observe the rich chemical inventory of star and planet formation. ALMA has recently been used to detect CH3OH (methanol) and CH3CN (methyl cyanide) in protoplanetary disks; these molecules may be vital indicators of the complex organic ice reservoir in the comet-forming zone. We have constructed a physiochemical model of TW Hya, a well-studied protoplanetary disk, to explore the different formation mechanisms of complex ices. By running our model through a radiative transfer code and convolving with beam sizes appropriate for ALMA, we have obtained synthetic observations of methanol and methyl cyanide. Here, we compare and comment on these synthetic observations, and provide astrochemical justification for their spatial distributions.

  6. A divergent heritage for complex organics in Isheyevo lithic clasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kooten, Elishevah M.M.E.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Kasama, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    enrichments in 15N believed to be of outer Solar System origin. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM-EELS) and in situ isotope analyses (SIMS and NanoSIMS), we report on the structure of the organic matter as well as the bulk H and N isotope composition of Isheyevo lithic clasts. These data......, we speculate on the accretion regions of the various primitive chondrites and components and the origin of the Solar System’s N and H isotope variability.......Primitive meteorites are samples of asteroidal bodies that contain a high proportion of chemically complex organic matter (COM) including prebiotic molecules such as amino acids, which are thought to have been delivered to Earth via impacts during the early history of the Solar System. Thus...

  7. Compliance and High Reliability in a Complex Healthcare Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Maxine dellaBadia

    2018-01-01

    When considering the impact of regulation on healthcare, visualize a spider's web. The spider weaves sections together to create the whole, with each fiber adding to the structure to support its success or lead to its failure. Each section is dependent on the others, and all must be aligned to maintain the structure. Outside forces can cause a shift in the web's fragile equilibrium.The interdependence of the sections of the spider's web is similar to the way hospital departments and services work together. An organization's structure must be shaped to support its mission and vision. At the same time, the business of healthcare requires the development and achievement of operational objectives and financial performance goals. Establishing a culture that is flexible enough to permit creativity, provide resiliency, and manage complexity as the organization grows is fundamental to success. An organization must address each of these factors while maintaining stability, carrying out its mission, and fostering improvement.Nature's order maintains the spider's web. Likewise, regulation can strengthen healthcare organizations by initiating disruptive changes that can support efforts to achieve and sustain high reliability in the delivery of care. To that end, leadership must be willing to provide the necessary vision and resources.

  8. Investigation into organic boron compounds complexing. 25. Triaryl borane complexes with benzimidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belonovich, M I; Lapkin, I I; Morozova, T L; Okatysheva, L Yu; Rybakova, M N; Yuzhakova, G A [Permskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR)

    1984-02-01

    Coordination of organic boron compounds with heterocyclic ligands is studied. Substances containing one molecule of ligand per one molecule of triarylborane are extracted when mixing ether solution of triarylborane and alcohol solution of benzimidazole. Based on IR spectra it is stated that coordination with boron is realized at the expense of pyridine nitrogen atom of imidazole cycle. Dipole momenta are determined for synthesized complexes using Debye method.

  9. 7 CFR 226.12 - Administrative payments to sponsoring organizations for day care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... amount of administrative payments and food service payments for day care home operations. (b) Start-up... for day care homes. 226.12 Section 226.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... day care homes. (a) General. Sponsoring organizations for day care homes shall receive payments for...

  10. PRINCIPLES OF THE EUROPEAN ADMINISTRATIVE SPACE AND THEIR IMPACT ON PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ema Cioclea

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is interested in ensuring that each national administration offers comparable administrative capacity through quality of public services and professionalism from the civil servants. At the same time, the European states are characterised by long and varied institutional histories, with different trajectories in their evolution. That is why, public administration structures and regulations vary among the Member States and a set of common principles can guide them towards administrative convergence and performance. This paper aims to analyze the shared principles of a common European Administrative Space and also to address the link between these principles and the performance of public institutions from a managerial point of view. The study is based on review and analysis of academic research, government documents and personal perspectives, extracting and linking key findings from existing research and practice. The paper argues that managerial theories on performance are compatible with public administration organizations and some of the criteria are common to those promoted by the principles of the European Administrative Space.

  11. Selfish cellular networks and the evolution of complex organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourilsky, Philippe

    2012-03-01

    Human gametogenesis takes years and involves many cellular divisions, particularly in males. Consequently, gametogenesis provides the opportunity to acquire multiple de novo mutations. A significant portion of these is likely to impact the cellular networks linking genes, proteins, RNA and metabolites, which constitute the functional units of cells. A wealth of literature shows that these individual cellular networks are complex, robust and evolvable. To some extent, they are able to monitor their own performance, and display sufficient autonomy to be termed "selfish". Their robustness is linked to quality control mechanisms which are embedded in and act upon the individual networks, thereby providing a basis for selection during gametogenesis. These selective processes are equally likely to affect cellular functions that are not gamete-specific, and the evolution of the most complex organisms, including man, is therefore likely to occur via two pathways: essential housekeeping functions would be regulated and evolve during gametogenesis within the parents before being transmitted to their progeny, while classical selection would operate on other traits of the organisms that shape their fitness with respect to the environment. Copyright © 2012 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. A divergent heritage for complex organics in Isheyevo lithic clasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kooten, Elishevah M. M. E.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Kasama, Takeshi; Wampfler, Susanne F.; Ramsey, Jon P.; Frimann, Søren; Balogh, Zoltan I.; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel P.; Franchi, Ian A.; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Krot, Alexander N.; Bizzarro, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Primitive meteorites are samples of asteroidal bodies that contain a high proportion of chemically complex organic matter (COM) including prebiotic molecules such as amino acids, which are thought to have been delivered to Earth via impacts during the early history of the Solar System. Thus, understanding the origin of COM, including their formation pathway(s) and environment(s), is critical to elucidate the origin of life on Earth as well as assessing the potential habitability of exoplanetary systems. The Isheyevo CH/CBb carbonaceous chondrite contains chondritic lithic clasts with variable enrichments in 15N believed to be of outer Solar System origin. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM-EELS) and in situ isotope analyses (SIMS and NanoSIMS), we report on the structure of the organic matter as well as the bulk H and N isotope composition of Isheyevo lithic clasts. These data are complemented by electron microprobe analyses of the clast mineral chemistry and bulk Mg and Cr isotopes obtained by inductively coupled plasma and thermal ionization mass spectrometry, respectively (MC-ICPMS and TIMS). Weakly hydrated (A) clasts largely consist of Mg-rich anhydrous silicates with local hydrated veins composed of phyllosilicates, magnetite and globular and diffuse organic matter. Extensively hydrated clasts (H) are thoroughly hydrated and contain Fe-sulfides, sometimes clustered with organic matter, as well as magnetite and carbonates embedded in a phyllosilicate matrix. The A-clasts are characterized by a more 15N-rich bulk nitrogen isotope composition (δ15N = 200-650‰) relative to H-clasts (δ15N = 50-180‰) and contain extremely 15N-rich domains with δ15N < 5000‰. The D/H ratios of the clasts are correlated with the degree of clast hydration and define two distinct populations, which we interpret as reflecting mixing between D-poor fluid(s) and distinct organic endmember components that are variably D-rich. High-resolution N isotope data of 15N

  13. Social behavior of bacteria: from physics to complex organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Jacob, E.

    2008-10-01

    I describe how bacteria develop complex colonial patterns by utilizing intricate communication capabilities, such as quorum sensing, chemotactic signaling and exchange of genetic information (plasmids) Bacteria do not store genetically all the information required for generating the patterns for all possible environments. Instead, additional information is cooperatively generated as required for the colonial organization to proceed. Each bacterium is, by itself, a biotic autonomous system with its own internal cellular informatics capabilities (storage, processing and assessments of information). These afford the cell certain plasticity to select its response to biochemical messages it receives, including self-alteration and broadcasting messages to initiate alterations in other bacteria. Hence, new features can collectively emerge during self-organization from the intra-cellular level to the whole colony. Collectively bacteria store information, perform decision make decisions (e.g. to sporulate) and even learn from past experience (e.g. exposure to antibiotics)-features we begin to associate with bacterial social behavior and even rudimentary intelligence. I also take Schrdinger’s’ “feeding on negative entropy” criteria further and propose that, in addition organisms have to extract latent information embedded in the environment. By latent information we refer to the non-arbitrary spatio-temporal patterns of regularities and variations that characterize the environmental dynamics. In other words, bacteria must be able to sense the environment and perform internal information processing for thriving on latent information embedded in the complexity of their environment. I then propose that by acting together, bacteria can perform this most elementary cognitive function more efficiently as can be illustrated by their cooperative behavior.

  14. SYSTEM OF COMPLEX EVALUATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF IN THE UNIVERSITY: PRACTICE AND FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Myalkina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the problem of assessing the administrative staff of an educational organization of higher education is becoming increasingly important, as the competence, effectiveness and loyalty of staff is becoming an increasingly important factor and competitive advantage in the face of financial and resource constraints in the activities of universities. Traditional approaches to assessing the performance of employees give way to individual accounting of achievements and flexible regulation of material incentives for each employee.Materials and Methods: the article summarizes the experience and methods of personnel assessment as a key factor in the implementation of personnel policy and optimization of the personnel management system; the review of already applied methods of an estimation of scientific and pedagogical workers of high school is presented; a description of the methodology for a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of the administrative and management staff of the university, based on performance indicators and job descriptions, as well as performance and effectiveness indicators (KPI.Results:  the article presents the results obtained in the implementation of the pilot project for the comprehensive assessment of the administrative staff of the Minin University, a system for assessing administrative personnel is described, taking into account the quality of the execution of job descriptions and the performance indicators of each employee. Based on the evaluations of employees, an assessment of the structural units was carried out.Discussion and Conclusions: based on the results of the pilot project, a set of methods for assessing personnel in the personnel work system of the university is proposed, which ensures the quality, efficiency, loyalty and systematic individual development of the university staff. The assessment of the administrative and managerial staff allows us to conclude that this methodology can be used

  15. Citizens’ Perceptions on Social Responsibility in Public Administration Organizations: A Case Study on Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis VÁZQUEZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes citizens’ expectations on social responsibility of public administration organizations in comparison to other public and private organizations, and argues that the mission attributed to different institutions in society might guide citizens’ perceptions and thresholds of satisfaction with sustainability standards. Three different survey studies were carried out to analyze citizens’ expectations of social responsibility of public administration organizations, private companies and a public university in the same Spanish region. A list of indicators defining internal and external social responsibility practices was developed to compare expectations in the three institutional contexts, and MANOVA was used to test differences between participants in the three surveys. Results support the notion that citizens’ expectations of social responsibility are related to perceived organizational goals in private and public contexts and the specific dimension of responsibility considered. Particularly, participants displayed higher expectations of external social responsibility in public administration organizations than in private companies and the public university analyzed, whereas citizens’ expectations of internal social responsibility were more homogeneous in public and private contexts. Implications of the study and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  16. Complexity Analysis of Industrial Organizations Based on a Perspective of Systems Engineering Analysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. H. Garbie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Complexity in industrial organizations became more difficult and complex to be solved and it needs more attention from academicians and technicians. For these reasons, complexity in industrial organizations represents a new challenge in the next decades. Until now, analysis of industrial organizations complexity is still remaining a research topic of immense international interest and they require reduction in their complexity. In this paper, analysis of complexity in industrial organizations is shown based on the perspective of systems engineering analyst. In this perspective, analysis of complexity was divided into different levels and these levels were defined as complexity levels. A framework of analyzing these levels was proposed and suggested based on the complexity in industrial organizations. This analysis was divided into four main issues: industrial system vision, industrial system structure, industrial system operating, and industrial system evaluating. This analysis shows that the complexity of industrial organizations is still an ill-structured and a multi-dimensional problem.

  17. Understanding implementation in complex public organizations – implication for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gry Cecilie Høiland

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effective implementation of politically initiated public service innovations to the front-lines of the public service organization, where the innovation is to be applied, is a challenge that both practitioners and researchers struggle to solve. We highlight the importance of analysing contextual factors at several levels of the implementation system, as well as the importance of considering how the practical everyday work situations of the front-line workers influence their application of the innovation in question. We illustrate this by exploring the implementation process of a specific work inclusion measure, looking at its wider context and some of its implementation outcomes at a specific public agency. The intention is to illustrate the significance of considering the contextual complexity influencing implementation work as a reminder for practitioners to take this into account in their planning and practices.

  18. Chronic organic manganese administration in the rat does not damage dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, V W; Perry, T L; Godolphin, W J; Jones, K A; Clavier, R M; Ito, M; Foulks, J G

    1986-01-01

    In an attempt to produce an animal model of Parkinson's disease, we injected rats repeatedly with high doses of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), a compound which has been reported to lower striatal dopamine content in mice. Chronic MMT administration for up to 5 months, even though it produced a substantial elevation in brain manganese content during the period of exposure, did not destroy dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. This was assessed by measurements of tyrosine hydroxylase activity and contents of dopamine and its metabolites in the striatum, and by histological examination of the substantia nigra. Our results differ from those of others who administered manganese chloride in drinking water to rats. This discrepancy is unlikely to be a consequence of differences in duration of exposure or route of administration. It could be due to our having used an organic rather than an inorganic manganese compound, or to a species difference in vulnerability to organic manganese between rats and mice.

  19. Structural organization and spectroscopy of peptide-actinide(IV) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahou, S.

    2010-01-01

    The contamination of living organisms by actinide elements is at the origin of both radiological and chemical toxicity that may lead to severe dysfunction. Most of the data available on the actinide interaction with biological systems are macroscopic physiological measurements and are lacking a molecular description of the systems. Because of the intricacy of these systems, classical biochemical methods are difficult to implement. Our strategy consisted in designing simplified biomimetic peptides, and describing the corresponding intramolecular interactions with actinides. A carboxylic pentapeptide of the form DDPDD has been at the starting point of this work in order to further assess the influence of the peptide sequence on the topology of the complexes.To do so, various linear (Asp/Ala permutations, peptoids) and cyclic analogues have been synthesized. Furthermore, in order to include the hydroxamic function (with a high affinity for Fe(III)) in the peptide, both desferrioxamine and acetohydroxamic acid have been investigated. However because of difficulties in synthesis, we have not been able to test these peptides. Three actinide cations have been considered at oxidation state +IV (Th, Np, Pu) and compared to Fe(III), often considered as a biological surrogate of Pu(IV). The spatial arrangement of the peptide around the cation has been probed by spectrophotometry and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. The spectroscopic data and EXAFS data adjustment lead us to rationalize the topology of the complexes as a function of the peptide sequence: mix hydroxy polynuclear species for linear and cyclic peptides, mononuclear for the desferrioxamine complexes. Furthermore, significant differences have appeared between Fe(III) and actinide(IV), related to differences of reactivity in aqueous medium. (author)

  20. Redefining the modular organization of the core Mediator complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejuan; Sun, Qianqian; Ding, Zhenrui; Ji, Jinhua; Wang, Jianye; Kong, Xiao; Yang, Jianghong; Cai, Gang

    2014-07-01

    The Mediator complex plays an essential role in the regulation of eukaryotic transcription. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae core Mediator comprises 21 subunits, which are organized into Head, Middle and Tail modules. Previously, the Head module was assigned to a distinct dense domain at the base, and the Middle and Tail modules were identified to form a tight structure above the Head module, which apparently contradicted findings from many biochemical and functional studies. Here, we compared the structures of the core Mediator and its subcomplexes, especially the first 3D structure of the Head + Middle modules, which permitted an unambiguous assignment of the three modules. Furthermore, nanogold labeling pinpointing four Mediator subunits from different modules conclusively validated the modular assignment, in which the Head and Middle modules fold back on one another and form the upper portion of the core Mediator, while the Tail module forms a distinct dense domain at the base. The new modular model of the core Mediator has reconciled the previous inconsistencies between the structurally and functionally defined Mediator modules. Collectively, these analyses completely redefine the modular organization of the core Mediator, which allow us to integrate the structural and functional information into a coherent mechanism for the Mediator's modularity and regulation in transcription initiation.

  1. Estimate of the absorbed dose in the mouse organs and tissues after tritium administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masahiro

    2000-01-01

    Chronic and accidental release of tritium from future fusion facilities may cause some extent of hazardous effect to the public health. Various experiments using small animals such as mice have been performed to mimic the dose accumulation due to tritium intake by the human body. An difficulty in such animal experiments using small animals is that it is rather difficult to administer tritium orally and estimate the dose to small organs or tissues. In the course of our study, a simple method to administer THO and T-labeled amino acids orally to the mouse was dictated and dose accumulation in various organs and tissues was determined. The tritium retention in the bone marrow was also determined using the micro-centrifuge method. Throughout our experiment, colony-bred DDY mice were used. The 8-10 week old male mice were orally and intraperitoneally administered THO water or T-amino acids mixture solution. For the purpose of oral administration, a 10 μl aliquot of T-containing saline solution was placed on the tongue of the mice using an automatic micropipette. At various times after tritium administration, the animals were sacrificed and the amount of tritium in various tissues and organs including bone marrow was examined. Dose accumulation pattern after THO intake and T-amino acids was compared between intraperitoneal injection and oral administration. The accumulated dose after oral administration of THO exhibited a tendency to be 10-20% higher than after intraperitoneal injection. The bone marrow dose after oral intake of THO was found to be lower than the doses to urine, blood, liver and testis. In contrast, the blood dose gave a conservative estimate for the dose to the other tissues and organs. (author)

  2. Radio catalysis application in degradation of complex organic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno L, A.

    2014-01-01

    The generation of wastewater is a consequence of human activities, industries to be the generators of a large part of these discharges. These contaminated waters can be processed for their remediation; however the recalcitrant organic compounds are hardly removed through conventional treatments applied, so that new technologies have been developed for disposal such as the advanced oxidation technologies or processes. With the aim of the study is to apply ionizing radiation as a method of remediation in wastewater, in this work were carried out experiments of radiolysis and radio catalysis, which are techniques considered advanced oxidation technologies, that consist in irradiate with 60 Co gamma radiation solutions of 4- chloro phenol and methylene blue, applied at different concentrations and using as process control measurements of the compound not degraded by UV-vis spectrophotometry at 507 and 664 nm for 4-chloro phenol and methylene blue respectively. At doses greater than 2.5 kGy were near-zero degradation. Degradation experiments were also conducted by photo catalysis by irradiation with a UV lamp of 354 nm wavelength. For 4-chloro phenol results showed that degradation is efficient (39%). With those previous results, these techniques were applied to degrade complex mixtures of organic compounds from samples of wastewater from a sewage treatment plant, where was considered as process control measurement of the dissolved organic carbon obtained by a spectrophotometric analysis at 254 nm, and a maximum of 26% degradation was obtained by applying 80 kGy. On the other hand, a series of experiments fractionating the irradiations at intervals of 20 kGy to obtain a cumulative dose of 80 kGy, which was 2.8 times greater with respect to degradation by radio catalysis with continuous irradiation. (Author)

  3. Monitoring plan for routine organic air emissions at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Waste Storage Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, K.J.; Jolley, J.G.

    1994-06-01

    This monitoring plan provides the information necessary to perform routine organic air emissions monitoring at the Waste Storage Facilities located at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Waste Storage Facilities include both the Type I and II Waste Storage Modules. The plan implements a dual method approach where two dissimilar analytical methodologies, Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) and ancillary SUMMA reg-sign canister sampling, following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analytical method TO-14, will be used to provide qualitative and quantitative volatile organic concentration data. The Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy will provide in situ, real time monitoring of volatile organic compound concentrations in the ambient air of the Waste Storage Facilities. To supplement the OP-FTIR data, air samples will be collected using SUMMA reg-sign, passivated, stainless steel canisters, following the EPA Method TO-14. These samples will be analyzed for volatile organic compounds with gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry analysis. The sampling strategy, procedures, and schedules are included in this monitoring plan. The development of this monitoring plan is driven by regulatory compliance to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, State of Idaho Toxic Air Pollutant increments, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The various state and federal regulations address the characterization of the volatile organic compounds and the resultant ambient air emissions that may originate from facilities involved in industrial production and/or waste management activities

  4. Beta dosimetry in intraperitoneal administration of 166Ho-chitosan complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E. H.; Lim, S. M.; Park, K. B.

    1998-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of radioisotopes is suggested to treat the metastatic ovarian cancer in the peritoneal cavity. Administering beta-emitting radioisotopes into the peritoneal cavity allows the maximum energy delivery to the cancerous cells of the peritoneal wall surface while sparing the normal cells located in deep site of the peritoneal wall. In this study, dose estimates of the peritoneal wall are provided to be used for prescribing the amount of 166 Ho-chitosan complex administered. The 166 Ho-chitosan complex diffused in the peritoneal fluid may attach to the peritoneal wall surface. The attachment fraction of 166 Ho-chitosan complex to the peritoneal wall surface is obtained by simulating the ascites with Fischer rats. Both volume source in the peritoneal fluid and the surface source over the peritoneal wall surface are counted for the contribution to the peritoneal wall dose. The Monte Carlo code EGS4 is used to simulate the energy transfer of the beta particles emitted from 166 Ho. A plane geometrical model of semi-infinite volume describes the peritoneal cavity and the peritoneal wall. A semi-infinite plane of 10 μm in thickness at every 1 mm of depth in the peritoneal wall is taken as the target in dose estimation. Greater than 98 percents of attachment fraction has been observed from the experiments with Fischer rats. Given 1.3 μCi/cm 2 and 2.4 μCi/ml of uniform activity density, absorbed dose is 123 Gy, 8.59 Gy, 3.00 Gy, 1.03 Gy, and 327 Gy at 0 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm in depth to the peritoneal wall, respectively

  5. Biogeochemical stability and reactions of iron-organic carbon complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Adhikari, D.; Zhao, Q.; Dunham-Cheatham, S.; Das, K.; Mejia, J.; Huang, R.; Wang, X.; Poulson, S.; Tang, Y.; Obrist, D.; Roden, E. E.

    2017-12-01

    Our core hypothesis is that the degradation rate of soil organic carbon (OC) is governed by the amount of iron (Fe)-bound OC, and the ability of microbial communities to utilize OC as an energy source and electron shuttle for Fe reduction that in turn stimulates reductive release of Fe-bound labile dissolved OC. This hypothesis is being systematically evaluated using model Fe-OC complexes, natural soils, and microcosm system. We found that hematite-bound aliphatic C was more resistant to reduction release, although hematite preferred to sorb more aromatic C. Resistance to reductive release represents a new mechanism that aliphatic soil OC was stabilized by association with Fe oxide. In other studies, pyrogenic OC was found to facilitate the reduction of hematite, by enhancing extracellular electron transport and sorbing Fe(II). For ferrihydrite-OC co-precipitates, the reduction of Fe and release of OC was closely governed by the C/Fe ratio in the system. Based on the XPS, XANES and XAFS analysis, the transformation of Fe speciation was heterogeneous, depending on the conformation and composition of Fe-OC complexes. For natural soils, we investigated the quantity, characteristics, and reactivity of Fe-bound OC in soils collected from 14 forests in the United States. Fe-bound OC contributed up to 57.8% of total OC in the forest soils. Under the anaerobic conditions, the reduction of Fe was positively correlated to the electron accepting capacity of OC. Our findings highlight the closely coupled dynamics of Fe and OC, with broad implications on the turnover of OC and biogeochemical cycles of Fe.

  6. Multi-organ technetium complexes production and use thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, G.A.; Pestel, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Chemical complexes, useful as radiopharmaceuticals, are formed by reacting technetium-99m with substituted or unsubstituted alkyl monophosphonic acids and certain ester derivatives thereof. The complexes are formed by reducing pertechnetate ion chemically or electrolytically in the presence of the phosphonic acid. By chemical modification of the phosphonic acid complexing agent, it is possible to ''tailor'' complexes for kidney, liver or bone imaging. The complexes are normally used in a physiologically acceptable aqueous medium. 20 Claims, No Drawings

  7. Guidelines and workbook for assessment of organization and administration of utilities seeking operating license for Nuclear Power Plant. Workbook for assessment of organization and management. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurber, J.A.; Olson, J.; Osborn, R.N.; Sommers, P.; Widrig, R.D.

    1985-08-01

    Purpose of the Workbook is to guide the NRC reviewer through a systematic review and assessment of a proposed organization and administration. The Workbook outlines criteria for evaluating a written organization/administration plan and ensures consistent and comprehensive review of organization plans and site visit materials. The Workbook is designed to assist the NRC reviewer in assembling and analyzing objective information deemed necessary for judging acceptability of the plan, but it does not itself make the judgment

  8. The impact of scale, complexity, and service quality on the administrative costs of pension funds: A cross-country comparison

    OpenAIRE

    J.A. Bikker; O.W. Steenbeek; F. Torracchi

    2010-01-01

    Administrative costs per participant appear to vary widely across pension funds in different countries. These costs are important because they reduce the rate of return on the investments of pension funds, and consequently raise the cost of retirement security. Using unique data on 90 pension funds over the period 2004-2008, this paper examines the impact of scale, the complexity of pension plans, and service quality on the administrative costs of pension funds, and compares those costs acros...

  9. Efficacy of probiotic administration in the complex treatment of chronic catarrhal gingivitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Godovanets

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the leading pathogenic mechanisms of chronic catarrhal gingivitis development in children is disorders in the system of child macroorganism and oral cavity microorganisms interrelation as a result of normal microflora inhibition against the background of general amount of opportunistic and pathogenic microorganisms. The oral cavity protective mechanisms condition plays an important role in this process. Due to this fact a perspective direction is to study the methods of mentioned pathology treatment using probiotics containing strains of normal microflora with high antagonistic, enzymatic and immune-modeling properties able to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria. Objective: to improve the common method of catarrhal gingivitis treatment in children by means of oral microbiocenosis correction on the local level. Materials and methods. The method of catarrhal gingivitis treatment in children with administration of the probiotic “BioGaia Prodentis” has been developed. 30 children at the age of 12 with clinical signs of chronic catarrhal gingivitis were treated and dynamically observed. The children were divided into two groups: the main (with application of the improved method and the group of comparison (the common method was applied. The periodontal tissue condition in children was assessed on the basis of OHI-S, PMA, CPI indices, and Schiller-Pisaref test. The oral cavity local immunity was assessed by means of lysozyme activity, the level of secretory immunoglobulin A, the degree of dysbiosis by urease activity detection in the oral fluid of children. Results. Administration of the drug “BioGaia Prodentis” in the complex of chronic catarrhal gingivitis treatment in children resulted in a quick reverse development of clinical signs. Among the children of the main group on the 3–4th day of treatment a tendency to subsidence of inflammatory signs was observed. In the group of comparison the signs such as hyperemia, swelling and

  10. ANALYZING THE CLASSIC METHODS OF ORGANIZING THE ADMINISTRATION ACCOUNTACY USED IN THE CARBONIFEROUS MINING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU-POPA Lucia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding production costs occupy a central slot, determined by their implications regarding the present and future evolution of a company. The value of information regarding the cost of production justifies its use both in decisions regarding the current activity and in the company’s future strategy. The efficient organization of economic activity in the carboniferous mining industry imposes a constant improvement of management methods, which also implies a reconsideration of administration accountancy methods and cost control, which have to become capable of offering information that can be compatible to the requirements for an efficient management of the production process, in a market economy.

  11. Complex organizations: the case of the Brazilian nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Roberto Salles

    2009-01-01

    The resumption of the Brazilian Nuclear Program (BNP), in the proposed size and after 20 years of paralysis, requires profound changes in the current organizational modeling of the national nuclear industry. The effectiveness of any process of organizational change is limited to three factors. The theoretical bottleneck happens when you do not know enough about a phenomenon in order to effect the desired changes. The resource bottleneck occurs when knowledge may be available to change people's behavior but the funds necessary for implementation may be lacking. The organizational bottleneck emerges when there are knowledge and resources to solve a problem, but may not able to organize the resources in order to carry out the problem-solving effort. In the case of resumption of BNP seems clear that there is the knowledge of what is needed to make policy and the intention to allocate the necessary resources. But the question is the following: the current organizational model of the Brazilian nuclear sector is consistent with the goals laid down in the scenario of resumption of BNP? That is, is there organizational ability to leverage a program of the size proposed for the nuclear area? Find answers to these questions is crucial, because the organizational model of the Brazilian nuclear sector consists of elements involving a complex interorganizational system. Thus, this article is to examine the appropriateness of the current organizational modeling of the Brazilian nuclear sector to current demands of society. As a result, the article aims to propose recommendations for a remodeling of the nuclear sector, taking into account the current national and international scenarios of nuclear energy. (author)

  12. Hydrogen transfer reactions of interstellar Complex Organic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Barcia, S.; Russ, P.; Kästner, J.; Lamberts, T.

    2018-06-01

    Radical recombination has been proposed to lead to the formation of complex organic molecules (COMs) in CO-rich ices in the early stages of star formation. These COMs can then undergo hydrogen addition and abstraction reactions leading to a higher or lower degree of saturation. Here, we have studied 14 hydrogen transfer reactions for the molecules glyoxal, glycoaldehyde, ethylene glycol, and methylformate and an additional three reactions where CHnO fragments are involved. Over-the-barrier reactions are possible only if tunneling is invoked in the description at low temperature. Therefore the rate constants for the studied reactions are calculated using instanton theory that takes quantum effects into account inherently. The reactions were characterized in the gas phase, but this is expected to yield meaningful results for CO-rich ices due to the minimal alteration of reaction landscapes by the CO molecules. We found that rate constants should not be extrapolated based on the height of the barrier alone, since the shape of the barrier plays an increasingly larger role at decreasing temperature. It is neither possible to predict rate constants based only on considering the type of reaction, the specific reactants and functional groups play a crucial role. Within a single molecule, though, hydrogen abstraction from an aldehyde group seems to be always faster than hydrogen addition to the same carbon atom. Reactions that involve heavy-atom tunneling, e.g., breaking or forming a C-C or C-O bond, have rate constants that are much lower than those where H transfer is involved.

  13. Mobility of organic complexes of radionuclides in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented to illustrate the importance of another important aspect of kinetically-inert complexes of Ni and Co to radionuclide migration; such complexes can be sorbed by some soils, while only the uncomplexed species are sorbed by others. As shown earlier, when only uncomplexed species are sorbed the kinetic inertness of the complexes can prevent significant sorption of the radionuclides by soil. Other data provide added evidence that the importance of kinetically-inert complexes varies greatly among complexants, as well as among soils. 6 references, 8 figures

  14. Structural organization of C{sub 60} fullerene, doxorubicin, and their complex in physiological solution as promising antitumor agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prylutskyy, Yu. I. [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv (Ukraine); Evstigneev, M. P., E-mail: max-evstigneev@mail.ru [Belgorod State University, Department of Biology and Chemistry (Russian Federation); Cherepanov, V. V. [Institute of Physics of NAS of Ukraine (Ukraine); Kyzyma, O. A.; Bulavin, L. A.; Davidenko, N. A. [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv (Ukraine); Scharff, P. [Ilmenau University of Technology (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Specific features of structural self-organization of C{sub 60} fullerene (1 nm size range), antitumor antibiotic doxorubicin (Dox) and their complex in physiological solution (0.9 % NaCl) have been investigated by means of atomic-force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Significant ordering of the mixed system, C{sub 60} + Dox, was observed, suggesting the complexation between these drugs, and giving insight into the mechanism of enhancement of Dox antitumor effect on simultaneous administration with C{sub 60} fullerene.

  15. [TISSUE BLOOD FLOW IN THE DIGESTIVE ORGANS OF RATS WITH ACUTE PANCREATITIS AFTER CORVITIN ADMINISTRATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vovkun, T V; Yanchuk, P I; Shtanova, L Y; Shalamay, A S

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the action of quercetin (in a modified form--Corvitin, BCPP, Ukraine) on the rate of blood flow in the pancreas, liver and gastric mucosa of rats with acute pancreatitis (AP) caused by administration of L-arginine. The rate of blood flow was measured by hydrogen clearance method with electrochemical his generation using Polarographs Lr-9 (Czech Republic). During the first 10 days after modelling of AP in these organs it was observed a gradual decrease compared to the intact animals in the rate of blood flow by 42% (P Corvitin (5 mg/kg, 1 time per day from 11 to 20 days of experiment) in varying degrees promoted to the recovery of the rate of blood flow in all investigated organs: in the pancreas--fully, in the liver--almost entirely and in the gastric mucosa--only partially. Thus, based on obtained results Corvitin can be recommended for partial or complete correction of blood flow disturbances, which arise in the pancreas and other organs of the digestive system in AP. Corvitin can improve the functional state of these organs in the early stages of the disease and accelerate the full restoration of their functions.

  16. Structure of rhenium (5) complexes with petroleum organic sulfur compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmadieva, R.G.; Yusupova, N.A.; Numanov, N.U.; Basitova, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Structure of Re(5) complexes with petroleum sulfides (L) of ReOCl 3 (L) 2 composition is studied by the UV- and IR-spectroscopy method in a short-wave and long-wave ranges. It is shown that Re(5) complex with L are of the form of flattened octahedron,where three Cl atoms and one L molecule are arranged in the plane around Re atom. The structure is analogous to structure of Re complexes with synthetic cyclic sulfides

  17. Complexes of actinides with naturally occuring organic substances - Literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olofsson, U.; Allard, B.

    1983-02-01

    Properties of naturally occurring humic and fulvic acids and their formation of actinide complexes are reviewed. Actinides in all the oxdation states III, IV, V and VI would form complexes with many humic and fulvic acids, comparable in strength to the hydroxide and carbonate complexes. Preliminary experiments have shown, that the presence of predominantly humic acid complexes would significantly reduce the sorption of americium on geologic media. This does not, however, necessarily lead to a potentially enhanced mobility under environmental conditions, since humic and fulvic acids carrying trace metals also would be strongly bound to e.g. clayish material. (author)

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Organ Tin (IV) Complexes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-08-21

    Aug 21, 2012 ... the reference drug. In addition, within the diorganotin(IV) complexes, monomeric type (3) exhibited a slightly better activity as compared to the organodistannoxane dimer types (1 and 4). Key words: Preliminary in vitro cytotoxic assay, organotin(IV) complexes, comparison study. INTRODUCTION. Although ...

  19. Gendered Managerial Discourses in Sport Organizations: Multiplicity and Complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoppers, Annelies; Anthonissen, A.

    2007-01-01

    The lack of women in senior management functions in sport may in part be attributed to dominant discursive managerial practices in sport organizations. The purpose of this study is to explore ways in which the discourses and their subtexts used by directors of Dutch national sport organizations

  20. Implications of Complexity and Chaos Theories for Organizations that Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter A. C.

    2003-01-01

    In 1996 Hubert Saint-Onge and Smith published an article ("The evolutionary organization: avoiding a Titanic fate", in The Learning Organization, Vol. 3 No. 4), based on their experience at the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC). It was established at CIBC that change could be successfully facilitated through blended application…

  1. Complex organic molecules in strongly UV-irradiated gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, S.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Cernicharo, J.; Fuente, A.; Pety, J.; Tercero, B.

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the presence of complex organic molecules (COMs) in strongly UV-irradiated interstellar molecular gas. We have carried out a complete millimetre (mm) line survey using the IRAM 30 m telescope towards the edge of the Orion Bar photodissociation region (PDR), close to the H2 dissociation front, a position irradiated by a very intense far-UV (FUV) radiation field. These observations have been complemented with 8.5'' resolution maps of the H2CO JKa,Kc = 51,5 → 41,4 and C18O J = 3 → 2 emission at 0.9 mm. Despite being a harsh environment, we detect more than 250 lines from COMs and related precursors: H2CO, CH3OH, HCO, H2CCO, CH3CHO, H2CS, HCOOH, CH3CN, CH2NH, HNCO, H213CO, and HC3N (in decreasing order of abundance). For each species, the large number of detected lines allowed us to accurately constrain their rotational temperatures (Trot) and column densities (N). Owing to subthermal excitation and intricate spectroscopy of some COMs (symmetric- and asymmetric-top molecules such as CH3CN and H2CO, respectively), a correct determination of N and Trot requires building rotational population diagrams of their rotational ladders separately. The inferred column densities are in the 1011-1013 cm-2 range. We also provide accurate upper limit abundances for chemically related molecules that might have been expected, but are not conclusively detected at the edge of the PDR (HDCO, CH3O, CH3NC, CH3CCH, CH3OCH3, HCOOCH3, CH3CH2OH, CH3CH2CN, and CH2CHCN). A non-thermodynamic equilibrium excitation analysis for molecules with known collisional rate coefficients suggests that some COMs arise from different PDR layers but we cannot resolve them spatially. In particular, H2CO and CH3CN survive in the extended gas directly exposed to the strong FUV flux (Tk = 150-250 K and Td≳ 60 K), whereas CH3OH only arises from denser and cooler gas clumps in the more shielded PDR interior (Tk = 40-50 K). The non-detection of HDCO towards the PDR edge is consistent with the

  2. Peculiarities of applying complex marketing elements in the activity of public administration bodies in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy ZBYRANIK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many practices are implemented in the activity of public administration bodies, which are used by the representatives of the business sector at the current stage of development of Ukraine. One of these practices is marketing. The article considers the theoretical aspects of marketing that can be applied in the work of public authorities. The fundamental differences between the sphere of public administration and the business are stated in this context. The main elements of the marketing mix are analysed and the peculiarities of marketing tools, which can be applied to the sphere of public administration, are noted.

  3. Law of partial reform of the Organic Law of the Central Administration, 11 December 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This document contains the provisions of Venezuela's 1986 Law of Partial Reform of the Organic Law of the Central Administration which sets out the activities of the newly created Ministry of the Family. The duties of the Ministry include protecting the family as a basic cell of society, protecting marriage, facilitating the acquisition of decent housing, formulating and directing state family policy, creating a General Plan for Social Development and Protection for the family, coordinating public sector programs directed towards the family, promoting the decentralization of family programs, formulating and promoting plans and programs to assist the family, advising in the creation of family-related public documents, overseeing the enforcement of legal provisions, conducting research and collecting data on family problems, promoting and executing training programs for family service personnel, and encouraging the formation of private sector programs to benefit the family.

  4. Understanding and Designing Military Organizations for a Complex Dynamic Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hicks, Christopher E

    2008-01-01

    .... The two theories will be used to describe the external environment and how it relates to DoD organizations, current DoD organizational structures, and transformational concepts related to organizational design...

  5. Tritium metabolism in cow's milk after administration of tritiated water and of organically bound tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoek, J. van den

    1982-01-01

    Tritium was administered as THO and as organically bound tritium (OBT) to lactating cows. Urine and milk samples were collected and analyzed for tritium content. Plateau levels in milk water and in milk fat, lactose and casein were reached in about 20 days after feeding either THO or OBT. Comparison of the specific activity (pCi 3 H/g H) of the various milk constituents with the specific activity of the body water showed that, after administration of THO, the highest tritium incorporation occurred in lactose (0.58), followed by milk fat (0.36) and casein (0.27). Tritium incorporation in milk dry matter (0.45) is considerably higher than in most tissue components of several mammalian species after continuous ingestion of THO as reported in the literature. After feeding OBT, the highest tritium incorporation occurred in milk fat and to a lesser extent in casein. Tritium levels in lactose were surprisingly low and the reason for this is not clear. They were similar to those in milk water. Tritium levels in milk and urine water showed systematic differences during administration of OBT and after this was stopped. There was more tritium in milk water until the last day of OBT feeding and this situation was reversed after this. (author)

  6. Tritium metabolism in cow's milk after administration of tritiated water and of organically bound tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van den Hoek, J [Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen (Netherlands). Lab. voor Fysiologie der Dieren; Gerber, G; Kirchmann, R [Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium)

    1982-01-01

    Tritium was administered as THO and as organically bound tritium (OBT) to lactating cows. Urine and milk samples were collected and analyzed for tritium content. Plateau levels in milk water and in milk fat, lactose and casein were reached in about 20 days after feeding either THO or OBT. Comparison of the specific activity (pCi/sup 3/H/g H) of the various milk constituents with the specific activity of the body water showed that, after administration of THO, the highest tritium incorporation occurred in lactose (0.58), followed by milk fat (0.36) and casein (0.27). Tritium incorporation in milk dry matter (0.45) is considerably higher than in most tissue components of several mammalian species after continuous ingestion of THO as reported in the literature. After feeding OBT, the highest tritium incorporation occurred in milk fat and to a lesser extent in casein. Tritium levels in lactose were surprisingly low and the reason for this is not clear. They were similar to those in milk water. Tritium levels in milk and urine water showed systematic differences during administration of OBT and after this was stopped. There was more tritium in milk water until the last day of OBT feeding and this situation was reversed after this.

  7. Systematic patient involvement for homebased outpatient administration of complex chemotherapy in acute leukemia and lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridthjof, Katrine S; Kampmann, Peter; Dünweber, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Based on experience with comprehensive patient involvement, we present data from implementation of portable, programmable infusion pumps (PPP) for home-based chemotherapy administration in patients with acute leukaemia and in lymphoma patients receiving (carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan...

  8. White organic light-emitting diodes with Zn-complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Eun; Shin, Hoon-Kyu; Kim, Nam-Kyu; Lee, Burm-Jong; Kwon, Young-Soo

    2014-02-01

    This paper reviews OLEDs fabricated using Zn-complexes. Zn(HPB)2, Zn(HPB)q, and Zn(phen)q were synthesized as new electroluminescence materials. The electron affinity (EA) and ionization potential (IP) of Zn complexes were also determined and devices were characterized. Zn complexes such as Zn(HPB)2, Zn(HPB)q, and Zn(phen)q were found to exhibit blue and yellow emissions with wavelengths of 455, 532, and 535 nm, respectively. On the other hand, Zn(HPB)2 and Zn(HPB)q were applied as hole-blocking materials. As a result, the OLED efficiency by using Zn(HPB)2 as a hole-blocking material was improved. In particular, the OLED property of Zn(HPB)2 was found to be better than that of Zn(HPB)q. Moreover, Zn(phen)q was used as an electron-transporting material and compared with Alq3. The performance of the device with Zn(phen)q as an electron-transporting material was improved compared with Alq3-based devices. The Zn complexes can possibly be used as hole-blocking and electron-transporting materials in OLED devices. A white emission was ultimately realized from the OLED devices using Zn-complexes as inter-layer components.

  9. Mobility of organic complexes of some non-TRU fission and activation products: a selective review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, D.J.; Franz, J.A.

    1978-05-01

    Zr, Nb, Ni, and possibly Tc are mobile in the presence of aqueous organic complexing agents to a certain extent. Low pH appears to be required for efficient complex formations with organic ligands in aqueous media. Zr complexes with a number of synthetic chelating agents such as EDTA, and DTPA to form stable, water-soluble complexes in acidic and neutral aqueous systems. Zr also complexes with HIMDA or HXG to form a stable, water soluble complex in any aqueous system and with ..cap alpha..-hydroxy carboxylic acids in alkaline aqueous systems. Uncomplexed Zr would be readily absorbed by or precipitated on soil. It is predicted that the organic complexes of Zr would be absorbed less by soil than uncomplexed zirconium. Nb generally forms the most stable complexes with nitrogen containing chelating ligands such as EDTA, and less stable complexes with ..cap alpha..-hydroxy carboxylic acids and monodentate ligands. Uncomplexed Nb would be efficiently absorbed by or precipitated on soil from aqueous systems. Despite the high stability constants of complexed Nb, one would predict that organic complexes of niobium would be absorbed by soil because of hydrolysis of complexed Nb to insoluble hydrous niobium oxide. Ni complexes strongly with a number of oxygen and nitrogen containing organic ligands. Uncomplexed Ni is absorbed by soil in acidic and neutral aqueous systems and precipitated on soil in alkaline aqueous systems. Two complexes of Ni are known to be absorbed to a much lesser extent by soil (Ni-DTPA, Ni-EDTA). Fulvic acid and synthetic chelating agents are known to greatly enhance the movement of Ni in soil and to reduce Ni absorption by soil. Tc complexes with organic ligands in a reducing environment but the behavior of these complexes in a nonreducing environment is unknown. 8 tables, 3 figs. 62 refs.

  10. Mobility of organic complexes of some non-TRU fission and activation products: a selective review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggins, D.J.; Franz, J.A.

    1978-05-01

    Zr, Nb, Ni, and possibly Tc are mobile in the presence of aqueous organic complexing agents to a certain extent. Low pH appears to be required for efficient complex formations with organic ligands in aqueous media. Zr complexes with a number of synthetic chelating agents such as EDTA, and DTPA to form stable, water-soluble complexes in acidic and neutral aqueous systems. Zr also complexes with HIMDA or HXG to form a stable, water soluble complex in any aqueous system and with α-hydroxy carboxylic acids in alkaline aqueous systems. Uncomplexed Zr would be readily absorbed by or precipitated on soil. It is predicted that the organic complexes of Zr would be absorbed less by soil than uncomplexed zirconium. Nb generally forms the most stable complexes with nitrogen containing chelating ligands such as EDTA, and less stable complexes with α-hydroxy carboxylic acids and monodentate ligands. Uncomplexed Nb would be efficiently absorbed by or precipitated on soil from aqueous systems. Despite the high stability constants of complexed Nb, one would predict that organic complexes of niobium would be absorbed by soil because of hydrolysis of complexed Nb to insoluble hydrous niobium oxide. Ni complexes strongly with a number of oxygen and nitrogen containing organic ligands. Uncomplexed Ni is absorbed by soil in acidic and neutral aqueous systems and precipitated on soil in alkaline aqueous systems. Two complexes of Ni are known to be absorbed to a much lesser extent by soil (Ni-DTPA, Ni-EDTA). Fulvic acid and synthetic chelating agents are known to greatly enhance the movement of Ni in soil and to reduce Ni absorption by soil. Tc complexes with organic ligands in a reducing environment but the behavior of these complexes in a nonreducing environment is unknown. 8 tables, 3 figs. 62 refs

  11. Self-organization scenario acting as physical basis of intelligent complex systems created in laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozneanu, Erzilia; Sanduloviciu, Mircea

    2006-01-01

    The recognition of limits in the tendency to miniaturize the so-called self-organizing devices inspired scientists to seek inspiration from living organisms that operate with functional elements that employ thermal energy exploiting quantum phenomena. Here we show how such operations are performed by a complex space charge configuration emerged by self-organization in plasma. Endowed with a special kind of memory, the complexity is able to ensure its survival in a metastable state performing the operations 'learned' during its emergence by self-organization. Possessing memory, the complexity works as an intelligent system able to evolve under suitable environmental conditions

  12. Characterization of Aluminum(III) Complexes in Coal Organic Matter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straka, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2016), s. 378-394 ISSN 2156-8251 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : aluminium * complex * 27Al MAS NMR * coal * lignite * altered coal Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry http://www.scirp.org/journal/AJAC/

  13. Complexity in behavioural organization and strongylid infection among wild chimpanzees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burgunder, J.; Pafčo, B.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Modrý, David; Hashimoto, C.; MacIntosh, A. J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 129, July (2017), s. 257-268 ISSN 0003-3472 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : behavioural complexity * chimpanzees * fractal analysis * health monitoring * Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii * strongylid infection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.869, year: 2016

  14. Complexity in behavioural organization and strongylid infection among wild chimpanzees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burgunder, J.; Pafčo, B.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Modrý, D.; Hashimoto, C.; MacIntosh, A. J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 129, July (2017), s. 257-268 ISSN 0003-3472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : behavioural complexity * chimpanzees * fractal analysis * health monitoring * Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii * strongylid infection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.869, year: 2016

  15. Organic complexation of iron in the West Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerringa, L.J.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.; Schoemann, V.; Laan, P.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of the dissolved iron (DFe) binding organic ligands were determined during 3 Dutch GEOTRACES cruises covering the length of the West Atlantic Ocean. Adsorptive Differential Pulse Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (AdDPCSV) with TAC as competing ligand was used to measure Fe binding

  16. Does Contract Complexity Limit Opportunities? Vertical Organization and Flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P.G. Pennings (Enrico)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe vertical organization of production entails a range of make-or-buy decisions of intermediate goods that are influenced by the difficulty of writing contracts with a potential supplier. When contracting causes high transaction costs, a firm can decide to vertically integrate the

  17. A divergent heritage for complex organics in Isheyevo lithic clasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kooten, Elishevah M.M.E.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Kasama, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    enrichments in 15N believed to be of outer Solar System origin. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM-EELS) and in situ isotope analyses (SIMS and NanoSIMS), we report on the structure of the organic matter as well as the bulk H and N isotope composition of Isheyevo lithic clasts. These data...

  18. Organizations as complex systems an introduction to knowledge cybernetics

    CERN Document Server

    Yolles, Maurice

    2006-01-01

    Managing the Complex is an ambitious title - and it would be an audacious one if we were not to begin with a frank admission: to date few to none of us have a skill set which includes managing the complex. We try various things, we write about others, and we wonder about still others. When a tool, perspective, or technique comes along which seems to evoke success, we emulate it probe it and recoil at the all too often admission that it was situation and context which afforded success its opportunity, and not some quality intrinsic to the tool perspective or technique. Indeed, if the study of complexity has done anything for managers, and for those who espouse managerial theory, it is in providing a 'scientific foundation' for the notion that context matters. Those who preach abstract ideas have then to reconcile themselves to the notion that situation and embodiment matters. Those who believe in strong causality and determinism are left to wrestle with the role of chance, uncertainty, and chaos. Those who pre...

  19. Mergers and acquisitions in professional organizations: a complex adaptive systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, M E; McDaniel, R R

    1999-09-01

    Nurse managers face unique challenges as they cope with mergers and acquisitions among health care organizations. These challenges can be better understood if it is recognized that health care institutions are professional organizations and that the transformations required are extremely difficult. These difficulties are caused, in part, by the institutionalized nature of professional organizations, and this nature is explicated. Professional organizations are stubborn. They are repositories of expertise and values that are societal in origin and difficult to change. When professional organizations are understood as complex adaptive systems, complexity theory offers insight that provide strategies for managing mergers and acquisitions that may not be apparent when more traditional conceptualizations of professional organizations are used. Specific managerial techniques consistent with both the institutionalized characteristics and the complex adaptive systems characteristics of professional organizations are offered to nurse managers.

  20. An Improved Conceptually-Based Method for Analysis of Communication Network Structure of Large Complex Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, William D., Jr.

    Previous methods for determining the communication structure of organizations work well for small or simple organizations, but are either inadequate or unwieldy for use with large complex organizations. An improved method uses a number of different measures and a series of successive approximations to order the communication matrix such that…

  1. Homeland Security Organizations: Design Contingencies in Complex Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    intelligence agencies did not anticipate the adaptation of al-Qaeda from a central command structure to the current collection of regional franchises ...suspicious activities by terrorist groups throughout the summer, culminating in the December explosion at the Great Western Forum sports venue in...Great Western Forum sports arena in Inglewood, California. The target of the attack was an event organized to honor military personnel who had served

  2. Repeated subcutaneous administrations of krokodil causes skin necrosis and internal organs toxicity in Wistar rats: putative human implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Emanuele Amorim; Brandão, Pedro; Neves, João Filipe; Cravo, Sara Manuela; Soares, José Xavier; Grund, Jean-Paul C; Duarte, José Alberto; Afonso, Carlos M M; Pereira Netto, Annibal Duarte; Carvalho, Félix; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

    2017-05-01

    "Krokodil" is the street name for an impure homemade drug mixture used as a cheap substitute for heroin, containing desomorphine as the main opioid. Abscesses, gangrene, thrombophlebitis, limb ulceration and amputations, jaw osteonecrosis, skin discoloration, ulcers, skin infections, and bleeding are some of the typical reported signs in humans. This study aimed to understand the toxicity of krokodil using Wistar male rats as experimental model. Animals were divided into seven groups and exposed subcutaneously to NaCl 0.9% (control), krokodil mixture free of psychotropic substances (blank krokodil), pharmaceutical grade desomorphine 1 mg/kg, and four different concentrations of krokodil (containing 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg of desomorphine) synthesized accordingly to a "domestic" protocol followed by people who inject krokodil (PWIK). Daily injections for five consecutive days were performed, and animals were sacrificed 24 hr after the last administration. Biochemical and histological analysis were carried out. It was shown that the continuous use of krokodil may cause injury at the injection area, with formation of necrotic zones. The biochemical results evidenced alterations on cardiac and renal biomarkers of toxicity, namely, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB, and uric acid. Significant alteration in levels of reduced and oxidized glutathione on kidney and heart suggested that oxidative stress may be involved in krokodil-mediated toxicity. Cardiac congestion was the most relevant finding of continuous krokodil administration. These findings contribute notably to comprehension of the local and systemic toxicological impact of this complex drug mixture on major organs and will hopefully be useful for the development of appropriate treatment strategies towards the human toxicological effects of krokodil. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The organization and administration of community college non-credit workforce education and training cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozachyn, Karen P.

    Community colleges are struggling financially due to underfunding. Recent state budget cuts coupled with the elimination of federal stimulus money has exacerbated the issue as these funding streams had contributed to operating costs (Moltz, 2011). In response to these budget cuts, community colleges are challenged to improve, increase, and develop revenue producing programs. These factors heighten the need for community colleges to examine their non-credit workforce organizations. The community college units charged with delivering non-credit workforce education and training programs are historically ancillary to the academic divisions that deliver certificate, technical degree, and transfer degree programs. The perceptions of these units are that they are the community college's 'step child' (Grubb, Bradway, and Bell, 2002). This case study examined the organization and administration of community college non-credit workforce education and training units, utilizing observation, interviews, and document analysis. Observational data focused on the physical campus and the unit. Interviews were conducted onsite with decision-making personnel of the division units that deliver non-credit workforce education and training within each community college. Document analysis included college catalogues, program guides, marketing material, and website information. The study was grounded in the review of literature associated with the evolution of the community college, as well as the development of workforce education and training including funding, organizational structure and models, management philosophies, and effectiveness. The findings of the study report that all five units were self-contained and were organized and operated uniquely within the organization. Effectiveness was measured differently by each institution. However, two common benchmarks were revenue and student evaluations. Another outcome of this study is the perceived lack of college-wide alignment between

  4. Analysis and systematization of experience of state administration of Russian Federation military-industrial complex

    OpenAIRE

    O. F. Salnikova; H. P. Sytnik

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of the systems of development of the military-industrial complex of the Russian Federation is conducted in the article. Control system of the military-industrial complex of the Russian Federation is schematically represented in the article. Russia is one of the largest exporters of armaments. The most popular types of armaments are airplanes, systems of air defense, helicopters, fighting machines of infantry and small-arms. For today Russia actively masters new on ...

  5. Information driven self-organization of complex robotic behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Martius

    Full Text Available Information theory is a powerful tool to express principles to drive autonomous systems because it is domain invariant and allows for an intuitive interpretation. This paper studies the use of the predictive information (PI, also called excess entropy or effective measure complexity, of the sensorimotor process as a driving force to generate behavior. We study nonlinear and nonstationary systems and introduce the time-local predicting information (TiPI which allows us to derive exact results together with explicit update rules for the parameters of the controller in the dynamical systems framework. In this way the information principle, formulated at the level of behavior, is translated to the dynamics of the synapses. We underpin our results with a number of case studies with high-dimensional robotic systems. We show the spontaneous cooperativity in a complex physical system with decentralized control. Moreover, a jointly controlled humanoid robot develops a high behavioral variety depending on its physics and the environment it is dynamically embedded into. The behavior can be decomposed into a succession of low-dimensional modes that increasingly explore the behavior space. This is a promising way to avoid the curse of dimensionality which hinders learning systems to scale well.

  6. Complex forming properties of natural organic acids. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ephraim, J.H.; Mathuthu, A.S.; Marinsky, J.A.

    1990-07-01

    An ultrafiltration technique combined with ion-selective-electrode and atomic absorption methods have been employed to obtain information on the complex forming properties of fulvic acid with iron and calcium. A model for interpreting complexation of metal ions to fulvic acid at any pH, medium ionic strength and metal to fulvic acid ratio developed earlier has been used in an attempt to predict the nature of iron and calcium interaction to Armadale Horizon Bh fulvic acid. Binding of calcium to fulvic acid which is enhanced at pHs greater than 6.0 has reasonably been predicted by the model taking into consideration complications due to the polyelectrolyte nature and the heterogeneity of the fulvic acid. The lack of agreement observed between the model predicted binding behavior and the experimentally observed results for the fulvic acid-iron system has been attributed to the formation of metal-induced aggregation. Reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) by the fulvic acid as reported by other workers is corroborated. (orig.)

  7. Cellulose synthase complex organization and cellulose microfibril structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Simon; Kumar, Manoj

    2018-02-13

    Cellulose consists of linear chains of β-1,4-linked glucose units, which are synthesized by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC). In plants, these chains associate in an ordered manner to form the cellulose microfibrils. Both the CSC and the local environment in which the individual chains coalesce to form the cellulose microfibril determine the structure and the unique physical properties of the microfibril. There are several recent reviews that cover many aspects of cellulose biosynthesis, which include trafficking of the complex to the plasma membrane and the relationship between the movement of the CSC and the underlying cortical microtubules (Bringmann et al. 2012 Trends Plant Sci. 17 , 666-674 (doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2012.06.003); Kumar & Turner 2015 Phytochemistry 112 , 91-99 (doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2014.07.009); Schneider et al. 2016 Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 34 , 9-16 (doi:10.1016/j.pbi.2016.07.007)). In this review, we will focus on recent advances in cellulose biosynthesis in plants, with an emphasis on our current understanding of the structure of individual catalytic subunits together with the local membrane environment where cellulose synthesis occurs. We will attempt to relate this information to our current knowledge of the structure of the cellulose microfibril and propose a model in which variations in the structure of the CSC have important implications for the structure of the cellulose microfibril produced.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'New horizons for cellulose nanotechnology'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Organization of accident medical service in emergency situations in the system of Federal administration board for medical-biological and emergency problems at the Ministry of public health and medical industry of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfenova, L.N.

    1995-01-01

    Federal Administration Board for medical-biological problems at the Ministry of Public Health and Medical Industry of Russia, in accordance with the entrusted functions, provides medical-sanitary service for the workers of the branches of industry with especially dangerous labour conditions. For these purpose, there is functioning in its system a network of therapeutic-prophylactic, sanitary, scientific-research, educational and other establishments. A high degree of accident danger of the attended industrial plants determines the state policy of organizations and administrations as well as scientific-practical establishments of the Federal Administration Board in respect of elaboration and introduction of a complex of measures which would enable to guarantee the safe functioning of the plants. All sub-administration establishments have the necessary structures, settle the questions of liquidation of medical-sanitary after-effects of accidents at the attended plants, and are regarded to be the organizations of specialized emergency medical aid of the Federal Administration Board

  9. Self-organization of complex networks as a dynamical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takaaki; Yawata, Koichiro; Aoyagi, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    To understand the dynamics of real-world networks, we investigate a mathematical model of the interplay between the dynamics of random walkers on a weighted network and the link weights driven by a resource carried by the walkers. Our numerical studies reveal that, under suitable conditions, the co-evolving dynamics lead to the emergence of stationary power-law distributions of the resource and link weights, while the resource quantity at each node ceaselessly changes with time. We analyze the network organization as a deterministic dynamical system and find that the system exhibits multistability, with numerous fixed points, limit cycles, and chaotic states. The chaotic behavior of the system leads to the continual changes in the microscopic network dynamics in the absence of any external random noises. We conclude that the intrinsic interplay between the states of the nodes and network reformation constitutes a major factor in the vicissitudes of real-world networks.

  10. Molecular organization and dynamics of micellar phase of polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes: ESR spin probe study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, A. M.; Kasaikin, V. A.; Zakharova, Yu. A.; Aliev, I. I.; Baranovsky, V. Yu.; Doseva, V.; Yasina, L. L.

    2002-04-01

    Molecular dynamics and organization of the micellar phase of complexes of linear polyelectrolytes with ionogenic and non-ionogenic surfactants was studied by the ESR spin probe method. Complexes of polyacrylic acid (PAA) and sodium polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) with alkyltrimethylammonium bromides (ATAB), as well as complexes of poly- N, N'-dimethyldiallylammonium chloride (PDACL) with sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) were studied. The micellar phase of such complexes is highly organized molecular system, molecular ordering of which near the polymeric chain is much higher than in the 'center' of the micelle, it depends on the polymer-detergent interaction, flexibility of polymeric chain and length of carbonic part of the detergent molecule. Complexes of polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) with non-ionic detergent (dodecyl-substituted polyethyleneglycol), show that the local mobility of surfactant in such complexes is significantly lower than in 'free' micelles and depends on the number of micellar particles participating in formation of complexes.

  11. Multifaceted Modularity: A Key for Stepwise Building of Hierarchical Complexity in Actinide Metal–Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgopolova, Ekaterina A. [Department; Ejegbavwo, Otega A. [Department; Martin, Corey R. [Department; Smith, Mark D. [Department; Setyawan, Wahyu [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Karakalos, Stavros G. [College; Henager, Charles H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad [Department; Shustova, Natalia B. [Department

    2017-11-07

    Growing necessity for efficient nuclear waste management is a driving force for development of alternative architectures towards fundamental understanding of mechanisms involved in actinide integration inside extended structures. In this manuscript, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were investigated as a model system for engineering radionuclide containing materials through utilization of unprecedented MOF modularity, which cannot be replicated in any other type of materials. Through the implementation of recent synthetic advances in the MOF field, hierarchical complexity of An-materials were built stepwise, which was only feasible due to preparation of the first examples of actinide-based frameworks with “unsaturated” metal nodes. The first successful attempts of solid-state metathesis and metal node extension in An-MOFs are reported, and the results of the former approach revealed drastic differences in chemical behavior of extended structures versus molecular species. Successful utilization of MOF modularity also allowed us to structurally characterize the first example of bimetallic An-An nodes. To the best of our knowledge, through combination of solid-state metathesis, guest incorporation, and capping linker installation, we were able to achieve the highest Th wt% in mono- and bi-actinide frameworks with minimal structural density. Overall, combination of a multistep synthetic approach with homogeneous actinide distribution and moderate solvothermal conditions could make MOFs an exceptionally powerful tool to address fundamental questions responsible for chemical behavior of An-based extended structures, and therefore, shed light on possible optimization of nuclear waste administration.

  12. GENETIC FINGERPRINTING OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) ORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM HOSPITAL PATIENTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A particularly pathogenic group of mycobacteria belong to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which includes M. avium and M. intracellulare. MAC organisms cause disease in children, the elderly, and immuno-compromised individuals. A critical step in preventing MAC infections...

  13. Service quality and maturity of health care organizations through the lens of Complexity Leadership Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Ana; Filipovic, Jovan

    2018-02-01

    This research focuses on Complexity Leadership Theory and the relationship between leadership-examined through the lens of Complexity Leadership Theory-and organizational maturity as an indicator of the performance of health organizations. The research adopts a perspective that conceptualizes organizations as complex adaptive systems and draws upon a survey of opinion of 189 managers working in Serbian health organizations. As the results indicate a dependency between functions of leadership and levels of the maturity of health organizations, we propose a model that connects the two. The study broadens our understanding of the implications of complexity thinking and its reflection on leadership functions and overall organizational performance. The correlations between leadership functions and maturity could have practical applications in policy processing, thus improving the quality of outcomes and the overall level of service quality. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Exploring Trianglamine Derivatives and Trianglamine Coordination Complexes as Porous Organic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Eziashi, Magdalene

    2018-01-01

    , they are still a poorly researched class of macrocycles today. Trianglamines have yet a role to play as porous organic molecules for separation processes, as macrocyclic precursors to build increasingly complex supramolecular assemblies and as building blocks

  15. Application of statistical physics approaches to complex organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matia, Kaushik

    The first part of this thesis studies two different kinds of financial markets, namely, the stock market and the commodity market. Stock price fluctuations display certain scale-free statistical features that are not unlike those found in strongly-interacting physical systems. The possibility that new insights can be gained using concepts and methods developed to understand scale-free physical phenomena has stimulated considerable research activity in the physics community. In the first part of this thesis a comparative study of stocks and commodities is performed in terms of probability density function and correlations of stock price fluctuations. It is found that the probability density of the stock price fluctuation has a power law functional form with an exponent 3, which is similar across different markets around the world. We present an autoregressive model to explain the origin of the power law functional form of the probability density function of the price fluctuation. The first part also presents the discovery of unique features of the Indian economy, which we find displays a scale-dependent probability density function. In the second part of this thesis we quantify the statistical properties of fluctuations of complex systems like business firms and world scientific publications. We analyze class size of these systems mentioned above where units agglomerate to form classes. We find that the width of the probability density function of growth rate decays with the class size as a power law with an exponent beta which is universal in the sense that beta is independent of the system studied. We also identify two other scaling exponents, gamma connecting the unit size to the class size and gamma connecting the number of units to the class size, where products are units and firms are classes. Finally we propose a generalized preferential attachment model to describe the class size distribution. This model is successful in explaining the growth rate and class

  16. The Development of Multiple Intelligence Capabilities for Early Childhood Development Center, Local Administration Organization in Chaiyaphum Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siphai, Sunan; Supandee, Terdsak; Raksapuk, Chunpit; Poopayang, Piangkhae; Kratoorerk, Sangsan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to promote multiple intelligence capabilities for Early Childhood Care Center of a Sub-district Administration Organization in Chaiyaphum Province. The sample applied were 61 children aging between 3 and 5 years old at Child Development Center, Tambon Ban Kok, Amphoe Chaturus, Chaiyaphum Province, who were selected…

  17. Some Contributions on Personnel Recruitment and Selection for the Administrative Council, the Participative Management Organism of a Public Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomia Andres

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some contributions and analyses of regulations and practice in participative management, realized by a public enterprise from the Caras-Severin District. These ideas represent the beginning of research in this new activity domain, starting from personnel recruitment and selection activities for the participative management organism, which is the Administration Council.

  18. Molecular Speciation of Trace Metal Organic Complexes in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repeta, D.; Boiteau, R. M.; Bundy, R. M.; Babcock-Adams, L.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial production across approximately one third of the surface ocean is limited by extraordinarily low (picomolar) concentrations of dissolved iron, essentially all of which is complexed to strong organic ligands of unknown composition. Other biologically important trace metals (cobalt, copper, zinc, nickel) are also complexed to strong organic ligands, which again have not been extensively characterized. Nevertheless, organic ligands exert a strong influence on metal bioavailability and toxicity. For example, amendment experiments using commercially available siderophores, organic compounds synthesized by microbes to facilitate iron uptake, show these ligands can both facilitate or impede iron uptake depending on the siderophore composition and available uptake pathways. Over the past few years we have developed analytical techniques using high pressure liquid chromatography interfaced with inductively coupled plasma and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to identify and quantify trace metal organic complexes in laboratory cultures of marine microbes and in seawater. We found siderophores to be widely distributed in the ocean, particularly in regions characterized by low iron concentrations. We also find chemically distinct complexes of copper, zinc, colbalt and nickel that we have yet to fully characterize. We will discuss some of our recent work on trace metal organic speciation in seawater and laboratory cultures, and outline future efforts to better understand the microbial cycling of trace metal organic complexes in the sea.

  19. Complexation with dissolved organic matter and solubility control of heavy metals in sandy soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weng, L.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Lofts, S.; Tipping, E.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2002-01-01

    The complexation of heavy metals with dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the environment influences the solubility and mobility of these metals. In this paper, we measured the complexation of Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni, and Pb with DOM in the soil solution at pH 3.7-6.1 using a Donnan membrane technique. The

  20. Plants lacking the main light-harvesting complex retain photosystem II macro-organization

    OpenAIRE

    Ruban, AV; Wentworth, M; Yakushevska, AE; Andersson, J; Lee, PJ; Keegstra, W; Dekker, JP; Boekema, EJ; Jansson, S; Horton, P

    2003-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a key component of photosynthesis, the process of converting sunlight into the chemical energy of life. In plant cells, it forms a unique oligomeric macrostructure in membranes of the chloroplasts(1). Several light-harvesting antenna complexes are organized precisely in the PSII macrostructure-the major trimeric complexes (LHCII)(2) that bind 70% of PSII chlorophyll and three minor monomeric complexes(3)-which together form PSII supercomplexes(4-6). The antenna comple...

  1. Linking aboveground net primary productivity to soil carbon and dissolved organic carbon in complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.S. Peterson; K. Lajtha

    2013-01-01

    Factors influencing soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content in complex terrain, where vegetation, climate, and topography vary over the scale of a few meters, are not well understood. We examined the spatial correlations of lidar and geographic information system-derived landscape topography, empirically measured soil...

  2. Complexity of matrix organization and problems caused by its inadequate implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janićijević Nebojša

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix organization model is a sophisticated structure intended to combine both the efficiency and effectiveness of the functional and the product/service/customer/area dimensions. From the moment it was introduced in practice, this organizational architecture was accepted with enthusiasm, because it represented a complex organizational response adequate to the conditions which most of the companies in the world have been facing since 1970s. Although matrix organization is not a novelty, it is still a controversial model of organization design. The aim of this paper is to provide a deeper insight into the causes and effects of organizational misfits which appear in the implementation phase of three-dimensional matrix organization, as well as to offer some practical recommendations for managers on how to improve their capacities for successful management of complex matrix organization architecture in their organizations.

  3. Influence of B-Complex Vitamins on the Pharmacokinetics of Ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, and Ro After Oral Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Peihe; Chen, Yinbin; Fu, Yangyang; Wang, Hecheng; Wang, Jia; Zheng, Siwen; Xiao, Shengyuan; Wang, Yingping

    2017-11-01

    After cultivation of ginseng, ginsenosides, which are the major active ingredients of gingeng, were approved for use by the food industry, and began to be used as added functional ingredients to try to improve the quality and price of functional foods. However, the interaction between different types of ginsenosides and nutrients needs further study. We investigated the effect of B-complex vitamins (which are essential nutrients) on the pharmacokinetics of the ginsenosides protopanaxatriol-type saponin Rg 1 , protopanaxadiol-type saponin Rb 1 , and oleanolic acid-type saponin Ro after oral administration. Ginsenosides Rg 1 , Rb 1 , and Ro, with or without B-complex vitamins, respectively, were administered orally to rats to evaluate their pharmacokinetics. The concentration of ginsenosides in plasma was determined by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were fitted using WinNonlin v6.2. After oral coadministration with B-complex vitamins, the area under the concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC 0-∞ ) of ginsenoside Rg 1 was reduced by 70%, that of ginsenoside Rb 1 was reduced by 43%, and that of ginsenoside Ro was reduced by 34%. The AUC 0-∞ of ginsenosides Rg 1 and Rb 1 showed significant differences between different treatments, but the AUC 0-∞ of ginsenoside Ro did not. These results suggest significant ginsenoside-nutrient interactions between ginsenosides Rg 1 , Rb 1 , and B-complex vitamins.

  4. The animal sensorimotor organization: a challenge for the environmental complexity thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijzer, Fred; Arnellos, Argyris

    2017-01-01

    Godfrey-Smith's environmental complexity thesis (ECT) is most often applied to multicellular animals and the complexity of their macroscopic environments to explain how cognition evolved. We think that the ECT may be less suited to explain the origins of the animal bodily organization, including this organization's potentiality for dealing with complex macroscopic environments. We argue that acquiring the fundamental sensorimotor features of the animal body may be better explained as a consequence of dealing with internal bodily-rather than environmental complexity. To press and elucidate this option, we develop the notion of an animal sensorimotor organization (ASMO) that derives from an internal coordination account for the evolution of early nervous systems. The ASMO notion is a reply to the question how a collection of single cells can become integrated such that the resulting multicellular organization becomes sensitive to and can manipulate macroscopic features of both the animal body and its environment. In this account, epithelial contractile tissues play the central role in the organization behind complex animal bodies. In this paper, we relate the ASMO concept to recent work on epithelia, which provides empirical evidence that supports central assumptions behind the ASMO notion. Second, we discuss to what extent the notion applies to basic animal architectures, exemplified by sponges and jellyfish. We conclude that the features exhibited by the ASMO are plausibly explained by internal constraints acting on and within this multicellular organization, providing a challenge for the role the ECT plays in this context.

  5. Self-organization in Complex Systems The Past, Present, and Future of Synergetics : International Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Pelster, Axel

    2016-01-01

    This proceedings volume contains talks and poster presentations from the International Symposium "Self-Organization in Complex Systems: The Past, Present, and Future of Synergetics", which took place at Hanse-Wissenschaftskolleg, an Institute of Advanced Studies, in Delmenhorst, Germany, during the period November 13 - 16, 2012. The Symposium was organized in honour of Hermann Haken, who celebrated his 85th birthday in 2012. With his fundamental theory of Synergetics he had laid the mathematical-physical basis for describing and analyzing self-organization processes in a diversity of fields of research. The quest for common and universal principles of self-organization in complex systems was clearly covered by the wide range of interdisciplinary topics reported during the Symposium. These extended from complexity in classical systems and quantum systems over self-organisation in neuroscience even to the physics of finance. Moreover, by combining a historical view with a present status report the Symposium con...

  6. Patient safety and technology-driven medication - A qualitative study on how graduate nursing students navigate through complex medication administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbæk, Janne; Gaard, Mette; Fabricius, Pia; Lefevre, Rikke S; Møller, Tom

    2015-05-01

    The technology-driven medication process is complex, involving advanced technologies, patient participation and increased safety measures. Medication administration errors are frequently reported, with nurses implicated in 26-38% of in-hospital cases. This points to the need for new ways of educating nursing students in today's medication administration. To explore nursing students' experiences and competences with the technology-driven medication administration process. 16 pre-graduate nursing students were included in two focus group interviews which were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using the systematic horizontal phenomenological-hermeneutic template methodology. The interviews uncovered that understanding the technologies; professionalism and patient safety are three crucial elements in the medication process. The students expressed positivity and confidence in using technology, but were fearful of committing serious medication errors. From the nursing students' perspective, experienced nurses deviate from existing guidelines, leaving them feeling isolated in practical learning situations. Having an unclear nursing role model for the technology-driven medication process, nursing students face difficulties in identifying and adopting best practices. The impact of using technology on the frequency, type and severity of medication errors; the technologies implications on nursing professionalism and the nurses ability to secure patient adherence to the medication process, still remains to be studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Outcomes Following Three-Factor Inactive Prothrombin Complex Concentrate Versus Recombinant Activated Factor VII Administration During Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Patrick C; Smith, Mark M; Brinkman, Nathan J; Passe, Melissa A; Schroeder, Darrell R; Said, Sameh M; Nuttall, Gregory A; Oliver, William C; Barbara, David W

    2018-02-01

    To compare outcomes following inactive prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) or recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) administration during cardiac surgery. Retrospective propensity-matched analysis. Academic tertiary-care center. Patients undergoing cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass who received either rFVIIa or the inactive 3-factor PCC. Outcomes following intraoperative administration of rFVIIa (263) or factor IX complex (72) as rescue therapy to treat bleeding. In the 24 hours after surgery, propensity-matched patients receiving PCC versus rFVIIa had significantly less chest tube outputs (median difference -464 mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] -819 mL to -110 mL), fresh frozen plasma transfusion rates (17% v 38%, p = 0.028), and platelet transfusion rates (26% v 49%, p = 0.027). There were no significant differences between propensity-matched groups in postoperative stroke, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, or intracardiac thrombus. Postoperative dialysis was significantly less likely in patients administered PCC versus rFVIIa following propensity matching (odds ratio = 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.7). No significant difference in 30-day mortality in patients receiving PCC versus rFVIIa was present following propensity matching. Use of rFVIIa versus inactive PCCs was significantly associated with renal failure requiring dialysis and increased postoperative bleeding and transfusions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of organic complexants on the mobility of low-level-waste radionuclides in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, J.L.

    1982-02-01

    The effect of certain organic complexants on the distribution of some radionuclides between solution and soil has been measured. The complexants and radionuclides examined are some of those most likely to be present in low-level waste disposal sites; Cs, Sr, Ni, Co, and Eu radionuclides, and EDTA, DTPA, oxalate, and citrate complexants. The effect of complexants was found to vary widely; in some systems there was no effect and in other systems there were large effects. In some cases slow rates of reaction have not allowed equilibrium measurements to be made

  9. Prediction of extraction ability during metal complexing with organic phosphorus extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozen, A.M.; Krupnov, B.V.

    1995-01-01

    Quantum-chemical calculations of thermodynamic parameters of complexing of neutral organic phosphorus compounds (phosphates, phosphine oxides and diphosphine dioxides with different substituents) with seven acceptors of different strength have been made. It is shown that in a wide range of the complexes strength change the entropy contribution of the Gibbs energy of complexing depends but slightly both on the ligand basicity and on the acceptor nature. It is ascertained that this reaction series is isoentropic for any Lewis acid. Practicability of the previously used correlation between extractability and complexing enthalpy has been proved. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Administration of recombinant activated factor VII in the intensive care unit after complex cardiovascular surgery: clinical and economic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uber, Walter E; Toole, John M; Stroud, Martha R; Haney, Jason S; Lazarchick, John; Crawford, Fred A; Ikonomidis, John S

    2011-06-01

    Refractory bleeding after complex cardiovascular surgery often leads to increased length of stay, cost, morbidity, and mortality. Recombinant activated factor VII administered in the intensive care unit can reduce bleeding, transfusion, and surgical re-exploration. We retrospectively compared factor VII administration in the intensive care unit with reoperation for refractory bleeding after complex cardiovascular surgery. From 1501 patients who underwent cardiovascular procedures between December 2003 and September 2007, 415 high-risk patients were identified. From this cohort, 24 patients were divided into 2 groups based on whether they either received factor VII in the intensive care unit (n = 12) or underwent reoperation (n = 12) for refractory bleeding. Preoperative and postoperative data were collected to compare efficacy, safety, and economic outcomes. In-hospital survival for both groups was 100%. Factor VII was comparable with reoperation in achieving hemostasis, with both groups demonstrating decreases in chest tube output and need for blood products. Freedom from reoperation was achieved in 75% of patients receiving factor VII, whereas reoperation was effective in achieving hemostasis alone in 83.3% of patients. Prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, and median operating room time were significantly less (P factor VII. Both groups had no statistically significant differences in other efficacy, safety, or economic outcomes. Factor VII administration in the intensive care unit appears comparable with reoperation for refractory bleeding after complex cardiovascular surgical procedures and might represent an alternative to reoperation in selected patients. Future prospective, randomized controlled trials might further define its role. Copyright © 2011 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding Complexity and Self-Organization in a Defense Program Management Organization (Experimental Design)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-18

    initiatives such as the Packard Commission study, Goldwater-Nichols Legislation, and more recently, the Better Buying Power initiative. While the DoD...potential communications pathways in an organizational structure) Self-Organizing Network Behavior The nodes in the network are specific individuals... behavior pattern impacts of changing predetermined independent variables  Phase 4: Refined hypothesis testing to examine how decision and

  12. Guidelines and workbook for assessment of organization and administration of utilities seeking operating license for a nuclear power plant. Guidelines for utility organization and administration plan. Volume 1, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurber, J.A.; Olson, J.; Osborn, R.N.; Sommers, P.; Widrig, R.D.

    1986-09-01

    Volumes 1 and 2 of this report are a partial response to the requirements of Item I.B.1.1 of the ''NRC Action Plan Developed as a Result of the TMI-2 Accident,'' NUREG-0660, and are designed to serve as a basis for replacing the earlier NUREG-0731, ''Guidelines for Utility Management Structure and Technical Resources.'' These Guidelines are intended to provide guidance to the user in preparing a written plan for a proposed nuclear organization and administration. The purpose of the Workbook (Vol. 2) is to guide the NRC reviewer through a systematic review and assessment of a proposed organization and administration. It is the NRC's intention to incorporate these Guidelines and Workbook into a future revision of the Standard Review Plan (SRP), NUREG-0800. However, at this time the report is being published so that the material may be used on a voluntary basis by industry to systematically prepare or evaluate their organization or administration plans. Use of the report by the NRC would not occur until after it has been incorpoarted in the SRP

  13. Symposium in honour of the Administrative Tribunal of the International Labour Organization : 90 year of contribution to the creation of international civil service law

    CERN Document Server

    Colloque en l'honneur du Tribunal administratif de l'Organisation internationale du Travail : une contribution de 90 ans à la création d'un droit de la fonction publique internationale; 90 years of contribution of the Administrative Tribunal of the International Labour Organization to the creation of international civil service law; Une contribution de 90 ans du Tribunal administratif de l'Organisation internationale du Travail à la création d'un droit de la fonction publique internationale; Une contribution de 90 ans du TAOIT; 90 years of contribution of the ILOAT

    2017-01-01

    The present book arises out of a symposium that the Administrative Tribunal of the International Labour Organization organized on 5 May 2017 to celebrate the 90 years of its existence and its 125th Session held in 2017.

  14. Effect of moisture on disintegration kinetics during anaerobic digestion of complex organic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Flavia; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; Frunzo, Luigi; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The role of the moisture content and particle size (PS) on the disintegration of complex organic matter during the wet anaerobic digestion (AD) process was investigated. A range of total solids (TS) from 5% to 11.3% and PS from 0.25 to 15 mm was evaluated using carrot waste as model complex organic matter. The experimental results showed that the methane production rate decreased with higher TS and PS. A modified version of the AD model no.1 for complex organic substrates was used to model the experimental data. The simulations showed a decrease of the disintegration rate constants with increasing TS and PS. The results of the biomethanation tests were used to calibrate and validate the applied model. In particular, the values of the disintegration constant for various TS and PS were determined. The simulations showed good agreement between the numerical and observed data.

  15. The speciation, stability, solubility and biodegradation of organic co-contaminant radionuclide complexes: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith-Roach, Miranda J.

    2008-01-01

    The potential migration of radionuclides is of concern at contaminated land sites and, in the long term, waste repositories. Pathways of migration need to be characterised on a predictive level so that management decisions can be made with confidence. A pathway that is relatively poorly understood at present is radionuclide solubilisation due to complexation by organic complexing agents that are present in mixed radioactive wastes, and at radioactively contaminated land sites. Interactions of the complexing agents with radionuclides and the host environment, and the response to changes in the physicochemical conditions make their role far from simple to elucidate. In addition, chemical and biodegradation of the organic materials may be important. In this paper, key co-contaminant organics are reviewed with emphasis on their environmental fate and impact on radionuclide migration

  16. The speciation, stability, solubility and biodegradation of organic co-contaminant radionuclide complexes: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith-Roach, Miranda J. [Biogeochemistry and Environmental Analytical Chemistry Group/Consolidated Radio-isotope Facility, School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: mkeith-roach@plymouth.ac.uk

    2008-06-15

    The potential migration of radionuclides is of concern at contaminated land sites and, in the long term, waste repositories. Pathways of migration need to be characterised on a predictive level so that management decisions can be made with confidence. A pathway that is relatively poorly understood at present is radionuclide solubilisation due to complexation by organic complexing agents that are present in mixed radioactive wastes, and at radioactively contaminated land sites. Interactions of the complexing agents with radionuclides and the host environment, and the response to changes in the physicochemical conditions make their role far from simple to elucidate. In addition, chemical and biodegradation of the organic materials may be important. In this paper, key co-contaminant organics are reviewed with emphasis on their environmental fate and impact on radionuclide migration.

  17. Preparation of Some Novel Copper(I) Complexes and their Molar Conductances in Organic Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Dip Singh; Rana, Dilbag

    2009-04-01

    Attempts have been made to prepare some novel copper(I) nitrate, sulfate, and perchlorate complexes. Molar conductances of these complexes have been measured in organic solvents like acetonitrile (AN), acetone (AC), methanol (MeOH), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), N,Ndimethylacetamide (DMA), and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) at 298 K. The molar conductance data have been analyzed to obtain limiting molar conductances (λ0) and ion association constants (KA) of the electrolytes. The results showed that all these complexes are strong electrolytes in all organic solvents. The limiting ionic molar conductances (λo± ) for various ions have been calculated using Bu4NBPh4 as reference electrolyte. The actual radii for copper(I) complex ions are very large and different in different solvents and indicate some solvation effects in each solvent system

  18. Different ways to organize the processes of financial administration : a field study of medium-sized Finnish companies

    OpenAIRE

    Nummela, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This research concentrates on exploring the ways how financial administration is currently organized in medium-sized companies in Finland. Decentralization, centralization and outsourcing are options that are available to different-sized companies. The study was executed as a field study in seven medium-sized Finnish companies that represent different branches. Furthermore, the research method was qualitative theme interview. As large companies have already established their financial service...

  19. Positronium Inhibition and Quenching by Organic Electron Acceptors and Charge Transfer Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, P.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Jensen, Bror Skytte

    1975-01-01

    Positron lifetime measurements were performed on a series of organic electron acceptors and charge-transfer complexes in solution. The acceptors cause both positronium (Ps) inhibition (with maybe one exception) and quenching, but when an acceptor takes part in a charge-transfer complex...... in terms of the spur reaction model of Ps formation. Correlation was also made to gas phase reaction between electron acceptors and free electron, as well as to pulse radiolysis data....

  20. Accounting Procedures for Student Organizations. 1979 Edition. School Business Administration Publication No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Association of School Business Officials, Sacramento.

    This manual focuses attention on the problems involved in accounting for student body organization funds and offers information that may be used by school districts in establishing, reviewing, and revising fiscal policies and accounting procedures for student body organizations. It is intended that the application of the basic principles set forth…

  1. Small Business Administration Section 8 (A) Support Services Contracts at the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    ...%flc objectives were to determine whether the contract administration process and applicable internal controls were effective and whether costs charged to the contracts were allowable, reasonable, and allocable. In addition, we reviewed anonymous allegations sent to Senator David Pryor of fraud, waste, and abuse on CTI contracts with BMDO. We also reviewed internal controls applicable to the audit objectives.

  2. 77 FR 47652 - Second Annual Food and Drug Administration Health Professional Organizations Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0001... include an update on the FDA Safety and Innovation Act (Pub. L. 112-144) and an overview of FDA's Network... liaison between FDA Centers and the public on matters that involve medical product safety and also acts as...

  3. The Effect of School Administrators' Political Skills against Organizational Cynicism in Educational Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konakli, Tugba

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, it is aimed to investigate the relationship between the primary school teachers' perceptions of the political skills of school administrators and their perceptions of organizational cynicism. Within the scope of this general purpose, it was investigated whether there was a significant relationship between teachers'…

  4. Free Energy Rate Density and Self-organization in Complex Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiev, Georgi Yordanov; Gombos, Erin; Bates, Timothy; Henry, Kaitlin; Casey, Alexander; Daly, Michael

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important tasks in science is to understand the self-organization's arrow of time. To attempt this we utilize the connection between self-organization and non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Eric Chaisson calculated an exponential increase of Free Energy Rate Density (FERD) in Cosmic Evolution, from the Big Bang until now, paralleling the increase of system's structure. We term these studies "Devology". We connect FERD to the principle of least action for complex systems, driving ...

  5. Effect of atmospheric organic complexation on iron-bearing dust solubility

    OpenAIRE

    Paris , R.; Desboeufs , K. V.

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Recent studies reported that the effect of organic complexation may be a potentially important process to be considered by models estimating atmospheric iron flux to the ocean. In this study, we investigated this process effect by a series of dissolution experiments on iron-bearing dust in the presence or the absence of various organic compounds (acetate, formate, oxalate, malonate, succinate, glutarate, glycolate, lactate, tartrate and humic acid as an analogue of hum...

  6. Effect of atmospheric organic complexation on iron-bearing dust solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Paris

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies reported that the effect of organic complexation may be a potentially important process to be considered by models estimating atmospheric iron flux to the ocean. In this study, we investigated this process effect by a series of dissolution experiments on iron-bearing dust in the presence or the absence of various organic compounds (acetate, formate, oxalate, malonate, succinate, glutarate, glycolate, lactate, tartrate and humic acid as an analogue of humic like substances, HULIS typically found in atmospheric waters. Only 4 of tested organic ligands (oxalate, malonate, tartrate and humic acid caused an enhancement of iron solubility which was associated with an increase of dissolved Fe(II concentrations. For all of these organic ligands, a positive linear dependence of iron solubility to organic concentrations was observed and showed that the extent of organic complexation on iron solubility decreased in the following order: oxalate >malonate = tartrate > humic acid. This was attributed to the ability of electron donors of organic ligands and implies a reductive ligand-promoted dissolution. This study confirms that among the known atmospheric organic binding ligands of Fe, oxalate is the most effective ligand promoting dust iron solubility and showed, for the first time, the potential effect of HULIS on iron dissolution under atmospheric conditions.

  7. MOLECULAR COMPLEXES OF SULPHUR DIOXIDE WITH N,O-CONTAINING ORGANIC BASES (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Khoma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The literature data on the synthesis, stoichiometry, structure and relative stability of molecular  complexes of sulphur dioxide with N,O-containing organic bases have been systematized and  generalized. It was shown that the yield of the reaction product of sulfur dioxide with organic  bases (such as amines are strongly influenced by the conditions of synthesis: the nature of  the solvent (basicity, polarity, the temperature and SO2:L ratio in the reaction medium. The stoichiometry of SO2*nL molecular complexes depends on ligand denticity, as well as its  ability to H-bonding. The reaction of the sulfur oxide (IV with organic bases can give S←N and S←O complexes. With the increase of the value of base proton affinity the decrease ΔrSN values has been marked. Characteristic parameter Δr SN = r SN – a1(rS+ rN (where rSNis the S←N donor-acceptor bond length has been determined by microwave spectroscopy and X-ray analysis, rSand rNwere the tabulated values of the homopolar covalent radii of sulphur and nitrogen heteroatoms. The dependence of formation enthalpy of molecular complexes of basic amines and spectral characteristics has been noted; enthalpy-entropy compensation for S←N and S←O complex-es has been stated. Despite the limited experimental data on the thermodynamics of complex formation and the lengths of donor-acceptor bonds for the same compounds it has been found bond S←N strength in SO2 molecular complexes to depend on the intrinsic value of ΔrSN. The contribution of van der Waals forces and charge transfer forces to the formation of molecular complexes of sulphur dioxide has been stated.

  8. Efficient organic light-emitting devices with platinum-complex emissive layer

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2011-01-18

    We report efficient organic light-emitting devices having a platinum-complex emissive layer with the peak external quantum efficiency of 17.5% and power efficiency of 45 lm W−1. Variation in the device performance with platinum-complex layer thickness can be attributed to the interplay between carrier recombination and intermolecular interactions in the layer. Efficient white devices using double platinum-complex layers show the external quantum efficiency of 10%, the Commission Internationale d’Énclairage coordinates of (0.42, 0.41), and color rendering index of 84 at 1000 cd m−2.

  9. Efficient organic light-emitting devices with platinum-complex emissive layer

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui; Wu, Fang-Iy; Haverinen, Hanna; Li, Jian; Cheng, Chien-Hong; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2011-01-01

    We report efficient organic light-emitting devices having a platinum-complex emissive layer with the peak external quantum efficiency of 17.5% and power efficiency of 45 lm W−1. Variation in the device performance with platinum-complex layer thickness can be attributed to the interplay between carrier recombination and intermolecular interactions in the layer. Efficient white devices using double platinum-complex layers show the external quantum efficiency of 10%, the Commission Internationale d’Énclairage coordinates of (0.42, 0.41), and color rendering index of 84 at 1000 cd m−2.

  10. Mass Drug Administration and beyond: how can we strengthen health systems to deliver complex interventions to eliminate neglected tropical diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Eleanor E; Adams, Emily R; Bockarie, Moses J; Hollingsworth, T Deirdre; Kelly-Hope, Louise A; Lehane, Mike; Kovacic, Vanja; Harrison, Robert A; Paine, Mark Ji; Reimer, Lisa J; Torr, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Achieving the 2020 goals for Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) requires scale-up of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) which will require long-term commitment of national and global financing partners, strengthening national capacity and, at the community level, systems to monitor and evaluate activities and impact. For some settings and diseases, MDA is not appropriate and alternative interventions are required. Operational research is necessary to identify how existing MDA networks can deliver this more complex range of interventions equitably. The final stages of the different global programmes to eliminate NTDs require eliminating foci of transmission which are likely to persist in complex and remote rural settings. Operational research is required to identify how current tools and practices might be adapted to locate and eliminate these hard-to-reach foci. Chronic disabilities caused by NTDs will persist after transmission of pathogens ceases. Development and delivery of sustainable services to reduce the NTD-related disability is an urgent public health priority. LSTM and its partners are world leaders in developing and delivering interventions to control vector-borne NTDs and malaria, particularly in hard-to-reach settings in Africa. Our experience, partnerships and research capacity allows us to serve as a hub for developing, supporting, monitoring and evaluating global programmes to eliminate NTDs.

  11. Exploring Trianglamine Derivatives and Trianglamine Coordination Complexes as Porous Organic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Eziashi, Magdalene

    2018-05-01

    Trianglamines are triangular chiral macrocycles that were first synthesized by Gawronski’s group in Poland in the year 2000.1 Despite their unique properties; triangular pore shape, chirality, symmetric structure and tunable pore size, they are still a poorly researched class of macrocycles today. Trianglamines have yet a role to play as porous organic molecules for separation processes, as macrocyclic precursors to build increasingly complex supramolecular assemblies and as building blocks for caged porous organic structures. The aim of the Thesis work is to explore trianglamine, its derivatives, and assemblies as viable porous organic molecules for potential gas capture and separation.

  12. A scientific evaluation of an organization and its leadership and administrative prastices: Report of management

    OpenAIRE

    IVANOV, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. This article intends provide an evaluation of an organization based on organizational theories, developed largely by W. Edwards Deming, Jerry B. Harvey, and other theorists. Drawing from these theories, the authors apply different methods to conduct an organizational study, evaluating a mid-size organization located in the United States, and make recommendations for improvement to upper management.Keywords. Organizational study, Abilene paradox, Phrog farms, Feararchy, Deming’s dise...

  13. Leadership in project-based organizations: Dealing with complex and paradoxical demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming amount of attention given by scientists and practitioners to leadership, most theories of leadership have been developed to explain the role of leadership in traditional line organizations, not to explain how leaders deal with complex and paradoxical demands in project-based

  14. Plants lacking the main light-harvesting complex retain photosystem II macro-organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruban, A.V.; Wentworth, M.; Yakushevska, A.E.; Andersson, J.; Lee, P.J.; Keegstra, W.; Dekker, J.P.; Boekema, E.J.; Jansson, S.; Horton, P.

    2003-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a key component of photosynthesis, the process of converting sunlight into the chemical energy of life. In plant cells, it forms a unique oligomeric macrostructure in membranes of the chloroplasts. Several light-harvesting antenna complexes are organized precisely in the

  15. Plants lacking the main light-harvesting complex retain photosystem II macro-organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruban, AV; Wentworth, M; Yakushevska, AE; Andersson, J; Lee, PJ; Keegstra, W; Dekker, JP; Boekema, EJ; Jansson, S; Horton, P

    2003-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a key component of photosynthesis, the process of converting sunlight into the chemical energy of life. In plant cells, it forms a unique oligomeric macrostructure in membranes of the chloroplasts(1). Several light-harvesting antenna complexes are organized precisely in the

  16. Expanding Evolutionary Theory beyond Darwinism with Elaborating, Self-Organizing, and Fractionating Complex Evolutionary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichter, Lynn S.; Pyle, E. J.; Whitmeyer, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Earth systems increase in complexity, diversity, and interconnectedness with time, driven by tectonic/solar energy that keeps the systems far from equilibrium. The evolution of Earth systems is facilitated by three evolutionary mechanisms: "elaboration," "fractionation," and "self-organization," that share…

  17. The organization of the Golgi complex and microtubules in skeletal muscle is fiber type-dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ralston, E; Lu, Z; Ploug, Thorkil

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle has a nonconventional Golgi complex (GC), the organization of which has been a subject of controversy in the past. We have now examined the distribution of the GC by immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy in whole fibers from different rat muscles, both innervated a...

  18. The Concept of Information Sharing Behaviors in Complex Organizations: Research in Latvian Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejs Cekuls

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors influencing behaviors of information sharing in complex organizations. Evaluation of the previous studies on provision of information turnover process and the role of organizational culture in competitive intelligence of business environment in Latvia indicated the trends that employees of Latvian enterprises lack incentive to share information. Tasks of the study were to research the basis of the review of scientific sources and study aspects influencing habits of information sharing in complex organizations. For this particular study, the focus group is selected as the most appropriate data collection method for high-quality research. To find out individuals' opinions and attitudes two focus group discussions were carried out. Members from various industries and with different employment period were included in discussion groups. In aggregate, opinions of the employees from 41 different companies were summarized regarding the aspects affecting the process of information sharing in organizations. Results of researches show that that influence the sharing of information are closely related to the values: interpersonal trust, organizational trust, and organizational identification, support, fairness etc. Results of discussions showed that it is important for a manager to be aware of the factors affecting the performance of the organization. To identify the need for changes, a manager should follow events in the environment and analyze the extent, to which they affect the performance of the organization. Complexity science suggests that maturity to changes emerges when the system is far from balance, but the tension makes to accept changes.

  19. Dynamics of anion exchange of lanthanides in aqueous-organic complexing media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheveleva, I.V.; Bogatyrev, I.O.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of organic solvents (ethanol, acetone, acetonitrile) on change in kinetic parameters of the anion exchange process (anion-exchange column chromatography) of r.e.e. (europium and gadolinium) in complexing nitric acid media has been studied. It is established that complex LnA 4 anion is the only sorbing form of europium and gadolinium on anionite. When the organic component content of the solution being the same, the dynamic parameters of lanthanide exchange have higher values in aqueous-acetonitrile and aqueous-acetone media in comparison with aqueous-enthanol solutions of nitric acid. Lesser mobility of complex lanthanide anions in aqueous-alcoholic solutions can be explained by stronger solvation in the presence of solvents with higher acceptor properties

  20. Effect of organic complexing compounds and surfactants on coprecipitation of cesium radionuclides with nickel ferrocyanide precipitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milyutin, V.V.; Gelis, V.M.; Ershov, B.G.; Seliverstov, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    One studied the effect of the organic complexing compounds and of the surfactants on the coprecipitation of Cs trace amounts with the nickel ferrocyanide precipitate. The presence of the oxalate- and ethylenediamin-tetraacetate-ions in the solutions is shown to result in the abrupt reduction of Cs coprecipitation degree. The effect of the various surfactants manifested itself not so explicitly. To reduce the negative effect of the organic compounds on the intimacy of Cs coprecipitation one tried out the procedure of their chemical destruction by ozon. Pre-ozonization of the solutions enabled to prevent the negative effect of the organic complexing compounds and of the surfactants on Cs coprecipitation with nickel ferrocyanide precipitate [ru

  1. Unique double concentric ring organization of light harvesting complexes in Gemmatimonas phototrophica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Dachev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of life on Earth depends directly or indirectly on the sun as a source of energy. The initial step of photosynthesis is facilitated by light-harvesting complexes, which capture and transfer light energy into the reaction centers (RCs. Here, we analyzed the organization of photosynthetic (PS complexes in the bacterium G. phototrophica, which so far is the only phototrophic representative of the bacterial phylum Gemmatimonadetes. The isolated complex has a molecular weight of about 800 ± 100 kDa, which is approximately 2 times larger than the core complex of Rhodospirillum rubrum. The complex contains 62.4 ± 4.7 bacteriochlorophyll (BChl a molecules absorbing in 2 distinct infrared absorption bands with maxima at 816 and 868 nm. Using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, we determined the energy transfer time between these spectral bands as 2 ps. Single particle analyses of the purified complexes showed that they were circular structures with an outer diameter of approximately 18 nm and a thickness of 7 nm. Based on the obtained, we propose that the light-harvesting complexes in G. phototrophica form 2 concentric rings surrounding the type 2 RC. The inner ring (corresponding to the B868 absorption band is composed of 15 subunits and is analogous to the inner light-harvesting complex 1 (LH1 in purple bacteria. The outer ring is composed of 15 more distant BChl dimers with no or slow energy transfer between them, resulting in the B816 absorption band. This completely unique and elegant organization offers good structural stability, as well as high efficiency of light harvesting. Our results reveal that while the PS apparatus of Gemmatimonadetes was acquired via horizontal gene transfer from purple bacteria, it later evolved along its own pathway, devising a new arrangement of its light harvesting complexes.

  2. Assessing production characteristics, influential factors and administrative policies in a multicenter dental organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Charles W

    2012-06-01

    In multicenter service organizations, managers often make centralized decisions without considering the effects of differing production characteristics and influential factors on each center. In this study, the author examines differences in production characteristics and factors that influence production, as well as their likely effect on policy formulation, in a large, six-center dental group in the Chicago area. The results of the study show that the six centers (in two groups) exhibited two distinct production patterns, with three having logarithmic distributions and three having normal distributions. Production differences between the groups likely resulted from differences in managed care, staffing and dental procedures performed. Instead of being monolithic, the organization exhibited two types of centers, each with its own production characteristics and factors that influenced production. The study results suggest that large service corporations and }partnerships would benefit from conducting analyses of production characteristics and factors that influence production before making policy decisions that affect the entire organization.

  3. The development of quantitative determination method of organic acids in complex poly herbal extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Dyachok

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The development of sensible, economical and expressive method of quantitative determination of organic acids in complex poly herbal extraction counted on izovaleric acid with the use of digital technologies. Materials and methods. Model complex poly herbal extraction of sedative action was chosen as a research object. Extraction is composed of these medical plants: Valeriana officinalis L., Crataégus, Melissa officinalis L., Hypericum, Mentha piperita L., Húmulus lúpulus, Viburnum. Based on chemical composition of plant components, we consider that main pharmacologically active compounds, which can be found in complex poly herbal extraction are: polyphenolic substances (flavonoids, which are contained in Crataégus, Viburnum, Hypericum, Mentha piperita L., Húmulus lúpulus; also organic acids, including izovaleric acid, which are contained in Valeriana officinalis L., Mentha piperita L., Melissa officinalis L., Viburnum; the aminoacid are contained in Valeriana officinalis L. For the determination of organic acids content in low concentration we applied instrumental method of analysis, namely conductometry titration which consisted in the dependences of water solution conductivity of complex poly herbal extraction on composition of organic acids. Result. The got analytical dependences, which describes tangent lines to the conductometry curve before and after the point of equivalence, allow to determine the volume of solution expended on titration and carry out procedure of quantitative determination of organic acids in the digital mode. Conclusion. The proposed method enables to determine the point of equivalence and carry out quantitative determination of organic acids counted on izovaleric acid with the use of digital technologies, that allows to computerize the method on the whole.

  4. Looping and clustering model for the organization of protein-DNA complexes on the bacterial genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jean-Charles; Walliser, Nils-Ole; David, Gabriel; Dorignac, Jérôme; Geniet, Frédéric; Palmeri, John; Parmeggiani, Andrea; Wingreen, Ned S.; Broedersz, Chase P.

    2018-03-01

    The bacterial genome is organized by a variety of associated proteins inside a structure called the nucleoid. These proteins can form complexes on DNA that play a central role in various biological processes, including chromosome segregation. A prominent example is the large ParB-DNA complex, which forms an essential component of the segregation machinery in many bacteria. ChIP-Seq experiments show that ParB proteins localize around centromere-like parS sites on the DNA to which ParB binds specifically, and spreads from there over large sections of the chromosome. Recent theoretical and experimental studies suggest that DNA-bound ParB proteins can interact with each other to condense into a coherent 3D complex on the DNA. However, the structural organization of this protein-DNA complex remains unclear, and a predictive quantitative theory for the distribution of ParB proteins on DNA is lacking. Here, we propose the looping and clustering model, which employs a statistical physics approach to describe protein-DNA complexes. The looping and clustering model accounts for the extrusion of DNA loops from a cluster of interacting DNA-bound proteins that is organized around a single high-affinity binding site. Conceptually, the structure of the protein-DNA complex is determined by a competition between attractive protein interactions and loop closure entropy of this protein-DNA cluster on the one hand, and the positional entropy for placing loops within the cluster on the other. Indeed, we show that the protein interaction strength determines the ‘tightness’ of the loopy protein-DNA complex. Thus, our model provides a theoretical framework for quantitatively computing the binding profiles of ParB-like proteins around a cognate (parS) binding site.

  5. Exploring molecular complexity with ALMA (EMoCA): Deuterated complex organic molecules in Sagittarius B2(N2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloche, A.; Müller, H. S. P.; Garrod, R. T.; Menten, K. M.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Deuteration is a powerful tracer of the history of the cold prestellar phase in star-forming regions. Apart from methanol, little is known about deuterium fractionation of complex organic molecules in the interstellar medium, especially in regions forming high-mass stars. Aims: Our goal is to detect deuterated complex organic molecules toward the high mass star-forming region Sagittarius B2 (Sgr B2) and derive the level of deuteration for these molecules. Methods: We use a complete 3-mm spectral line survey performed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to search for deuterated complex organic molecules toward the hot molecular core Sgr B2(N2). We constructed population diagrams and integrated intensity maps to fit rotational temperatures and emission sizes for each molecule. Column densities are derived by modeling the full spectrum under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. We compare the results to predictions of two astrochemical models that treat the deuteration process. Results: We report the detection of CH2DCN toward Sgr B2(N2) with a deuteration level of 0.4%, and tentative detections of CH2DOH, CH2DCH2CN, the chiral molecule CH3CHDCN, and DC3N with levels in the range 0.05%-0.12%. A stringent deuteration upper limit is obtained for CH3OD (cyanide, the four deuterated species of ethanol, and CH2DOCHO. Ethyl cyanide is less deuterated than methyl cyanide by at least a factor five. The [CH2DOH]/[CH3OD] abundance ratio is higher than 1.8. It may still be consistent with the value obtained in Orion KL. Except for methyl cyanide, the measured deuteration levels lie at least a factor four below the predictions of current astrochemical models. The deuteration levels in Sgr B2(N2) are also lower than in Orion KL by a factor of a few up to a factor ten. Conclusions: The discrepancy between the deuteration levels of Sgr B2(N2) and the predictions of chemical models, and the difference between Sgr B2(N2) and Orion KL may

  6. Cell type-specific characterization of nuclear DNA contents within complex tissues and organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambert Georgina M

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic organisms are defined by the presence of a nucleus, which encloses the chromosomal DNA, and is characterized by its DNA content (C-value. Complex eukaryotic organisms contain organs and tissues that comprise interspersions of different cell types, within which polysomaty, endoreduplication, and cell cycle arrest is frequently observed. Little is known about the distribution of C-values across different cell types within these organs and tissues. Results We have developed, and describe here, a method to precisely define the C-value status within any specific cell type within complex organs and tissues of plants. We illustrate the application of this method to Arabidopsis thaliana, specifically focusing on the different cell types found within the root. Conclusion The method accurately and conveniently charts C-value within specific cell types, and provides novel insight into developmental processes. The method is, in principle, applicable to any transformable organism, including mammals, within which cell type specificity of regulation of endoreduplication, of polysomaty, and of cell cycle arrest is suspected.

  7. Modeling the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwier, A. N.; Viglione, G. A.; Li, Z.; McNeill, V. Faye

    2013-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosols can contain thousands of organic compounds which impact aerosol surface tension, affecting aerosol properties such as heterogeneous reactivity, ice nucleation, and cloud droplet formation. We present new experimental data for the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic aqueous mixtures mimicking tropospheric aerosols. Each solution contained 2-6 organic compounds, including methylglyoxal, glyoxal, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, oxalic acid, succinic acid, leucine, alanine, glycine, and serine, with and without ammonium sulfate. We test two semi-empirical surface tension models and find that most reactive, complex, aqueous organic mixtures which do not contain salt are well described by a weighted Szyszkowski-Langmuir (S-L) model which was first presented by Henning et al. (2005). Two approaches for modeling the effects of salt were tested: (1) the Tuckermann approach (an extension of the Henning model with an additional explicit salt term), and (2) a new implicit method proposed here which employs experimental surface tension data obtained for each organic species in the presence of salt used with the Henning model. We recommend the use of method (2) for surface tension modeling of aerosol systems because the Henning model (using data obtained from organic-inorganic systems) and Tuckermann approach provide similar modeling results and goodness-of-fit (χ2) values, yet the Henning model is a simpler and more physical approach to modeling the effects of salt, requiring less empirically determined parameters.

  8. Defining the Impact of Public Administration Programmes for Public Sector Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broucker, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    In times of financial and economic crises, public organizations seem to cut their budgets for training and education, especially when the impact of a programme is questioned. Therefore, PA programmes need to clarify what impact can be expected and what individual and organizational processes are influencing the impact of a PA programme on the…

  9. Plea bargaining as a third route of criminal law in the fight against organized administrative corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues da Silva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine whether the plea bargaining in the context of “Lava Jato” Operation is adopting a third route of criminal law against administrative corruption, in which reparation of damages is established as one of the primary objectives of criminal prosecution, in substitution or mitigation of the restrictive sentence of the collaborating defendants. Subsequent to this analysis, it is intended to reflect if the adoption of a third route of criminal law by means of these negotiating instruments could imply in the utilitarian mercantilization of the criminal process prejudicial to the principle of criminal legality, proportionality and isonomy in the application of the punishment. This is a necessary and pertinent analysis due to the protagonism that the plea-bargaining have been assuming in the discovery of great corruption schemes in Brazil and the recovery of assets. The procedural methodology is the bibliographic and the method of approach is the hypothetico-deductive one, besides the case study involving “Lava Jato” operation. The hypothesis worked out is that the award-winning collaboration agreements have externalized a third-way criminal law and that there is a viability of violations of isonomy and criminal legality in fight against administrative corruption.

  10. Drosophila melanogaster--the model organism of choice for the complex biology of multi-cellular organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckingham, Kathleen M.; Armstrong, J. Douglas; Texada, Michael J.; Munjaal, Ravi; Baker, Dean A.

    2005-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has been intensely studied for almost 100 years. The sophisticated array of genetic and molecular tools that have evolved for analysis of gene function in this organism are unique. Further, Drosophila is a complex multi-cellular organism in which many aspects of development and behavior parallel those in human beings. These combined advantages have permitted research in Drosophila to make seminal contributions to the understanding of fundamental biological processes and ensure that Drosophila will continue to provide unique insights in the genomic era. An overview of the genetic methodologies available in Drosophila is given here, together with examples of outstanding recent contributions of Drosophila to our understanding of cell and organismal biology. The growing contribution of Drosophila to our knowledge of gravity-related responses is addressed.

  11. Copper complexing ligands and organic matter characterization in the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavšić, Marta; Gašparović, Blaženka; Strmečki, Slađana; Vojvodić, Vjeročka; Tepić, Nataša

    2009-11-01

    The study on dissolved organic ligands capable to complex copper ions (L T), surface-active substances (SAS) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Northern Adriatic Sea station (ST 101) under the influence of Po River was conducted in period from 2006-2008. The acidity of surface-active organic material (Ac r) was followed as well. The results are compared to temperature and salinity distributions. On that way, the contribution of the different pools of ligands capable to complex Cu ions could be determined as well as the influence of aging and transformation of the organic matter. The L T values in the investigated period were in the range of 40-300 nmol l -1. The range of DOC values for surface and bottom samples were 0.84-1.87 mg l -1 and 0.80-1.30 mg l -1, respectively. Total SAS concentrations in the bottom layer were 0.045-0.098 mg l -1 in equiv. of Triton-X-100 while those in the surface layer were 0.050-0.143 mg l -1 in equiv. of Triton-X-100. The majority of organic ligands responsible for Cu binding in surface water originate from new phytoplankton production promoted by river borne nutrients. Older, transformed organic matter, possessing higher relative acidity, is the main contributor to the pool of organic ligands that bind copper in the bottom samples. It was estimated that ˜9% of DOC in surface samples and ˜12% of DOC in the bottom samples are present as ligands capable to complex copper ions.

  12. Structure of diphosphine complexes of Co(II) in solutions of organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraev, V.V.; Mandyuk, I.M.; Ratovskii, G.V.; Dmitrieva, T.V.; Shmidt, F.K.

    1987-01-01

    The structure of the dichloride complexes of cobalt(II) with 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane (DPPE) and 1,1-bis(diphenylphosphino)methane (DPPM) in organic solvents has been investigated by ESR and electronic spectroscopy. It has been shown that the low-spin complex Co(DPPE) 2 Cl 2 exists in dichloroethane and ethanol solutions in the form of a trigonal bipyramid. Cobalt dichloride reacts with DPPM to form 1:1 and 1:2 complexes, between which there is an equilibrium in a dichloroethane solution. The equilibrium is displaced under the action of the free diphosphine toward the formation of the 1:2 complex. Elimination of the diphosphine from the coordination sphere of cobalt occurs in an ethanol solution

  13. The effects of prolonged oral administration of gold nanoparticles on the morphology of hematopoietic and lymphoid organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Pakhomy, Svetlana S.; Zlobina, Olga V.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Matveeva, Olga V.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Bogatyrev, Vladimir A.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2017-02-01

    Currently, the usage of gold nanoparticles as photosensitizers and immunomodulators for plasmonic photothermal therapy has attracted a great attention of researches and end-users. In our work, the influence of prolonged peroral administration of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with different sizes on the morphological changes of hematopoietic and lymphoid organs was investigated. The 24 white outbred male rats weighing 180-220 g were randomly divided into groups and administered orally for 30 days the suspension of gold nanospheres with diameters of 2, 15 and 50 nm at a dosage of 190 μg/kg of animal body weight. To prevent GNPs aggregation in a tissue and enhance biocompatibility, they were functionalized with thiolated polyethylene glycol. The withdrawal of the animals from the experiment and sampling of spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow tissues for morphological study were performed a day after the last administration. In the spleen the boundary between the red and white pulp was not clearly differ in all experimental groups, lymphoid follicles were significantly increased in size, containing bright germinative centers represented by large blast cells. The stimulation of lymphocyte and myelocytic series of hematopoiesis was recorded at morphological study of the bone marrow. The number of immunoblasts and large lymphocytes was increased in all structural zones of lymph nodes. The more pronounced changes were found in the group with administration of 15 nm nanoparticles. Thus, the morphological changes of cellular components of hematopoietic organs have size-dependent character and indicate the activation of the migration, proliferation and differentiation of immune cells after prolonged oral administration of GNPs.

  14. The organization of LH2 complexes in membranes from Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, John D; Tucker, Jaimey D; Timney, John A; Qian, Pu; Vassilev, Cvetelin; Hunter, C Neil

    2008-11-07

    The mapping of the photosynthetic membrane of Rhodobacter sphaeroides by atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed a unique organization of arrays of dimeric reaction center-light harvesting I-PufX (RC-LH1-PufX) core complexes surrounded and interconnected by light-harvesting LH2 complexes (Bahatyrova, S., Frese, R. N., Siebert, C. A., Olsen, J. D., van der Werf, K. O., van Grondelle, R., Niederman, R. A., Bullough, P. A., Otto, C., and Hunter, C. N. (2004) Nature 430, 1058-1062). However, membrane regions consisting solely of LH2 complexes were under-represented in these images because these small, highly curved areas of membrane rendered them difficult to image even using gentle tapping mode AFM and impossible with contact mode AFM. We report AFM imaging of membranes prepared from a mutant of R. sphaeroides, DPF2G, that synthesizes only the LH2 complexes, which assembles spherical intracytoplasmic membrane vesicles of approximately 53 nm diameter in vivo. By opening these vesicles and adsorbing them onto mica to form small, LH2-only membranes for the first time. The transition from highly curved vesicle to the planar sheet is accompanied by a change in the packing of the LH2 complexes such that approximately half of the complexes are raised off the mica surface by approximately 1 nm relative to the rest. This vertical displacement produces a very regular corrugated appearance of the planar membrane sheets. Analysis of the topographs was used to measure the distances and angles between the complexes. These data are used to model the organization of LH2 complexes in the original, curved membrane. The implications of this architecture for the light harvesting function and diffusion of quinones in native membranes of R. sphaeroides are discussed.

  15. Preliminary investigation of phosphorus adsorption onto two types of iron oxide-organic matter complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinlong; Jiang, Tao; Yao, Ying; Lu, Song; Wang, Qilei; Wei, Shiqiang

    2016-04-01

    Iron oxide (FeO) coated by natural organic matter (NOM) is ubiquitous. The associations of minerals with organic matter (OM) significantly changes their surface properties and reactivity, and thus affect the environmental fate of pollutants, including nutrients (e.g., phosphorus (P)). In this study, ferrihydrite/goethite-humic acid (FH/GE-HA) complexes were prepared and their adsorption characteristics on P at various pH and ionic strength were investigated. The results indicated that the FeO-OM complexes showed a decreased P adsorption capacity in comparison with bare FeO. The maximum adsorption capacity (Qmax) decreased in the order of FH (22.17 mg/g)>FH-HA (5.43 mg/g)>GE (4.67 mg/g)>GE-HA (3.27 mg/g). After coating with HA, the amorphous FH-HA complex still showed higher P adsorption than the crystalline GE-HA complex. The decreased P adsorption observed might be attributed to changes of the FeO surface charges caused by OM association. The dependence of P adsorption on the specific surface area of adsorbents suggests that the FeO component in the complexes is still the main contributor for the adsorption surfaces. The P adsorptions on FeO-HA complexes decreased with increasing initial pH or decreasing initial ionic strength. A strong dependence of P adsorption on ionic strength and pH may demonstrate that outer-sphere complexes between the OM component on the surface and P possibly coexist with inner-sphere surface complexes between the FeO component and P. Therefore, previous over-emphasis on the contributions of original minerals to P immobilization possibly over-estimates the P loading capacity of soils, especially in humic-rich areas. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Potential benefits of employee portals in public administrations: implementation and proactive behaviour towards the organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Marcos Pérez-Feijoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is the determination of the advantages achieved through the implementation of an employee portal, both for the government and for the users of the portal. We proposed an adaptation of the Huang, Jin and Yang (2004 model, based on the organizational support theory (Eisenberger et al., 1986. This theory predicts a proactive behaviour of employees wheter they perceive a support of the organization. In this case, the trigger for that perception is the satisfaction derived by the benefits to personnel provided by an employee portal. Through an empirical study, conducted among public school teachers, we have found evidence of the perception of organizational support among public employees when the portal is deployes. However we haven´t found a link between that support and a proactive behaviour towards the organization.

  17. Experimental and theoretical study of the transport of silver nanoparticles at their prolonged administration into a mammal organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsiferova, A. A.; Buzulukov, Yu. P.; Kashkarov, P. K.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2016-11-01

    The transport of silver nanoparticles in the organism of laboratory animals has been investigated. A mathematical model of the biokinetics of prolonged administration of nonmetabolizable and nonaglomerating pharmaceutical preparations is proposed, and its analytical solution is found. Based on the experimental data on the prolonged introduction and excretion of colloidal silver nanoparticles and the numerical approximation of the solutions to the equations for the proposed model, time dependences of the silver mass content in brain and blood are obtained and some other important biokinetic parameters are determined. It is concluded that both chronic1 and subchronic2 peroral application of these nanoparticles as an biologically active additive or antiseptic is potentially dangerous.

  18. Organization and administrative procedures for the control of the PUSPATI research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahrul Khair Rashid.

    1983-01-01

    The organizational set-up of PUSPATI, the administration and operation of reactor are discussed in detail. The nuclear related activities in Malaysia are governed by Radioactive Substances Act, 1968. An internal PUSPATI Safety Committee was formed to operate in a much similar manner to a typical nuclear regulatory body but in a smaller state enough to cater the present needs. Most of the rules and regulations were adopted from several guides, technical report, series of IAEA and the practice of other similar facilities. For inspection, the reports contain data on the operation, usage, maintenance and modifications, made on the reactor are submitted monthly. From these reports, a quarterly report will be produced and submitted to the PUSPATI Safety Committee. (A.J.)

  19. Poly-functional description of metal complexation by natural organic matter: theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffle, J.; Filella, M.; Altmann, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Differential Equilibrium Function (DEF) approach to metal complexation interpretation and prediction is compared to other models or approaches. The basic features of DEF are summarized, both from the experimental and theoretical points of view. The relation of DEF with key environmental concepts or parameters, in particular minor vs major complexing sites, the buffering intensity of natural organic matter (NOM), and their poly functional vs polyelectrolyte properties, is discussed. The relation between DEF and Freundlich isotherm is described quantitatively. The practical applications of DEF are discussed for (i) interpretation of metal complexation by NOM, and (ii) prediction of metal complexation by NOM. It is shown that DEF (i.e. sound extrapolation is possible with care). DEF cans be readily incorporated in metal species distribution codes (e.g. MINEQL). DEF is not equivalent to a molecular complexation model which describes complexation at each individual site; DEF gives a rigorous representation of complexation by NOM as a whole chemical system. (authors). 23 refs., 6 figs

  20. Metal complexation and monolayer self-assembly of the bio-organic semiconductor Alizarin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uppal, Neeti [Dept. Earth and Environmental Sciences, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (LMU) and Center for NanoSciences (CeNS), Muenchen (Germany); Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg (Germany); Gast, Norbert [Dept. Earth and Environmental Sciences, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (LMU) and Center for NanoSciences (CeNS), Muenchen (Germany); Zentrum Neue Technologien, Deutsches Museum, Muenchen (Germany); Bueno, Martin [Fakultaet Feinwerk- und Mikrotechnik, Physikalische Technik, Hochschule Muenchen (Germany); Heckl, Wolfgang M. [Dept. of Physics, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Garching (Germany); Zentrum Neue Technologien, Deutsches Museum, Muenchen (Germany); Trixler, Frank [Dept. Earth and Environmental Sciences, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (LMU) and Center for NanoSciences (CeNS), Muenchen (Germany); Dept. of Physics, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Garching (Germany); Zentrum Neue Technologien, Deutsches Museum, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Organic Solid/Solid Wetting Deposition (OSWD) (Trixler et al.: Chem.Eur.J. 13 (2007), 7785) enables to deposit insoluble molecules such as organic pigments and semiconductors on substrate surfaces under ambient conditions. We explore the potential of OSWD to grow and manipulate monolayers of biomolecules and their chelates on graphite and use Alizarin as a model system - a natural organic compound which occurs mainly as an anthraquinone glycoside in plants. Our investigations via Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM), Tunneling Spectroscopy (TS) and Molecular Modelling reveal that OSWD works also with bio-organic molecules and chelate complexes and show that the advantages of OSWD (self-assembly under ambient conditions in a non-solvent environment, nanomanipulation via molecular extraction) can all be tapped.

  1. Copper toxicity and organic matter: Resiliency of watersheds in the Duluth Complex, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatak, Nadine; Seal, Robert; Jones, Perry M.; Woodruff, Laurel G.

    2015-01-01

    We estimated copper (Cu) toxicity in surface water with high dissolved organic matter (DOM) for unmined mineralized watersheds of the Duluth Complex using the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM), which evaluates the effect of DOM, cation competition for biologic binding sites, and metal speciation. A sediment-based BLM was used to estimate stream-sediment toxicity; this approach factors in the cumulative effects of multiple metals, incorporation of metals into less bioavailable sulfides, and complexation of metals with organic carbon. For surface water, the formation of Cu-DOM complexes significantly reduces the amount of Cu available to aquatic organisms. The protective effects of cations, such as calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), competing with Cu to complex with the biotic ligand is likely not as important as DOM in water with high DOM and low hardness. Standard hardness-based water quality criteria (WQC) are probably inadequate for describing Cu toxicity in such waters and a BLM approach may yield more accurate results. Nevertheless, assumptions about relative proportions of humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) in DOM significantly influence BLM results; the higher the HA fraction, the higher calculated resiliency of the water to Cu toxicity. Another important factor is seasonal variation in water chemistry, with greater resiliency to Cu toxicity during low flow compared to high flow.Based on generally low total organic carbon and sulfur content, and equivalent metal ratios from total and weak partial extractions, much of the total metal concentration in clastic streambedsediments may be in bioavailable forms, sorbed on clays or hydroxide phases. However, organicrich fine-grained sediment in the numerous wetlands may sequester significant amount of metals, limiting their bioavailability. A high proportion of organic matter in waters and some sediments will play a key role in the resiliency of these watersheds to potential additional metal loads associated with future

  2. Plants lacking the main light-harvesting complex retain photosystem II macro-organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruban, A V; Wentworth, M; Yakushevska, A E; Andersson, J; Lee, P J; Keegstra, W; Dekker, J P; Boekema, E J; Jansson, S; Horton, P

    2003-02-06

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a key component of photosynthesis, the process of converting sunlight into the chemical energy of life. In plant cells, it forms a unique oligomeric macrostructure in membranes of the chloroplasts. Several light-harvesting antenna complexes are organized precisely in the PSII macrostructure-the major trimeric complexes (LHCII) that bind 70% of PSII chlorophyll and three minor monomeric complexes-which together form PSII supercomplexes. The antenna complexes are essential for collecting sunlight and regulating photosynthesis, but the relationship between these functions and their molecular architecture is unresolved. Here we report that antisense Arabidopsis plants lacking the proteins that form LHCII trimers have PSII supercomplexes with almost identical abundance and structure to those found in wild-type plants. The place of LHCII is taken by a normally minor and monomeric complex, CP26, which is synthesized in large amounts and organized into trimers. Trimerization is clearly not a specific attribute of LHCII. Our results highlight the importance of the PSII macrostructure: in the absence of one of its main components, another protein is recruited to allow it to assemble and function.

  3. Soluble dendrimers europium(III) β-diketonate complex for organic memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Binbin; Fang Junfeng; Li Bin; You Han; Ma Dongge; Hong Ziruo; Li Wenlian; Su Zhongmin

    2008-01-01

    We report the synthesis of a soluble dendrimers europium(III) complex, tris(dibenzoylmethanato)(1,3,5-tris[2-(2'-pyridyl) benzimidazoly]methylbenzene)-europium(III), and its application in organic electrical bistable memory device. Excellent stability that ensured more than 10 6 write-read-erase-reread cycles has been performed in ambient conditions without current-induced degradation. High-density, low-cost memory, good film-firming property, fascinating thermal and morphological stability allow the application of the dendrimers europium(III) complex as an active medium in non-volatile memory devices

  4. Complex Formation of Selected Radionuclides with Ligands Commonly Found in Ground Water: Low Molecular Organic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bror Skytte; Jensen, H.

    1985-01-01

    A general approach to the analysis of potentiometric data on complex formation between cations and polybasic amphoteric acids is described. The method is used for the characterisation of complex formation between Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, La 3+, and Eu3+ with a α-hydroxy acids, tartaric acid and citric ac......, and with the α-amino acids, aspartic acid and L-cysteine. The cations have been chosen as typical components of reactor waste, and the acids because they are often found as products of microbial activity in pits or wherever organic material decays...

  5. Spectroscopy of charge transfer complexes of four amino acids as organic two-dimensional conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhiyar, Ashvin; Patel, A J; Oza, A T

    2007-01-01

    It is found in this study that four amino acids, namely asparagine, arginine, histidine and glutamine form two-dimensional conducting systems which are charge transfer complexes (CTCs) with organic acceptors like TCNQ, TCNE, chloranil, DDQ, TNF and iodine. It is verified using optical absorption edges that these are 2d conductors like transition metal dichalcogenides obeying absorption functions different from 1d and 3d conductors. This 2d nature is related to the network of intermolecular H-bonding in these complexes, which leads to a global H-bonded network resulting in the absence of local deformation due to the relaxation of strain

  6. Computational Redox Potential Predictions: Applications to Inorganic and Organic Aqueous Complexes, and Complexes Adsorbed to Mineral Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamoorthy Arumugam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Applications of redox processes range over a number of scientific fields. This review article summarizes the theory behind the calculation of redox potentials in solution for species such as organic compounds, inorganic complexes, actinides, battery materials, and mineral surface-bound-species. Different computational approaches to predict and determine redox potentials of electron transitions are discussed along with their respective pros and cons for the prediction of redox potentials. Subsequently, recommendations are made for certain necessary computational settings required for accurate calculation of redox potentials. This article reviews the importance of computational parameters, such as basis sets, density functional theory (DFT functionals, and relativistic approaches and the role that physicochemical processes play on the shift of redox potentials, such as hydration or spin orbit coupling, and will aid in finding suitable combinations of approaches for different chemical and geochemical applications. Identifying cost-effective and credible computational approaches is essential to benchmark redox potential calculations against experiments. Once a good theoretical approach is found to model the chemistry and thermodynamics of the redox and electron transfer process, this knowledge can be incorporated into models of more complex reaction mechanisms that include diffusion in the solute, surface diffusion, and dehydration, to name a few. This knowledge is important to fully understand the nature of redox processes be it a geochemical process that dictates natural redox reactions or one that is being used for the optimization of a chemical process in industry. In addition, it will help identify materials that will be useful to design catalytic redox agents, to come up with materials to be used for batteries and photovoltaic processes, and to identify new and improved remediation strategies in environmental engineering, for example the

  7. THEORY OF CONCEPTUAL APPARATUS MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS ON THE BASIS OF REGISTRATION AND ANALYTICAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobiljon Barview

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the theory of management accounting unit of the agricultural organizations on the basis of accounting and analytical complex. With the development of modern economic relations of agricultural activity as a traditional sector of the economy, it is exposed to an active state regulation, which is manifested in a particular system of information and analytical support for accounting and control of enterprises in this industry. Agricultural organizations in the conditions of market economy is largely dependent on reliable information and analytical data.

  8. Self-Organized Complexity and Coherent Infomax from the Viewpoint of Jaynes’s Probability Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Phillips

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses concepts of self-organized complexity and the theory of Coherent Infomax in the light of Jaynes’s probability theory. Coherent Infomax, shows, in principle, how adaptively self-organized complexity can be preserved and improved by using probabilistic inference that is context-sensitive. It argues that neural systems do this by combining local reliability with flexible, holistic, context-sensitivity. Jaynes argued that the logic of probabilistic inference shows it to be based upon Bayesian and Maximum Entropy methods or special cases of them. He presented his probability theory as the logic of science; here it is considered as the logic of life. It is concluded that the theory of Coherent Infomax specifies a general objective for probabilistic inference, and that contextual interactions in neural systems perform functions required of the scientist within Jaynes’s theory.

  9. Information and Self-Organization A Macroscopic Approach to Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Haken, Hermann

    2006-01-01

    This book presents the concepts needed to deal with self-organizing complex systems from a unifying point of view that uses macroscopic data. The various meanings of the concept "information" are discussed and a general formulation of the maximum information (entropy) principle is used. With the aid of results from synergetics, adequate objective constraints for a large class of self-organizing systems are formulated and examples are given from physics, life and computer science. The relationship to chaos theory is examined and it is further shown that, based on possibly scarce and noisy data, unbiased guesses about processes of complex systems can be made and the underlying deterministic and random forces determined. This allows for probabilistic predictions of processes, with applications to numerous fields in science, technology, medicine and economics. The extensions of the third edition are essentially devoted to an introduction to the meaning of information in the quantum context. Indeed, quantum inform...

  10. Phosphorescent cyclometalated complexes for efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuri, Yoshiyuki; Oshiyama, Tomohiro; Ito, Hiroto; Hiyama, Kunihisa; Kita, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    Phosphorescent emitters are extremely important for efficient organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), which attract significant attention. Phosphorescent emitters, which have a high phosphorescence quantum yield at room temperature, typically contain a heavy metal such as iridium and have been reported to emit blue, green and red light. In particular, the blue cyclometalated complexes with high efficiency and high stability are being developed. In this review, we focus on blue cyclometalated complexes. Recent progress of computational analysis necessary to design a cyclometalated complex is introduced. The prediction of the radiative transition is indispensable to get an emissive cyclometalated complex. We summarize four methods to control phosphorescence peak of the cyclometalated complex: (i) substituent effect on ligands, (ii) effects of ancillary ligands on heteroleptic complexes, (iii) design of the ligand skeleton, and (iv) selection of the central metal. It is considered that novel ligand skeletons would be important to achieve both a high efficiency and long lifetime in the blue OLEDs. Moreover, the combination of an emitter and a host is important as well as the emitter itself. According to the dependences on the combination of an emitter and a host, the control of exciton density of the triplet is necessary to achieve both a high efficiency and a long lifetime, because the annihilations of the triplet state cause exciton quenching and material deterioration.

  11. Simplicity-minded management. A practical guide to stripping complexity out of your organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenas, Ron

    2007-12-01

    Large organizations are by nature complex, but over the years new business challenges--globalization, innovative technologies, and regulations, to name a few--have conspired to add layer upon layer of complexity to corporate structure and management. Organizations have become increasingly ungovernable and unwieldy: Performance is declining, accountability is unclear, decision rights are muddy, and data are crunched repeatedly, often with no clear purpose in mind. To avoid frustration and inefficiency, executives need to systematically attack the causes of complexity in their companies. Ashkenas and his partners at Robert H. Schaffer & Associates have worked with dozens of firms to help them develop strategies for simplifying. In this article, the author details the elements of a simplicity-minded strategy: Streamline the structure; prune products, services, and features; build disciplined processes; and improve managerial habits. ConAgra Foods' experience illustrates how one company turned itself around through careful execution of a simplicity strategy. The packaged-food supplier had become enormously successful by acquiring well-known brands and then allowing them to operate autonomously, evolving into a $14 billion organization with more than 100 brands, a food services business, and a commodity trading operation. ConAgra, however, had no common method for reporting, tracking, or analyzing results. Over time, therefore, it became a highly unwieldy enterprise, riddled with inefficiencies and unable to communicate adequately with investors and other stakeholders. When CEO Gary Rodkin came on board, in 2005, he invested in a series of initiatives to combat complexity. The tactic not only made life easier for customers and employees but also saved millions of dollars in costs. This article has an online interactive questionnaire that can help you assess your own company's level of complexity.

  12. EFFECT OF COMPLEX ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON GROWTH PLANLET OF DENDROBIUM ORCHID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitti Raodah Garuda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniqueness of stunning Dendrobium variety such as shapes, colors, and sizes are main attraction of this plant. Germination oforchid seeds can be carried out in a laboratory with in vitro techniques.Medium used for germination of orchid seeds are Vacin and Went medium. Researcher stried to add other substances that may increase growth explants, such as complex organic compounds. Study aims to determine effect of complex organic compounds into growth medium VW Dendrobium plantlets. Research used complete randomized design consist five treatment:VW medium without extract (control, VW medium+banana extract, VW medium+ melon extrac, VW medium+guava extract and VW medium+pepaya extract, with three replications, each replication consist two culture bottles.. Each culture bottle planted four planlets. Addition of complex organic compounds such as melon extract gave best vegetative growth of leaves quantity, roots quantity, root length and fresh weight. While guava extract provide best results to plantlet high and saplings. Plant lets with melon extract treatment showed appearance of muscular orchid plantlets is characteristic of plants that can survive during acclimatization. While both guava extract is best used for purpose of orchid plantlets regeneration.

  13. Towards comprehensive cell lineage reconstructions in complex organisms using light-sheet microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, Fernando; Keller, Philipp J

    2013-05-01

    Understanding the development of complex multicellular organisms as a function of the underlying cell behavior is one of the most fundamental goals of developmental biology. The ability to quantitatively follow cell dynamics in entire developing embryos is an indispensable step towards such a system-level understanding. In recent years, light-sheet fluorescence microscopy has emerged as a particularly promising strategy for recording the in vivo data required to realize this goal. Using light-sheet fluorescence microscopy, entire complex organisms can be rapidly imaged in three dimensions at sub-cellular resolution, achieving high temporal sampling and excellent signal-to-noise ratio without damaging the living specimen or bleaching fluorescent markers. The resulting datasets allow following individual cells in vertebrate and higher invertebrate embryos over up to several days of development. However, the complexity and size of these multi-terabyte recordings typically preclude comprehensive manual analyses. Thus, new computational approaches are required to automatically segment cell morphologies, accurately track cell identities and systematically analyze cell behavior throughout embryonic development. We review current efforts in light-sheet microscopy and bioimage informatics towards this goal, and argue that comprehensive cell lineage reconstructions are finally within reach for many key model organisms, including fruit fly, zebrafish and mouse. © 2013 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  14. Study of the degradation of organic molecules complexing radionuclides by using Advanced Oxidation Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekab, K.

    2014-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the application of two AOPs (Advanced Oxidation Processes) to degrade and mineralise organic molecules which are complexing radio-elements, and thus to allow their concentrations by trapping on mineral matrices. EDTA (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid) is chosen as reference organic complexing agent for preliminary tests performed with inactive cobalt 59 before addressing actual nuclear effluents with active cobalt 60. The author first presents the industrial context (existing nuclear wastes, notably liquid effluents and their processing) and proposes an overview of the state of the art on adsorption and precipitation of cobalt (natural and radioactive isotope). Then, the author presents the characteristics of the various studied oxides, the photochemical reactor used to perform tests, experimental techniques and operational modes. Results are then presented regarding various issues: adsorption of EDTA and the Co-EDTA complex, and cobalt precipitation; determination of the lamp photon flow by chemical actinometry and by using the Keitz method; efficiency of different processes (UV, UV/TiO 2 , UV/H 2 O 2 ) to degrade EDTA and to degrade the Co-EDTA complex; processing of a nuclear effluent coming from La Hague pools with determination of decontamination factors

  15. Complexity in organizations and environment - adaptive changes and adaptive decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Fabac

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The features of complexity are ever more present in modern organizations and in environments in which they operate, trying to survive and be as competitive as possible. In the processes of, the so-called emergence, the formal organizational structure, designed purposefully and with a plan, is going through a change due to complexity and the need for adaptation. As a result, there is a variety of new informal groups. At the same time, the intended structural changes and business process changes occur because of the perception that the leadership and senior organizational management have of the strategic situation. Managers in modern organizations often use business intelligence (BI systems when making important business decisions. These systems offer support to the decision-making by gathering and processing relevant data and information about the company performance, but also about the data on conditions in close and remote environment. A modern company is characterized by the complex adaptive system, but the environment in which it operates together with other business subjects (agents is also complex. Consequently, the requirements for appropriate or optimal decisions and successfully completed activities are hard to meet. Given that expected future events and circumstances often occur in nonlinear mechanisms, the decisions made by following the models of traditional predicting and planning are not satisfactory. This calls for new approaches to decision making and acting.

  16. Persistence of urban organic aerosols composition: Decoding their structural complexity and seasonal variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, João T.V.; Duarte, Regina M.B.O.; Lopes, Sónia P.; Silva, Artur M.S.; Duarte, Armando C.

    2017-01-01

    Organic Aerosols (OAs) are typically defined as highly complex matrices whose composition changes in time and space. Focusing on time vector, this work uses two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) techniques to examine the structural features of water-soluble (WSOM) and alkaline-soluble organic matter (ASOM) sequentially extracted from fine atmospheric aerosols collected in an urban setting during cold and warm seasons. This study reveals molecular signatures not previously decoded in NMR-related studies of OAs as meaningful source markers. Although the ASOM is less hydrophilic and structurally diverse than its WSOM counterpart, both fractions feature a core with heteroatom-rich branched aliphatics from both primary (natural and anthropogenic) and secondary origin, aromatic secondary organics originated from anthropogenic aromatic precursors, as well as primary saccharides and amino sugar derivatives from biogenic emissions. These common structures represent those 2D NMR spectral signatures that are present in both seasons and can thus be seen as an “annual background” profile of the structural composition of OAs at the urban location. Lignin-derived structures, nitroaromatics, disaccharides, and anhydrosaccharides signatures were also identified in the WSOM samples only from periods identified as smoke impacted, which reflects the influence of biomass-burning sources. The NMR dataset on the H–C molecules backbone was also used to propose a semi-quantitative structural model of urban WSOM, which will aid efforts for more realistic studies relating the chemical properties of OAs with their atmospheric behavior. - Highlights: • 2D NMR spectroscopy was used to decode urban organic aerosols. • Water and alkaline soluble components of urban organic aerosols have been compared. • Persistence of urban organic aerosols composition across different seasons. • Annual background profile of the structural features of urban organic aerosols. • Semi

  17. Properties of aqueous dispersion of chitosan and chondroitin sulfate complex derived from aquatic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikov V. Yu.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of production of chondroitin sulfate, chitosan and polyelectrolyte complexes based on them received from the local marine raw materials is relevant from the point of view of developing a comprehensive waste-free technology for natural raw materials processing. The objects of study are chitosan derived from the shell of the Kamchatka crab Paralithodes camtschaticus and chondroitin sulfate derived from cartilage of salmon Salmon salar. To determine the surface tension of polyelectrolyte complex solutions and dispersions the Wilhelmy method has been used, the effective radius of particle dispersion has been calculated by light scattering, measurements of effective viscosity have been carried out under shear deformation. The conditions of formation, surface and rheological properties of the chitosan and chondroitin sulfate complex extracted from aquatic organisms in the Barents Sea have been studied. Obtaining conditions and molar ratios of these polyelectrolytes in which the aqueous dispersion of the complex remains stable for a long time have been established. It has been found that by addition of chondroitin sulfate solution to chitosan solution in molar ratios of 1 : 3; 1 : 6 the dispersion of the polyelectrolyte complex stable for 2 to 3 days has been formed. The polyelectrolyte complex dispersions behave as non-Newtonian pseudoplastic liquid. When the molar ratio of the mixed solution is 1 : 1 (regardless of the sequence of mixing suspension of the polyelectrolyte complex has been formed, then there is precipitation. Equilibrium surface tension of the aqueous dispersion of the polyelectrolyte complex is higher than that of solutions of chondroitin sulfate and chitosan. The effective radius of particles in the complex dispersion has been determined. The effective radius of the particles in the complex dispersion depends on the molar ratio of chondroitin sulfate : chitosan. A qualitative scheme of formation of polyelectrolyte

  18. A Conceptual Schema of the Programming Process in the Complex Adult Education Organization with Special Emphasis on Its Sociological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Edgar J.; And Others

    Objectives of this paper were to define the concept of programing, to discuss programing in a complex adult education organization, and to point out aspects of programing of a sociological nature. Programing is a decision-making process. In a complex adult education organization, the process can be divided into eight phases: formulating the…

  19. Unprecedented Self-Organized Monolayer of a Ru(II) Complex by Diazonium Electroreduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Quynh; Sun, Xiaonan; Lafolet, Frédéric; Audibert, Jean-Frédéric; Miomandre, Fabien; Lemercier, Gilles; Loiseau, Frédérique; Lacroix, Jean-Christophe

    2016-08-03

    A new heteroleptic polypyridyle Ru(II) complex was synthesized and deposited on surface by the diazonium electroreduction process. It yields to the covalent grafting of a monolayer. The functionalized surface was characterized by XPS, electrochemistry, AFM, and STM. A precise organization of the molecules within the monolayer is observed with parallel linear stripes separated by a distance of 3.8 nm corresponding to the lateral size of the molecule. Such organization suggests a strong cooperative process in the deposition process. This strategy is an original way to obtain well-controlled and stable functionalized surfaces for potential applications related to the photophysical properties of the grafted chromophore. As an exciting result, it is the first example of a self-organized monolayer (SOM) obtained using diazonium electroreduction.

  20. Data quality objective to support resolution of the organic complexant safety issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, D.A.; Babad, H.; Buckley, L.L.; Meacham, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    This document records the data quality objectives (DQO) process applied to the organic complexant safety issue at the Hanford Site. Two important outputs of this particular DQO application were the following: (1) decision rules for categorizing organic tanks; and (2) analytical requirements that feed into the tank-specific characterization plans. The decision rules developed in this DQO allow the organic tanks to be categorized as safe, conditionally safe, or unsafe based on fuel and moisture concentrations. Then analytical requirements from this DQO process fall into two groups, primary and secondary. The primary data requirements are always applied, while the secondary requirements are only necessary on those half segment samples that violate the fuel and moisture decision rules or that propagate during adiabatic calorimetry testing

  1. Tetra- and hexavalent uranium forms bidentate-mononuclear complexes with particulate organic matter in a naturally uranium-enriched peatland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikutta, Christian; Langner, Peggy; Bargar, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Peatlands frequently serve as efficient biogeochemical traps for U. Mechanisms of U immobilization in these organic matter-dominated environments may encompass the precipitation of U-bearing mineral(oid)s and the complexation of U by a vast range of (in)organic surfaces. The objective of this work...... of bidentate-mononuclear U(IV/VI) complexes with carboxyl groups. We neither found evidence for U shells at ∼3.9 Å, indicative of mineral-associated U or multinuclear U(IV) species, nor for a substantial P/Fe coordination of U. Our data indicates that U(IV/VI) complexation by natural organic matter prevents...... the precipitation of U minerals as well as U complexation by Fe/Mn phases at our field site, and suggests that organically complexed U(IV) is formed via reduction of organic matter-bound U(VI)....

  2. PS-022 Complex automated medication systems reduce medication administration error rates in an acute medical ward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Bettina Wulff; Lisby, Marianne; Sørensen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background Medication errors have received extensive attention in recent decades and are of significant concern to healthcare organisations globally. Medication errors occur frequently, and adverse events associated with medications are one of the largest causes of harm to hospitalised patients...... cabinet, automated dispensing and barcode medication administration; (2) non-patient specific automated dispensing and barcode medication administration. The occurrence of administration errors was observed in three 3 week periods. The error rates were calculated by dividing the number of doses with one...

  3. Complexation of the actinides (III, IV and V) with organic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leguay, S.

    2012-01-01

    A thorough knowledge of the chemical properties of actinides is now required in a wide variety of fields: extraction processes involved in spent fuel reprocessing, groundwater in the vicinity of radioactive waste packages, environmental and biological media in the case of accidental release of radionuclides. In this context, the present work has been focused on the complexation of Am(III), Cm(III), Cf(III), Pu(IV) and Pa(V) with organic ligands: DTPA, NTA and citric acid. The complexation of pentavalent protactinium with citric and nitrilotriacetic acids was studied using liquid-liquid extraction with the element at tracer scale (C Pa ≤ 10 -10 M). The order and the mean charge of each complex were determined from the analysis of the systematic variations of the distribution coefficient of Pa(V) as function of ligand and proton concentration. Then, the apparent formation constants related of the so-identified complexes were calculated. The complexation of trivalent actinides with DTPA was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE-ICP-MS). The coexistence of the mono-protonated and non-protonated complexes (AnHDTPA - and AnDTPA 2- ) in acidic media (1.5 ≤ pH ≤ 3.5) was shown unambiguously. Literature data have been reinterpreted by taking into account both complexes and a consistent set of formation constants of An(III)-DTPA has been obtained. The experimental study was completed by theoretical calculations (DFT) on Cm-DTPA system. The coordination geometry of Cm in CmDTPA 2- and CmHDTPA - including water molecules in the first coordination sphere has been determined as well as interatomic distances. Finally, a study on the complexation of Pu(IV) with DTPA was initiated in order to more closely mimic physiological conditions. A three-step approach was proposed to avoid plutonium hydrolysis: i/ complexation of Pu(IV) with (NTA) in order to protect Pu(IV) from hydrolysis (at low pH) ii/ increase of pH toward neutral conditions

  4. Study on The Reproductive Organs and Fertility of The Male Mice following Administration of Metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metronidazole (MTZ is commonly used as an antibacterial and antiprotozoaldrug. Various doses of MTZ have been reported to inhibit spermatogenic activityand sperm indices.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, dose-dependent effects of MTZ onthe structural and functional integrity of the testis and accessory reproductive organshave been investigated. Adult male mice of Swiss strain were administered orally withMTZ at the doses of 250 mg/kgBW/day and 500 mg/kgBW/day for 28 consecutive daysto study the changes in the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, sperm indices and fertility.Reversal effects of the drug were also studied on the same mice, 42 days after cessationof the treatment.Results: Therapeutic dose of MTZ (250 mg/kgBW/day neither altered the weights ofthe testis, epididymis and seminal vesicle nor their histoarchitecture and sperm indices.The drug at the high dose (500 mg/kg BW/day caused significant reductions in theweights of the testis and epididymis. Histoarchitecture of the testis and epididymis at thehigh dose revealed marked regressive changes while that of seminal vesicle remainedunaffected. Significant reductions were noticed in the motility, viability and count ofepididymal spermatozoa while the concentrations of epididymal sialic acid and seminalvesicular fructose remained unaltered after the treatment. No significant changes werenoticed in the mating ability as well as in the level of serum testosterone in the treatedmice. Fertility of the male mice treated with high dose of MTZ declined markedly leadingto an increase in pre- and postimplantation loss while a significant decrease wasnoticed in the number of live blastocysts in females impregnated with such males. MTZinducedchanges in the male reproductive organs and fertility were reinstated 42 daysafter cessation of the treatment.Conclusion: High dose of MTZ induced reversible deleterious effects on the male reproductionand fertility.

  5. Complex Nanostructures from Materials based on Metal-Organic Frameworks for Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Bu Yuan; Yu, Xin Yao; Wu, Hao Bin; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2017-12-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have drawn tremendous attention because of their abundant diversity in structure and composition. Recently, there has been growing research interest in deriving advanced nanomaterials with complex architectures and tailored chemical compositions from MOF-based precursors for electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Here, a comprehensive overview of the synthesis and energy-related applications of complex nanostructures derived from MOF-based precursors is provided. After a brief summary of synthetic methods of MOF-based templates and their conversion to desirable nanostructures, delicate designs and preparation of complex architectures from MOFs or their composites are described in detail, including porous structures, single-shelled hollow structures, and multishelled hollow structures, as well as other unusual complex structures. Afterward, their applications are discussed as electrode materials or catalysts for lithium-ion batteries, hybrid supercapacitors, water-splitting devices, and fuel cells. Lastly, the research challenges and possible development directions of complex nanostructures derived from MOF-based-templates for electrochemical energy storage and conversion applications are outlined. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A Self-Perpetuating Catalyst for the Production of Complex Organic Molecules in Protostellar Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph A.; Johnson, N. M.

    2010-01-01

    The formation of abundant carbonaceous material in meteorites is a long standing problem and an important factor in the debate on the potential for the origin of life in other stellar systems. Many mechanisms may contribute to the total organic content in protostellar nebulae, ranging from organics formed via ion-molecule and atom-molecule reactions in the cold dark clouds from which such nebulae collapse, to similar ion-molecule and atom-molecule reactions in the dark regions of the nebula far from the proto star, to gas phase reactions in sub-nebulae around growing giant planets and in the nebulae themselves. The Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) catalytic reduction of CO by hydrogen was once the preferred model for production of organic materials in the primitive solar nebula. The Haber-Bosch catalytic reduction of N2 by hydrogen was thought to produce the reduced nitrogen found in meteorites. However, the clean iron metal surfaces that catalyze these reactions are easily poisoned via reaction with any number of molecules, including the very same complex organics that they produce and both reactions work more efficiently in the hot regions of the nebula. We have demonstrated that many grain surfaces can catalyze both FTT and HB-type reactions, including amorphous iron and magnesium silicates, pure silica smokes as well as several minerals. Although none work as well as pure iron grains, and all produce a wide range of organic products rather than just pure methane, these materials are not truly catalysts.

  7. Organically complexed copper, zinc, and chelating agents in the rivers of Western Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, J.R.; Echevarria, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    The method for determining soluble chelators gives their concentration in copper-equivalent chelating capacity units in fresh or slightly brackish (less than 3 percent salinity) water. The mean concentration of chelators in the Rio Guanajibo for December 1973 and January 1974 was 0.4 mg of copper per liter of water (N = 21, SD = 0.2) and for February 1974, 0.9 mg/liter (N = 8, SD = 0.4). The combined mean for the Rio Anasco and Culebrinas was 0.5 mg/liter (N = 7, SD = 0.4) in January and February 1974. The mean concentration of ionic copper was 0.5 μg/liter (N = 7, SD = 0.6) and of ionic zinc, 0.2 μg/liter (N = 8, SD = 0.1) in the Rio Guanajibo from November 1972 to February 1973. The concentration of organically bound copper was 0.3 μ/liter (N = 7, SD = 0.2) and that of organically bound zinc was 0.6 μg/liter (N = 8, SD = 0.6); this indicates that there was more than a sufficient quantity of chelator available in the river to complex all the soluble copper. The presence of a high ratio of Ca 2+ to Cu 2+ probably prevents the formation of larger concentrations of organically complexed copper. The mean concentration of chelating agents in the Guanajibo River seems to be directly related to the increased organic input from municipalities and a sugar mill. The concentration of chelators in tropical rivers appears to be higher than that found in Canadian lakes. The mean concentration for particulate organic carbon (POC) was 3653 μg atoms/liter (SD = 3653, N = 29). The dissolved reactive phosphate (DRP) ranged from a mean of 1.1 μg atom/liter. No significant correlation could be found between POC, DRP, and the concentration of chelators

  8. Improvement of the complex mechanism of state administration of E-government process on the regional level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Kondakov

    2017-03-01

    Suggested structure of the Department will contribute to the improvement of administrative relations between national and regional administration levels. According to the offered structure, main tasks of the structural sub-divisions in the above-mentioned Department have also been defined.

  9. Absence of hydrocortisone from cytoplasmic hormone-protein complexes formed in vivo after administration of biologically active doses of [3H] hydrocortisone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, J.; Grote, H.; Sekeris, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    After administration of [ 3 H] hydrocortisone to adrenalectomized rats, hormone-protein complexes were isolated from liver cytosol by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. After application of biologically active and inactive doses of hydrocortisone five binding components were detected eluting at the same salt concentrations as the hormone-protein complexes observed after incubation of cytosol with [ 3 H] hydrocortisone in vitro. The isolated hormone-protein fractions were acidified and extracted with ethylacetate and the steroids were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. No significant amount of hydrocortisone could be detected in any of the complexes formed in vivo 5-60 min after administration of biologically active doses of hydrocortisone. 3xi,11β,17α,20xi, 21-Pentahydroxypregnane, steroidal carboxy acids, glucuronides and a very polar conjugate of hydrocortisone were found in the different fractions. After an in vivo dose of hydrocortisone of about 1/5000th of the minimal dose required for enzyme induction, hydrocortisone could be found in all the cytoplasmic hormone-protein complexes formed. In contrast to the cytoplasmic hormone-protein complexes, hydrocortisone could be readily demonstrated in nuclei isolated after the administration of biologically active doses of hormone, although acid metabolites were found to represent the main part of the radioactive compounds present in the nuclei. These acid metabolites were located in the nuclear envelope. (orig.)

  10. CARBON DIOXIDE INFLUENCE ON THE THERMAL FORMATION OF COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES IN INTERSTELLAR ICE ANALOGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinogradoff, V.; Fray, N.; Bouilloud, M.; Cottin, H. [LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, UMR CNRS 7583, Université Paris Est Créteil (UPEC), Université Paris Diderot (UPD), Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Labex ESEP, Paris (France); Duvernay, F.; Chiavassa, T., E-mail: vvinogradoff@mnhn.fr [PIIM, Laboratoire de Physique des Interactions Ioniques et Moléculaires, Université Aix-Marseille, UMR CNRS 7345, Marseille (France)

    2015-08-20

    Interstellar ices are submitted to energetic processes (thermal, UV, and cosmic-ray radiations) producing complex organic molecules. Laboratory experiments aim to reproduce the evolution of interstellar ices to better understand the chemical changes leading to the reaction, formation, and desorption of molecules. In this context, the thermal evolution of an interstellar ice analogue composed of water, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and formaldehyde is investigated. The ice evolution during the warming has been monitored by IR spectroscopy. The formation of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and polymethylenimine (PMI) are observed in the organic refractory residue left after ice sublimation. A better understanding of this result is realized with the study of another ice mixture containing methylenimine (a precursor of HMT) with carbon dioxide and ammonia. It appears that carbamic acid, a reaction product of carbon dioxide and ammonia, plays the role of catalyst, allowing the reactions toward HMT and PMI formation. This is the first time that such complex organic molecules (HMT, PMI) are produced from the warming (without VUV photolysis or irradiation with energetic particles) of abundant molecules observed in interstellar ices (H{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3}, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}CO). This result strengthens the importance of thermal reactions in the ices’ evolution. HMT and PMI, likely components of interstellar ices, should be searched for in the pristine objects of our solar system, such as comets and carbonaceous chondrites.

  11. CARBON DIOXIDE INFLUENCE ON THE THERMAL FORMATION OF COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES IN INTERSTELLAR ICE ANALOGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradoff, V.; Fray, N.; Bouilloud, M.; Cottin, H.; Duvernay, F.; Chiavassa, T.

    2015-01-01

    Interstellar ices are submitted to energetic processes (thermal, UV, and cosmic-ray radiations) producing complex organic molecules. Laboratory experiments aim to reproduce the evolution of interstellar ices to better understand the chemical changes leading to the reaction, formation, and desorption of molecules. In this context, the thermal evolution of an interstellar ice analogue composed of water, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and formaldehyde is investigated. The ice evolution during the warming has been monitored by IR spectroscopy. The formation of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and polymethylenimine (PMI) are observed in the organic refractory residue left after ice sublimation. A better understanding of this result is realized with the study of another ice mixture containing methylenimine (a precursor of HMT) with carbon dioxide and ammonia. It appears that carbamic acid, a reaction product of carbon dioxide and ammonia, plays the role of catalyst, allowing the reactions toward HMT and PMI formation. This is the first time that such complex organic molecules (HMT, PMI) are produced from the warming (without VUV photolysis or irradiation with energetic particles) of abundant molecules observed in interstellar ices (H 2 O, NH 3 , CO 2 , H 2 CO). This result strengthens the importance of thermal reactions in the ices’ evolution. HMT and PMI, likely components of interstellar ices, should be searched for in the pristine objects of our solar system, such as comets and carbonaceous chondrites

  12. Microchip-calorimetry of organic charge transfer complex which shows superconductivity at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, Yuki [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama 1-1, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yamashita, Satoshi [RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yamamoto, Takashi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama 1-1, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Nakazawa, Yasuhiro, E-mail: nakazawa@chem.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama 1-1, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Institute for Molecular Science, Nishigonaka 38, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)

    2012-03-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic charge transfer salt of {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br shows superconductivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We succeeded to detect thermal anomaly microchip device TCG3880. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development details of the calorimeter and the detection system is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic fields dependence shows typical character of layered superconductor. - Abstract: We carried out thermodynamic measurements of organic charge transfer complex of {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br, where BEDT-TTF is bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene by TCG3880 chip device in order to examine capability of the chip calorimeter at low temperature region and under magnetic fields. TCG3880 chip is mounted on a {sup 3}He cryostat available in combination with a superconductive magnet up to 7 T. Thermal anomalies related to the glass-like freezing of ethylene groups of BEDT-TTF molecules and the superconductive transition were observed. A frequency dependence of the thermal anomaly of the glass formation and a magnetic fields dependence of the thermal anomaly of the superconductive transition are reported. The results presented in this work demonstrate that the TCG3880 is quite useful for thermodynamic investigations of the organic charge transfer complex with much reduced sample quantity as compared with those of relaxation and adiabatic calorimetry.

  13. PUBLIC KNOWLEDGE, LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AS STRATEGIC LEVERS FOR A NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierfranco Malizia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In one of the most interesting volumes of an equally interesting series entitled “Proposals for a change in the public administrations” concerning the Italian P.A. (VV. AA., 2002, edited by the Civil Service Department of the Italian government and realised with the collaboration of public and private partners to stimulate processes of change in the P.A., a precise and carefully explained reference is made to the absolute importance for the public administrations of the promotion of know-how development by means of the creation, valorisation and sharing of the knowledge-competence patrimony necessary to back the innovation processes like the logic of learning organizations and knowledge management.

  14. The Role of Network Administrative Organizations in the Development of Social Capital in Inter‐Organizational Food Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie M. Lefebvre

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the role of network administrative organizations (NAOs in the development of social capital in inter‐organizational networks aiming at supporting their members to innovate in the food sector through interacting with one another. A multi‐case study approach is used whereby three Belgian inter‐organizational networks are investigated i.e. Wagralim, Réseau‐Club and Flanders Food. Our study shows that there are many options available to NAOs to build social capital within the networks they are responsible for; options which we propose to categorize in three main distinct groups: creation of boundary objects, careful selection of members and effective communication.

  15. Affinity for a malignant tumor and organs of sup(99m)Tc-citrate complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, A; Sanada, S; Hiraki, T [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Paramedicine; Hisada, K; Nakazawa, N

    1976-12-01

    In order to investigate the tumor affinity of sup(99m)Tc-citrate complex, it was synthesized in three different ways. By (1) reducing sup(99m)TcO/sub 4//sup -/ with FeCl/sub 3//sup -/ ascorbic acid in 0.15 M sodium citrate, (2) reducing sup(99m)TcO/sub 4//sup -/ with SnCl/sub 2/ solution in 0.15 M sodium citrate, and (3) reducing sup(99m)TcO/sub 4//sup -/ with NaBH/sub 4/ in 0.45 sodium citrate. It was presumed from thinlayer chromatography that the sup(99m)Tc-citrate complexes synthesized in three ways were chemically different. These sup(99m)Tc-citrate complexes were injected intravenously into the rats subcutaneously transplanted with Yoshida sarcoma. These rats were sacrificed at one hour and three hours after injection. The radioactivity of the tumor, blood, muscle, liver, kidney, spleen and urine was measured by well-type scintillation counter. The retention values in these organs and the excretion rates in the urine were calculated. sup(99m)Tc-citrate complex synthesized by reducing sup(99m)TcO/sub 4//sup -/ with SnCl/sub 2/ solution had very strong affinity for the malignant tumor but the other two sup(99m)Tc-citrate complexes had no affinity to the malignant tumor. Excretion rates (% dose) of sup(99m)Tc-citrate complexes in one hour were from 65% to 75%.

  16. Assembly and structural organization of pigment-protein complexes in membranes of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, C.N.; Pennoyer, J.D.; Niederman, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The B875 and B800-850 light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides are characterized further by lithium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at 4 degrees C. Bacteriochlorophyll a was shown in reconstruction studies to remain complexed with its respective binding proteins during this procedure. From distributions in these gels, a quantitative description for the arrangement of the complexes is proposed. Assembly of the complexes was examined in delta-aminolevulinate-requiring mutant H-5 after a shift from high- to low-light intensity. After 10 h of delta-[ 3 H]aminolevulinate labeling, the specific radioactivity of bacteriochlorophyll in a fraction containing putative membrane invaginations reached the maximal level, while that of the mature photosynthetic membrane was at only one-third this level. This suggests that membrane invaginations are sites of preferential bacteriochlorophyll synthesis in which completed pigment-proteins exist transiently. Analysis of the 3 H distribution after electrophoretic separation further suggests that photosynthetic membranes grow mainly by addition of B800-850 to preformed membrane consisting largely of B875 and photochemical reaction centers. These results corroborate the above model for the structural organization of the light-harvesting system and indicate that the structurally and functionally discrete B800-850 pool is not completely assembled until all B875 sites for B800-850 interactions are occupied

  17. Half-sandwich cobalt complexes in the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgi, Colin [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Faculty of Natural Science, Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Chemnitz 09107 (Germany); Hapke, Marko; Thiel, Indre [Leibniz-Institut für Katalyse e.V. an der Universität Rostock (LIKAT), Albert-Einstein-Straße 29a, Rostock 18059 (Germany); Hildebrandt, Alexander [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Faculty of Natural Science, Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Chemnitz 09107 (Germany); Waechtler, Thomas; Schulz, Stefan E. [Fraunhofer Institute of Electronic Nano Systems (ENAS), Technologie-Campus 3, Chemnitz 09126 (Germany); Technische Universität Chemnitz, Center for Microtechnologies (ZfM), Chemnitz 09107 (Germany); Lang, Heinrich, E-mail: heinrich.lang@chemie.tu-chemnitz.de [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Faculty of Natural Science, Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Chemnitz 09107 (Germany)

    2015-03-02

    A series of cobalt half-sandwich complexes of type [Co(η{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5})(L)(L′)] (1: L, L′ = 1,5-hexadiene; 2: L = P(OEt){sub 3}, L′ = H{sub 2}C=CHSiMe{sub 3}; 3: L = L′ = P(OEt){sub 3}) has been studied regarding their physical properties such as the vapor pressure, decomposition temperature and applicability within the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process, with a focus of the influence of the phosphite ligands. It could be shown that an increasing number of P(OEt){sub 3} ligands increases the vapor pressure and thermal stability of the respective organometallic compound. Complex 3 appeared to be a promising MOCVD precursor with a high vapor pressure and hence was deposited onto Si/SiO{sub 2} (100 nm) substrates. The resulting reflective layer is closed, dense and homogeneous, with a slightly granulated surface morphology. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies demonstrated the formation of metallic cobalt, cobalt phosphate, cobalt oxide and cobalt carbide. - Highlights: • Thermal studies and vapor pressure measurements of cobalt half-sandwich complexes was carried out. • Chemical vapor deposition with cobalt half-sandwich complexes is reported. • The use of Co-phosphites results in significant phosphorous-doped metallic layers.

  18. Fabrication of an Organic Light-Emitting Diode from New Host π Electron Rich Zinc Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mohammad Reza; Janghouri, Mohammad; Shahedi, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    A new π electron rich zinc complex was used as a fluorescent material in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Devices with a structure of indium tin oxide/poly (3,4-ethylenedi-oxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS) (50 nm)/polyvinylcarbazole (60 nm)/Zn: %2 porphyrin derivatives (45 nm)/Al (150 nm) were fabricated. Porphyrin derivatives accounting for 2 wt.% in the π electron rich zinc complex were used as a host. The electroluminescence (EL) spectra of porphyrin derivatives indicated a red shift, as π electron rich zinc complex EL spectra. The device (4) has also a luminance of 3420 cd/m2 and maximum efficiency of 1.58 cd/A at 15 V, which are the highest values among four devices. The result of Commission International del'Eclairage (CIE) (X, Y) coordinate and EL spectrum of device (3) indicated that it is more red shifted compared to other devices. Results of this work indicate that π electron rich zinc complex is a promising host material for high efficiency red OLEDs and has a simple structure compared to Alq3-based devices.

  19. Using evaluation to adapt health information outreach to the complex environments of community-based organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Cynthia A

    2005-10-01

    After arguing that most community-based organizations (CBOs) function as complex adaptive systems, this white paper describes the evaluation goals, questions, indicators, and methods most important at different stages of community-based health information outreach. This paper presents the basic characteristics of complex adaptive systems and argues that the typical CBO can be considered this type of system. It then presents evaluation as a tool for helping outreach teams adapt their outreach efforts to the CBO environment and thus maximize success. Finally, it describes the goals, questions, indicators, and methods most important or helpful at each stage of evaluation (community assessment, needs assessment and planning, process evaluation, and outcomes assessment). Literature from complex adaptive systems as applied to health care, business, and evaluation settings is presented. Evaluation models and applications, particularly those based on participatory approaches, are presented as methods for maximizing the effectiveness of evaluation in dynamic CBO environments. If one accepts that CBOs function as complex adaptive systems-characterized by dynamic relationships among many agents, influences, and forces-then effective evaluation at the stages of community assessment, needs assessment and planning, process evaluation, and outcomes assessment is critical to outreach success.

  20. 109Ag nuclear magnetic resonance studies of organic and inorganic silver complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jucker, K.; Sahm, W.; Schwenk, A.

    1976-01-01

    The NMR lines of 109 Ag have been investigated in solutions of several silver salts in acetonitrile, propionitrile, pyridine, and ethylenediamine, and also in aqueous solutions of Na 2 S 2 O 3 and ethylamine. In these solvents the Ag + -ions form one or several complexes. In any case a single NMR line was to be detected, i.e.a. rapid chemical exchange between different complexes in a sample may be assumed. In two samples of AgNO 3 dissolved in organic solvents, the ratio ν ( 109 Ag)/ν ( 107 Ag) = 1.149640 (1) was measured in good agreement with the value from silver salts in aqueous solutions; i.e. no primary isotopic effect was to be detected within these limits of error (0.9 ppm). (orig./WBU) [de

  1. Methods of analysis for complex organic aerosol mixtures from urban emission sources of particulate carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurek, M.A.; Hildemann, L.M.; Simoneit, B.R.T.

    1990-10-01

    Organic aerosols comprise approximately 30% by mass of the total fine particulate matter present in urban atmospheres. The chemical composition of such aerosols is complex and reflects input from multiple sources of primary emissions to the atmosphere, as well as from secondary production of carbonaceous aerosol species via photochemical reactions. To identify discrete sources of fine carbonaceous particles in urban atmospheres, analytical methods must reconcile both bulk chemical and molecular properties of the total carbonaceous aerosol fraction. This paper presents an overview of the analytical protocol developed and used in a study of the major sources of fine carbon particles emitted to an urban atmosphere. 23 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  2. Superconducting Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O thin films from metallo-organic complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, H.; Krautz, E.; Fritzer, H.P.; Popitsch, A.

    1991-01-01

    Thin films in the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system are produced by decomposition of organic precursor compounds containing different metallo-organic complexes. The superconducting phase identified is Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x on (100)-MgO single crystal substrates, polycrystalline Au- and Ag-ribbons and Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+x on Ag-ribbons. For the 2212-phase a zero resistance temperature of 79 K is found. The 2223-samples on Ag-ribbons show a broad transition at 110 K with a zero resistance at 85 K. SEM and EDX are used for the detection of the microstructure and composition of the prepared films. (orig.)

  3. Characterizing a pulse-resolved dosimetry system for complex radiotherapy beams using organic scintillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierholm, Anders Ravnsborg; Ottosson, Rickard; Lindvold, Lars René

    2011-01-01

    A fast-readout dosimetry system based on fibre-coupled organic scintillators has been developed for the purpose of conducting point measurements of absorbed dose in radiotherapy beams involving high spatial and temporal dose gradients. The system measures the dose for each linac radiation pulse w...... and quality assurance of complex radiotherapy treatments.......A fast-readout dosimetry system based on fibre-coupled organic scintillators has been developed for the purpose of conducting point measurements of absorbed dose in radiotherapy beams involving high spatial and temporal dose gradients. The system measures the dose for each linac radiation pulse....... No significant differences between measurements and simulations were observed. The temporal resolution of the system was demonstrated by measuring dose per pulse, beam start-up transients and the quality factor for 6 MV. The precision of dose per pulse measurements was within 2.7% (1 SD) for a 10 cm × 10 cm...

  4. Thermophilic anaerobes in arctic marine sediments induced to mineralize complex organic matter at high temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubert, Casey; Arnosti, Carol; Brüchert, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Marine sediments harbour diverse populations of dormant thermophilic bacterial spores that become active in sediment incubation experiments at much higher than in situ temperature. This response was investigated in the presence of natural complex organic matter in sediments of two Arctic fjords......, as well as with the addition of freeze-dried Spirulina or individual high-molecular-weight polysaccharides. During 50°C incubation experiments, Arctic thermophiles catalysed extensive mineralization of the organic matter via extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation and sulfate reduction. This high...... reactivity determined the extent of the thermophilic response. Fjord sediments with higher in situ SRR also supported higher SRR at 50°C. Amendment with Spirulina significantly increased volatile fatty acids production and SRR relative to unamended sediment in 50°C incubations. Spirulina amendment also...

  5. The Formation of Complex Organic Compounds in Astrophysical Ices and their Implications for Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Ices in astrophysical environments are generally dominated by very simple molecules like H2O, CH3OH, CH4, NH3, CO, CO2, etc, although they likely contain PAHs as well. These molecules, particularly H2O, are of direct interest to astrobiology in-and-of themselves since they represent some of the main carriers of the biogenic elements C, H, O, and N. In addition, these compounds are present in the dense interstellar clouds in which new stars and planetary systems are formed and may play a large role in the delivery of volatiles and organics to the surfaces of new planets. However, these molecules are all far simpler than the more complex organic compounds found in living systems.

  6. Bions: a family of biomimetic mineralo-organic complexes derived from biological fluids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yeu Wu

    Full Text Available Mineralo-organic nanoparticles form spontaneously in human body fluids when the concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions exceed saturation. We have shown previously that these mineralo-organic nanoparticles possess biomimetic properties and can reproduce the whole phenomenology of the so-called nanobacteria-mineralized entities initially described as the smallest microorganisms on earth. Here, we examine the possibility that various charged elements and ions may form mineral nanoparticles with similar properties in biological fluids. Remarkably, all the elements tested, including sodium, magnesium, aluminum, calcium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, strontium, and barium form mineralo-organic particles with bacteria-like morphologies and other complex shapes following precipitation with phosphate in body fluids. Upon formation, these mineralo-organic particles, which we term bions, invariably accumulate carbonate apatite during incubation in biological fluids; yet, the particles also incorporate additional elements and thus reflect the ionic milieu in which they form. Bions initially harbor an amorphous mineral phase that gradually converts to crystals in culture. Our results show that serum produces a dual inhibition-seeding effect on bion formation. Using a comprehensive proteomic analysis, we identify a wide range of proteins that bind to these mineral particles during incubation in medium containing serum. The two main binding proteins identified, albumin and fetuin-A, act as both inhibitors and seeders of bions in culture. Notably, bions possess several biomimetic properties, including the possibility to increase in size and number and to be sub-cultured in fresh culture medium. Based on these results, we propose that bions represent biological, mineralo-organic particles that may form in the body under both physiological and pathological homeostasis conditions. These mineralo-organic particles may be part of a

  7. Life’s Order, Complexity, Organization, and Its Thermodynamic–Holistic Imperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Egel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In memoriam Jeffrey S. Wicken (1942–2002—the evolutionarily minded biochemist, who in the 1970/80s strived for a synthesis of biological and physical theories to fathom the tentative origins of life. Several integrative concepts are worth remembering from Wicken’s legacy. (i Connecting life’s origins and complex organization to a preexisting physical world demands a thermodynamically sound transition. (ii Energetic ‘charging’ of the prebiosphere must precede the emergence of biological organization. (iii Environmental energy gradients are exploited progressively, approaching maximum interactive structure and minimum dissipation. (iv Dynamic self-assembly of prebiotic organic matter is driven by hydrophobic tension between water and amphiphilic building blocks, such as aggregating peptides from non-polar amino acids and base stacking in nucleic acids. (v The dynamics of autocatalytic self-organization are facilitated by a multiplicity of weak interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, within and between macromolecular assemblies. (vi The coevolution of (initially uncoded proteins and nucleic acids in energy-coupled and metabolically active so-called ‘microspheres’ is more realistic as a kinetic transition model of primal biogenesis than ‘hypercycle replication’ theories for nucleic acid replicators on their own. All these considerations blend well with the current understanding that sunlight UV-induced photo-electronic excitation of colloidal metal sulfide particles appears most suitable as a prebiotic driver of organic synthesis reactions, in tight cooperation with organic, phase-separated, catalytic ‘microspheres’. On the ‘continuist vs. miraculist’ schism described by Iris Fry for origins-of-life considerations (Table 1, Wicken was a fervent early protagonist of holistic ‘continuist’ views and agenda.

  8. Implementing managerial innovations in primary care: can we rank change drivers in complex adaptive organizations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    There has been much innovation in primary care in the past few decades. Although external and systemic constraints for health care organizations are relevant for their managerial evolution, there is also evidence that organizations operating under the same external pressures reach different levels of maturity. Which of the internal drivers available explain and foster change? Is it possible to rank change drivers by looking at their rate of efficacy in order to define a general change management path in the relationship between managers and physicians? The study is a hypothesis-generating work, designed to discuss a framework, consistent with the complex adaptive systems literature, for more effective internal change management approaches. We employed a qualitative approach to conduct a multiple case study in order to directly observe the evidence and to ask "key change players" for their perceptions. We studied different organizations all subject to the same external constraints in order to focus on the effects of internal change drivers. According to key players' opinions, the main drivers for managerial development are characteristics of the actors involved: their motivation, leadership, and commitment; the quality of relationships among the main actors; and how the resources dedicated to manage change are used. Given these criteria, any organizational strategy and goal seems to be achievable. This is consistent with the suggestions coming from the complex adaptive system literature. MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Managers have to consider the management of the relationship with professionals as the key success factor for implementing change. Managerial leadership has to be diffused in the organization both in the vertical and horizontal dimensions. Innovations need a medium or long-term perspective to become widely applied, and this requires a strong commitment which is related to managerial stability. Resources for innovation are to be considered a critical driver

  9. The Grand Challenges of Organ Banking: Proceedings from the first global summit on complex tissue cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jedediah K; Bischof, John C; Braslavsky, Ido; Brockbank, Kelvin G M; Fahy, Gregory M; Fuller, Barry J; Rabin, Yoed; Tocchio, Alessandro; Woods, Erik J; Wowk, Brian G; Acker, Jason P; Giwa, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The first Organ Banking Summit was convened from Feb. 27 - March 1, 2015 in Palo Alto, CA, with events at Stanford University, NASA Research Park, and Lawrence Berkeley National Labs. Experts at the summit outlined the potential public health impact of organ banking, discussed the major remaining scientific challenges that need to be overcome in order to bank organs, and identified key opportunities to accelerate progress toward this goal. Many areas of public health could be revolutionized by the banking of organs and other complex tissues, including transplantation, oncofertility, tissue engineering, trauma medicine and emergency preparedness, basic biomedical research and drug discovery - and even space travel. Key remaining scientific sub-challenges were discussed including ice nucleation and growth, cryoprotectant and osmotic toxicities, chilling injury, thermo-mechanical stress, the need for rapid and uniform rewarming, and ischemia/reperfusion injury. A variety of opportunities to overcome these challenge areas were discussed, i.e. preconditioning for enhanced stress tolerance, nanoparticle rewarming, cyroprotectant screening strategies, and the use of cryoprotectant cocktails including ice binding agents. Copyright © 2015.

  10. In vivo administration of interferon alpha and interleukin 2 induces proliferation of lymphoid cells in the organs of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, R.K.; Travis, W.D.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    We have previously shown that interleukin 2 (IL-2) synergizes with interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) in mediating the regression of established pulmonary and hepatic metastases and the reduction of intradermal tumor in various murine tumor models. To understand the mechanism of synergy, we have examined lymphoid cell proliferation in various organs of mice in response to IL-2 and IFN-alpha administration. We have utilized a technique for labeling newly synthesized DNA in vivo with 5-[125I]iodo-2'-deoxyuridine to examine proliferation of endogenous cells in response to IL-2 and IL-2 plus IFN-alpha. A proliferation index was calculated by dividing cpm in the tissues treated with cytokines by cpm obtained in corresponding tissues of control mice. After 4 days of IL-2 administration, a significant uptake of 5-[125I]iodo-2'-deoxyuridine was observed in the lungs, liver, kidneys, and spleen (proliferation index of 13, 10.3, 3.6, and 3.2, respectively). IFN-alpha alone mediated very little incorporation of radiolabel but when administered in combination with IL-2 a reduction of IL-2-induced proliferation was seen on day 4. For example 19,272 +/- 4,556 cpm (mean +/- SE) were obtained in the liver of IL-2-treated mice, compared to 8,103 +/- 2,111 cpm in livers of IL-2 plus IFN-alpha-treated mice (P less than 0.05). Similar inhibition of IL-2-induced proliferation was observed in the lungs, kidneys, and spleen. In contrast, on days 7 or 8, higher uptake of radiolabel was obtained in IFN-alpha plus IL-2-treated lungs, liver, and kidneys, compared to organs of mice treated with IL-2 alone or IFN-alpha alone. A proliferation index of 30.5, 9.8, and 10 was obtained in the lungs, liver, and kidneys of IL-2- plus IFN-alpha-treated animals, compared to 9.6, 3.6, and 5.5 in the corresponding organs of IL-2-treated mice

  11. Cationization of immunoglobulin G results in enhanced organ uptake of the protein after intravenous administration in rats and primate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triguero, D.; Buciak, J.L.; Pardridge, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    Cationization of proteins in general enhances the cellular uptake of these macromolecules, and cationized antibodies are known to retain antigen binding properties. Therefore, cationized antibodies may be therapeutic and allow for intracellular immunization. The present studies test the hypothesis that the tissue uptake of cationized immunoglobulin G (IgG) after intravenous administration may be greatly increased relative to the uptake of native proteins. The pharmacokinetics of cationized immunoglobulin G clearance from blood, and the volume of distribution of the cationized or native protein (albumin, IgG) for 10 organs was measured both in anesthetized rats and in an anesthetized adult Macaca irus cynomologous monkey. Initial studies on brain showed that serum factors inhibited uptake of 125I-cationized IgG, but not 3H-cationized IgG. The blood-brain barrier permeability surface area product for 3H-cationized IgG was 0.57 ± 0.04 microliters min-1 g-1. The ratio of the volume of distribution of the 3-H-cationized IgG compared to 3H-labeled native albumin ranged from 0.9 (testis) to 15.7 (spleen) in the rat at 3 hr after injection, and a similarly enhanced organ uptake was observed in the primate. In conclusion, these studies demonstrate that cationization of immunoglobulin greatly increases organ uptake of the plasma protein compared to native immunoglobulins, and suggest that cationization of monoclonal antibodies may represent a potential new strategy for enhancing the intracellular delivery of these proteins

  12. Simultaneous quantification of dissolved organic carbon fractions and copper complexation using solid-phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElmurry, Shawn P.; Long, David T.; Voice, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    Trace metal cycling in natural waters is highly influenced by the amount and type of dissolved organic C (DOC). Although determining individual species of DOC is unrealistic, there has been success in classifying DOC by determining operationally defined fractions. However, current fractionation schemes do not allow for the simultaneous quantification of associated trace metals. Using operational classifications, a scheme was developed to fractionate DOC based on a set of seven solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. The cartridges isolated fractions based on a range of specific mechanisms thought to be responsible for DOC aggregation in solution, as well as molecular weight. The method was evaluated to determine if it can identify differences in DOC characteristics, including differences in Cu-DOC complexation. Results are that: (1) cartridge blanks were low for both DOC and Cu, (2) differences are observed in the distribution of DOC amongst the fractions from various sources that are consistent with what is known about the DOC materials and the mechanisms operative for each cartridge, (3) when present as a free cation, Cu was not retained by non-cationic cartridges allowing the method to be used to assess Cu binding, (4) the capability of the method to provide quantitative assessment of Cu-DOC complexation was demonstrated for a variety of DOC standards, (5) Cu was found to preferentially bind with high molecular weight fractions of DOC, and (6) estimated partitioning coefficients and conditional binding constants for Cu were similar to those reported elsewhere. The method developed describes DOC characteristics based on specific bonding mechanisms (hydrogen, donor-acceptor, London dispersion, and ionic bonding) while simultaneously quantifying Cu-DOC complexation. The method provides researchers a means of describing not only the extent of DOC complexation but also how that complex will be behave in natural waters.

  13. Complexation of cadmium to sulfur and oxygen functional groups in an organic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Torbjörn; Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin; Björn, Erik; Skyllberg, Ulf

    2007-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic trace element and due to human activities soils and waters are contaminated by Cd both on a local and global scale. It is widely accepted that chemical interactions with functional groups of natural organic matter (NOM) is vital for the bioavailability and mobility of trace elements. In this study the binding strength of cadmium (Cd) to soil organic matter (SOM) was determined in an organic (49% organic C) soil as a function of reaction time, pH and Cd concentration. In experiments conducted at native Cd concentrations in soil (0.23 μg g -1 dry soil), halides (Cl, Br) were used as competing ligands to functional groups in SOM. The concentration of Cd in the aqueous phase was determined by isotope-dilution (ID) inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the activity of Cd 2+ was calculated from the well-established Cd-halide constants. At higher Cd loading (500-54,000 μg g -1), the Cd 2+ activity was directly determined by an ion-selective electrode (ISE). On the basis of results from extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, a model with one thiolate group (RS -) was used to describe the complexation (Cd 2+ + RS - ⇆ CdSR +; log KCdSR) at native Cd concentrations. The concentration of thiols (RSH; 0.047 mol kg -1 C) was independently determined by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Log KCdSR values of 11.2-11.6 (p Ka for RSH = 9.96), determined in the pH range 3.1-4.6, compare favorably with stability constants for the association between Cd and well-defined thiolates like glutathione. In the concentration range 500-54,000 μg Cd g -1, a model consisting of one thiolate and one carboxylate (RCOO -) gave the best fit to data, indicating an increasing role for RCOOH groups as RSH groups become saturated. The determined log KCdOOCR of 3.2 (Cd 2+ + RCOO - ⇆ CdOOCR +; log KCdOOCR; p Ka for RCOOH = 4.5) is in accordance with stability constants determined for the association between

  14. The administrative – political function of human settlements and the role it plays in organizing geographical space. Case study – Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Săgeată

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The functional typology of human settlements is shaped, among others, by their political-administrative function. Its distinctive place is determined by subjective factors, such as the political-administrative decisions, which have changed the course of some settlements to the benefit of others, or reverted them from their normal, natural evolution. That means outside involvement in space organization to the detriment of self-organization, the latter being the outcome of the permanent tendency of territorial systems to rebalance from exogenous factors-induced dysfunctions. Lately, the country’s territorial-administrative organization has been steadily challenged years over the past few based either on the 1925 administrative map, or on the disparities in the structure of the present counties and the economic and social fluxes going on at the local level of the settlements system. In view of the above, we have attempted to work out an optimal model for the administrative organization of Romania’s territory by proceeding from the distance between communal seats and the town towards which they gravitate. The latter’s capacity for discharging an administrative function, and the relations of subordination or competition amongst these towns in also discussed.

  15. Challenging the dogma: the hidden layer of non-protein-coding RNAs in complex organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, John S

    2003-10-01

    The central dogma of biology holds that genetic information normally flows from DNA to RNA to protein. As a consequence it has been generally assumed that genes generally code for proteins, and that proteins fulfil not only most structural and catalytic but also most regulatory functions, in all cells, from microbes to mammals. However, the latter may not be the case in complex organisms. A number of startling observations about the extent of non-protein-coding RNA (ncRNA) transcription in the higher eukaryotes and the range of genetic and epigenetic phenomena that are RNA-directed suggests that the traditional view of the structure of genetic regulatory systems in animals and plants may be incorrect. ncRNA dominates the genomic output of the higher organisms and has been shown to control chromosome architecture, mRNA turnover and the developmental timing of protein expression, and may also regulate transcription and alternative splicing. This paper re-examines the available evidence and suggests a new framework for considering and understanding the genomic programming of biological complexity, autopoietic development and phenotypic variation. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Organic complexation of radionuclides in cement pore water: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, W.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of the organic ligands EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate), NTA (nitrilotriacetate), citrate and oxalate on the speciation of Cs, Sr, Ra, Ni, Pd, Tc, Sn, Zr, Th, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm in cement pore waters is studied by means of chemical equilibria. Emphasis is laid on the development of a complete and consistent thermodynamic data base for the high pH range beyond pH 11. Missing data are estimated using free-energy relationships derived from a large number of experimentally determined stability constants compiled from the literature. In case where a sound estimation of stability constants is not possible due to the scarcity of quantitative information, at least upper limits are assessed for the stability of all possibly important species. Chemical equilibria were computed within the range of pH 11 to 13 and a range of Ca concentrations from 0.001 to 0.1 mol -1 (M). ETDA complexes predominate only in the case of Ni. In all other cases, the competition of Ca-organic or metal-hydroxo complexes successfully prevent any significant influence of EDTA, NTA, citrate or oxalate on the speciation of these radionuclides. (author) 10 figs., 9 refs

  17. Supramolecular chemistry: from molecular information towards self-organization and complex matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2004-01-01

    Molecular chemistry has developed a wide range of very powerful procedures for constructing ever more sophisticated molecules from atoms linked by covalent bonds. Beyond molecular chemistry lies supramolecular chemistry, which aims at developing highly complex chemical systems from components interacting via non-covalent intermolecular forces. By the appropriate manipulation of these interactions, supramolecular chemistry became progressively the chemistry of molecular information, involving the storage of information at the molecular level, in the structural features, and its retrieval, transfer, and processing at the supramolecular level, through molecular recognition processes operating via specific interactional algorithms. This has paved the way towards apprehending chemistry also as an information science. Numerous receptors capable of recognizing, i.e. selectively binding, specific substrates have been developed, based on the molecular information stored in the interacting species. Suitably functionalized receptors may perform supramolecular catalysis and selective transport processes. In combination with polymolecular organization, recognition opens ways towards the design of molecular and supramolecular devices based on functional (photoactive, electroactive, ionoactive, etc) components. A step beyond preorganization consists in the design of systems undergoing self-organization, i.e. systems capable of spontaneously generating well-defined supramolecular architectures by self-assembly from their components. Self-organization processes, directed by the molecular information stored in the components and read out at the supramolecular level through specific interactions, represent the operation of programmed chemical systems. They have been implemented for the generation of a variety of discrete functional architectures of either organic or inorganic nature. Self-organization processes also give access to advanced supramolecular materials, such as

  18. Implications of complex adaptive systems theory for interpreting research about health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordon, Michelle; Lanham, Holly Jordan; Anderson, Ruth A; McDaniel, Reuben R

    2010-02-01

    Data about health care organizations (HCOs) are not useful until they are interpreted. Such interpretations are influenced by the theoretical lenses used by the researcher. Our purpose was to suggest the usefulness of theories of complex adaptive systems (CASs) in guiding research interpretation. Specifically, we addressed two questions: (1) What are the implications for interpreting research observations in HCOs of the fact that we are observing relationships among diverse agents? (2) What are the implications for interpreting research observations in HCOs of the fact that we are observing relationships among agents that learn? We defined diversity and learning and the implications of the non-linear relationships among agents from a CAS perspective. We then identified some common analytical practices that were problematic and may lead to conceptual and methodological errors. Then we described strategies for interpreting the results of research observations. We suggest that the task of interpreting research observations of HCOs could be improved if researchers take into account that the systems they study are CASs with non-linear relationships among diverse, learning agents. Our analysis points out how interpretation of research results might be shaped by the fact that HCOs are CASs. We described how learning is, in fact, the result of interactions among diverse agents and that learning can, by itself, reduce or increase agent diversity. We encouraged researchers to be persistent in their attempts to reason about complex systems and learn to attend not only to structures, but also to processes and functions of complex systems.

  19. Supramolecular architecture of metal-organic frameworks involving dinuclear copper paddle-wheel complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomathi, Sundaramoorthy; Muthiah, Packianathan Thomas

    2013-12-15

    The two centrosymmetric dinuclear copper paddle-wheel complexes tetrakis(μ-4-hydroxybenzoato-κ(2)O:O')bis[aquacopper(II)] dimethylformamide disolvate dihydrate, [Cu2(C7H5O3)4(H2O)2]·2C3H7NO·2H2O, (I), and tetrakis(μ-4-methoxybenzoato-κ(2)O:O')bis[(dimethylformamide-κO)copper(II)], [Cu2(C8H7O3)4(C3H7NO)2], (II), crystallize with half of the dinuclear paddle-wheel cage unit in the asymmetric unit and, in addition, complex (I) has one dimethylformamide (DMF) and one water solvent molecule in the asymmetric unit. In both (I) and (II), two Cu(II) ions are bridged by four syn,syn-η(1):η(1):μ carboxylate groups, showing a paddle-wheel cage-type structure with a square-pyramidal coordination geometry. The equatorial positions of (I) and (II) are occupied by the carboxylate groups of 4-hydroxy- and 4-methoxybenzoate ligands, and the axial positions are occupied by aqua and DMF ligands, respectively. The three-dimensional supramolecular metal-organic framework of (I) consists of three different R2(2)(20) and an R4(4)(36) ring motif formed via O-H···O and OW-HW···O hydrogen bonds. Complex (II) simply packs as molecular species.

  20. Atrazine sorption by hydroxy-interlayered clays and their organic complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indraratne, Srimathie P; Farenhorst, Annemieke; Goh, Tee Boon

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the sorption of atrazine by hydroxy-Fe interlayered montmorillonite (FeMt) and its hydroquinone (FeMtHQ), citrate (FeMtCt) and catechol (FeMtCC) complexes as well as by hydroxy-Al interlayered montmorillonite (AlMt) and its hydroquinone (AlMtHQ) and citrate (AlMtCt) complexes. Found among the clays were sorption distribution coefficients (K(d)) ranging from 24 to 123 mL g(-1) and maximum sorption (M) ranging from 2.2 to 16.8 microg g(-1). Both K(d) and M decreased in the order of FeMtCC > FeMtHQ > AlMtHQ > (AlMt = FeMt) > (AlMtCt = FeMtCt). The pH was negatively correlated with both K(d) (r = -0.90, p 0.96, p 0.94, p AlMt). This suggests that functional groups of Fe-OH and Al-OH in FeMt and AlMt reduced the available sorption sites for atrazine by making complexes with citrate ions while forming FeMtCt and AlMtCt. The atrazine was sorbed through the hydrophobic interactions with organic compound surfaces as well as through H-bonding and ionic bonding with clay-mineral surfaces.

  1. Existentialism and organization behaviour : How existentialism can have a contribution to complexity theory and sense-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomme, R.J.; Bornebroek te Lintelo, K.

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to develop a conception consisting of insights from complexity theory and additional notions from Weick’s sense-making theory and existentialism for examining organization behaviour.

  2. Chemistry by nanocatalysis: First example of a solid-supported RAPTA complex for organic reactions in aqueous medium

    KAUST Repository

    Garcí a-Garrido, Sergio E.; Francos, Javier; Cadierno, Victorio; Basset, Jean-Marie; Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2010-01-01

    , with no use at all of organic solvent during or after the reactions, and microwaves as an alternative energy source renders the synthetic processes reported herein "truly" green and sustainable. RAPTA's delight: A nano-RAPTA complex supported on silica

  3. Effect of B-complex vitamins on the antifatigue activity and bioavailability of ginsenoside Re after oral administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Bin Chen

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The results suggested that there were pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug–nutrient interactions between ginsenoside Re and B-complex vitamins. B-complex vitamins can significantly weaken the antifatigue effect and decrease the bioavailability of ginsenoside Re when simultaneously administered orally.

  4. Modeling and Analyzing Operational Decision-Making Synchronization of C2 Organization in Complex Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve capability of operational decision-making synchronization (ODMS in command and control (C2 organization, the paper puts forward that ODMS is the negotiation process of situation cognition with three phases about “situation cognition, situation interaction and decision-making synchronization” in complex environment, and then the model and strategies of ODMS are given in quantity. Firstly, measure indexes of three steps above are given in the paper based on the time consumed in negotiation, and three patterns are proposed for negotiating timely in high quality during situation interaction. Secondly, the ODMS model with two stages in continuous changing situation is put forward in the paper, and ODMS strategies are analyzed within environment influence and time restriction. Thirdly, simulation cases are given to validate the process of ODMS under different continuous changing situations the results of this model are better than the other previous models to fulfill the actual restrictions, and the process of ODMS can be adjusted more reasonable for improving the capability of ODMS. Then we discuss the case and summarize the influence factors of ODMS in the C2 organization as organization structure, shared information resources, negotiation patterns, and allocation of decision rights.

  5. Formation of mercury sulfide from Hg(II)−thiolate complexes in natural organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alain Manceau,; Cyprien Lemouchi,; Mironel Enescu,; Anne-Claire Gaillot,; Martine Lanson,; Valerie Magnin,; Pieter Glatzel,; Poulin, Brett; Ryan, Joseph N.; Aiken, George R.; Isabelle Gautier-Lunea,; Kathryn L. Nagy,

    2015-01-01

    Methylmercury is the environmental form of neurotoxic mercury that is biomagnified in the food chain. Methylation rates are reduced when the metal is sequestered in crystalline mercury sulfides or bound to thiol groups in macromolecular natural organic matter. Mercury sulfide minerals are known to nucleate in anoxic zones, by reaction of the thiol-bound mercury with biogenic sulfide, but not in oxic environments. We present experimental evidence that mercury sulfide forms from thiol-bound mercury alone in aqueous dark systems in contact with air. The maximum amount of nanoparticulate mercury sulfide relative to thiol-bound mercury obtained by reacting dissolved mercury and soil organic matter matches that detected in the organic horizon of a contaminated soil situated downstream from Oak Ridge, TN, in the United States. The nearly identical ratios of the two forms of mercury in field and experimental systems suggest a common reaction mechanism for nucleating the mineral. We identified a chemical reaction mechanism that is thermodynamically favorable in which thiol-bound mercury polymerizes to mercury–sulfur clusters. The clusters form by elimination of sulfur from the thiol complexes via breaking of mercury–sulfur bonds as in an alkylation reaction. Addition of sulfide is not required. This nucleation mechanism provides one explanation for how mercury may be immobilized, and eventually sequestered, in oxygenated surface environments.

  6. Using Enterprise Architecture for Analysis of a Complex Adaptive Organization's Risk Inducing Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salguero, Laura Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huff, Johnathon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matta, Anthony R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Collins, Sue S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is an organization with a wide range of research and development activities that include nuclear, explosives, and chemical hazards. In addition, Sandia has over 2000 labs and over 40 major test facilities, such as the Thermal Test Complex, the Lightning Test Facility, and the Rocket Sled Track. In order to support safe operations, Sandia has a diverse Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) organization that provides expertise to support engineers and scientists in performing work safely. With such a diverse organization to support, the ES&H program continuously seeks opportunities to improve the services provided for Sandia by using various methods as part of their risk management strategy. One of the methods being investigated is using enterprise architecture analysis to mitigate risk inducing characteristics such as normalization of deviance, organizational drift, and problems in information flow. This paper is a case study for how a Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF) model of the ES&H enterprise, including information technology applications, can be analyzed to understand the level of risk associated with the risk inducing characteristics discussed above. While the analysis is not complete, we provide proposed analysis methods that will be used for future research as the project progresses.

  7. Problems of organization of interaction of administrative bodies and the forces engaged in liquidation of after-effects of radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, A.P.; Perevezentsev, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The paper defines the main problems arising in connection with organization of interaction of the administrative bodies and the forces involved in liquidation of after-effects of radiation accident. It is demonstrated that in order to increase the efficiency of interaction of the administrative bodies of various levels it is necessary to make it automatic. The paper revealed the meaning of the levels of relationship between various automatic systems. 4 refs

  8. Health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds exposure near Daegu dyeing industrial complex in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Jianfei; Kim, Sunshin; Ryu, Hyeonsu; Park, Jinhyeon; Lee, Chae Kwan; Kim, Geun-Bae; Ultra, Venecio U; Yang, Wonho

    2018-04-20

    Studying human health in areas with industrial contamination is a serious and complex issue. In recent years, attention has increasingly focused on the health implications of large industrial complexes. A variety of potential toxic chemicals have been produced during manufacturing processes and activities in industrial complexes in South Korea. A large number of dyeing industries gathered together in Daegu dyeing industrial complex. The residents near the industrial complex could be often exposed to volatile organic compounds. This study aimed to evaluate VOCs levels in the ambient air of DDIC, to assess the impact on human health risks, and to find more convincing evidences to prove these VOCs emitted from DDIC. According to deterministic risk assessment, inhalation was the most important route. Residential indoor, outdoor and personal exposure air VOCs were measured by passive samplers in exposed area and controlled area in different seasons. Satisfaction with ambient environments and self-reported diseases were also obtained by questionnaire survey. The VOCs concentrations in exposed area and controlled area was compared by t-test. The relationships among every VOC were tested by correlation. The values of hazard quotient (HQ) and life cancer risk were estimated. The concentrations of measured VOCs were presented, moreover, the variety of concentrations according the distances from the residential settings to the industrial complex site in exposed area. The residential indoor, outdoor, and personal exposure concentrations of toluene, DMF and chloroform in exposed area were significantly higher than the corresponding concentrations in controlled area both in summer and autumn. Toluene, DMF, chloroform and MEK had significantly positive correlations with each other in indoor and outdoor, and even in personal exposure. The HQ for DMF exceeded 1, and the life cancer risk of chloroform was greater than 10 - 4 in exposed area. The prevalence of respiratory diseases

  9. Contaminant Organic Complexes: Their Structure and Energetics in Surface Decontamination Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satish C. B. Myneni

    2005-01-01

    case of Fe(III)-siderophore complexes and model ligands. Soft and hard X-ray spectroscopy techniques were used to examine the electronic structure of binding groups, and their local structural environment. The synchrotron X-ray studies were conducted at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory and at the Advanced Light Source (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). These experimental vibrational and X-ray spectroscopy studies were complemented with density functional theory calculations. The highlight of this study is the evaluation of the fundamental electronic state information of the hydroxamate moiety in siderophores during deprotonation and Fe(III) complexation. The applications of soft X-ray studies are also new, and were applied, for the first time, to examine the chemistry of organic macromolecules in aqueous solutions

  10. The impact of scale, complexity, and service quality on the administrative costs of pension funds: A cross-country comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.; Steenbeek, O.W.; Torracchi, F.

    2010-01-01

    Administrative costs per participant appear to vary widely across pension funds in different countries. These costs are important because they reduce the rate of return on the investments of pension funds, and consequently raise the cost of retirement security. Using unique data on 90 pension funds

  11. Simulation model 'methane' as a tool for effective biogas production during anaerobic conversion of complex organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavilin, V A; Vasiliev, V B; Ponomarev, A V; Rytow, S V [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Water Problems Inst.

    1994-01-01

    A universal basic model of anaerobic conversion of complex organic material is suggested. The model can be used for investigating the start-up experiments for food industry wastewater. General results obtained in the model agreed with the experimental data. An explanation of a complex dynamic behaviour of the anaerobic system is suggested. (author)

  12. The Effects of Different Types of Text and Individual Differences on View Complexity about Genetically Modified Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, Daniel L.; Zoellner, Brian P.; Parkinson, Meghan M.; Rossi, Anthony M.; Monk, Mary J.; Vinnachi, Jenelle

    2017-01-01

    View change about socio-scientific issues has been well studied in the literature, but the change in the complexity of those views has not. In the current study, the change in the complexity of views about a specific scientific topic (i.e. genetically modified organisms; GMOs) and use of evidence in explaining those views was examined in relation…

  13. 45 CFR 309.75 - What administrative and management procedures must a Tribe or Tribal organization include in a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What administrative and management procedures must... ENFORCEMENT (IV-D) PROGRAM Tribal IV-D Plan Requirements § 309.75 What administrative and management... must include in its Tribal IV-D plan the administrative and management provisions contained in this...

  14. Biodistribution and excretion of radioactivity after the administration of 166Ho-chitosan complex (DW-166HC) into the prostate of rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Seung Kyoo; Ryu, Jei Man; Bae, Eun Jeong; Shin, Dong Hyuk; Shigematsu, Akiyo; Hatori, Yasuhiko; Nishigaki, Junko; Kwak, Cheol; Lee, Sang Eun; Park, Kyong Bae

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the fate of the 166 Ho-chitosan complex (DW-166HC) in rats by examining its absorption, distribution and excretion after administration into the prostate. About 100 μCi of DW-166HC [containing 0.1875 mg of Ho(NO 3 ) 3 .5H 2 O and 0.25 mg of chitosan] was administered intraprostatically. The level of radioactivity in blood, urinary and faecal excretion, and radioactivity distribution were examined. To determine the effect of chitosan in DW-166HC, 166 Ho nitrate alone [0.1875 mg of Ho(NO 3 ) 3 .5H 2 O] was administered into the prostate of male rats, and radioactivity distribution was examined using whole-body autoradiography. After administration of DW-166HC into the prostate, cumulative urinary and faecal excretion over the period 0-72 h was 0.35% and 0.11%, respectively. The radioactivity at the administration site was extremely high at all time points up to 144 h (>98% of injected dose). The small amount of radioactivity which did transfer from the administration site distributed mainly to the liver, spleen, kidney cortex and bone. Compared with the DW-166HC group, the group that received 166 Ho nitrate alone displayed three- to fourfold higher levels of radioactivity in the main tissues, including liver, spleen, kidney cortex and bone, at 24 h after administration (P<0.05). (orig.)

  15. Radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymes in cofactor biosynthesis: a treasure trove of complex organic radical rearrangement reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Angad P; Abdelwahed, Sameh H; Mahanta, Nilkamal; Fedoseyenko, Dmytro; Philmus, Benjamin; Cooper, Lisa E; Liu, Yiquan; Jhulki, Isita; Ealick, Steven E; Begley, Tadhg P

    2015-02-13

    In this minireview, we describe the radical S-adenosylmethionine enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of thiamin, menaquinone, molybdopterin, coenzyme F420, and heme. Our focus is on the remarkably complex organic rearrangements involved, many of which have no precedent in organic or biological chemistry. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Fundamentals of the administrative decentralization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Lupăncescu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Public administration, as an activity carried out by the administrative authorities, can be achieved through several forms of organization. In this sense, centralization, deconcentration and decentralization, together with its corollary, local autonomy, constitute in organizational regimes of an administrative nature, more or less democratic, and with characteristics that vary according to the degree of dependence between the authorities of the public administration institutions at the central level and local public administration authorities.There is no single form of organization that incorporates the characteristics of a particular regime. The complex expectations of modern society have led to the blending of features of different forms of organization in order to create a balance of activity within the public administration, in order to exercise the functions of executive power for the benefit of citizens, not by conferring unlimited autonomy but by considering the fundamental principle of legality.

  17. Influence of temperature and light intensity on Ru(II) complex based organic-inorganic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asubay, Sezai; Durap, Feyyaz; Aydemir, Murat; Baysal, Akin; Ocak, Yusuf Selim; Tombak, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    An organic-inorganic junction was fabricated by forming [Ru(Cy_2PNHCH_2-C_4H_3O)(η"6-p-cymene)Cl_2] complex thin film using spin coating technique on n-Si and evaporating Au metal on the film. It was seen that the structure had perfect rectification property. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were carried out in dark and under various illumination conditions (between 50-100 mW/cm"2) and with the temperature range from 303 to 380 K. The structure showed unusually forward and reverse bias temperature and light sensing behaviors. It was seen that the current both in forward and reverse bias increased with the increase in light intensity and temperature.

  18. Aza-crown ether complex cation ionic liquids: preparation and applications in organic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yingying; Cheng, Chen; Jing, Huanwang

    2014-09-26

    Aza-crown ether complex cation ionic liquids (aCECILs) were devised, fabricated, and characterized by using NMR spectroscopy, MS, thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), elemental analysis and physical properties. These new and room-temperature ILs were utilized as catalysts in various organic reactions, such as the cycloaddition reaction of CO2 to epoxides, esterification of acetic acid and alcohols, the condensation reaction of aniline and propylene carbonate, and Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indole with aldehydes were investigated carefully. In these reactions, the ionic liquid exhibited cooperative catalytic activity between the anion and cation. In addition, the aza-[18-C-6HK][HSO4]2 was the best acidic catalyst in the reactions of esterification and Friedel-Crafts alkylation under mild reaction conditions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Tunable blue organic light emitting diode based on aluminum calixarene supramolecular complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legnani, C.; Reyes, R.; Cremona, M.; Bagatin, I. A.; Toma, H. E.

    2004-07-01

    In this letter, the results of supramolecular organic light emitting diodes using a calix[4] arene complex thin film as emitter and electron transporting layer are presented. The devices were grown onto glass substrates coated with indium-tin-oxide layer and aluminum thick (150nm) cathode. By applying a dc voltage between the device electrodes in forward bias condition, a blue light emission in the active area of the device was observed. It was found that the electroluminescent emission peak can be tuned between 470 and 510nm changing the applied voltage bias from 4.3 to 5.4V. The observed tunable emission can be associated with an energy transfer from the calixarene compound.

  20. Complex organic molecules toward low-mass and high-mass star forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lefloch, B.; Bergin, E.; Carvajal, M.; Brouillet, N.; Despois, D.; Jørgensen, J.; Kleiner, I.

    2016-12-01

    One of the most important questions in molecular astrophysics is how, when, and where complex organic molecules, COMs (≥ 6 atoms) are formed. In the Interstellar-Earth connection context, could this have a bearing on the origin of life on Earth? Formation mechanisms of COMs, which include potentially prebiotic molecules, are still debated and may include grain-mantle and/or gas-phase chemistry. Understanding the mechanisms that lead to the interstellar molecular complexification, along with the involved physicochemical processes, is mandatory to answer the above questions. In that context, active researches are ongoing in theory, laboratory experiment, chemical modeling and observations. Thanks to recent progress in radioastronomy instrumentation for both single-dish and millimeter array (e.g. Herschel, NOEMA, ALMA), new results have been obtained. I will review some notable results on the detection of COMs, including prebiotic molecules, towards star forming regions.

  1. Mathematical model and coordination algorithms for ensuring complex security of an organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoseltsev, V. I.; Orlova, D. E.; Dubrovin, A. S.; Irkhin, V. P.

    2018-03-01

    The mathematical model of coordination when ensuring complex security of the organization is considered. On the basis of use of a method of casual search three types of algorithms of effective coordination adequate to mismatch level concerning security are developed: a coordination algorithm at domination of instructions of the coordinator; a coordination algorithm at domination of decisions of performers; a coordination algorithm at parity of interests of the coordinator and performers. Assessment of convergence of the algorithms considered above it was made by carrying out a computing experiment. The described algorithms of coordination have property of convergence in the sense stated above. And, the following regularity is revealed: than more simply in the structural relation the algorithm, for the smaller number of iterations is provided to those its convergence.

  2. Organic iron (III) complexing ligands during an iron enrichment experiment in the western subarctic North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yoshiko; Takeda, Shigenobu; Nishioka, Jun; Obata, Hajime; Furuya, Ken; Johnson, William Keith; Wong, C. S.

    2008-06-01

    Complexation of iron (III) with natural organic ligands was investigated during a mesoscale iron enrichment experiment in the western subarctic North Pacific (SEEDS II). After the iron infusions, ligand concentrations increased rapidly with subsequent decreases. While the increases of ligands might have been partly influenced by amorphous iron colloids formation (12-29%), most in-situ increases were attributable to the Dilution of the fertilized patch may have contributed to the rapid decreases of the ligands. During the bloom decline, ligand concentration increased again, and the high concentrations persisted for 10 days. The conditional stability constant was not different between inside and outside of the fertilized patch. These results suggest that the chemical speciation of the released iron was strongly affected by formation of the ligands; the production of ligands observed during the bloom decline will strongly impact the iron cycle and bioavailability in the surface water.

  3. Improved efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes based on a europium complex by fluorescent dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You Han [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Fang Junfeng [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Gao Jia [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Ma Dongge [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)]. E-mail: mdg1014@ciac.jl.cn

    2007-01-15

    Improved efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on europium complexes have been realized by using a fluorescent dye 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6 (1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl))-4H-pyran (DCJTB) doping .The luminous efficiency of the devices with a fluorescent dye in the emissive layer was found to improve two times of that in devices without fluorescent dye. The devices showed pure red light, which is the characteristic emission of trivalent europium ion with a full-width at half-maximum of 3 nm.The maximum brightness and luminous efficiency reached 1200 cd/m{sup 2} at 23 V and 7.3 cd/A (2.0 lm/w), respectively, at a current density of 0.35 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  4. Searching for Bio-Precursors and Complex Organic Molecules in Space using the GBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, M.; Charnley, S.; Kisiel, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Using the latest microwave receiver technology, large organic molecules with abundances as low as approx. 10(exp -11) times that of molecular hydrogen are detectable in cold interstellar clouds via their rotational emission line spectra. We report new observations to search for complex molecules, including molecules of possible pre-biotic importance, using the newly-commissioned Kband focal plane array (KFPA) of the NRAO Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. Spectra are presented of the dense molecular cloud TMC-1, showing strict upper limits on the level of emission from nitrogen-bearing rings pyrimidine, quinoline and iso-quinoline, carbon-chain oxides C60, C70, HC60 and HC70, and the carbon-chain anion C4H-. The typical RMS brightness temperature noise levels we achieved are approx. 1 mK at around 20 GHz.

  5. Syntheses, structures and characterizations of three novel vanadium selenites with organically bonded copper/nickel complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Cheng; Kong, Fang; Mao, Jiang-Gao

    2016-06-01

    A series of vanadium selenites covalently bonded with metal-organic complex, namely, Ni(2,2-bipy)2V2O4(SeO3)2 (1), Cu(2,2-bipy)V2O4(SeO3)2·0.5H2O (2) and Cu2(2,2-bipy)2V5O12(SeO3)2 (3) (2,2-bipy=2,2-bipyridine) have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. They exhibit three different structural dimensions, from 0D cluster, 1D chain to 2D layer. Compound 1 features a 0D {Ni(2,2-bipy)2V2O4(SeO3)2}2 dimeric cluster composed of two {Ni(2,2-bipy)2}2+ moieties connected by the {V4O8(SeO3)4}4- cluster. Compound 2 shows a 1D {Cu(2,2-bipy)V2O4(SeO3)2}n chain in which the {Cu2(2,2-bipy)2}4+ moieties are bridged by the {V4O8(SeO3)4}4- clusters. Compound 3 displays a 2D structure consisted of mixed valence vanadium selenites layers {VIVVV4SeIV2O18}n4- and {Cu(2,2-bipy)}2+ complex moieties. The adjacent layers are further interconnected via π-π interactions between the 2,2-bipy ligands exhibiting an interesting 3D supramolecular architecture. Both compound 1 and 2 contain a new {V4O8(SeO3)4}4- cluster and compound 3 exhibits the first 2D vanadate polyhedral layer in vanadium selenites/tellurites with organic moieties.

  6. Mobility and leachability of zinc in two soils treated with six organic zinc complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, J M; Novillo, J; Obrador, A; López-Valdivia, L M

    2001-08-01

    A study of soil columns was conducted to evaluate Zn movement potential in two reconstructed soil profiles. Zn-phenolate, Zn-EDDHA, Zn-EDTA, Zn-lignosulfonate, Zn-polyflavonoid, and Zn-heptagluconate were applied in the upper zone of the column. The different physicochemical properties of the two soils and the micronutrient source may influence Zn leaching, the distribution of Zn among soil fractions, and the Zn available to the plant in the depth of the layers. In Aquic Haploxeralf soil, the application of six fertilizers produced little migration and very small leaching of Zn in the soil profiles. In Calcic Haploxeralf soil, Zn-EDTA migrated and was distributed throughout the soil columns. This Zn chelate produces a loss of Zn by leaching, which was 36% of the added Zn. In the latter soil, Zn leached very little with the other five fertilizer treatments. The same as for these organic Zn complexes, the retention of added Zn indicated the potential of metal accumulation in the A(p) horizons of the two soil profiles. A large portion of applied Zn was available to plants [diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and Mehlich-3 extractable Zn] in the depths reached by the different commercial formulations. The relationship between the two methods was highly significant (Mehlich-3-Zn = 1.25 + 1.13 DTPA-Zn, R(2) = 99.19%). When Zn was added as Zn-EDTA, the amounts of the most labile fractions (water-soluble plus exchangeable and organically complexed Zn) increased throughout the entire profile column in comparison with the control columns, although in the B(t) horizon of the Aquic Haploxeralf soil they increased only slightly.

  7. FORMATION AND RECONDENSATION OF COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES DURING PROTOSTELLAR LUMINOSITY OUTBURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taquet, Vianney; Wirström, Eva S.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    During the formation of stars, the accretion of surrounding material toward the central object is thought to undergo strong luminosity outbursts followed by long periods of relative quiescence, even at the early stages of star formation when the protostar is still embedded in a large envelope. We investigated the gas-phase formation and recondensation of the complex organic molecules (COMs) di-methyl ether and methyl formate, induced by sudden ice evaporation processes occurring during luminosity outbursts of different amplitudes in protostellar envelopes. For this purpose, we updated a gas-phase chemical network forming COMs in which ammonia plays a key role. The model calculations presented here demonstrate that ion–molecule reactions alone could account for the observed presence of di-methyl ether and methyl formate in a large fraction of protostellar cores without recourse to grain-surface chemistry, although they depend on uncertain ice abundances and gas-phase reaction branching ratios. In spite of the short outburst timescales of about 100 years, abundance ratios of the considered species higher than 10% with respect to methanol are predicted during outbursts due to their low binding energies relative to water and methanol which delay their recondensation during cooling. Although the current luminosity of most embedded protostars would be too low to produce complex organics in the hot-core regions that are observable with current sub-millimetric interferometers, previous luminosity outburst events would induce the formation of COMs in extended regions of protostellar envelopes with sizes increasing by up to one order of magnitude

  8. Escherichia coli biofilms have an organized and complex extracellular matrix structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chia; Zhou, Yizhou; Pinkner, Jerome S; Dodson, Karen W; Crowley, Jan R; Heuser, John; Chapman, Matthew R; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria; Henderson, Jeffrey P; Hultgren, Scott J

    2013-09-10

    Bacterial biofilms are ubiquitous in nature, and their resilience is derived in part from a complex extracellular matrix that can be tailored to meet environmental demands. Although common developmental stages leading to biofilm formation have been described, how the extracellular components are organized to allow three-dimensional biofilm development is not well understood. Here we show that uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains produce a biofilm with a highly ordered and complex extracellular matrix (ECM). We used electron microscopy (EM) techniques to image floating biofilms (pellicles) formed by UPEC. EM revealed intricately constructed substructures within the ECM that encase individual, spatially segregated bacteria with a distinctive morphology. Mutational and biochemical analyses of these biofilms confirmed curli as a major matrix component and revealed important roles for cellulose, flagella, and type 1 pili in pellicle integrity and ECM infrastructure. Collectively, the findings of this study elucidated that UPEC pellicles have a highly organized ultrastructure that varies spatially across the multicellular community. Bacteria can form biofilms in diverse niches, including abiotic surfaces, living cells, and at the air-liquid interface of liquid media. Encasing these cellular communities is a self-produced extracellular matrix (ECM) that can be composed of proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids. The ECM protects biofilm bacteria from environmental insults and also makes the dissolution of biofilms very challenging. As a result, formation of biofilms within humans (during infection) or on industrial material (such as water pipes) has detrimental and costly effects. In order to combat bacterial biofilms, a better understanding of components required for biofilm formation and the ECM is required. This study defined the ECM composition and architecture of floating pellicle biofilms formed by Escherichia coli.

  9. Formation and Recondensation of Complex Organic Molecules during Protostellar Luminosity Outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquet, Vianney; Wirström, Eva S.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2016-04-01

    During the formation of stars, the accretion of surrounding material toward the central object is thought to undergo strong luminosity outbursts followed by long periods of relative quiescence, even at the early stages of star formation when the protostar is still embedded in a large envelope. We investigated the gas-phase formation and recondensation of the complex organic molecules (COMs) di-methyl ether and methyl formate, induced by sudden ice evaporation processes occurring during luminosity outbursts of different amplitudes in protostellar envelopes. For this purpose, we updated a gas-phase chemical network forming COMs in which ammonia plays a key role. The model calculations presented here demonstrate that ion-molecule reactions alone could account for the observed presence of di-methyl ether and methyl formate in a large fraction of protostellar cores without recourse to grain-surface chemistry, although they depend on uncertain ice abundances and gas-phase reaction branching ratios. In spite of the short outburst timescales of about 100 years, abundance ratios of the considered species higher than 10% with respect to methanol are predicted during outbursts due to their low binding energies relative to water and methanol which delay their recondensation during cooling. Although the current luminosity of most embedded protostars would be too low to produce complex organics in the hot-core regions that are observable with current sub-millimetric interferometers, previous luminosity outburst events would induce the formation of COMs in extended regions of protostellar envelopes with sizes increasing by up to one order of magnitude.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of the europium (III) complex as an organic luminescent material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo Zuliang; Zhang Fujun; Xu Zheng; Lu Lifang; Li Junming; Wang Yongsheng; Lv Yuguang

    2010-01-01

    The red emission organic material Eu(coumarin) 3 ·2H 2 O complex was synthesized and its morphology, energy level alignment and luminescence characteristics were studied by using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectra, cyclic voltammetry and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra. Eu(coumarin) 3 ·2H 2 O shows bright red emission originating from Eu 3+ ions under 345 nm light excitation. The luminescence lifetime of Eu 3+ in this complex is about 580 μs. To improve the quality of Eu(coumarin) 3 ·2H 2 O thin films, Eu(coumarin) 3 ·2H 2 O was doped with a poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) solution. The organic materials 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) and aluminum quinoline (Alq 3 ) were used as hole-blocking and electron-transporting layers in our fabricated electroluminescence (EL) devices on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates, respectively. The EL devices ITO/poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly-(styrenesulphonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS)/emitting layer (PVK:Eu)/BCP/Alq 3 /Al were fabricated, and EL spectra were measured under different driving voltages. There is one emission peaking at 490 nm in addition to the characteristic emission peaks of Eu 3+ , which should be attributed to the spectral overlap between the PVK emission and electroplex emission originating from PVK and BCP interfaces. This explanation can be positively supported by the dependence of the EL spectral variation of ITO/ PVK/BCP/Alq 3 /Al devices on the driving voltage.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of the europium (III) complex as an organic luminescent material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Zuliang; Zhang, Fujun; Lv, Yuguang; Xu, Zheng; Lu, Lifang; Li, Junming; Wang, Yongsheng

    2010-11-01

    The red emission organic material Eu(coumarin)3·2H2O complex was synthesized and its morphology, energy level alignment and luminescence characteristics were studied by using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectra, cyclic voltammetry and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra. Eu(coumarin)3·2H2O shows bright red emission originating from Eu3+ ions under 345 nm light excitation. The luminescence lifetime of Eu3+ in this complex is about 580 μs. To improve the quality of Eu(coumarin)3·2H2O thin films, Eu(coumarin)3·2H2O was doped with a poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) solution. The organic materials 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) and aluminum quinoline (Alq3) were used as hole-blocking and electron-transporting layers in our fabricated electroluminescence (EL) devices on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates, respectively. The EL devices ITO/poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly-(styrenesulphonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS)/emitting layer (PVK:Eu)/BCP/Alq3/Al were fabricated, and EL spectra were measured under different driving voltages. There is one emission peaking at 490 nm in addition to the characteristic emission peaks of Eu3+, which should be attributed to the spectral overlap between the PVK emission and electroplex emission originating from PVK and BCP interfaces. This explanation can be positively supported by the dependence of the EL spectral variation of ITO/ PVK/BCP/Alq3/Al devices on the driving voltage.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of the europium (III) complex as an organic luminescent material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuo Zuliang; Zhang Fujun; Xu Zheng; Lu Lifang; Li Junming; Wang Yongsheng [Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information (Beijing Jiaotong University), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100044 (China); Lv Yuguang, E-mail: fjzhang@bjtu.edu.c [The Provincial Key Laboratory of Biomaterials, College of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154007 (China)

    2010-11-15

    The red emission organic material Eu(coumarin){sub 3{center_dot}}2H{sub 2}O complex was synthesized and its morphology, energy level alignment and luminescence characteristics were studied by using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectra, cyclic voltammetry and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra. Eu(coumarin){sub 3{center_dot}}2H{sub 2}O shows bright red emission originating from Eu{sup 3+} ions under 345 nm light excitation. The luminescence lifetime of Eu{sup 3+} in this complex is about 580 {mu}s. To improve the quality of Eu(coumarin){sub 3{center_dot}}2H{sub 2}O thin films, Eu(coumarin){sub 3{center_dot}}2H{sub 2}O was doped with a poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) solution. The organic materials 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) and aluminum quinoline (Alq{sub 3}) were used as hole-blocking and electron-transporting layers in our fabricated electroluminescence (EL) devices on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates, respectively. The EL devices ITO/poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly-(styrenesulphonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS)/emitting layer (PVK:Eu)/BCP/Alq{sub 3}/Al were fabricated, and EL spectra were measured under different driving voltages. There is one emission peaking at 490 nm in addition to the characteristic emission peaks of Eu{sup 3+}, which should be attributed to the spectral overlap between the PVK emission and electroplex emission originating from PVK and BCP interfaces. This explanation can be positively supported by the dependence of the EL spectral variation of ITO/ PVK/BCP/Alq{sub 3}/Al devices on the driving voltage.

  13. FORMATION AND RECONDENSATION OF COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES DURING PROTOSTELLAR LUMINOSITY OUTBURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taquet, Vianney [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300-RA Leiden (Netherlands); Wirström, Eva S. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Charnley, Steven B. [Astrochemistry Laboratory and The Goddard Center for Astrobiology, Mailstop 691, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    During the formation of stars, the accretion of surrounding material toward the central object is thought to undergo strong luminosity outbursts followed by long periods of relative quiescence, even at the early stages of star formation when the protostar is still embedded in a large envelope. We investigated the gas-phase formation and recondensation of the complex organic molecules (COMs) di-methyl ether and methyl formate, induced by sudden ice evaporation processes occurring during luminosity outbursts of different amplitudes in protostellar envelopes. For this purpose, we updated a gas-phase chemical network forming COMs in which ammonia plays a key role. The model calculations presented here demonstrate that ion–molecule reactions alone could account for the observed presence of di-methyl ether and methyl formate in a large fraction of protostellar cores without recourse to grain-surface chemistry, although they depend on uncertain ice abundances and gas-phase reaction branching ratios. In spite of the short outburst timescales of about 100 years, abundance ratios of the considered species higher than 10% with respect to methanol are predicted during outbursts due to their low binding energies relative to water and methanol which delay their recondensation during cooling. Although the current luminosity of most embedded protostars would be too low to produce complex organics in the hot-core regions that are observable with current sub-millimetric interferometers, previous luminosity outburst events would induce the formation of COMs in extended regions of protostellar envelopes with sizes increasing by up to one order of magnitude.

  14. EXPERIENCE OF ADMINISTRATION OF IBUPROFEN IN COMPLEX TREATMENT OF INFANTS WITH MICROBIAL INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF URINARY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Botvin’ev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbial inflammatory diseases of urinary system in children can be often accompanied with fever and pain. The article presents an experience of ibuprofen (Nurofen for Children administration for the purpose of stopping fever and pain in 420 children in age 3 months — 3 years old with microbial inflammatory diseases of urinary system. The observation showed high effectiveness of short treatment with ibuprofen course (2–5 days. As clinical and laboratory observation showed, the short-termed administration of the drug was well-tolerated and did not cause significant adverse effects, excluding single cases of allergic rash and light dyspeptic disorders.Key words: children, microbial inflammatory diseases of urinary system, ibuprofen, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(5:84-87

  15. New cyclometalated iridium(III) complex as a phosphorescent dopant in organic light emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, P.; Tomova, R.; Petrova, P.; Stanimirov, S.; Petkov, I.

    2014-05-01

    A new cyclometalated iridium (III) bis[2-(4-chlorophenyl)benzothiazolato-N,C2]-acetylacetonate, (Cl-bt)2Ir(acac), was synthesized and identified by 1H NMR and elemental analysis. The application was studied of the new compound as a dopant in the hole transporting layer (HTL) of the following organic light emitting diode (OLED) structure: HTL/EL/ETL, where HTL was 4,4'-bis(9H-carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) or N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine (TPD), incorporated in a poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) matrix; EL was an electroluminescent layer of bis(8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline)-(4-phenylpheno-xy) aluminum (BAlq); and ETL was an electron-transporting layer of bis[2-(2-benzothiazoly) phenolato]zinc(II) (Zn(btz)2). We established that the electroluminescence spectra of the OLEDs at different dopant concentrations were basically the sum of the greenish-blue emission of BAlq and the yellowish-green emission of the Ir complex. It was also found that increasing the dopant concentration resulted in an increase in the relative electroluminescent intensity of the Ir complex emission, while that of BAlq decreased, thus a fine tuning of the OLED color was observed.

  16. Geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal-like complexes organization in pathological tissues biological collision order.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo A Díaz

    Full Text Available The present study describes and documents self-assembly of geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal like complex organizations (GTCHC in human pathological tissues. The authors have found this architectural geometric expression at macroscopic and microscopic levels mainly in cancer processes. This study is based essentially on macroscopic and histopathologic analyses of 3000 surgical specimens: 2600 inflammatory lesions and 400 malignant tumours. Geometric complexes identified photographically at macroscopic level were located in the gross surgical specimen, and these areas were carefully dissected. Samples were taken to carry out histologic analysis. Based on the hypothesis of a collision genesis mechanism and because it is difficult to carry out an appropriate methodological observation in biological systems, the authors designed a model base on other dynamic systems to obtain indirect information in which a strong white flash wave light discharge, generated by an electronic device, hits over the lines of electrical conductance structured in helicoidal pattern. In their experimental model, the authors were able to reproduce and to predict polarity, chirality, helicoid geometry, triangular and hexagonal clusters through electromagnetic sequential collisions. They determined that similar events among constituents of extracelular matrix which drive and produce piezoelectric activity are responsible for the genesis of GTCHC complexes in pathological tissues. This research suggests that molecular crystals represented by triangular chiral hexagons derived from a collision-attraction event against collagen type I fibrils emerge at microscopic and macroscopic scales presenting a lateral assembly of each side of hypertrophy helicoid fibers, that represent energy flow in cooperative hierarchically chiral electromagnetic interaction in pathological tissues and arises as a geometry of the equilibrium in perturbed biological systems. Further

  17. Geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal-like complexes organization in pathological tissues biological collision order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Jairo A; Jaramillo, Natalia A; Murillo, Mauricio F

    2007-12-12

    The present study describes and documents self-assembly of geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal like complex organizations (GTCHC) in human pathological tissues. The authors have found this architectural geometric expression at macroscopic and microscopic levels mainly in cancer processes. This study is based essentially on macroscopic and histopathologic analyses of 3000 surgical specimens: 2600 inflammatory lesions and 400 malignant tumours. Geometric complexes identified photographically at macroscopic level were located in the gross surgical specimen, and these areas were carefully dissected. Samples were taken to carry out histologic analysis. Based on the hypothesis of a collision genesis mechanism and because it is difficult to carry out an appropriate methodological observation in biological systems, the authors designed a model base on other dynamic systems to obtain indirect information in which a strong white flash wave light discharge, generated by an electronic device, hits over the lines of electrical conductance structured in helicoidal pattern. In their experimental model, the authors were able to reproduce and to predict polarity, chirality, helicoid geometry, triangular and hexagonal clusters through electromagnetic sequential collisions. They determined that similar events among constituents of extracelular matrix which drive and produce piezoelectric activity are responsible for the genesis of GTCHC complexes in pathological tissues. This research suggests that molecular crystals represented by triangular chiral hexagons derived from a collision-attraction event against collagen type I fibrils emerge at microscopic and macroscopic scales presenting a lateral assembly of each side of hypertrophy helicoid fibers, that represent energy flow in cooperative hierarchically chiral electromagnetic interaction in pathological tissues and arises as a geometry of the equilibrium in perturbed biological systems. Further interdisciplinary studies must

  18. Cooperative and submolecular dissipation mechanisms of sliding friction in complex organic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Daniel B; Gray, Tomoko O; Overney, René M

    2008-08-21

    Energy dissipation in single asperity sliding friction was directly linked to submolecular modes of mobility by intrinsic friction analysis, involving time-temperature superposition along with thermodynamic stress and reaction rate models. Thereby, polystyrene served as a representative tribological sample for organic and amorphous complex systems. This study reveals the significance of surface and subsurface (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-) relaxational modes, which couple under appropriate external conditions (load, temperature, and rate) with shear induced disturbances, and thus gives rise to material specific frictional dissipation. At low pressures and temperatures below the glass transition point, the phenyl pendant side groups of polystyrene, known for their preferential orientation at the free surface, were noticed to be the primary channel for dissipation of kinetic sliding-energy. While this process was found to be truly enthalpic (activation energy of 8 kcalmol), energy dissipation was shown to possess both enthalpic and cooperative entropic contributions above the loading capacity of the surface phenyl groups (9.9 kcalmol) or above the glass transition. Apparent Arrhenius activation energies of frictional dissipation of 22 and 90 kcalmol, respectively, and cooperative contributions up to 80% were found. As such, this study highlights issues critical to organic lubricant design, i.e., the intrinsic enthalpic activation barriers of mobile linker groups, the evaluation of cooperative mobility phenomena, and critical tribological parameters to access or avoid coupling between shear disturbances and molecular actuators.

  19. Electrochemical properties of manganese and rhenium complexes with organic redox ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumberg, A.A.; Milaev, A.G.; Okhlobystin, O.Yu.

    1983-03-01

    Pyrilium salts, 4H-pyrans and phenols that contain sigma-bound groups M(CO)/sub 3/ (M=Mn, Re) are investigated using the methods of classic and commutated polarography, disc rotating electrode with a ring and cyclic voltamperometry. The first single electron stage of electrochemical reduction of pyrilium cations containing sigma-bound substitutuents ..pi..=C/sub 5/H/sub 4/M(CO/sub 3/) (M=Mn, Re) takes place without any rupture of metal-carbon bonds and brings about rather stable vacant, metal organic radicals. Electrochemical dehydration of appropriate 4H-pyrans takes place through a stage of formation of these vacant radicals and complexes with the formation of metal organic pyrilium cations. Electrochemical oxidation of spatially hindrance phenols containing in 4-th position ..pi..-C/sub 5/H/sub 4/Re(CO/sub 3/) and C/sub 5/H/sub 4/Mn(CO)/sub 2/P(Ph)/sub 3/ substitutes takes place with the formation of appropriate cation radicals as intermediates and brings about vacant phenoxyls that contain charged organometallic group.

  20. The Detection of Hot Cores and Complex Organic Molecules in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewiło, Marta; Indebetouw, Remy; Charnley, Steven B.; Zahorecz, Sarolta; Oliveira, Joana M.; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Ward, Jacob L.; Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Wiseman, Jennifer; Fukui, Yasuo; Kawamura, Akiko; Meixner, Margaret; Onishi, Toshikazu; Schilke, Peter

    2018-02-01

    We report the first extragalactic detection of the complex organic molecules (COMs) dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3) and methyl formate (CH3OCHO) with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). These COMs, together with their parent species methanol (CH3OH), were detected toward two 1.3 mm continuum sources in the N 113 star-forming region in the low-metallicity Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Rotational temperatures ({T}{rot}∼ 130 K) and total column densities ({N}{rot}∼ {10}16 cm‑2) have been calculated for each source based on multiple transitions of CH3OH. We present the ALMA molecular emission maps for COMs and measured abundances for all detected species. The physical and chemical properties of two sources with COMs detection, and the association with H2O and OH maser emission, indicate that they are hot cores. The fractional abundances of COMs scaled by a factor of 2.5 to account for the lower metallicity in the LMC are comparable to those found at the lower end of the range in Galactic hot cores. Our results have important implications for studies of organic chemistry at higher redshift.

  1. Synthesis and studies of novel high metal content organic aerogels obtained from a polymerizable titanium complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadra, S.

    2010-01-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is a technique widely studied by the French atomic commission (CEA). Experiments will be performed within the Laser Megajoule (LMJ). They require innovative materials like organic aerogels that constitute laser targets. Such polymeric material must provide both a high porosity and a significant titanium percentage (1 atom %). Moreover, the monomers developed must be compatible with the synthesis procedure already in use. According to these specifications, a new polymerizable titanium complex was synthesized and fully characterized. This air and moisture-stable monomer provides a high metal percentage. Its free-radical cross-linked copolymerization affords several titanium-containing polymers. These gels were dried under supercritical conditions and organic aerogels were obtained. The chemical compositions of these materials were investigated by NMR, IR and elemental analysis while their structure was characterized by MEB-EDS, MET, N 2 adsorption/desorption isotherms measurements and SAXS. The data collected fit the specification requirements. Moreover, the mechanisms responsible of the foam nano-structure formation were discussed. (author) [fr

  2. Surface complexation modeling of uranium (Vi) retained onto zirconium diphosphate in presence of organic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almazan T, M. G.; Garcia G, N.; Ordonez R, E.

    2010-10-01

    In the field of nuclear waste disposal, predictions regarding radionuclide migration through the geosphere, have to take account the effects of natural organic matter. This work presents an investigation of interaction mechanisms between U (Vi) and zirconium diphosphate (ZrP 2 O 7 ) in presence of organic acids (citric acid and oxalic acid). The retention reactions were previously examined using a batch equilibrium method. Previous results showed that U (Vi) retention was more efficient when citric acid or oxalic acid was present in solid surface at lower ph values. In order to determine the retention equilibria for both systems studied, a phosphorescence spectroscopy study was carried out. The experimental data were then fitted using the Constant Capacitance Model included in the FITEQL4.0 code. Previous results concerning surface characterization of ZrP 2 O 7 (surface sites density and surface acidity constants) were used to constraint the modeling. The best fit for U (Vi)/citric acid/ZrP 2 O 7 and U (Vi)/oxalic acid/ZrP 2 O 7 systems considered the formation of a ternary surface complex. (Author)

  3. Enantiomeric separation of complex organic molecules produced from irradiation of interstellar/circumstellar ice analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuevo, M.; Meierhenrich, U. J.; D'Hendecourt, L.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Dartois, E.; Deboffle, D.; Thiemann, W. H.-P.; Bredehöft, J.-H.; Nahon, L.

    Irradiation of interstellar/circumstellar ice analogs by ultraviolet (UV) light followed by warm up in the laboratory leads to the formation of complex organic molecules, stable at room temperature. Hydrolysis of the room temperature residue releases amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. These amino acids exist in two different forms (L and D), but proteins encountered in living beings consist exclusively of L enantiomers. The origin of this property, called homochirality, is still unknown. Amino acids can be detected and quantified by chemical techniques such as chiral gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Enantiomers of chiral organics are also known to interact selectively with circularly polarized light (CPL), leading to a selective production or destruction of the final compounds. This paper describes how we settled an experiment where amino acids are formed by irradiation of interstellar/circumstellar ice analogs with ultraviolet (UV) CPL, produced by a synchrotron radiation beamline, which allowed us to quantify the effect of such polarized light on the production of amino acids. These results can be compared to the enantiomeric excesses measured in primitive meteorites such as Murchison.

  4. Selection within organisms in the nineteenth century: Wilhelm Roux's complex legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heams, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Selectionism, or the extension of darwinian chance/selection dynamics beyond the individual level, has a long history in biological thought. It has generated important theories in immunology or neurology, and turns out to be a convincing framework to account for the intrinsic stochastic nature of core events in cellular biology. When looking back at the intellectual origins of selectionism, the essay by the German embryologist Wilhelm Roux, Der Kampf der Theile im Organismus (The Struggle of the Parts in the Organism - 1881) might be one, if not the earliest reference after the darwinian revolution. It describes the individual as a multilevel structure, where each level results from a 'darwinian' struggle of its parts (molecules, cells, tissues, organs). But Roux's theory, far from being a simple extension of natural selection, has complex and even conflictual relationships with darwinism. This essay is worth rediscovering as a subtle historical testimony of the evolutionary and developmental life sciences debates of its time. Moreover, some of its theses may also enrich some current debates among evolutionary biologists over levels of selection, and among cellular and molecular biologists over the status of determinism in biology today. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Structurally Complex Organization of Repetitive DNAs in the Genome of Cobia (Rachycentron canadum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gideão W W F; Cioffi, Marcelo de B; Bertollo, Luiz A C; Molina, Wagner F

    2015-06-01

    Repetitive DNAs comprise the largest fraction of the eukaryotic genome. They include microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), which play an important role in the chromosome differentiation among fishes. Rachycentron canadum is the only representative of the family Rachycentridae. This species has been focused on several multidisciplinary studies in view of its important potential for marine fish farming. In the present study, distinct classes of repetitive DNAs, with emphasis on SSRs, were mapped in the chromosomes of this species to improve the knowledge of its genome organization. Microsatellites exhibited a diversified distribution, both dispersed in euchromatin and clustered in the heterochromatin. The multilocus location of SSRs strengthened the heterochromatin heterogeneity in this species, as suggested by some previous studies. The colocalization of SSRs with retrotransposons and transposons pointed to a close evolutionary relationship between these repetitive sequences. A number of heterochromatic regions highlighted a greater complex organization than previously supposed, harboring a diversity of repetitive elements. In this sense, there was also evidence of colocalization of active genetic regions and different classes of repetitive DNAs in a common heterochromatic region, which offers a potential opportunity for further researches regarding the interaction of these distinct fractions in fish genomes.

  6. Complex organic molecules in the Galactic Centre: the N-bearing family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, S.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Rivilla, V. M.; Martín, S.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Armijos-Abendaño, J.; Riquelme, D.; Aladro, R.

    2018-05-01

    We present an unbiased spectral line survey toward the Galactic Centre (GC) quiescent giant molecular cloud (QGMC), G+0.693 using the GBT and IRAM 30 telescopes. Our study highlights an extremely rich organic inventory of abundant amounts of nitrogen (N)-bearing species in a source without signatures of star formation. We report the detection of 17 N-bearing species in this source, of which 8 are complex organic molecules (COMs). A comparison of the derived abundances relative to H2 is made across various galactic and extragalactic environments. We conclude that the unique chemistry in this source is likely to be dominated by low-velocity shocks with X-rays/cosmic rays also playing an important role in the chemistry. Like previous findings obtained for O-bearing molecules, our results for N-bearing species suggest a more efficient hydrogenation of these species on dust grains in G+0.693 than in hot cores in the Galactic disk, as a consequence of the low dust temperatures coupled with energetic processing by X-ray/cosmic ray radiation in the GC.

  7. Persistence of urban organic aerosols composition: Decoding their structural complexity and seasonal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, João T V; Duarte, Regina M B O; Lopes, Sónia P; Silva, Artur M S; Duarte, Armando C

    2017-12-01

    Organic Aerosols (OAs) are typically defined as highly complex matrices whose composition changes in time and space. Focusing on time vector, this work uses two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) techniques to examine the structural features of water-soluble (WSOM) and alkaline-soluble organic matter (ASOM) sequentially extracted from fine atmospheric aerosols collected in an urban setting during cold and warm seasons. This study reveals molecular signatures not previously decoded in NMR-related studies of OAs as meaningful source markers. Although the ASOM is less hydrophilic and structurally diverse than its WSOM counterpart, both fractions feature a core with heteroatom-rich branched aliphatics from both primary (natural and anthropogenic) and secondary origin, aromatic secondary organics originated from anthropogenic aromatic precursors, as well as primary saccharides and amino sugar derivatives from biogenic emissions. These common structures represent those 2D NMR spectral signatures that are present in both seasons and can thus be seen as an "annual background" profile of the structural composition of OAs at the urban location. Lignin-derived structures, nitroaromatics, disaccharides, and anhydrosaccharides signatures were also identified in the WSOM samples only from periods identified as smoke impacted, which reflects the influence of biomass-burning sources. The NMR dataset on the H-C molecules backbone was also used to propose a semi-quantitative structural model of urban WSOM, which will aid efforts for more realistic studies relating the chemical properties of OAs with their atmospheric behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Using high complexity analysis to probe the evolution of organic aerosol during pollution events in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, J.; Dixon, W.; Dunmore, R.; Squires, F. A.; Swift, S.; Lee, J. D.; Rickard, A. R.; Sun, Y.; Xu, W.

    2017-12-01

    There is increasing evidence that exposure to air pollution results in significant impacts on human health. In Beijing, home to over 20 million inhabitants, particulate matter levels are very high by international standards, with official estimates of an annual mean PM2.5 concentration in 2014 of 86 μg m-3, nearly 9 times higher than the WHO guideline. Changes in particle composition during pollution events will provide key information on sources and can be used to inform strategies for pollution mitigation and health benefits. The organic fraction of PM is an extremely complex mixture reflecting the diversity of sources to the atmosphere. In this study we attempt to harness the chemical complexity of OA by developing an extensive database of over 700 mass spectra, built using literature data and sources specific tracers (e.g. diesel emission characterisation experiments and SOA generated in chamber simulations). Using a high throughput analysis method (15 min), involving UHPLC coupled to Orbitrap mass spectrometry, chromatograms are integrated, compared to the library and a list of identified compounds produced. Purpose built software based on R is used to automatically produce time series, alongside common aerosol metrics and data visualisation techniques, dramatically reducing analysis times. Offline measurements of organic aerosol composition were made as part of the Sources and Emissions of Air Pollutants in Beijing project, a collaborative program between leading UK and Chinese research groups. Rather than studying only a small number of 24 hr PM samples, we collected 250 filters samples at a range of different time resolutions, from 30 minutes to 12 hours, depending on the time of day and PM loadings. In total 643 species were identified based on their elemental formula and retention time, with species ranging from C2-C22 and between 1-13 oxygens. A large fraction of the OA species observed were organosulfates and/or nitrates. Here we will present

  9. Complex Systems and Dependability

    CERN Document Server

    Zamojski, Wojciech; Sugier, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Typical contemporary complex system is a multifaceted amalgamation of technical, information, organization, software and human (users, administrators and management) resources. Complexity of such a system comes not only from its involved technical and organizational structure but mainly from complexity of information processes that must be implemented in the operational environment (data processing, monitoring, management, etc.). In such case traditional methods of reliability analysis focused mainly on technical level are usually insufficient in performance evaluation and more innovative meth

  10. Determination of the dissociation constants of some organic complexing agents and stability constants of their uranyl complexes by spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The dissociation constants of the weak acids derived from quinizarin (1,4-dihydroxy anthraquinone); QMF (2-(2-fury l methyl)), QMPH (2-(2-phenyl methyl)) and QMN (2-(2-naphthyl methyl)) quinizarin were determined. The stability constants of uranyl complexes with the above mentioned ligands were investigated by: 1. The molar-ratio method. 2. Computer program

  11. 14 August 1981 - Royal Order on the organization and administrative status of the personnel of the Service for Protection against Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This Order concerns the organization and the administrative structure of the Service for Protection against Ionizing Radiations. The Service, within the Ministry of Public Health and the Family, is responsible, inter alia, for controlling the application of legislation on radiation protection, for examining licensing applications for nuclear facilities and import and transport of radioactive substances. (NEA) [fr

  12. EMD-RBFNN Coupling Prediction Model of Complex Regional Groundwater Depth Series: A Case Study of the Jiansanjiang Administration of Heilongjiang Land Reclamation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The accurate and reliable prediction of groundwater depth is the basis of the sustainable utilization of regional groundwater resources. However, the complexity of the prediction has been ignored in previous studies of regional groundwater depth system analysis and prediction, making it difficult to realize the scientific management of groundwater resources. To address this defect, taking complexity diagnosis as the research foundation, this paper proposes a new coupling forecast strategy for evaluating groundwater depth based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD and a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN. The data used for complexity analysis and modelling are the monthly groundwater depth series monitoring data from 15 long-term monitoring wells from 1997 to 2007, which were collected from the Jiansanjiang Administration of Heilongjiang Agricultural Reclamation in China. The calculation results of the comprehensive complexity index for each groundwater depth series obtained are based on wavelet theory, fractal theory, and the approximate entropy method. The monthly groundwater depth sequence of District 8 of Farm Nongjiang, which has the highest complexity among the five farms in the Jiansanjiang Administration midland, was chosen as the modelling sample series. The groundwater depth series of District 8 of Farm Nongjiang was separated into five intrinsic mode function (IMF sequences and a remainder sequence by applying the EMD method, which revealed that local groundwater depth has a significant one-year periodic character and an increasing trend. The RBFNN was then used to forecast and stack each EMD separation sequence. The results suggest that the future groundwater depth will remain at approximately 10 m if the past pattern of water use continues, exceeding the ideal depth of groundwater. Thus, local departments should take appropriate countermeasures to conserve groundwater resources effectively.

  13. The shock synthesis of complex organics from impacts into cometary analogue mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M.; Wozniakiewicz, P.; Cole, M.; Martins, Z.; Burchell, M.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: If amino acids are required for the evolution of life, what was their source? Many different theories abound as to the source of amino acids on the early Earth including exogenous delivery from comets/asteroids (for example, glycine was found recently on comet Wild-2 [1]), formation in the protoplanetary nebula [2], or UV catalysed reactions of gases [3]. An alternative explanation is that amino acids can be shock-synthesised during the impact on an icy body onto a rocky body (or, equivalently, the impact of rocky body onto an icy surface). This theory is supported by computer simulations [4] and by very recent experimental data, which demonstrated the formation of simple (including abiotic) amino acids from shocks into ice mixtures mimicking the composition of comets and the surfaces of the icy Jovian and Saturnian satellites. Although the results from these experiments are fundamentally important, the yield of synthesised amino acids was low (nano-grams of material), complicating their detection and identification. In order to increase the collected yield of complex organics, and aid in their detection and identification, we have implemented a new collection technique within our hypervelocity impact facility. Experimental Methodology: Figure 1A) shows a low-resolution high-speed photograph of an impact plasma generated from an impact of a stainless-steel sphere into a mixture of water, CO_{2}, ammonia, and methanol ices. The plasma has an intense blue colour, and lasted for < 1 msec (the frame-rate of the camera). It is during and within this flash that complex organics are most likely synthesised, and thus to maximise the collection of these materials, we have implemented a new collection mechanism. Figure 1B) shows the prototype collection mechanism. Here an aluminium cold-plate (˜150 K) is placed in front of the target holder containing the ice mixtures. The plate has a central hole which allows the projectile to pass through to impact the ice

  14. Syntheses, structures and characterizations of three novel vanadium selenites with organically bonded copper/nickel complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Cheng; Kong, Fang; Mao, Jiang-Gao

    2016-01-01

    A series of vanadium selenites covalently bonded with metal-organic complex, namely, Ni(2,2-bipy) 2 V 2 O 4 (SeO 3 ) 2 (1), Cu(2,2-bipy)V 2 O 4 (SeO 3 ) 2 ·0.5H 2 O (2) and Cu 2 (2,2-bipy) 2 V 5 O 12 (SeO 3 ) 2 (3) (2,2-bipy=2,2-bipyridine) have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. They exhibit three different structural dimensions, from 0D cluster, 1D chain to 2D layer. Compound 1 features a 0D {Ni(2,2-bipy) 2 V 2 O 4 (SeO 3 ) 2 } 2 dimeric cluster composed of two {Ni(2,2-bipy) 2 } 2+ moieties connected by the {V 4 O 8 (SeO 3 ) 4 } 4- cluster. Compound 2 shows a 1D {Cu(2,2-bipy)V 2 O 4 (SeO 3 ) 2 } n chain in which the {Cu 2 (2,2-bipy) 2 } 4+ moieties are bridged by the {V 4 O 8 (SeO 3 ) 4 } 4− clusters. Compound 3 displays a 2D structure consisted of mixed valence vanadium selenites layers {V IV V V 4 Se IV 2 O 18 } n 4− and {Cu(2,2-bipy)} 2+ complex moieties. The adjacent layers are further interconnected via π-π interactions between the 2,2-bipy ligands exhibiting an interesting 3D supramolecular architecture. Both compound 1 and 2 contain a new {V 4 O 8 (SeO 3 ) 4 } 4− cluster and compound 3 exhibits the first 2D vanadate polyhedral layer in vanadium selenites/tellurites with organic moieties. - Graphical abstract: We got three new vanadium selenites with organically linked copper/nickel complex, namely, Ni(2,2-bipy) 2 V 2 O 4 (SeO 3 ) 2 (1), Cu(2,2-bipy)V 2 O 4 (SeO 3 ) 2 ·0.5H 2 O (2) and Cu 2 (2,2-bipy) 2 V 5 O 12 (SeO 3 ) 2 (3) by hydrothermally syntheses. They display three different structural dimensions, from 0D cluster, to 1D chain and 2D layer. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Three new compounds display three different structural dimensions, from 0D cluster, to 1D chain and 2D layer. • The Tetranuclear {V 4 O 8 (SeO 3 ) 4 } 4− cluster and the vanadate {V 5 O 17 } n 2D layer are observed firstly. • Optical Properties and Magnetic Properties of three compounds are reported.

  15. Syntheses, structures and characterizations of three novel vanadium selenites with organically bonded copper/nickel complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Cheng [College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Kong, Fang [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Mao, Jiang-Gao, E-mail: mjg@fjirsm.ac.cn [College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China)

    2016-06-15

    A series of vanadium selenites covalently bonded with metal-organic complex, namely, Ni(2,2-bipy){sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 4}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2} (1), Cu(2,2-bipy)V{sub 2}O{sub 4}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2}·0.5H{sub 2}O (2) and Cu{sub 2}(2,2-bipy){sub 2}V{sub 5}O{sub 12}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2} (3) (2,2-bipy=2,2-bipyridine) have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. They exhibit three different structural dimensions, from 0D cluster, 1D chain to 2D layer. Compound 1 features a 0D {Ni(2,2-bipy)_2V_2O_4(SeO_3)_2}{sub 2} dimeric cluster composed of two {Ni(2,2-bipy)_2}{sup 2+} moieties connected by the {V_4O_8(SeO_3)_4}{sup 4-} cluster. Compound 2 shows a 1D {Cu(2,2-bipy)V_2O_4(SeO_3)_2}{sub n} chain in which the {Cu_2(2,2-bipy)_2}{sup 4+} moieties are bridged by the {V_4O_8(SeO_3)_4}{sup 4−} clusters. Compound 3 displays a 2D structure consisted of mixed valence vanadium selenites layers {V"I"VV"V_4Se"I"V_2O_1_8}{sub n}{sup 4−} and {Cu(2,2-bipy)}{sup 2+} complex moieties. The adjacent layers are further interconnected via π-π interactions between the 2,2-bipy ligands exhibiting an interesting 3D supramolecular architecture. Both compound 1 and 2 contain a new {V_4O_8(SeO_3)_4}{sup 4−} cluster and compound 3 exhibits the first 2D vanadate polyhedral layer in vanadium selenites/tellurites with organic moieties. - Graphical abstract: We got three new vanadium selenites with organically linked copper/nickel complex, namely, Ni(2,2-bipy){sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 4}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2} (1), Cu(2,2-bipy)V{sub 2}O{sub 4}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2}·0.5H{sub 2}O (2) and Cu{sub 2}(2,2-bipy){sub 2}V{sub 5}O{sub 12}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2} (3) by hydrothermally syntheses. They display three different structural dimensions, from 0D cluster, to 1D chain and 2D layer. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Three new compounds display three different structural dimensions, from 0D cluster, to 1D chain and 2D layer. • The Tetranuclear {V_4O_8(SeO_3)_4}{sup 4−} cluster and the vanadate {V

  16. Administrative Decentralization in School Systems and Its Effect on the Organization of Media Services. Atlanta Public Schools: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. David

    This study reviews the literature on public school administration and on decentralization to establish the groundwork for an analysis of the administration of a decentralized school system and its media services, discusses some of the confusion in the centralization vs. decentralization debate, and presents a heuristic study of the administration…

  17. Database Administrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  18. Water and complex organic chemistry in the cold dark cloud Barnard 5: Observations and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirström, Eva; Charnley, Steven B.; Taquet, Vianney; Persson, Carina M.

    2015-08-01

    Studies of complex organic molecule (COM) formation have traditionally been focused on hot cores in regions of massive star formation, where chemistry is driven by the elevated temperatures - evaporating ices and allowing for endothermic reactions in the gas-phase. As more sensitive instruments have become available, the types of objects known to harbour COMs like acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3), methyl formate (CH3OCHO), and ketene (CH2CO) have expanded to include low mass protostars and, recently, even pre-stellar cores. We here report on the first in a new category of objects harbouring COMs: the cold dark cloud Barnard 5 where non-thermal ice desorption induce complex organic chemistry entirely unrelated to local star-formation.Methanol, which only forms efficiently on the surfaces of dust grains, provide evidence of efficient non-thermal desorption of ices in the form of prominent emission peaks offset from protostellar activity and high density tracers in cold molecular clouds. A study with Herschel targeting such methanol emission peaks resulted in the first ever detection of gas-phase water offset from protostellar activity in a dark cloud, at the so called methanol hotspot in Barnard 5.To model the effect a transient injection of ices into the gas-phase has on the chemistry of a cold, dark cloud we have included gas-grain interactions in an existing gas-phase chemical model and connected it to a chemical reaction network updated and expanded to include the formation and destruction paths of the most common COMs. Results from this model will be presented.Ground-based follow-up studies toward the methanol hotspot in B5 have resulted in the detection of a number of COMs, including CH2CO, CH3CHO, CH3OCH3, and CH3OCHO, as well as deuterated methanol (CH2DOH). Observations have also confirmed that COM emission is extended and not localised to a core structure. The implications of these observational and theoretical studies of B5 will be discussed

  19. The census of complex organic molecules in the solar-type protostar IRAS16293-2422

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaber, Ali A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Kahane, C. [Université Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Caux, E. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

    2014-08-10

    Complex organic molecules (COMs) are considered to be crucial molecules, since they are connected with organic chemistry, at the basis of terrestrial life. More pragmatically, they are molecules which in principle are difficult to synthesize in harsh interstellar environments and, therefore, are a crucial test for astrochemical models. Current models assume that several COMs are synthesized on lukewarm grain surfaces (≳30-40 K) and released in the gas phase at dust temperatures of ≳100 K. However, recent detections of COMs in ≲20 K gas demonstrate that we still need important pieces to complete the puzzle of COMs formation. Here, we present a complete census of the oxygen- and nitrogen-bearing COMs, previously detected in different Interstellar Medium (ISM) regions, toward the solar-type protostar IRAS16293-2422. The census was obtained from the millimeter-submillimeter unbiased spectral survey TIMASSS. Of the 29 COMs searched for, 6 were detected: methyl cyanide, ketene, acetaldehyde, formamide, dimethyl ether, and methyl formate. Multifrequency analysis of the last five COMs provides clear evidence that they are present in the cold (≲30 K) envelope of IRAS16293-2422, with abundances of 0.03-2 × 10{sup –10}. Our data do not allow us to support the hypothesis that the COMs abundance increases with increasing dust temperature in the cold envelope, as expected if COMs were predominately formed on lukewarm grain surfaces. Finally, when also considering other ISM sources, we find a strong correlation over five orders of magnitude between methyl formate and dimethyl ether, and methyl formate and formamide abundances, which may point to a link between these two couples of species in cold and warm gas.

  20. It's the Physics: Organized Complexity in the Arctic/Midlatitude Weather Controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, J. E.; Francis, J. A.; Wang, M.

    2017-12-01

    There is intense scientific and public interest in whether major Arctic changes can and will impact mid-latitude weather. Despite numerous workshops and a growing literature, convergence of understanding is lacking, with major objections about possible large impacts within the scientific community. Yet research on the Arctic as a new potential driver in improving subseasonal forecasting at midlatitudes remains a priority. A recent review laid part of the controversy on shortcomings in experimental design and ill-suited metrics, such as examining the influence of only sea-ice loss rather than overall Arctic temperature amplification, and/or calculating averages over large regions, long time periods, or many ensemble members that would tend to obscure event-like Arctic connections. The present analysis lays the difficulty at a deeper level owing to the inherently complex physics. Jet-stream dynamics and weather linkages on the scale of a week to months has characteristics of an organized complex system, with large-scale processes that operate in patterned, quasi-geostrophic ways but whose component feedbacks are continually changing. Arctic linkages may be state dependent, i.e., relationships may be more robust in one atmospheric wave pattern than another, generating intermittency. The observational network is insufficient to fully initialize such a system and the inherent noise obscures linkage signals, leading to an underdetermined problem; often more than one explanation can fit the data. Further, the problem may be computationally irreducible; the only way to know the result of these interactions is to trace out their path over time. Modeling is a suggested approach, but at present it is unclear whether previous model studies fully resolve anticipated complexity. The jet stream from autumn to early winter is characterized by non-linear interactions among enhanced atmospheric planetary waves, irregular transitions between the zonal and meridional flows, and the

  1. A review of the clinical utility of INR to monitor and guide administration of prothrombin complex concentrate to orally anticoagulated patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølbeck, Sacha; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Johansson, Pär I

    2012-01-01

    the initiation steps of the haemostatic process. The objective of the present review was to reassess the evidence for using INR as a tool to guide administration of prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC) to OAC patients. A Medline and Cochrane database search was conducted using the following keywords...... value to aim for when reversing OAC was found. In three of the studies it was reported that patients reaching their target INR continued to bleed, whereas three studies reviewed reported good haemostatic response also in patients that did not reach their target INR. The present review found limited...

  2. Tailoring of transition metal alkoxides via complexation for the synthesis of hybrid organic-inorganic sols and gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, C.; In, M.; Toledano, P.; Griesmar, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the chemical control of hydrolysis-condensation reactions of transition metal alkoxides can be performed through the modification of the transition metal coordination sphere by using strong complexing ligands (SCL). Complexing organic groups can be bonded to the transition metal oxide network in two different ways, as network modifiers or network formers. Different illustrations of the role of complexing ligands on Ti(IV) and Zr(IV) alkoxides are presented. As a network modifier, SCL act as termination agents for condensation reactions allowing a control of particle growth. The complexing ligands being located at the periphery of the oxo core open many opportunities for colloid surface protection. SCL carrying organofunctional groups which exhibit non linear optical (NLO) properties have also been used as probes to study sol-gel transformations. SCL functionalized with organic polymerizable functions act as network formers

  3. An investigation of groundwater organics, soil minerals, and activated carbon on the complexation, adsorption, and separation of technetium-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, B.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes studies on the interactions of technetium-99 (Tc) with different organic compounds and soil minerals under both oxidizing and reducing conditions. The report is divided into four parts and includes (1) effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on the complexation and solubility of Tc, (2) complexation between Tc and trichloroethylene (TCE) in aqueous solutions, (3) adsorption of Tc on soil samples from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), and (4) adsorption and separation of Tc on activated carbon. Various experimental techniques were applied to characterize and identify Tc complexation with organic compounds and TCE, including liquid-liquid extraction, membrane filtration, size exclusion, and gel chromatography. Results indicate, within the experimental error, Tc (as pertechnetate, TcO 4 ) did not appear to form complexes with groundwater or natural organic matter under both atmospheric and reducing conditions. However, Tc can form complexes with certain organic compounds or specific functional groups such as salicylate. Tc did not appear to form complexes with TCE in aqueous solution.Both liquid-liquid extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) gave no indication Tc was complexed with TCE. The correlations between Tc and TCE concentrations in monitoring wells at PGDP may be a coincidence because TCE was commonly used as a decontamination reagent. Once TCE and Tc entered the groundwater, they behaved similarly because both TcO 4 - and TCE are poorly adsorbed by soils. An effective remediation technique to remove TcO 4 - from PGDP contaminated groundwater is needed. One possibility is the use of an activated carbon adsorption technique developed in this study

  4. What is science? Thinking about doctoral Business Administration students’ perceptions analyzed from the perspective of Edgar Morin and the paradigm of Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Dal Bo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about the paradigms that shape science are important in order to promote reflection among researchers as to their role in society. The Cartesian-Newtonian paradigm lies both in the natural and social sciences, both of which initially adopted it, before gradually bringing it into question due to the depletion of its explanatory power for current phenomena. Some authors propose the paradigm of complexity, which would, based on the features exposed in this paper, be better suited to providing a broad understanding of the process of knowledge construction. Through literature review and quantitative research conducted with students of the Doctoral Program in Business Administration at two Higher Education Institutions in Rio Grande do Sul, this paper attempts to identify the prevailing perceptions regarding the epistemological and paradigmatic positions adopted in the sciences and challenge them with the complexity paradigm proposed by Edgar Morin.

  5. Role of passive body dynamics in micro-organism swimming in complex fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomases, Becca; Guy, Robert

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the role of passive body dynamics in the kinematics of swimming micro-organisms in complex fluids. Asymptotic analysis and linear theory are used to predict shape changes that result as body elasticity and fluid elasticity are varied. The analysis is compared with a computational model of a finite length swimmer in a Stokes-Oldroyd-B fluid. Simulations and theory agree quantitatively for small amplitude motions with low fluid elasticity (Deborah number). This may not be surprising as the theory is expected hold in these two regimes. What is more remarkable is that the predicted shape changes match the computational shape changes quantitatively for large amplitudes, even for large Deborah numbers. Shape changes only tell part of the story. Swimming speed depends on other effects as well. We see that shape changes can predict swimming speed well when either the amplitude is small (including large Deborah number) or when the Deborah number is small (including large amplitudes). It is only in the large De AND large amplitude regime where the theory breaks down and swimming speed can no longer be inferred from shape changes alone.

  6. Determination of organic phosphorus in UO2C2O4·TRPO complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yifei; Yuan Jianhua; Liang Junfu; Jiao Rongzhou; Liu Xiuqin

    2001-01-01

    Organic phosphorus in UO 2 C 2 O 4 ·TRPO complex is converted to inorganic phosphorous with H 2 SO 4 -HNO 3 -H 2 O 2 wet cinefaction method. In 0.14 mol/L H 2 SO 4 solution containing water soluble poly vinylalcohol as stabilizing agent, the highly sensitive ion-associates are formed by the reaction of basic dye ethyl violet with heteropoly molybdophosphoric blue. Spectrophotometric method is used for determination of phosphorus with these ion-associates. The absorbance maximum is at 620 nm. Determination of phosphorus is not affected with mass ratios R(UO 2 2+ /P) ≤ 1.4 x 10 3 , R(C 2 O 4 2- /P) ≤ 8.8 x 10 2 and R(C 2 O 4 2- /P ≤ 3.6 x 10 4 (one time wet cinefaction must be carried out). In aqueous phase, phosphorus can be directly developed and determined. This method is contrasted with poly vinylalcohol-Rodamine B-heteropoly molybdophosphoric blue, analytical results are in good coincidence. Conversion ratio of phosphorus is 99.8% - 101.1%. The minimum detection limit is 0.02 mg/L. The relative standard deviation is 3%. The recovery ratio is 97% - 103%

  7. SOCS-1 localizes to the microtubule organizing complex-associated 20S proteasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Bao Q; Arenzana, Teresita L; Showalter, Brian M; Losman, Julie; Chen, X Peter; Mostecki, Justin; Banks, Alexander S; Limnander, Andre; Fernandez, Neil; Rothman, Paul B

    2004-10-01

    The regulation of cytokine signaling is critical for controlling cellular proliferation and activation during an immune response. SOCS-1 is a potent inhibitor of Jak kinase activity and of signaling initiated by several cytokines. SOCS-1 protein levels are tightly regulated, and recent data suggest that SOCS-1 may regulate the protein levels of some signaling proteins by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway; however, the cellular mechanism by which SOCS-1 directs proteins for degradation is unknown. In this report, SOCS-1 is found to colocalize and biochemically copurify with the microtubule organizing complex (MTOC) and its associated 20S proteasome. The SOCS-1 SH2 domain is required for the localization of SOCS-1 to the MTOC. Overexpression of SOCS-1 targets Jak1 in an SH2-dependent manner to a perinuclear distribution resembling the MTOC-associated 20S proteasome. Analysis of MTOCs fractionated from SOCS-1-deficient cells demonstrates that SOCS-1 may function redundantly to regulate the localization of Jak1 to the MTOC. Nocodazole inhibits the protein turnover of SOCS-1, demonstrating that the minus-end transport of SOCS-1 to the MTOC-associated 20S proteasome is required to regulate SOCS-1 protein levels. These data link SOCS-1 directly with the proteasome pathway and suggest another function for the SH2 domain of SOCS-1 in the regulation of Jak/STAT signaling.

  8. Managing complex workplace stress in health care organizations: leaders' perceived legitimacy conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellve, Lotta; Wikström, Ewa

    2009-12-01

    To conceptualize how health care leaders' strategies to increase their influence in their psychosocial work environment are experienced and handled, and may be supported. The complex nature of the psychosocial work environment with increased stress creates significant challenges for leaders in today's health care organizations. Interviews with health care leaders (n = 39) were analysed in accordance with constructivist grounded theory. Compound identities, loyalty commitments and professional interests shape conditions for leaders' influence. Strategies to achieve legitimacy were either to retain clinical skills and a strong occupational identity or to take a full leadership role. Ethical stress was experienced when organizational procedural or consequential legitimacy norms were in conflict with the leaders' own values. Leadership support through socializing processes and strategic support structures may be complementary or counteractive. Support programmes need to have a clear message related to decision-making processes and should facilitate communication between top management, human resource departments and subordinate leaders. Ethical stress from conflicting legitimacy principles may be moderated by clear policies for decision-making processes, strengthened sound networks and improved communication. Supportive programmes should include: (1) sequential and strategic systems for introducing new leaders and mentoring; (2) reflective dialogue and feedback; (3) team development; and (4) decision-making policies and processes.

  9. Experimental and computational studies on creatininium 4-nitrobenzoate - An organic proton transfer complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumurugan, R.; Anitha, K.

    2017-10-01

    A new organic proton transfer complex of creatininium 4-nitrobenzoate (C4NB) has been synthesized and its single crystals were grown successfully by slow evaporation technique. The grown single crystal was subjected to various characterization techniques like single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD), FTIR, FT-Raman and Kurtz-Perry powder second harmonic generation (SHG). The SCXRD analysis revealed that C4NB was crystallized into orthorhombic crystal system, with noncentrosymmetric (NCS), P212121 space group. The creatininium cation and 4-nitrobenzoate anion were connected through a pair of N__H⋯O hydrogen bonds (N(3)__H(6) ⋯ O(3) (x+1, y, z) and N(2)__H(5) &ctdot O(2) (x-1/2, -y-1/2, -z+2)) and fashioned a R22(8) ring motif. The crystal structure was stabilized by strong N__H⋯O and weak C__H⋯O intermolecular interactions and it was quantitatively analysed by Hirshfeld surface and fingerprint (FP) analysis. FTIR and FT-Raman studies confirmed the vibrational modes of functional groups present in C4NB compound indubitably. SHG efficiency of grown crystal was 4.6 times greater than that of standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) material. Moreover, density functional theory (DFT) studies such as Mulliken charge distribution, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) map, natural bond orbital analysis (NBO) and first order hyperpolarizability (β0) were calculated to explore the structure-property relationship.

  10. Adaptor protein complex 2-mediated endocytosis is crucial for male reproductive organ development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Youn; Xu, Zheng-Yi; Song, Kyungyoung; Kim, Dae Heon; Kang, Hyangju; Reichardt, Ilka; Sohn, Eun Ju; Friml, Jirí; Juergens, Gerd; Hwang, Inhwan

    2013-08-01

    Fertilization in flowering plants requires the temporal and spatial coordination of many developmental processes, including pollen production, anther dehiscence, ovule production, and pollen tube elongation. However, it remains elusive as to how this coordination occurs during reproduction. Here, we present evidence that endocytosis, involving heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2), plays a crucial role in fertilization. An Arabidopsis thaliana mutant ap2m displays multiple defects in pollen production and viability, as well as elongation of staminal filaments and pollen tubes, all of which are pivotal processes needed for fertilization. Of these abnormalities, the defects in elongation of staminal filaments and pollen tubes were partially rescued by exogenous auxin. Moreover, DR5rev:GFP (for green fluorescent protein) expression was greatly reduced in filaments and anthers in ap2m mutant plants. At the cellular level, ap2m mutants displayed defects in both endocytosis of N-(3-triethylammonium-propyl)-4-(4-diethylaminophenylhexatrienyl) pyridinium dibromide, a lypophilic dye used as an endocytosis marker, and polar localization of auxin-efflux carrier PIN FORMED2 (PIN2) in the stamen filaments. Moreover, these defects were phenocopied by treatment with Tyrphostin A23, an inhibitor of endocytosis. Based on these results, we propose that AP-2-dependent endocytosis plays a crucial role in coordinating the multiple developmental aspects of male reproductive organs by modulating cellular auxin level through the regulation of the amount and polarity of PINs.

  11. Hierarchical organization of functional connectivity in the mouse brain: a complex network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardella, Giampiero; Bifone, Angelo; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gozzi, Alessandro; Squartini, Tiziano

    2016-08-18

    This paper represents a contribution to the study of the brain functional connectivity from the perspective of complex networks theory. More specifically, we apply graph theoretical analyses to provide evidence of the modular structure of the mouse brain and to shed light on its hierarchical organization. We propose a novel percolation analysis and we apply our approach to the analysis of a resting-state functional MRI data set from 41 mice. This approach reveals a robust hierarchical structure of modules persistent across different subjects. Importantly, we test this approach against a statistical benchmark (or null model) which constrains only the distributions of empirical correlations. Our results unambiguously show that the hierarchical character of the mouse brain modular structure is not trivially encoded into this lower-order constraint. Finally, we investigate the modular structure of the mouse brain by computing the Minimal Spanning Forest, a technique that identifies subnetworks characterized by the strongest internal correlations. This approach represents a faster alternative to other community detection methods and provides a means to rank modules on the basis of the strength of their internal edges.

  12. Carbon Chain Anions and the Growth of Complex Organic Molecules in Titan’s Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, R. T.; Coates, A. J.; Wellbrock, A.; Vuitton, V.; Crary, F. J.; González-Caniulef, D.; Shebanits, O.; Jones, G. H.; Lewis, G. R.; Waite, J. H.; Cordiner, M.; Taylor, S. A.; Kataria, D. O.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Sittler, E. C.

    2017-08-01

    Cassini discovered a plethora of neutral and ionized molecules in Titan’s ionosphere including, surprisingly, anions and negatively charged molecules extending up to 13,800 u q-1. In this Letter, we forward model the Cassini electron spectrometer response function to this unexpected ionospheric component to achieve an increased mass resolving capability for negatively charged species observed at Titan altitudes of 950-1300 km. We report on detections consistently centered between 25.8 and 26.0 u q-1 and between 49.0-50.1 u q-1 which are identified as belonging to the carbon chain anions, CN-/C3N- and/or C2H-/C4H-, in agreement with chemical model predictions. At higher ionospheric altitudes, detections at 73-74 u q-1 could be attributed to the further carbon chain anions C5N-/C6H- but at lower altitudes and during further encounters extend over a higher mass/charge range. This, as well as further intermediary anions detected at >100 u, provide the first evidence for efficient anion chemistry in space involving structures other than linear chains. Furthermore, at altitudes below environments where chain anions have been observed and shows that anion chemistry plays a role in the formation of complex organics within a planetary atmosphere as well as in the interstellar medium.

  13. Residual Complexity Does Impact Organic Chemistry and Drug Discovery: The Case of Rufomyazine and Rufomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choules, Mary P; Klein, Larry L; Lankin, David C; McAlpine, James B; Cho, Sang-Hyun; Cheng, Jinhua; Lee, Hanki; Suh, Joo-Won; Jaki, Birgit U; Franzblau, Scott G; Pauli, Guido F

    2018-05-24

    Residual complexity (RC) involves the impact of subtle but critical structural and biological features on drug lead validation, including unexplained effects related to unidentified impurities. RC commonly plagues drug discovery efforts due to the inherent imperfections of chromatographic separation methods. The new diketopiperazine, rufomyazine (6), and the previously known antibiotic, rufomycin (7), represent a prototypical case of RC that (almost) resulted in the misassignment of biological activity. The case exemplifies that impurities well below the natural abundance of 13 C (1.1%) can be highly relevant and calls for advanced analytical characterization of drug leads with extended molar dynamic ranges of >1:1,000 using qNMR and LC-MS. Isolated from an actinomycete strain, 6 was originally found to be active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg/mL and high selectivity. As a part of lead validation, the dipeptide was synthesized and surprisingly found to be inactive. The initially observed activity was eventually attributed to a very minor contamination (0.24% [m/m]) with a highly active cyclic peptide (MIC ∼ 0.02 μM), subsequently identified as an analogue of 7. This study illustrates the serious implications RC can exert on organic chemistry and drug discovery, and what efforts are vital to improve lead validation and efficiency, especially in NP-related drug discovery programs.

  14. The width of the lateral element of the synaptonemal complex is determined by a multilayered organization of its components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Rosario, E-mail: r_oh@ciencias.unam.mx [Laboratorio de Microscopía Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México DF 04510, México (Mexico); Kouznetsova, Anna, E-mail: Anna.Kouznetsova@ki.se [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Berzelius väg 35, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Echeverría-Martínez, Olga M., E-mail: omem@ciencias.unam.mx [Laboratorio de Microscopía Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México DF 04510, México (Mexico); Vázquez-Nin, Gerardo H., E-mail: vazqueznin@ciencias.unam.mx [Laboratorio de Microscopía Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México DF 04510, México (Mexico); Hernández-Hernández, Abrahan, E-mail: abrahan.hernandez@ki.se [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Berzelius väg 35, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-05-15

    The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a proteinaceous structure that holds the homologous chromosomes in close proximity while they exchange genetic material in a process known as meiotic recombination. This meiotic recombination leads to genetic variability in sexually reproducing organisms. The ultrastructure of the SC is studied by electron microscopy and it is observed as a tripartite structure. Two lateral elements (LE) separated by a central region (CR) confer its classical tripartite organization. The LEs are the anchoring platform for the replicated homologous chromosomes to properly exchange genetic material with one another. An accurate assembly of the LE is indispensable for the proper completion of meiosis. Ultrastructural studies suggested that the LE is organized as a multilayered unit. However, no validation of this model has been previously provided. In this ultrastructural study, by using mice with different genetic backgrounds that affect the LE width, we provide further evidence that support a multilayered organization of the LE. Additionally, we provide data suggesting additional roles of the different cohesin complex components in the structure of the LEs of the SC. - Highlights: • The lateral element of the synaptonemal complex is a multilayered structure. • The width of the lateral element in synaptonemal complex-null mice is different. • Two cohesin complex cores plus one axial element form a wild-type lateral element. • The layers of the lateral element can be analyzed in different null mice models.

  15. Abnormal fetal cerebral laminar organization in cobblestone complex as seen on post-mortem MRI and DTI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjaja, Elysa; Geibprasert, Sasikhan; Blaser, Susan; Rayner, Tammy; Shannon, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    We report a unique case of cobblestone complex using post-mortem MR and diffusion tensor imaging to assess the laminar organization of the fetal cerebrum. The imaging findings were correlated with autopsy findings. Abnormal cortical development in cobblestone complex resulted in disruption of normal laminar organization of the fetal brain, which was seen as interruption and nodularity of the high-signal T1 cortical band with increased anisotropy and medium diffusivity extending beyond the cortical band into the cerebral mantle on post-mortem MR and diffusion tensor imaging. (orig.)

  16. Abnormal fetal cerebral laminar organization in cobblestone complex as seen on post-mortem MRI and DTI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widjaja, Elysa; Geibprasert, Sasikhan; Blaser, Susan; Rayner, Tammy [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Shannon, Patrick [University of Toronto, Department of Pathology, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto (Canada)

    2009-08-15

    We report a unique case of cobblestone complex using post-mortem MR and diffusion tensor imaging to assess the laminar organization of the fetal cerebrum. The imaging findings were correlated with autopsy findings. Abnormal cortical development in cobblestone complex resulted in disruption of normal laminar organization of the fetal brain, which was seen as interruption and nodularity of the high-signal T1 cortical band with increased anisotropy and medium diffusivity extending beyond the cortical band into the cerebral mantle on post-mortem MR and diffusion tensor imaging. (orig.)

  17. 45 CFR 1336.65 - Staffing and organization of the Revolving Loan Fund: Responsibilities of the Loan Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... organization table, including: (a) The structure and composition of the Board of Directors of the RLF; (b) The... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Staffing and organization of the Revolving Loan... Hawaiian Revolving Loan Fund Demonstration Project § 1336.65 Staffing and organization of the Revolving...

  18. Charge-Transfer Dynamics in the Lowest Excited State of a Pentacene–Fullerene Complex: Implications for Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Joseph, Saju

    2017-10-02

    We characterize the dynamic nature of the lowest excited state in a pentacene/C60 complex on the femtosecond time scale, via a combination of ab initio molecular dynamics and time-dependent density functional theory. We analyze the correlations between the molecular vibrations of the complex and the oscillations in the electron-transfer character of its lowest excited state, which point to vibration-induced coherences between the (pentacene-based) local-excitation (LE) state and the complex charge-transfer (CT) state. We discuss the implications of our results on this model system for the exciton-dissociation process in organic solar cells.

  19. Characterization of Interstellar Organic Molecules

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Understanding the origins of life has been one of the greatest dreams throughout history. It is now known that star-forming regions contain complex organic...

  20. Labelling and Organ Distrbution Characterisics of 99mTc Galacturonate Complex Using Dithionite as Reducing Agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Hilli, A.M.; Mirza, K.S.; Al Noori, T.H.J.

    2000-01-01

    The labelling conditions of 99m T c-galacturonate complex using dithionite as reducing agent for periechnetate have been described. GCS-method has been applied for radiochemical determination of the labelled complex. At a constant amount of the ligand (50mg) in the preparation, high labelling of 99m Tc -galacturonate complex was obtained in the presence of the reducing agent. The effect of pH on the labelling yield have show that labelling occurs only at near neutral to slightly alkaline pH. The organ distribution results of 99m Tc -galacturonate complex as a function of the reducing agent concentration was achieved in rats. On using 8mg of dithionite as reducing agent,the activity uptake in the kindneys was significantly low, while in the bones was higher, but decreased after 1 hr. of injection. This,however is due to the instability of the labelled complex releasing pertechnetate which was evident by the increase of activity in the stomach. The organ distribution picture of the complex has been reversed by increasing the concentration of dithionite(16 mg) in the preparation,where the activity uptake in the kidnys was increased to higher level and in the bones was decreased.The activity in the stomach was rather low indicating a more stable complex towards oxidation or decomposition

  1. Influence of the substitution of β-cyclodextrins by cationic groups on the complexation of organic anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hbaieb, S.; Kalfat, R.; Chevalier, Y.; Amdouni, N.; Parrot-Lopez, H.

    2008-01-01

    The inclusion complexation of the organic anion, dansyl-acid, by cationic derivatives of β-cyclodextrin has been investigated. A series of cationic β-cyclodextrins with various positive charge has been synthesized by selective functionalization of the primary face of β-cyclodextrin with amino groups. The complexes were of the 1:1 stoichiometry; the stability constants (K 11 ) have been evaluated from UV-Vis measurements by application of the Benesi-Hildebrand equation. The presence of amino groups increased the complexation ability. β-cyclodextrin fully substituted at the primary face with amino groups showed the strongest inclusion binding ability towards the dansyl-acid guest. The enhanced complexation for anions was ascribed to the cationic amino groups. A simple thermodynamic model of the electrostatic contribution to the complexation is presented

  2. Influence of the substitution of {beta}-cyclodextrins by cationic groups on the complexation of organic anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hbaieb, S. [U.R. Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Solides, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Manar II, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia)], E-mail: Souhairabouchaira@yahoo.fr; Kalfat, R. [U.R. Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Solides, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Manar II, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Chevalier, Y. [Laboratoire d' Automatique et de Genie des Procedes (LAGEP), UMR 5007 CNRS-Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69622 Villeurbanne (France)], E-mail: chevalier@lagep.univ-lyon1.fr; Amdouni, N. [U.R. Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Solides, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Manar II, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Parrot-Lopez, H. [Institut de Chimie et Biochimie Moleculaires et Supramoleculaires (ICBMS), UMR 5246 CNRS-Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69622 Villeurbanne (France)], E-mail: helene.parrot@univ-lyon1.fr

    2008-07-01

    The inclusion complexation of the organic anion, dansyl-acid, by cationic derivatives of {beta}-cyclodextrin has been investigated. A series of cationic {beta}-cyclodextrins with various positive charge has been synthesized by selective functionalization of the primary face of {beta}-cyclodextrin with amino groups. The complexes were of the 1:1 stoichiometry; the stability constants (K{sub 11}) have been evaluated from UV-Vis measurements by application of the Benesi-Hildebrand equation. The presence of amino groups increased the complexation ability. {beta}-cyclodextrin fully substituted at the primary face with amino groups showed the strongest inclusion binding ability towards the dansyl-acid guest. The enhanced complexation for anions was ascribed to the cationic amino groups. A simple thermodynamic model of the electrostatic contribution to the complexation is presented.

  3. Inkjet printing of antiviral PCL nanoparticles and anticancer cyclodextrin inclusion complexes on bioadhesive film for cervical administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varan, Cem; Wickström, Henrika; Sandler, Niklas; Aktaş, Yeşim; Bilensoy, Erem

    2017-10-15

    Personalized medicine is an important treatment approach for diseases like cancer with high intrasubject variability. In this framework, printing is one of the most promising methods since it permits dose and geometry adjustment of the final product. With this study, a combination product consisting of anticancer (paclitaxel) and antiviral (cidofovir) drugs was manufactured by inkjet printing onto adhesive film for local treatment of cervical cancers as a result of HPV infection. Furthermore, solubility problem of paclitaxel was overcome by maintaining this poorly soluble drug in a cyclodextrin inclusion complex and release of cidofovir was controlled by encapsulation in polycaprolactone nanoparticles. In vitro characterization studies of printed film formulations were performed and cell culture studies showed that drug loaded film formulation was effective on human cervical adenocarcinoma cells. Our study suggests that inkjet printing technology can be utilized in the development of antiviral/anticancer combination dosage forms for mucosal application. The drug amount in the delivery system can be accurately controlled and modified. Moreover, prolonged drug release time can be obtained. Printing of anticancer and antiviral drugs on film seem to be a potential approach for HPV-related cervical cancer treatment and a good candidate for further studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling of catalytically active metal complex species and intermediates in reactions of organic halides electroreduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytvynenko, Anton S; Kolotilov, Sergey V; Kiskin, Mikhail A; Eremenko, Igor L; Novotortsev, Vladimir M

    2015-02-28

    The results of quantum chemical modeling of organic and metal-containing intermediates that occur in electrocatalytic dehalogenation reactions of organic chlorides are presented. Modeling of processes that take place in successive steps of the electrochemical reduction of representative C1 and C2 chlorides - CHCl3 and Freon R113 (1,1,2-trifluoro-1,2,2-trichloroethane) - was carried out by density functional theory (DFT) and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2). It was found that taking solvation into account using an implicit solvent model (conductor-like screening model, COSMO) or considering explicit solvent molecules gave similar results. In addition to modeling of simple non-catalytic dehalogenation, processes with a number of complexes and their reduced forms, some of which were catalytically active, were investigated by DFT. Complexes M(L1)2 (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, L1H = Schiff base from 2-pyridinecarbaldehyde and the hydrazide of 4-pyridinecarboxylic acid), Ni(L2) (H2L2 is the Schiff base from salicylaldehyde and 1,2-ethylenediamine, known as salen) and Co(L3)2Cl2, representing a fragment of a redox-active coordination polymer [Co(L3)Cl2]n (L3 is the dithioamide of 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid), were considered. Gradual changes in electronic structure in a series of compounds M(L1)2 were observed, and correlations between [M(L1)2](0) spin-up and spin-down LUMO energies and the relative energies of the corresponding high-spin and low-spin reduced forms, as well as the shape of the orbitals, were proposed. These results can be helpful for determination of the nature of redox-processes in similar systems by DFT. No specific covalent interactions between [M(L1)2](-) and the R113 molecule (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Zn) were found, which indicates that M(L1)2 electrocatalysts act rather like electron transfer mediators via outer-shell electron transfer. A relaxed surface scan of the adducts {M(L1)2·R113}(-) (M = Ni or Co) versus the distance between the

  5. Formation and Atmosphere of Complex Organic Molecules of the HH 212 Protostellar Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Ho, Paul T. P.; Hirano, Naomi; Shang, Hsien [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhi-Yun [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Zhang, Qizhou, E-mail: cflee@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    HH 212 is a nearby (400 pc) Class 0 protostellar system recently found to host a “hamburger”-shaped dusty disk with a radius of ∼60 au, deeply embedded in an infalling-rotating flattened envelope. We have spatially resolved this envelope-disk system with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array at up to ∼16 au (0.″04) resolution. The envelope is detected in HCO{sup +} J = 4–3 down to the dusty disk. Complex organic molecules (COMs) and doubly deuterated formaldehyde (D{sub 2}CO) are detected above and below the dusty disk within ∼40 au of the central protostar. The COMs are methanol (CH{sub 3}OH), deuterated methanol (CH{sub 2}DOH), methyl mercaptan (CH{sub 3}SH), and formamide (NH{sub 2}CHO, a prebiotic precursor). We have modeled the gas kinematics in HCO{sup +} and COMs and found a centrifugal barrier (CB) at a radius of ∼44 au, within which a Keplerian rotating disk is formed. This indicates that HCO{sup +} traces the infalling-rotating envelope down to the CB and COMs trace the atmosphere of a Keplerian rotating disk within the CB. The COMs are spatially resolved for the first time, both radially and vertically, in the atmosphere of a disk in the earliest, Class 0 phase of star formation. Our spatially resolved observations of COMs favor their formation in the disk rather than a rapidly infalling (warm) inner envelope. The abundances and spatial distributions of the COMs provide strong constraints on models of their formation and transport in low-mass star formation.

  6. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES IN THE L1544 PRE-STELLAR CORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez-Serra, Izaskun [Astronomy Unit, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Vasyunin, Anton I.; Caselli, Paola [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Gießenbachstr., D-85741 Garching (Germany); Marcelino, Nuria [INAF, Osservatorio di Radioastronomia, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Billot, Nicolas [Instituto de Radioastronomía Milimétrica, Avenida Divina Pastora 7, E-18012 Granada (Spain); Viti, Serena [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, 132 Hampstead Road, London NW1 2PS (United Kingdom); Testi, Leonardo [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Vastel, Charlotte [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Lefloch, Bertrand [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Bachiller, Rafael, E-mail: i.jimenez-serra@qmul.ac.uk [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (OAN, IGN), Calle Alfonso XII 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-10-10

    The detection of complex organic molecules (COMs) toward cold sources such as pre-stellar cores (with T < 10 K) has challenged our understanding of the formation processes of COMs in the interstellar medium. Recent modeling on COM chemistry at low temperatures has provided new insight into these processes predicting that COM formation depends strongly on parameters such as visual extinction and the level of CO freeze out. We report deep observations of COMs toward two positions in the L1544 pre-stellar core: the dense, highly extinguished continuum peak with A{sub V}≥ 30 mag within the inner 2700 au; and a low-density shell with average A{sub V}∼ 7.5–8 mag located at 4000 au from the core’s center and bright in CH{sub 3}OH. Our observations show that CH{sub 3}O, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}, and CH{sub 3}CHO are more abundant (by factors of ∼2–10) toward the low-density shell than toward the continuum peak. Other COMs such as CH{sub 3}OCHO, c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2}O, HCCCHO, CH{sub 2}CHCN, and HCCNC show slight enhancements (by factors ≤3), but the associated uncertainties are large. This suggests that COMs are actively formed and already present in the low-density shells of pre-stellar cores. The modeling of the chemistry of O-bearing COMs in L1544 indicates that these species are enhanced in this shell because (i) CO starts freezing out onto dust grains driving an active surface chemistry; (ii) the visual extinction is sufficiently high to prevent the UV photo-dissociation of COMs by the external interstellar radiation field; and (iii) the density is still moderate to prevent severe depletion of COMs onto grains.

  7. Zinc transformations in acidic soil and zinc efficiency on maize by adding six organic zinc complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Valdivia, L M; Fernández, M D; Obrador, A; Alvarez, J M

    2002-03-13

    Experiments under laboratory and greenhouse conditions were conducted to study the response of maize (Zea mays L.) to Zn fertilizer applications (Zn-phenolate, Zn-EDDHA, Zn-EDTA, Zn-lignosulfonate, Zn-polyflavonoid, and Zn-heptagluconate) in an Aquic Haploxeralf soil. The application of Zn complexes significantly increased Zn uptake by the plant compared with that in the control soil. The highest enhancements were obtained in soil treated with Zn-EDTA, Zn-lignosulfonate, and Zn-EDDHA. The highest percentages of Zn taken up by the plants occurred when 20 mg x kg(-1) Zn was applied as Zn-EDTA fertilizer and 10 mg x kg(-1) as Zn-lignosulfonate fertilizer. In the greenhouse experiment, Zn speciation in soil after harvesting showed that almost all Zn was found in the residual fraction followed by metal in the water-soluble plus exchangeable fraction and metal bound to organic matter. The most effective fertilizers maintaining Zn in the most labile fractions were Zn-phenolate, Zn-EDTA, and Zn-lignosulfonate. Conversely, in the incubation experiment, only a small percentage of Zn was found in the water-soluble plus exchangeable fraction and no differences in the Zn distribution were observed between the different fertilizer treatments. The micronutrient content in maize was positively correlated with the water-soluble plus exchangeable Zn as well as with the available Zn determined by the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and Mehlich-3 methods, in the greenhouse experiment. Results of this study showed that the incubation experiment in acidic soil is not a suitable tool to establish the different effectiveness of Zn chelates in plants.

  8. Carbon Chain Anions and the Growth of Complex Organic Molecules in Titan’s Ionosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, R. T.; Coates, A. J.; Wellbrock, A.; González-Caniulef, D.; Jones, G. H.; Lewis, G. R.; Taylor, S. A.; Kataria, D. O. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Vuitton, V. [Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Crary, F. J. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Innovation Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Shebanits, O.; Wahlund, J.-E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Waite, J. H. [Space Science and Engineering Division, Southwest Research Institute (SWRI), 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States); Cordiner, M.; Sittler, E. C. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Edberg, N. J. T., E-mail: r.t.desai@ucl.ac.uk [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Box 537, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2017-08-01

    Cassini discovered a plethora of neutral and ionized molecules in Titan’s ionosphere including, surprisingly, anions and negatively charged molecules extending up to 13,800 u q{sup −1}. In this Letter, we forward model the Cassini electron spectrometer response function to this unexpected ionospheric component to achieve an increased mass resolving capability for negatively charged species observed at Titan altitudes of 950–1300 km. We report on detections consistently centered between 25.8 and 26.0 u q{sup −1} and between 49.0–50.1 u q{sup −1} which are identified as belonging to the carbon chain anions, CN{sup −}/C{sub 3}N{sup −} and/or C{sub 2}H{sup −}/C{sub 4}H{sup −}, in agreement with chemical model predictions. At higher ionospheric altitudes, detections at 73–74 u q{sup −1} could be attributed to the further carbon chain anions C{sub 5}N{sup −}/C{sub 6}H{sup −} but at lower altitudes and during further encounters extend over a higher mass/charge range. This, as well as further intermediary anions detected at >100 u, provide the first evidence for efficient anion chemistry in space involving structures other than linear chains. Furthermore, at altitudes below <1100 km, the low-mass anions (<150 u q{sup −1}) were found to deplete at a rate proportional to the growth of the larger molecules, a correlation that indicates the anions are tightly coupled to the growth process. This study adds Titan to an increasing list of astrophysical environments where chain anions have been observed and shows that anion chemistry plays a role in the formation of complex organics within a planetary atmosphere as well as in the interstellar medium.

  9. Organic-inorganic hybrid rare earth complexes based on polymolybdates with intrinsic photosensitive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Ma, Pengtao; Niu, Jingyang

    2015-03-14

    A series of organic–inorganic hybrid rare earth complexes {[RE2(PO)2(H2O)10][H2Mo36O112(OH2)12(PO)4]}·5PO·2(CH3CN)·nH2O [n = 23–42, RE(III) = Nd(III), 1; Sm(III), 2; Eu(III), 3; Gd(III), 4; Dy(III), 5; Er(III), 6; Tm(III), 7; Yb(III), 8; Lu(III), 9; Y(III), 10; PO = piperidin-2-one] have been synthesized and fully characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, IR spectra, thermogravimetric analysis and UV-vis spectra. Structural analysis reveals that compounds 1-10 are isostructural and crystallize in the monoclinic P2(1)/n space group. Each compound contains a centrosymmetric anionic cluster [Mo36O112(OH2)12(PO)4](8-), which could be described as the derivative of [Mo36O112(OH2)16](8-) with four water molecules substituted by organic PO molecules. Each {Mo18} subunit connects with one RE(III) ion via its two terminal O atoms from two independent {MoO6} octahedra. The eight coordinated RE(III) ion with a distorted tetragonal antiprism coordination geometry is also surrounded by another six oxygen atoms, five of them from five water molecules and the final one from one PO molecule. Compounds 1-10 show considerable photosensitive behavior under visible light excitation. In addition, compound 3 exhibits three emission bands at 580, 595 and 617 nm in the solid state, which could be assigned to (5)D0→(7)F0, (5)D0→(7)F1 and (5)D0→(7)F2 transitions of Eu(III) ions, respectively.

  10. Carbon Chain Anions and the Growth of Complex Organic Molecules in Titan’s Ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, R. T.; Coates, A. J.; Wellbrock, A.; González-Caniulef, D.; Jones, G. H.; Lewis, G. R.; Taylor, S. A.; Kataria, D. O.; Vuitton, V.; Crary, F. J.; Shebanits, O.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Waite, J. H.; Cordiner, M.; Sittler, E. C.; Edberg, N. J. T.

    2017-01-01

    Cassini discovered a plethora of neutral and ionized molecules in Titan’s ionosphere including, surprisingly, anions and negatively charged molecules extending up to 13,800 u q"−"1. In this Letter, we forward model the Cassini electron spectrometer response function to this unexpected ionospheric component to achieve an increased mass resolving capability for negatively charged species observed at Titan altitudes of 950–1300 km. We report on detections consistently centered between 25.8 and 26.0 u q"−"1 and between 49.0–50.1 u q"−"1 which are identified as belonging to the carbon chain anions, CN"−/C_3N"− and/or C_2H"−/C_4H"−, in agreement with chemical model predictions. At higher ionospheric altitudes, detections at 73–74 u q"−"1 could be attributed to the further carbon chain anions C_5N"−/C_6H"− but at lower altitudes and during further encounters extend over a higher mass/charge range. This, as well as further intermediary anions detected at >100 u, provide the first evidence for efficient anion chemistry in space involving structures other than linear chains. Furthermore, at altitudes below <1100 km, the low-mass anions (<150 u q"−"1) were found to deplete at a rate proportional to the growth of the larger molecules, a correlation that indicates the anions are tightly coupled to the growth process. This study adds Titan to an increasing list of astrophysical environments where chain anions have been observed and shows that anion chemistry plays a role in the formation of complex organics within a planetary atmosphere as well as in the interstellar medium.

  11. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES IN THE L1544 PRE-STELLAR CORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-Serra, Izaskun; Vasyunin, Anton I.; Caselli, Paola; Marcelino, Nuria; Billot, Nicolas; Viti, Serena; Testi, Leonardo; Vastel, Charlotte; Lefloch, Bertrand; Bachiller, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The detection of complex organic molecules (COMs) toward cold sources such as pre-stellar cores (with T < 10 K) has challenged our understanding of the formation processes of COMs in the interstellar medium. Recent modeling on COM chemistry at low temperatures has provided new insight into these processes predicting that COM formation depends strongly on parameters such as visual extinction and the level of CO freeze out. We report deep observations of COMs toward two positions in the L1544 pre-stellar core: the dense, highly extinguished continuum peak with A_V≥ 30 mag within the inner 2700 au; and a low-density shell with average A_V∼ 7.5–8 mag located at 4000 au from the core’s center and bright in CH_3OH. Our observations show that CH_3O, CH_3OCH_3, and CH_3CHO are more abundant (by factors of ∼2–10) toward the low-density shell than toward the continuum peak. Other COMs such as CH_3OCHO, c-C_3H_2O, HCCCHO, CH_2CHCN, and HCCNC show slight enhancements (by factors ≤3), but the associated uncertainties are large. This suggests that COMs are actively formed and already present in the low-density shells of pre-stellar cores. The modeling of the chemistry of O-bearing COMs in L1544 indicates that these species are enhanced in this shell because (i) CO starts freezing out onto dust grains driving an active surface chemistry; (ii) the visual extinction is sufficiently high to prevent the UV photo-dissociation of COMs by the external interstellar radiation field; and (iii) the density is still moderate to prevent severe depletion of COMs onto grains.

  12. CONSTRAINING THE ABUNDANCES OF COMPLEX ORGANICS IN THE INNER REGIONS OF SOLAR-TYPE PROTOSTARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taquet, Vianney; Charnley, Steven B. [Astrochemistry Laboratory and The Goddard Center for Astrobiology, Mailstop 691, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States); López-Sepulcre, Ana; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Kahane, Claudine [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Neri, Roberto, E-mail: taquet@strw.leidenuniv.nl [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, Grenoble (France)

    2015-05-10

    The high abundances of Complex Organic Molecules (COMs) with respect to methanol, the most abundant COM, detected toward low-mass protostars, tend to be underpredicted by astrochemical models. This discrepancy might come from the large beam of the single-dish telescopes, encompassing several components of the studied protostar, commonly used to detect COMs. To address this issue, we have carried out multi-line observations of methanol and several COMs toward the two low-mass protostars NGC 1333-IRAS 2A and -IRAS 4A with the Plateau de Bure interferometer at an angular resolution of 2″, resulting in the first multi-line detection of the O-bearing species glycolaldehyde and ethanol and of the N-bearing species ethyl cyanide toward low-mass protostars other than IRAS 16293. The high number of detected transitions from COMs (more than 40 methanol transitions for instance) allowed us to accurately derive the source size of their emission and the COM column densities. The COM abundances with respect to methanol derived toward IRAS 2A and IRAS 4A are slightly, but not substantitally, lower than those derived from previous single-dish observations. The COM abundance ratios do not vary significantly with the protostellar luminosity, over five orders of magnitude, implying that low-mass hot corinos are quite chemically rich as high-mass hot cores. Astrochemical models still underpredict the abundances of key COMs, such as methyl formate or di-methyl ether, suggesting that our understanding of their formation remains incomplete.

  13. Metal–organic layers stabilize earth-abundant metal–terpyridine diradical complexes for catalytic C–H activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zekai; Thacker, Nathan C.; Sawano, Takahiro; Drake, Tasha; Ji, Pengfei; Lan, Guangxu; Cao, Lingyun; Liu, Shubin; Wang, Cheng; Lin, Wenbin (UNC); (UC); (Xiamen)

    2017-10-30

    Metal–organic layers stabilize FeIIor CoII-terpyridine diradical complexes to catalyze alkylazide Csp3–H amination and benzylic C–H borylation, respectively.

  14. Industrial complex in organizing the high-speed in-line construction of reactor compartments at the Balakovo NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksakov, A.I.; Kovrigin, Yu.K.; Zhila, V.P.

    1986-01-01

    Qualitatively new technology of reactor compartment construction presupposing organizing of an industrial-mounting in-line complex is described. Maximum level of construction industrialization and noticeable reduction of construction duration are noted to be ensured by means of this technology

  15. Determination of crystal structures by x-ray diffraction: applications to a lanthanide complex and a natural organic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, J.M. de.

    1986-01-01

    The study fir determining crystal structures of the Ho (ReO sub(4)) sub(3) 4 TDTD 3 H sub(2) O complex and the natural organic compound C sub(14) H sub(16) O sub(6) by X-ray diffraction are presented. The experimental equipments are described in details. (M.C.K.)

  16. The Relevance of Bustani Judgment of the Administrative Tribunal of the ILO for the consecration of the Principle of Autonomy of International Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine de Souza Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2016v37n73p227 The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of the judgment “Bustani” delivered by the Administrative Tribunal of the International Labour Organization (ILOAT, to consolidate the principle of autonomy, considered as one of the constitutive elements of the legal personality of International Organizations. The first topic presents the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW and explains the case that culminated in the dismissal of the Director-General and led to the postulation of the demand before the ILOAT. The second topic shows the main outlines of the process, including the parties’ arguments, the legal basis and the decision of the Court. Finally, the article analyses the way of affirmation of autonomy as a raison d’être of International Organizations and presents the relevance of Bustani jurisprudence.

  17. Organization and Modernization of Management within the National Fiscal Administration Agency in View of Preventing and Fighting Tax Evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Adrian Ciupitu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Modernization of the fiscal administration was necessary for the growth of consumers' trust in this institution. This trust can be won only when the population, who pays taxes and fees in this country, will remark that an institution as ANAF spends less every year regarding tax collection and cuts tax evasion. Both natural persons and legal entities desire to see transparency regarding income administration, service development and simplification of the means to file fiscal statements. The services offered to tax payers have to be of high quality and professionalism with equal and indiscriminate treatment.

  18. The organized contadi. Administration and territoriality of "rural communities" in four districts of Lombardy (1210-1250 ca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Gabriele Nobili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evolution in the administrations of four Contadi in central and eastern cities of Lombardy (Bergamo, Brescia, Lodi and Mantova. It begins by examining the estate surveys that in the whole area start from the first two decades of the thirteenth century. These surveys will become instruments of knowledge of local territories. In addition it considers the legislation with which the city was seeking to build an active territoriality of the communities in the district. The district is also divided by cities into smaller administrative entities: the rural communities.

  19. Design and Control of Cooperativity in Spin-Crossover in Metal–Organic Complexes: A Theoretical Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrishit Banerjee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Metal organic complexes consisting of transition metal centers linked by organic ligands, may show bistability which enables the system to be observed in two different electronic states depending on external condition. One of the spectacular examples of molecular bistability is the spin-crossover phenomena. Spin-Crossover (SCO describes the phenomena in which the transition metal ion in the complex under the influence of external stimuli may show a crossover between a low-spin and high-spin state. For applications in memory devices, it is desirable to make the SCO phenomena cooperative, which may happen with associated hysteresis effect. In this respect, compounds with extended solid state structures containing metal ions connected by organic spacer linkers like linear polymers, coordination network solids are preferred candidates over isolated molecules or molecular assemblies. The microscopic understanding, design and control of mechanism driving cooperativity, however, are challenging. In this review we discuss the recent theoretical progress in this direction.

  20. Stabilization and activation of alpha-chymotrypsin in water-organic solvent systems by complex formation with oligoamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashova, Elena V; Artemova, Tatiana M; Vinogradov, Alexei A; Gladilin, Alexander K; Mozhaev, Vadim V; Levashov, Andrey V

    2003-04-01

    Formation of enzyme-oligoamine complexes was suggested as an approach to obtain biocatalysts with enhanced resistance towards inactivation in water-organic media. Complex formation results in broadening (by 20-40% v/v ethanol) of the range of cosolvent concentrations where the enzyme retains its catalytic activity (stabilization effect). At moderate cosolvent concentrations (20-40% v/v) complex formation activates the enzyme (by 3-6 times). The magnitude of activation and stabilization effects increases with the number of possible electrostatic contacts between the protein surface and the molecules of oligoamines (OA). Circular dichroism spectra in the far-UV region show that complex formation stabilizes protein conformation and prevents aggregation in water-organic solvent mixtures. Two populations of the complexes with different thermodynamic stabilities were found in alpha-chymotrypsin (CT)-OA systems depending on the CT/OA ratio. The average dissociation constants and stoichiometries of both low- and high-affinity populations of the complexes were estimated. It appears that it is the low-affinity sites on the CT surface that are responsible for the activation effect.

  1. INFORMATION MODELLING OF PROCESS OF ADOPTION OF ADMINISTRATIVE DECISIONS AT THE ORGANIZATION OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE PERSONNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav E. Prokushev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to a problem of theorganization of professional developmentof personnel. The article is consideringtwo interconnected tasks. The fi rst task is: estimation of degree of need of professional development of the specifi c worker. The second task is: choice of the programof professional development. Functionalinformation models of procedures ofadoption of administrative decisions withinthese tasks are developed.

  2. Empowering Staff and Clients: Comparing Preferences for Management Models by the Professional Degrees Held by Organization Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardina, Donna; Montana, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    In this article, findings from a national survey of social service managers are described. Respondents were asked to identify theories and models of management that influenced their administrative activities. The results indicate that many of the respondents used an empowerment-oriented approach to management. Respondents were more likely to…

  3. Synthesis and Identification of the Organic Reagent Ereochrom Black T and its Complex with Cobalt (lll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jassem M. Abd Al Hassein

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ligand 1–(4–Hydroxy –3–Naphthalene Azo–4–Nitro–8–Hydroxy–6–Sulfonic Naphthalene Acid Sodium Salt was synthesized (by the reaction between 3–amino–4– hydroxyl naphthalene and 3 – nitro – 7 – hydroxyl –5– sulfonic naphthalene acid sodium salt and characterized by FTIR technique, its ionization constants (PKs were determined. Synthesis and spectroscopic investigations of its complex with Co (III in aqueous solution revealed the sole formation of (1: 2 (metal: ligand complex. Specral and magnatic studies of the isolated complex indicates octahedral coordination via the N atoms of the azo groups and the O atoms of the hydroxyl groups. The molar conductivity of the complex was determined in an alcoholic solutions indicates that the complex has high molar conductivity. The magnetic properties were determined by using Gouy balance which indicates diamagnetic complex.

  4. Synthesis, crystal growth, structural and physicochemical studies of novel binary organic complex: 4-chloroaniline-3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, K.P.; Reddi, R.S.B.; Bhattacharya, S. [Department of Chemistry, Centre of Advance Study, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India); Rai, R.N., E-mail: rn_rai@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Centre of Advance Study, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India)

    2012-06-15

    The solid-state reaction, which is solvent free and green synthesis, has been adopted to explore the novel compound. The phase diagram of 4-chloroaniline (CA) and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (HMB) system shows the formation of a novel 1:1 molecular complex, and two eutectics on either sides of complex. Thermochemical studies of complex and eutectics have been carried out for various properties such as heat of fusion, entropy of fusion, Jackson's parameters, interfacial energy and excess thermodynamic functions. The formation of molecular complex was also studied by IR, NMR, elemental analysis and UV-Vis absorption spectra. The single crystal of molecular complex was grown and its XRD study confirms the formation of complex and identifies the crystal structure and atomic packing of crystal of complex. Transmission spectra of grown crystal of the complex show 70% transmittance efficiency with cut off wavelength 412 nm. The band gap and refractive index of the crystal of complex have also been studied. - Graphical abstarct: Exploiting phase diagram study and solvent free synthesis a novel compound was synthesized and its single crystal growth, atomic packing, energy band gap and refractive index were studied. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel organic complex was synthesized using Green or solvent free synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase diagram study provided the information to identify the worthy composition of novel complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The single crystal of the sufficient size was grown from the ethanol solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal analysis suggested that the covalent bond is formed between the two parent compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The transmittance of the crystal was found to be 70% and it was transparent from 412 to 850 nm.

  5. Synthesis, crystal growth, structural and physicochemical studies of novel binary organic complex: 4-chloroaniline–3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, K.P.; Reddi, R.S.B.; Bhattacharya, S.; Rai, R.N.

    2012-01-01

    The solid-state reaction, which is solvent free and green synthesis, has been adopted to explore the novel compound. The phase diagram of 4-chloroaniline (CA) and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (HMB) system shows the formation of a novel 1:1 molecular complex, and two eutectics on either sides of complex. Thermochemical studies of complex and eutectics have been carried out for various properties such as heat of fusion, entropy of fusion, Jackson's parameters, interfacial energy and excess thermodynamic functions. The formation of molecular complex was also studied by IR, NMR, elemental analysis and UV–Vis absorption spectra. The single crystal of molecular complex was grown and its XRD study confirms the formation of complex and identifies the crystal structure and atomic packing of crystal of complex. Transmission spectra of grown crystal of the complex show 70% transmittance efficiency with cut off wavelength 412 nm. The band gap and refractive index of the crystal of complex have also been studied. - Graphical abstarct: Exploiting phase diagram study and solvent free synthesis a novel compound was synthesized and its single crystal growth, atomic packing, energy band gap and refractive index were studied. Highlights: ► Novel organic complex was synthesized using Green or solvent free synthesis. ► Phase diagram study provided the information to identify the worthy composition of novel complex. ► The single crystal of the sufficient size was grown from the ethanol solution. ► Crystal analysis suggested that the covalent bond is formed between the two parent compounds. ► The transmittance of the crystal was found to be 70% and it was transparent from 412 to 850 nm.

  6. Electroluminescence and photosensitivity spectra of organic diode structures based on zinc complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplunov, M. G.; Krasnikova, S. S.; Nikitenko, S. L.; Yakushchenko, I. K.

    2017-01-01

    Devices based on zinc complexes with sulphanylaminosubstituted ligands are characterized by dual function - electroluminescence (EL) and photosensitivity. Both EL and photosensitivity are associated with the formation of exciplexes.

  7. Prediction of complexes of uranyl and organic substances by molecular orbital calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaki, S.; Tsushima, S.; Todoriki, M.; Tanaka, S.; Suzuki, A.

    1999-01-01

    Structure of UO 2 2+ complexes with salicylic acid was optimized by using molecular orbital calculation (ab initio method). The bond distances between U and O atoms (O eq ) of carboxyl group and phenyl group in salicylic acid were evaluated and compared with those measured experimentally by Denecke et al. The calculated distance relatively agrees with the experimental one. The frontier electron densities in the complexes were also calculated. Strong localization of frontier electron density in the complexes was not observed, suggesting that the complexes are subject to only weak interactions with rocks, minerals and other compounds in the geosphere. (author)

  8. Self-assembly of Terbium(III)-based metal-organic complexes with two-photon absorbing active

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Shao, Nanqi; Sun, Xianshun; Zhang, Guocui; Li, Shengli; Zhou, Hongping; Wu, Jieying; Tian, Yupeng

    2014-12-01

    Hybrid complexes based on D-π-A type dyes p-aminostyryl-pyridinum and Terbium(III) complex anion (1, 2) have been synthesized by ionic exchange reaction. Meanwhile two different alkyl-substituted amino groups were used as electron donors in organic dyes cations. The synthesized complexes were characterized by element analysis. In addition, the structural features of them were systematic studied by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Their linear properties have been systematically investigated by absorption spectra and fluorescence, the results show that the energy transfer takes place from the trans-4-[4‧-(N,N-diethylamino)styryl]-N-methyl pyridinium (2‧) cation to Tb(III). In addition, complex 2 exhibit a large two-photon absorption coefficient β: 0.044 cm/GW at 710 nm.

  9. Extraterrestrial organic chemistry: from the interstellar medium to the origins of life. Part 2: complex organic chemistry in the environment of planets and satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulin, F; Kobayashi, K

    2001-01-01

    During COSPAR'00 in Warsaw, Poland, in the frame of Sub-Commission F.3 events (Planetary Biology and Origins of Life), part of COSPAR Commission F (Life Sciences as Related to Space), and Commission B events (Space Studies of the Earth-Moon System, Planets, and Small Bodies of the Solar System) a large joint symposium (F.3.4/B0.8) was held on extraterrestrial organic chemistry. Part 2 of this symposium was devoted to complex organic chemistry in the environment of planets and satellites. The aim of this event was to cover and review new data which have been recently obtained and to give new insights on data which are expected in the near future to increase our knowledge of the complex organic chemistry occurring in several planets and satellites of the Solar System, outside the earth, and their implications for exobiology and life in the universe. The event was composed of two main parts. The first part was mainly devoted to the inner planets and Europa and the search for signatures of life or organics in those environments. The second part was related to the study of the outer solar system.

  10. Studies on the distribution of platinum in tumour-bearing rats after the administration of platinum co-ordination complexes used in cancer chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeisler, R.; Lux, F.; Beck, W.

    1979-01-01

    Platinum co-ordination complexes like dichlorodiamineplatinum(II) (DDP) feature broad spectrum antitumour activity which, however, is marred by a certain toxicity related especially to renal tubular damage. The activity of such drugs depends on the chemical structure of the complexes, with changes in the ligands resulting in changes in their antitumour activity and toxicity. Assessments of the biological and toxicological effects of recently synthesized complexes must include distribution studies of platinum in the body. It is demonstrated that instrumental neutron activation analysis can be used for these studies because of its accuracy, precision and the low detection limit for platinum (approximately equal to 2 ng), when a standardized method is used. The time-dependent retention of platinum was determined in blood, liver, kidneys and cells of ascitic Walker 256 carcinosarcoma in tumour-bearing rats and controls after the administration of the cis-Pt(Gly-Gly-0Et) 2 Cl 2 complex. Two series of experiments, one with the therapeutic amount of the drug (80 mg/kg body weight) and one low-dose experiment with 1/100 of this amount, were carried out. The results of both experiments are discussed with regard to changes in the platinum concentration with time (0-48 h) in the different samples. From the data a selective uptake of the drug by the tumour cells, causing their destruction, is deduced. Because this drug has shown excellent antitumour activity, this observed selectivity suggests promise for its application in cancer chemotherapy, although platinum retention is still found in the kidneys, which might cause renal tubular damage. This latter aspect requires further clinical research to evaluate fully its effects. (author)

  11. A Theory of Complex Adaptive Inquiring Organizations: Application to Continuous Assurance of Corporate Financial Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, John R., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing upon the theories of complexity and complex adaptive systems and the Singerian Inquiring System from C. West Churchman's seminal work "The Design of Inquiring Systems" the dissertation herein develops a systems design theory for continuous auditing systems. The dissertation consists of discussion of the two foundational theories,…

  12. Exploring of Wireless Technology to Provide Information Sharing Among Military, United Nations and Civilian Organizations During Complex Humanitarian Emergencies and Peacekeeping Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bridges, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    ...) and peacekeeping operations. Humanitarian emergencies and peacekeeping operations are a complex mix of related activities that require the combined efforts of the UN, military, International Organizations (IOs...

  13. Evaluation of the production, composition and aluminum and iron complexation of algogenic organic matter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivokonský, Martin; Klouček, Ondřej; Pivokonská, Lenka

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 16 (2006), s. 3045-3052 ISSN 0043-1354 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB200600501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : affinity chromatography * algogenic organic matter * aluminum and iron coagulants * extracellular organic matter * molecular weight fractionation * intracellular organic matter Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.459, year: 2006

  14. Comparative morphology of the axial complex and interdependence of internal organ systems in sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Alexander; Faber, Cornelius; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2009-06-09

    The axial complex of echinoderms (Echinodermata) is composed of various primary and secondary body cavities that interact with each other. In sea urchins (Echinoidea), structural differences of the axial complex in "regular" and irregular species have been observed, but the reasons underlying these differences are not fully understood. In addition, a better knowledge of axial complex diversity could not only be useful for phylogenetic inferences, but improve also an understanding of the function of this enigmatic structure. We therefore analyzed numerous species of almost all sea urchin orders by magnetic resonance imaging, dissection, histology, and transmission electron microscopy and compared the results with findings from published studies spanning almost two centuries. These combined analyses demonstrate that the axial complex is present in all sea urchin orders and has remained structurally conserved for a long time, at least in the "regular" species. Within the Irregularia, a considerable morphological variation of the axial complex can be observed with gradual changes in topography, size, and internal architecture. These modifications are related to the growing size of the gastric caecum as well as to the rearrangement of the morphology of the digestive tract as a whole. The structurally most divergent axial complex can be observed in the highly derived Atelostomata in which the reorganization of the digestive tract is most pronounced. Our findings demonstrate a structural interdependence of various internal organs, including digestive tract, mesenteries, and the axial complex.

  15. Interplay between Organic-Organometallic Electrophores within Bis(cyclopentadienyl)Molybdenum Dithiolene Tetrathiafulvalene Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellec, Nathalie; Vacher, Antoine; Barrière, Frédéric; Xu, Zijun; Roisnel, Thierry; Lorcy, Dominique

    2015-05-18

    Tetrathiafulvalenes (TTF) and bis(cyclopentadienyl) molybdenum dithiolene complexes, Cp2Mo(dithiolene) complexes, are known separately to act as good electron donor molecules. For an investigation of the interaction between both electrophores, two types of complexes were synthesized and characterized. The first type has one Cp2Mo fragment coordinated to one TTF dithiolate ligand, and the second type has one TTF bis(dithiolate) bridging two Cp2Mo fragments. Comparisons of the electrochemical properties of these complexes with those of models of each separate electrophore provide evidence for their mutual influence. All of these complexes act as very good electron donors with a first oxidation potential 430 mV lower than the tetrakis(methylthio)TTF. DFT calculations suggest that the HOMO of the neutral complex and the SOMO of the cation are delocalized across the whole TTF dithiolate ligand. The X-ray crystal structure analyses of the neutral and the mono-oxidized Cp2Mo(dithiolene)(bismethylthio)TTF complexes are consistent with the delocalized assignment of the highest occupied frontier molecular orbitals. UV-vis-NIR spectroelectrochemical investigations confirm this electronic delocalization within the TTF dithiolate ligand.

  16. THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE GROWTH OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) ORGANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAC organisms are able to grow, persist, and colonize in water distribution systems and may amplify in hospital hot water systems. This study examined the response of MAC organisms (M. avium, M. intracellulare, and MX) to a range of temperatures commonly associated with drinking...

  17. Gene expression patterns of oxidative phosphorylation complex I subunits are organized in clusters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Garbian

    Full Text Available After the radiation of eukaryotes, the NUO operon, controlling the transcription of the NADH dehydrogenase complex of the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS complex I, was broken down and genes encoding this protein complex were dispersed across the nuclear genome. Seven genes, however, were retained in the genome of the mitochondrion, the ancient symbiote of eukaryotes. This division, in combination with the three-fold increase in subunit number from bacteria (N = approximately 14 to man (N = 45, renders the transcription regulation of OXPHOS complex I a challenge. Recently bioinformatics analysis of the promoter regions of all OXPHOS genes in mammals supported patterns of co-regulation, suggesting that natural selection favored a mechanism facilitating the transcriptional regulatory control of genes encoding subunits of these large protein complexes. Here, using real time PCR of mitochondrial (mtDNA- and nuclear DNA (nDNA-encoded transcripts in a panel of 13 different human tissues, we show that the expression pattern of OXPHOS complex I genes is regulated in several clusters. Firstly, all mtDNA-encoded complex I subunits (N = 7 share a similar expression pattern, distinct from all tested nDNA-encoded subunits (N = 10. Secondly, two sub-clusters of nDNA-encoded transcripts with significantly different expression patterns were observed. Thirdly, the expression patterns of two nDNA-encoded genes, NDUFA4 and NDUFA5, notably diverged from the rest of the nDNA-encoded subunits, suggesting a certain degree of tissue specificity. Finally, the expression pattern of the mtDNA-encoded ND4L gene diverged from the rest of the tested mtDNA-encoded transcripts that are regulated by the same promoter, consistent with post-transcriptional regulation. These findings suggest, for the first time, that the regulation of complex I subunits expression in humans is complex rather than reflecting global co-regulation.

  18. Initial laboratory studies into the chemical and radiological aging of organic materials in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuels, W.D.; Camaioni, D.M.; Babad, H.

    1994-01-01

    The underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex contain wastes generated over many years from plutonium production and recovery processes, and mixed wastes from radiological degradation processes. The chemical changes of the organic materials used in the extraction processes have a direct bearing on several specific safety issues, including potential energy releases from these tanks. The major portion of organic materials that have been added to the tanks consists of tributyl phosphate, dibutyl phosphate, butyl alcohol, hexone (methyl isobutyl ketone), normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPH), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriadetic acid (HEDTA), other complexants, and lesser quantities of ion exchange polymers and minor organic compounds. A study of how thermal and radiological processes that may have changed the composition of organic tanks constituents has been initiated after a review of the open literature revealed little information was available about the rates and products of these processes under basic pH conditions. This paper will detail the initial findings as they relate to gas generation, e.g. H 2 , CO, NH 3 , CH 4 , and to changes in the composition of the organic and inorganic components brought about by ''Aging'' processes

  19. Experimental increase in availability of a PAH complex organic contamination from an aged contaminated soil: Consequences on biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cébron, Aurélie; Faure, Pierre; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Leyval, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    Although high PAH content and detection of PAH-degraders, the PAH biodegradation is limited in aged-contaminated soils due to low PAH availability (i.e., 1%). Here, we tried to experimentally increase the soil PAH availability by keeping both soil properties and contamination composition. Organic extract was first removed and then re-incorporated in the raw soil as fresh contaminants. Though drastic, this procedure only allowed a 6-time increase in the PAH availability suggesting that the organic constituents more than ageing were responsible for low availability. In the re-contaminated soil, the mineralization rate was twice more important, the proportion of 5–6 cycles PAH was higher indicating a preferential degradation of lower molecular weight PAH. The extraction treatment induced bacterial and fungal community structures modifications, Pseudomonas and Fusarium solani species were favoured, and the relative quantity of fungi increased. In re-contaminated soil the percentage of PAH-dioxygenase gene increased, with 10 times more Gram negative representatives. -- Highlights: ► Re-incorporation of soil organic extract increased 6-times the PAH availability. ► Complexity of organic contamination is the main driver of PAH availability. ► Biodegradation of PAH with less than 5-cycles increased with increasing PAH availability. ► Pseudomonas and Fusarium species are favoured when PAH availability increased. -- More than ageing, the complexity of organic contamination is the main driver of PAH availability

  20. Health and research organization to meet complex needs of developing energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1980-01-01

    At the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, a unique safety technology organization has been established that is especially geared to respond to interdisciplinary health and safety questions in response to rapidly growing energy technology problems. This concept can be adopted by smaller organizations at a more modest cost, and still maintains the efficiency, flexibility, and technical rigor that are needed more and more in support of any industry health and safety problem. The separation of the technology development role from the operation safety organization allows the operational safety specialists to spend more time upgrading the occupational health and safety program but yet provides the opportunity for interchange with health and safety technology development specialists. In fact, a personnel assignment flow between an operational health and safety organization and a special technology development organization provides a mechanism for upgrading the overall safety capability and program provided by a given industrial or major laboratory

  1. Heterogeneity and Self-Organization of Complex Systems Through an Application to Financial Market with Multiagent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Iris; Cotsaftis, Michel; Bertelle, Cyrille

    2017-12-01

    Multiagent systems (MAS) provide a useful tool for exploring the complex dynamics and behavior of financial markets and now MAS approach has been widely implemented and documented in the empirical literature. This paper introduces the implementation of an innovative multi-scale mathematical model for a computational agent-based financial market. The paper develops a method to quantify the degree of self-organization which emerges in the system and shows that the capacity of self-organization is maximized when the agent behaviors are heterogeneous. Numerical results are presented and analyzed, showing how the global market behavior emerges from specific individual behavior interactions.

  2. Use of Iron (II Salts and Complexes for the Production of Soil Amendments from Organic Solid Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amerigo Beneduci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to obtain rapidly stabilized composts for crops from solid organic wastes is evaluated. Here we used a laboratory scale reaction chamber where solid waste treatment was performed under strictly controlled temperature and pressure conditions. The row organic waste was mixed with acid solutions containing iron (II ions either in the fully hydrated form or in the form of complexes with the diethylentriaminopentaacetic acid. Data from elemental analysis distribution and GC/MS analysis of the polar and non polar dissolved organic matter, clearly showed that Fe(II ions significantly enhance organic substrate oxidation of the initial solid waste, compared to a material obtained without the addition of the Fe(II ions to the raw organic matrix. These results suggest that Fe(II ions might be involved in a catalytic oxidation pathway that would be activated under the experimental conditions used. The extent of the oxidation process was evaluated by the value of the C/N ratio and, qualitatively, by the molecular composition of the dissolved organic matter. After about 6 hours of incubation, dark-brown and dry organic matrices were obtained with C/N ratio as low as 12 and a high degree of oxidative decomposition into low-molecular-weight compounds at high oxidation state.

  3. Distribution of 131I-labeled recombinant human erythropoietin in maternal and fetal organs following intravenous administration in pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, O.; Lambrecht, F.Y.; Durkan, K.; Gokmen, N.; Erbayraktar, S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the possible transplacental transmission of 131 I labeled recombinant human erythropoietin ( 131 I-rh-EPO) in pregnant rats and its distribution through maternal and fetal organs. Six Wistar Albino Rats in their pregnancy of 18 days were used 131 I labeled recombinant human erythropoietin (specific activity = 2.4 μCi/IU) was injected into the tail vein of rats. After 30 minutes labeled erythropoietin infusion maternal stomach, kidney, lung, liver, brain and heart as well as fetus were removed. Then, the same organs were removed from each fetus. Measuring weight of maternal and fetal organs as well as placenta were followed by radioactivity count via Cd(Te) detector. 131 I labeled recombinant human erythropoietin was found to be able to pass rat placenta and its distribution order in fetal organs was similar to those of maternal organs. Besides, as measurements were performed closer to cornu uteri, uptakes were decreasing in every fetus and its corresponding placenta. (author)

  4. Electroluminescence and photosensitivity spectra of organic diode structures based on zinc complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplunov, M.G.; Krasnikova, S.S.; Nikitenko, S.L.; Yakushchenko, I.K.

    2017-01-01

    Devices based on zinc complexes with sulphanylaminosubstituted ligands are characterized by dual function – electroluminescence (EL) and photosensitivity. Both EL and photosensitivity are associated with the formation of exciplexes.

  5. Food for Thought: Cross-Classification and Category Organization in a Complex Real-World Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Brian H.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    1999-01-01

    Seven studies involving 256 undergraduates examined how people represent, access, and make inferences about the real-world category domain, foods. Results give a detailed picture of the use of cross-classification in a complex domain. (SLD)

  6. Association of prothrombin complex concentrate administration and hematoma enlargement in non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant-related intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Stefan T; Kuramatsu, Joji B; Sembill, Jochen A; Sprügel, Maximilian I; Endres, Matthias; Haeusler, Karl Georg; Vajkoczy, Peter; Ringleb, Peter A; Purrucker, Jan; Rizos, Timolaos; Erbguth, Frank; Schellinger, Peter D; Fink, Gereon R; Stetefeld, Henning; Schneider, Hauke; Neugebauer, Hermann; Röther, Joachim; Claßen, Joseph; Michalski, Dominik; Dörfler, Arnd; Schwab, Stefan; Huttner, Hagen B

    2018-01-01

    To investigate parameters associated with hematoma enlargement in non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC)-related intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This retrospective cohort study includes individual patient data for 190 patients with NOAC-associated ICH over a 5-year period (2011-2015) at 19 departments of neurology across Germany. Primary outcome was the association of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) administration with hematoma enlargement. Subanalyses were calculated for blood pressure management and its association with the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes include associations with in-hospital mortality and functional outcome at 3 months assessed using the modified Rankin Scale. The study population for analysis of primary and secondary outcomes consisted of 146 NOAC-ICH patients with available follow-up imaging. Hematoma enlargement occurred in 49/146 (33.6%) patients with NOAC-related ICH. Parameters associated with hematoma enlargement were blood pressure ≥ 160mmHg within 4 hours and-in the case of factor Xa inhibitor ICH-anti-Xa levels on admission. PCC administration prior to follow-up imaging was not significantly associated with a reduced rate of hematoma enlargement either in overall NOAC-related ICH or in patients with factor Xa inhibitor intake (NOAC: risk ratio [RR] = 1.150, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.632-2.090; factor Xa inhibitor: RR = 1.057, 95% CI = 0.565-1.977), regardless of PCC dosage given or time interval until imaging or treatment. Systolic blood pressure levels < 160mmHg within 4 hours after admission were significantly associated with a reduction in the proportion of patients with hematoma enlargement (RR = 0.598, 95% CI = 0.365-0.978). PCC administration had no effect on mortality and functional outcome either at discharge or at 3 months. In contrast to blood pressure control, PCC administration was not associated with a reduced rate of hematoma enlargement in NOAC-related ICH

  7. Assessing organizational culture in complex sociotechnical systems. Methodological evidence from studies in nuclear power plant maintenance organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, T.

    2007-03-01

    Failures in industrial organizations dealing with hazardous technologies can have widespread consequences for the safety of the workers and the general population. Psychology can have a major role in contributing to the safe and reliable operation of these technologies. Most current models of safety management in complex sociotechnical systems such as nuclear power plant maintenance are either non-contextual or based on an overly-rational image of an organization. Thus, they fail to grasp either the actual requirements of the work or the socially-constructed nature of the work in question. The general aim of the present study is to develop and test a methodology for contextual assessment of organizational culture in complex sociotechnical systems. This is done by demonstrating the findings that the application of the emerging methodology produces in the domain of maintenance of a nuclear power plant (NPP). The concepts of organizational culture and organizational core task (OCT) are operationalized and tested in the case studies

  8. Synthesis in aqueous medium and organic praseodymium complexes with ligands derived from Schiff base quinolinic. Characterization and physicochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia G, A.

    2015-01-01

    It was investigated the coordination ability of the quinolinic Schiff base organic tetradentate quinolinic ligand (Q Schiff-(OH) 2 ) towards the trivalent praseodymium by UV/Vis spectrophotometric titration (St). By St, was studied the formed species between the Q Schiff-(OH) 2 ligand and the praseodymium nitrate salt in equimolar concentrations (5.86 x 10 -4 M: 5.22 x 10 -4 M) in methanol. The statistical analysis of the experimental results suggested three complexed species with 1Pr:3L, 1Pr:2L y 1Pr:1L stoichiometries. The predominant stoichiometries were the second and the latter. Based on these results and data from the scientific literature, the methodology for the syntheses of the complexes Q Schiff-(OH) 2 -Pr in aqueous-organic and organic media was established and a molar ratio M:L= 1:2 of praseodymium nitrate and the ligand was used. The new complexes were characterized by UV/Vis, Infrared, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XP S), Diffuse Reflectance (Dr) and Thermogravimetric Analysis/Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TGA/DSC). Elemental analysis of C, N, O and Pr by XP S suggested 1Pr:2L:1Na (PrC 32 H 20 N 4 O 4 Na) stoichiometry of the complex synthesized by the aqueous-organic medium while for the complex synthesized by the organic medium it was 1Pr:3L (PrC 48 H 33 N 6 O 6 ). In the first case, the praseodymium ion charge was neutralized by the anionic ligands whose remaining charge was compensated by the sodium ion. In the second case, the ion charge was neutralized by the ligands. The minimum formula was Pr(Q Schiff) 2 Na for the pure coordination compound from the aqueous-organic medium and the minimum formula Pr(Q Schiff) 3 for that from the organic medium. XP S also indicated that the oxidation state of praseodymium ion was maintained. Both complexes were stable in methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile at least for 5 days. The photophysical properties of the studied complexes were evaluated by emission and excitation luminescence (fluorescence and

  9. Assessing organizational culture in complex sociotechnical systems. Methodological evidence from studies in nuclear power plant maintenance organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.

    2007-03-15

    Failures in industrial organizations dealing with hazardous technologies can have widespread consequences for the safety of the workers and the general population. Psychology can have a major role in contributing to the safe and reliable operation of these technologies. Most current models of safety management in complex sociotechnical systems such as nuclear power plant maintenance are either non-contextual or based on an overly-rational image of an organization. Thus, they fail to grasp either the actual requirements of the work or the socially-constructed nature of the work in question. The general aim of the present study is to develop and test a methodology for contextual assessment of organizational culture in complex sociotechnical systems. This is done by demonstrating the findings that the application of the emerging methodology produces in the domain of maintenance of a nuclear power plant (NPP). The concepts of organizational culture and organizational core task (OCT) are operationalized and tested in the case studies

  10. Animating Domain-Specific Complex Knowledge : An Analysis of Organic Food Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The pivotal point of this paper is an analysis and a discussion of the animated film “MultiTrust”. The film is a result a research project dealing with the “Multicriteria assessment and communication of effects of organic food systems”. A primary intention of this project was to help consumers make...... informed choices when it comes to purchasing organic foods. The animation presents a novel way of communicating domain-specific knowledge of organic food products to consumers. In order to analyze “MultiTrust”, a model of analysis is presented, which is framed by the research field communication...

  11. Evolution of complex organic molecules in hot molecular cores. Synthetic spectra at (sub-)mm wavebands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, R.; Schilke, P.; Stéphan, G.; Bergin, E.; Möller, T.; Schmiedeke, A.; Zernickel, A.

    2015-03-01

    Context. Hot molecular cores (HMCs) are intermediate stages of high-mass star formation and are also known for their rich chemical reservoirs and emission line spectra at (sub-)mm wavebands. Complex organic molecules (COMs) such as methanol (CH3OH), ethanol (C2H5OH), dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3), and methyl formate (HCOOCH3) produce most of these observed lines. The observed spectral feature of HMCs such as total number of emission lines and associated line intensities are also found to vary with evolutionary stages. Aims: We aim to investigate the spectral evolution of these COMs to explore the initial evolutionary stages of high-mass star formation including HMCs. Methods: We developed various 3D models for HMCs guided by the evolutionary scenarios proposed by recent empirical and modeling studies. We then investigated the spatio-temporal variation of temperature and molecular abundances in HMCs by consistently coupling gas-grain chemical evolution with radiative transfer calculations. We explored the effects of varying physical conditions on molecular abundances including density distribution and luminosity evolution of the central protostar(s) among other parameters. Finally, we simulated the synthetic spectra for these models at different evolutionary timescales to compare with observations. Results: Temperature has a profound effect on the formation of COMs through the depletion and diffusion on grain surface to desorption and further gas-phase processing. The time-dependent temperature structure of the hot core models provides a realistic framework for investigating the spatial variation of ice mantle evaporation as a function of evolutionary timescales. We find that a slightly higher value (15 K) than the canonical dark cloud temperature (10 K) provides a more productive environment for COM formation on grain surface. With increasing protostellar luminosity, the water ice evaporation font (~100 K) expands and the spatial distribution of gas phase abundances of

  12. Empowering staff and clients: comparing preferences for management models by the professional degrees held by organization administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardina, Donna; Montana, Salvador

    2011-07-01

    In this article, findings from a national survey of social service managers are described. Respondents were asked to identify theories and models of management that influenced their administrative activities. The results indicate that many of the respondents used an empowerment-oriented approach to management. Respondents were more likely to engage in management activities that focused on empowering staffthan in activities intended to increase client involvement in the political process or organizational decision making. However, when the responses of participants with MSW degrees were compared with those of non-social workers, findings indicate that social workers are more likely to engage in workplace activities that facilitate the political empowerment of clients.

  13. The CO-H2 van der Waals complex and complex organic molecules in cold molecular clouds: A TMC-1C survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, A.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Schilke, P.; Graf, U. U.; Möller, Th.; Schlemmer, S.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Almost 200 different species have been detected in the interstellar medium (ISM) during the last decades, revealing not only simple species but complex molecules with more than six atoms. Other exotic compounds, like the weakly-bound dimer (H2)2, have also been detected in astronomical sources like Jupiter. Aims: We aim to detect, for the first time, the CO-H2 van der Waals complex in the ISM, which could be a sensitive indicator for low temperatures if detected. Methods: We used the IRAM 30 m telescope, located in Pico Veleta (Spain), to search for the CO-H2 complex in a cold, dense core in TMC-1C (with a temperature of ~10 K). All the brightest CO-H2 transitions in the 3 mm (80-110 GHz) band were observed with a spectral resolution of 0.5-0.7 km s-1, reaching a rms noise level of ~2 mK. The simultaneous observation of a broad frequency band, 16 GHz, allowed us to conduct a serendipitous spectral line survey. Results: We did not detected any lines belonging to the CO-H2 complex. We set up a new, more stringent upper limit for its abundance to be [CO-H2]/[CO] ~ 5 × 10-6, while we expect the abundance of the complex to be in the range ~10-8-10-3. The spectral line survey has allowed us to detect 75 lines associated with 41 different species (including isotopologues). We detect a number of complex organic species, for example methyl cyanide (CH3CN), methanol (CH3OH), propyne (CH3CCH), and ketene (CH2CO), associated with cold gas (excitation temperatures ~7 K), confirming the presence of these complex species not only in warm objects but also in cold regimes. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).Reduced spectra (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/594/A117

  14. Tetra- and hexavalent uranium forms bidentate-mononuclear complexes with particulate organic matter in a naturally uranium-enriched peatland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikutta, Christian; Langner, Peggy; Bargar, John R.; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Peatlands frequently serve as efficient biogeochemical traps for U. Mechanisms of U immobilization in these organic matter-dominated environments may encompass the precipitation of U-bearing mineral(oid)s and the complexation of U by a vast range of (in)organic surfaces. The objective of this work was to investigate the spatial distribution and molecular binding mechanisms of U in soils of an alpine minerotrophic peatland (pH 4.7–6.6, E_h = –127 to 463 mV) using microfocused X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and bulk and microfocused U L_3-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The soils contained 2.3–47.4 wt % organic C, 4.1–58.6 g/kg Fe, and up to 335 mg/kg geogenic U. Uranium was found to be heterogeneously distributed at the micrometer scale and enriched as both U(IV) and U(VI) on fibrous and woody plant debris (48 ± 10% U(IV), x̄ ± σ, n = 22). Bulk U X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy revealed that in all samples U(IV) comprised 35–68% of total U (x̄ = 50%, n = 15). Shell-fit analyses of bulk U L_3-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra showed that U was coordinated to 1.3 ± 0.2 C atoms at a distance of 2.91 ± 0.01 Å (x̄ ± σ), which implies the formation of bidentate-mononuclear U(IV/VI) complexes with carboxyl groups. We neither found evidence for U shells at ~3.9 Å, indicative of mineral-associated U or multinuclear U(IV) species, nor for a substantial P/Fe coordination of U. As a result, our data indicates that U(IV/VI) complexation by natural organic matter prevents the precipitation of U minerals as well as U complexation by Fe/Mn phases at our field site, and suggests that organically complexed U(IV) is formed via reduction of organic matter-bound U(VI).

  15. Tetra- and Hexavalent Uranium Forms Bidentate-Mononuclear Complexes with Particulate Organic Matter in a Naturally Uranium-Enriched Peatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikutta, Christian; Langner, Peggy; Bargar, John R; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2016-10-04

    Peatlands frequently serve as efficient biogeochemical traps for U. Mechanisms of U immobilization in these organic matter-dominated environments may encompass the precipitation of U-bearing mineral(oid)s and the complexation of U by a vast range of (in)organic surfaces. The objective of this work was to investigate the spatial distribution and molecular binding mechanisms of U in soils of an alpine minerotrophic peatland (pH 4.7-6.6, E h = -127 to 463 mV) using microfocused X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and bulk and microfocused U L 3 -edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The soils contained 2.3-47.4 wt % organic C, 4.1-58.6 g/kg Fe, and up to 335 mg/kg geogenic U. Uranium was found to be heterogeneously distributed at the micrometer scale and enriched as both U(IV) and U(VI) on fibrous and woody plant debris (48 ± 10% U(IV), x̅ ± σ, n = 22). Bulk U X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy revealed that in all samples U(IV) comprised 35-68% of total U (x̅ = 50%, n = 15). Shell-fit analyses of bulk U L 3 -edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra showed that U was coordinated to 1.3 ± 0.2 C atoms at a distance of 2.91 ± 0.01 Å (x̅ ± σ), which implies the formation of bidentate-mononuclear U(IV/VI) complexes with carboxyl groups. We neither found evidence for U shells at ∼3.9 Å, indicative of mineral-associated U or multinuclear U(IV) species, nor for a substantial P/Fe coordination of U. Our data indicates that U(IV/VI) complexation by natural organic matter prevents the precipitation of U minerals as well as U complexation by Fe/Mn phases at our field site, and suggests that organically complexed U(IV) is formed via reduction of organic matter-bound U(VI).

  16. The ring structure and organization of light harvesting 2 complexes in a reconstituted lipid bilayer, resolved by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamouli, Amalia; Kafi, Sidig; Klein, Dionne C G; Oosterkamp, Tjerk H; Frenken, Joost W M; Cogdell, Richard J; Aartsma, Thijs J

    2003-04-01

    The main function of the transmembrane light-harvesting complexes in photosynthetic organisms is the absorption of a light quantum and its subsequent rapid transfer to a reaction center where a charge separation occurs. A combination of freeze-thaw and dialysis methods were used to reconstitute the detergent-solubilized Light Harvesting 2 complex (LH2) of the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila strain 10050 into preformed egg phosphatidylcholine liposomes, without the need for extra chemical agents. The LH2-containing liposomes opened up to a flat bilayer, which were imaged with tapping and contact mode atomic force microscopy under ambient and physiological conditions, respectively. The LH2 complexes were packed in quasicrystalline domains. The endoplasmic and periplasmic sides of the LH2 complexes could be distinguished by the difference in height of the protrusions from the lipid bilayer. The results indicate that the complexes entered in intact liposomes. In addition, it was observed that the most hydrophilic side, the periplasmic, enters first in the membrane. In contact mode the molecular structure of the periplasmic side of the transmembrane pigment-protein complex was observed. Using Föster's theory for describing the distance dependent energy transfer, we estimate the dipole strength for energy transfer between two neighboring LH2s, based on the architecture of the imaged unit cell.

  17. Organometallic tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum complexes as buffer layers and dopants in inverted organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolkki, Antti; Kaunisto, Kimmo; Heiskanen, Juha P.; Omar, Walaa A.E.; Huttunen, Kirsi; Lehtimäki, Suvi; Hormi, Osmo E.O.; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq 3 ) is a frequently used material for organic light emitting diodes. The electronic properties and solubility can be tuned by chemical tailoring of the quinoline part, which makes it an interesting candidate for organic solar cells. Steady-state absorption and fluorescence, as well as time-resolved fluorescence properties of the parent Alq 3 and a series of complexes consisting of derivatives, such as 4-substituted pyrazol, methylpyrazol, arylvinyl, and pyridinoanthrene moieties, of the quinoline ligand, were studied in solutions and in thin films. Suitability of the complexes as anodic buffer layers or dopants in inverted organic solar cells based on the well known bulk heterojunction of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) was tested. The devices equipped with the derivatives showed higher power conversion efficiency (η) compared to the photocells containing the parent Alq 3 . Open circuit voltage (V oc ) was increased when the derivatives were utilized as the anodic buffer layer. Doping of the P3HT:PCBM with a small amount of Alq 3 or its derivative improved short circuit current density, V oc , fill factor, and η, while the series resistance decreased. In addition, the devices were stable in air over several weeks without encapsulation. Possible mechanisms leading to the improvements in the photovoltaic performance by using the parent Alq 3 or its derivative as buffer layer or dopant are discussed. - Highlights: ► Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq 3 ) complexes in inverted organic solar cells. ► The Alq 3 complexes were used as an anodic buffer layer and as a dopant. ► Efficiency increased and the derivatives revealed varying open circuit voltage. ► Photovoltaic performance was stable after storage in a dark ambient atmosphere.

  18. Organometallic tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum complexes as buffer layers and dopants in inverted organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolkki, Antti, E-mail: antti.tolkki@tut.fi [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101, Tampere (Finland); Kaunisto, Kimmo [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101, Tampere (Finland); Heiskanen, Juha P. [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101, Tampere (Finland); Department of Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014, Oulu (Finland); Omar, Walaa A.E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014, Oulu (Finland); Chemistry Branch, Department of Science and Mathematics, Suez Canal University, Suez 43721 (Egypt); Huttunen, Kirsi; Lehtimaeki, Suvi [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101, Tampere (Finland); Hormi, Osmo E.O. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014, Oulu (Finland); Lemmetyinen, Helge [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101, Tampere (Finland)

    2012-04-30

    Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq{sub 3}) is a frequently used material for organic light emitting diodes. The electronic properties and solubility can be tuned by chemical tailoring of the quinoline part, which makes it an interesting candidate for organic solar cells. Steady-state absorption and fluorescence, as well as time-resolved fluorescence properties of the parent Alq{sub 3} and a series of complexes consisting of derivatives, such as 4-substituted pyrazol, methylpyrazol, arylvinyl, and pyridinoanthrene moieties, of the quinoline ligand, were studied in solutions and in thin films. Suitability of the complexes as anodic buffer layers or dopants in inverted organic solar cells based on the well known bulk heterojunction of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) was tested. The devices equipped with the derivatives showed higher power conversion efficiency ({eta}) compared to the photocells containing the parent Alq{sub 3}. Open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) was increased when the derivatives were utilized as the anodic buffer layer. Doping of the P3HT:PCBM with a small amount of Alq{sub 3} or its derivative improved short circuit current density, V{sub oc}, fill factor, and {eta}, while the series resistance decreased. In addition, the devices were stable in air over several weeks without encapsulation. Possible mechanisms leading to the improvements in the photovoltaic performance by using the parent Alq{sub 3} or its derivative as buffer layer or dopant are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq{sub 3}) complexes in inverted organic solar cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Alq{sub 3} complexes were used as an anodic buffer layer and as a dopant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficiency increased and the derivatives revealed varying open circuit voltage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photovoltaic performance was stable after storage in a dark ambient

  19. Metal–Organic Frameworks Stabilize Mono(phosphine)–Metal Complexes for Broad-Scope Catalytic Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawano, Takahiro; Lin, Zekai; Boures, Dean; An, Bing; Wang, Cheng; Lin, Wenbin (UC); (Xiamen)

    2016-08-10

    Mono(phosphine)–M (M–PR3; M = Rh and Ir) complexes selectively prepared by postsynthetic metalation of a porous triarylphosphine-based metal–organic framework (MOF) exhibited excellent activity in the hydrosilylation of ketones and alkenes, the hydrogenation of alkenes, and the C–H borylation of arenes. The recyclable and reusable MOF catalysts significantly outperformed their homogeneous counterparts, presumably via stabilizing M–PR3 intermediates by preventing deleterious disproportionation reactions/ligand exchanges in the catalytic cycles.

  20. From Solute, Fluidic and Particulate Precursors to Complex Organizations of Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Ashit; Cölfen, Helmut

    2018-03-24

    The organization of matter from its constitutive units recruits intermediate states with distinctive degrees of self-association and molecular order. Existing as clusters, droplets, gels as well as amorphous and crystalline nanoparticles, these precursor forms have fundamental contributions towards the composition and structure of inorganic and organic architectures. In this personal account, we show that the transitions from atoms, molecules or ionic species to superstructures of higher order are intertwined with the interfaces and interactions of precursor and intermediate states. Structural organizations distributed across different length scales are explained by the multistep nature of nucleation and crystallization, which can be guided towards functional hybrid materials by the strategic application of additives, templates and reaction environments. Thus, the non-classical pathways for material formation and growth offer conceptual frameworks for elucidating, inducing and directing fascinating material organizations of biogenic and synthetic origins. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Quantum mechanical calculation of aqueuous uranium complexes: carbonate, phosphate, organic and biomolecular species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha Prashant

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantum mechanical calculations were performed on a variety of uranium species representing U(VI, U(V, U(IV, U-carbonates, U-phosphates, U-oxalates, U-catecholates, U-phosphodiesters, U-phosphorylated N-acetyl-glucosamine (NAG, and U-2-Keto-3-doxyoctanoate (KDO with explicit solvation by H2O molecules. These models represent major U species in natural waters and complexes on bacterial surfaces. The model results are compared to observed EXAFS, IR, Raman and NMR spectra. Results Agreement between experiment and theory is acceptable in most cases, and the reasons for discrepancies are discussed. Calculated Gibbs free energies are used to constrain which configurations are most likely to be stable under circumneutral pH conditions. Reduction of U(VI to U(IV is examined for the U-carbonate and U-catechol complexes. Conclusion Results on the potential energy differences between U(V- and U(IV-carbonate complexes suggest that the cause of slower disproportionation in this system is electrostatic repulsion between UO2 [CO3]35- ions that must approach one another to form U(VI and U(IV rather than a change in thermodynamic stability. Calculations on U-catechol species are consistent with the observation that UO22+ can oxidize catechol and form quinone-like species. In addition, outer-sphere complexation is predicted to be the most stable for U-catechol interactions based on calculated energies and comparison to 13C NMR spectra. Outer-sphere complexes (i.e., ion pairs bridged by water molecules are predicted to be comparable in Gibbs free energy to inner-sphere complexes for a model carboxylic acid. Complexation of uranyl to phosphorus-containing groups in extracellular polymeric substances is predicted to favor phosphonate groups, such as that found in phosphorylated NAG, rather than phosphodiesters, such as those in nucleic acids.

  2. Preparation for Social Service Leadership: Field Work and Virtual Organizations that Promote Critical Thinking in Administration Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Gray, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how to prepare professional social workers for real-world nonprofit leadership roles. A pilot course assignment that incorporates a quasi-organization fieldwork simulation developed by the author is described. Development and application of critical thinking skills are reviewed, the course objective is explained, and methods…

  3. Guidelines and workbook for of organization and administration of utilities seeking operating license for a nuclear power plant. Workbook for assessment of organization and management. Volume, 2, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurber, J.A.; Olson, J.; Osborn, R.N.; Sommers, P.; Widrig, R.D.

    1986-09-01

    This report is a partial response to the requirements of Item I.B.1.1 of the ''NRC Action Plan Developed as a Result of the TMI-2 Accident,'' NUREG-0660, and is designed to serve as a basis for replacing the earlier NUREG-0731, ''Guidelines for Utility Management Structure and Technical Resources.'' The Guidelines are intended to provide guidance to the user in preparing a written plan for a proposed nuclear organization and administration. The purpose of the Workbook is to guide the NRC reviewer through a systematic review and assessment of a proposed organization and administration. It is the NRC's intention to incorporate these Guidelines and Workbook into a future revision of the Standard Review Plan (SRP), NUREG-0800. However, at this time the report is being published so that the material may be used on a voluntary basis by industry to systematically prepare or evaluate their organization or administration plans. Use of the report by the NRC would not occur until after it has been incorporated in the SRP

  4. Electrospray droplet exposure to organic vapors: metal ion removal from proteins and protein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuth, J Corinne; McLuckey, Scott A

    2015-01-20

    The exposure of aqueous nanoelectrospray droplets to various organic vapors can dramatically reduce sodium adduction on protein ions in positive ion mass spectra. Volatile alcohols, such as methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol lead to a significant reduction in sodium ion adduction but are not as effective as acetonitrile, acetone, and ethyl acetate. Organic vapor exposure in the negative ion mode, on the other hand, has essentially no effect on alkali ion adduction. Evidence is presented to suggest that the mechanism by which organic vapor exposure reduces alkali ion adduction in the positive mode involves the depletion of alkali metal ions via ion evaporation of metal ions solvated with organic molecules. The early generation of metal/organic cluster ions during the droplet desolvation process results in fewer metal ions available to condense on the protein ions formed via the charged residue mechanism. These effects are demonstrated with holomyoglobin ions to illustrate that the metal ion reduction takes place without detectable protein denaturation, which might be revealed by heme loss or an increase in charge state distribution. No evidence is observed for denaturation with exposure to any of the organic vapors evaluated in this work.

  5. Electronic structure and charge transfer excited states of endohedral fullerene containing electron donoracceptor complexes utilized in organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerikheirabadi, Fatemeh

    Organic Donor-Acceptor complexes form the main component of the organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs). The open circuit voltage of OPVs is directly related to the charge transfer excited state energies of these complexes. Currently a large number of different molecular complexes are being tested for their efficiency in photovoltaic devices. In this work, density functional theory as implemented in the NRLMOL code is used to investigate the electronic structure and related properties of these donor-acceptor complexes. The charge transfer excitation energies are calculated using the perturbative delta self-consistent field method recently developed in our group as the standard time dependent density functional approaches fail to accurately provide them. The model photovoltaics systems analyzed are as follows: Sc3N C 80--ZnTPP, Y3 N C80-- ZnTPP and Sc3 N C80-- ZnPc. In addition, a thorough analysis of the isolated donor and acceptor molecules is also provided. The studied acceptors are chosen from a class of fullerenes named trimetallic nitride endohedral fullerenes. These molecules have shown to possess advantages as acceptors such as long lifetimes of the charge-separated states.

  6. Thermometric sensing of peroxide in organic media. Application to monitor the stability of RBP-retinol-HRP complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, K; Jönsson, B R; Danielsson, B

    2000-08-01

    The stability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in aqueous and organic solvents is applied to develop a simple thermometric procedure to detect the binding of retinoic acid-HRP conjugate to retinol binding protein (RBP). Butanone peroxide (BP) in organic phase and hydrogen peroxide in aqueous phase is detected thermometrically on a HRP column, immobilized by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde on controlled pore glass (CPG). Acetone, acetonitrile, methanol, and 2-butanol are used for detection of BP, in the flow injection analysis (FIA) mode. A linear range between 1 and 50 mM BP is obtained in all the organic solvents with a precision of 5-7% (CV%). The magnitude and nature of the thermometric response is significantly different in each organic solvent. The stability of HRP in the organic phase is used to study the stability of a retinoic acid-HRP conjugate bound to immobilized RBP. The response of HRP (to 20 mM BP) in the retinoic acid-HRP conjugate is used as an indicator of the stability of the RBP-retinoic acid-HRP complex, after challenges with various organic/aqueous solvents. Both immobilized HRP and RBP are stable at least for 6 months. The effect of o-phenylene diamine on the thermometric response of HRP is also investigated. A scheme for the design of a thermometric retinol (vitamin A) biosensor is proposed.

  7. Ruling of the Administrative Court of the Council of State of the Netherlands concerning the Appeal Lodged by Certain Environmental Protection Organizations (7th August 1981)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    In June 1981, a Joint Dutch-Belgian-Swiss radioactive waste disposal operation into the Atlantic was scheduled to take place under the NEA Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste. The operation was suspended because, on the basis of the 1979 Environmental Protection (General Provisions) Act of the Netherlands, certain environmental protection organizations lodged an appeal against the licence for this operation before the Netherlands Administrative Court of the Council of State, which decided to suspend the operation before deciding on the merits of the case. On 7 August 1981, the Court dismissed the appeal in this Ruling. (NEA) [fr

  8. Organization of knowledge and the complex identity of history of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Goldfarb, Ana M; Waisse, Silvia; Ferraz, Márcia H M

    2013-09-01

    History of science as a formal and autonomous field of research crosses over disciplinary boundaries. For this reason, both its production and its working materials are difficult to classify and catalog according to discipline-based systems of organization of knowledge. Three main problems might be pointed out in this regard: the disciplines themselves are subject to a historical process of transformation; some objects of scientific inquiry resist constraint within rigid disciplinary grids but, rather, extend across several disciplinary boundaries; and the so-called digital revolution has replaced spatial with temporal display sequences and shifted the traditional emphasis on knowledge to user-oriented approaches. The first part of this essay is devoted to a conceptual analysis of the various approaches to the organization of knowledge formulated over time, whereas the second considers the new possibilities afforded by a faceted model of knowledge organization compatible with user-oriented relational databases to the research materials and production of history of science.

  9. Information and self-organization a macroscopic approach to complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Haken, Hermann

    1988-01-01

    Complex systems are ubiquitous, and practically all branches of science ranging from physics through chemistry and biology to economics and sociology have to deal with them. In this book we wish to present concepts and methods for dealing with complex systems from a unifying point of view. Therefore it may be of inter­ est to graduate students, professors and research workers who are concerned with theoretical work in the above-mentioned fields. The basic idea for our unified ap­ proach sterns from that of synergetics. In order to find unifying principles we shall focus our attention on those situations where a complex system changes its macroscopic behavior qualitatively, or in other words, where it changes its macroscopic spatial, temporal or functional structure. Until now, the theory of synergetics has usually begun with a microscopic or mesoscopic description of a complex system. In this book we present an approach which starts out from macroscopic data. In particular we shall treat systems that acquir...

  10. Erosion and sedimentation effects on soil : organic carbon redistribution in a complex landscape of western Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corre, M.D.; Schoorl, J.M.; Koning, de F.; López-Ulloa, M.; Veldkamp, E.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate how land-use changes affect the distribution of SOC within a complex tropical landscape through the processes of erosion and sedimentation. The objectives were: (i) to estimate the present SOC storage at a landscape scale using predictors such as slope,

  11. Detection of quantification of Mycobacterium avium complex organisms in drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) includes the species M. avium (MA), M. intracellulare (MI), and others. MAC are listed on the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Contaminant Candidate List 2 (CCL2) due to their association with human disease and occurrence in public dr...

  12. REAL-TIME QUANTITATIVE PCR DETECTION OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX ORGANISMS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) includes the species M. avium (MA), M. intracellulare (MI), and others. MAC are listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) due to their association with human disease and occurrence in public drinkin...

  13. Structural organization of the needle complex of the type III secretion apparatus of Shigella flexneri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sani, Musa; Allaoui, Abdelmounaaïm; Fusetti, Fabrizia; Oostergetel, Gert T.; Keegstra, Wilko; Boekema, Egbert J.

    2007-01-01

    The secretion apparatus known as the needle complex (NC) from the bacterium Shigella flexneri was studied by single particle electron microscopy. The isolated intact NC appears in projection to be composed of a basal body consisting of seven rings and a protruding needle appendage. A comparison of

  14. Self-organized complex space charge configurations at the origin of flicker noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, S.; Lozneanu, E.; Sanduloviciu, M.

    2003-01-01

    Based on experimental results obtained from a plasma diode we explain the fluctuations of the voltage supported by a non-linear gaseous conductor by the dynamical behavior of spatiotemporal patterns, in the form of moving double layers, formed after self-organization. Such phenomena appear when the system is subjected to an external constraint that creates and maintains a local gradient of electron kinetic energy. The described phenomenology suggests a plausible explanation for the appearance of flicker noise also in other physical systems, as for example semiconductors and, implicitly, offers a new model for the so-called self-organized criticality concept

  15. The Agile Organization: From Informal Networks to Complex Effects and Agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    his essay: “The Lion and the Unicorn : Socialism and the English Genius.” 1941. I 58 The Agile Organization every level of society and every sector as...further to include Force Development, Finance and Budgets, and in the 21st century, Experimentation. Each organization was pre-fixed with a letter, so...IS); J3 renamed Ops; J4 renamed Logistics; J5 renamed Plans, leaving only the rumps of J1 (Manpower) and J7 (Force Development) and Finance /Budgets

  16. Development of electronic document management system for scientific and technical design administration automation (evidence from European Organization for Nuclear Research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titov, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    The new principles and methods of electronic document management system construction are developed. The software package for electronic document handling is made, it provides automation of work flow management and permits to trace and correct on-line the flow of documents. The formal models of electronic documents describing complex hierarchic structures of data with the use of XML-trees are considered. On the base of investigations conducted the CERN electronic document management system has been upgraded, it allowed to shorten more than twofold the time for automation of new business processes [ru

  17. Band-selective excited ultrahigh resolution PSYCHE-TOCSY: fast screening of organic molecules and complex mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakita, Veera Mohana Rao; Vemulapalli, Sahithya Phani Babu; Bharatam, Jagadeesh

    2016-04-01

    Precise assignments of (1) H atomic sites and establishment of their through-bond COSY or TOCSY connectivity are crucial for molecular structural characterization by using (1) H NMR spectroscopy. However, this exercise is often hampered by signal overlap, primarily because of (1) H-(1) H scalar coupling multiplets, even at typical high magnetic fields. The recent developments in homodecoupling strategies for effectively suppressing the coupling multiplets into nice singlets (pure-shift), particularly, Morris's advanced broadband pure-shift yielded by chirp excitation (PSYCHE) decoupling and ultrahigh resolution PSYCHE-TOCSY schemes, have shown new possibilities for unambiguous structural elucidation of complex organic molecules. The superior broadband PSYCHE-TOCSY exhibits enhanced performance over the earlier TOCSY methods, which however warrants prolonged experimental times due to the requirement of large number of dwell increments along the indirect dimension. Herein, we present fast and band-selective analog of the broadband PSYCHE-TOCSY, which is useful for analyzing complex organic molecules that exhibit characteristic yet crowded spectral regions. The simple pulse scheme relies on band-selective excitation (BSE) followed by PSYCHE homodecoupling in the indirect dimension. The BSE-PSYCHE-TOCSY has been exemplified for Estradiol and a complex carbohydrate mixture comprised of six constituents of closely comparable molecular weights. The experimental times are greatly reduced viz., ~20 fold for Estradiol and ~10 fold for carbohydrate mixture, with respect to the broadband PSYCHE-TOCSY. Furthermore, unlike the earlier homonuclear band-selective decoupling, the BSE-PSYCHE-decoupling provides fully decoupled pure-shift spectra for all the individual chemical sites within the excited band. The BSE-PSYCHE-TOCSY is expected to have significant potential for quick screening of complex organic molecules and mixtures at ultrahigh resolution. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley

  18. Selective removal of phosphate for analysis of organic acids in complex samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Sandeep; Frolov, Andrej; Marcillo, Andrea; Birkemeyer, Claudia

    2015-04-03

    Accurate quantitation of compounds in samples of biological origin is often hampered by matrix interferences one of which occurs in GC-MS analysis from the presence of highly abundant phosphate. Consequently, high concentrations of phosphate need to be removed before sample analysis. Within this context, we screened 17 anion exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) materials for selective phosphate removal using different protocols to meet the challenge of simultaneous recovery of six common organic acids in aqueous samples prior to derivatization for GC-MS analysis. Up to 75% recovery was achieved for the most organic acids, only the low pKa tartaric and citric acids were badly recovered. Compared to the traditional approach of phosphate removal by precipitation, SPE had a broader compatibility with common detection methods and performed more selectively among the organic acids under investigation. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that phosphate removal strategies during the analysis of biologically relevant small molecular weight organic acids consider the respective pKa of the anticipated analytes and the detection method of choice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of organic solar cells using metal complex of phthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kida, Tomoyasu, E-mail: suzuki@mat.usp.ac.jp; Suzuki, Atsushi, E-mail: suzuki@mat.usp.ac.jp; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: suzuki@mat.usp.ac.jp; Oku, Takeo, E-mail: suzuki@mat.usp.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science, The University of Shiga Prefecture 2500 Hassaka, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533 (Japan)

    2015-02-27

    Fabrication and characterization of organic solar cells using shuttle-cock-type phthalocyanines were carried out. Photovoltaic properties of the solar cells with inverted structures were investigated by current density-voltage characteristics. Effects of phase transition between H and J aggregates on the photovoltaic and optical properties were investigated. The photovoltaic mechanisms, energy levels and band gap of active layers were discussed.

  20. The Referential Function of Internal Communication Groups in Complex Organizations: An Empirical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James A.; Farace, Richard V.

    This paper argues that people who interact regularly and repetitively among themselves create a conjoint information space wherein common values, attitudes, and beliefs arise through the process of information transmission among the members in the space. Three major hypotheses concerning informal communication groups in organizations were tested…

  1. Self-organization and natural selection in the evolution of complex despotic societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemelrijk, C.K.

    2002-01-01

    Differences between related species are usually explained as separate adaptations produced by individual selection. I discuss in this paper how related species, which differ in many respects, may evolve by a combination of individual selection, self-organization, and group-selection, requiring an

  2. Ligand effect on the performance of organic light-emitting diodes based on europium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Junfeng; You Han; Gao Jia; Lu Wu; Ma Dongge

    2007-01-01

    A series of europium complexes were synthesized and their electroluminescent (EL) characteristics were studied. It was found by comparison that the different substituted groups, such as methyl, chlorine, and nitryl, on ligand 1,10-phenanthroline affect significantly the EL performance of devices based on these complexes. The more methyl-substituted groups on ligand 1,10-phenanthroline led to higher device efficiency. A chlorine-substituted group showed the approximate EL performance as two methyl-substituted groups, whereas a nitryl substituent reduced significantly the EL luminous efficiency. However, β-diketonate ligand TTA and DBM exhibited similar EL performance. The improved EL luminous efficiency by proper substituted groups on the 1,10-phenanthroline was attributed to the reduction of the energy loss caused by light hydrogen atom vibration, as well as concentration quenching caused by intermolecular interaction, and the match of energy level between the ligand and Eu 3+

  3. The New World Health Organization Recommendations on Perioperative Administration of Oxygen to Prevent Surgical Site Infections: A Dangerous Reductionist Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Manuel; Van Aken, Hugo; Zarbock, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    In October 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) published recommendations for preventing surgical site infections (SSIs). Among those measures is a recommendation to administer oxygen at an inspired fraction of 80% intra- and postoperatively for up to 6 hours. SSIs have been identified as a global health problem, and the WHO should be commended for their efforts. However, this recommendation focuses only on the patient's "wound," ignores other organ systems potentially affected by hyperoxia, and may ultimately worsen patient outcomes.The WHO advances a "strong recommendation" for the use of a high inspired oxygen fraction even though the quality of evidence is only moderate. However, achieving this goal by disregarding other potentially lethal complications seems inappropriate, particularly in light of the weak evidence underpinning the use of high fractions of oxygen to prevent SSI. Use of such a strategy thus should be intensely discussed by anesthesiologists and perioperative physicians.Normovolemia, normotension, normoglycemia, normothermia, and normoventilation can clearly be safely applied to most patients in most clinical scenarios. But the liberal application of hyperoxemia intraoperatively and up to 6 hours postoperatively, as suggested by the WHO, is questionable from the viewpoint of anesthesia and perioperative medicine, and its effects will be discussed in this article.

  4. CKD screening and management in the Veterans Health Administration: the impact of system organization and an innovative electronic record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Thakor G; Pogach, Leonard M; Barth, Robert H

    2009-03-01

    At the beginning of this decade, Healthy People 2010 issued a series of objectives to "reduce the incidence, morbidity, mortality and health care costs of chronic kidney disease." A necessary feature of any program to reduce the burden of kidney disease in the US population must include mechanisms to screen populations at risk and institute early the aspects of management, such as control of blood pressure, management of diabetes, and, in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), preparation for dialysis therapy and proper vascular access management, that can retard CKD progression and improve long-term outcome. The Department of Veterans Affairs and the Veterans Health Administration is a broad-based national health care system that is almost uniquely situated to address these issues and has developed a number of effective approaches using evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, performance measures, innovative use of a robust electronic medical record system, and system oversight during the past decade. In this report, we describe the application of this systems approach to the prevention of CKD in veterans through the treatment of risk factors, identification of CKD in veterans, and oversight of predialysis and dialysis care. The lessons learned and applicability to the private sector are discussed.

  5. Amblypygids: Model Organisms for the Study of Arthropod Navigation Mechanisms in Complex Environments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D Wiegmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Navigation is an ideal behavioral model for the study of sensory system integration and the neural substrates associated with complex behavior. For this broader purpose, however, it may be profitable to develop new model systems that are both tractable and sufficiently complex to ensure that information derived from a single sensory modality and path integration are inadequate to locate a goal. Here, we discuss some recent discoveries related to navigation by amblypygids, nocturnal arachnids that inhabit the tropics and sub-tropics. Nocturnal displacement experiments under the cover of a tropical rainforest reveal that these animals possess navigational abilities that are reminiscent, albeit on a smaller spatial scale, of true-navigating vertebrates. Specialized legs, called antenniform legs, which possess hundreds of olfactory and tactile sensory hairs, and vision appear to be involved. These animals also have enormous mushroom bodies, higher-order brain regions that, in insects, integrate contextual cues and may be involved in spatial memory. In amblypygids, the complexity of a nocturnal rainforest may impose navigational challenges that favor the integration of information derived from multimodal cues. Moreover, the movement of these animals is easily studied in the laboratory and putative neural integration sites of sensory information can be manipulated. Thus, amblypygids could serve as a model system for the discovery of neural substrates associated with a unique and potentially sophisticated navigational capability. The diversity of habitats in which amblypygids are found also offers an opportunity for comparative studies of sensory integration and ecological selection pressures on navigation mechanisms.

  6. Computational Study on Mössbauer Isomer Shifts of Some Organic-neptunium (IV Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Kaneko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Relativistic DFT calculations are applied to some organo-neptunium (IV complexes, Cp3NpIVX (Cp = η5-C5H5; X = BH4, Cl, OtBu, Ph, nBu, in order to understand their bonding properties between Np and the ligands. We employ scalar-relativistic ZORA Hamiltonian with all-electron basis set (SARC. The calculated electron densities at Np nucleus position in the complexes at B2PLYP / SARC theory strongly correlate to the experimental Mössbauer isomer shifts of 237Np system. The result of bond overlap population analysis indicates that the bonding strength decreases in order of X = BH4, Cl, OtBu, Ph and nBu. The tendency depends on the degree of the covalent interaction between Np 5f-electron and X ligand. It is suggested that it is important to estimate the bonding contribution of 5f-orbital to understand the electronic state for organo-actinide complexes.

  7. Complex structure of the fission yeast SREBP-SCAP binding domains reveals an oligomeric organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xin; Qian, Hongwu; Shao, Wei; Li, Jingxian; Wu, Jianping; Liu, Jun-Jie; Li, Wenqi; Wang, Hong-Wei; Espenshade, Peter; Yan, Nieng

    2016-11-01

    Sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors are master regulators of cellular lipid homeostasis in mammals and oxygen-responsive regulators of hypoxic adaptation in fungi. SREBP C-terminus binds to the WD40 domain of SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP), which confers sterol regulation by controlling the ER-to-Golgi transport of the SREBP-SCAP complex and access to the activating proteases in the Golgi. Here, we biochemically and structurally show that the carboxyl terminal domains (CTD) of Sre1 and Scp1, the fission yeast SREBP and SCAP, form a functional 4:4 oligomer and Sre1-CTD forms a dimer of dimers. The crystal structure of Sre1-CTD at 3.5 Å and cryo-EM structure of the complex at 5.4 Å together with in vitro biochemical evidence elucidate three distinct regions in Sre1-CTD required for Scp1 binding, Sre1-CTD dimerization and tetrameric formation. Finally, these structurally identified domains are validated in a cellular context, demonstrating that the proper 4:4 oligomeric complex formation is required for Sre1 activation.

  8. Ageing as a price of cooperation and complexity: self-organization of complex systems causes the gradual deterioration of constituent networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Huba J M; Mihalik, Agoston; Nánási, Tibor; Ory, Bálint; Spiró, Zoltán; Soti, Csaba; Csermely, Peter

    2009-06-01

    The network concept is increasingly used for the description of complex systems. Here, we summarize key aspects of the evolvability and robustness of the hierarchical network set of macromolecules, cells, organisms and ecosystems. Listing the costs and benefits of cooperation as a necessary behaviour to build this network hierarchy, we outline the major hypothesis of the paper: the emergence of hierarchical complexity needs cooperation leading to the ageing (i.e. gradual deterioration) of the constituent networks. A stable environment develops cooperation leading to over-optimization, and forming an 'always-old' network, which accumulates damage, and dies in an apoptosis-like process. A rapidly changing environment develops competition forming a 'forever-young' network, which may suffer an occasional over-perturbation exhausting system resources, and causing death in a necrosis-like process. Giving a number of examples we demonstrate how cooperation evokes the gradual accumulation of damage typical to ageing. Finally, we show how various forms of cooperation and consequent ageing emerge as key elements in all major steps of evolution from the formation of protocells to the establishment of the globalized, modern human society.

  9. New metal-organic complexes based on bis(tetrazole) ligands: Synthesis, structures and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ceng-Ceng; Fan, Jian-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Fang; Zhou, Sheng-Bin; Wang, Duo-Zhi

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a series of new complexes, [Zn2(HL1)2(H2O)4]·H2O (1), [Co2(HL1)2]·TEA (2), [Co3(HL1)2(H2L1)2(H2O)4]n (3), [Cu(HL1)(H2O)2]n (4), {[Cu5(HL2)2(OH)4(ClO4)2]·4H2O}n (5) and [Cu2(L3)]n (6) were successfully prepared by utilizing three bis(tetrazole) ligands [bis-(1H-tetrazol-5-ylmethyl)-amine (H3L1), bis-(1H-tetrazol-5-ylethyl)-amine (H3L2) and 1,5-bis(5-tetrazolo)-3-thiapentane (H2L3)], all of which have been characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric analyses as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses showing different dimensionalities (0D, 1D and 3D). Complexes 1 and 2 are 0D structures, 1 shows a dinuclear structure, 2 displays two crystallographically different mononuclear structures, 1 and 2 are further assembled to form 3D supramolecular framework and 2D supramolecular network by hydrogen-bonding interactions, respectively. Complexes 3, 4 and 5 are 1D structures, 3 features a mononuclear unit and a 1D chain, which are arranged into 3D supramolecular architecture by hydrogen-bonding interactions, 4 presents a zigzag chain, 5 shows an infinite chain structure constructed from pentanuclear Cu(II) subunits and ClO4- anions. Complex 6 exhibits a 3D coordination framework based on cyclic [Cu4(L3)2] dimmer subunits as nodes possessing an 8-connected network topology with the point symbol {424·64}. Further, semiconductor behaviors, the solid-state luminescent properties of the complexes 1-3 and 6 were measured and studied seriously at room temperature.

  10. Chemistry by nanocatalysis: First example of a solid-supported RAPTA complex for organic reactions in aqueous medium

    KAUST Repository

    García-Garrido, Sergio E.

    2010-11-18

    A ruthenium-arene-PTA (RAPTA) complex has been supported for the first time on an inorganic solid, that is, silica-coated ferrite nanoparticles. The resulting magnetic material proved to be a general, very efficient and easily reusable catalyst for three synthetically useful organic transformations; selective nitrile hydration, redox isomerization of allylic alcohols, and heteroannulation of (Z)-enynols. The use of low metal concentration, environmentally friendly water as a reaction medium, with no use at all of organic solvent during or after the reactions, and microwaves as an alternative energy source renders the synthetic processes reported herein "truly" green and sustainable. RAPTA\\'s delight: A nano-RAPTA complex supported on silica-coated ferrite nanoparticles proved to be a general, very efficient and easily reusable catalyst for three synthetically useful organic transformations; selective nitrile hydration, redox isomerization of allylic alcohols, and heteroannulation of (Z)-enynols. The use of low metal concentrations, water as a reaction medium, and microwaves as an energy source renders these processes green and sustainable. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Growth response of four freshwater algal species to dissolved organic nitrogen of different concentration and complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiedler, Dorothea; Graeber, Daniel; Badrian, Maria

    2015-01-01

    1. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) compounds dominate the nitrogen pool of many lakes, but their importance as nitrogen sources for freshwater phytoplankton is not fully understood. Previous growth experiments demonstrated the availability of urea and amino acids but often at unnaturally high...... (DCAA), natural organic matter (NOM)) or with nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. Monocultures of Chlamydomonas spp., Cyclotella meneghiniana, Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena flos-aquae were incubated with dissolved nitrogen compounds at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 mg N L−1, which...... and their compound preferences. Therefore, DON composition can influence biomass and structure of phytoplankton communities. 6. These experiments demonstrate the importance of the main DON compounds for phytoplankton growth when no inorganic nitrogen is available. DON should in future be included in nitrogen budget...

  12. The Hydrodynamic Distinctiveness of Living Organisms: Communication in Complex Hydraulic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M.

    2015-12-01

    Animals make decisions about the suitability of habitat and their reaction to other organisms based on the sensory information that they first obtain. This information is transmitted, masked and filtered by fluvial processes, such as turbulent flow. Despite governing how animals interact with the environment, limited attention has been paid to the controls on the propagation of sensory signals through rivers. Some animals interpret hydraulic events and use the characteristics of wakes to sense the presence of other organisms. This implies that at least some animals can differentiate turbulent flow generated by the presence of living organisms from ambient environmental turbulence. We investigate whether there are specific flow characteristics, distinct from the ambient environment, that potentially flag the presence of organisms to other animals. ADV and PIV measurements in a series of laboratory flume experiments quantified the flow around living Signal Crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) and two inanimate objects of equivalent shape and size. Experiments were repeated across a gradient of turbulence intensities generated over nine combinations of flow velocity and relative submergence. Flows downstream of living crayfish were distinct from inanimate objects, with greater turbulent intensities, higher energy in low- to intermediate frequencies, and flow structures that were less coherent in comparison to those measured downstream of inanimate objects. However, the hydrodynamic signature of crayfish became masked as the intensity of ambient turbulence exceeded that generated by living crayfish. These results demonstrate the importance of the fluvial processes in the transmission of sensory information and suggest that the ability of animals to perceive hydraulic signatures is likely to be limited in many situations in rivers. Thus, animals may need to rely on other senses, such as sight or hearing, especially where depth is shallow relative to grain size.

  13. Transfer Hydro-dehalogenation of Organic Halides Catalyzed by Ruthenium(II) Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Tingjie; Wang, Zhenrong; Chen, Jiajia; Xia, Yuanzhi

    2017-02-03

    A simple and efficient Ru(II)-catalyzed transfer hydro-dehalogenation of organic halides using 2-propanol solvent as the hydride source was reported. This methodology is applicable for hydro-dehalogenation of a variety of aromatic halides and α-haloesters and amides without additional ligand, and quantitative yields were achieved in many cases. The potential synthetic application of this method was demonstrated by efficient gram-scale transformation with catalyst loading as low as 0.5 mol %.

  14. Bioinspired Organic PV Cells Using Photosynthetic Pigment Complex for Energy Harvesting Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    the primary reactions of bacterial photosynthesis . The structure of the reaction center (RC, the first membrane protein to have its structure...most stable and well organized. The best results were only obtained with the subset Random immobilization LH2 LH1-RC AFM image of a bacterial ...Green and Technology, Zero-Carbon Energy Kyoto 2009, Springer, p.129-134 (2010). Reviews: 13 1. K. Iida, T. Dewa, *M. Nango, “Assembly of Bacterial

  15. On modeling complex interplay in small-scale self-organized socio-hydrological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneepeerakul, Rachata

    2017-04-01

    Successful and sustainable socio-hydrological systems, as in any coupled natural human-systems, require effective governance, which depends on the existence of proper infrastructure (both hard and soft). Recent work has addressed systems in which resource users and the organization responsible for maintaining the infrastructure are separate entities. However, many socio-hydrological systems, especially in developing countries, are small and without such formal division of labor; rather, such division of labor typically arises from self-organization within the population. In this work, we modify and mathematically operationalize a conceptual framework by developing a system of differential equations that capture the strategic behavior within such a self-organized population, its interplay with infrastructure characteristics and hydrological dynamics, and feedbacks between these elements. The model yields a number of insightful conditions related to long-term sustainability and collapse of the socio-hydrological system in the form of relationships between biophysical and social factors. These relationships encapsulate nonlinear interactions of these factors. The modeling framework is grounded in a solid conceptual foundation upon which additional modifications and realism can be built for potential reconciliation between socio-hydrology with other related fields and further applications.

  16. Ferrihydrite-associated organic matter (OM stimulates reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and a complex microbial consortia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Cooper

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The formation of Fe(III oxides in natural environments occurs in the presence of natural organic matter (OM, resulting in the formation of OM–mineral complexes that form through adsorption or coprecipitation processes. Thus, microbial Fe(III reduction in natural environments most often occurs in the presence of OM–mineral complexes rather than pure Fe(III minerals. This study investigated to what extent does the content of adsorbed or coprecipitated OM on ferrihydrite influence the rate of Fe(III reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model Fe(III-reducing microorganism, in comparison to a microbial consortium extracted from the acidic, Fe-rich Schlöppnerbrunnen fen. We found that increased OM content led to increased rates of microbial Fe(III reduction by S. oneidensis MR-1 in contrast to earlier findings with the model organism Geobacter bremensis. Ferrihydrite–OM coprecipitates were reduced slightly faster than ferrihydrites with adsorbed OM. Surprisingly, the complex microbial consortia stimulated by a mixture of electrons donors (lactate, acetate, and glucose mimics S. oneidensis under the same experimental Fe(III-reducing conditions suggesting similar mechanisms of electron transfer whether or not the OM is adsorbed or coprecipitated to the mineral surfaces. We also followed potential shifts of the microbial community during the incubation via 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses to determine variations due to the presence of adsorbed or coprecipitated OM–ferrihydrite complexes in contrast to pure ferrihydrite. Community profile analyses showed no enrichment of typical model Fe(III-reducing bacteria, such as Shewanella or Geobacter sp., but an enrichment of fermenters (e.g., Enterobacteria during pure ferrihydrite incubations which are known to use Fe(III as an electron sink. Instead, OM–mineral complexes favored the enrichment of microbes including Desulfobacteria and Pelosinus sp., both of which can utilize lactate and

  17. Ferrihydrite-associated organic matter (OM) stimulates reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and a complex microbial consortia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Rebecca Elizabeth; Eusterhues, Karin; Wegner, Carl-Eric; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Küsel, Kirsten

    2017-11-01

    The formation of Fe(III) oxides in natural environments occurs in the presence of natural organic matter (OM), resulting in the formation of OM-mineral complexes that form through adsorption or coprecipitation processes. Thus, microbial Fe(III) reduction in natural environments most often occurs in the presence of OM-mineral complexes rather than pure Fe(III) minerals. This study investigated to what extent does the content of adsorbed or coprecipitated OM on ferrihydrite influence the rate of Fe(III) reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model Fe(III)-reducing microorganism, in comparison to a microbial consortium extracted from the acidic, Fe-rich Schlöppnerbrunnen fen. We found that increased OM content led to increased rates of microbial Fe(III) reduction by S. oneidensis MR-1 in contrast to earlier findings with the model organism Geobacter bremensis. Ferrihydrite-OM coprecipitates were reduced slightly faster than ferrihydrites with adsorbed OM. Surprisingly, the complex microbial consortia stimulated by a mixture of electrons donors (lactate, acetate, and glucose) mimics S. oneidensis under the same experimental Fe(III)-reducing conditions suggesting similar mechanisms of electron transfer whether or not the OM is adsorbed or coprecipitated to the mineral surfaces. We also followed potential shifts of the microbial community during the incubation via 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses to determine variations due to the presence of adsorbed or coprecipitated OM-ferrihydrite complexes in contrast to pure ferrihydrite. Community profile analyses showed no enrichment of typical model Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, such as Shewanella or Geobacter sp., but an enrichment of fermenters (e.g., Enterobacteria) during pure ferrihydrite incubations which are known to use Fe(III) as an electron sink. Instead, OM-mineral complexes favored the enrichment of microbes including Desulfobacteria and Pelosinus sp., both of which can utilize lactate and acetate as an electron

  18. Chemistry in the Dunes of Titan: Tribochemical Reactions of Complex Organics and Water Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, J. L.; Thomas, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    Titan’s N2-CH4 atmosphere provides the starting material for a wide array of organic compounds to be formed via photochemistry, and the presence of unsaturated hydrocarbon, amine, and polycyclic aromatic species has been supported by data from the Cassini-Huygens mission [1,2]. Production of tholins by UV irradiation of a simulated N2-CH4 environment has yielded products that match the observed optical properties of Titan haze, suggesting that these compounds provide suitable analogs to Titan aerosol compounds [3, 4, 5]. Organics produced in Titan’s atmosphere eventually settle to the surface and very likely contribute to the particulate matter comprising the expansive longitudinal dune features observed at mid-latitudes [6]. Once on the surface, conditions that lead to incorporation of oxygen via contact with water ice or liquid water in Titan’s low temperature environment are of particular interest and have important implications for astrobiology [7; 8]. In this work, we postulate that the mechanical energy from wind-driven grains in the dunes of Titan can ultimately drive chemical processes and lead to the incorporation of oxygen into organic compounds via tribochemical reactions [9] and describe experiments designed to test this hypothesis. While the exact composition of the dunes of Titan is unknown, it is likely that they mainly comprise organic and water ice particles approximately 0.2 mm in diameter, the ideal size for saltation by the winds of Titan [6]. During the saltation process, organic particles undergo charging due to friction between particles, leading in turn to formation of ions and free radicals in localized electrical discharges at particle interfaces [10]. These reactive intermediates can initiate processes such as free radical and ionic polymerization that further transform organics. Of particular interest is the incorporation of oxygen into organic molecules, providing a pathway to the synthesis of biologically relevant compounds

  19. Contribution of ankyrin-band 3 complexes to the organization and mechanical properties of the membrane skeleton of human erythrocyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, B.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Biological and Medical Research Div.

    1995-02-01

    To understand the role of ankyrin-band 3 complexes in the organization of the spectrin-based membrane skeleton and its contribution to the mechanical properties of human erythrocytes, intact skeletons and single-layered skeleton leaflets were prepared from intact and physically sheared membrane ghosts, expanded in low salt buffer, and examined by transmission electron microscopy. While the structures of intact skeletons and single-layered skeleton leaflets shared many common features, including rigid junctional complexes of spectrin, actin, and band 4.1; short stretches ({approximately}50 {angstrom}) of flexible spectrin filaments; and globular masses of ankyrin-band 3 complexes situated close to the middle of the spectrin filaments, the definition of structural units in the intact skeleton is obscured by the superposition of the two layers. However, the spatial disposition of structural elements can be clearly defined in the images of the single-layered skeleton leaflets. Partially expanded skeletal leaflets contain conglomerates of ankyrin-band 3 complexes arranged in a circular or clove-leaf configuration that straddles multiple strands of thick spectrin cables, presumably reflecting the association of ankyrin-band 3 complexes on neighboring spectrin tetramers as well as the lateral association of the spectrin filaments. Hyperexpansion of the skeleton leaflets led to dissociation of the conglomerates of ankyrin-band 3 complexes, full-extension of the spectrin tetramers, and separation of the individual strands of spectrin tetramers. Clearly defined stands of spectrin tetramers in the hyperexpanded single-layered skeletal leaflets often contained two sets of globular protein masses that divided the spectrin tetramers into three segments of approximately equal length.

  20. Intramolecular deactivation processes of electronically excited Lanthanide(III) complexes with organic acids of low molecular weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burek, Katja; Eidner, Sascha; Kuke, Stefanie; Kumke, Michael U.

    2018-02-01

    The luminescence of Lanthanide(III) complexes with different model ligands was studied under direct as well as sensitized excitation conditions. The research was performed in the context of studies dealing with deep-underground storages for high-level nuclear waste. Here, Lanthanide(III) ions served as natural analogues for Actinide(III) ions and the low-molecular weight organic ligands are present in clay minerals and furthermore, they were employed as proxies for building blocks of humic substances, which are important complexing molecules in the natural environment, e.g., in the far field of a repository site. Time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy was applied for a detailed characterization of Eu(III), Tb(III), Sm(III) and Dy(III) complexes in aqueous solutions. Based on the observed luminescence the ligands were tentatively divided into two groups (A, B). The luminescence of Lanthanide(III) complexes of group A was mainly influenced by an energy transfer to OH-vibrations. Lanthanide(III) complexes of group B showed ligand-related luminescence quenching, which was further investigated. To gain more information on the underlying quenching processes of group A and B ligands, measurements at different temperatures (77 K ≤ T ≤ 353 K) were performed and activation energies were determined based on an Arrhenius analysis. Moreover, the influence of the ionic strength between 0 M ≤ I ≤ 4 M on the Lanthanide(III) luminescence was monitored for different complexes, in order to evaluate the influence of specific conditions encountered in host rocks foreseen as potential repository sites.

  1. Effect of carboxylatozinc(II) and halogencarboxylatozinc(II) complexes on photosensitising organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralova, K.; Gaplovsky, A.; Masarovicova, E.; Gyoeryova, K.

    2001-01-01

    The inhibition of oxygen evolution rate (OER) and Chlorophyll-a (Chl) synthesis in green alga Chlorella vulgaris as well as inhibition of root growth of Sinapis alba caused by carboxylatozinc(lI) and halogencarboxylatozinc(ll) complexes was investigated. The studied zinc(ll) complexes were as follows: Zn(HCOO) 2 , Zn(CH 3 COO) 2 .2.5H 2 O, Zn(CH 3 CH 2 COO) 2 , Zn(CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 COO) 2 , Zn((CH 3 ) 2 CHCOO) 2 , Zn(ClCH 2 COO) 2 .2H 2 0, Zn(ClCH 2 CH 2 COO) 2 , Zn(ICH 2 CHCOO) 2 . The inhibitory activity determined for OER inhibition (pH = 7.2) in suspensions of Chlorella vulgaris (Chl content in the suspension 18 mg dm -3 ) expressed by IC 50 values varied in the range of 0.112 -1.362 mmol dm -3 and it showed a decrease in the following order: Zn(lCH 2 COO) 2 > Zn(CICH 2 CH 2 COO) 2 > Zn(CICH 2 COO) 2 > Zn(CH 3 CH 2 COO) 2 > Zn(CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 COO) 2 > Zn(CH 3 COO) 2 .2.5H 2 0 > Zn((CH 3 CHCOO) 2 > Zn(HCOO) 2 indicating a quasi-parabolic course of OER-inhibiting activity on the lipophilicity of carboxylatozinc(ll) complexes. The branching of the alkyl chain was connected with decreased solubility of the compound and resulted in decreased biological activity of studied compounds. On the other hand, the insertion of Cl or I atoms led to the increase of their activity. The studied compounds also inhibited growth of sinapis alba roots. Similarly, the halogencarboxylatozinc(lI) complexes exhibited higher inhibitory activity than the corresponding carboxylatozinc(ll) compounds. In the suspensions of Chlorella vulgaris the compound Zn(CH 3 CH(Cl)COO) 2 caused fluorescence quenching at λ = 334 nm (λ ex = 275 nm). The emission band at Aλ = 334 nm belongs mainly to the tryptophan residues. The decay of this emission band is a direct evidence for interaction of this Zn(lI) compound with residues of aromatic amino acids present in photosynthetic centres of Chlorella vulgaris

  2. The diversity of five metal-organic complexes based on an unsymmetrical biphenyl tetracarboxylate: Synthesis, structures, magnetism and luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Si-si; Xie, Ling; Lu, Li-ping; Zhu, Miao-li; Su, Feng

    2018-02-01

    Careful investigation of the effects of metal ions and pH value resulted in five multi-dimensional metal-organic complexes, [Co5(μ3-OH)2(α-bptc)2(H2O)6]n (1), {(H3O)2[Co4(μ3-O)(α-bptc)2(H2O)]·4H2O}n (2), {K2[Zn4(μ3-OH)2(α-bptc)2(H2O)3]}n (3), [Zn4(α-bptc)2(H2O)3]n (4), and {[Cd4(α-bptc)2(H2O)7]·2H2O}n (5) (α-H4bptc = 2,3,3',4'-biphenyl tetracarboxylic acid). The complexes consisted of different highly connected secondary building units (SBUs) assembled via hydrothermal in situ routes. The pH value as well as the kinds of metal ions influenced the coordination modes of α-H4bptc and also introduced the hydroxyl ligand at high pH value, resulting in the diversity of SBUs and dimensionality. Variable temperature magnetic measurements indicated the antiferromagnetic behavior in the Co5 core in 1, and the intra-chain ferrimagnetic behavior in complex 2. Moreover, the luminescent properties of the complexes 3-5 indicated the existence of intra-ligand charge transfer.

  3. Microbial Adhesion and Biofilm Formation on Microfiltration Membranes: A Detailed Characterization Using Model Organisms with Increasing Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vanysacker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since many years, membrane biofouling has been described as the Achilles heel of membrane fouling. In the present study, an ecological assay was performed using model systems with increasing complexity: a monospecies assay using Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli separately, a duospecies assay using both microorganisms, and a multispecies assay using activated sludge with or without spiked P. aeruginosa. The microbial adhesion and biofilm formation were evaluated in terms of bacterial cell densities, species richness, and bacterial community composition on polyvinyldifluoride, polyethylene, and polysulfone membranes. The data show that biofouling formation was strongly influenced by the kind of microorganism, the interactions between the organisms, and the changes in environmental conditions whereas the membrane effect was less important. The findings obtained in this study suggest that more knowledge in species composition and microbial interactions is needed in order to understand the complex biofouling process. This is the first report describing the microbial interactions with a membrane during the biofouling development.

  4. Microbial Adhesion and Biofilm Formation on Microfiltration Membranes: A Detailed Characterization Using Model Organisms with Increasing Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanysacker, L.; Denis, C.; Declerck, P.; Piasecka, A.; Vankelecom, I. F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Since many years, membrane biofouling has been described as the Achilles heel of membrane fouling. In the present study, an ecological assay was performed using model systems with increasing complexity: a monospecies assay using Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli separately, a duospecies assay using both microorganisms, and a multispecies assay using activated sludge with or without spiked P. aeruginosa. The microbial adhesion and biofilm formation were evaluated in terms of bacterial cell densities, species richness, and bacterial community composition on polyvinyldifluoride, polyethylene, and polysulfone membranes. The data show that biofouling formation was strongly influenced by the kind of microorganism, the interactions between the organisms, and the changes in environmental conditions whereas the membrane effect was less important. The findings obtained in this study suggest that more knowledge in species composition and microbial interactions is needed in order to understand the complex biofouling process. This is the first report describing the microbial interactions with a membrane during the biofouling development. PMID:23986906

  5. PHREEQC integrated modelling of plutonium migration from alpha ILL radwaste: organic complexes, concrete degradation and alkaline plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochepin, B.; Munier, I.; Giffaut, E.; Grive, M.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The effects of organic compounds derived from Long-Lived Intermediate-Level waste (LLILW) degradation need to be precisely described regarding the radionuclide migration in storage cells and argillites. These evaluations play a major role in the final decision for accepting these waste products in the future storage facility. The evaluation process engaged by Andra implies the use of coupled chemical transport tools able to take into account the linking of processes occurring in storage conditions as well as the different cell components (containers, packages, lining...). The relevance of this approach must fundamentally be based on a consistent characterization concerning (i) the waste packages, (ii) their degradation products (nature and kinetics), (iii) the chemical evolution of these products in the storage disposal (for cement material particularly) and in the argillites, and (iv) the correlation with the radionuclide behavior regarding to these sequestering agents (chemistry and transport). Andra is now involved in an internal evaluation of technological organic waste packages contaminated by plutonium coming from the MOX fuel plant called MELOX located at Marcoule (France), considering the consistent work undertaken to characterize these organic agents. This evaluation is based on an integrated representation in terms of chemical processes and transport of the concrete chemical degradation (e.g. waste packages, backfill and lining), the alkaline plume in the near field of argillites and the plutonium-organic complexes. The conceptual model is based on the following assessments: On the chemical aspect: (i) Both concrete and argillites undertake chemical perturbations with dissolution/precipitation, ion exchanges, surface and aqueous complexation. (ii) The degradation products of the MELOX waste organic compounds are limited to five major organic acids: iso-saccharinic (ISA), acetic, phtalic, adipic and

  6. Liquid-Phase Laser Induced Forward Transfer for Complex Organic Inks and Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Alexander K; Narayan, Roger J

    2017-01-01

    Laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) acts as a novel alternative to incumbent plotting techniques such as inkjet printing due to its ability to precisely deposit and position picoliter-sized droplets while being gentle enough to preserve sensitive structures within the ink. Materials as simple as screen printing ink to complex eukaryotic cells have been printed with applications spanning from microelectronics to tissue engineering. Biotechnology can benefit from this technique due to the efficient use of low volumes of reagent and the compatibility with a wide range of rheological properties. In addition, LIFT can be performed in a simple lab environment, not requiring vacuum or other extreme conditions. Although the basic apparatus is simple, many strategies exist to optimize the performance considering the ink and the desired pattern. The basic mechanism is similar between studies so the large number of variants can be summarized into a couple of categories and reported on with respect to their specific applications. In particular, precise and gentle deposition of complex molecules and eukaryotic cells represent the unique abilities of this technology. LIFT has demonstrated not only marked improvements in the quality of sensors and related medical devices over those manufactured with incumbent technologies but also great applicability in tissue engineering due to the high viability of printed cells.

  7. A sequence-based survey of the complex structural organization of tumor genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Colin; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Volik, Stanislav; Yu, Peng; Wu, Chunxiao; Huang, Guiqing; Linardopoulou, Elena V.; Trask, Barbara J.; Waldman, Frederic; Costello, Joseph; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Mills, Gordon B.; Bajsarowicz, Krystyna; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Sridharan, Shivaranjani; Paris, Pamela; Tao, Quanzhou; Aerni, Sarah J.; Brown, Raymond P.; Bashir, Ali; Gray, Joe W.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; de Jong, Pieter; Nefedov, Mikhail; Ried, Thomas; Padilla-Nash, Hesed M.; Collins, Colin C.

    2008-04-03

    The genomes of many epithelial tumors exhibit extensive chromosomal rearrangements. All classes of genome rearrangements can be identified using End Sequencing Profiling (ESP), which relies on paired-end sequencing of cloned tumor genomes. In this study, brain, breast, ovary and prostate tumors along with three breast cancer cell lines were surveyed with ESP yielding the largest available collection of sequence-ready tumor genome breakpoints and providing evidence that some rearrangements may be recurrent. Sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed translocations and complex tumor genome structures that include coamplification and packaging of disparate genomic loci with associated molecular heterogeneity. Comparison of the tumor genomes suggests recurrent rearrangements. Some are likely to be novel structural polymorphisms, whereas others may be bona fide somatic rearrangements. A recurrent fusion transcript in breast tumors and a constitutional fusion transcript resulting from a segmental duplication were identified. Analysis of end sequences for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealed candidate somatic mutations and an elevated rate of novel SNPs in an ovarian tumor. These results suggest that the genomes of many epithelial tumors may be far more dynamic and complex than previously appreciated and that genomic fusions including fusion transcripts and proteins may be common, possibly yielding tumor-specific biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  8. Luminescent hybrid materials based on (8-hydroxyquinoline)-substituted metal-organic complexes and lead-borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Olga B.; Anurova, Maria O.; Akkuzina, Alina A.; Saifutyarov, Rasim R.; Ermolaeva, Ekaterina V.; Avetisov, Roman I.; Khomyakov, Andrew V.; Taydakov, Ilya V.; Avetissov, Igor Ch.

    2017-07-01

    Novel luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on 8-hydroxyquinoline metal complexes (Liq, Kq, Naq, Rbq, Mgq2, Srq2, Znq2, Scq3, Alq3, Gaq3, and Inq3) have been synthesized by a high temperature exchange reaction with 80PbF2-20B2O3 inorganic low-melting glass. The mechanical and optical properties, transmission spectra, emission an excitation photoluminescence, and luminescence kinetic of hybrid materials were studied. All hybrid materials showed a wide luminescence band in the range 400-700 nm.

  9. Complex Indigenous Organic Matter Embedded in Apollo 17 Volcanic Black Glass Surface Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, S. J.; Ross, D. K.; Le, L.; Rahman, Z.; Gonzalez, C.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.

    2013-01-01

    Papers presented at the first Lunar Science Conference [1] and those published in the subsequent Science Moon Issue [2] reported the C content of Apollo II soils, breccias, and igneous rocks as rang-ing from approx.50 to 250 parts per million (ppm). Later Fegley & Swindle [3] summarized the C content of bulk soils from all the Apollo missions as ranging from 2.5 (Apollo 15) to 280 ppm (Apollo 16) with an overall average of 124+/- 45 ppm. These values are unexpectedly low given that multiple processes should have contributed (and in some cases continue to contribute) to the lunar C inventory. These include exogenous accretion of cometary and asteroidal dust, solar wind implantation, and synthesis of C-bearing species during early lunar volcanism. We estimate the contribution of C from exogenous sources alone is approx.500 ppm, which is approx.4x greater than the reported average. While the assessm ent of indigenous organic matter (OM) in returned lunar samples was one of the primary scientific goals of the Apollo program, extensive analysis of Apollo samples yielded no evidence of any significant indigenous organic species. Furthermore, with such low concentrations of OM reported, the importance of discriminating indigenous OM from terrestrial contamination (e.g., lunar module exhaust, sample processing and handling) became a formidable task. After more than 40 years, with the exception of CH4 [5-7], the presence of indigenous lunar organics still remains a subject of considerable debate. We report for the first time the identification of arguably indigenous OM present within surface deposits of black glass grains collected on the rim of Shorty crater during the Apollo 17 mission by astronauts Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt.

  10. Routine organic air emissions at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Waste Storage Facilities fiscal year 1995 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, K.J.; Jolley, J.G.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the data and results of the routine organic air emissions monitoring performed in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Waste Storage Facility, WMF-628, from January 4, 1995 to September 3, 1995. The task objectives were to systematically identify and measure volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations within WMF-628 that could be emitted into the environment. These routine measurements implemented a dual method approach using Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) monitoring and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analytical method TO-14, Summa reg-sign Canister sampling. The data collected from the routine monitoring of WNF-628 will assist in estimating the total VOC emissions from WMF-628

  11. Temperature dependent electrical characteristics of an organic-inorganic heterojunction obtained from a novel organometal Mn complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocak, Y.S.; Ebeoglu, M.A.; Topal, G.; Kilicoglu, T.

    2010-01-01

    This study includes synthesizing a Mn hexaamide (MnHA) organometal compound (C 27 H 21 N 9 O 6 MnCl 2 ).(1/2H 2 O), fabrication of MnHA/n-Si organic-inorganic heterojunction and analysis of conduction mechanism of the device over the room temperature. After synthesizing the molecule, the structure of the compound was determined using spectroscopic methods. The Sn/MnHA/n-Si structure was constructed by forming a thin MnHA layer on n-Si inorganic semiconductor and evaporating Sn metal on organic complex. The structure has shown good rectifying behavior and obeys the thermionic emission theory. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the diode have been measured at temperatures ranging from 300 to 380 K at 10 K intervals to determine the temperature dependent electrical characteristics of the device.

  12. Inventories of organic materials and complexing agents in intermediate-level long-lived parcels (Report PNGMDR 2013-2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This report presents an inventory of organic materials and of complexing agents they may produce within parcels of alpha wastes which are to be produced or are being currently produced. The report proposes the results of campaigns of measurements of degassing, and comparison with results of modelling studies. The assessment of degassing rates of parcels of alpha wastes is completed by an assessment of hydrogen produced by radiolysis of interstitial water within the concrete container. Thus, after a presentation of the main parcels used by the CEA for intermediate-level long-lived wastes, and of an inventory of wastes containing organic materials, this report describes the consequences of radiolysis on polymers, and describes the objectives of R and D studies. It reports measurements and presents simulation tools for heterogeneous wastes, homogeneous wastes, production of water-soluble degradation products, and transfer and adsorption of these products in the storage site argillite

  13. Measuring the pollutant transport capacity of dissolved organic matter in complex matrixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, L.; Alsberg, T.; Odham, G.

    2003-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) facilitated transport in contaminated groundwater was investigated through the measurement of the binding capacity of landfill leachate DOM (Vejen, Denmark) towards two model pollutants (pyrene and phenanthrene). Three different methods for measuring binding capacity....... It was further concluded that DOM facilitated transport should be taken into account for non-ionic PAHs with lg K OW above 5, at DOM concentrations above 250 mg C/L. The total DOM concentration was found to be more important for the potential of facilitated transport than differences in the DOM binding capacity....

  14. Organ distribution of quantum dots after intraperitoneal administration, with special reference to area-specific distribution in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Shingo; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Tozawa, Takenori; Fushiki, Shinji [Department of Pathology and Applied Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Yasui, Hiroyuki [Department of Analytical and Bioinorganic Chemistry, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Kanamura, Narisato [Department of Dental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Manabe, Noriyoshi; Yamamoto, Kenji, E-mail: sfushiki@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp [The International Clinical Research Center, Research Institute, International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-08-20

    Quantum dots (QDs) are well known for their potential application in biosensing, ex vivo live-cell imaging and in vivo animal targeting. The brain is a challenging organ for drug delivery, because the blood brain barrier (BBB) functions as a gatekeeper guarding the body from exogenous substances. Here, we evaluated the distribution of bioconjugated QDs, i.e., captopril-conjugated QDs (QDs-cap) following intraperitoneal injection into male ICR mice as a model system for determining the tissue localization of QDs, employing ICP-MS and confocal microscopy coupled with spectrometric analysis. We have demonstrated that intraperitoneally administered QDs-cap were delivered via systemic blood circulation into liver, spleen, kidney and brain at 6 h after injection. QDs-cap were located predominantly inside the blood vessels in the liver, kidney and brain, but a few were distributed in the parenchyma, especially noteworthy in the brain. Careful studies on acute as well as chronic toxicity of QDs in the brain are required prior to clinical application to humans.

  15. Organ distribution of quantum dots after intraperitoneal administration, with special reference to area-specific distribution in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shingo; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Tozawa, Takenori; Fushiki, Shinji; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Kanamura, Narisato; Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Manabe, Noriyoshi; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are well known for their potential application in biosensing, ex vivo live-cell imaging and in vivo animal targeting. The brain is a challenging organ for drug delivery, because the blood brain barrier (BBB) functions as a gatekeeper guarding the body from exogenous substances. Here, we evaluated the distribution of bioconjugated QDs, i.e., captopril-conjugated QDs (QDs-cap) following intraperitoneal injection into male ICR mice as a model system for determining the tissue localization of QDs, employing ICP-MS and confocal microscopy coupled with spectrometric analysis. We have demonstrated that intraperitoneally administered QDs-cap were delivered via systemic blood circulation into liver, spleen, kidney and brain at 6 h after injection. QDs-cap were located predominantly inside the blood vessels in the liver, kidney and brain, but a few were distributed in the parenchyma, especially noteworthy in the brain. Careful studies on acute as well as chronic toxicity of QDs in the brain are required prior to clinical application to humans.

  16. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the Ambient Air Of Concentration Unit of Sar-Cheshmeh Copper Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi-Zrandi, A.; Akhgar, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollutants including gases, vapors and particles, are emitted from different sources. Volatile organic compounds are the most important pollutants in the ambient air of industries. The present study was carried out to identify and measurement of volatile organic compounds in concentration unit of Sar-Cheshmeh Copper Complex. In this study, sampling of the volatile organic compounds was done by using activated charcoal tube. To identify and measure these compounds gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy were used. Thirteen volatile organic compounds were identified in the ambient air of concentration unit. Among these compounds, the mean value and maximum concentration of isopropyl alcohol and nonane were 255, 640 μg/m3 and 1577, 14400 μg/m3, respectively. By using SPSS software and independent sample t- test, showed that there were no significant difference between mean value concentration of isopropyl alcohol and nonane in the ambient air and TLV values of these compounds (isopropyl alcohol; 200 ppm and nonane; 200 ppm) (P >0.05).

  17. The complexity of amazon culture and its repercussions on the organization and representation of information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Luiz Cardoso Rodrigues

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It explores and analyzes the ‘Amazon culture’ domain in the context of organization and information representation. It presents concepts of culture in order to support reflections about the studied domain. Method: The supporting theoretical reference is focused on the Ranganathan’s Faceted Classification Theory and on the Theory of Integrated Levels from the Classification Research Group, as theoretical-methodological basis to build a classificatory structure model. The selection of concepts took place based on the terms resulted from an oral research in three geographical cities of Amazon: Bragança, Castanhal and Marajó archipelago. Results: The analysis of etymological origins of the words indicated the influence of foreign culture from the European, African, Asiatic and American continents in the Amazon language. Conclusions: The analysis of those results showed the feasibility of developing a working methodology in order to outline a classification structure and a set of concepts to represent the ‘Amazon culture’ domain in its fundamental roots as a basis for the building of organizing systems of knowledge.

  18. Thermochemolysis: A New Sample Preparation Approach for the Detection of Organic Components of Complex Macromolecules in Mars Rocks via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry in SAM on MSL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenbrode, J.; Glavin, D.; Dworkin, J.; Conrad, P.; Mahaffy, P.

    2011-01-01

    Organic chemicals, when present in extraterrestrial samples, afford precious insight into past and modern conditions elsewhere in the Solar System . No single technology identifies all molecular components because naturally occurring molecules have different chemistries (e.g., polar vs. non-polar, low to high molecular weight) and interface with the ambient sample chemistry in a variety of modes (i.e., organics may be bonded, absorbed or trapped by minerals, liquids, gases, or other organics). More than 90% of organic matter in most natural samples on Earth and in meteorites is composed of complex macromolecules (e.g. biopolymers, complex biomolecules, humic substances, kerogen) because the processes that tend to break down organic molecules also tend towards complexation of the more recalcitrant components. Thus, methodologies that tap the molecular information contained within macromolecules may be critical to detecting extraterrestrial organic matter and assessing the sources and processes influencing its nature.

  19. Intermolecular symmetry-adapted perturbation theory study of large organic complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heßelmann, Andreas; Korona, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Binding energies for the complexes of the S12L database by Grimme [Chem. Eur. J. 18, 9955 (2012)] were calculated using intermolecular symmetry-adapted perturbation theory combined with a density-functional theory description of the interacting molecules. The individual interaction energy decompositions revealed no particular change in the stabilisation pattern as compared to smaller dimer systems at equilibrium structures. This demonstrates that, to some extent, the qualitative description of the interaction of small dimer systems may be extrapolated to larger systems, a method that is widely used in force-fields in which the total interaction energy is decomposed into atom-atom contributions. A comparison of the binding energies with accurate experimental reference values from Grimme, the latter including thermodynamic corrections from semiempirical calculations, has shown a fairly good agreement to within the error range of the reference binding energies

  20. Trivalent actinide-lanthanide extraction by DEHPA. Structure of organic complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattee, D.; Musikas, C.; Faure, A.; Chachaty, C.

    1985-09-01

    The di-2-ethylhexyldithiophosphoric acid HDEHDTP is a bidentate ligand with sulphur donor atoms which has a good affinity for soft acids. H 2 O H NMR and light diffraction let us demonstrate that HDEHDTP is a monomer and NaDEHDTP a reverse micelle. When La 3+ replaces Na + , the reverse micelle is preserved. In the same way when TBP expells H 2 O the polymerised state is preserved. Evidence of that is provided by low angle X-ray diffraction; the micelles are shell-shaped and the ions are strongly tied to the ligand. The mechanism of extraction has been determined with traces of metal for HDEHDTP and the synergistic system HDEHDTP, TBP. The substitution of H 2 O by TBP in the complex induces a shortening of the S-metal bound so that the 5f ions better ability to form covalent bounds is settled [fr